HR


HR lysine demethylase and nuclear receptor corepressor


Gene Context Sentence


Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of HR gene in 68 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32167524 In bivariate Cox regression analysis, risk factors associated with the development of ARDS and progression from ARDS to death included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 3.26; 95% CI 2.08-5.11; and HR, 6.17; 95% CI, 3.26-11.67, respectively), neutrophilia (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.09-1.19; and HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17, respectively), and organ and coagulation dysfunction (eg, higher lactate dehydrogenase [HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.44-1.79; and HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.11-1.52, respectively] and D-dimer [HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; and HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04, respectively]). […] High fever (≥39 °C) was associated with higher likelihood of ARDS development (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.11-2.84) and lower likelihood of death (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.21-0.82). […] Among patients with ARDS, treatment with methylprednisolone decreased the risk of death (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.20-0.72).
32217650 After adjusting for age and smoking status, COPD [hazards ratio (HR) 2.681, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.424-5.048], diabetes (HR 1.59, 95%CI 1.03-2.45), hypertension (HR 1.58, 95%CI 1.07-2.32) and malignancy (HR 3.50, 95%CI 1.60-7.64) were risk factors of reaching to the composite endpoints. […] The HR was 1.79 (95%CI 1.16-2.77) among patients with at least one comorbidity and 2.59 (95%CI 1.61-4.17) among patients with two or more comorbidities.
32224151 In this retrospective cohort study, we included cancer patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 from three designated hospitals in Wuhan, China. […] If the last anti-tumour treatment was within 14 days, it significantly increased the risk of developing severe events (HR=4.079, 95%CI 1.086-15.322, P=0.037). […] Furthermore, patchy consolidation on CT on admission was associated with a higher risk for developing severe events (HR=5.438, 95%CI 1.498-19.748, P=0.010).
32236856 To review the chest computed tomography (CT) findings on the ultra-high-resolution CT (U-HRCT) in patients with the Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] In February 2020, six consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (median age, 69 years) underwent U-HR CT imaging. […] U-HR-CT has a larger matrix size of 1024 × 1024 thinner slice thickness of 0.25 mm and can demonstrate terminal bronchioles in the normal lungs; as a result, Reid’s secondary lobules and their abnormalities can be identified. […] The distribution and hallmarks (ground-glass opacity, consolidation with or without architectural distortion, linear opacity, crazy paving) of the lung opacities on U-HRCT were visually evaluated on a 1 K monitor by two experienced reviewers. […] All cases showed crazy paving pattern in U-HRCT. […] U-HRCT can evaluate not only the distribution and hallmarks of COVID-19 pneumonia but also visualize local lung volume loss.
32240670 Symptoms of dyspnea (HR 2.35, P = 0.001), comorbidities including cardiovascular disease (HR 1.86, P = 0.031) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 2.24, P = 0.023), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (HR 29.33, P < 0.001) were strong predictors of death. […] And a high level of lymphocytes was predictive of better outcome (HR 0.10, P < 0.001). […] Dyspnea, lymphocytopenia, comorbidities including cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute respiratory distress syndrome were predictive of poor outcome.
32266987 Cox proportional hazards regression analysis indicated no association between corticosteroid treatment and virus clearance time (hazard ratio [HR], 1.26; 95% CI, 0.58-2.74), hospital length of stay (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.33-1.78), or duration of symptoms (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.40-1.83). […] Univariate analysis indicated that virus clearance was slower in two patients with chronic hepatitis B infections (mean difference, 10.6 days; 95% CI, 6.2-15.1 days).
32269086 Patients in Hubei [severe event rate 23.0% versus 11.1%, death rate 7.3% versus 0.3%, hazards ratio (HR) for critical illness 1.59, 95%CI 1.05-2.41] have a poorer prognosis compared with patients outside of Hubei after adjusting for age and comorbidity. […] However, among patients outside of Hubei, the duration from symptom onset to hospitalisation (mean: 4.4 versus 4.7 days) and prognosis (HR 0.84, 95%CI 0.40-1.80) were similar between patients with or without Wuhan-related exposure. […] In the overall population, the waiting time, but neither treated in Hubei nor Wuhan-related exposure, remained an independent prognostic factor (HR 1.05, 1.01-1.08).
32283185 Secondary endpoints included acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease GVHD, non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse/progression and disease-free survival (DFS). […] In matched pair regression analysis, graft cryopreservation was not associated with a significantly higher risk of mortality (Hazard Ratio for cryopreserved versus fresh [HR] =1.05, 95% confidence interval, 0.86-1.29, p=0.60). […] Similarly, rates neutrophil recovery (HR=0.91, 0.80-1.02, p=0.12), platelet recovery (HR=0.88, 0.78-1.00, p=0.05), grade 3-4 acute GVHD (HR=0.78, 0.50-1.22, p=0.27), NRM (HR=1.16, 0.86-1.55, p=0.32) and relapse/progression (HR=1.21, 0.97-1.50, p=0.09) were similar with cryopreserved versus fresh grafts. […] There were somewhat lower rates chronic GVHD (HR=0.78, 0.61-0.99, p=0.04) and DFS (HR for treatment failure=1.19, 95%CI=1.01-1.29, p=0.04) with graft cryopreservation that were of marginal statistical significance after adjusting for multiple comparisons.
32283877 Myocardial injury was an important prognostic factor of COVID-19 (HR=5.382, 95%CI 2.404-12.05, P<0.001). […] 多因素Cox回归分析显示,心肌损伤是COVID-19患者临床预后的重要预测因子(HR=5.382,95%CI 2.404~12.05, P<0.001)。
32302265 In mixed-effect Cox model treating site as a random effect, after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, and in-hospital medications, the detected risk for all-cause mortality was lower in the ACEI/ARB group versus the non-ACEI/ARB group (adjusted HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.19-0.92; P =0.03). […] In a propensity score-matched analysis followed by adjusting imbalanced variables in mixed-effect Cox model, the results consistently demonstrated lower risk of COVID-19 mortality in patients who received ACEI/ARB versus those who did not receive ACEI/ARB (adjusted HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.15-0.89; P = 0.03). […] Further subgroup propensity score-matched analysis indicated that, compared to use of other antihypertensive drugs, ACEI/ARB was also associated with decreased mortality (adjusted HR, 0.30; 95%CI, 0.12-0.70; P = 0.01) in COVID-19 patients with hypertension. Conclusions: Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with hypertension, inpatient use of ACEI/ARB was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality compared with ACEI/ARB non-users.
32304772 The goal of the current study was to investigate the potential risk factors associated with fatal outcomes from COVID-19 through a multivariate Cox regression analysis and a nomogram model. […] A retrospective cohort of 1,590 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 throughout China was established. […] In this nationwide cohort, nonsurvivors included a higher incidence of elderly people and subjects with coexisting chronic illness, dyspnea, and laboratory abnormalities on admission compared with survivors. […] Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age ≥ 75 years (hazard ratio [HR], 7.86; 95% CI, 2.44-25.35), age between 65 and 74 years (HR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.24-9.5), coronary heart disease (HR, 4.28; 95% CI, 1.14-16.13), cerebrovascular disease (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.07-8.94), dyspnea (HR, 3.96; 95% CI, 1.42-11), procalcitonin level > 0.5 ng/mL (HR, 8.72; 95% CI, 3.42-22.28), and aspartate aminotransferase level > 40 U/L (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-6.73) were independent risk factors associated with fatal outcome.
32304994 To accumulate evidence that indicated the key role played by virus-triggered inflammation in the 2019-novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) which emerged in Wuhan City and rapidly spread throughout China. […] The receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to determine the thresholds for five bio-markers, and their prognostic values were assessed via the Kaplan-Meier curve and multivariate COX regression models. […] The binary logistic analysis identified elevated NLR (hazard risk [HR] 2.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.98-4.57) and age (HR 2.52, 95% CI 1.65-4.83) as independent factors for poor clinical outcome of COVID-19.
32306492 Patients with D-dimer levels≥2.0 µg/ml had a higher incidence of mortality when comparing to those who with D-dimer levels < 2.0 µg/ml (12/67 vs 1/267, P<0.001, HR:51.5, 95%CI:12.9-206.7).
32327003 Vitals on scene were HR 110, BP 135/90, SpO2 88% on room air.
32335406 Age older than 45 years (hazard ratio, HR: 0.378; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.205-0.698) and chest tightness (HR: 0.290; 95%CI: 0.091-0.919) were factors indecently affecting negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA.
32337591 Cox regression results showed a significantly shorter viral positivity duration was related to younger [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.658, p = 0.017], not severe patient (HR = 0.653, p = 0.076), higher count of lymphocytes (HR = 1.464, p = 0.033), eosinophils (HR = 1.514, p = 0.020) and CD8+ T cells (HR=1.745, p=0.033), and lower IL-6 (HR = 0.664, p = 0.036) and IL-10 (HR = 0.631, p = 0.021). […] Multivariate analysis with covariables adjusted results showed that the count of CD8+ T cells (HR=2.376, p=0.114) was a predominant risk factor for the SARS-CoV-2 viral positivity duration.
32340095 The influencing factors for severe illness or worse included male (aHR=1.87, 95%CI: 1.43-2.46), older age (aHR=1.67, 95%CI: 1.51-1.85), seeking medical care on day 2-3 after onset (aHR=1.73, 95%CI: 1.20-2.50) pre-existing diabetes (aHR=1.75, 95%CI: 1.12-2.73) and hypertension (aHR=1.49, 95%CI: 1.06-2.09). Conclusions: The course of illness and length of hospitalization of COVID-19 cases were generally long and associated with severity of disease clinical outcomes. […] 病例出现重症的影响因素包括男性(aHR=1.87, 95%CI:1.43~2.46)、年龄较大(aHR=1.67,95%CI:1.51~1.85)、发病至首诊第2~3天就诊(aHR=1.73,95%CI:1.20~2.50)、合并糖尿病(aHR=1.75,95%CI:1.12 ~2.73)、合并高血压(aHR=1.49,95%CI:1.06~2.09)。
32345579 The HR was 1.53 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.30; p=0.041) after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease by Cox regression.
32352397 Objectives In December 2019, there was an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, and since then, the disease has been increasingly spread throughout the world. […] Multivariate Cox analysis showed that the neutrophil count (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.441, 95% CI = 1.954-10.090, p = 0.000), lymphocyte count (HR = 0.255, 95% CI = 0.097-0.669, p = 0.006) and platelet count (HR = 0.244, 95% CI = 0.111-0.537, p = 0.000) were independent risk factors for disease progression.
32352633 Reperfusion was achieved with rescue coronary angioplasty, but the patient experienced two episodes of acute stent thrombosis at 2- and 36-hr following admission and despite optimal medical therapy. […] This raises concerns about a possible increase in platelet aggregability associated with COVID-19 leading to an increased risk of stent thrombosis, particularly in the context of STEMI. […] In addition, the use of GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors may be considered in every STEMI patient with COVID-19 to prevent the risk of acute stent thrombosis.
32353549 Univariate regression indicated no association between pregnancy and severity of disease (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.08-5.15; p=0.76), virus clearance time (HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.65-2.01; p=0.62), and length of hospital stay (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.66-1.84; p=0.71).
32359035 TCZ administration within 6 days from admission in the hospital was associated with an increased likelihood of survival (HR 2.2 95%CI 1.3-6.7, p<0.05).
32369666 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to systemic coagulation activation and thrombotic complications. […] We investigated the incidence of objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism (VTE) in 198 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in a single-center cohort study. […] During a median follow-up of 7 days (IQR, 3-13), 39 patients (20%) were diagnosed with VTE of whom 25 (13%) had symptomatic VTE, despite routine thrombosis prophylaxis. […] VTE appeared to be associated with death (adjusted HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.02-5.5). […] The observed risk for VTE in COVID-19 is high, particularly in ICU patients, which should lead to a high level of clinical suspicion and low threshold for diagnostic imaging for DVT or PE.
32369736 We found that subjects with T2D required more medical interventions and had a significantly higher mortality (7.8% versus 2.7%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49) and multiple organ injury than the non-diabetic individuals. […] Further, we found that well-controlled BG (glycemic variability within 3.9 to 10.0 mmol/L) was associated with markedly lower mortality compared to individuals with poorly controlled BG (upper limit of glycemic variability exceeding 10.0 mmol/L) (adjusted HR, 0.14) during hospitalization.
32379729 In an adjusted time-to-event analysis, black patients were not more likely than were nonblack patients to receive invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or to die during hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-1.13).
32381264 We recently reported a high cumulative incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of three Dutch hospitals. […] We re-evaluated the incidence of the composite outcome of symptomatic acute pulmonary embolism (PE), deep-vein thrombosis, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction and/or systemic arterial embolism in all COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICUs of 2 Dutch university hospitals and 1 Dutch teaching hospital from ICU admission to death, ICU discharge or April 22nd 2020, whichever came first. […] All patients received pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. […] The majority of thrombotic events were PE (65/75; 87%). […] In the competing risk model, chronic anticoagulation therapy at admission was associated with a lower risk of the composite outcome (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.29, 95%CI 0.091-0.92). […] Patients diagnosed with thrombotic complications were at higher risk of all-cause death (HR 5.4; 95%CI 2.4-12). […] Use of therapeutic anticoagulation was not associated with all-cause death (HR 0.79, 95%CI 0.35-1.8). […] In this updated analysis, we confirm the very high cumulative incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
32383530 After 96 hr, all the suggestions that had been shared by 22 clinicians were collated to provide timely advice for other clinicians. […] Through interaction and sharing of ideas, clinicians across the world produced a substantial number of recommendations about how to use telehealth to work with people with eating disorders while remaining on track with evidence-based practice.
32389803 We recorded higher 1-year rates of graft failure (hazard ratio [HR], 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.17 to 4.35; P = .01) and of 1-year overall mortality (HR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.60 to 6.11; P = .0008) after transplantation of cryopreserved compared with noncryopreserved grafts, with adjustment for sex, performance score, comorbidity, cytomegalovirus serostatus, and ABO blood group match. […] The incidence of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease did not differ between the 2 groups.
32391877 The single cut-off point and high level of cTnI predicted risk of in-hospital death, hazard ratio (HR) was 4.56 (95% CI, 1.28-16.28; P = 0.019) and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.07-1.46; P = 0.004), respectively. […] In multivariable logistic regression, senior age, comorbidities (e.g. hypertension, coronary heart disease, chronic renal failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and high level of C-reactive protein were predictors of myocardial injury.
32392282 Hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, has been considered as a possible therapeutic agent for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] To describe the association between use of hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, and clinical outcomes among hospital inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19. […] Receipt of both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, or neither. […] Among 1438 hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 (858 [59.7%] male, median age, 63 years), those receiving hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both were more likely than those not receiving either drug to have diabetes, respiratory rate >22/min, abnormal chest imaging findings, O2 saturation lower than 90%, and aspartate aminotransferase greater than 40 U/L. […] The probability of death for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin was 189/735 (25.7% [95% CI, 22.3%-28.9%]), hydroxychloroquine alone, 54/271 (19.9% [95% CI, 15.2%-24.7%]), azithromycin alone, 21/211 (10.0% [95% CI, 5.9%-14.0%]), and neither drug, 28/221 (12.7% [95% CI, 8.3%-17.1%]). […] In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, compared with patients receiving neither drug, there were no significant differences in mortality for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin (HR, 1.35 [95% CI, 0.76-2.40]), hydroxychloroquine alone (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.63-1.85]), or azithromycin alone (HR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.26-1.21]). […] In logistic models, compared with patients receiving neither drug cardiac arrest was significantly more likely in patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin (adjusted OR, 2.13 [95% CI, 1.12-4.05]), but not hydroxychloroquine alone (adjusted OR, 1.91 [95% CI, 0.96-3.81]) or azithromycin alone (adjusted OR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.27-1.56]), . […] Among patients hospitalized in metropolitan New York with COVID-19, treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both, compared with neither treatment, was not significantly associated with differences in in-hospital mortality.
32398183 Her vital signs include T 38.3° C, HR 108, BP 118/70 mm Hg, RR 26 breaths per minute, and oxygen saturation 67% on room air.
32409150 Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine (chloroquine) plus azithromycin is considered as therapy for COVID-19. […] We compared risk of cardiac adverse events between combinations of chloroquine and azithromycin and chloroquine and amoxicillin. […] We included autoimmune disease patients aged ≥18 years initiating azithromycin or amoxicillin for ≥5 days during chloroquine treatment. […] We followed patients for up to 5 days to estimate hazard ratios (HR). […] The adjusted incidence of cardiac symptoms among azithromycin and amoxicillin users was 276 vs 254 per 10,000 person-years with an adjusted HR of 1.10 (95%CI, 0.62-1.95). […] Combination use of chloroquine and azithromycin at routine doses did not show pronounced increases in arrhythmias in this real-world population, though small sample size and outcome rates limit conclusions.
32409504 Multivariable Cox regression analyses of these 306 patients showed that hypertension (hazard ratio [HR] 2.50, 95% CI 1.30-4.78), cardiovascular disease (HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.19-4.23), and chronic pulmonary disease (HR 2.51, 95% CI 1.07-5.90) were independently associated with in-hospital death. […] Diabetes (HR 1.58, 95% CI 0.84-2.99) was not statistically significantly associated with in-hospital death after adjustment. […] Age ≥70 years (HR 2.39, 95% CI 1.03-5.56) and hypertension (HR 3.10, 95% CI 1.14-8.44) were independent risk factors for in-hospital death of patients with diabetes.
32409522 In patients with severe COVID-19 but without ARDS, direct evidence from 2 observational studies provided very low-quality evidence of an increase in mortality with corticosteroids (hazard ratio [HR] 2.30, 95% CI 1.00 to 5.29, mean difference 11.9% more), as did observational data from influenza studies.
32410412 Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was used to explore the association between initial CT, clinical or laboratory findings, and discharge with recovery, whereby hazard ratio (HR) values < 1 indicated a lower rate of discharge at four weeks and longer time until discharge. […] After controlling for age, onset time, lesion characteristics, number of lung lobes affected, and bilateral involvement, the lung severity score on baseline CT (> 4 vs. ≤ 4 [reference]: adjusted HR = 0.41 [95% confidence interval, CI = 0.18-0.92], p = 0.031) and initial lymphocyte count (reduced vs. normal or elevated [reference]: adjusted HR = 0.14 [95% CI = 0.03-0.60], p = 0.008) were two significant independent factors that influenced recovery and discharge.
32425268 In a weighted model (median follow-up, 4.6 years), women in the long wait-time group had DFS (4.5-year rates, 91.2% versus 90.7%, hazard ratio [HR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-2.59, P = 0.818) and OS (95.0% versus 97.4%, HR 1.47, 95%CI 0.50-4.31, P = 0.487) similar to those in the short wait-time group. […] Three studies were examined for meta-analysis (median, n = 217), and a pooled HR for surgery wait-time of ≥8 weeks on DFS was 0.96 (95%CI 0.59-1.55).
32434874 Pooled adjusted HR (adjusted to cardiac injury/elevated biomarkers of cardiac injury) showed that elevated NT-proBNP was independently associated with mortality (HR 1.37 (1.19, 1.57), p<0.001; I2: 0%, p=0.77).
32468196 In one trial, the benefit of time to clinical improvement was not statistically significant (21 vs 23 days, HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.87-1.75), although the study was underpowered.
32469137 An outbreak of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) began in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and quickly spread throughout the country and world. […] We found that an increased level of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, D-dimer, fibrinogen (FIB), IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), serum amyloid A (SAA) and a decreased level of lymphocytes were important risk factors associated with severity. […] Furthermore, three variables were used to formulate a clinical risk scoring system named COVID-19 index = 3 × D-dimer (µg/L) + 2 × lgESR (mm/hr) - 4 × lymphocyte (×109 /L) + 8.
32470515 The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV2 that interfaces with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2). […] Eleven patients (10.8%) have been diagnosed with COVID-19 (6 in control group and 5 receiving Ramipril, HR=1.150 [95%CI: 0.351-3.768]).
32474860 The Cox regression based on the data of the family members and health care workers with Arbidol or not showed that Arbidol PEP was a protective factor against the development of COVID-19 (HR 0.025, 95% CI 0.003-0.209, P=0.0006 for family members and HR 0.056, 95% CI 0.005-0.662, P=0.0221 for health care workers).
32478961 Among post-COVID-19 patients, those with >12-hr delay in presentation 31(%) had a longer average D2B time (88 vs. 53 min, p = .033) and higher peak troponin (58 vs.
32483458 Multivariable regression analysis showed risk factors associated with in-hospital death included ≥ 2 comorbidities (hazard ratio [HR], 6.734; 95% CI; 3.239-14.003, p < 0.001), leukocytosis (HR, 9.639; 95% CI, 4.572-20.321, p < 0.001), lymphopenia (HR, 4.579; 95% CI, 1.334-15.715, p = 0.016) and CT severity score > 14 (HR, 2.915; 95% CI, 1.376-6.177, p = 0.005) on admission, while older age (HR, 2.231; 95% CI, 1.124-4.427, p = 0.022), ≥ 2 comorbidities (HR, 4.778; 95% CI; 2.451-9.315, p < 0.001), leukocytosis (HR, 6.349; 95% CI; 3.330-12.108, p < 0.001), lymphopenia (HR, 3.014; 95% CI; 1.356-6.697, p = 0.007) and CT severity score > 14 (HR, 1.946; 95% CI; 1.095-3.459, p = 0.023) were associated with increased odds of composite adverse outcomes. Conclusion: The risk factors of older age, multiple comorbidities, leukocytosis, lymphopenia and higher CT severity score could help clinicians identify patients with potential adverse events.
32492084 The trial included 103 participants with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 that was severe (respiratory distress and/or hypoxemia) or life-threatening (shock, organ failure, or requiring mechanical ventilation). […] Clinical improvement occurred within 28 days in 51.9% (27/52) of the convalescent plasma group vs 43.1% (22/51) in the control group (difference, 8.8% [95% CI, -10.4% to 28.0%]; hazard ratio [HR], 1.40 [95% CI, 0.79-2.49]; P = .26). […] Among those with severe disease, the primary outcome occurred in 91.3% (21/23) of the convalescent plasma group vs 68.2% (15/22) of the control group (HR, 2.15 [95% CI, 1.07-4.32]; P = .03); among those with life-threatening disease the primary outcome occurred in 20.7% (6/29) of the convalescent plasma group vs 24.1% (7/29) of the control group (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.30-2.63]; P = .83) (P for interaction = .17). […] There was no significant difference in 28-day mortality (15.7% vs 24.0%; OR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.29-1.46]; P = .30) or time from randomization to discharge (51.0% vs 36.0% discharged by day 28; HR, 1.61 [95% CI, 0.88-2.93]; P = .12). […] Among patients with severe or life-threatening COVID-19, convalescent plasma therapy added to standard treatment, compared with standard treatment alone, did not result in a statistically significant improvement in time to clinical improvement within 28 days.
32492211 Prolonged viral shedding may pose a threat to the control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and data on the duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding are still limited, with the associated factors being unknown. […] Delayed antiviral treatment (HR 0.976 [95% CI, 0.962-0.990]) and lopinavir/ritonavir + IFN-α combination therapy as the initial antiviral treatment (HR 1.649 [95% CI, 1.162-2.339]) were independent factors associated with prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding.
32492533 Of the 204 patients, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were the most common coexisting conditions. 76 patients died in the hospital. […] Multivariate analysis showed that dyspnea (hazards ratio (HR) 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.414 to 3.517;p < 0.001), older age (HR 1.1, 95% CI 1.070 to 1.123; p < 0.001), neutrophilia (HR 4.4, 95% CI 1.310 to 15.061; p = 0.017) and elevated ultrasensitive cardiac troponin I (HR 3.9, 95% CI 1.471 to 10.433; p = 0.006) were independently associated with death.
32498076 1.1%, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.82, P = 0.013]. […] 3.2%, adjusted HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.03-4.57, P = 0.041). […] 3.6%, adjusted HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.28-2.58, P = 0.774).
32503180 After adjusting for potential confounding factors, stage 3 AKI was associated with higher mortality than either non-AKI or stage 1 AKI (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.62 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.75-7.48), p = 0.001; HR = 15.65 (95% CI = 2.43-100.64), p = 0.004).
32503812 We performed multivariable Cox regression to calculate HRs of blood glucose-associated indexes for the risk of progression to critical cases/mortality among non-critical cases, as well as in-hospital mortality in critical cases. […] Elevation of admission blood glucose level was an independent risk factor for progression to critical cases/death among non-critical cases (HR=1.30, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.63, p=0.026). […] Elevation of initial blood glucose level of critical diagnosis was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality in critical cases (HR=1.84, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.98, p=0.013).
32517963 Demographics, medical history, admission labs, and outcomes were captured from the hospitals’ EHR. […] After adjusting for disease severity and relevant clinical factors, even small amounts of myocardial injury (e.g. troponin I 0.03-0.09ng/mL, n=455, 16.6%) were significantly associated with death (adjusted HR: 1.75, 95% CI 1.37-2.24; P<0.001) while greater amounts (e.g. troponin I>0.09 ng/dL, n=530, 19.4%) were significantly associated with higher risk (adjusted HR 3.03, 95% CI 2.42-3.80; P<0.001).
32524832 Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors had more prevalence of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, elevated levels of D-dimer, high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and troponins, and lower values of albumin. […] At the Cox regression analysis, albumin (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23-0.63, p < 0.001) and age (HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06, p = 0.001) were independently associated with mortality, irrespective of adjustment for gender, ICU admission, heart failure, COPD, and hs-CRP levels.
32526275 We conducted a cohort study that included 1007 individuals with mild to moderate COVID-19 from three hospitals in Wuhan. […] Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models identified that increased age (hazard ratio (HR) 2.56, 95% CI 1.97-3.33), male sex (HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.41-2.28), presence of hypertension (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.11-1.88), diabetes (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.35-2.44), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.38-2.93) and coronary artery disease (HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.26-2.66) were risk factors for disease progression. […] History of smoking was protective against disease progression (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.91). […] Elevated procalcitonin (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.02-2.90), urea nitrogen (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.21-2.43), α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HR 3.02, 95% CI 1.26-7.21) and D-dimer (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.12-3.58) at baseline were also associated with risk for disease progression.
32527342 Cox analysis also showed that AKI increased the odds of patients with COVID-19 mortality by 3.2-fold [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.208, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 1.076-9.566, P = 0.037].
32527576 This retrospective observational study was conducted in three ICUs which had been specially established and equipped for COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. […] Additionally, use of a multivariate Cox analysis showed that patients with high nutritional risk had a higher probability of death at ICU 28-day than those with low nutritional risk (adjusted HR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22-3.32, P = 0.006).
32535142 The PR interval on the electrocardiogram (ECG) normally shortens with increasing heart rate (HR). […] We reviewed pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 ECGs to characterize AV conduction by calculating the PR interval to HR (PR:HR) slope. […] ECGs from 75 patients (246 pre-COVID-19 ECGs and 246 COVID-19 ECGs) were analyzed for PR:HR slope. […] Of these, 38 patients (50.7%) showed the expected PR interval shortening with increasing HR (negative PR:HR slopes), whereas 37 patients (49.3%) showed either no change (8 with PR:HR slopes=0) or paradoxical PR interval prolongation (29 with positive PR:HR slopes) with increasing HR. […] Half of COVID-19 patients showed abnormal PR interval behavior (paradoxical prolongation or lack of shortening) with increasing HR.
32543710 After adjusting for age and gender status, the risk of reaching the composite endpoint was higher in the group with comorbidity than in that without comorbidity (hazard ratio [HR] 3.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.40-6.60). […] HR values for patients with one, two, and three or more comorbidities were 1.61 (95% CI: 0.44-5.91), 3.44 (95% CI: 1.31-9.08), and 6.90 (95% CI: 2.69-17.69), respectively.
32546725 In multi-variable Cox regression analyses increased hazards of in-hospital death were associated with several admission covariates: (1) older age (HR = 1.04; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.03, 1.06 per year increase; P < 0.001); (2) smoking (HR = 1.84 [1.17, 2.92]; P = 0.009); (3) admission temperature per °C increase (HR = 1.32 [1.07, 1.64]; P = 0.009); (4) Log10 neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR; HR = 3.30 [2.10, 5.19]; P < 0.001); (5) platelets per 10 E + 9/L decrease (HR = 0.996 [0.994, 0.998]; P = 0.001); (6) activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT) per second increase (HR = 1.04 [1.02, 1.05]; P < 0.001); (7) Log10 D-dimer per mg/l increase (HR = 3.00 [2.17, 4.16]; P < 0.001); and (8) Log10 serum creatinine per μmol/L increase (HR = 4.55 [2.72, 7.62]; P < 0.001).
32556143 After propensity score weighting, treatment with hydroxycholoroquine was not associated with a significantly reduced risk of unfavorable outcome (HR 0.90 [0.38; 2.1], p = 0.81). […] Overall survival was not significantly different between the two groups (HR 0.89 [0.23; 3.47], p = 1).
32558877 It has been hypothesized that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may make patients more susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to worse outcomes through upregulation of the functional receptor of the virus, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. […] In the ACEI/ARB group, 18.1% died within 30 days vs 7.3% in the nonuser group, but this association was not significant after adjustment for age, sex, and medical history (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.83 [95% CI, 0.67-1.03]). […] Death or severe COVID-19 occurred in 31.9% of ACEI/ARB users vs 14.2% of nonusers by 30 days (adjusted HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.89-1.23]). […] Among those with COVID-19, 86.5% used ACEI/ARBs vs 85.4% of controls; ACEI/ARB use compared with other antihypertensive drugs was not significantly associated with higher incidence of COVID-19 (adjusted HR, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.80-1.36]).
32566556 We searched Cochrane library, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, CBM, Wanfang Data and CNKI from their inception to March 31, 2020. […] In addition, we searched related studies on COVID-19 published before March 31, 2020 through Google Scholar. […] One cohort study on MERS indicated that macrolide therapy was not associated with a significant reduction in 90-day mortality (adjusted OR 0.84, 95% CI: 0.47-1.51, P=0.56) and improvement in MERS-CoV RNA clearance (adjusted HR 0.88, 95% CI: 0.47-1.64, P=0.68).
32569635 Elderly age was an independent factor associated with prolonged virus shedding time of SARS-CoV-2 (HR 1.71, 1.01-2.93). […] Chronic lung disease and steroids were associated with virus detection in sputum, and diabetes mellitus was associated with virus detection in both NPS and sputum.
32571831 In-hospital mortality was lower in patients treated with steroids than in controls (13.9% [55/396] versus 23.9% [16/67], HR 0.51 [0.27-0.96], p= 0.044).
32572128 Being discharged from hospital in time was inversely and independently associated with BMI (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.63-0.90, P for trend = 0.002) and ALT (HR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.99, P for trend = 0.007).
32572707 Oxygen saturation and X-ray grade were both significantly associated with the length of stay in hospital, the hazard ratio (HR) of discharge was 1.05 (95% CI [1.01, 1.09], p = 0.017) and 0.61 (95% CI [0.51, 0.73], p < 0.001), respectively.
32584868 Associations between mortality and baseline characteristics were estimated as hazard ratios (HR) calculated with Cox regression models. […] The variables most clearly associated with a greater hazard of death were age (3% HR increase per 1-year increase in age; 95%CI 1-6), diabetes mellitus (HR 2.42, 95%CI 1.43-4.09), SatO2/FiO2 ratio (43% HR reduction per 1-point increase; 95%CI 23-57), SOFA score (19% HR increase per 1-point increase, 95%CI 5-34) and CURB-65 score (76% HR increase per 1-point increase, 95%CI 23-143).
32586839 We determined that initial cTnI (per 10-fold increase, hazard ratio [HR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.66) and peak cTnI level during illness (per 10-fold increase, HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.38-2.10) were associated with poor survival. […] We determined that patients who received QT-prolonging drugs had longer QTc intervals than those who did not receive them (difference in medians, 45 ms, p = 0.01), but such treatment was not independently associated with mortality (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.69-1.57).
32588837 Cox regression analysis calculating Hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted by age, sex and comorbidities was used to estimate risk for Covid-19. […] By comorbidities, maximum incidence emerged among persons with neurological disease (2,723), atrial fibrillation (1,348), chronic renal failure (1,050), cardiac disease (856), respiratory disease (798) and diabetes (706). […] In multivariable analysis focused on community-dwelling individuals (N=77,671), only cardiac disease (HR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.01-2.15; p=0.045) and respiratory disease (HR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.00-3.02; p=0.051) were associated with an increased risk, whereas smoking (HR:0.43; 95% CI: 0.25-0.74; p=0.002) and influenza vaccinated (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43-0.92; p=0.015) appeared associated with a decreased risk. […] Apart of increasing age and nursing-home residence, chronic respiratory and cardiac disease appear at increased risk for suffering covid19. […] Para la estimación de riesgos se realizó regresión de Cox, con cálculo de Hazard ratios (HRs) ajustados por edad, sexo y comorbilidad. […] En personas no institucionalizadas (N=77.671), solo la enfermedad cardiaca (HR: 1,47; IC95%: 1,01-2,15; p=0,045) y respiratoria (HR: 1,75; IC95%: 1,00-3,02; p=0,051) se asociaron con incremento del riesgo, mientras que ser fumador (HR: 0,43; IC95%: 0,25-0,74; p=0,002) y vacunación antigripal en otoño previo (HR: 0,63; IC95%: 0,43-0,92; p=0,015) se asociaron con menor riesgo.
32589146 Recently, three randomized clinical trials on COVID-19 treatments were completed, one for lopinavir-ritonavir and two for remdesivir. […] From statistical perspectives, we identify several key issues in the design and analysis of three COVID-19 trials and reanalyze the data from the cumulative incidence curves in the three trials using more appropriate statistical methods. […] The conditional prediction shows that the HR estimates would reach statistical significance if the target sample size had been maintained. […] Based on the statistical issues and lessons learned from the recent three clinical trials on COVID-19 treatments, we suggest more appropriate approaches for the design and analysis for ongoing and future COVID-19 trials.