tumor necrosis factor

Gene Context Sentence

Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of TNF gene in 375 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32026671 However, there were no statistically significant differences in serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-1, IL-8, IL-10, hs-CRP, lymphocyte count and LDH among the three groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: The clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV pneumonia are similar to those of common viral pneumonia. […] 而3组研究对象血清中的肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)、IL-1β、IL-8、IL-10、hs-CRP、淋巴细胞计数、LDH表达水平差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。
32164089 However, there were no statistically significant differences in serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-1, IL-8, IL-10, hs-CRP, lymphocyte count and LDH among the three groups (P>0.05).
32171193 This cytokine inhibits class II histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and inflammation in inflammatory diseases by suppressing MyD88 and subsequently IL-1β, IL-6, TNF and CCL2.
32205232 LH significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells and markedly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CXCL-10/IP-10) production at the mRNA levels.
32217834 Increased cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α), lymphopenia (in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells), and decreased IFN-γ expression in CD4+ T cells are associated with severe COVID-19.
32217835 Compared with moderate cases, severe cases more frequently had dyspnea, lymphopenia, and hypoalbuminemia, with higher levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and D-dimer as well as markedly higher levels of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α.
32228827 All differentially expressed genes were introduced into the SREING online analysis website for protein interaction network analysis, and core genes such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, IL-10, IL17, TNF, interferon regulatory factor 9, 2’-5’-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase 3, radical s-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2, c-x-c motif chemokine ligand 10, caspase 3 and other genes were screened. […] The drugs predicted by EpiMed’s apparent precision treatment prediction platform for disease-drug association analysis are mainly TNF-α inhibitors, resveratrol, ritonavir, paeony, retinoic acid, forsythia, and houttuynia cordata. Conclusions: The abnormal activation of multiple inflammatory pathways may be the cause of heart failure in patients after coronavirus infection. […] 冠状病毒与心衰差异表达基因富集分析,取交集处理共有GO条目20条,主要富集在病毒反应、病毒防御反应、Ⅰ型干扰素反应、γ干扰素调节、先天免疫反应调节、病毒生命周期负调控、病毒基因组复制调控等;共有5条KEGG通路,主要与肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)信号通路、白细胞介素(IL)-17信号通路、细胞因子与受体相互作用、Toll样受体信号通路、人类巨细胞病毒感染有关。 […] 蛋白互作网络分析筛选出信号传导及转录激活蛋白3、IL-10、IL-17、TNF、干扰素调节因子9、2’,5’-寡腺苷酸合成酶1、丝裂原活化蛋白激酶3、S-腺苷甲硫氨酸基区域蛋白2、CXC趋化因子配体10、半胱氨酸天冬氨酸蛋白酶3共10个核心基因。 […] EpiMed平台预测可能对冠状病毒所致心衰有效的药物为TNF-α抑制剂、白藜醇、利托那韦、白芍、维甲酸、连翘、鱼腥草等。
32253400 The results demonstrated that TF suppressed the histological changes in the lungs of CS-challenged mice, as evidenced by reduced generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and diminished the protein expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1).
32257537 Meanwhile, the level of TNF-α was significantly decreased, while IL-10 increased in MSC treatment group compared to the placebo control group.
32259129 In this context, both in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed that metronidazole could decrease the levels of several cytokines, which are known to increase during the COVID-19 infection, including interleukin (IL)8, IL6, IL1B, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, IL12, IL1α, and interferon (IFN)γ, as well as the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and neutrophil count.
32267560 The main mechanism of ARDS is uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response and cytokine storm following release of proinflammatory cytokines (such as interferons (IFN), interleukines (IL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α) and chemokines.2-3 So, some Chinese researchers proposed or used anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment regimen of patients with COVID-19.3-4.
32281329 Arachidonic acid(AA) metabolic pathway is principally used to synthesize inflammatory cytokines, such as monocyte chemotactic protein 1(MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor(TNF), IL, IFN, etc., which is closely related to the occurrence, development and regression of inflammation.
32294485 Elder age, underlying hypertension, high cytokine levels (IL-2R, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-a), and high LDH level were significantly associated with severe COVID-19 on admission.
32308263 In brief, notable T cytopoenia was recorded by flow cytometry in the CD4+ and the CD8+ populations, which were significantly yet inversely correlated with remarkably increased serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-a.
32317220 In COVID-19 patients a pro-inflammatory status with high levels of interleukin (IL)-1B, IL-1 receptor (R)A and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α has been demonstrated. […] Moreover, high levels of IL-6 and TNF-α have been observed in patients requiring intensive-care-unit hospitalization.
32320677 Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by circulating monocytes was sustained, a pattern distinct from bacterial sepsis or influenza.
32340759 Herein, we have reviewed possible molecular pathways of septic shock in the patients who have received antibiotics with inflammatory properties which mainly is release of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF- α) through different routes.
32354030 Moreover, given the recent evidence in different hospitals suggesting IL-6 and TNF-α inhibitor drugs as a possible therapy for COVID-19, we aimed to highlight that a dietary intervention could be useful to prevent the infection and/or to ameliorate the outcomes during therapy. […] Considering that the COVID-19 infection can generate a mild or highly acute respiratory syndrome with a consequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α, a dietary regimen modification in order to improve the levels of adiponectin could be very useful both to prevent the infection and to take care of patients, improving their outcomes.
32359943 The proportion of lymphocytes subsets, concentrations of immunoglobulins, complement C4, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ were within normal range in these 14 infected HCWs.
32360479 Laboratory tests showed decreased lymphocyte count, elevated PCT, IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-2R, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I, NT-proBNP, creatinine, and urea nitrogen.
32360580 The results showed that LS could significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells, and reduce the number of virus particles and it could markedly reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CXCL-10/IP-10) production at the mRNA levels.
32365221 The leukocytes, neutrophils, infection biomarkers [such as C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and ferritin] and the concentrations of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] were significantly increased, while lymphocytes were significantly decreased with increased severity of illness.
32373721 SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia severely ill patients, develop a systemic inflammatory response with a Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS), that is characterized by a sudden increase in several pro-inflammatory cytokines, mainly IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alfa by activated macrophages (M1 phenotype).
32374474 In the present study, silvestrol down-regulated several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, CCL2, CCL18) and increased TNF-α during differentiation and activation of M1-macrophages, suggesting that the effects of silvestrol might cancel each other out.
32376392 Cytokines are central to the pathophysiology of COVID-19; while some of them are beneficial (type-I interferon, interleukin-7), others appear detrimental (interleukin-1β, -6, and TNF-α) particularly in the context of the so-called cytokine storm. […] Next, reviewing current evidence drawn from clinical trials, we examine a number of cytokine and anti-cytokine therapies, including interleukin-1, -6, and TNF inhibitors, as well as less targeted therapies, such as corticosteroids, chloroquine, or JAK inhibitors.
32391668 The peripheral lymphocyte subsets (CD3+T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, NK cells, B cells), as well as serum levels of lymphocyte factors (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ) were dynamically monitored. […] On D2 of admission, the patient’s IL-6 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher than normal values, IFN-γ was at a normal high value, and then rapidly decreased; IL-2, IL-4, and TNF-α were all in the normal range.
32399213 Meanwhile, high IL-6 (from 251.8 to 6.32 pg mL-1), IL-10 (from 39.53 to 5.21 pg mL-1) and IFN-γ (from 13.55 to 3.16 pg mL-1) levels decreased, and IL-4 (from 2.36 to 3.19 pg mL-1) and TNF-α (from 2.27 to 20.2 pg mL-1) levels increased quickly when the viral RNA returned negative.
32413619 In contrast, in activated THP-1 derived macrophages, the CL extract more effectively attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-2, IL-6, IL-22) as well as TGF-β and IL-10.
32418288 CSF analyses during the acute stage were negative for SARS-CoV-2, positive for pleocytosis and hyperproteinorrachia, and showed increased IL-8 and TNF-α concentrations while other infectious or autoimmune disorders were excluded.
32425234 TNF antagonist treatment was not associated with severe COVID-19 (aOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.4-2.2). […] Notably, TNF antagonists do not appear to be associated with severe COVID-19.
32425950 T cell numbers were negatively correlated to serum IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α concentration, with patients in the disease resolution period showing reduced IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α concentrations and restored T cell counts.
32426374 We believe that targeting the central pathway (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6), balancing the Th1 and Th2 response, and administering long-term anti-inflammatory therapy might be promising prospects to reduce cardiovascular impairment and even MODS during the acute and recovery phases of COVID-19.
32432519 We discuss the possible excess risk for COVID-19 infection in the context of the common conditions among shiftworkers, including nurses, doctors, and first responders, among others of high exposure to the contagion, of sleep imbalance and circadian disruption.Abbreviations: ACE2: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; APC: Antigen-presenting cells; CCL: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand; CD+: Adhesion molecule expression; COVID-19: 2019 coronavirus disease; DCs: Dendritic cells; GH: Growth hormone; HPA: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal; HSF: Heat shock factor; HSP70: Heat shock protein 70; HSP90: Heat shock protein 90; IL: Interleukin; INFγ: Interferon-gamma; LT/LB: T/B lymphocytes; MHC: Major histocompatibility complex; NK: Natural killer; RAAS: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; SARS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome; SCN: Suprachiasmatic nucleus;SD: Sleep deprivation; SNS: Sympathetic nervous system; Th1/Th2: T helper lymphocytes 1/2; TLR2/TLR4: Toll-like receptor 2/4; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor alpha; VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor.
32437740 There was no correlation between maternal COVID-19 duration and the lymphocyte subsets or cytokine levels (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α).
32445956 Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, isorhamnetin, baicalein, naringenin, and wogonin could be the main active ingredients of Chinese medicines for the management of COVID-19 by targeting on AEC2 and 3CL protein and inhibiting inflammatory mediators, regulating immunity, and eliminating free radicals through COX-2, CASP3, IL-6, MAPK1, MAPK14, MAPK8, and REAL in the signaling pathways of IL-17, arachidonic acid, HIF-1, NF-κB, Ras, and TNF.
32452979 We describe a case of severe COVID-19 infection in a recently diagnosed pediatric Crohn’s disease patient successfully treated with Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) blockade. […] Cytokine profile revealed rising levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, higher than those described in either inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or severe COVID-19 alone. […] The patient was treated with infliximab for TNF-α blockade to address both moderately to severely active Crohn’s disease and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) temporally related to COVID-19. […] Cytokine profile improved with normalization of TNF-α, a decrease in IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations. […] This case supports a role for blockade of TNF-α in the treatment of COVID-19 inflammatory cascade. […] The role of anti-TNF agents in patients with MIS-C temporally related to COVID-19 requires further investigation.
32458530 Anti-TNF agents from among the biological therapies appear to be slightly risky in terms of susceptibility to infection.
32458536 Pivotal trials and postmarketing data also suggest that IL-17 and IL-23 blockers are safer than TNF-blockers.
32459524 The production of increased amounts of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and MCP-1 lead to oxidative stress and defective function of innate and adaptive immunity, while the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the infection.
32460839 After treatment, the percentage and counts of lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cell) were increased, and the level of IL-6, TNF-α, and C-reactive protein is significantly decreased after hWJC treatment.
32470153 The characteristics of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin and procalcitonin (PCT), and lymphocyte subsets of these patients were retrospectively compared before and after treatment. […] Levels of IL-2R, IL-6, TNF-α and CRP decreased significantly after treatment, followed by IL-8, IL-10 and PCT.
32471782 This case series describes four previously healthy children with COVID-19 infection confirmed by serologic antibody testing, but negative by nasopharyngeal RT-PCR swab, presenting to the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) with prolonged fever (5 or more days) and abrupt onset of hemodynamic instability with elevated serologic inflammatory markers and cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α).
32471903 Tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (anti-TNF) use was associated with a reduced odds of hospitalisation (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.81), while no association with antimalarial use (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.57) was observed. […] We found that glucocorticoid exposure of ≥10 mg/day is associated with a higher odds of hospitalisation and anti-TNF with a decreased odds of hospitalisation in patients with rheumatic disease.
32472461 The rational use of these anti-rheumatic drugs is based on the cytokinic storm (hyperproduction of IL1, IL6, TNF α) in the body by COVID-19 in its severe form.
32472655 Parthenolide is the principal sesquiterpene lactones and the main biologically active constituent Tanacetum parthenium (commonly known as feverfew) which has could significantly reduce IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α production pathways established in several human cell line models in vitro and in vivo studies.
32472703 Under these circumstances, persistent viral stimulation leads to a significant increase in circulating cytokines such as interleukin (IL) -6, IL-10 and TNF-α.
32474885 Anti-rheumatic drugs, which are tried for managing immunologic complications of COVID-19 infection, will also be discussed including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, JAK inhibitors, IL-6 inhibitors, IL-1 inhibitors, anti-TNF-α agents, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and colchicine.
32475230 Results showed that COVID-19 patients have higher serum level of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) and CRP than control individuals.
32485858 The main aim of this study is to find a therapeutic compound to inhibit IL-6, not TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, in macrophage-like cells, because the high-levels of IL-6 production by macrophages are reported to cause unfavorable outcomes under several disease conditions (e.g., autoimmune diseases, and acute viral infections, including COVID-19). […] In this study, the potential effects of javamide-II on IL-6, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha productions were determined using their ELISA kits in macrophage-like THP-1 cells. […] However, javamide-II did not inhibit IL-1beta or TNF-alpha productions much at the same concentrations. […] The data indicate that javamide-II may be a potent compound to inhibit IL-6 production via suppressing the p38 signal pathway, without significant effects on the productions of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in macrophage-like THP-1 cells.
32489022 Blood was collected on the 4 th day and the lung tissue was dissected to calculate the lung index and inhibition rate; flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage of T and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood; RT-PCR was used to detect the nucleic acid virus load in lung tissue; ELISA was used to detect motilin and gastrin in serum, and inflammatory factors TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 in lung tissue proteins. […] The low dose of Reyanning could effectively increase the percentage of total B lymphocytes(P<0.05), reduce virus load in lung tissue of model mice(P<0.01), reduce the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 in the lung tissue of model mice(P<0.01), reduce the content of motilin in the serum of model mice(P<0.01).
32489023 Lung tissue protein was extracted and the contents of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ were detected by ELISA. […] Compared with the model control group, the high and low doses of Compound Qinlan Oral Liquid significantly reduced lung tissue viral load(P<0.01), increased cross blood CD4~+ T lymphocytes, CD8~+ T lymphocytes and total B lymphocyte percentage(P<0.01), reduced serum motilin content(P<0.01), reduced IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in lungs(P<0.01) and reduced lung tissue inflammation.
32489026 Total 219 core target proteins were predicted, such as NFKB1, STAT1, RAF1, IL2, JAK1, IL6, TNF, BCL2 and other important targets, and 221 core target pathways were enriched, including cancer pathway, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus infection, chemokine signal pathway, PI3 K-AKT signal pathway, EB virus infection, virus carcinogenesis and T cell receptor signaling pathways, a collection of which were highly related to cytokine storms.
32489696 Hyper-elevation of Interleukin1 (IL-1), Tumor necrosis factor-1alfa (TNF-1 alfa), and Interleukin 6 (IL-6) produced by inflammatory macrophage M1 may damage the lung alveoli leading to severe pneumonitis, decreased oxygenation, and potential death despite artificial ventilation.
32497535 Given the role of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE) 4 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate in the inflammatory response, we hypothesize that selective PDE4 inhibition may attenuate the cytokine storm in COVID-19, through the upstream inhibition of pro-inflammatory molecules, particularly TNF-α, and the regulation of the pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. […] Conversely, other anti-cytokine agents lead to the downstream inhibition of specific targets, such as IL-1, IL-6 or TNF-α, and may not be efficient in blocking the cytokine storm, once it has been triggered.
32501293 TNF- alpha and GM-CSF showed no significant differences between severe and mild cases.Conclusion Together our data suggest early intervention to increase expression of CCL5 may prevent patients from developing severe illness.
32502616 Strikingly, we also identified the key pro-inflammatory signals TNF, NFKβ and IFNG as upstream regulators of the transcriptional profile of ACE2+TMPRSS2+ cells in the superficial conjunctival epithelium, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may utilise inflammatory driven upregulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression to enhance infection in ocular surface.
32504360 IL-4 (7.69%), IL-6 (19.23%), IL-10 (50%), TNF-α (11.54%) and IFN-γ (19.23%) were elevated.
32504923 T cell exhaustion, high viral load, and high levels of TNF-ɑ, IL1β, IL6, IL10 have been associated with severe SARS-CoV-2. […] Lower cellular redox status, which leads to pro-inflammatory states mediated by TNF-ɑ is also potentially implicated. […] NAC has also been shown to inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway (IL1β and IL18) in vitro, and decrease plasma TNF-ɑ in human clinical trials.
32505821 It might inhibit the cytokine storm by affecting C-reactive protein (CRP), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin- 6 (IL-6), interleukin- 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1), and other proteins.
32513566 In the most severe cases, the prognosis can be markedly worsened by the hyperproduction of mainly proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, preferentially targeting lung tissue.
32514854 After recovery from a COVID-19 infection, a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy was initiated.
32519164 Virus triggers the synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α and also promotes downregulation of ACE-2, which promotes a concomitant increase in levels of angiotensin II (AT-II). […] Both TNF-α and AT-II have been implicated in promoting overexpression of tissue factor (TF) in platelets and macrophages.
32524611 Compared to children without pneumonia(manifested as asymptomatic and acute upper respiratory infection), children with pneumonia were associated with higher percentages of the comorbidity history, symptoms of fever and cough, and increased levels of serum procalcitonin, alkaline phosphatase and serum interleukins (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α.There were no differences of treatments, duration of hospitalization, time from first positive to first negative nucleic acid testing and outcomes between children with mild pneumonia and without pneumonia.
32525657 Levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) were assessed using ELISA and compared between groups. […] Average TNF-α levels were significantly increased in the olfactory epithelium of the COVID-19 group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). […] Elevated levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α were seen in the olfactory epithelium in patients with COVID-19.
32526372 Many laboratory indicators, such as neutrophils, AST, γ-GT, ALP, LDH, NT-proBNP, Hs-cTnT, PT, APTT, D-dimer, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, CRP, ferritin and procalcitonin, were all significantly increased in deceased patients compared with recovered patients on admission.
32526511 Since SARS-CoV-2 related ARDS has a strong immunological component, many investigators are utilizing monoclonal antibodies against IL-6, TNF-alpha and CCR5.
32527304 Particularly, since pneumonia and ARDS are associated with a cytokine storm, drugs belonging to therapeutic classes as anti-IL-6, anti-TNF, and JAK inhibitors are currently studied.
32528233 The viral entry has been shown to cause ‘cytokine storm’ involving excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines including IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-7, IP-10, MCP-3 or GM-CSF, which is augmented by smoking.
32532356 Collect peripheral blood serum to detect various immunoglobulin changes: IgA, IgG, IgM, total IgE; Collect peripheral blood serum to explore the changes of cytokines, Th1 cytokines (IL-1 β, IL-2, TNF-a, ITN-γ), Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL -10).
32533777 Furthermore, logistic regression models showed neutrophils counts, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL6, IL1β, IL2R), and coagulation dysfunction biomarkers (D-Dimer, PT, Fbg) were significantly associated with the poor clinical outcomes of COVID-19.
32534189 In vitro studies have demonstrated the capacity of azithromycin to reduce production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8, IL-6, TNF alpha, reduce oxidative stress and modulate T-helper functions.
32534337 Different studies have shown that this compound inhibits the IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-18, TNF-α, NF-κB and NALP3 inflammasome pathways.
32534467 Clinical reports show that both mild and severe forms of disease result in changes in circulating leukocyte subsets and cytokine secretion, particularly IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, TNF, GM-CSF, IP-10 (IFN-induced protein 10), IL-17, MCP-3, and IL-1ra.
32536480 The combined use of thiopurines with steroids and/or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) monoclonal antibodies should also be avoided because those combinations can increase the risk for infections, including COVID-19. […] Finally, biologic treatment with anti-TNF-alpha agents or any other mechanism of action, such as anti-integrins or anti-interleukins, should be suspended if patients become infected with SARS-CoV-2.
32540603 Another advantage is that PTX selectively reduces the concentration of TNF-α mRNA in cells, which, in the case of an acute infectious state such as COVID-19, would seem to offer a more strategic approach.
32545268 Meanwhile, in vitro studies show potential of caflanone to inhibit virus entry factors including, ABL-2, cathepsin L, cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, Mip-1α, TNF-α), and PI4Kiiiβ as well as AXL-2, which facilitates mother-to-fetus transmission of coronavirus.
32545518 These include IL-1-beta, IL-6, TNF-α, the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, and a group of IFN-γ-induced genes.
32561873 Several clinical studies are underway that test the effects of inhibiting IL-6, IL-1β or TNF or targeting cytokine signalling via Janus kinase inhibition in the treatment of COVID-19.
32576347 54.0±13.1), and the levels of white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil count (NEU), procalcitonin (PCT), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukins (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10), IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at admission were significantly higher [WBC (×109/L): 7.16 (5.55, 9.75) vs. […] 572.13±274.55, TNF-α (ng/L): 10.94±5.95 vs. 
32584199 The unintended consequences of the unprecedented scale and duration of pandemic control measures for children and families around the world should be carefully examined. 2019-nCoV, 2019 novel coronavirus; ADEM, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis; AAP, American Academy of Pediatrics; ACE-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; BCG, bacillus Calmette-Guérin; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; CRP, C-reactive protein; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; CT, computed tomography; CXR, chest X-ray; DOL, day of life; hCoV, human coronavirus; ICU, intensive care unit; IL, interleukin; IVIG, intravenous immunoglobulin; KD, Kawasaki disease; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; MERS, Middle East respiratory syndrome; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; MEURI, monitored emergency use of unregistered and experimental interventions; MIS-C, multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PICU, paediatric intensive care unit; RNA, ribonucleic acid; RCT, randomised-controlled trial; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; SARS-CoV-1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; TNF-alpha, tumour necrosis factor alpha; UK United Kingdom; UNICEF, United Nations Children’s Fund; USA, United States of America; WHO, World Health Organization.
32584597 Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNFR1) were assessed in plasma from healthy volunteers, hospitalized-but-stable COVID-19 patients (COVIDstable), COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission (COVIDICU) and individuals with severe community-acquired pneumonia requiring ICU support (CAPICU). […] IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and sTNFR1 were all increased in patients with COVID-19. […] COVIDICU patients could be clearly differentiated from COVIDstable, and demonstrated higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and sTNFR1 - but lower IL-10 - than CAPICU.
32587806 Recent evidence has implicated the development of cytokine release syndrome as the major cause of fatality in COVID-19 patients, with elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) observed in patients. […] Inhibitors of the small molecule Gal-3 have been shown to reduce the levels of both IL-6 and TNF-α in vitro and have shown anti-inflammatory effects in vivo.
32591762 Compared to moderate cases, critical cases exhibited stronger interactions between epithelial and immune cells, as indicated by ligand-receptor expression profiles, and activated immune cells, including inflammatory macrophages expressing CCL2, CCL3, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL3, CXCL10, IL8, IL1B and TNF.
32594778 IL-6 and TNF- α are at the forefront of hyper-inflammation.
32601704 Levels of inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, D-dimer, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and TNF-alpha were commonly elevated.
32602128 The inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were intensively increased in patients with diarrhea.
32621284 Many of the immunotherapies used in dermatology have data to support their safe use during the COVID-19 pandemic including the biologics that target IgE, IL-4/13, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-12, and IL-23.
32626680 Older age, elevated aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, serum lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, prothrombin time, D-dimer, Procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein levels, decreased albumin, elevated serum cytokines (IL2R, IL6, IL8, IL10, and TNF-α) levels, and a decreased lymphocyte count indicated poor outcome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
32626733 We also evaluated pyroptosis (NLRP3, caspase-1), apoptosis (caspase-3, caspase-8), proinflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6)-related protein and gene expression levels. […] It also significantly inhibited the high levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, caspase-3, caspase-8, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 induced by CLP.
32631405 Serum levels of WBC, CRP, ESR, IL6, IFN-G, and TNF-α 6.
32632085 Patients display significant increases of proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines, including T helper type-1 and type-2 cytokines, chemokines and galectins; their lymphocytes produce more tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-17, with the last observation implying that blocking IL-17 could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for COVID-19.
32635302 Atherosclerotic progression, as a chronic inflammation process, is characterized by immune system dysregulation leading to pro-inflammatory patterns, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and IL-1β.
32635752 Among various inflammatory mediators, the level of interleukins (IL-2, IL-7, IL-10), G-CSF, MIP1A, MCP1, and TNF-α was reported to be higher in critically ill patients.
32640747 Finally, we made a critical analysis of a number of substances, not yet utilized, but potentially useful in SARS-CoV-2 patients, such as IFN lambda, TNF blockers, ulinastatin, siponimod, tacrolimus, mesenchymal stem cells, inhibitors of mononuclear macrophage recruitment, IL-1 family antagonists, JAK-2 or STAT-3 inhibitors.
32643448 Key targets contained MAPK3, MAPK8, TP53, CASP3, IL6, TNF, MAPK1, CCL2, PTGS2, etc. […] There were 522 GO items in GO enrichment analysis (p < .05) and 168 signaling pathways (p < .05) in KEGG, mainly including TNF signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, and HIF-1 signaling pathway.
32646047 Induction of acute inflammatory response and activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was prominent in SARS-CoV-2 infected NHBE cells.
32649367 Subsequently, patients with the most severe symptoms tend to have poor outcomes, manifest severe hypoxia, and possess elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) along with elevated levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, marked lymphopenia, and elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios.
32651212 Patients with COVID-19 exhibited hyper-inflammatory signatures across all types of cells among PBMCs, particularly up-regulation of the TNF/IL-1β-driven inflammatory response as compared to severe influenza. […] In classical monocytes from patients with severe COVID-19, type I IFN response co-existed with the TNF/IL-1β-driven inflammation, and this was not seen in patients with milder COVID-19.
32659373 Further analysis of the cytokines showed that IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 from the hospitalized patients were significantly higher, indicating a potential of the increased CD4+ T cell differentiation.
32679148 IL-6, along with some other inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1 beta (β), IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), as well as inflammatory chemokines, can significantly contribute to, fever, lymphopenia, coagulation, lung injury, and multi-organ failure (MOF).
32679620 Antigen attached Biotin-PA nanofibers trigger splenocytes to produce high levels of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-12, TNF-α, and IL-6) and to exhibit a superior cross-presentation of the antigen.
32684080 The hallmark of COVID-19 pathogenesis is the cytokine storm with elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), chemokine (C-C-motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF).
32687484 Additionally, stimulated blood mononuclear cells produced less than 40%-50% of the IFN-ɣ and TNF-α observed in septic and CINS patients, consistent with markedly impaired immune effector cell function.
32691695 We identified four pathways, ErbB, HIF-1, mTOR and TNF signaling, among others that were markedly modulated during the course of the SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro.
32696735 We report on a female patient who, post-COVID-19 infection, developed an initial delirium followed by persistent and florid psychotic symptoms consisting of persecutory delusion, complex visual and auditory hallucinations and Capgras phenomenon in the absence of hypoxia but elevated tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. […] The cause of the psychotic symptoms in this patient were not ascertained but we propose either an inflammatory state, characterised by the patient’s elevated TNF-alpha levels as a possible contributing mechanism for her psychosis in line with the proinflammatory changes observed in some cases of psychosis.
32698440 The results indicated that the SARS-CoV-2 infection strongly activates TNF and NFκB-signaling pathways through significant upregulation of the TNF, IL1B, IL6, IL8, NFKB1, NFKB2 and RELB genes. […] Accordingly, a literature search summarized that tiotropium reduced expressions of IL1B, IL6, IL8, RELA, NFKB1 and TNF in vitro or in vivo, and many of them have been known to be deregulated in COPD patients.
32699094 Transcriptional profiling studies found that infected pHAE cultures had a molecular signature dominated by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine induction, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and CXCL8, and identified NF-κB and ATF-4 as key drivers of this proinflammatory cytokine response.
32699972 We observed an increase in T helper (Th)-2 cells and a suppression in regulatory T cells (Treg) in patients during acute phase, but no significant response was found in the IFN-γ-producing or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-producing CD8+ T cells in patients.
32704455 The latter may lead to excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-8, as well as TNF-α ultimately culminating in hypercytokinemia (“cytokine storm”). […] Upon treatment with furosemide, LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was reduced, indicating that furosemide suppresses the M1 polarization, including IL-6 and TNF-α release. […] Accordingly, we conclude that furosemide is a reasonably potent inhibitor of IL-6 and TNF-α that is also safe, inexpensive and well-studied.
32706339 Our analysis focused on detecting statistical differences in levels of 6 cytokines associated with cytokine storm (IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNF-α) between patients with moderate COVID-19, severe COVID-19, and ARDS or sepsis.RESULTSFifteen hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 9 of whom were critically ill, were compared with critically ill patients with ARDS (n = 12) or sepsis (n = 16). […] There were no statistically significant differences in baseline levels of IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNF-α between patients with COVID-19 and critically ill controls with ARDS or sepsis.CONCLUSIONLevels of inflammatory cytokines were not higher in severe COVID-19 patients than in moderate COVID-19 or critically ill patients with ARDS or sepsis in this small cohort.
32707842 In COVID-19 patients, the majority of the CD73-CD8+ T cells were capable of secreting granzyme B, perforin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ).
32713127 During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, some cytokines are synthesized, including Interferon (IFN) type I, TNF-α, and chemokines which may induce mast cells (MCs) and basophils degranulation by mechanisms similar to the autoinflammatory monogenic or polygenic diseases.
32714336 IL-6, TNF, and IL-1β increase expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and VEGF, thereby increasing permeability of the lung endothelium and reducing barrier protection, allowing viral dissemination and infiltration of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes.
32716553 COPD patients, particularly those with severe COVID-19, had lower counts of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells and B cells and higher levels of TNF-α, IL-2 receptor, IL-10, IL-8, and IL-6 than asthmatics. […] IL-4 and IL-13 downregulated, but TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-17A upregulated ACE2 expression in BEAS-2B cells.
32718669 Acute respiratory distress syndrome is the main cause of death from COVID-19 and occurs due to an exaggerated inflammatory response that causes the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukins and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α).
32719447 The pathophysiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is characterized by overproduction of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) leading to systemic inflammation and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, acutely affecting the cardiovascular system.
32721809 ACE2 receptor is downregulated by the SARS-COV through the spike protein of SARS-CoV (SARS-S) via a process that is tightly coupled with Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production. […] TNF-α plays a key role in aneurysmal formation of coronary arteries in Kawasaki disease (KD). […] It appears that TNF- α might be the cause and the consequence of the ACE2 receptor downregulation which results in arterial walls aneurysm. […] Conclusion: Genetically under-expression of ACE2 receptor in children with genetically-susceptible to KD who are infected with SARS-CoV-2 possibly further downregulates the ACE2 expression by TNF-α and leads to surge of inflammation including TNF-α and progression to Kawasaki-like disease.
32725596 The steady declining trend was also found in TNF-α (1.49, 1.15, and 0.85 pg/mL) and IFN-γ (0.64, 0.42, and 0.27 pg/mL).
32725927 In vitro studies reveal that interleukins (IL-1a, IL-1b), chemokines (CCL2, CXCL8), and TNF-α, are all significantly elevated, resulting in a cytokine storm-like phenotype.
32726005 After a further exploration of the action targets, it was showed that disease-specific factor TNF was the target of the above ten drugs, and traditional Chinese medicine can exert anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects.
32726007 Lung tissue protein was extracted, and IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ contents were detected by ELISA. […] Compared with the model control group, high and low-dose Chaiyin Particles significantly increased cross blood CD4~+ T lymphocytes, CD8~+T lymphocytes and total B lymphocyte percentage(P<0.05, P<0.01), and reduced IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in lungs(P<0.01).
32726008 After further mining the action targets of these three prescriptions, it was found that COVID-19 disease-specific factors Ccl2, IL10, IL6 and TNF were all the targets of three prescriptions.
32727465 Compared with COVID-19 without pneumonia, COVID-19 with pneumonia had significantly higher serum interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α.
32730233 Five cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) contributed to the analysis. […] TNF-α and IL-10 discriminated between patients with MIS-C and severe COVID-19.
32731277 Interferon IFN-ɣ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) play important roles as mediators of inflammation.
32732316 No patients with a presumed rather than confirmed diagnosis were started on anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy.Most IBD follow-up appointments were able to occur using phone/webcam or face to face.
32733921 Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin (IL)-1β, interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) exceeded the normal limits, and levels of hs-CRP, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were statistically higher in the myocardial injury group than in the non-myocardial injury group. […] Multiple-variate logistic regression showed that plasma levels of hs-CRP (odds ratio [OR] 6.23, [95% CI, 1.93-20.12], P = 0.002), IL-6 (OR 13.63, [95% CI, 3.33-55.71]; P < 0.001) and TNF-α (OR 19.95, [95% CI, 4.93-80.78]; P < 0.001) were positively correlated with the incidence of myocardial injury.
32735768 Higher levels of inflammatory hallmarks including C-reactive protein, ferritin, D-dimers, and cytokines such as interleukin (IL) -6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) have been reported.
32735885 Our meta-analyses with random-effect models showed a significant decrease in lymphocytes, monocyte, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD3 cells, CD19 cells, and natural killer (NK) cells and an increase in the white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP)/hs-CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), ferritin, procalcitonin (PCT), and serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-2R, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interferon-gamma (INF-γ) in the severe group compared to the non-severe group.
32743022 This storm is due to the release of high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and chemokines by respiratory epithelial and dendritic cells, and macrophages. […] Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit (α7nAChRs) is required for ACh inhibition of macrophage-TNF release and cytokine modulation.
32744052 It is well known that IL-1 induces itself and another very important pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF, which also participates in hemodynamic states, including shock syndrome in COVID-19. […] Both IL-1 and TNF cause pulmonary edema, thrombosis and bleeding.
32754036 It can confer anti-viral immunity by eliciting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β.
32759007 It has been variously attributed to the release of inflammatory cytokines including IL-6 and TNF-α; direct infection of the lymphocytes by the virus; and rapid sequestration of lymphocytes in the tissues.
32759267 ATV/RTV also impaired virus-induced enhancement of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels.
32761894 Against this background we summarize here the current state of knowledge on the interaction of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 with mediators of the acute phase of inflammation (TNF, IL-1, IL-6), type 1 and type 17 immune responses (IL-12, IL-23, IL-17, IL-36), type 2 immune reactions (IL-4, IL-13, IL-5, IL-31, IgE), B-cell immunity, checkpoint regulators (PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA4), and orally druggable signaling pathways (JAK, PDE4, calcineurin).
32762443 Approach and Results: Postmortem lung samples (COVID-19 group =6 cases; H1N1 group =10 cases, and control group =11 cases) were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and the following monoclonal primary antibodies: anti-IL (interleukin)-6, anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-α, anti-ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1), and anticaspase-1. […] From the result, IL-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and caspase-1 showed higher tissue expression in the COVID-19 group than in the H1N1 and control groups.
32763356 Secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinase-1 also significantly increased.
32765941 Since PGE2, LXA4 and their precursors AA (arachidonic acid), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α, they could be employed to treat cytokine storm seen in COVID-19, immune check point inhibitory (ICI) therapy, sepsis and ARDS (acute respiratory disease).
32768938 A radioimmunoassay method was adopted to detect the content of IL-6, IL-8,IL-2R,TNF-α, procalcitonin (PCT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in sera. […] The results showed that IL-6 (P = 0.013) and TNF-α (P = 0.035) levels in the PWM group were significantly higher than those in the ICW group after treatment.
32769398 Emerging data suggest severe lung injury in COVID-19 is associated with higher levels of TNF-α and IL-6, T-cell lymphopenia and exhaustion, hypercoagulability, and a macrophage-predominant immune response.
32773102 The key role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 implies that therapeutic counterbalancing of ROS by antioxidants such as vitamin C or NAC and/or by antagonizing ROS production by cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) and neutrophil granulocytes and/or by blocking of TNF-α can prevent COVID-19 from becoming severe.
32779446 This might be because of particular anti-TNF-α treatment or any immunosuppressant that IBD patients receive.
32779790 Macrophage activation in adipose tissue can produce low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6).
32783921 We observed increase of plasma cells in both COVID-19 and IAV patients and XIAP associated factor 1 (XAF1)-, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and FAS-induced T cell apoptosis in COVID-19 patients.
32787748 Pentoxifylline is an inhibitor of TNF-α production and oxypurinol inhibits xanthine oxidase. […] TNF-α, in turn, activates other inflammatory genes such as Nos2, Icam or IL-6, which regulate migration and infiltration of neutrophils into the pulmonary interstitial tissue, causing injury to the lung parenchyma.
32788884 Compared with severe and moderate patients, lymphocytopenia occurred in 85.71% critically ill patients, and serum IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, LDH, and cTnI were also increased in 71.42%, 83.33%, 57.14%, 71.43%, 100% and 42.86% in critically ill patients.
32789106 The man had been under treatment for 2 years with Adalimumab, a tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF) inhibitor, for ulcerative colitis.
32794348 High levels of IL-6 and measurable levels of IL-8 and TNF, but not IL-1β, were observed in COVID-19 patients. […] Monocytes from COVID-19 patients had spontaneous production of IL-1β and IL-8 (P = 0.0043), but not of TNF and IL-6, compared to controls.
32795834 Interleukins that cause the chronic low-grade inflammatory state of obesity, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant peptide (MCP)-1, and, in particular, IL-17A and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), also play very important roles in lung damage in ARDS. […] Our hypothesis is that serum concentrations of TNF-α and IL-17A are more elevated in patients with obesity and COVID-19, and consequently, they have a greater probability of developing ARDS and death. […] The immunobiology of IL-17A and TNF-α opens a new fascinating field of research for COVID-19.
32808940 The present study analyzes the importance of the inflammasome that involves the NLRP3 complex in the state of hypercytokinemia observed in patients with COVID-19, significantly increasing IL-1β, IL18, IL-6, and TNF.
32809050 In the case of outpatients under immunosuppression with proven COVID-19 more than 50% of the respondents would refrain from administering intravenous high-dose steroids, cyclophosphamide, anti-CD20 antibodies as well as BAFF, CTLA‑4 and TNF-alpha blockades.
32809969 We provided evidences that baricitinib-treated patients have a marked reduction in serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a rapid recovery in circulating T and B cell frequencies, and increased antibody production against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which were clinically associated with a reduction in oxygen flow need and progressive increase in the P/F.
32828694 COVID 19-related pneumonia is mediated by hyper activation of effector T cells and excessive production of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1, interferon-gamma, and TNF.
32837217 TCM herbs regulate core pathways, such as AGE-RAGE, PI3K-AKT, TNF and apoptosis pathway, etc. […] The ingredients (quercetin, formononetin, kaempferol, etc.,) from core herbs could modulate targets (PTGS2 (COX2), PTGS1 (COX1), IL6, CASP3, NOS2, and TNF, etc.), and thereby prevent the pharmacological and non-pharmacological renal injury comparable to that from COVID-19 infection.
32839624 We implemented a rapid multiplex cytokine assay to measure serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1β in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) upon admission to the Mount Sinai Health System in New York. […] We found that high serum IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels at the time of hospitalization were strong and independent predictors of patient survival (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0205 and P = 0.0140, respectively). […] Notably, when adjusting for disease severity, common laboratory inflammation markers, hypoxia and other vitals, demographics, and a range of comorbidities, IL-6 and TNF-α serum levels remained independent and significant predictors of disease severity and death. […] We propose that serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels should be considered in the management and treatment of patients with COVID-19 to stratify prospective clinical trials, guide resource allocation and inform therapeutic options.
32840387 These findings showed that mitochondrial function is associated with OA pathophysiological alterations and high gene expressions of (IL-6, TNF-a, and IL-1b) and suggests a promising use of dpdo as potential ameliorative agents in the animal model of OA and could act as anti-inflammatory agent in case of severe infection with COVID-19.
32844538 It also inhibits the activity of inflammatory molecules, such as IL-8, TNF-α, and neutrophil elastase (NE). […] ADAM17 mediates ACE2, IL-6R, and TNF-α shedding.
32846329 With the purpose to find effective and low-toxic drugs to mitigate CSS, entecavir and imipenem were identified to reduce TNF-α using a LPS-induced macrophage model from the anti-infective drug library. […] In addition, entecavir and imipenem inhibited the release of TNF-α and IL-10 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs).
32846644 According to numerous recent publications, the COVID-19 patients have lymphopenia, higher infection-related biomarkers and several elevated inflammatory cytokines (i.e. tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin IL-2R and IL-6).
32847594 Vitamin D might act as a strong immunosuppressant inhibiting cytokine release syndrome in COVID-19: Vitamin D: Suppression of key pro-inflammatory pathways including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF).
32848776 These mechanisms are concordant with observed clinical markers in COVID-19, including high expression of inflammatory cytokines on the TNF-α/IL-6 axis, elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), diffuse alveolar damage via cell apoptosis in respiratory epithelia and vascular endothelia, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and CRP, high production of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), depressed platelet count, and thrombosis. […] Additional interventions focus on tempering inflammatory signaling and injury (e.g., dexamethasone, doxycycline, Ang1-7, estradiol, alpha blockers, and DHA/EPA, pasireotide), as well as inhibitors targeted toward molecular mediators of the maladaptive COVID-19 immune response (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α, IL-17, JAK, and CDK9).
32849654 Due to the limitations of plasma transfusion, researchers are now focusing on developing neutralizing antibodies against virus particles along with immuno-modulation of cytokines like IL-6, Type I interferons (IFNs), and TNF-α that could help in combating the infection.
32854750 Within 24 h of admission, the critically ill patients showed higher concentrations of inflammatory markers including serum soluble interleukin (IL)-2 receptor, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), ferritin, procalcitonin, LDH, hsCRP, and hsCRP/L than patients with severe or moderate disease.
32857620 Once SARS-CoV-2 enters the host cell, it leads to an exaggerated inflammatory state of the lungs mediated by overexpressed TNF-, IL-6, and IL-1β.
32863223 The ACE2 and TMPRSS genes expression is (among others) suppressed by TNF, and is induced by pro-inflammatory conditions including obesity, Barrett’s esophagus, stomach infection by helicobacter pylori, diabetes, autoimmune diseases and oxidized LDL; by exercise, as well as by growth factors, viruses’ infections, cigarette smoke, interferons and androgens.
32863636 Cytokine storm is caused by the colossal release of proinflammatory cytokines [e.g., IL (interleukin)-2, IL-6, IL-8 TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-α, etc.] causing dysregulated, hyperimmune response.
32864128 Nonetheless, eight disease-specific immune mediators were identified as potential biomarkers for dengue (MIP-1α, MCP-1), malaria (TNF-α), streptococcal and meningococcal (eotaxin, GRO-α, RANTES, SDF-1α and PIGF-1) infections, with high specificity and sensitivity profiles. […] Notably, based on the conditional inference model, six of these mediators (MIP-1α, TNF-α, GRO-α, RANTES, SDF-1α and PIGF-1) were revealed to be 68.4% accurate in diagnosing different febrile infections, including those of unknown diseases.
32864338 The major laboratory results included normal white blood cell counts and lymphocytopenia, notably with elevated interleukin (IL-)-17A, IL-17F, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-)-α. […] Our study indicated that infants infected with COVID-19 may have relatively mild symptoms or clinical signs, IL-17A, IL-17 F, and TNF-α could be involved in the immune response of COVID-19.
32866053 The characteristic cytokine profile of severely affected patients is increased levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). […] This article discusses the pathogenesis of COVID-19 as a rationale for using the biological and targeted synthetic drugs used in rheumatology (anti-TNF, anti-IL-1 and anti-IL-6 agents and baricitinib) to treat the disease, and provides key information concerning their potential benefits and adverse effects.
32871183 We studied 35 COVID patients at hospital admission testing by cytofluorimetry a large panel of lymphocyte subpopulations and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17A and the soluble receptor of IL-17A (IL-17RA). […] Serum IL-6 was increased in all patients, while TNF-α and IL-17A were higher in advanced stages.
32877699 Absence of germinal centers correlated with an early specific block in Bcl-6+ TFH cell differentiation together with an increase in T-bet+ TH1 cells and aberrant extra-follicular TNF-α accumulation.
32882823 Ingenuity pathways analysis highlighted altered conical and casual pathways related to TNF, IL1A, and TLR7, which are seen more predominantly during SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32883116 When β-CoV infects the respiratory tract, it can cause mild and/or severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) with consequent release of cytokines/mediators, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8 (CXCL8), IL-10, IP10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, IL-33, IL-25, IL-37, IL-38, GCSF, GM-CSF, HGF, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α (also known as CCL3), IFN-γ, IFN-α, TRAIL, MCSF, and TNF-α.
32883943 Leukocyte and neutrophil counts, as well as the concentrations of NT-proBNP, hemoglobin, D-dimer, hsCRP, ferritin, IL-2R, TNF-alpha and procalcitonin were higher, whereas lymphocyte and monocyte counts were lower, in patients with than without COPD.
32890913 KD-1 could also markedly reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, MCP-1, and IP-10) at the mRNA levels.
32890967 In pre-clinical studies, propolis promoted immunoregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including reduction in IL-6, IL-1 beta and TNF-α.
32896310 A hyperinflammatory state referred to as cytokine storm in its severest form has been marked by elevation of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and other cytokines and severe CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell lymphopenia and coagulopathy.
32897211 These ingredients activate renin-angiotensin system signaling pathway and apoptosis signaling pathway by regulating 10 protein targets (ACE, ACE2, AGTR1, FURIN, TNF, CASP3, CASP6, DPP4, MCL1 and POLD1) to execute 42 biological functions such as renin-angiotensin regulation of blood volume and systemic arterial blood pressure to treat COVID-19.
32902413 Treated subjects showed reduced levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-1β and phosphorylated STAT3 and swift lymphocyte restoration.
32904892 Several inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, stimulate osteoclast activity, favoring bone resorption through the RANK-RANKL system.
32908494 In addition, a significant correlation between IL-2 and TNF level was found in the first group which included patients with digestive symptoms only (P < 0.05).
32912598 Blood samples from all patients were collected for examining inflammatory profiles, including interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and C-reactive protein (CRP).
32915649 Ten common matrine targets were obtained, particularly including TNF-α, IL-6, and CASP3. […] During COVID-19 treatment, matrine regulates viral replication, host cell apoptosis, and inflammation by targeting the TNF-α, IL-6, and CASP3 in the TNF signalling pathway.
32915959 Publicly available colonic sc-RNA sequencing data, and microarrays from tissue pre/post anti-TNF therapy, were analyzed. […] Anti-TNF therapy restored colonic ACE2 regulation in responders.
32917282 Out of 22 eligible articles that investigated candidate genes (2 as associated with COVID-19), the top-ranked genes in the number of studies were ACE2, CLEC4M (L-SIGN), MBL, MxA (n = 3), ACE, CD209, FCER2, OAS-1, TLR4, TNF-α (n = 2).
32920000 Our results have demonstrated that lopinavir/ritonavir increased the expression of the genes involved in immune response and lipid metabolism (IL6, ICAM1, CCL2, TNF, APOA1, etc.). […] Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin interacted with 6 genes (CCL2, CTSB, CXCL8, IL1B, IL6 and TNF), whereas chloroquine and azithromycin affected two additional genes (BCL2L1 and CYP3A4), which might be a reason behind a greater number of consequential diseases. […] In contrast to lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin downregulated the expression of TNF and IL6.
32921216 Abbreviations: ICU: An intensive care unit; 2019-nCoV: 2019 novel coronavirus; ACEI: ACE inhibitor; ACS: Acute coronary syndrome; ARDS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome; AT1R: Ang II type 1 receptor; ATP: Adenosine triphosphate; ACC: American College of Cardiology; ACE: Angiotensin converting enzyme; Ang II: Angiotensin II; ARB: Angiotensin II receptor blocker; AV block: Atrioventricular block; CAD: Coronary artery disease; CVD: Cardiovascular disease; CT: Computerized tomography; CHF: Congestive heart failure; CHD: Coronary heart disease; CK-MB: Creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB; CRP: C-reactive protein; cTnI: Cardiac troponin I; EAT: Epicardial adipose tissue; ECMO: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; FDA: Food and Drug Administration; G-CSF: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; HFrEF: HF with a reduced ejection fraction; synhACE2: Human isoform of ACE2; IL: Interleukin; IABP: Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation; IP10: Interferon γ-induced protein 10 kDa; LPC: Lysophosphatidylcholine; Mas: Mitochondrial assembly receptor; MCP1: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MERS: Middle East respiratory syndrome; MIP1a: macrophage inflammatory protein 1a: MOF: Multiple organ failure; MI: Myocardial infarction; MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging; MYO: Myohe-moglobin; NT-proBNP: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; PCPS: Percutaneous cardiopulmonary assistance; rhACE2: Recombinant human ACE2; SARS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome; Th: T helper; RAS: Renin-angiotensin system; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-α; WHO: World Health Organization.
32922301 Background: In COVID 19 related lung disease, which is a leading cause of death from this disease, cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) may be pivotal in the pathogenesis. […] TNF alpha reduces fluid absorption due to impairment of sodium and chloride transport required for building an osmotic gradient across epithelial cells, which in the airways maintains airway surface liquid helping to keep airways open and enabling bacterial clearance and aids water absorption from the alveolar spaces. […] TNF alpha can, through Rho-kinase, disintegrate the endothelial and epithelial cytoskeleton, and thus break up intercellular tight junctional proteins, breaching the intercellular barrier, which prevents flooding of the interstitial and alveolar spaces with fluid. […] (2) TNF alpha is the key mediator of pulmonary edema in COVID 19 lung disease. […] Confirmation of hypothesis and implications: The role of a reduction in the function of epithelial sodium and chloride transport could with regards to chloride transport be tested by analysis of chloride levels in exhaled breath condensate and levels correlated with TNF alpha concentrations. […] Reduced levels would indicate a reduction of the function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel and a correlation with TNF alpha levels indicative of its involvement. […] Anti-TNF alpha treatment with antibodies is already available and needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials of COVID 19 lung disease. […] TNF alpha levels could also be reduced by statins, aspirin, and curcumin. […] Primary prevention of coronavirus infection and TNF alpha release in response to it could be improved by induction of antimicrobial peptides LL-37 and human beta defensin-2 and reduction of TNF alpha production by vitamin D prophylaxis for the population as a whole.
32928313 2- To determine the salivary cytokine profiles of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL- 17 among COVID-19 patients subjected to 1% Hydrogen peroxide, 0.2% Povidone-Iodine, 2% hypertonic saline or Neem extract (Azardirachta indica) based gargles.
32931985 While acknowledging that the extant literature has a lack of specificity in reporting of acute viral infections or complications thereof, the data suggest that use of glucocorticoids, JAK inhibitors (especially high-dose), TNF inhibitors, and anti-IL-17 agents may be associated with an increased frequency of respiratory viral events.
32934806 These include signaling pathways known to be associated with lung injury such as TNF signaling, MAPK signaling and chemokine signaling pathways.
32935813 COVID-19 manifests itself with increased levels of many inflammatory markers such as IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12, IP10, IFN-γ, MIP1A, MCP1, GSCF, TNF-α, and MCP1/CCL2, as well as LDH, ESR, D-dimer, CK, ALT, and AST.
32937615 SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were flow cytometrically quantified after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools and analyzed for expression of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α) and markers for activation, proliferation, and functional anergy.
32943758 Interestingly, COVID-19 group had significantly higher levels for TNF-α (31.1 pg/ml (16.1-70.0) vs. 
32946851 Non-survivors had higher C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, IL-8 and, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, while lower lymphocyte counts as compared with those of survivors (all P<0.05).
32946870 Pentoxifylline is well-known anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative molecules that have already shown to suppress Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α) as well as other inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary diseases, and this may be beneficial for better clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients.
32952855 Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome is mostly accompanied by the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-7, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GSCF), interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP10), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1A (MIP1A), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), an event which is known as “cytokine storm”.
32954754 Some studies have shown that Xuebijing injection (XBJ) can exert an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and other cytokines. […] This study aimed to investigate the effect of XBJ on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its effects on IL-6 and tumor necrosis alpha TNF-α. […] Furthermore, there were no significant differences in TNF-α and IL-10 between the two groups.
32956495 At the root of COVID-19 lies the sudden development of ‘cytokine storms’, hyper-inflammatory responses involving the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-6, IL-1, IL-8, and MCP-1) that impair the gas exchange function of the lung and lead in select patients, mostly with underlying comorbidities, to multiorgan failure and death.
32956615 These include IL-1 antagonists (eg, anakinra), IL-6 receptor blockers (eg, tocilizumab), and anti-TNF agents (eg, infliximab) for children with Kawasaki disease-like phenotype and non-specific presentations.
32958614 The serum concentrations of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), but not tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or IL-6, were inversely related to age.
32962703 We used a multiplex cytokine assay to measure serum IL-6, IL-8, TNF, IL-1β, GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-33 and IFN-γ in 100 hospitalised patients with confirmed COVID-19 at admission to University Hospital Southampton (UK). […] IL-6, IL-8, TNF, IL-1β and IL-33 were significantly associated with adverse outcome. […] In those ≤70 years, IL-33 and TNF were predictive of poor outcome (AUROC 0.83 and 0.84), addition of a combined cytokine panel demonstrated greater predictability of poor outcome than clinical parameters alone (AUROC 0.92 vs 0.77).
32969125 Of relevance to severe coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19), which is characterised by an over-exuberant innate inflammatory response, AZM also has anti-inflammatory properties including suppression of IL-1beta, IL-2, TNF and GM-CSF.
32971089 The pathway analysis revealed the DEGs were found in influenza A, measles, cytokine signaling in the immune system, interleukin-4, interleukin -13, interleukin -17 signaling, and TNF signaling pathways. […] Protein-protein interaction analysis showed 10 hub genes (BIRC3, ICAM1, IRAK2, MAP3K8, S100A8, SOCS3, STAT5A, TNF, TNFAIP3, TNIP1). […] ICAM1 and TNFAIP3 were the key hubs that have demonstrated good binding affinities with repurposed drug candidates.
32973818 The interesting and evolving potential of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ) inhibitors, together with Ebastine, lies in their ability to suppress the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α, by T cells.
32976531 The decreased number of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the elevated levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were correlated with the severity of COVID-19 disease.
32978039 Four compounds (baicalin, glycyrrhizic acid, hesperidin, and hyperoside) and 7 targets (AKT1, TNF-α, IL6, PTGS2, HMOX1, IL10, and TP53) were key molecules related to QFPDD’s effects. […] At last, in intro experiments validated QFPDD’s important effects, including the inhibition of IL6, CCL2, TNF-α, NF-κB, PTGS1/2, CYP1A1, CYP3A4 activity, the up-regulation of IL10 expression, and repressing platelet aggregation.
32979474 Blood samples from patients were collected regularly to evaluate IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10.
32981754 This proposal is supported by the observation that (i) macrophages and T cells (including NK cells, cytotoxic killer cells and other immunocytes) release AA and other BALs especially in the lungs to inactivate various microbes; (ii) pro-inflammatory metabolites prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotrienes (LTs) and anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4 (LXA4) derived from AA (similarly, resolvins, protectins and maresins derived from eicosapentaenoic acid: EPA and docosahexaenoic acid: DHA) facilitate the generation of M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) macrophages respectively; (iii) AA, PGE2, LXA4 and other BALs inhibit interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) synthesis; (iv) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are of benefit in COVID-19 elaborate LXA4 to bring about their beneficial actions and (v) subjects with insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease and the elderly have significantly low plasma concentrations of AA and LXA4 that may render them more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and cytokine storm that is associated with increased mortality seen in COVID-19.
32981925 Expressions of BNP, CXCL1, CXCL2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were upregulated, while ACE2 was downregulated.
32984206 There is limited consensus on treatment; but most children have been treated with immunoglobulins or steroids, and with early consideration of biologicals such anti-TNF and anti-IL1 agents.
32988728 The chronic inflammatory process found in these cardiometabolic comorbidities is marked by the overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumoral necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), which are products of the Toll-Like receptors 4 (TLR4) pathway.
32992775 Exacerbated oxidative stress caused by increased levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) along with decreased levels of interferon α and interferon β (IFN-α, IFN-β) are mainly believed to drive the disease process.
32997749 We report the first case of PIMS-TS in a child on established anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (anti-TNF-α) therapy; a 10 year-old girl with ulcerative colitis treated with infliximab. […] Accepting the wide spectrum of PIMS-TS presentations, it is possible that prior anti-TNF-α therapy may have attenuated the disease course.
32999889 We report the case of an 18-year-old ulcerative colitis patient in sustained clinical remission who 4 days after application of her ongoing therapy with the anti-TNF antibody infliximab developed mild respiratory and abdominal symptoms. […] The recently applied anti-TNF therapy did not lead to exacerbation of the infectious symptoms. […] Current recommendations strongly favor continuation of effective maintenance anti-TNF therapy in inflammatory bowel disease patients, as there is no evidence for aggravated CO-VID-19 upon infection. […] It is unclear whether anti-TNF treatment might even have assisted in preventing worsening of COVID-19 and improving outcome. […] Further data in the group of immune-mediated inflammatory disease patients under anti-TNF therapy are urgently needed.
33002623 TNF-alpha, IL-1, Il-6 and Il-8 measurements upon admission differed between patients who died and those who survived (p < 0.01 for all comparisons).
33006723 We report the clinical and immunological features in a case of SARS-CoV-2-induced Guillain-Barré syndrome (Si-GBS), suggesting that (1) Si-GBS can develop even after paucisymptomatic COVID-19 infection; (2) a distinctive cytokine repertoire is associated with this autoimmune complication, with increased CSF concentration of IL-8, and moderately increased serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α; (3) a particular genetic predisposition can be relevant, since the patient carried several HLA alleles known to be associated with GBS, including distinctive class I (HLA-A33) and class II alleles (DRB103:01 and DQB105:01).
33013413 Furthermore, multiple articles have shown that the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of psoralen are a result of its interaction with viral polymerase (Pol), destroying the formation of biofilm, and regulating the activation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), interleukin 4/5/6/8/12/13 (IL-4/5/6/8/12/13), GATA-3, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.
33015428 The monocytes and neutrophils are activated by bacteria which subsequently result in high secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, Il-18 and IL-1β) and toll-like receptors-2 (TLR-2).
33015550 Furthermore, a Th17-mediated cytokine storm is seen in COVID-19 cases with higher levels of IL-1β/2/7/8/9/10/17, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, TNF-α, CXCL-10, MCP1, and MIP1α/β.
33016027 IL-1 activated by SARS-CoV-2 stimulates the secretion of TNF, IL-6 and other cytokines, a pro-inflammatory complex that can lead to cytokine storm and be deleterious in both lung and systemically.
33023438 Nonetheless, they also target immune-related genes that directly/indirectly orchestrate immune pathways like TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) signaling and Chemokine signaling pathways putatively serving as the nucleus to cytokine storms.
33025599 After a series of bioinformatics assays, seven kernel targets were obtained, including TNF, IL6, IFNG, IL1B, IL10, IL4, and TLR9.
33025652 We used a Mendelian randomization study to obtain unconfounded associations of antihypertensives, instrumented by published genetic variants in genes regulating target proteins of these drugs, with immune (lymphocyte and neutrophil percentage) and inflammatory (tumour necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) markers in the largest available genome-wide association studies. […] Genetically predicted effects of ACE inhibitors increased lymphocyte percentage (0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35, 1.22), decreased neutrophil percentage (-0.64, 95% CI -1.09, -0.20) and possibly lowered TNF-α (-4.92, 95% CI -8.50, -1.33). […] CCBs showed a similar pattern for immune function (lymphocyte percentage 0.21, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.36; neutrophil percentage -0.23, 95% CI -0.39 to -0.08) but had no effect on TNF-α, as did potassium-sparing diuretics and aldosterone antagonists, and vasodilator antihypertensives. […] ARBs and other classes of hypertensives had no effect on immune function or TNF-α.
33028689 Cytokines, including gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 were evaluated.
33040384 On more detailed analysis, these CD14+ CD16+ , FSC-high monocytes show features of mixed M1/M2 macrophage polarization with higher expression of CD80+ and CD206+ compared with the residual FSC-low monocytes and secretion of higher levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α, when compared with the normal controls.
33041797 The shared genes included MMP13, NLRP3, TRIM21, GBP1, ADORA2A, PTAFR, TNF, MLNR, IL1B, NFKBIA, ADRB2, and IL6.
33045370 We evaluated IFN-γ levels after stimulating whole-blood with spike and remainder-antigens peptides megapools (MP) derived from SARS-CoV-2 sequences; IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17A, eotaxin, basic FGF, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PDGF, RANTES, TNF-α, VEGF were also evaluated.
33058143 Based on 23 studies, mean cytokine levels were significantly higher (IL-6: MD, 19.55 pg/mL; CI, 14.80, 24.30; IL-8: MD, 19.18 pg/mL; CI, 2.94, 35.43; IL-10: MD, 3.66 pg/mL; CI, 2.41, 4.92; IL-2R: MD, 521.36 U/mL; CI, 87.15, 955.57; and TNF-alpha: MD, 1.11 pg/mL; CI, 0.07, 2.15) and T-lymphocyte levels were significantly lower (CD4+ T cells: MD, -165.28 cells/µL; CI, -207.58, -122.97; CD8+ T cells: MD, -106.51 cells/µL; CI, -128.59, -84.43) among severe cases as compared to nonsevere ones.
33059711 Important cytokines involved in this phase are interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α.
33065388 Using a STRING database, protein-protein interactions were identified for salvianolic acid A included the biochemical signaling genes ACE, MAPK14 and ESR1; and for curcumin, EGFR and TNF.
33066459 The rest required additional treatment, usually corticosteroids, with the exception of two patients who were treated with TNF inhibition and IL-1 blockade, respectively.
33067719 In addition, 7KC induces marked increases in the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), as well as COX2 enzymatic activity, and these were significantly reduced by ET.
33068796 Proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-2R (IL-2R) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were significantly elevated in patients with prolonged viral shedding.
33078545 Although COVID-19 monocytes had a reduced ability to perform oxidative burst, they were still capable of producing TNF and IFN-γ in vitro.
33080435 Impaired spermatogenesis via COVID-19 decreases the level of testosterone by disturbing cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12 and further, attenuates the sperm count. […] COVID-19 is causing inflammation via TNF-α and interferons.
33081889 At the same time, the inflammatory cytokine levels including interleukins (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at 48 hours before IMV and 48 hours after IMV of all the patients, as well as the 48 hours after weaning or right before death were recorded. […] The IL-6 and TNF-α levels on 48 hours after IMV in the non-survival patients increased significantly as compared with those before 48 hours and the surviving patients. […] The levels of inflammatory cytokine including IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α increased significantly with aggravation in critical COVID-19 patients undergoing IMV, especially IL-6.
33082265 Compared with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist monotherapy, thiopurine monotherapy (adjusted OR (aOR) 4.08, 95% CI 1.73 to 9.61) and combination therapy with TNF antagonist and thiopurine (aOR 4.01, 95% CI 1.65 to 9.78) were associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19. […] This risk estimate increased when using TNF antagonist monotherapy as a reference group (aOR 3.52, 95% CI 1.93 to 6.45). […] Interleukin-12/23 and integrin antagonists were not associated with significantly different risk than TNF antagonist monotherapy (aOR 0.98, 95% CI 0.12 to 8.06 and aOR 2.42, 95% CI 0.59 to 9.96, respectively).
33082451 Further, the degree of increase of U in SARS-CoV-2 variants correlates with enhanced production of cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, in cell lines when compared with stimulation by the ssRNA sequence of the isolated virus in Wuhan.
33082858 We used AutoDock vina and PyMOL software for molecular docking. )-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), toll-like receptor (TLR), TNF, and inflammatory-mediator regulation of transient receptor potential (TRP) signaling pathways to ultimately construct a “drug-ingredient-target-pathway” effector network.
33089037 Among uninfected ambulatory adults without cardiovascular disease, RDW was associated with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL8, IL6, IL1b), but not regulatory cytokines (TGFb).
33098713 In the Danish population, we examined whether patients treated with thiopurines, methotrexate, systemic corticosteroids, anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents, anti-interleukin therapeutic agents, selective immunosuppressive agents and cyclosporine/tacrolimus had an increased risk of hospitalization for COVID- 19, compared to the background population. […] Exposed patients constituted those exposed to thiopurines (n = 5484), methotrexate (n = 17 977), systemic corticosteroids (n = 55 868), anti-TNF-α agents (n = 17 857), anti-interleukin therapeutic agents (n = 3744), selective immunosuppressive agents (n = 3026) and cyclosporine/tacrolimus (n = 1143) in a period of 12 months prior to 1 March 2020 (estimated time of outbreak in Denmark). […] The risks of hospitalization in patients treated with thiopurines, methotrexate, and anti-TNF-α agents, were 1.93 (95% CI 0.91 to 4.08), 0.74 (95% CI 0.43 to 1.28), 1.00 (95% CI 0.52 to 1.94), respectively.
33106171 The primary outcomes are the recovery rate of clinical symptoms and oxygen saturation as well as improvement of serum inflammatory parameters, including C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-ɑ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 within seven days of randomization.
33107641 First of all, we proposed the possible mechanism of pulmonary fibrosis caused by SARS-CoV-2, based on the published data of COVID-19 ((i) Direct evidence: pulmonary fibrosis was found in autopsy and pulmonary puncture pathology. (ii) Indirect evidence: increased levels of fibrosis-related cytokines[transforming growth factor [TGF]- β, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]- α, interleukin [IL]-6, etc] in peripheral blood of severe patients.)
33109252 The primary outcomes are the reduction in the SARS-CoV-2 load [as measured by cyclic threshold (CT) value of RT-PCR] from the baseline to that of seventh day of the treatment, prevention of progression of asymptomatic to symptomatic state (clinical symptoms like fever, cough and breathlessness) and changes in the immunity markers [Interleukins (IL) 6, IL10, IL2, Interferon gamma (IFNγ) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) alpha].
33110074 Polymorphonuclear (PMN)-MDSC expanded during COVID-19, in particular in patients who required intensive care treatments, and correlated with IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α plasma levels.
33113418 It must be noted that anti-inflammatory drugs such as JAK inhibitors, IL-6 inhibitors, TNF-α inhibitors, colchicine, etc., have been either suggested or are under trials for managing cytokine storm in COVID-19 infections. […] Here, we summarize the mounting evidence where ASX is shown to exert protective effect by regulating the expression of pro-inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α.
33117379 Indeed, the exacerbated ADAM17-mediated ACE2, TNF-α, and IL-6R secretion emerges as a possible underlying mechanism for the acute inflammatory immune response and the activation of the coagulation cascade.
33121927 In LPS-induced acute lung injury of mice, baicalein improved the respiratory function, inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung, and decreased the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in serum.
33125431 Genes involved in inflammation (CCL2, IL6, and TNF) and fibrosis (COL1A1, TGFB1, and FN1) were inversely correlated with ACE2 expression.
33126657 The importance of ACE2 shedding, associated with the release of soluble ACE2 and ADAM17-mediated activation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-signaling is unclear.
33128665 A comprehensive literature search in electronic databases consisting of PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library and in a hand searching of reference lists from inception to July 31, 2020, was performed using the following search terms: COVID-19, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). […] Compared with non-severe COVID-19 patients, systemic levels of IL-6 and IL-10, but not TNF-α, were significantly elevated in severe COVID-19 patients (MD = 18.63, 95% CI: 10.91, 26.35, P < 0.00001; MD = 2.61, 95% CI: 2.00, 2.32, P < 0.00001; respectively). […] For COVID-19 mortality, circulating levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were found to be significantly increased in non-survivors when compared with survivors (MD = 57.82, 95% CI: 10.04, 105.59, P = 0.02; MD = 4.94, 95% CI: 3.89, 6.00, P < 0.00001; MD = 5.60, 95% CI: 4.03, 7.17, P < 0.00001; respectively).
33128927 They showed that the PBM could significantly decrease the pulmonary edema, neutrophil influx, and generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), reactive oxygen species (ROS), isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2)).
33129099 The mRNA expression and cytokine secretion levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-18 were assessed by Real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. […] Our primary results indicated that the mRNA expression and cytokine secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-18 were increased significantly in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy control group. […] However, IL-18 mRNA expression and TNF-α concentration were not influenced by Nano-curcumin.
33134901 Decreased sperm concentration, and increased seminal levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 compared to control males were observed.
33141018 Both immunoglobulins reduce the lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL-) 12/23p40 (-90%), IL-6 (-75%) and TNF-α (-60%) and increased the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 (+75%).
33147850 In A549 cells, Coronil attenuated the IL-1β induced IL-6 and TNF-α cytokine secretions, and decreased TNF-α induced NF-κB/AP-1 transcriptional activity.
33148390 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection would stimulate human immune system, trigger the activation and aggregation of various immune cells, and lead to the secretion of a large number of chemokines and cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor γ (TNF-γ), C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) and other cytokines.
33153403 : ACE2, angiotensin converting enzyme II; βCoV, betacoronavirus; COVID-19, Coronavirus Disease 2019; CQ, chloroquine; DMV, double-membrane vesicle; GI, gastrointestinal; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; IL, interleukin; MAP1LC3/LC3, microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MEFs, mouse embryonic fibroblasts; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; MHV, murine hepatitis virus; PE, phosphatidylethanolamine; SARS-CoV, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; TMPRSS2, transmembrane serine protease 2; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; WHO, World Health Organization.
33159040 Indeed, defined circulating factors - CXCL8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-27, and TNF-α - positively correlate with older age, longer hospitalization, and a more severe form of the disease and may thus represent the leading signature in critical COVID-19 patients.
33159646 COVID-19 activation of transcription factor, NF-kappa B (NF-κB) in various cells such as macrophages of lung, liver, kidney, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system and cardiovascular system leads to production of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, LT-α, LT-β, GM-CSF, and various chemokines. […] Immunomodulation at the level of NF-κB activation and inhibitors of NF-κB (IκB) degradation along with TNF-α inhibition will potentially result in a reduction in the cytokine storm and alleviate the severity of COVID-19.
33160363 Obese patients develop severe COVID-19 sequelae, due to the high concentrations of TNF-α, MCP-1 and IL-6 produced in the meantime by visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and by innate immunity.
33162345 Meanwhile, the proportions of patients with abnormal TNF-α, IL-10, IL-6 and IFN-γ were all decreased (p < 0.05).
33165417 KEGG pathway enrichment suggests 96 signaling pathways, mainly including TNF signaling pathway, IL-17 signal pathway, and C-type lectin receptor signal pathway.
33173434 The mechanisms have been implicated as multifactorial, including activation of immunoregulation (Th2, PPAR and IL10), suppression of acute inflammatory responses (IL-6, IL-1α/β, TNF, COX2/1, etc.), enhancement of antioxidative activity (CAT and SOD1), and modulation of apoptosis (inhibited CASP3).
33181508 IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α decreased after HP, IL-10 did not change.
33186795 Kefir can act as an anti-inflammatory agent by reducing expression of IL-6, IL-1, TNF-α, and interferon-γ.
33190150 Protein-protein interaction analysis by STRING suggested that loss-of-function of SMN1 might modulate COVID-19 pathogenesis through CFTR, CXCL8, TNF and ACE.
33191068 The Chinese medicine-compound-target network includes 16 medicinal materials, 111 compounds and 298 targets, in which the degree of PTGS2, TNF and IL-6 is higher compared with other targets and which are the disease target exactly. […] KEGG pathway analysis enrichment revealed two pathways: signaling pathway- IL-17 and signaling pathway- TNF.
33194116 : ACE-i: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB: Angiotensin receptor blocker; ARDS: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; BiPAP: Bilevel positive airway pressure; CABG: Coronary artery bypass graft; CFR: Case fatality rate; COVID-19: Coronavirus disease 19; CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure; CRP: C - Reactive Protein; CT: Computed tomography; DVT: Deep vein thrombosis; ECMO: Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation; ESICM: European Society of Intensive Care Medicine; FiO2: Fraction of inspired O2; HFNC: High Flow Nasal Cannula; HITF: Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Factor; IBM: International Business Machines; ICU: Intensive Care Unit; IL: Interleukin; IMV: Invasive Mechanical Ventilation; IQR: Interquartile Range; ISTH: International Society of Thrombosis Hemostasis; NIV: Non Invasive Ventilation; NY: New York; PAI: Plasminogen activator inhibitor; PaO2: partial pressure of arterial oxygen; PCV: Pressure Control Ventilation; PEEP: Positive End Expiratory Pressure; RGH: Rochester General Hospital; RRH: Rochester Regional Health; RT-PCR: Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; RSV: Respiratory Syncytial virus; SARS-CoV-2: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2; SD: Standard Deviation; STEMI: ST segment elevation myocardial infarction; TNF: Tumor necrosis factor; USA: USA; VTE: Venous thromboembolism.
33199178 In addition, in some settings, Il-21 has been shown to actually decrease IL-6 and TNF-alpha production, reducing the inflammatory proteins involved in the cytokine storm.
33199926 The mechanisms of inflammatory diseases involve the key inflammatory cytokines IL-1, TNF, IL-6, and IL-17 which are now therapeutic targets with biotherapies.
33221483 A total of 27 lungs formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples (10 from H1N1 group, 6 from the COVID-19 group, and 11 from the control group) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using anti-IL-6, TNF-alfa, CD163, MBL e FCN3 antibodies. […] Proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha presented higher tissue expression in the COVID-19 group compared to H1N1 and control groups.
33224575 In addition, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 present in patients with severe COVID-19 are associated with coagulation activation and thrombin generation resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation or thrombotic microangiopathy.
33228423 : People who carry the A allele of TNF-ɑ polymorphism are more prone to COVID-19 infection. […] The AA genotype of TNF-ɑ is associated with a more aggressive pattern of the disease. […] In those patients, the use of anti - TNF therapy may be promising.
33230491 We conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study of consecutive hospitalized severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients with or without liver injury who underwent immunologic testing (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-1ß). […] There was no difference in the levels of IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-1ß.
33231770 Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) have been seen, which appear to vary with age. […] Furthermore, high levels of IL-4 and IL-10 with anti-inflammatory properties and low levels of IL-6 and TNF-α are described in children.
33232865 A highly relevant evidence never reported earlier which corroborate in favor of RGD-integrins mediated virus-host attachment is an unleashed cytokine storm which causes due to activation of TNF-α and IL-6 activation; and integrins role in their activation is also well established.
33241658 The pivotal targets of puerarin to treat COVID-19 were identified and included the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), tumour protein p53 (TP53), caspase 3 (CASP3), RELA proto-oncogene (RELA), Fos proto-oncogene (FOS), caspase 8 (CASP8), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), interleukin 2 (IL2), protein kinase CB (PRKCB), B cell lymphoma/leukaemia gene-2 (BCL2), protein kinase CA (PRKCA), nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG). […] The signalling pathways of puerarin to treat COVID-19 included modulation of the pathways of apoptosis, IL-17 signalling, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling and TNF signalling.
33248385 There were three key findings: 1) high copy infectious virus was limited mostly to the alveolar macrophages and endothelial cells of the septal capillaries; 2) viral spike protein without viral RNA localized to ACE2+ endothelial cells in microvessels that were most abundant in the subcutaneous fat and brain; 3) although both infectious virus and docked viral spike protein was associated with complement activation, only the endocytosed pseudovirions induced a marked up-regulation of the key COVID-19 associated proteins IL6, TNF alpha, IL1 beta, p38, IL8, and caspase 3.
33249281 Pharmacological assays demonstrated the effects of the formula in inhibiting the spike protein/ACE2 interaction, 3CL protease activity, viral plaque formation, and production of cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α.
33250601 The study identified the modulation of HIF-1, p53, PI3K-Akt, MAPK, cAMP, Ras, Wnt, NF-kappa B, IL-17, TNF, and cGMP-PKG signaling pathways to boost the immune system.
33250777 Indeed, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a key cytokine driving COVID-19 pathogenesis, downregulates lung CFTR protein expression, providing a strong rationale that acquired CFTR dysfunction arises in the context of COVID-19 infection.
33250935 Sedentary group presented lower adiponectin (7573 ± 232 pg/mL), higher leptin (16,250 ± 1825 pg/mL) plasma concentration, and higher lymphocyte production of IL-17, IFN-gamma, TNF-, IL-2 in relation to active group, suggesting predominance of Th1 response.
33251236 Our preliminary experience suggests that African American patients with chronic sarcoidosis treated with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy do not seem to be at increased risk of respiratory or life-threatening complications from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) compared with the general population, although at the present time, we advocate for maintaining a high level of vigilance and strict follow-up in this patient population.
33256816 Chen et al. demonstrated the relevance of IL-2R, IL-6 and TNF-α in the cytokine storm and IL-6 as an independent predictor for COVID-19 severity.
33257492 The percentage of patients with elevated interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) increased with severity of disease (p<0.0001 for all). […] IL-2R (p<0.0001), IL-6 (p<0.0001), IL-8 (p=0.0001), IL-10 (p<0.0001) and TNF (p<0.0001) were also twofold to 20-fold higher in patients who died compared with those who recovered. […] Increased proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, TNF and IL-10, showed an obvious association with both COVID-19 severity and in-hospital mortality.
33271549 Increased IL-2 receptor, TNF-α, procalcitonin, prothrombin time, and NT-proBNP levels were significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with PIRRT.
33272291 COVID-19 patients had lower levels of most classical inflammatory cytokines (G-CSF, CCL20, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, TNF-α, TGF-β), but higher plasma concentrations of CXCL10, GM-CSF and CCL5, compared to non-COVID-19 patients. […] COVID-19 patients displayed similar T-cell exhaustion to non-COVID-19 patients, but with a more unbalanced inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine response (IL-6/IL-10 and TNF-α/IL-10 ratios).
33277106 It is a kind of cytokine storm, which involves increased activity of TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and INF-γ.
33277638 On the contrary, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 were produced before IFNs in all patients and persisted for a prolonged time.
33277988 Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and dendritic cells (MDDCs) was abortive, but induced the production of multiple antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-α, IFN-β, TNF, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) and a chemokine (CXCL10).
33278357 While multiple inflammatory cytokines are produced by innate immune cells during SARS-CoV-2 infection, we found that only the combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ induced inflammatory cell death characterized by inflammatory cell death, PANoptosis. […] Mechanistically, TNF-α and IFN-γ co-treatment activated the JAK/STAT1/IRF1 axis, inducing nitric oxide production and driving caspase-8/FADD-mediated PANoptosis. […] TNF-α and IFN-γ caused a lethal cytokine shock in mice that mirrors the tissue damage and inflammation of COVID-19, and inhibiting PANoptosis protected mice from this pathology and death. […] Furthermore, treating with neutralizing antibodies against TNF-α and IFN-γ protected mice from mortality during SARS-CoV-2 infection, sepsis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and cytokine shock.
33288414 Firstly, compared with the nondiabetic group, the COVID-19 with T2DM group had a higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and procalcitonin (PCT) but lower lymphocyte counts and T lymphocyte subsets, including CD3+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD16 + CD56 cells, and CD19+ cells. […] Secondly, compared with group A, group C had higher levels of Fasting blood glucose (FBG), IL-6, TNF-α, and neutrophils but lower lymphocyte, CD3+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, and CD4+ T cell counts. […] Similarly, group D had higher FBG, IL-6 and TNF-α levels and lower lymphocyte, CD3+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, and CD4+ T cell counts than group B.
33288475 Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNFR1) were assessed at regular intervals in plasma, with IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and neutrophil elastase (NE) activity measured in airway secretions.
33289122 Of these intersecting pathways, a vast majority were immune and inflammatory pathways with top significance in IL-17, TNF, NOD-like receptors, and NF-κB signaling pathways.
33292846 COVID-19 courses range from mild symptoms up to multiple organ failure and death, triggered by excessively high serum cytokine levels (IL 1β, IL 6, TNF α, IL 8).
33293514 Patients in the recovery-like stage showed significantly enhanced TNF, IFN-γ, anti-viral, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-F gene expression and cytolytic activity, and reduced pro-viral gene expression compared to those in the acute-like stage in PBMC.
33294881 Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, have been shown to be associated with increased COVID-19 mortality. […] In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, TNF blockade reduces not only biologically active TNF but other pro-inflammatory cytokines important in COVID-19 hyperinflammation. […] Observational data from patients already on anti-TNF therapy show a reduced rate of COVID-19 poor outcomes and death compared with other immune-suppressing therapies. […] Anti-TNF has a long history of safe use, including in special at-risk populations, and is widely available. […] The case to adequately assess anti-TNF as a treatment for COVID-19 is compelling.
33301441 This paper thus sought to determine whether RA could improve baseline barrier function and attenuate TNF-α-induced barrier leak in the human bronchial epithelial cell culture model, 16HBE14o- (16HBE). […] RA was also effective in alleviating TNF-α-induced 16HBE barrier leak, attenuating 60% of the TNF-α-induced leak to 14C-mannitol and 80% of the leak to 14C-inulin. […] Treatment of 16HBE cell layers with TNF-α resulted in dramatic decrease in immunostaining for occludin and claudin-4, as well as a downward “band-shift” in occludin Western immunoblots. […] The presence of RA partially reversed TNF-α’s effects on these select TJ proteins. […] Lastly, RA completely abrogated the TNF-α-induced increase in ERK-1,2 phosphorylation without significantly decreasing the TNF-driven increase in total ERK-1,2.
33312453 Differential gene expression analysis revealed potential core mechanism of COVID-19-induced pneumonia in which IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, TNF and IL6 triggered cytokine storm mediated by neutrophil, macrophage, B and DC cells. […] Furthermore, drug repurposing analysis of thousands of drugs revealed that TNFα inhibitor etanercept and γ-aminobutyric acid-B receptor (GABABR) agonist baclofen showed most significant reversal power to COVID-19 gene signature, so we are highly optimistic about their clinical use for COVID-19 treatment.
33316234 Cluster 2 had a “hyperinflammatory” phenotype, with high cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF⍺]) associated with CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte defects.
33323111 In this regard, overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α induce cytokine storms, increase the risk of clot formation, platelet activation, and multiorgan failure that may eventually lead to death among these patients.
33331521 We report on a case of a young female patient with a severe Crohn’s disease that presented with COVID-19 pneumonia and a favorable outcome even maintaining the use of adalimumab, TNF - alpha inhibitor and prednisone. […] This case raises the hypothesis that aside from prednisone, TNF-α inhibitors such as adalimumab could be used to stop the progression to COVID-19 complications by blocking the TNF-alpha-driven inflammatory process that occurs in severe COVID-19.
33336774 No significant differences were observed in the levels of TNF-α, IL-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-12P70, IL-17, IFN-α, and IFN-γ between the death group and survival group during the follow-up (all p>0.05).
33341869 The predicted elevation of ACE2 by extracellular cytokines EGF, IFN-γ or TNF-α were experimentally validated in human lung cells and the related signaling pathway were verified to be significantly activated during SARS-COV-2 infection.
33349213 H2 is compared with established treatments such as targeted temperature management, and we discuss its possible mechanisms of action, including the recently identified suppression of TNF-α-mediated endothelial glycocalyx degradation by inhaled H2 .
33349263 Treatment with INAE reduced the high levels of interferon α (IFN-α), interferon β (IFN-β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted factor (RANTES), interferon induced protein-10 (IP-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P < 0.05), with increased production of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) (P < 0.05).
33350580 TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), miR-802 gene expression, NF-κB, and calcium levels are up-regulated, while Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor-2 (Nrf2), Hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein and gene expressions, as well as, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), NAD(P)H-Quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and miR-122 gene expressions are down-regulated in the livers of intoxicated animals.
33351265 Cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 were evaluated.
33357215 In addition, the damage to endothelial cells after viral infection and/or activation of endothelium by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-8, and TNF-α induces platelets and monocyte aggregation in the vascular wall and expression of tissue factor (TF). […] The PtdSer exposure may be an important mechanism related to ADAM17-mediated ACE2, TNF-α, EGFR and IL-6R shedding, and the activation of TF on the surface of infected endothelial cells.
33357725 The results indicated that quercetin, luteolin, apigenin and other compounds in XBJ injection could affect TNF, MAPK1, IL6 and other overlapping targets.
33358260 To observe the clinical effect of plasmapheresis on excessive inflammatory reaction and immune features in patients with severe COVID-19 at risk of ARDS. , total number of T cells, liver enzymes, acute reaction proteins, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were evaluated. , acute phase reactants, inflammatory mediators, liver enzymes and bilirubin were significantly reduced within a week (p < 0.05).
33361013 In this paper, the significant role of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, and their mechanism of action in the CRS cascade is explained. […] Potential therapeutic approaches involving anti-IL-6 and anti-TNF-alpha antibodies to fight COVID-19 and reduce mortality rate in severe cases are also discussed.
33362435 We observed prescribing differences during COVID-19, bypassing the initiation of immunomodulators and/or anti-TNF therapy in favour of vedolizumab with a reduction in immunomodulator prescribing.
33362771 Finally, in-depth analysis and literature mining revealed that Vitamin D binds with its receptor and could work through two different pathways: (i) it inhibits the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines through blocking the TNF induced NFkB1 signaling pathway; and (ii) it initiates the expression of interferon-stimulating genes (ISGs) for antiviral defense program through activating the IFN-α induced Jak-STAT signaling pathway.
33363251 The network pharmacology analysis suggests the involvement of selected bioflavonoids in the modulation of multiple signaling pathways like p53, FoxO, MAPK, Wnt, Rap1, TNF, adipocytokine, and leukocyte transendothelial migration which plays a significant role in immunomodulation, minimizing the oxidative stress and inflammation.
33369663 The adjusted incidence of COVID-19 hospitalisation was estimated for patients with RA; spondyloarthritis including psoriatic arthritis; connective tissue disease; vasculitides; and non-IRD individuals.Further, the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalisation was estimated for patients with RA treated respectively non-treated with TNF-inhibitors, hydroxychloroquine, or glucocorticoids.Lastly, the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection (intensive care, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or death) among hospital-admitted patients was estimated for RA and non-IRD individudals. […] There was no increased incidence of COVID-19 hospitalisation associated with TNF-inhibitor, hydroxychloroquine nor glucocorticoid use.
33371832 Furthermore, NAC decreases TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-17 serum levels in patients with sepsis, severe burns, acute liver failure, or peritoneal dialysis and may also reduce cytokine storm in COVID-19.
33385878 The anti-inflammatory effect of tramadol may help to suppress the COVID-19 related cytokine storm through decreasing interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP).
33391014 In addition, plasmin is involved in the pathophysiology of ARDS in SARS and promotes secretion of cytokine, such as IL-6 and TNF, from activated macrophages.
33392485 T cells co-producing IFN-ɣ and TNF-α, without increase in IL-4.
33395482 Patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and encephalitis (COV-Enc), encephalitis without SARS-CoV-2 infection (ENC) and healthy controls (HC) underwent an extended panel of CSF neuronal (NfL, T-tau), glial (GFAP, TREM2, YKL-40) and inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1β, IL-6, Il-8, TNF- α, CXCL-13 and β2-microglobulin). […] COV-Enc patients showed increased IL-6, TNF- α, and β2-microglobulin and glial markers (GFAP, sTREM-2, YKL-40) levels similar to ENC but normal CXCL13 levels.
33395783 Higher counts of CD4 and CD8 were seen in patients with good prognosis compared to patients with poor prognosis, with Lower levels of TNF-a, IL2R, IL6, IL8, were observed in patients with good prognosis compared to patients with poor prognosis.
33396578 Notably, in this study cohort, IFN treatment resulted in a higher percentage of CD8+ T cells, lower tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels and, as reported earlier, lower IL-6 levels.
33397150 Its effect is associated with the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines release, including IFN-γ, IL-6 and TNF-α.
33404078 Using a cytokine array containing 174 inflammation-related cytokines, we found significantly altered cytokine profiles in severe COVID-19 patients compared with those in mild patients or healthy controls, and identified leptin, CXCL-10, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α as the top differentially expressed cytokines. […] Notably, leptin showed high consistency with CXCL-10 and TNF-α in predicting disease severity, and correlated with body mass index, decreased lymphocyte counts, and disease progression.
33414643 Divya-Swasari-Vati also suppressed the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, levels in a dose-dependent manner, under in vivo and in vitro conditions.
33421743 KEGG pathway analysis involves multiple pathways (P < 0.05), including FoxO, GnRH, ErbB, Neurotrophin, Toll-like receptor, IL-17, TNF, Insulin, HIF-1, JAK-STAT, Estrogen, NF-kappa, Chemokine, VEGF, and Thyroid hormone signaling pathway in SARS-CoV-2.
33422296 The concentration of ferritin was positively correlated with other inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α.
33424586 Among these, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-1β seem to have a central role in the progression and exacerbation of the disease, leading to the recruitment of immune cells to infection sites. […] The involvement of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in autophagy modulation has recently been demonstrated.
33424804 In contrast, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression was higher in the lungs, intestine, liver, and kidneys, but not in the spleen, of all COVID-19 patients (compared to levels in controls). […] Collectively, these findings suggested that IL-10 and TNF-α as immunosuppressive and pro-inflammatory agents, respectively,-might be prognostic and could serve as therapeutic targets for COVID-19.
33428154 TNF, TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, and CXCL10 were identified as crucial genes in COVID-19.
33452734 The hub-proteins were interleukin-6 (IL-6), mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and tumor protein P53 (TP53). […] The potential mechanisms of Yinqiao powder in the treatment of COVID-19 are the TNF signaling pathway, T-cell receptor signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and MAPK signaling pathway.
33457304 The interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-10, and IL-17 in 11 cases were normal; IL-6 was increased in 7 cases (64%); tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was increased in 1 case (9%); and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) was increased in 6 cases (55%).
33459706 Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), with its now appreciated key roles in neurophysiology as well as neuropathophysiology, are sufficiently well-documented to be useful tools for enquiry into the natural history of neurodegenerative diseases. […] We review the broader literature on TNF to rationalize why abruptly-acquired neurodegenerative states do not exhibit the remorseless clinical progression seen in those states with gradual onsets. […] We propose that the three typically non-worsening neurodegenerative syndromes, post-stroke, post-traumatic brain injury (TBI), and post cardiac arrest, usually become and remain static because of excess cerebral TNF induced by the initial dramatic peak keeping microglia chronically activated through an autocrine loop of microglial activation through excess cerebral TNF. […] Another insufficiently considered aspect of cerebral proinflammatory cytokines is the fitness of the endogenous cerebral anti-TNF system provided by norepinephrine (NE), generated and distributed throughout the brain from the locus coeruleus (LC). […] We propose that an intact LC, and therefore an intact NE-mediated endogenous anti-cerebral TNF system, plus the DAMP (damage or danger-associated molecular pattern) input having diminished, is what allows post-stroke, post-TBI, and post cardiac arrest patients a strong long-term survival advantage over Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease sufferers. […] In contrast, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease patients remorselessly worsen, being handicapped by sustained, accumulating, DAMP and PAMP (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) input, as well as loss of the LC-origin, NE-mediated, endogenous anti-cerebral TNF system.
33462671 Molecular and cellular studies of the pathogenesis of this novel coronavirus are still in the early stages of research; however, based on similarities of SARS-CoV-2 to other coronaviruses, it can be hypothesized that the NF-κB, cytokine regulation, ERK, and TNF-α signaling pathways are the likely causes of inflammation at the onset of COVID-19.
33468250 Furthermore, Exo MSC-NTF reversed the imbalance in the host immune response, seen as decreased IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, and RANTES levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
33476632 Immunohistochemical evaluation showed significant increase in both Caspase 3 and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) immune stain.
33482620 The interaction between gut microbiota and immune system through releasing some cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ that play roles in the severity of COVID-19.
33492919 Because of concern over the role of particulate steroids, multiple other injectates have been evaluated, including nonparticulate steroids, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) inhibitors, and local anesthetics without steroids.
33493287 Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages from Covid-19 patients and controls were infected with SARS-CoV-2, and extensively investigated with immunofluorescence, viral RNA extraction and quantification, total RNA extraction followed by reverse transcription and q-PCR using specific primers, supernatant cytokines (IL-10, TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-β, TGF-β1 and IL-6), flow cytometry.
33493861 The following cytokines were analysed: interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1α, IL-18, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-β, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), soluble IL-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Rα; CD25), IL-12β, IL-3, interferon (IFN) α2a, monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), monocyte-chemotactic protein 3 (MCP3) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF).
33493866 Furthermore, EP treatment decreased the phosphorylation of IκBα and p38 MAPK induced by PDCoV infection as well as the mRNA levels of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-β, Mx1 and PKR).
33495522 Concentrations of circulating interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA) were determined from ICU admission until 10 days afterward, and routine laboratory and clinical parameters were collected. in the obese and non-obese group, respectively. […] Also, BMI did not correlate with the cytokine response (IL-6 r = 0.09, p = 0.61, TNF-α r = 0.03, p = 0.99, IP-10 r = 0.28, p = 0.11).
33508241 Based on data from previous studies with other vaccines, there are conceptual concerns that protective immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination may be diminished in some patients with IBD, such as those taking anti-TNF drugs. […] However, the benefits of vaccination, even in patients treated with anti-TNF drugs, are likely to outweigh these theoretical concerns.
33509749 A total 160 active components including MOL000522, and MOL003283, MOL003365, MOL003006, MOL003014 in 13 component drugs in Lianhua Qingwen capsule produced therapeutic effects against COVID-19 through 57 target proteins including MAPK1, IL6, HSP90AA1, TNF, and CCL2, involving 35 signaling pathways including NOD-like receptor signaling pathway and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway.
33514427 Significant reductions in serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α; P < 0.01), IL-8 (P < 0.05), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (P < 0.01) were seen in all six survivors.
33517358 Metformin, thalidomide and cytokines (IFN, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and others) have pleiomorphic activities, some of which can enhance tumorigenesis.
33517789 The results show that six core targets including AKT1, TP53, TNF, IL6, BCL2L1 and ATM were identified. […] Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that matrine could significantly reduce the expression of AKT1, TP53, TNF, IL6 and ATM in mice with liver injury or lung injury (P < 0.05), and increase the expression of BCL2L1 to a certain extent (P > 0.05).
33518850 The biomarkers discussed in this paper are CRP, ILs, TNF-α, IFNs, glutamate, breath pH, lymphocytes, platelets, neutrophils and D-dimer.
33519090 The test could be easily adapted to detect other cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-8 by changing the antibodies decorating the nanoparticles accordingly.
33520684 HSBD might treat severe COVID-19 through 45 potential target genes, among them, there were 13 hub target genes: RELA, TNF, IL6, IL1B, MAPK14, TP53, CXCL8, MAPK3, MAPK1, IL4, MAPK8, CASP8, STAT1.
33521069 Analyzing differentially expressed genes (DEGs) shared by the three datasets led to a set of 17 genes, suggesting the lower expression of genes related to acute inflammatory response (TNF, IL32, IL1A, CXCL1, and CXCL3) in SARS-CoV-2.
33522983 At the baseline and the subsequent follow-ups, the COVID-19 group revealed significantly higher levels of seminal plasma ACE2 enzymatic activity, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-β, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-γ, ROS, caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 activity as well as lower levels of SOD activity than those in the CON group (P < 0.05).
33524886 IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in patients were significantly increased (P < 0.0001-0.01). […] However, there were no differences in TNF-α and IL-1β levels between dead and recovered patients.
33526326 Notable examples include corticosteroids, interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1 (IL-1), Janus kinase (JAK), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors.
33530084 Because the US diet is already high in omega-6 fatty acids, the increased biosynthesis of ARA in people with the derived FADS haplotype (haplotype D) leads to an increased production of leukotrienes, thromboxanes, C-reactive protein (CRP), and eventually elevated levels of cytokines, like interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which may increase susceptibility to COVID-19.
33533266 Younger patients showed increased interactions with various members of the TNF receptor super family (TNFRSF).
33549331 To assess correlation between IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α and depressive symptoms. […] We did not find correlation between IL-6 levels and the GDS scale score (rho=0.204; 95% CI -0.192 to 0.543); with IL-1β levels (rho=-0.126; 95% CI -0.490 to 0.276); nor of TNF-α (rho=-0.033; 95% CI -0.416 to 0.360). 3 patients (11.1%) presented score compatible with depressive disorder. […] We found no correlation between the levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α with the GDS score.
33552062 A literature search was performed using the databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science to collect the levels of cytokine including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α, IL-10, and ferritin in severe COVID-19 patients. […] There were no significant differences on the cytokine of IL-1β and TNF-α.
33552315 The secretion of interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-8(IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) was suppressed significantly (P < 0.05) by Xuebijing. […] This study demonstrates that Xuebijing injection may suppress the cytokine storm in severe COVID-19 patients by regulating the secretion of pro- inflammatory cytokine IL-6, IL-8 and TNF -α.
33553782 SARS-CoV-2, an infectious agent behind the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, induces high levels of cytokines such as IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ etc in infected individuals that play a role in the underlying patho-physiology. […] Scientific literature was searched to identify 13 cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, TNF-α and IFN-γ) from 18 clinical studies. […] Standardized mean difference (SMD) for selected 6 cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ between severe and non-severe COVID-19 patient groups were summarized using random effects model.
33557301 In this review we present the properties of original biologic agents based on cytokine-targeted (blockers of TNF, IL-6, IL-1, GM-CSF) and cell-targeted therapies (aimed to inhibit T cells and B cells properties) as well as biosimilars used in rheumatology.
33566210 We report that an extract of photosynthetically controlled Spirulina (LED Spirulina), at a concentration of 0.1 µg/mL, decreases macrophage and monocyte-induced TNF-α secretion levels by over 70% and 40%, respectively. […] We propose prompt in vivo studies in animal models and human subjects to determine the putative effectiveness of a natural, algae-based treatment for viral CS and ARDS, and explore the potential of a novel anti-TNF-α therapy.
33569392 Meanwhile, interactions of selectins and cytokines (e.g., IL-6 and TNF-α) with HS expressed on endothelial cells are crucial in controlling the recruitment of immune cells during inflammation.
33574819 The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with a systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease (SARD) appears slightly higher compared to the general population and the course of COVID-19 disease does not seem to be very different, however, specific therapies such as glucocorticoids and anti-TNF might modulate the risk of hospitalization/death.
33578018 PBMC from COVID-19 patients had a higher p53 expression, and a higher concentrations of plasma proinflammatory cytokines (IL1β, TNF-α, IL8, IL6) than HD. […] Inflammatory cytokines correlated positively with p53 (IL-1β: r = 0.5, p = 0.05;IL-8: r = 0.5, p = 0.05) and negatively with SIRT1 (IL1-β: r=-0.5,p = 0.04;TNF-α: r=-0.4, p = 0.04).
33580566 Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) biologicals, Dexamethasone and rIL-7 are of considerable interest in treating COVID-19 patients who are in danger of, or have become, seriously ill. […] Yet reducing sepsis mortality by lowering circulating levels of TNF lost favour when positive endpoints in earlier simplistic models could not be reproduced in well-conducted human trials. […] Newer information with anti-TNF biologicals has encouraged reintroducing this concept for treating COVID-19. […] Viral models have had encouraging outcomes, as have the effects of anti-TNF biologicals on community-acquired COVID-19 during their long-term use to treat chronic inflammatory states. […] Lymphoid germinal centres required for antibody-based immunity can be harmed by TNF, and restored by reducing TNF. […] Thus the IL-7- enhancing activity of dexamethasone may explain its higher potency when lymphocytes are depleted later in the infection, while employing anti-TNF, for several reasons, is much more logical earlier in the infection.
33581688 Pathway analysis between Ephedra-Glycyrrhiza and COVID-19 showed that the key targets were TNF-α, IL2, FOS, ALB, and PTGS2.
33582156 Moreover, compared to cases without cardiac injury, those with cardiac injury were older, had higher proportions of coronary heart disease, had significantly elevated leukocyte counts and concentrations of N-terminal pro-B-Type natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), IL-6, and IL-8, but lower lymphocyte counts. […] A significant positive correlation was observed between high-sensitivity troponin I and hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-2R, IL-6 and IL-8. […] Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 were independent risk factors for cardiac injury.
33583045 Our network meta-analysis suggests that EtOH exposure may augment the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on hepatic fibrosis signaling pathway, cellular metabolism and homeostasis, inflammation, and neuroinflammation, and that EtOH may enhance the activity of key meditators including cytokines, such as IL1β, IL6, and TNF, and transcription factors, such as JUN and STAT, while inhibiting the activity of anti-inflammatory mediators including glucocorticoid receptor. […] Furthermore, IL1β, IL6, TNF, JUN, and STAT were mapped to ten pathways predicted to associate with SARS-CoV-2 proteins, including HMGB1, IL1, and IL6 signaling pathways.
33584285 Finally, we also found that arbidol reduced serum levels of pro-inflammatory factors such as TNF-α and IL-6 induced by fecal dilution.
33584719 High levels of TNF-α and nearly 100 times increased IL-6 were detected at 6 h, but disappeared by 24 h in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) following immunostimulant challenge. […] Lung injury observed by histopathologic changes and magnetic resonance imaging at 24 h indicated that increased TNF-α and IL-6 may initiate CSS in the lung, resulting in the continual production of inflammatory cytokines. […] We hypothesize that TNF-α and IL-6 may contribute to the occurrence of CSS in COVID-19. […] We also investigated multiple monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and inhibitors for neutralizing the pro-inflammatory phenotype of COVID-19: mAbs against IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and inhibitors of p38 and JAK partially relieved CSS; mAbs against IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF, and inhibitors of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and myeloperoxidase somewhat reduced neutrophilic alveolitis in the lung.
33596494 Chemiluminescent immunometric assay was used to quantify serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) on day 1 and day 7 of the study. […] Average fold changes in serum levels of hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α in treatment group were respectively, 12.4, 2.5 and 20 times lesser than those in the placebo group at day 7.