FURIN


furin, paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme


Gene Context Sentence


Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of FURIN gene in 24 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32057769 Despite a high similarity with the genome sequence of SARS-CoV and SARS-like CoVs, we identified a peculiar furin-like cleavage site in the Spike protein of the 2019-nCoV, lacking in the other SARS-like CoVs.
32155444 We found that the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein harbors a furin cleavage site at the boundary between the S1/S2 subunits, which is processed during biogenesis and sets this virus apart from SARS-CoV and SARS-related CoVs.
32197085 Both Pangolin-CoV and RaTG13 lost the putative furin recognition sequence motif at S1/S2 cleavage site that can be observed in the SARS-CoV-2.
32216698 Plasmin, and other proteases, may cleave a newly inserted furin site in the S protein of SARS-CoV-2, extracellularly, which increases its infectivity and virulence.
32274964 Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) is one of the most important receptors on the cell membrane of the host cells (HCs) which its interaction with spike protein (SP) with a furin-cleavage site results in the SARS-CoV-2 invasion. […] Hence, in this review, we presented an overview on the interaction of ACE-2 and furin with SP. […] As several kinds of CoVs, from various genera, have at their S1/S2 binding site a preserved site, we further surveyed the role of furin cleavage site (FCS) on the life cycle of the CoV. […] Furthermore, we discussed that the small molecular inhibitors can limit the interaction of ACE-2 and furin with SP and can be used as potential therapeutic platforms to combat the spreading CoV epidemic.
32275259 The presence of a furin-like cleavage site in SARS-CoV-2 facilitates the S protein priming and might increase the efficiency of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 as compared to other beta coronaviruses. […] So, furin inhibitors can be targeted as potential drug therapies for SARS-CoV.
32293910 The high infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is in part related to new mutations in the receptor binding domain, and acquisition of a furin cleavage site in the S spike protein.
32335456 While the binding to host cell receptor is the first step of infection, the entrance of the virus into the cell needs the cleavage of S1-S2 subunits to expose S2 for fusion to cell membrane via host proteases including cathepsins, cell surface transmembrane protease/serine (TMPRSS) proteases, furin, trypsin and factor Xa. […] We suppose that host cell proteases including furin (as expressed highly in lungs), factor Xa and cathepsin are possible targets to decrease viral burden, therefore unfractioned heparin and low molecular weight heparin-LMWH (specifically dalteparin and tinzaparin for their anti inflammatory action) can be potential inhibitors of multiple endoproteases involved in virus infectivity.
32343593 Finally, the small bowel is rich in furin, a serine protease which can separate the S-spike of the coronavirus into two “pinchers” (S1 and 2).
32362314 Here, we report that the cellular protease furin cleaves the spike protein at the S1/S2 site and that cleavage is essential for S-protein-mediated cell-cell fusion and entry into human lung cells. […] Our results suggest that acquisition of a S1/S2 multibasic cleavage site was essential for SARS-CoV-2 infection of humans and identify furin as a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
32376634 Third, unlike SARS-CoV, cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 is preactivated by proprotein convertase furin, reducing its dependence on target cell proteases for entry. […] The high hACE2 binding affinity of the RBD, furin preactivation of the spike, and hidden RBD in the spike potentially allow SARS-CoV-2 to maintain efficient cell entry while evading immune surveillance.
32376714 The spike protein contains an addition furin cleavage site that may allow it to be ‘preactivated’ and highly infectious after replication.
32450087 We have therefore explored ACE2 receptor mRNA expression, and co-factors for Sars-CoV-2 infectivity (TMPRSS2 and furin) in bronchial brushes and biopsies from people with asthma and healthy controls, and looked for relationships between asthma severity, Th2- and IL-17 dependent gene signatures, and clinical demographics (age, sex). […] These data suggest that differences in ACE2, TMPRSS2 and furin epithelial and airway gene expression are unlikely to confer enhanced COVID-19 pneumonia risk in patients with asthma across all treatment intensities and severity.
32452762 We report that SARS-CoV-2 has evolved a unique S1/S2 cleavage site, absent in any previous coronavirus sequenced, resulting in striking mimicry of an identical FURIN-cleavable peptide on the human epithelial sodium channel α-subunit (ENaC-α). […] Genetic alteration of ENaC-α causes aldosterone dysregulation in patients, highlighting that the FURIN site is critical for activation of ENaC.
32455629 Genes required for SARS-CoV-2 entry into human cells, ACE2 and FURIN, were employed as baits to build genomic-guided molecular maps of upstream regulatory elements, their expression and functions in the human body, and pathophysiologically relevant cell types. […] Repressors and activators of the ACE2 and FURIN genes were identified based on the analyses of gene silencing and overexpression experiments as well as relevant transgenic mouse models. […] Of major concern is the ACE2 and FURIN expression in many human cells and tissues, including immune cells, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may infect a broad range of cellular targets in the human body. […] Immediate availability for targeted experimental and clinical interrogations of potential COVID-19 pandemic mitigation agents, namely vitamin D and quercetin, as well as of the highly selective (Ki, 600 pm) intrinsically specific FURIN inhibitor (a1-antitrypsin Portland (a1-PDX), is considered an encouraging factor.
32492203 Genetic confirmation of the hypotheses regarding gene expression and mutation pattern of target genes, including angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), basigin (CD147/BSG) and paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme (FURIN/PCSK3), as well as correlation analysis, was done in relation to lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC) using in silico analysis. […] The total genetic anomaly carrying rate of target genes, including ACE2, TMPRSS2, CD147/BSG, and FURIN/PCSK3, was determined as 8.1% and 21 mutations were detected, with 7 of these mutations having pathogenic features. p.H34N on the RBD binding residues for SARS-CoV-2 was determined in our LUAD patient group. […] There were no meaningful differences in the expression of CD147 and FURIN genes.
32512290 Recently, a mini-review was published in the Medical Hypotheses journal by Usul Afsar entitled 2019-nCoV-SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection: Cruciality of Furin and relevance with cancer. […] Interestingly, the FURIN, one of the proproteins of the convertase family, plays a crucial role in the maturation of viral glycoproteins. […] In addition, many viruses including coronaviruses, exploit FURIN for the activation of their glycoproteins. […] Subsequently, the S protein is cleaved by transmembrane protease serine 2 with the help of FURIN which facilitates the entry of the virus into the cell after binding. […] Furthermore, it seems that FURIN is implicated in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and potentially in the increased rates of human-to-human transmission.
32512386 Notably, this insert appears to be a distinguishing feature among SARS-related sequences and introduces a potential cleavage site for the protease furin.
32543348 The prediction of the Furin cleavage site (FCS) and sequence alignment of the virus family indicated that the FCS may be an important site of coronavirus evolution. […] ZJ01 mutations identified near the FCS (F1-2) caused changes in the structure and electrostatic distribution of the S surface protein, further affecting the binding capacity of Furin. […] Single-cell sequencing and ACE2-Furin co-expression results confirmed that the Furin expression was higher in the whole body, especially in glands, liver, kidneys, and colon.
32562913 As it is evident from the recent studies that SARS-CoV-2 requires host enzyme Furin to activate receptor binding domain of its S protein and host Angiotensin Convertase Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is required as binding receptor, facilitating the entry of virus into the host cell. […] Evidence from literature shows that oral cancer tissues as well as paracarcinoma tissue exhibit higher expression of both Furin and ACE2, giving rise to the hypothesis that patients with oral cancer have higher chances of SARS CoV2 infection.
32568027 These mutations change or delete a putative furin-like cleavage site in the region connecting the S1 and S2 domains and result in a very prominent phenotypic change in plaque assays.
32571797 SARS-CoV-2 has two unique features in its spike protein, the receptor binding domain and an insertion of twelve nucleotides at the S1/S2 boundary resulting a furin-like cleavage site. […] Here, we identified two deletion variants of SARS-CoV-2 that either directly affect the furin-like cleavage site itself (NSPRRAR) or a flanking sequence (QTQTN) and investigated these deletions in cell isolates and clinical samples.
32574272 Host proteases, e.g., cathepsins, furin, or members of the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSP) family, such as Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), are involved in virus entry by proteolytically activating virus ligands.
32591666 Furin was suggested as another protein which makes the tongue more vulnerable to 2019-nCoV, especially in conditions inducing its upregulation (for example, squamous cell carcinoma).