transmembrane serine protease 2

Gene Context Sentence

Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of TMPRSS2 gene in 79 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32142651 Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. […] A TMPRSS2 inhibitor approved for clinical use blocked entry and might constitute a treatment option.
32165541 Here, we show that a TMPRSS2-expressing VeroE6 cell line is highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, making it useful for isolating and propagating SARS-CoV-2. […] Our results reveal that, in common with SARS- and Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 infection is enhanced by TMPRSS2.
32246845 SARS-CoV-2 was reported to enter cells via binding to ACE2, followed by its priming by TMPRSS2. […] Here, we investigate ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels and their distribution across cell types in lung tissue (twelve donors, 39,778 cells) and in cells derived from subsegmental bronchial branches (four donors, 17,521 cells) by single nuclei and single cell RNA sequencing, respectively. […] While TMPRSS2 is expressed in both tissues, in the subsegmental bronchial branches ACE2 is predominantly expressed in a transient secretory cell type.
32257537 Furthermore, the gene expression profile showed MSCs were ACE2- and TMPRSS2- which indicated MSCs are free from COVID-19 infection.
32276929 TMPRSS2 is both the most frequently altered gene in primary prostate cancer and a critical factor enabling cellular infection by coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. […] The modulation of its expression by sex steroids could contribute to the male predominance of severe infections and given that TMPRSS2 has no known indispensable functions, and inhibitors are available, it is an appealing target for prevention or treatment of respiratory viral infections.
32278065 SARS-CoV uses the the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. […] ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are not only expressed in lung, but also in the small intestinal epithelia.
32279064 Similar to the respiratory mucosa, angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor and transmembrane serine protease 2 TMPRSS2) co-express in the gastrointestinal tract, which facilitates viral entry into the tissue.
32283006 Multiple non-neuronal cell types present in the olfactory epithelium express two host receptors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 proteases, that facilitate SARS-CoV-2 binding, replication, and accumulation.
32285974 SARS-CoV-2 was reported to enter cells via binding to ACE2, followed by its priming by TMPRSS2. […] Here, we investigate ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels and their distribution across cell types in lung tissue (twelve donors, 39,778 cells) and in cells derived from subsegmental bronchial branches (four donors, 17,521 cells) by single nuclei and single cell RNA sequencing, respectively. […] While TMPRSS2 is strongly expressed in both tissues, in the subsegmental bronchial branches ACE2 is predominantly expressed in a transient secretory cell type.
32293910 The virus uses the ACE2 receptor for internalization, aided by TMPRSS2 protease.
32306862 Human TMPRSS2 3D structure was first generated using homology modeling approach. […] Moreover, four promising inhibitors were identified against TMPRSS2; Rubitecan and Loprazolam drugs, and compounds ZINC000015988935 and ZINC000103558522.
32316719 Objective: Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) are the key proteins for 2019-nCoV entry into host cells. […] To evaluate the potential infection risk of 2019-nCoV on ocular surface, we compared ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression among different eye tissues. Methods: Experimental article. […] Real-time PCR was performed to quantify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene expression in conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, iris, lens, retina, lung, heart, kidney, and liver from male mice. […] Published transcriptome datasets were extracted to generate the expression comparasion of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 between human conjunctival and corneal tissues, and results were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test. […] Results were analyzed using Student’s t-test. Results: The expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes were the highest in conjunctiva among all the six mice eye tissues explored. […] ACE2 and TMPRSS2 shared similar expression pattern with the staining concentrated in corneal epithelium, conjunctival epithelium and lacrimal gland serous cells. […] The expression level of human conjunctiva ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were significantly higher than that in the cornea (P=0.007), with 5.74-fold and 12.84-fold higher in the conjunctiva than in the corneal epithelium cells, which resembled the situation in mice. Conclusion: The observation of high-level ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in conjunctiva among the 6 eye tissues examined suggests that conjunctiva serves as an infection target tissue of 2019-nCoV. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2020, 56:). 目的: 分析眼部组织新型冠状病毒侵染和激活关键蛋白人血管紧张素转换酶2(ACE2)和跨膜丝氨酸蛋白酶2(TMPRSS2)的表达情况,探讨新型冠状病毒在眼部的侵染基础。 […] 使用荧光定量PCR分析小鼠结膜、角膜、泪腺、虹膜、晶状体、视网膜ACE2基因和TMPRSS2基因表达情况,并与肺脏、心脏、肾脏、肝脏中两个基因的表达量进行比较。 […] 使用免疫组化染色分析了小鼠各组织中ACE2和TMPRSS2蛋白的分布和表达情况。 […] 另取山东省眼科研究所红十字眼库接收的符合捐献条件的志愿者角膜及结膜组织切片,与小鼠眼部ACE2蛋白和TMPRSS2蛋白表达进行验证比较。 […] 同时通过分析已发表的人眼部组织转录组数据库,比较人角膜和结膜中ACE2和TMPRSS2基因的表达情况。 […] 结果: 在小鼠6种眼部组织中,结膜ACE2基因和TMPRSS2基因表达量最高,但均低于肾脏和肺脏;ACE2和TMPRSS2蛋白阳性染色集中于结膜上皮、角膜上皮和泪腺腺泡。 […] 与小鼠相似,人结膜ACE2和TMPRSS2基因表达量显著高于角膜(P=0.007),分别约为角膜上皮基因表达量的5.74倍和12.84倍。 […] 结论: 结膜中ACE2基因和TMPRSS2的表达在6种检测的眼部组织中最高,提示结膜是新型冠状病毒眼部感染的主要靶组织。
32323565 Colocalization of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and TMPRSS2 enables severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV 2) to enter the cells.
32325025 (Cell) identify ACE2 as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor, and the latter show its entry mechanism depends on cellular serine protease TMPRSS2.
32333601 We hypothesized that the viral entry molecules angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) are expressed in the intestine. […] We examined the expression of Ace2 and Tmprss2 by quantitative polymerase chain reacion in animal models of IBD. […] Publicly available data from organoids and mucosal biopsies from patients with IBD were examined for expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. […] ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were abundantly expressed in the ileum and colon and had high expression in intestinal epithelial cells. […] Expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was not increased in samples from patients with compared with those of control patients. […] In CD11b-enriched cells but not T-cells, the level of expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the mucosa was comparable to other functional mucosal genes and was not affected by inflammation. […] The viral entry molecules ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed in the ileum and colon.
32343658 Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) plays a role in the fusion of the virus with cells; inhibitors of this enzyme are known as well.
32345328 In this study, we investigated the gene expression of angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) with prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC).
32348692 Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) mediate viral infection of host cells. […] We reasoned that differences in ACE2 or TMPRSS2 gene expression in sputum cells among asthma patients may identify subgroups at risk for COVID19 morbidity. […] We analyzed gene expression for ACE2 and TMPRSS2, and for intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)(rhinovirus receptor as a comparator), in sputum cells from 330 participants in the Severe Asthma Research Program-3 and 79 healthy controls. […] Gene expression of ACE2 was lower than TMPRSS2, and expression levels of both genes was similar in asthma and health. […] Among asthma patients, male gender, African Americans race, and history of diabetes mellitus, was associated with higher expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. […] Use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) was associated with lower expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, but treatment with triamcinolone acetonide (TA) did not decrease expression of either gene. […] Higher expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in males, African Americans, and patients with diabetes mellitus provides rationale for monitoring these asthma subgroups for poor COVID19 outcomes. […] The lower expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with ICS use warrants prospective study of ICS use as a predictor of decreased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and decreased COVID19 morbidity.
32352944 S-proteins covering its surface, which bind to the cell receptor - angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) and transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) are important in shaping virus activity.
32353982 They are represented by the dynamism of the ocular surface system (e.g., the tear film turnover) and the distribution of ACE2 receptors and TMPRSS2 protein.
32354022 ACE2 can be shed by two proteases, ADAM17 and TMPRSS2. […] TMPRSS2-cleaved ACE2 allows SARS-CoV-2 cell entry, whereas ADAM17-cleaved ACE2 offers protection to organs.
32360480 Such drugs comprise inhibitors of TMPRSS2 serine protease and inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] Blockade of ACE2, the host cell receptor for the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and inhibition of TMPRSS2, which is required for S protein priming may prevent cell entry of SARS-CoV-2.
32361911 Interestingly, some potential SARS-CoV-2 process-related genes such as TMPRSS2, BSG, CTSL and CTSB had different expression patterns in the same cell type.
32374427 In this study, a total of 38 conjunctival samples from 38 patients, including 12 healthy conjunctiva, 12 melanoma, 7 squamous cell carcinoma and 7 papilloma samples, were analyzed using high-throughput RNA sequencing to assess mRNA expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 and its cofactors including TMPRSS2, ANPEP, DPP4, and ENPEP.
32376987 The transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 was previously identified as the essential protease that can cleave hemagglutinin of many subtypes of influenza virus and spike protein of coronavirus. […] Herein, we found that a guanine rich tract, capable of forming intramolecular G-quadruplex in the presence of potassium ions, in the promoter region of human TMPRSS2 gene was quite important for gene transcriptional activity, hence affecting its function. […] More importantly, compounds can down-regulate TMPRSS2 gene expression, especially endogenous TMPRSS2 protein levels, and consequently suppress influenza A virus propagation in vitro. […] Our results provide a new strategy for anti-influenza A virus infection by small molecules targeting the TMPRSS2 gene G-quadruplex and thus inhibiting TMPRSS2 expression, which is valuable for developing small molecule drugs against influenza A virus and also may be a potential candidate as anti- SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV 2) lead molecules.
32379417 We show that the cell surface protein ACE2 and the protease TMPRSS2 are expressed in sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium but not, or much less, in most olfactory receptor neurons.
32382146 To determine the expressions of SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) genes in human and mouse ocular cells and comparison to other tissue cells. […] The expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes was determined in human primary conjunctival and pterygium cells, human ocular and other tissue cell lines, mesenchymal stem cells as well as mouse ocular and other tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and SYBR green PCR. […] Expression by 2 TMPRSS2 gene primers could only be found in 1 out of 3 pterygium cell lines, but not in any conjunctival cells. […] In addition, mouse cornea had comparable expression of Tmprss2 gene and lower but prominent Ace2 gene expression compared with the lung tissue. […] Considering the necessity of both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 for SARS-CoV-2 infection, our results suggest that conjunctiva would be less likely to be infected by SARS-CoV-2, whereas pterygium possesses some possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] With high and consistent expression of Ace2 and Tmprss2 in cornea, cornea rather than conjunctiva has higher potential to be infected by SARS-CoV-2.
32387456 Cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to ACE2 and on S protein priming by TMPRSS2. […] Inhibition of TMPRSS2 may work to block or decrease the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections. […] Intriguingly, TMPRSS2 is an androgen-regulated gene that is upregulated in prostate cancer where it supports tumor progression and is involved in a frequent genetic translocation with the ERG gene. […] First- or second-generation androgen-deprivation therapies (ADTs) decrease the levels of TMPRSS2.
32404436 Expression of two mucosa-specific serine proteases, TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4, facilitated SARS-CoV-2 spike fusogenic activity and promoted virus entry into host cells.
32408547 In the current study, we used an in silico approach to screen natural compounds to find potent inhibitors of the host enzyme transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). […] A three-dimensional structure of TMPRSS2 was built using SWISS-MODEL and validated by RAMPAGE. […] The low-molecular-weight compound NPC306344 showed significant interaction with the active site residues of TMPRSS2, with a binding energy score of -14.69.
32410502 TMPRSS2 encodes a transmembrane serine protease which plays a crucial role in SARS-CoV-2 cell entry. […] Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TMPRSS2 might influence SARS-CoV2 entry into the cell. […] This study aimed to investigate the impact of SNPs on TMPRSS2 function and structure.Methods: In silico tools such as Ensembl, Gtex, ExPASY 2, GEPIA, CCLE, KEGG, and GO were engaged to characterize TMPRSS2 and it’s expression profile. […] Also, Phyre2, GOR IV, and PSIPRED were used to predict the secondary structure of TMPRSS2. […] Only 21 SNPs affected the function and structure of TMPRSS2 by influencing the protein folding, PTM, splicing, and miRNA function. […] Particularly, rs12329760 may create a de novo pocket protein. rs875393 can create a donor site, silencer and broken enhancer motifs. rs12627374 affects a wide spectrum of miRNAs profile.Conclusion: This study highlighted the role of TMPRSS2 SNPs and epigenetic mechanisms especially non-coding RNAs in appearance of different susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 among different populations. […] Also, this study could pave the way to potential therapeutic implication of TMPRSS2 in designing antiviral drugs.
32412125 The androgen receptor regulates transcription of the transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2), which is required for SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. […] TMPRSS2 primes the Spike protein of the virus, which has two consequences: diminishing viral recognition by neutralizing antibodies and activating SARS-CoV-2 for virus-cell fusion.
32412310 Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men and raises particular interest during the pandemic as recent reports show that the TMPRSS2 (and other serine proteases), which facilitate the entry, replication and budding of the virion from a cell, can be inhibited using androgen deprivation therapy.
32413319 SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry. […] We identify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within lung type II pneumocytes, ileal absorptive enterocytes, and nasal goblet secretory cells.
32422146 To extend our work in interleukin (IL)-13 biology to determine if airway epithelial cell expression of two key mediators critical for SARS-CoV-2 infection, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) are modulated by IL-13. […] We determined effects of IL-13 treatment on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression ex vivo in primary airway epithelial cells from participants with and without type 2 asthma obtained by bronchoscopy. […] We also examined expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in two datasets containing gene expression data from nasal and airway epithelial cells from children and adults with asthma and allergic rhinitis. […] IL-13 significantly reduced ACE2 and increased TMPRSS2 expression ex vivo in airway epithelial cells. […] In two independent datasets, ACE2 expression was significantly reduced and TMPRSS2 was significantly increased in the nasal and airway epithelial cells in type 2 asthma and allergic rhinitis. […] ACE2 expression was significantly negatively associated with type 2 cytokines while TMPRSS2 expression was significantly positively associated with type 2 cytokines. […] IL-13 modulates ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in airway epithelial cells in asthma.
32423094 Firstly, SARS-CoV-2 has a strong interaction with the human ACE2 receptor, which plays an essential role in cell entry together with transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2); it is interesting to note that the ACE2 gene lays on the X-chromosome, thus allowing females to be potentially heterozygous and differently assorted compared to men who are definitely hemizygous.
32430651 Viral entry also depends on TMPRSS2 protease activity, an androgen dependent enzyme.
32441816 Therefore, this study aimed to assess the presence of ACE2/TMPRSS2 expression in salivary glands using publicly available databases. […] The GTEx dataset was employed to explore the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in various body organs and salivary glands in a healthy population. […] Transcriptome data analysis showed that ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were expressed in salivary glands. […] The expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were marginal without significant differences in different age groups or between men and women. […] Single-cell RNA sequence analysis indicated that TMPRSS2 was mainly expressed in salivary gland epithelial cells.
32450087 We have therefore explored ACE2 receptor mRNA expression, and co-factors for Sars-CoV-2 infectivity (TMPRSS2 and furin) in bronchial brushes and biopsies from people with asthma and healthy controls, and looked for relationships between asthma severity, Th2- and IL-17 dependent gene signatures, and clinical demographics (age, sex). […] These data suggest that differences in ACE2, TMPRSS2 and furin epithelial and airway gene expression are unlikely to confer enhanced COVID-19 pneumonia risk in patients with asthma across all treatment intensities and severity.
32450906 We discuss potential sex-specific mechanisms modulating the course of disease, such as hormone-regulated expression of genes encoding for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) entry receptors angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 2 receptor and TMPRSS2 as well as sex hormone-driven innate and adaptive immune responses and immunoaging.
32452644 The key steps of virus life cycle have been recently clarified, highlighting the role of host type 2 angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2) and TMPRSS2 serine protease in virus-cell binding and entry, respectively. […] Importantly, major concerns derive from the androgen-dependent tissue-expression of both TMPRSS2 and ACE2, suggesting a differential clinical course of the infection between genders.
32453494 The expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the testis and in the male genital tract allows speculations about a possible testicular involvement during the infection, possibly mediated by local and/or systemic inflammation that might allow a high viral load to overcome the haemato-testicular barrier.
32455539 We found that the receptor and transmembrane protease necessary for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, respectively, were upregulated in smoking samples from both lung and oral epithelial tissue. […] ACE2 and TMPRSS2 upregulation were both correlated to androgen pathway enrichment and the specific upregulation of central pathway regulatory genes.
32458206 Using bromhexine at a dosage that selectively inhibits TMPRSS2 and, in so doing, inhibits TMPRSS2-specific viral entry is likely to be effective against SARS-CoV-2.
32468052 SARS‑CoV‑2 infection of host cells is facilitated by the angiotensin‑converting enzyme 2 (ACE‑2), and by transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and other host cell proteases such as cathepsin L (CTSL). […] Here, we analysed genetic alteration, RNA expression, and DNA methylation of TMPRSS2 and CTSL across a wide spectrum of tumors and controls. […] TMPRSS2 was overexpressed in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, prostate adenocarcinoma (PRAD), rectum adenocarcinoma (READ), uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma and uterine carcinosarcoma, with PRAD and READ exhibiting the highest expression of all cancers.
32469279 Here, we used a homology-based structural model of transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), a cell surface receptor, required for entry of virus to the target host cell. […] We found that both Wi-A and Wi-N could bind and stably interact at the catalytic site of TMPRSS2. […] Wi-N showed stronger interactions with TMPRSS2 catalytic residues than Wi-A and was also able to induce changes in its allosteric site. […] Furthermore, we investigated the effect of Wi-N on TMPRSS2 expression in MCF7 cells and found remarkable downregulation of TMPRSS2 mRNA in treated cells predicting dual action of Wi-N to block SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host cells.
32482249 To describe detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) in seminal fluid of patients recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to describe the expression profile of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) within the testicle. […] Expression patterns of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the human testis are explored through previously published single-cell transcriptome datasets. […] Single-cell transcriptome analysis demonstrates sparse expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, with almost no overlapping gene expression. […] Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-mediated viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 into target host cells is unlikely to occur within the human testicle based on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression.
32491949 Specifically, decreased expression of proteins, including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in the airway epithelium in children may prevent viral entry.
32492203 Genetic confirmation of the hypotheses regarding gene expression and mutation pattern of target genes, including angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), basigin (CD147/BSG) and paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme (FURIN/PCSK3), as well as correlation analysis, was done in relation to lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC) using in silico analysis. […] The total genetic anomaly carrying rate of target genes, including ACE2, TMPRSS2, CD147/BSG, and FURIN/PCSK3, was determined as 8.1% and 21 mutations were detected, with 7 of these mutations having pathogenic features. p.H34N on the RBD binding residues for SARS-CoV-2 was determined in our LUAD patient group. […] According to gene expression analysis results, though the TMPRSS2 level was statistically significantly decreased in the LUSC patient group compared to healthy control, the ACE2 level was determined to be high in LUAD and LUSC groups.
32496587 ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were coexpressed at the epithelial sites of the lung and skin, whereas CD147 (BSG), cyclophilins (PPIA and PPIB), CD26 (DPP4) and related molecules were expressed in both, epithelium and in immune cells.
32497257 In the attempt to understand how the virus spreads and how to pharmacologically abolish it, it was highlighted that SARS-CoV-2 infects human cells by means of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro ).
32501810 Hence, we searched for possible genetic components of COVID-19 severity among Italians by looking at expression levels and variants in ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes, crucial for viral infection.Exome and SNP-array data from a large Italian cohort were used to compare the rare-variants burden and polymorphisms frequency with Europeans and East Asians. […] Moreover, we looked into gene expression databases to check for sex-unbalanced expression.While we found no significant evidence that ACE2 is associated with disease severity/sex bias, TMPRSS2 levels and genetic variants proved to be possible candidate disease modulators, prompting for rapid experimental validations on large patient cohorts.
32502616 The co-expression of ACE2 receptor and entry protease TMPRSS2 was detected in the human adult conjunctival, limbal and corneal epithelium, but not in the embryonic and fetal ocular surface up to 21 post conception weeks. […] These expression patterns were corroborated by the single cell ATAC-Seq data, which revealed a permissive chromatin in ACE2 and TMPRSS2 loci in the adult conjunctival, limbal and corneal epithelium. […] Co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was strongly detected in the superficial limbal, corneal and conjunctival epithelium, implicating these as target entry cells for SARS-CoV-2 in the ocular surface. […] Strikingly, we also identified the key pro-inflammatory signals TNF, NFKβ and IFNG as upstream regulators of the transcriptional profile of ACE2+TMPRSS2+ cells in the superficial conjunctival epithelium, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may utilise inflammatory driven upregulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression to enhance infection in ocular surface. […] Together our data indicate that the human ocular surface epithelium provides an additional entry portal for SARS-CoV-2, which may exploit inflammatory driven upregulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 entry factors to enhance infection.
32508311 Early reports have confirmed that transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are critical targets of SARS-CoV-2 that facilitate viral entry into host cells. […] TMPRSS2 and ACE2 are expressed in multiple human tissues beyond the lung including the testes where predisposition to SARS-CoV-2 infection may exist. […] TMPRSS2 is an androgen responsive gene and its fusion represents one of the most frequent alterations in prostate cancer. […] In this review, we highlight the growing evidence in support of androgen regulation of TMPRSS2 and ACE2 and the potential clinical implications of using androgen suppression to downregulate TMPRSS2 to target SARS-CoV-2. […] We also discuss the future directions and controversies that need to be addressed in order to establish the viability of targeting TMPRSS2 and/or ACE2 through androgen signaling regulation for COVID-19 treatment, particularly its relevance in the context of prostate cancer management.
32515982 The cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 depends on two host proteins angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and TMPRSS2. […] It is suggested that H2S may block SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells by interfering with ACE2 and TMPRSS2, inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication by attenuating virus assembly/release, and protect SARS-CoV-2-induced lung damage by suppressing immune response and inflammation development.
32528233 Likewise, TMPRSS2 protease has been shown to be crucial for viral activation thus facilitating the viral engulfment.
32529643 The paucity of placental co-expression of ACE-2 and TMPRSS2, two receptors involved in cytoplasmic entry of SARS-CoV-2, may explain its relative insensitivity to transplacental infection.
32532094 We previously found that nafamostat mesylate, an existing drug used for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), effectively blocked Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) S protein-mediated cell fusion by targeting transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), and inhibited MERS-CoV infection of human lung epithelium-derived Calu-3 cells. […] Here we established a quantitative fusion assay dependent on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) S protein, angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and TMPRSS2, and found that nafamostat mesylate potently inhibited the fusion while camostat mesylate was about 10-fold less active. […] On the other hand, a significantly higher dose (EC50 around 30 mM) was required for VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells, where the TMPRSS2-independent but cathepsin-dependent endosomal infection pathway likely predominates.
32532937 SARS-CoV2 can reach the central nervous system from the bloodstream or olfactory pathway by binding ACE-2 receptor and the spike protein protease TMPRSS2.
32537478 It has been reported that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) are the main cell entry proteins for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and play a critical role in causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] We have found a differential expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in nasal and bronchial airways relative to age and diseases status. […] Moreover, the lung airway expression of both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was found to be significantly upregulated in smokers compared with non-smokers, and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with healthy subjects. […] No difference was observed in the blood expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 between children and adults, or in COPD or diabetic patients. […] These results suggest that the observed difference in COVID-19 severity between children and adults could, in part, be attributed to the difference in ACE2 and TMPRSS2 airways tissue expression levels.
32544566 We analyzed human post-mortem eyes as well as surgical specimens for the expression of ACE2 (the receptor for SARS-CoV-2) and TMPRSS2, a cell surface-associated protease that facilitates viral entry following binding of the viral spike protein to ACE2. […] All eye and conjunctival specimens also expressed TMPRSS2. […] Finally, Western blot analysis of protein lysates from human corneal epithelium obtained during refractive surgery confirmed expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2.
32545271 We surveyed the co-expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry genes ACE2 and TMPRSS2 throughout the GI tract to assess potential sites of infection. […] Enterocytes from the small intestine and colonocytes showed the highest proportions of cells co-expressing ACE2 and TMPRSS2.
32545518 We found that the potent Nrf2-activating composition PB125® downregulates ACE2 and TMPRSS2 mRNA expression in human liver-derived HepG2 cells. ACE2 is a surface receptor and TMPRSS2 activates the spike protein for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells.
32555974 Studies carried out to date on possible SARS-CoV2 drug targets highlight glycoprotein S, Mpro (main protease or protease type 3C), and a member of the transmembrane serine protease II families (TMPRSS2). […] Thus, we point out as interesting targets for future more specific research: glycoprotein S, Mpro, and TMPRSS2.
32562397 Similar to the respiratory mucosa, angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) co-express in the gastrointestinal tract, which facilitates viral entry into the tissue.
32572552 The current body of evidence indicates that SARS-CoV‑2 requires the membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the membrane-bound serine protease TMPRSS2 to enter cells. […] Recent studies suggest that COVID-19 patients rarely exhibit viral RNA in tear film and conjunctival smears and that, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are only expressed in very small amounts in the conjunctiva, making conjunctival infection with SARS-CoV‑2 via these mediators unlikely.
32574109 Specifically, we review the potential clinical utility of two transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2)-targeting protease inhibitors, nafamostat mesylate and camostat mesylate, as well as two novel potent fusion inhibitors and the repurposed Ebola drug, remdesivir, which is specific to RdRp, against human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2.
32574196 Both ACE2 (an entry receptor) and TMPRSS2 (used by the virus for spike protein priming) are key proteins to SARS-CoV-2 cell entry, enabling progression to COVID-19 in humans. […] To characterize potential functional variation in savanna monkey ACE2 and TMPRSS2, we inspected recently published genomic data from 245 savanna monkeys, including 163 wild monkeys from Africa and the Caribbean and 82 captive monkeys from the Vervet Research Colony (VRC).
32574272 Host proteases, e.g., cathepsins, furin, or members of the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSP) family, such as Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), are involved in virus entry by proteolytically activating virus ligands.
32574273 Finally, a direct effect of GL or GA to reduce virus transmission exists, which may involve reduced expression of type 2 transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2), which is required for virus uptake.
32579258 Using SARS-CoV-2-infected VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells, MPA and IMD-0354, but not other anti-DENV compounds/drugs, showed significant anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity.
32582302 The SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for the infection depends on two human genes: the human receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for cell invasion, and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. […] We examined 178 quantitative phenotypes including cytokines and cardio-metabolic biomarkers, as well as usage of 58 medications in 36,339 volunteers from the Lifelines population cohort, in relation to 1,273 genetic variants located in or near ACE2 and TMPRSS2. […] For example, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the TMPRSS2 genes were associated with thrombocytes count (p = 1.8 × 10-5).
32583042 At the time of the research, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was clearly identified as the receptor and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) as the necessary protease to enable the infection of human cells with SARS-CoV‑2. […] In the eye both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed, although sometimes very weakly and with varying degrees in different tissues. […] According to current state of knowledge the eye is not considered to be a high-risk tissue due to the low ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression.
32586380 First, we sought to identify existing FDA approved drugs that could block coronaviruses from entering cells by binding to ACE2 or TMPRSS2 using a high-throughput AI-based binding affinity prediction platform.
32587094 Using this quantitative matrix, we elucidated 47 potential functional missense variants from genomic databases within ACE2/SLC6A19/transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), warranting genomic enrichment analyses in SARS-CoV-2 patients.
32589459 The spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 interact with ACE2 or basigin/CD147 receptors, regulating human-to-human transmissions of COVID-19 together with serine protease TMPRSS2. […] ACE2 is expressed in conjunctival samples at a low level, while BSG and TMPRSS2 are expressed at intermediate levels in both conjunctiva and cornea.
32591346 To facilitate proteomic research on SARS-CoV-2, this report presents deep-scale proteomes (10,000 proteins; >130,000 peptides) of common cell line models, notably Vero E6, Calu-3, Caco-2, and ACE2-A549 that characterize their protein expression profiles including viral entry factors such as ACE2 or TMPRSS2.
32591839 We detected the expression of the ACE2 receptor but not TMPRSS2 in the model.
32592038 Entrance of SARS-CoV-2 depends on the surface (S) protein interaction with host ACE2 protein and cleavage by TMPRSS2. […] To investigate bats and pangolin as hosts in SARS-CoV-2 cross-species transmission, we perform an evolutionary analysis combining viral and host phylogenies and divergence of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 amino acid sequences between CoV hosts. […] In contrast to TMPRSS2, pangolin ACE2 amino acid sequence has low evolutionary divergence compared with humans and is more divergent from bats.