Gene Context Sentence

Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of SI gene in 66 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32007643 We present estimates of the basic reproduction number, R0, of 2019-nCoV in the early phase of the outbreak. […] With the estimated intrinsic growth rate (γ), we estimated R0 by using the serial intervals (SI) of two other well-known coronavirus diseases, MERS and SARS, as approximations for the true unknown SI. […] The mean estimate of R0 for the 2019-nCoV ranges from 2.24 to 3.58, and is significantly larger than 1.
32024089 The 2019-nCoV cases might have been under-reported roughly from 1 to 15 January 2020, and thus we estimated the number of unreported cases and the basic reproduction number, R0, of 2019-nCoV. […] We used the serial intervals (SI) of infection caused by two other well-known coronaviruses (CoV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) CoVs, as approximations of the unknown SI for 2019-nCoV to estimate R0. […] The reporting rate after 17 January 2020 was likely to have increased 21-fold (95% CI: 18-25) in comparison to the situation from 1 to 17 January 2020 on average. […] The under-reporting was likely to have occurred during the first half of January 2020 and should be considered in future investigation.
32348050 Consultations with patients with chronic diseases should ideally be done via telemedicine and treatments administered at home if possible. […] Les consultations avec les patients atteints de maladies chroniques devraient se faire idéalement par télémédecine et les traitements administrés à domicile si possible. […] En cas d’infection avérée, on aura tendance à diminuer voire interrompre les traitements immunomodulateurs ou biologiques sauf si la maladie est en phase sévèrement active.
32348052 The safety of NSAIDs, corticosteroids and renin-angiotensin inhibitors in COVID-19 is challenged. […] ACE inhibitors and sartans upregulate the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the pulmonary receptor for SARS-CoV-2. […] Any possible clinical impact of these treatments on COVID-19 infection remains to be clarified; in the meantime, they should be continued. […] La sécurité des AINS, corticoïdes et antihypertenseurs agissant sur le système rénine-angiotensine lors d’infection à COVID-19 est mise en question. […] Les corticoïdes systémiques n’ont pas montré de bénéfice lors d’infections virales, y compris à d’autres coronavirus ; ils sont à éviter, sauf si prescrits pour une autre indication. […] Les IEC et les sartans modulent l’expression de l’enzyme de conversion de l’angiotensine 2 (ACE2), récepteur pulmonaire du SARS-CoV-2.
32348056 The rapid progression of COVID-19 is an organizational challenge for all hospitals. […] To secure the patient overflow, the Department internal medicine of the University Hospital of Lausanne increased nurse and medical workforces as well as bed capacity by 65 %, with extraordinary help from other departments. […] The implemented crisis management stood upon three pillars : a crisis management team, steering documents and internal communication. […] In this new form, the Department had already taken care of 442 COVID-19 admissions by April 16, 2020. […] Alongside organizational challenges, clinical issues such as rapid respiratory distress, clinical suspicions with negative PCR and treatment uncertainties in the absence of sufficient evidence were overcome. […] La progression rapide du COVID-19 constitue un défi organisationnel pour tous les hôpitaux. […] Pour anticiper un afflux important de patients, le service de médecine interne du CHUV a ainsi augmenté ses forces de travail médico-soignantes et son nombre de lits de 65 % avec un soutien extraordinaire de toute l’institution. […] Si les enjeux organisationnels ont été majeurs, la gestion des situations complexes, comme les manifestations respiratoires et les multiples incertitudes cliniques diagnostiques et thérapeutiques, ont été également une gageure.
32399517 In this paper, we propose a SI(R) model in order to forecast the evolution of the epidemic under the hypothesis of not permanent immunity. […] This model offers an analytical solution to the problem of finding possible steady states, providing the following equilibrium values: Susceptible about 17%, Recovered (including deceased and healed) ranging from 79 to 81%, and Infected ranging from 2 to 4%. […] However, it is crucial to consider that the results concerning the recovered, which at first glance are particularly impressive, include the huge proportion of asymptomatic subjects. […] On the basis of these considerations, we analyse the situation in the province of Pesaro-Urbino, one of the main outbreaks of the epidemic in Italy.
32432461 Since the outbreak of the severe respiratory disease caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), the use of face masks has become ubiquitous worldwide to control the rapid spread of this pandemic. […] Although the surgical grade N95 mask provides the highest level of protection currently available, its filtration efficiency for sub-300 nm particles is around 85% due to its wider pore size (∼300 nm). […] We first developed a flexible nanoporous Si-based template on a silicon-on-insulator wafer using KOH etching and then used the template as a hard mask during a reactive ion etching process to transfer the patterns onto a flexible and lightweight (<0.12 g) polymeric membrane. […] Pores with sizes down to 5 nm were achieved with a narrow distribution. […] Theoretical calculations show that airflow rates above 85 L/min are possible through the mask, which confirms its breathability over a wide range of pore sizes, densities, membrane thicknesses, and pressure drops. […] Finally, the membrane is intrinsically hydrophobic, which contributes to antifouling and self-cleaning as a result of droplets rolling and sliding on the inclined mask area.
32442941 We found an anti-inflammatory effect with reduction of longterm cardiovascular events, a very infrequent heart disease due to a lysosomal effect of the drug, and at the hemodynamic level hypotension, tachycardia, and QT interval prolongation, exacerbated when combined with azithromycin. […] Se realizó una revisión no sistemática en la literatura médica orientada a la búsqueda de información acerca de su seguridad y eficacia como antimaláricos y antivirales, así como en el tratamiento prolongado de enfermedades reumatológicas. […] Se halló un efecto antiinflamatorio con reducción de eventos cardiovasculares a largo plazo, una cardiopatía muy infrecuente por un efecto lisosomal del fármaco, y a nivel hemodinámico hipotensión, taquicardia, y prolongación del intervalo QT, exacerbado si se combina con azitromicina. […] Sin embargo, la tasa de eventos adversos cardíacos de la hidroxicloroquina y la cloroquina fue baja.
32452648 Serial interval (SI), time between the symptom onsets of a primary case and a second case, is a key epidemiological parameter. […] We estimated SI of COVID-19 in Shenzhen, China based on 27 records of transmission chains. […] The three models were compared using the corrected Akaike information criterion (AICc). […] Using a Weibull distribution, we estimated mean SI at 5.9 days (95%CI: 3.9-9.6) and a standard deviation (SD) at 4.8 days (95%CI: 3.1-10.1). […] Using a logistic growth model, we estimated the basic reproduction number in Shenzhen at 2.6 (95%CI: 2.4-2.8). […] The SI of COVID-19 is relative shorter than that of SARS and MERS, other two beta coronavirus diseases, which suggests the iteration of the transmission was rapid.
32458823 The new coronavirus disease is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-Cov-2 virus, considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) an international public health emergency that may have negative consequences during breastfeeding. […] The methodological quality of the articles has been assessed using the “Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation” (GRADE). […] When direct breastfeeding is favoured, the appropriate respiratory hygiene measures always have to be considered. […] El nuevo coronavirus es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por el virus SARS-Cov-2, considerada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) una emergencia de salud pública de interés internacional (ESPII), la cual podría tener consecuencias negativas durante la lactancia materna. […] Los estudios analizados afirmaron que lo mejor para el recién nacido es ser alimentado con la leche materna, ya que se analizaron muestras de leche de madres infectadas por coronavirus detectándose la presencia de anticuerpos del virus en las mismas, siendo un factor protector contra la infección del virus. […] La lactancia materna en recién paridas con SARS-CoV-2 es muy recomendable para el recién nacido, si el estado de salud de la madre y del neonato lo permiten, favoreciéndose el amamantamiento de forma directa y teniendo siempre las medidas adecuadas de higiene respiratoria. […] En el caso de que el estado de salud de la madre no permita el amamantamiento directo se debería alimentar con leche materna extraída previamente de su madre y sin pasteurizar, o procedente de un banco de leche.
32519993 Revisione della letteratura e nuove prospettive nell’era SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). […] In ambito medico legale, durante alcune procedure non particolarmente complesse, possono verificarsi errori che potrebbero non essere necessariamente ricondotti a colpa medica. […] È stata fatta una revisione della legislazione greca, riguardante casi di colpa medica in otorinolaringoiatria, allo scopo di identificare i casi giuridici riguardanti errori medici durante tali procedure. […] L’analisi dei casi ha evidenziato che alcuni errori medici possono causare complicanze serie, anche in caso di errori minimi che deviano di poco dallo standard di trattamento. […] Per questo motivo, in alcuni casi può essere difficile distinguere tra complicanze prevedibili e non prevedibili. […] Alcuni errori, che si verificano durante procedure mediche di routine, potrebbero essere considerati non prevedibili e per questo classificati come errori “quasi” senza colpa. […] Viene infine fornito un breve commento sulle opportunità di migliorare ulteriormente il sistema di responsabilità medica dopo l’emergenza SARS-CoV-2. […] In medical practice, during certain procedures that usually are not regarded highly demanding, some skill-based errors, that might not be considered as medical malpractice, may occur. […] In fact, such errors can be caused by factors beyond the physician’s control.A review of Greek case law regarding medical malpractice in otorhinolaryngology was performed to identify cases of lawsuits that concerned medical errors during routine procedures. […] The analysis of the cases showed that some medical errors may cause serious complications, even if deviation from the standard of medical care is minimal. […] Certain medical errors from routine medical procedures might be considered unpreventable and, therefore, classified as almost no-fault errors.
32523142 Despite the large amount of information that has been developed in recent weeks, it has been estimated that this disease can have up to 72% underdiagnosis, which requires clinical tools that are simple, easily accessible, and increase the detection of cases in a feasible way and that yield information with prognostic value. […] It is worth mentioning that the USP has proven to be an efficient and easily reproducible technique for diagnosing heart failure and pleuro-pulmonary pathologies, especially in critically ill patients. […] Evidence of the usefulness of USP in COVID-19 is still scarce, although preliminary, it seems to be a sensitive technique whose findings have a high gold standard. […] In this brief review we will emphasize its technical aspects, the advantages and disadvantages, and finally a proposal for the approach in this type of patient. […] Si bien el conocimiento de la naturaleza de la enfermedad es dinámico, publicándose cada día decenas de artículos científicos sobre nuevas características de COVID-19, la presentación típica es la de neumonía intersticial. […] A pesar de la gran cantidad de información que se ha desarrollado en las últimas semanas, se ha estimado que esta enfermedad puede llegar a tener hasta un 72% de infradiagnóstico, por lo que se requieren herramientas clínicas que sean simples, de fácil acceso, que incrementen la detección de casos de forma factible y que arrojen información con valor pronóstico. […] Ante esta necesidad, han surgido algunas propuestas para poder realizar el diagnóstico, seguimiento y respuesta al tratamiento de los pacientes con COVID-19, tales como el ultrasonido pulmonar (USP). […] La evidencia de la utilidad de USP en COVID-19 es aún escasa, aunque de forma preliminar, parece ser una técnica sensible cuyos hallazgos tienen una elevada gold-standard. […] En esta breve revisión haremos énfasis en sus aspectos técnicos, las ventajas y desventajas, y por último una propuesta para el abordaje en este tipo de pacientes.
32523150 The pandemic caused by the SARS-COV-2 or COVID-19 virus has been a global challenge given its high rate of transmission and lack of effective therapy or vaccine. […] La pandemia por el virus SARS-COV-2 causante de la enfermedad COVID-19 representa un reto mundial dada su alta tasa de transmisión y ausencia de una terapia efectiva o vacuna. […] Sin embargo, el tiempo no ha sido suficiente para evaluar su efectividad clínica con el adecuado rigor científico que precede a la prescripción de medicamentos. […] El uso de cloroquina/hidroxicloroquina, azitromicina y esquemas antivirales ha sido propuesto por diversos grupos, apoyado por series de pacientes limitada en número. […] Si bien puede representar la única esperanza para muchos enfermos, es importante conocer los principales efectos adversos asociados al uso de estas drogas y seleccionar mejor a los pacientes que puedan beneficiarse de ellas.
32523608 The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly stressed public health systems around the world and exposed the gaps in health care for underserved and vulnerable populations. […] In the context of the social determinants of health, focusing on health system preparedness is paramount for protecting the health of all of society. […] Faced with old threats (e.g., re-emergence of measles), disruptive new technologies (e.g., electronic cigarettes), increased challenges (e.g. drug-resistant organisms), and new threats (e.g., the current pandemic, climate change, politicized misinformation), our health systems must be robust and resilient. […] Ensuring health equity in a pandemic requires robust and resilient public health infrastructure during normal times. […] La pandemia de COVID-19 ha sometido a una gran exigencia a los sistemas de salud pública de todo el mundo y ha puesto de manifiesto las deficiencias de la atención de la salud de las poblaciones desatendidas y vulnerables. […] En el contexto de los determinantes sociales de la salud, es fundamental centrarse en la preparación del sistema de salud para proteger la salud de toda la sociedad. […] Frente a las viejas amenazas (p. ej., la reaparición del sarampión), las nuevas tecnologías perturbadoras (p. ej., los cigarrillos electrónicos), los mayores desafíos (p. ej., los microorganismos resistentes a los medicamentos) y las nuevas amenazas —la pandemia actual, el cambio climático, la politización de la información y la desinformación sobre la salud— nuestros sistemas de salud deben ser sólidos y resilientes. […] Si se fortalecen los sistemas de salud reforzando sus competencias básicas y siguiendo las recomendaciones formuladas en materia de liderazgo, participación de los interesados, acreditación, recolección de datos y recursos de financiación la infraestructura de atención de la salud estará mejor preparada y será más equitativa. […] Para garantizar la equidad en la salud en una pandemia se requiere una infraestructura de salud pública sólida y resiliente en épocas normales. […] Em todo o mundo, a pandemia da COVID-19 tem colocado ênfase significativa nos sistemas públicos de saúde e exposto as lacunas nos cuidados em saúde para populações carentes e vulneráveis. […] No contexto dos determinantes sociais da saúde, o foco na prontidão dos sistemas de saúde é fundamental para a proteção de toda a sociedade. […] Diante de antigas ameaças (por exemplo, o ressurgimento do sarampo), novas tecnologias disruptivas (por exemplo, cigarros eletrônicos), maiores desafios (por exemplo, organismos resistentes a drogas) e novas ameaças - a atual pandemia, as mudanças climáticas, a politização da informação/informação sobre saúde - os sistemas de saúde devem ser robustos e resilientes. […] A resposta desses sistemas deve incluir grupos que agora sofrem de forma desproporcional, os pobres e os vulneráveis. […] A infraestrutura de saúde estará mais bem preparada e será mais equitativa se os sistemas forem fortalecidos com base em competências essenciais e seguirem recomendações com foco em liderança, envolvimento das partes interessadas, acreditação, coleta de dados e recursos de financiamento. […] Garantir a equidade na saúde em uma pandemia requer uma infraestrutura pública de saúde robusta e resiliente, mesmo em tempos normais.
32527341 The clinical data of COVID-19 patients treated in the Second People’ Hospital of Fuyang City from January 20th to February 18th in 2020 were retrospective analyzed, including the demographic and epidemiological date, vital signs and hematology indexes, etc. on admission. […] Patients were divided into the normal type (set as normal group) and severe/critical type (set as severe group) according to the COVID-19 treatment plan classification standard published by National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China. […] The differences between two groups were compared, and the variables with statistical significance were incorporated in the multivariate binary unconditional Logistic regression analysis to screen the risk factors of severe/critical type. […] Risk factors were summarized to establish an early warning model, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was carried out to evaluate the significance of the early warning model in the screening of critically COVID-19. […] (1) Compared with normal group, patients in severe group were older, and with higher proportion of basic diseases, higher body mass index (BMI), higher incidence of tachypnea, persistent high fever, peripheral blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) < 0.95, while the white blood cell count (WBC), CD4+T lymphocyte, CD8+T lymphocyte, lymphocyte count (LYM) were decreased obviously, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid a protein (SAA), and CT showed higher incidence of multi-pulmonary lobe lesions. […] There were no significant differences of gender, travel history from Wuhan, smoking history, shock index (SI) and CD4+/CD8+ ratio between the two groups. […] (2) Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that age ≥ 60 years old [odds ratio (OR) = 1.620, P = 0.031], combined with underlying diseases (OR = 1.521, P = 0.044), persistent high fever (OR = 2.469, P = 0.014), WBC < 2.0×109/L and/or LYM < 0.4×109/L (OR = 3.079, P = 0.006), pulmonary multilobar lesions (OR = 1.367, P = 0.047), and IL-6 ≥ 30 ng/L (OR = 2.426, P = 0.010) were the risk factors of severe/critical COVID-19. […] Two points were scored for age ≥ 60 years old, with underlying diseases, persistent high fever and IL-6 ≥ 30 ng/L, 3 points for WBC < 2.0×109/L and/or LYM < 0.4×109/L, 1 point for pulmonary multilobar lesions, and totally calculated as early warning model scores. […] The early warning model score of the severe group was significantly higher than that of the normal group (9.33±2.79 vs. […] (4) The ROC curve analysis showed the area under ROC curve (AUC) of early warning model on the early screening of severe/critical patients in COVID-19 was 0.944, and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 0.903-0.985; and the sensitivity and specificity were 93.3% and 72.0% respectively while the cut-off was 6.5. […] The establishment of early warning model could help to screen severe/critical patients at an early stage, with certain significance for guiding treatment.
32538806 The document is based on the scarce evidence on SARS/Cov-2 and the experience of the authors in handling COVID-19 in their institutions, including specialists from Andalusia, Cantabria, Catalonia, Madrid and the Valencian Community. […] The authors defined different priorities for the different clinical situations in PC. […] Emergency/urgency (life-threatening or urgent even in normal situation), highpriority/elective urgency (potentially dangerous if postponed for more than 1 month), intermediate/electivepriority (it is recommended not to delay more than 6 months), low priority/delayed (can be postponed more than 6 months). […] According to this classification, the working panel agreed on the distribution of the different diagnostic, therapeutic and follow-up scenarios for PC. […] The risk of severe morbidity as a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection may out weigh the risk of PC morbidity/mortalityin many men; therefore, in the short term it is unlikely that delays in diagnosis or treatment can led to worse cancer outcomes. […] The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a challenge for our health system, which raises several considerations in the treatment of patients with PC. […] The redistribution of surgical procedures according to the degrees of priority is essential during the period of the pandemic and the transition to the new normality. […] Emergencia/urgencia (riesgo vital o urgencia aún en situación de normalidad), alta prioridad/urgencia electiva (potencialmente peligrosa si se pospone más de 1mes), prioridad intermedia/electiva (se recomienda no retrasar más de 6 meses), baja prioridad/demorable (se puede posponer más de 6 meses). […] Acorde a esta clasificación, el grupo de trabajo consensuó la distribución de los diferentes escenarios diagnósticos, terapéuticos y de seguimiento del CP. […] La pandemia COVID-19 ha resultado en un desafío para nuestro sistema de salud, lo que plantea varias consideraciones en el tratamiento de pacientes con CP. […] La planificación de los procedimientos quirúrgicos en función de los grados de prioridades imprescindible durante el periodo de pandemia y transición a la nueva normalidad. […] La reorganización de las consultas incluyendo la adaptación a las medidas de seguridad para profesionales y pacientes y el desarrollo de un programa de telemedicina es altamente recomendable.
32538809 Reducing the usage of chemotherapy with respiratory toxicity and increasing the usage ofgrowth factors during chemotherapy treatment are the main stakeholders of treatment. […] Besides, providing active surveillance on non-risk factor clinical stage I is alsoa priority. […] In case of positive COVID-19, it is important to high light that the vast majority of patients are tentatively cured. […] Establecer la prioridad de los distintos procedimientos diagnósticos, terapéuticos y de seguimiento sobre el cáncer de testículo para adaptarse adecuadamente a la situación asistencial de cada centro. […] Valorar precauciones y adaptaciones durante la situación actual de desescalada en el curso de la pandemia COVID-19. […] Valoración del paciente con cáncer de testículo en presencia de pandemia infectiva.MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Revisión de la literatura relevante publicada hasta la fecha, elaboración de un borrador corregido por técnica de grupo nominal modificada, hasta obtener un documento de consenso entre los autores. […] En ausencia de evidencia científica relevante la mayor parte de las publicaciones, y la conclusiónde los autores, abogan por priorizar los procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos de los pacientes. […] Una vez priorizados será menos complejo adaptar los recursos limitados a las necesidades más perentorias de los pacientes. […] En el cáncer de testículo los procedimientos iniciales que incluyen ecografía escrotal, orquiectomía, estudio de extensión, y tratamiento complementario si necesario, son de máxima necesidad. […] Se propone disminuir el uso de fármacos con potencial toxicidad respiratoria, y aumentar la utilización de los estimulantes de colonias hematopoyéticas, asi como promover seguimiento activo en estadio clínico I sin factores de riesgo. […] Las revisiones de pacientes con remisiones estables pueden retrasarse razonablemente sin excesivo riesgo de progresion en estadios bajos.
32538812 Offer some recommendations or guidelines during the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of diagnosis, treatment and follow-upin the field of Reconstructive Urology. […] MATERIAL AND METHOD: The document is based on the evidence on SARS/Cov-2 and the authors’ experience in managing COVID-19 in their institutions, including specialists from Andalusia, Madrid, Cantabria,the Valencian Community and Catalonia. […] A web and PubMed search was performed using “SARS-CoV-2”, “COVID-19”, “COVID-19 Urology”, “COVID19 urology complications”, “COVID-19 reconstructive surgery”. […] Finally, a definitive version was made, agreed by all the authors (5/22/2020). […] RESULTS: The authors defined the following surgical priorities for Urological Reconstructive Surgery: Emergency/Urgency (life-threatening or emergencies still in anormal situation), Elective Urgency/High priority (potentially dangerous pathology if postponed for more than 1month), Elective Surgery/Intermediate priority (pathology with little probability of being dangerous but it is recommended not to delay more than 6 months), Delayed surgery/Low priority (non-dangerous pathology if it is postponed for more than 6 months). […] According to this classification, the Working Group agreed on the distribution of the different surgical scenarios of Reconstructive Urology. […] In addition, consensus was reached on recommendations regarding the diagnosis and follow-up of pathology in the field of Reconstructive Urology. […] CONCLUSIONS: Tools should be implemented to facilitate the gathering of the medical visit and diagnostic tests. […] Redistribution of surgical procedures based on priority degrees is necessary during the pandemic and transition period. […] Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura (17/5/2020) y tras la técnica de grupo nominal modificada debido a las restricciones extraordinarias, se realizó un primer borrador para unificar criterios y llegar a un rápido consenso. […] Finalmente, se realizó una versión definitiva, consensuada por todos los autores el 22/5/2020. […] RESULTADOS: Los autores definieron para la Cirugía Urológica Reconstructiva las siguientes prioridades quirúrgicas: Emergencia/Urgencia (Riesgo vital o urgencias aún en situación de normalidad), Urgencia Electiva/Alta prioridad (Patología potencialmente peligros asi se pospone más de 1 mes), Cirugía Electiva/Prioridad intermedia (Patología con poca probabilidad de ser peligrosa pero se recomienda no retrasar más de 6 meses), Cirugía demorable/Baja prioridad (Patología no peligrosa si se pospone más de 6 meses). […] Acorde a esta clasificación, el Grupo de Trabajo consensuó la distribución de los diferentes escenarios quirúrgicos de la Urología Reconstructiva. […] CONCLUSIONES: Deben implementarse mecanismos que faciliten la agrupación de la visita médica y pruebas diagnósticas. […] La redistribución de los procedimientos quirúrgicos en función de los grados de prioridad es imprescindible durante el periodo de pandemia y de transición.
32538819 It has also affected urology residents, depriving them of training at their usual workplaces and forcing them to support COVID units. […] This has implied not only the loss of daily activities, but also the uncertainty of job opportunities for the final year residents. […] A review of the current literature on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the de-escalation process, on resident training has been carried out using web search and PubMed. […] The situation of the residents has been analyzed, both through the information generated by recent literature and by the personal experience of the authors, from different areas: evaluation systems, educational and surgical aspects, as well as healthcare work. […] As a result of this review, the negative impact of the crisison urology resident training can be observed, especially in the surgical field, but new learning opportunities or new forms of communication with the patient can also be observed. […] These educational and healthcare resources invite the urology resident in particular, and the medical society in general, to reinvent themselves. […] The aim of this article is to analyse the training of the urology resident in the de-escalation phase. […] Similarly, the emerging educational resources during the pandemic are synthesized, inviting the reader, and especially the urology resident, to continue their training and learningin these times of uncertainty. […] Del mismo modo ha afectado a los residentes de urología, privándoles a los mismos de seguir la formación en sus puestos de trabajo habituales y viéndose obligados a dar apoyo a las unidades COVID. […] Esto ha implicado, no solamente la pérdida de las actividades diarias, si no también la incertidumbre en oportunidades laborales de los residentes de último año. […] Se ha realizado una revisión de la literatura actual sobre el impacto de la pandemia por COVID-19, así como el proceso de desescalada, en la formación de los residentes mediante búsqueda web y en PubMed. […] Se ha analizado la situación de los residentes, tanto através de la información generada por la reciente literatura, como por la experiencia personal de los autores, desde distintos ámbitos: sistemas de evaluación, aspectos docentes y quirúrgicos, así como labor asistencial. […] Como resultado de esta revisión, se observa el impacto negativo de la crisis en la formación del residente en urología, especialmente, en el ámbito quirúrgico, pero también se observan nuevas oportunidades de aprendizaje o formas de comunicación con el paciente. […] Estos recursos educativos y asistenciales invitan al residente de urología en concreto, y a la sociedad médica en general, a reinventarse. […] El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar la formación del residente en urología en la fase de desescalada. […] Del mismo modo, se sintetizan los recursos educativos emergentes durante la pandemia, invitando al lector y, de manera especial al residente de urología, a continuar su formación y aprendizaje ante estos tiempos de incertidumbre.
32558518 If anything is certain, one manifestation of this pandemic is the large amount of information available in the scientific field, many of these without the same methodological rigor as before the pandemic, accentuating the responsibility of the reader to critically analyze all the information. […] Estimado Director: Leyendo su artículo “La pandemia por el nuevo coronavirus covid-19”, me gustaría profundizar los aportes de la sintomatología de esta enfermedad. […] La literatura es rica en cuanto a cefaleas, convulsiones e ictus en los pacientes graves, si bien la primera y última de estas pueden deberse a complicaciones sistémicas de este novel coronavirus, se ha reportado una mayor incidencia de eventos en pacientes con antecedentes de manifestaciones neurológicas(3,4). […] Guidon et al. critican la falta de rigurosidad en los reportes sobre manifestaciones neuromusculares(4). […] Si algo es seguro, una manifestación de esta pandemia es la gran cantidad de información disponible en el ámbito científico, muchas veces de estas sin la misma rigurosidad metodológica anterior a la pandemia, acentuando la responsabilidad del lector de analizar críticamente toda la información.
32566233 There is no report on the serial interval (SI) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Iran, the present report aims to estimate the SI and time-varying R of COVID-19 in western Iran. […] The close contacts of the confirmed cases were identified using telephone follow up of patients and their contacts. […] The SI distribution was used as an alternative. […] We fitted different models using the clinical onset dates of patients with their close contact (infector-infectee). […] Also, we applied a ‘serial interval from sample’ approach as a Bayesian methodology for estimating reproduction number. […] The mean and standard deviation of the SI were estimated as 5.71 and 3.89 days. […] Also, the R varied from 0.83 to 1.84 for 7-day time-lapse and from 0.95 to 1.54 for a 14-day time-lapse using moving average data, respectively.
32578805 The authors performed a series of simulations to estimate the demand for hospital beds (health micro-regions) as well as to ICU beds, and mechanical ventilators (health macro-regions) under different scenarios of intensity (infection rates equivalent to 0.01, 0.1, and 1 case por 100 inhabitants) and time horizons (1, 3, and 6 months). […] The results reveal a critical situation in the system for meeting this potential demand, with numerous health micro-regions and macro-regions operating beyond their capacity, compromising the care for patients, especially those with more severe symptoms. […] Second, the expansion of the number of available beds will be the key. […] The third message involves the regionalized organization of health services, whose design may be adequate in situations of routine demand, but which suffer additional challenges during pandemics, especially if patients have to travel long distances to receive care. […] O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a pressão sobre o sistema de saúde no Brasil decorrente da demanda adicional gerada pela COVID-19. […] Para tanto, foi realizado um conjunto de simulações para estimar a demanda de leitos gerais (microrregiões de saúde), leitos de UTI e equipamentos de ventilação assistida (macrorregiões de saúde) em diferentes cenários, para intensidade (taxas de infecção equivalentes a 0,01, 0,1 e 1 caso por 100 habitantes) e horizontes temporais (1, 3 e 6 meses). […] Os resultados evidenciam uma situação crítica do sistema para atender essa demanda potencial, uma vez que diversas microrregiões e macrorregiões de saúde operariam além de sua capacidade, comprometendo o atendimento a pacientes principalmente aqueles com sintomas mais severos. […] Em primeiro lugar, é necessário reduzir a velocidade de propagação da COVID-19 na população brasileira, permitindo um tempo maior para a reorganização da oferta e aliviando a pressão sobre o sistema de saúde. […] A construção de hospitais de campanha é importante, tanto em locais onde historicamente há vazios assistenciais como também naqueles onde já se observa uma pressão do lado da demanda. […] A terceira mensagem diz respeito à organização regionalizada dos serviços de saúde que, apesar de adequada em situações de demanda usual, em momentos de pandemia este desenho implica desafios adicionais, especialmente se a distância que o paciente tiver de percorrer for muito grande. […] El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la presión sobre el sistema de salud brasileño, ocasionada por la demanda adicional de camas hospitalarias y equipos de ventilación mecánica, generada por el COVID-19. […] Para tal fin, se realizó un conjunto de simulaciones, con el fin de estimar la demanda de camas generales (microrregiones de salud), camas de UTI y equipamientos de ventilación asistida (macrorregiones de salud) en diferentes escenarios, según la intensidad (tasas de infección equivalentes a 0,01, 0,1 y 1 caso por 100 habitantes) y horizontes temporales (1, 3 y 6 meses). […] Los resultados evidencian una situación crítica del sistema para atender esa demanda potencial, ya que diversas microrregiones y macrorregiones de salud operarían más allá de su capacidad, comprometiendo la atención a pacientes principalmente aquellos con los síntomas más graves. […] En primer lugar, es necesario reducir la velocidad de propagación del COVID-19 en la población brasileña, permitiendo un tiempo mayor para la reorganización de la oferta y aliviando la presión sobre el sistema de salud. […] La construcción de hospitales de campaña es importante, tanto en lugares donde históricamente existen lagunas asistenciales, como también en aquellos donde ya se observa una presión por parte de la demanda. […] El tercer mensaje se refiere a la organización por regiones de los servicios de salud que, a pesar de ser adecuada en situaciones de demanda habitual, en momentos de pandemia, este diseño implica desafíos adicionales, especialmente si la distancia que el paciente tuviera que recorrer fuera muy lejana.
32617309 Since the first appearance in Wuhan, China in December 2019, the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has posed serious threats to the public health in many Chinese places and overseas. […] It is essential to quantify the transmissibility on real-time basis for designing public health responses. […] We estimated the time-varying reproduction numbers in China, Hubei province and Wuhan city by using the renewable equation determined by the serial interval (SI) of COVID-19. […] The control of COVID-19 epidemic was effective in substantially reducing the disease transmissibility in terms of the reproduction number in China reduced to 0.98 as of February 16.
32709232 We sought to evaluate the effect of SC on reducing attack rate and the need for critical care during COVID-19 outbreaks, while considering scenarios with concurrent implementation of self-isolation (SI) of symptomatic cases. […] We developed an age-structured agent-based simulation model and parameterized it with the demographics of Ontario stratified by age and the latest estimates of COVID-19 epidemiologic characteristics. […] Disease transmission was simulated within and between different age groups by considering inter- and intra-group contact patterns. […] The effect of SC of varying durations on the overall attack rate, magnitude and peak time of the outbreak, and requirement for intensive care unit (ICU) admission in the population was estimated. […] Secondly, the effect of concurrent community-based voluntary SI of symptomatic COVID-19 cases was assessed. […] SC reduced attack rates in the range of 7.2-12.7% when the duration of SC increased from 3 to 16 weeks, when contacts among school children were restricted by 60-80%, and in the absence of SI by mildly symptomatic persons. […] Depending on the scenario, the overall reduction in ICU admissions attributed to SC throughout the outbreak ranged from 3.3 to 6.7%. […] When SI of mildly symptomatic persons was included and practiced by 20%, the reduction of attack rate and ICU admissions exceeded 6.3% and 9.1% (on average), respectively, in the corresponding scenarios. […] Our results indicate that SC may have limited impact on reducing the burden of COVID-19 without measures to interrupt the chain of transmission during both pre-symptomatic and symptomatic stages. […] While highlighting the importance of SI, our findings indicate the need for better understanding of the epidemiologic characteristics of emerging diseases on the effectiveness of social distancing measures.
32725765 We investigated an outbreak of COVID-19 infection, which was traced back to a bathing pool at an entertainment venue, to explore the epidemiology of the outbreak, understand the transmissibility of the virus and analyse the influencing factors. […] We estimated the secondary attack rate (SAR), incubation time and time-dependent reproductive number (Rt) and explored the predisposing factors for cluster infection. […] The incubation time was 5.4 days and the serial interval (SI) was 4.4 days, with the rate of negative-valued SIs at 24.5%. […] Our findings suggest that the predisposing factors of the outbreak included close contact with an infected person, airtight and crowded spaces, temperature and humidity in the space and untimely isolation of patients and quarantine of contacts at the early stage of transmission.
32754890 Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. […] Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC50 of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells.
32780754 Here, we present a modification of the classical SI model, the Fractal Kinetics SI model which is in excellent agreement with the disease outbreak data available from the World Health Organization.
32794949 Today, there are two clustering mechanisms which prevent of uncontrolled disease propagation in a connected network: an “internal” clustering, which mimics self-isolation (SI) in local naturally arranged communities, and an “external” clustering, which looks like a sharp frontiers closing (FC) between cities and countries, and which does not care about the natural connections of network agents. […] SI networks are “evolutionarily grown” under the condition of maximization of small cliques in the entire network, while FC networks are instantly created. […] Running the standard SIR model on clustered SI and FC networks, we demonstrate that the evolutionary grown clustered network prevents the spread of an epidemic better than the instantly clustered network with similar parameters. […] We find that SI networks have the scale-free property for the degree distribution P(k)∼k^{η}, with a small critical exponent -2
32815514 The basic reproduction number (R0), incubation period, and serial interval (SI) were calculated. […] The median incubation period was 5 days (interquartile range [IQR] = 5, range = 1-11), and the mean SI was 5.4 days (SD = 4.5; 95% CI: 4.3, 6.5). […] Epidemic control was achieved through a combination of public health measures, with emphasis on a test-isolate-trace approach supplemented by travel restrictions and moderate physical distancing measures but no actual lockdown. […] Regular and ongoing testing of high-risk groups to supplement the existing surveillance program and a phased easing of physical distancing measures has helped maintain suppression of the COVID-19 outbreak in Brunei, as evidenced by the identification of only six additional cases from April 5 to August 5, 2020.
32821612 Similar symptoms, signs, and laboratory abnormalities between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pulmonary embolism (PE) creates a diagnostic challenge to every physician, and emerging data show an association between COVID-19, hypercoagulable state, and venous thromboembolism. […] We present a rare case of COVID-19 presented as bilateral sub-massive PE. […] A 28-year-old COVID-19 positive female with no significant past medical history presented with a dry cough and shortness of breath for three days. […] Initial laboratory test showed elevated D-dimer, electrocardiogram (EKG) showed right axis deviation, right ventricular strain pattern, and SI QIII TIII pattern, and echocardiogram (ECHO) showed right ventricular dysfunction. […] Those two bedside tests directed the urgency of chest CT angiography that showed bilateral sub-massive PE. […] Since EKG finding of SI QIII TIII pattern and right ventricular strain, and ECHO finding of right ventricular dysfunction are well described in PE but not in COVID-19, these bedside diagnostic tools can help identify COVID-19 patients with underlining PEs.
32828939 Using the officially published data and aware of the uncertain source and insufficient number of samples, we present a first and (for the moment) unique attempt to study the first two months spread of the pandemic COVID-19 in Madagascar. […] The approach has been tested by predicting the number of contaminated persons for the next week after fitting the inputs data collected within 7 or 15 days using standard least χ2-fit method. […] Pursuing the analysis, one note that data until 46 days favours a cubic polynomial behaviour which signals an eventual near future stronger growth as confirmed by the new data on the 48th day. […] We complete the analysis until 67 days and find that the data until 77 days confirm the cubic polynomial behaviour which is a remarkable feature of the pandemic spread in Madagascar. […] A comparison with some other SI-like models predictions is done. […] The data analysis of the absolute number of cured persons until 67 days shows an approximate linear behaviour with about 3 cured persons per day.
32834063 Since C60 fullerene has been considered as a drug delivery system, the interaction between pristine fullerene and chloroquine drug and also the interaction between B, Al, Si doped fullerene and chloroquine drug have been investigated based on the density functional theory calculations. […] The results of this study show that the doped fullerene, especially Al and Si doped fullerene could be the better drug delivery vehicles for chloroquine drug because of their relatively better energetic and electronic properties with chloroquine.
32835034 With the emergence of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), it is essential that face masks demonstrating significant anti-droplet and hydrophobic characteristics are developed and distributed. […] In this study, a commercial compressed-polyurethane (C-PU) mask was modified by applying a hydrophobic and anti-droplet coating using a silica sol, which was formed by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) under alkaline conditions and hydrolyzed hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTMS) to achieve hydrophobization. […] The modified mask (C-PU/Si/HDTMS) demonstrated good water repellency resulting in high water contact angle (132°) and low sliding angle (17°). […] Unmodified and modified masks were characterized using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). […] Moreover, the coating had negligible effect on the average pore size of the C-PU mask, which retained its high breathability after modification.
32837668 Time was divided into three categories: Before COVID period and COVID period including Previous to Social isolation (SI) and Social Isolation. […] A reduction in the pacemaker implant of 73% (95% CI: 33-113; P < .001) was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic period, and a reduction of 78% of patients with the diagnosis of complete or high-grade atrioventricular block and a reduction in the de-novo pacemaker implant was observed, regardless of the etiology. […] Our results indicate a very significant reduction (73%) in de-novo pacemaker implantation during the months of the COVID-19 pandemic.
32864306 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks in nursing facilities can easily lead to a high rate of infection and fatality. […] A surge in newly infected cases in the first quarter of 2020 in Gyeongsan-si, in the Republic of Korea, was followed by several outbreaks in nursing facilities in the same area. […] The aim of this study is to report on the epidemiological investigation and the management to reduce the infection rate in nursing facilities for older adults. […] The municipal government and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention performed an epidemiological investigation into 5 nursing facilities that reported a high number of COVID-19 infection cases from February to May 2020. […] Tailored strategies such as daily monitoring of symptoms and proactive COVID-19 screening of quarantined residents, contributed to a decline in the infections in the facilities.
32864375 The sharp increase in demand for personal protective equipment (PPE) necessitates an improvement in the protective efficacy of PPE. […] We evaluated the potential antimicrobial and antiviral effects of a surface-coating disinfectant (3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyldimethyl octadecyl ammonium chloride, Si-QAC) when applied onto PPE. […] Si-QAC-pre-coated PPE was artificially contaminated with either influenza virus or Salmonella. […] The results showed significantly reduced influenza and Salmonella titers in Si-QAC-coated PPE; these antimicrobial effects lasted 7 days. […] This suggests that this surface-coating disinfectant effectively reduces pathogen contamination of PPE, enabling their safe and long-term use.
32876206 To determine the probability of controlling the outbreak of COVID-19 in Peru, in a pre- and post-quarantine scenario using mathematical simulation models. […] Outbreak si mulations for the COVID-19 pandemic are performed, using stochastic equations under the following assumptions: a pre-quarantine population R0 of 2.7 or 3.5, a post-quarantine R0 of 1.5, 2 or 2.7, 18% or 40%, of asymptomatic positives and a maximum response capacity of 50 or 150 patients in the intensive care units. […] In the pre-quarantine stage, success in controlling more than 80% of the simulations occurred only if the isolation of positive cases was implemented from the first case, after which there was less than 40% probability of success. […] In post-quarantine, with 60 positive cases it is necessary to isolate them early, track all of their contacts and decrease the R0 to 1.5 for outbreak control to be successful in more than 80% of cases. […] The control of the outbreak in Peru during pre-quarantine stage demanded requirements that were difficult to comply with, therefore quarantine was necessary; to successfully suspend it would require a significant reduction in the spread of the disease, early isolation of positives and follow-up of all contacts of positive patients.
32876570 All patients underwent both chest CT and RT-PCR at first admission. […] Clinical findings, laboratory findings, radiologic features and CT severity index (CT-SI) of the patients were noted. […] The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of chest CT were calculated for the diagnosis of COVID-19, using RT-PCR as reference. […] The laboratory-confirmed and clinically diagnosed COVID-19 groups consisted of 69 (M/F 43/26, mean age 50.9±14.0 years) and 51 patients (M/F 24/27, mean age 50.9±18.8 years), respectively. […] 27.5%) were the most common admission symptoms in the laboratory-confirmed and clinically diagnosed COVID-19 groups, respectively. […] 50.0%), intralobular reticular density (40.0% vs. […] Positive correlation was found between CT-SI and, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP) values in the laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 subgroup. […] Chest CT and RT-PCR positivity rates among patients with suspected COVID-19 were 87.5% (105/120) and 57.5% (69/120), respectively. […] The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy rates of chest CT were determined as 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 85.8-98.4), 21.57% (95% CI, 11.3-35.3), 61.90% (95% CI, 58.2-65.5), 73.3% (95% CI, 48.2-89.1) and 63.3% (95% CI, 54.1-71.9), respectively. […] Chest CT has high sensitivity and low specificity in the diagnosis of COVID-19. […] The clinical, laboratory, and CT findings of laboratory-confirmed and clinically diagnosed COVID-19 patients are similar.
32888982 A quantitative correlational research study was conducted, using a web-based survey. […] A significant decline in the mean well-being scores during the quarantine, compared to before, was reported. […] A positive correlation between the well-being scores and the number of sexual intercourse (SI) before and during the quarantine was found. […] The mean number of SI decreased significantly during the quarantine. […] About 1124 respondents (71.3%) did not report sexual desire (SD) reduction. […] A positive association between SD and SI during the quarantine was found. […] In those who reported decreased masturbation activity, the main causes were poor privacy (46.4%) and lack of desire (34.7%). […] However, the majority of quarantined participants experienced reduced number of SI per week, with poor household privacy and lack of psychological stimuli as cited causes, even as a majority did not report reduced autoeroticism.
32904626 Hence, complex dynamics in a susceptible-infected (SI) model for COVID-19 with multi-drug resistance (MDR) and its fractional-order counterpart are investigated. […] Existence of positive solution in fractional-order model is discussed. […] Local stability based on the fractional Routh-Hurwitz (FRH) conditions is considered. […] All these FRH conditions are also applied to discuss local stability of the multi-drug resistance steady states.
33006723 We report the clinical and immunological features in a case of SARS-CoV-2-induced Guillain-Barré syndrome (Si-GBS), suggesting that (1) Si-GBS can develop even after paucisymptomatic COVID-19 infection; (2) a distinctive cytokine repertoire is associated with this autoimmune complication, with increased CSF concentration of IL-8, and moderately increased serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α; (3) a particular genetic predisposition can be relevant, since the patient carried several HLA alleles known to be associated with GBS, including distinctive class I (HLA-A33) and class II alleles (DRB103:01 and DQB105:01). […] In conclusion, our study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 antibodies need to be searched in the serum and CSF in patients with GBS living in endemic areas, even in the absence of a clinically severe COVID-19 infection, and that IL-8 pathway can be relevant in Si-GBS pathogenesis.
33045908 All cases had paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT), and cases with OD had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dedicated to the olfactory nerve. […] The OC width and volumes were measured on CT, and T2-weighted signal intensity (SI), olfactory bulb volumes, and olfactory sulcus depths were assessed on MRI. […] This study showed 3 major findings: the right and left OC widths were significantly wider in anosmic patients due to SARS-CoV-2 (group 1) or OD due to non-SARS-CoV-2 viral infection (group 2) when compared to healthy controls. […] OC volumes were significantly higher in group 1 or 2 than in healthy controls, and T2 SI of OC area was higher in groups 1 and 2 than in healthy controls. […] There was no significant difference in olfactory bulb volumes and olfactory sulcus depths on MRI among groups 1 and 2. […] In addition, there was higher T2 SI of the olfactory bulb in COVID-19 anosmia compared to control subjects, suggesting underlying inflammatory changes. […] There was a significant negative correlation between these morphological findings and threshold discrimination identification scores.
33076559 )-oxazolone (Oz), guanidinoformimine (Gf), guanidinohydantoin/iminoallantoin (Gh/Ia), spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantoin (2Ih), urea (Ua), 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole (NI), spirodi(iminohydantoin) (5-Si and 8-Si), triazine, the M+7 product, other products by peroxynitrite, alkylated guanines, and 8,5’-cyclo-2’-deoxyguanosine (cG). […] Of these products, Iz is involved in G-C transversions. […] An involvement of Gf, 2Ih, Ua, 5-Si, 8-Si, triazine, the M+7 product, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dioxo-imidazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (HICA) in G-C transversions requires further experiments. […] In addition, we describe base pairs that target the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of RNA viruses and describe implications for the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): When products of oxidative guanine damage are adapted for the ribonucleoside analogs, mimics of oxidative guanine damages, which can form base pairs, may become antiviral agents for SARS-CoV-2.
33160024 > 25 μM), with a selectivity index (SI) of 30.7. […] The present study identified that cyclic sulfonamide derivatives are a promising new template for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents.
33165967 In this paper we highlight the impact which the disruption of secondary care ophthalmic services, resulting from COVID-19, has had on Sight Impairment (SI) and Severe Sight Impairment (SSI) certification in Northern Ireland. […] Regional data on SI and SSI certification in the period after the onset of the lockdown (19 March 2020-18 June 2020) were compared to the period immediately before lockdown (1 January 2020-18 March 2020) and to the same periods in 2019. […] In 2019, during the 3-month period (19 March 2019-18 June 2019), 115 individuals were certified as sight impaired (SI 36, SSI 75, unspecified 4). […] In the 3 months following the onset of lockdown (19 March 2020-18 June 2020), only 37 individuals were certified (SI 6, SSI 31), 12 female and 25 male. […] AMD was the most frequent cause of sight impairment (N = 20). […] There was a significant reduction in the proportion of female certifications (p = 0.01), and in certifications due to glaucoma (p = 0.02). […] The proportion of those certified as SSI as opposed to SI in the period after the onset of lockdown rose from 68% in 2019 to 84% in 2020. […] It is inconceivable that COVID-19 has reduced the incidence of sight-threatening eye disease. […] We must therefore assume that a flood of newly presenting sight loss will present once the pandemic has passed. […] The implications of the predicted increase in demand for medical, social and low vision related services are huge.
33187883 To evaluate PEARLS effectiveness for increasing social connectedness among underserved older adults with depression. […] Multisite, pre-post single-group evaluation. […] Community-based social service organizations (N = 16) in five U.S. states, purposively sampled for maximum variation of participants and providers. […] A total of 320 homebound older adults (mean(SD) age 72.9(9.6), 79% female, 44% people of color, 81% low-income, 61% living alone, average four chronic conditions) with clinically significant depression (PHQ-9 mean(SD) 12.7(4.6)). […] Four to 6 month home-based depression care management model delivered by trained front-line providers. […] Brief validated social connectedness scales: Duke Social Support Index 10-item (DSSI-10), PROMIS-Social Isolation (6-item), UCLA-Loneliness (3-item); sociodemographic and health measures. […] Six-months post-PEARLS enrollment, participants significantly increased social interactions and satisfaction with social support (DSSI-10 t[312] = 5.2, p <0.001); and reduced perceived isolation (PROMIS t[310] = 6.3, p <0.001); and loneliness (UCLA t[301] = 3.7, p =0.002), with small to moderate effect sizes (Cohen’s d DSSI-10: 0.28, PROMIS-SI: 0.35, UCLA: 0.21). […] Increased social connectedness was associated with reduced depression. […] Improvements in social connectedness (except social interactions) persisted during early COVID-19. […] Being Latino and/or having difficulty paying for basic needs was associated with less improvement in post-PEARLS social connectedness.
33187911 However, the empirical use of antibiotics is still confusing. […] Presently, a total of 1123 patients with COVID-19 admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University was included in this retrospective cohort study. […] As a result, 473 patients were selected to suspected bacterial infection (SI) group based on higher white blood cell count and procalcitonin or bacterial pneumonia on chest radiography. 650 patients were selected to the no evidence of bacterial infection (NI) group. […] The SI group had more severely ill patients (70.2% vs. […] In conclusion, patients with suspected bacterial infection were more likely to have negative clinical outcomes than those without bacterial infection.
33214421 The aim of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyze all literature reporting the basic reproductive number (R0), effective reproductive number (Re or Rt), and the serial interval (SI) values of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. […] One of the parameters which influence the calculations is the SI, the period between symptom onset in an infector and an infectee. […] A continuous random-effect model was applied using the DerSimonian-Laird (inverse variance) method. […] Our results demonstrated the mean SI was 5.45 days, with the 95% confidence interval (CI) of 4.23 to 6.66. […] Subgroup analysis by geographical region and date of publication revealed variations over both time and geography in calculated R0 and Rt values.
33271440 This paper, the last in the Special Issue (SI) on the SHAMISEN project, presents an overview of the SHAMISEN Recommendations for Preparedness and Health Surveillance of Populations Affected by a Radiation Accident. […] The recommendations are based on the lessons learnt from previous nuclear accidents, and the engagement activities with different stakeholder groups, described in the other papers of this SI. […] The recommendations are subdivided by topic: health surveillance, epidemiological studies, dose reconstruction, evacuation, and training of and communication with health personnel and other actors involved in liaising with affected populations.
33285430 Moreover, as the α-keto group has two faces Si or Re for the nucleophilic attack, we considered both possibilities of attack leading to S- and R-thiohemiketal. […] We computed the structural, electronic, and energetic parameters of all stationary points including transition states via ONIOM and pure DFT method. […] Additionally, to characterize covalent, weak noncovalent interaction (NCI) and hydrogen-bonds, we applied NCI-reduced density gradient (NCI-RDG) methods along with Bader’s Quantum Theory of Atoms-in-Molecules (QTAIM) and natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis.
33300900 Self-immolation (SI) is the key principle of ProTide nucleotide prodrugs such as remdesivir, which is currently used to treat COVID-19 patients. […] Developing novel tailor-made SI systems requires new analytical methods for the detection and monitoring of SI. […] We developed a robust method for SI analysis using novel phosphate-based SI linkers with NMR traceable cyclic intermediates to distinguish SI from alternative fragmentation pathways and to monitor cargo release in real time.
33314245 Sputum induction (SI) is the gold standard approach to the non-invasive study of airway inflammation. […] The differential count of inflammatory cells for SI allows patients with asthma to be classified according to inflammatory phenotypes and predicted therapeutic responses. […] Since SI involves the generation of aerosols, there is a need to establish a protocol to ensure biosafety in clinical practice during the current COVID-19 pandemic. […] The multidisciplinary consensus on SI described in this article was developed by 22 experts in SI from different Spanish hospitals who drew on available scientific evidence in achieving consensuated opinions, compiled by means of an electronic survey. […] We hope that these unified criteria and recommendations will guide health professionals in implementing SI sampling and processing procedures as safely as possible during the COVID-19 pandemic.
33345704 El mundo, después de la pandemia de la COVID-19, no será el mismo que existía y ni tan siquiera eso es deseable. […] Si, desde Bogotá - 1992, la Declaración de Promoción de la Salud denuncia la pobreza como el mayor determinante social de enfermedades en la región, los gobiernos parecen ignorarla, debilitando los sistemas de salud, educación, ciencia y tecnología, transferencia de ingresos y asistencia social bajo los auspicios de la austeridad fiscal, favoreciendo el aumento de la desigualdad. […] Usando datos de tres países, Argentina, Brasil y Chile: 1) se señalan sus bajas inmunidades sociales anteriores a la pandemia; 2) se analizan sus políticas públicas en respuesta a la pandemia, considerando los diferentes enfoques de intervención en salud: grupos de riesgo, población, vulnerabilidad y proporcionalismo universal; y, 3) se indica cómo la Promoción de la Salud (PS) podría influir sobre las políticas públicas para no volver al mundo que existía, usando como ancla dos documentos lanzados durante la pandemia y que explicitan la lente epistémica de la comunidad global de la PS en cinco puntos: intersectorialidad, sostenibilidad, empoderamiento, compromiso con la salud pública y equidad, y perspectiva de curso de vida.
33351364 En Berkeley Inglaterra en1749 nace Edward Jenner, el hombre que cambió la historia de la medicina.En 1796 ya siendo médico visitaba tambos y observaba con espíritu crítico, las pústulas de las ordeñadoras ocasionadas por la viruela vacuna. […] Jenner sabía por Lady Montagu (esposa del embajador ingles en Turquía) que allí inoculaban desde 1721 virus de lesiones de viruela humana. […] Si bien algunos se inmunizaban, un gran número moría. […] En sus visitas a las ordeñadoras, una de ellas le dijo que no tenía miedo a la viruela porque estaba protegida por la contaminación vacuna.
33357626 Si nous avons encore peu de recul sur cet épisode, plusieurs pistes se dessinent : nouvelle narration collective de l’événement, banalisation de l’état d’exception, prolifération de l’information, présence renforcée de la science dans le débat, intolérance au risque et à la mort… Autant d’éléments qui posent les jalons d’un nouveau paradigme encore en cours de construction.
33387629 Chlorpromazine (CPZ), an antipsychotic from the phenothiazine group, is known to inhibit clathrin-mediated endocytosis and has antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-1 (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. […] Cell viability was assessed in non-infected cells. of 23.1 µM and SI of 2.04. values measured in vitro may translate to CPZ dosages used in routine clinical practice because of the high biodistribution of CPZ in lungs and saliva. […] These preclinical findings support clinical investigation of the repurposing of CPZ, a drug with mild side effects, in the treatment of patients with COVID-19.
33392618 Fifteen patients with brain metastases were immobilized using a BB without a medical mask, while 15 patients were immobilized without using a BB and with a medical mask. […] The intra-SEs in six directions (anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), left-right (LR), pitch, roll, and yaw) were calculated by using cone-beam computed tomography images acquired before and after the treatments. […] We analyzed a total of 53 and 67 treatment sessions for the with- and without-BB groups, respectively. […] A comparable absolute mean translational and rotational intra-SE was observed (P > 0.05) in the AP (0.19 vs 0.23 mm with- and without-BB, respectively), SI (0.30 vs 0.29 mm), LR (0.20 vs 0.29 mm), pitch (0.18 vs 0.27°), roll (0.23 vs 0.23°) and yaw (0.27 vs 22°) directions. […] No statistically significant correlation was observed between the intra-SE and treatment times.
33447325 We sought to investigate the trajectory of cardiac catheterizations for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) during the pre-isolation (PI), strict-isolation (SI), and relaxed-isolation (RI) periods of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic at three hospitals in Los Angeles, CA, USA. […] A retrospective analysis was conducted on adult patients undergoing urgent or emergent cardiac catheterization for suspected ACS or OHCA between January 1, 2020 and June 2, 2020 at three hospitals in Los Angeles, CA, USA. […] We designated January 1, 2020 to March 17, 2020 as the PI COVID-19 period, March 18, 2020 to May 5, 2020 as the SI COVID-19 period, and May 6, 2020 to June 2, 2020 as the RI COVID-19 period. […] From PI to SI, there was a significant reduction in mean weekly cases of catheterizations for non-ST elevation myocardial infarction/unstable angina (NSTEMI/UA) (8.29 vs. […] From SI to RI, mean weekly cases of catheterizations for total ACS increased by 17%, NSTEMI/UA increased by 27%, and OHCA increased by 32%, demonstrating a “rebound effect”.
33458697 According to the data of April 22nd, 2020, more than 4.6 million people have been screened, in which the infection has made more than 2.7 million people positive, in which 182,740 people have died due to infection. […] More than 80 countries have closed their borders from transitioning countries, ordered businesses to close, instructed their populations to self-quarantine, and closed schools to an estimated 1.5 billion children. […] It is estimated that by now the virus could exceed global economic growth by more than 2.0% per month if the current situation persists. […] In addition, the research considers the top five other tax revenue sources like S&P500 (GPSC), Crude oil (CL = F), Gold (GC = F), Silver (SI = F), Natural Gas (NG = F), iShares 20 + Year Treasury Bond (TLT), and correlate with the COVID-19. […] To fulfill the statistical analysis purpose this research uses publically available data from yahoo finance, IMF, and John Hopkins COVID-19 map with regression models that revealed a moderated positive correlation between them. […] This research can support how policymakers, business strategy makers, and investors can understand the situation and use the model for prediction.
33465295 Between 15 and 30 April 2020, hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent an objective assessment of olfactory function with the Smell Identification subtest of the Sniffin’ Sticks Test (SI-SST). […] Association between viral recovery and SI-SST performance was evaluated. 51 patients were enrolled (49% males, mean age 66.2 ± 14.6 years). […] The relative risk for hyposmic patients to be still positive at swab test was 10.323 (95% CI 1.483-71.869, p < .0001). […] Logistic regression analysis showed an independent and significant correlation between viral clearance and SI-SST scores (OR = 2.242; 95% CI 1.322-3.802, p < .003). […] ROC curve analysis confirmed that a SI-SST > 10.5 predicts viral clearance with 79% sensitivity and 87% specificity (AUC = 0.883). […] SI-SST is an easy and safe instrument, and further large multicentric studies should assess its value to predict infection and recovery.
33489297 The article is devoted to the parameters identification in the SI model. […] We consider several methods, starting with an exponential fit to the early cumulative data of SARS-CoV2 in mainland China. […] The last part of the paper is devoted to some numerical algorithms to fit a daily piecewise constant rate of transmission.
33490015 Thus, overall both SI and GI decrease when generation increases.
33535459 The selective index (SI) of native HDL was calculated to be 1.52. […] In conclusion, native HDL shows potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 without cytotoxicity, while the glycation of HDL impairs its antiviral activity. […] These results may explain why patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension are more sensitive to a COVID-19 infection and have a higher risk of mortality.
33558865 This study characterizes suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts (SA) in a sample of adolescents psychiatrically hospitalized during COVID-19. […] Rates of SI and SA are compared to a historical hospital sample from a matched period in the year prior. […] Associations between specific stressors and COVID-related SI are also explored. […] This cross-sectional chart review utilizes hospital intake data, including self-reports of SA, SI (general and COVID-related), and COVID-specific stressors. […] SA and SI ratings were higher in the COVID-19 sample compared to the historical sample. […] Stressors related to missing special events, financial problems, in-home conflict, and changes in living circumstances were associated with COVID-related SI. […] Among first-time admissions, several interpersonal stressors were linked to COVID-related SI. […] Analyses were cross-sectional, limiting our ability to draw conclusions about causality.
33564274 Remdesivir has been recognized as an important medicine in the control of COVID-19 illness. […] Since carbon nanotubes were considered in the design of novel drug delivery vehicles, the interaction between simple CNT, functionalized CNT by carboxylic group and S-, Al-, and Si-doped CNT and Remdesivir drug were studied using density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations. […] The results of this work show that the Si-doped CNT is the best drug delivery system for Remdesivir due to its better electronic, energetic, adsorption and thermodynamic properties.
33570736 We report our experience and patient outcomes from setting up a “COVID protected” robotic unit for colorectal and renal surgery that housed both the da Vinci Si (Intuitive, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) and the Versius (CMR Surgical, Cambridge, UK) robotic systems. […] There were no instances of in-patient coronavirus transmission. […] Six rectal cancer patients waited more than 62 days for their surgery because of the initial COVID peak but none had an increase T-stage between pre-operative staging and post-operative histology.