aryl hydrocarbon receptor

Gene Context Sentence

Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of AHR gene in 59 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32291094 Age (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.05/per year, 95%CI 1.004-1.01) and coagulopathy, defined as spontaneous prolongation of the prothrombin time > 3 s or activated partial thromboplastin time > 5 s (aHR 4.1, 95%CI 1.9-9.1), were independent predictors of thrombotic complications.
32442528 In the multivariable Cox model, older age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1·31 [1·09-1·57] per 10-year increase), chronic cardiac disease (aHR 1·76 [1·08-2·86]), chronic pulmonary disease (aHR 2·94 [1·48-5·84]), higher concentrations of interleukin-6 (aHR 1·11 [95%CI 1·02-1·20] per decile increase), and higher concentrations of D-dimer (aHR 1·10 [1·01-1·19] per decile increase) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality.
32446795 Cox proportional hazard model showed that diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=3.64; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09, 12.21) and fasting blood glucose (aHR=1.19; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.31) were associated with the fatality due to COVID-19, adjusting for potential confounders.
32446978 Age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.08, 95% CI 1.48-2.92 per ten years more) and obesity (aHR 3.04, 95% CI 1.42-6.49) were independently associated with an increased risk of death, which was also associated with critical disease (aHR 8.26, 95% CI 1.41-48.29), C-reactive protein levels (aHR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.35 per 50 mg/L more) and creatinine kinase levels above 185 U/L (aHR 2.58, 95% CI 1.37-4.87) upon admission.
32536150 Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 4.21) and younger age (aHR, 2.64; 95% CI 1.43 to 4.87) was associated with negative conversion of viral RNA.
32597823 After entry into cells, corona viruses (CoV) activate aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs) by an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1)-independent mechanism, bypassing the IDO1-kynurenine-AhR pathway. […] The IDO1-kynurenine-AhR signaling pathway is used by multiple viral, microbial and parasitic pathogens to activate AhRs and to establish infections. […] AhRs enhance their own activity through an IDO1-AhR-IDO1 positive feedback loop prolonging activation induced by pathogens. […] Direct activation of AhRs by CoV induces immediate and simultaneous up-regulation of diverse AhR-dependent downstream effectors, and this, in turn, results in a “Systemic AhR Activation Syndrome” (SAAS) consisting of inflammation, thromboembolism, and fibrosis, culminating in multiple organ injuries, and death. […] Activation of AhRs by CoV may lead to diverse sets of phenotypic disease pictures depending on time after infection, overall state of health, hormonal balance, age, gender, comorbidities, but also diet and environmental factors modulating AhRs. […] We hypothesize that elimination of factors known to up-regulate AhRs, or implementation of measures known to down-regulate AhRs, should decrease severity of infection. […] Although therapies selectively down-regulating both AhR and IDO1 are currently lacking, medications in clinical use such as dexamethasone may down-regulate both AhR and IDO1 genes, as calcitriol/vitamin D3 may down-regulate the AhR gene, and tocopherol/vitamin E may down-regulate the IDO1 gene. […] Because lack of physical exercise activates AhRs via the IDO1-kynurenine-AhR signaling pathway increasing risk of infection, physical exercise should be encouraged during quarantines and stay-at-home orders during pandemic outbreaks. […] Understanding which factors affect gene expression of both AhR and IDO1 may help in designing therapies to prevent and treat humans suffering from Covid-19.
32634602 The ‘after’ period was associated with a lower risk of death [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.97; P = 0.04] and a lower risk of ICU admission or of death before ICU admission (aHR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.21-0.64; P = 0.0005) by multivariate analysis adjusted for age, National Early Warning score and institutionalisation status.
32672840 Detectable viral RNA in anal swabs (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-5.24), increased C-reactive protein (aHR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.35-7.32) and lymphocytopenia (aHR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.46-6.67) were independently associated with ICU admission.
32688447 Multivariable analysis showed that increasing risk of occurrence of COVID-19 among household contacts was associated with female index patients (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 3.84, 95% CI = 1.07-13.78), critical disease index patients (aHR = 7.58, 95% CI = 1.66-34.66), effective contact duration with index patients > 2 days (aHR = 4.21, 95% CI = 1.29-13.73), and effective contact duration > 11 days (aHR = 17.88, 95% CI = 3.26-98.01).
32697835 Both anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) and estradiol (E2) showed a negative correlation with severity of infection (AHR=0.146/0.304, 95%CI = [0.026-0.824]/[0.092-1.001], p=0.029/0.05).
32702463 The primary outcome was the time to all-cause mortality (estimated with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)), and secondary outcomes were day 7 mortality and the time-to-discharge. […] In the primary analysis, NC infection was associated with lower mortality rate (aHR: 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51-0.98). […] Secondary outcomes found no difference in day 7 mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.47-1.31), but NC patients required longer time in hospital during convalescence (aHR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.37-0.66).
32721528 Patients treated in stage IIB had lower mortality than those treated in stage III (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.74). […] Patients treated in stage IIB were more likely to be discharged (aHR 1.43, 95% CI 1.06-1.93) and were less likely to be intubated (aHR 0.43, 95% CI 0.24-0.79).
32748812 The bioinformatic analysis of the ACE-2 gene identified nine putative consensus motifs for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR).
32763357 Additionally, HCQ did not decrease the risk of COVID-19 in-hospital death (aHR 1.67; 95% CI: 0.29-9.36).
32785086 Univariate results suggested a modest protective effect from the use of NSAIDs, but in the multivariable analysis, there was no association between prior NSAID use and time to mortality (adjusted HR (aHR) = 0.89, 95% CI 0.52-1.53, p = 0.67) or length of stay (aHR 0.89, 95% CI 0.59-1.35, p = 0.58).
32838355 Compared to the no HC group, after propensity score adjustment for clinical characteristics, the risk of death from any cause was higher in the HC group (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-2.89; p = 0.009), but not in the HC+AZ group (aHR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.80-2.15; p = 0.28). […] Both the propensity-score-adjusted risks of mechanical ventilation and death after mechanical ventilation were not significantly different in the HC group (aHR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.78-1.82; p = 0.42 and aHR, 2.11; 95% CI, 0.96-4.62; p = 0.06, respectively) or in the HC+AZ group (aHR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.72-1.66; p = 0.69 and aHR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.59-2.68; p = 0.56, respectively) compared to the no HC group.
32853673 In the multivariable analysis, mortality was lower in the HCQ group compared with the no-HCQ group [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.684, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.617-0.758]. […] Compared with the no-HCQ group, mortality in the HCQ group was reduced both in patients diagnosed ≤5 days (n = 3975) and >5 days (n = 3487) after symptom onset [aHR = 0.701 (95% CI 0.617-0.796) and aHR = 0.647 (95% CI 0.525-0.797), respectively].
32860699 HIV was associated with COVID-19 mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70-2.70), with similar risks across strata of viral load and immunosuppression. […] Current and previous tuberculosis were associated with COVID-19 death (aHR [95%CI] 2.70 [1.81-4.04] and 1.51 [1.18-1.93] respectively).
32860872 Compared with no AC (n = 1,530; 34.9%), therapeutic AC (n = 900; 20.5%) and prophylactic AC (n = 1,959; 44.6%) were associated with lower in-hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45 to 0.62 and aHR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.57, respectively), and intubation (aHR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.94 and aHR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58 to 0.89, respectively). […] When initiated ≤48 h from admission, there was no statistically significant difference between therapeutic (n = 766) versus prophylactic AC (n = 1,860) (aHR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.73 to 1.02; p = 0.08).
32867244 There is an under-recognized role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in co-ordinating the entry and pathophysiology of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that underpins the COVID-19 pandemic. […] The rise in pro-inflammatory cytokines during the ‘cytokine storm’ induce indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), leading to an increase in kynurenine that activates the AhR, thereby heightening the initial pro-inflammatory cytokine phase and suppressing the endogenous anti-viral response. […] Such AhR-driven changes underpin the heightened severity and fatality associated with pre-existent high-risk medical conditions, such as type II diabetes, as well as to how racial discrimination stress contributes to the raised severity/fatality in people from the Black Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) communities. […] The AhR is pivotal in modulating mitochondrial metabolism and co-ordinating specialized, pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), the melatonergic pathways, acetyl-coenzyme A, and the cyclooxygenase (COX) 2-prostaglandin (PG) E2 pathway that underpin ‘exhaustion’ in the endogenous anti-viral cells, paralleling similar metabolic suppression in cytolytic immune cells that is evident across all cancers. […] The pro-inflammatory cytokine induced gut permeability/dysbiosis and suppression of pineal melatonin are aspects of the wider pathophysiological underpinnings regulated by the AhR.
32902028 The immunosuppressed cohort (n = 31) had significantly higher mortality rates (aHR: 2.067, 95% CI: 1.20-3.57, P = 0.009). […] There was no association between immunosuppression and the composite end-point of mortality or intubation (aHR: 1.49 95% CI: 0.88-2.51, P = 0.14) and of the composite end-point of mortality, intubation or CPAP (aHR: 1.36 95% CI: 0.81-2.30 P = 0.245).
32958718 Viral clearance occurred within 6 days in 66.7% and 56.1% of the early and late treatment groups (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.76-2.62). […] Of 30 patients who had a fever (≥37.5°C) on day 1, time to defervescence was 2.1 days and 3.2 days in the early and late treatment groups (aHR, 1.88; 95%CI, 0.81-4.35).
32965502 Compared with patients who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2, those who tested positive had higher rates of 30-day hospitalization (30.4% vs 29.3%; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.13), mechanical ventilation (6.7% vs 1.7%; aHR, 4.15; 95% CI, 3.74-4.61), and death (10.8% vs 2.4%; aHR, 4.44; 95% CI, 4.07-4.83). […] Among patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, characteristics significantly associated with mortality included older age (eg, ≥80 years vs <50 years: aHR, 60.80; 95% CI, 29.67-124.61), high regional COVID-19 disease burden (eg, ≥700 vs <130 deaths per 1 million residents: aHR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02-1.45), higher Charlson comorbidity index score (eg, ≥5 vs 0: aHR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.54-2.42), fever (aHR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.32-1.72), dyspnea (aHR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.53-2.07), and abnormalities in the certain blood tests, which exhibited dose-response associations with mortality, including aspartate aminotransferase (>89 U/L vs ≤25 U/L: aHR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.35-2.57), creatinine (>3.80 mg/dL vs 0.98 mg/dL: aHR, 3.79; 95% CI, 2.62-5.48), and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (>12.70 vs ≤2.71: aHR, 2.88; 95% CI, 2.12-3.91). […] With the exception of geographic region, the same covariates were independently associated with mechanical ventilation along with Black race (aHR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.25-1.85), male sex (aHR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.30-3.32), diabetes (aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.18-1.67), and hypertension (aHR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.03-1.64). […] Notable characteristics that were not significantly associated with mortality in adjusted analyses included obesity (body mass index ≥35 vs 18.5-24.9: aHR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77-1.21), Black race (aHR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.88-1.21), Hispanic ethnicity (aHR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.79-1.35), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aHR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.88-1.19), hypertension (aHR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.81-1.12), and smoking (eg, current vs never: aHR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.67-1.13).
32992777 We assessed the inhibition of important efflux (P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)) and uptake transporters (organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1) by hydroxychloroquine, tested its P-gp and BCRP substrate characteristics, and evaluated the induction of pharmacokinetically relevant genes regulated by the nuclear pregnane X (PXR) (CYP3A4, ABCB1) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) (CYP1A1, CYP1A2). […] Hydroxychloroquine did not induce genes regulated by PXR or AhR.
33007514 Individuals with GI symptoms had better outcomes, with a lower likelihood of intubation (aHR 0.66, 95% CI 0.55-0.79) and death (aHR 0.71, 95% CI 0.59-0.87), after adjusting for clinical factors.
33009770 Independent risk factors for death were age < 20 years (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 6.62, 95% CI: 1.85-23.64), 40-59 years (aHR = 4.45, 95% CI: 1.83-10.79), and ≥ 60 years (aHR = 13.63, 95% CI: 5.70-32.60) compared with those aged 20-39 years, with obesity (aHR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.24-4.27), and with chronic kidney disease (aHR = 5.33, 95% CI: 1.85-15.35).
33023989 In spite of this, after correction for age and sex, risk of mortality was significantly associated with a history of hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.84, 95% CI 1.15-2.95; P = 0.011), coronary artery disease (aHR 1.56, 95% CI 1.04-2.35; P = 0.031), chronic kidney disease (aHR 2.07, 95% CI 1.27-3.38; P = 0.003), stroke (aHR 2.09, 95% CI 1.23-3.55; P = 0.006), and cancer (aHR 1.57, 95% CI 1.08-2.42; P = 0.04) but not with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.170). […] In patients with diabetes, elevated plasma glucose (aHR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.44, per mmol/L; P = 0.015) and IL-6 levels at admission (aHR 2.47, 95% CI 1.28-4.78, per 1-SD increase; P = 0.007) as well as treatments with insulin (aHR 3.05, 95% CI 1.57-5.95; P = 0.001) and β-blockers (aHR 3.20, 95% CI 1.50-6.60; P = 0.001) were independently associated with increased mortality, whereas the use of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors was significantly and independently associated with a lower risk of mortality (aHR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02-0.92; P = 0.042).
33038227 There was no significant difference in the risk of in-hospital mortality between the two groups (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39 - 2.20).
33043285 A higher ratio of oxygen saturation/FiO2 to respiratory rate within 6 h (ROX-6 score) after HFNO commencement was associated with HFNO success (ROX-6; AHR 0.43, 0.31-0.60), as was use of steroids (AHR 0.35, 95%CI 0.19-0.64).
33048372 10.7%; aHR,1.12 1.963.42 , p=0.02) and ventricular arrhythmias (15.2% vs. […] 11.4%; aHR,1.00 1.813.29 , p=0.05) in the >1-to-3 years posttransplant. […] 11.4%; aHR,1.02 1.54 2.31 , p=0.04) and pancytopenia (35.9% vs. […] 31.4%; aHR,1.03 1.311.68 , p=0.03) compared to triple immunosuppression without HCQ.
33063092 The immunity modulators, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the nuclear NAD+-consuming enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP 1) may play a critical role in COVID-19 pathophysiology. […] The AhR is overexpressed in coronaviruses, including COVID-19 and, as it regulates PARP gene expression, the latter is likely to be activated in COVID-19.
33069705 We further demonstrate that transcription factor AhR, which is commonly activated by pollutants, binds to the promoter of TMPRSS2 and enhancers and/or promoters of Cathepsin B, L and V encoding genes.
33083516 There was no effect of ACEi or ARB on inpatient mortality (aHR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.65-1.11). […] For those prescribed an ACEi or ARB, hospital stay was significantly reduced (aHR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.02-1.54, p = 0.03) and in those with hypertension the effect was stronger (aHR = 1.39, 95%CI 1.09-1.77, p = 0.007).
33093404 However, lymphocyte-depleting induction agents were associated with decreased rejection during admission (aOR = but not with increased mortality in the pandemic era (aHR = 0.130.471.66).
33095853 Mortality was higher among people with HIV after adjusting for age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.14; p=0.05), and the association persisted after adjusting for the other variables (aHR 1.69; 95% CI 1.15-2.48; p=0.008) and when restricting the analysis to people aged <60 years (aHR 2.87; 95% CI 1.70-4.84; p<0.001).
33117850 Although this trend remained the same after adjusting for age, sex, race, and oxygen requirements on admission (adjusted HR [aHR], 0.49; 95% CI, 0.19-1.28), as well as chronic comorbidities and use of corticosteroids (aHR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.16-1.23), it did not reach statistical significance.
33132153 Environmental pollution not only facilitates SARS-CoV-2 infection but also increases infection-associated fatality risk, which arises due to Systemic Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) Activation Syndrome. […] The intracellular accumulation of endogenous kynurenic acid due to overexpression of the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) by AhR activation induces AhR-interleukin-6 (IL-6)-signal transducers and activators of the transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway. […] The AhR-IDO1-Kynurenine pathway is an important checkpoint, which leads to fatal consequences in SARS-CoV-2 infection and immune evasion in the context of Treg/Th17 imbalance and cytokine storm.
33139151 Multivariate analysis showed that younger individuals (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 0.93 per one-year increase; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.89-0.97; P = 0.001), women (AHR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.05-7.25; P = 0.04) and travel to North America (AHR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.05-5.26; P = 0.04) were the significant factors associated with dysosmia and/or dysgeusia.
33159154 We find that induction of either interferon (IFN)-β or IFN-γ upon SARS-CoV-2 infection results in activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling through an IDO-Kyn-dependent pathway, leading to transcriptional upregulation of the expression of mucins, both the secreted and membrane-bound, in alveolar epithelial cells. […] Consequently, accumulated alveolar mucus affects the blood-gas barrier, thus inducing hypoxia and diminishing lung capacity, which can be reversed by blocking AhR activity. […] These findings potentially explain the silent hypoxia formation in COVID-19 patients, and suggest a possible intervention strategy by targeting the AhR pathway.
33200828 Tocilizumab treatment was associated with reduced C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and temperature, but there were no meaningful differences in time to clinical improvement (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-2.22) or mortality (aHR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.21-1.52).
33219546 Among patients with cirrhosis, those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were 4.1 times more likely to undergo mechanical ventilation (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 4.12, 95% CI 2.79-6.10) and 3.5 times more likely to die (aHR 3.54, 95% CI 2.55-4.90) than those who tested negative. […] Among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, those with cirrhosis were more likely to be hospitalized (aHR 1.37, 95% CI 1.12-1.66), undergo ventilation (aHR 1.61, 95% CI 1.05-2.46) or die (aHR 1.65, 95% CI 1.18-2.30) than patients without cirrhosis.
33229434 Results were consistent among patients with prior MI (adjusted HR (aHR) 0.87, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.41), prior PCI (aHR 1.10, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.62), prior CABG (aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.82), or CAD medically treated (aHR 0.84, 95% CI 0.29 to 2.44). […] Multivariable analysis showed that age (aHR per 5 year increase 1.62, 95% CI 1.53 to 1.72) and female sex (aHR 0.63, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.82) were the only two independent correlates of mortality.
33236261 Relative to the NIS-NAD cohort, patients in the IS-AD cohort had a significantly reduced risk of severe ARDS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.80; p = 0.008). […] No significant relationships between IS or AD status and either death or the composite of MV and death were identified, although a trend towards higher mortality was identified in the IS-NAD cohort (aHR vs NIS-NAD 1.71; 95% CI 0.94-3.12; p = 0.081).
33256749 Experiments using antagonists specific for the immunomodulatory and NF-κB/STAT-repressing transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), indicate these pathways are involved in the LMWF5A mechanisms of action by reducing LMWF5A drug potency as measured by TNFα and IL-1β release. […] In this report, we provide evidence that LMWF5A reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine release by activating the immunoregulatory transcription factors PPARγ and AhR.
33258156 DOAC use (n = 103 703) was not associated with reduced risk of hospital admission for COVID-19 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] [95% confidence interval] 1.00 [0.75-1.33] vs. nonuse atrial fibrillation comparator [n = 36 875]; and aHR 0.94 [0.80-1.10] vs. nonuse cardiovascular disease comparator [n = 355 699]), or ICU admission or death due to COVID-19 (aHRs 0.76 [0.51-1.12], and 0.90 [0.71-1.15], respectively).
33325070 Higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) scores on ICU day 1 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.21) and chronic cardiac disease (aHR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.46-7.83) were each associated with higher ICU mortality.
33336934 Among 25,952 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, class 3 obesity was associated with higher risk of mechanical ventilation (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.77, 95%CI 1.35-2.32) and mortality (aHR 1.42, 95%CI 1.12-1.78) compared to normal-weight individuals.
33339330 Of these patients, 225 (28.1%) developed LEE of grade ≥2 after a median of three days (interquartile range (IQR): 0-8 days) from the diagnosis of COVID-19, and they were estimated to have a higher hazard of death or ICU admission (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-1.88).
33340043 For example, hypertension is not an independent risk factor for COVID-19 death [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.89], but renal disease very much is. […] Dialysis (aHR 3.69), organ transplantation (aHR 3.53) and CKD (aHR 2.52 for patients with eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2) represent three of the four comorbidities associated with the highest mortality risk from COVID-19. […] The risk associated with CKD Stages 4 and 5 is higher than the risk associated with diabetes mellitus (aHR range 1.31-1.95, depending upon glycaemic control) or chronic heart disease (aHR 1.17).
33370397 The baseline predictive model showed a ROC of 0.800 based on: SpO2/FiO2 (adjusted Hazard Ratio-aHR = 8), chest x-ray (aHR = 4), prior immunosuppressive therapy (aHR = 4), obesity (aHR = 2), IL-6 (aHR = 2), platelets (aHR = 0.5). […] The second model included changes on the analytical parameters: ferritin (aHR = 7.5 if ≥200ng/mL) and IL-6 (aHR = 18 if ≥64pg/mL) plus chest x-ray (aHR = 2) showing a ROC of 0.877.
33412808 T47D cells express several receptors, including the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and ACE2, the main - but not the only - receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry.PM samples were collected in an urban background site located in the Northern area of the City of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy) during winter 2013. […] RNA was extracted from cells, purified and hybridised on 66k microarray slides from Agilent.The lists of differentially expressed genes in PM organic extracts were evaluated by using Metacore, and an enrichment analysis was performed to identify pathways maps, process networks, and disease by biomarkers altered after T47D treatment.The analysis of the modulated genes gave evidence for the involvement of PM in dysmetabolic diseases, including diabetes and obesity, and hypertension through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) canonical pathway.On the basis of current knowledge, existing data, and exploratory experimental evidence, we tease out the likely molecular interplay that can ultimately tip the disease outcome into severity.
33425138 In multivariate analysis, age between 40 and 59 years [adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR): 4.07; 95% CI: 1.16 - 8.30], age at least 60 years (aHR: 6.65; 95% CI: 1.48-8.88), severe or critical COVID-19 (aHR: 14.05; 95% CI: 6.3-15.67) and presence of dyspnea (aHR: 5.67; 95% CI: 1.46-21.98) were independently and significantly associated with the risk of death. older age, severe or critical COVID-19 and dyspnea on admission were potential predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19.
33507954 The risk of death, adjusted for age and sex, increased for a higher number of daily admissions (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] per an incremental daily admission of 10 patients: 1.13, 95% Confidence Intervals [CI] 1.05-1.22, p = 0.0014), and for a higher total number of hospitalized patients (AHR per an increase of 50 patients in the total number of hospitalized subjects: 1.11, 95%CI 1.04-1.17, p = 0.0004), while was lower for the calendar period after the peak (AHR 0.56, 95%CI 0.43-0.72, p<0.0001).
33511555 BaP induces an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent upregulation of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Skp2 for ACE2 ubiquitination.
33515771 In mixed effect model, RBV/IFN-α therapy was not associated with progression from non-severe into severe type (aHR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.88-1.36) or with reduction in 30-day mortality (aHR = 0.89, 95%CI: 0.61-1.30).
33537364 Under the marginal structural Cox model, tocilizumab was associated with a 62% reduced hazard of death (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.70) and no change in time to clinical improvement (aHR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.87). […] The 1:1 matched data set also showed a lower mortality rate (27.8% vs 34.4%) and reduced hazards of death (aHR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.88).
33550816 After adjustment, AC therapy prior to hospitalization was associated with a better prognosis with an adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) 0.70 (95% CI 0.55-0.88). […] Analyses performed using propensity score matching confirmed that AC therapy prior to hospitalization was associated with a better prognosis with an aHR of 0.43 (95% CI 0.29-0.63) for ICU admission and aHR of 0.76 (95% CI 0.61-0.98) for composite criteria ICU admission and/or death.
33558835 Cox regression models were used to compute adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs). […] Multivariate analysis revealed an N:L ratio >3.7 was the major marker associated with severe forms, with an aHR of 4.28 (95% confidence interval 1.52-12.0; P = 0.006).
33562472 Two important products of tryptophan metabolism, viz kynurenine and interleukin (IL)4-inducible1 (IL41)-driven indole 3 pyruvate (I3P), activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), thereby altering the nature of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] AhR activation dysregulates the initial pro-inflammatory cytokines production driven by neutrophils, macrophages, and mast cells, whilst AhR activation suppresses the endogenous antiviral responses of natural killer cells and CD8+ T cells. […] The AhR mediates its effects via alterations in the regulation of mitochondrial function in immune cells. […] The increased risk of severe/fatal SARS-CoV-2 infection by high risk conditions, such as elderly age, obesity, and diabetes are mediated by these conditions having expression levels of melatonin, AhR, butyrate, and LPS that are closer to those driven by SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] This has a number of future research and treatment implications, including the utilization of melatonin and nutraceuticals that inhibit the AhR, including the polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and resveratrol.