HMGB1


high mobility group box 1


Gene Context Sentence


Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of HMGB1 gene in 2 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32380958 The endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule HMGB1 initiates inflammation via two separate pathways. […] Disulfide-HMGB1 triggers TLR4 receptors generating pro-inflammatory cytokine release. […] Extracellular HMGB1, released from dying cells or secreted by activated innate immunity cells, forms complexes with extracellular DNA, RNA and other DAMP or pathogen-associated molecular (DAMP) molecules released after lytic cell death. […] These complexes are endocytosed via RAGE, constitutively expressed at high levels in the lungs only, and transported to the endolysosomal system, which is disrupted by HMGB1 at high concentrations. […] It is conceivable that extracellular SARS-CoV-2 RNA may reach the cellular cytosol via HMGB1-assisted transfer combined with lysosome leakage. […] Extracellular HMGB1 generally exists in vivo bound to other molecules, including PAMPs and DAMPs. […] It is plausible that these complexes are specifically removed in the lungs revealed by a 40% reduction of HMGB1 plasma levels in arterial versus venous blood. […] Abundant pulmonary RAGE expression enables endocytosis of danger molecules to be destroyed in the lysosomes at physiological HMGB1 levels, but causing detrimental inflammasome activation at high levels. […] Based on these observations we propose extracellular HMGB1 to be considered as a therapeutic target for COVID-19.
32592716 At the intracellular and circulating levels, GLR can trap the high mobility group box 1 protein and thus blocks the alarmin functions of HMGB1.