Tissue Sentence Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of skin tissue in 164 abstracts.

PMID Senteces
32170800 Health professions preventing and controlling Coronavirus Disease 2019 are prone to skin and mucous membrane injury, which may cause acute and chronic dermatitis, secondary infection and aggravation of underlying skin diseases. […] Insufficient and excessive protection will have adverse effects on the skin and mucous membrane barrier.
32172546 Objective: To investigate the pathological characteristics and the clinical significance of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (termed by WHO as corona virus disease 2019, COVID-19). Methods: Minimally invasive autopsies from lung, heart, kidney, spleen, bone marrow, liver, pancreas, stomach, intestine, thyroid and skin were performed on three patients died of novel coronavirus pneumonia in Chongqing, China.
32201983 In this paper we share our experiences in dealing with skin diseases in this special period and hope to provide some references for international colleagues in the epidemic situation.
32219888 Since then numerous additional cases have been reported and the dissemination of the infection does not only pose a major health challenge for the entire population, medical care facilities and the economy, but also for the medical training of future doctors and outpatient care of patients with skin disease.
32220276 All patients had acro-ischemia presentations including finger/toe cyanosis, skin bulla and dry gangrene.
32223004 Dermatoscope is a convenient diagnostic tool used by dermatologists in the diagnosis of skin, hair and nail disorders.
32255197 During the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), healthcare workers (HCWs) caring for COVID-19 patient have to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) and are therefore susceptible to PPE-related adverse skin reactions. […] However, little is known about the prevalence and characteristics of these adverse skin reactions and their associated risk factors.
32255510 In patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 disease, all immunomodulators used for skin diseases should be immediately withheld, with the possible exception of systemic corticosteroid therapy, which needs to be weaned.
32268381 · Parents should be engaged in shared decision-making with options for rooming in, skin-to-skin contact, and breastfeeding..
32294259 A skin rash has been reported in 2 out of 1.099 patients presenting with Coronavirus disease 2019 in China [1], as in 14 of 48 patients with the same disease in Italia, but unfortunately without further description of its semiology [2]. […] We wish to report here the case of a woman who presented, coincidently with Covid-19, a skin rash that had an original picture.
32294264 We have read with great interest Dr Recalcati’s review about skin manifestations in COVID-19 as it is the first report on this subject1 .
32294265 Psoriasis is a major chronic inflammatory skin disease, affecting about 3% of the population in Italy, whose management require experienced specialists in order to guarantee high-quality standards of care.
32294273 About skin manifestation, few cases of rashes on patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 were described in two Chineses cohorts.
32298514 COVID-19 presents many pressing challenges to the global dermatological community and our patients with ongoing skin needs, which must be considered by every dermatology provider.
32299776 We examined skin and lung tissues from 5 patients with severe COVID-19 characterized by respiratory failure (n= 5) and purpuric skin rash (n = 3). […] The purpuric skin lesions similarly showed a pauci-inflammatory thrombogenic vasculopathy, with deposition of C5b-9 and C4d in both grossly involved and normally-appearing skin.
32302444 While most of the studies have focused on the skin reactions caused by gloves, other PPE such as gowns, respirator masks, face shields and goggles are also worn by HCWs for long hours during the current epidemic and skin irritations caused by these equipment may cause discouragement of health workers from using them [2].
32304265 The working parties of TROG (head/neck/skin, genitourinary, breast and lung) were also sampled.
32305046 The patient underwent a cesarean delivery, and neonatal isolation was implemented immediately after birth, without delayed cord clamping or skin-to-skin contact.
32314460 COVID-19 is a challenge for the treatment of dermatologic patients, either with severe inflammatory disorders or with skin cancer. […] COVID-19, although not a skin disease, by itself has an immense impact on dermatology.
32315079 It has been reported that the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may be associated with a papulovesicular skin eruption predominantly involving the trunk.
32320091 It is not known yet, if skin lesions and derangement of the skin barrier could make it easier for SARS-CoV-2 to transmit via indirect contact; it remains to be defined if specific mucosal or skin lesions are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, although some unpublished observations indicate the occurrence of a transient varicelliform exanthema during the early phase of the infection.
32320359 Objective: To investigate the prevalence, characteristics, and preventive status of skin injuries caused by personal protective equipment (PPE) in medical staff. Approach: A cross-sectional survey was conducted online for understanding skin injuries among medical staff fighting COVID-19 in February 8-22, 2020. […] The questionnaire items included demographic data, grade of PPE and daily wearing time, skin injury types, anatomical sites, and preventive measures. […] Univariable analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to explore the risk factors associated with skin injuries. Results: A total of 4,308 respondents were collected from 161 hospitals and 4,306 respondents were valid. […] The overall prevalence of skin injuries was 42.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 41.30-44.30) with three types of device-related pressure injuries, moist-associated skin damage, and skin tear. […] Co-skin injuries and multiple location injuries were 27.4% and 76.8%, respectively. […] The logistic regression analysis indicated that sweating (95% CI for odds ratio [OR] 87.52-163.11), daily wearing time (95% CI for OR 1.61-3.21), male (95% CI for OR 1.11-2.13), and grade 3 PPE (95% CI for OR 1.08-2.01) were associated with skin injuries. […] Only 17.7% of respondents took prevention and 45.0% of skin injuries were treated. Innovation: This is the first cross-sectional survey to understand skin injuries in medical staff caused by PPE, which is expected to be a benchmark. Conclusion: The skin injuries among medical staff are serious, with insufficient prevention and treatment.
32329915 Here we report two cases of peculiar skin manifestation.
32339344 Skin symptoms of COVID-19 have been poorly described but may include erythematous rash, urticaria and chicken pox like lesions (2-7).
32339362 Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. […] Patients with AD have increased infection risk, including skin infections and systemic infections.
32345362 In the skin, digestive system, brain, and blood vessels, ACE2 expression levels were positively associated with immune signatures in both males and females.
32353170 Skin biopsy specimen showed slight spongiosis, basal cell vacuolation and mild perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate (c).
32356382 According to the data reported by Lin et al 1 , based in the experience from healthcare workers in Wuhan, adverse skin reactions were reported in 74% of responders (n=376) to a general survey. […] The most commonly reported types of eruptions were skin dryness or desquamation (68.6%), papules or erythema (60.4%) and maceration (52,9%).
32358808 Since first reported in 2019, pneumonia associated with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has rapidly developed into an outbreak across the world.1 Number of the patients of all age groups has increased significantly.2 In order to curb the spread of the epidemic, thousands of health care workers (HCWs) have joined the front line of the fight against this highly contagious disease.3 When taking care of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, HCWs must first protect themselves by performing adequate hand hygiene and using protective equipment including medical mask, goggles/face shield, gown and gloves.4 However, the wearing of these personal protective equipment (PPE) on a daily basis and the frequent use of hand disinfectants often cause skin problems which could reduce their enthusiasm for overloaded work and make them anxious at all stages of the pandemic.
32362062 Keeping the integrity of skin barrier is a critical method to prevent the spread of 2019-nCoV, since skin is the first line of defense of human body(4). […] It is of prime importance to ensure and maintain the skin clean, sterilized and protected of clinical health care staff during the fight against the epidemic. […] Self-protection of the medical staff is essential, however, utilizing protective equipment such as goggles, masks and protective clothing continuously impairs skin integrity and the skin damage caused by the respective protective measures must be taken seriously.
32365215 These drugs are associated with some potential harms, including QTc-interval prolongation, hypoglycaemia, severe skin reactions and psychiatric effects.
32367558 The median age of these patients was 58 (minimum 18, maximum 80) years, and the most common dermatologic diseases before diagnosed COVID-19 were superficial fungal infections (5, 25%), psoriasis (4, 20%), and viral skin diseases (3, 15%).
32373409 Frequent hand washing implies a prolonged exposure to water and other chemical or physical agents and may induce several pathophysiologic changes, such as epidermal barrier disruption, impairment of keratinocytes, the subsequent release of proinflammatory cytokines, activation of the skin immune system, and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. […] Adverse dermatologic effects, such as excessive skin dryness or even contact dermatitis (particularly the irritant subtype and, to a lesser extent, the allergic subtype), can occur, especially in individuals with a history of atopic dermatitis. […] These skin conditions are perfectly manageable, and applying a moisturizer immediately after washing hands or after using a portable hand sanitizer is the cornerstone in preventing the development of eczematous changes in the hands.
32374033 We present four children investigated for suspected COVID-19 infection with who presented with acral skin findings and mild systemic symptoms.
32375776 This would be sufficient to reduce R0 from 2.6 prior to lockdown to 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.89) after the lockdown, based on all types of contact and 0.37 (95% CI = 0.22-0.53) for physical (skin to skin) contacts only.
32376531 Wearing the protective equipment (masks, goggles, and protective screens) with a poor breathability for a long time causes various skin problems, such as allergies, excessive skin hydration, local mechanical injuries, and even secondary infections. […] In addition, in a closed environment, compression and friction aggravate skin reactions, which may compromise duty performance of the medical staff. […] It is therefore essential to provide timely treatment opinions and prevention methods for common skin problems. […] We also give suggestions concerning the preparation of medical kit for skin protection in the epidemic area.
32381430 Skin lesion development occurred before the onset of respiratory symptoms or COVID-19 diagnosis in 12.5% (9/72) of the patients, and lesions spontaneously healed in all patients within 10 days. […] Majority of the studies reported no correlation between COVID-19 severity and skin lesions.
32383234 The searching strategy was (COVID* or coronavirus) and (dermatol or skin* or cutaneous*). […] A total of 60 patients developed skin rashes, and the age ranged from 8 to 84. […] Skin lesions mainly appeared erythematous, urticarial, and vesicular (chicken pox-like or varicelliform). […] Newly reported eruptions like vascular lesions and peculiar (perniosis-like) skin lesions caused concern among dermatologists. […] This study reviewed the recently published COVID-19 studies with skin manifestations, which may pave the way for further research.
32384180 Vesicular skin rashes have been associated to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), but there is little information about this cutaneous manifestation. […] Clinical characterization of skin findings was conducted by dermatologists. […] The median duration of the skin rash was of 10 days. […] Out of all, 19 patients (79.2%) presented the skin rash after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. […] This monocentric study shows the clinical characteristics of vesicular skin rashes in COVID-19 patients.
32385858 One patient developed the skin rash during hospitalization. […] These 3 patients returned to the Emergency department consulting for skin rashes 6, 7 and 4 days after discharge, respectively. […] Laboratory tests at the time of skin lesions showed worsening of one or more parameters, compared to those at the time of discharge (CRP, D-dimer and lymphocyte count). […] In all patients, skin lesions begun as erythematous papules in upper trunk, that progressively turned to erythemato-violaceous patches with a dusky center, and a pseudo-vesicle in the middle. […] All patients were treated with systemic corticosteroids with progressive resolution of the skin lesions within 2-3 weeks.
32385859 Novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV2) pandemic has particularly affected Italy, with a profound impact on the therapeutic strategy for complex disorder such as psoriasis, whose extensive skin damage might expose to an increased infective risk compared to the general population.
32385891 In this quick review we have analyzed the mechanisms of action and related infective risk of drugs used for the treatment of immune-mediated and oncologic skin conditions during the daily clinical practice. […] The COVID19 emergency pandemic does not imply an under-treatment of existing skin conditions, which together with the SARS-Cov2 infection may jeopardize the patient’s life.
32386447 We have read with great attention the article by Van Damme et al. considering urticarial lesions as a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated skin manifestation1 .
32386459 Since the beginning of the pandemic of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) an increasing number of skin manifestations have been reported.1,2 Most reports concern adult patients and describe various patterns of skin eruptions, in most of cases with low specificity and no univocal temporal association with the onset of systemic symptoms of COVID-19.1-3.
32386460 Different skin manifestations of COVID-19 are being reported. […] Pruritus and mild pain were the only skin symptoms elicited, and only 10 had mild respiratory and/or GI symptoms. […] Skin biopsies obtained in six patients were consistent with chilblains.
32387409 A total of 2.3% of patients reported mild adverse events (gastrointestinal or skin symptoms, headache, insomnia and transient blurred vision).
32388643 The purposes of this report are to familiarize dermatologists with the hygiene practices recommended for COVID-19 prevention, to highlight adverse cutaneous reactions associated with repeated exposures to detergents and disinfectants, and to discuss strategies which patients can implement during the COVID-19 pandemic to minimize skin irritation white still performing hygiene practices effectively.
32396675 Several dermatoses have been reported due to PPE, such as pressure injury, contact dermatitis, pressure urticaria, and exacerbation of pre-existing skin diseases, including seborrheic dermatitis and acne.
32396999 Skin biopsies performed on each of the 6 patients demonstrated near identical histopathologic findings to those of idiopathic perniosis, with a lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate without evidence of thromboembolism or immune complex vasculitis. […] We offer a clinical approach to evaluation of patients with this presentation and discuss the possibility that these skin findings represent a convalescent-phase cutaneous reaction to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32400366 Ichthyosis – also called fish scale disease – is a group of skin diseases, which are characterised by xerosis and scaling.
32400852 Our results strongly suggest that while amounts of alcohol sufficient to cause a DER may be inhaled when hand sanitizers are used in confined spaces, absorption can be avoided by dispersal of the fumes, and absorption from the skin alone does not occur in pharmacologically significant quantities. […] Warnings about absorption of alcohol through the skin from hand sanitizers and products such as perfumes, deodorants and after-shave (whose use is often warned against when disulfiram is prescribed) should be modified accordingly.
32401228 The controversial procedures in the care of Covid-19-suspected or -positive asymptomatic women in labor were: mode of delivery, companion during birth and labor, skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding, and visits during a hospital stay.
32401352 Though infection with the SARS-CoV2 virus predominantly manifests in the lung as an interstitial pneumonia (“ground glass opacities”), there is increasing evidence that the virus invades all compartments of the body, particularly the eyes, heart, skin, kidneys, and the central nervous system(CNS).1 This article is protected by copyright.
32404482 COVID-19 patients had a high proportion of organisms reflective of commensal skin microbiota, reducing the bacteremia rate to 1.6% when excluded.
32407551 Phototherapy is undoubtedly a long-established, relatively safe means of reducing the burden of inflammatory skin disease avoiding large doses of immunosuppression.
32407564 Many clinical manifestations of the virus are described, and new symptoms are emerging, only few cases of patients with skin manifestation were described since the pandemic was announced by the WHO on March.
32409976 With the evolution of the pandemic, skin lesions were observed. […] Viral skin lesions are frequent causes of exanthema.
32416014 New patient referrals from primary care into dermatology services usually enter via one of three routes: (i) 2 week wait for suspected serious skin malignancies, (ii) routine non-urgent cases and (iii) emergency referrals (via an on call service).
32418532 The main SARS-CoV-2-related COVID-19 symptoms/diseases reported hitherto are hypertension, atherosclerosis, thrombosis (coagulopathy), diarrhea, glaucoma, anosmia, ageusia, skin lesions (dermatitis), autoimmune inflammation of the central nervous system, and damages to various organs such as the lung, heart, kidney, and testicle [1, 2, 14].
32421479 To help support patients and frontline health professionals, JWC is republishing the consensus in a digital format, along with a new introductory article outlining the DRPU risks posed by PPE and other medical devices used by patients and health professionals during the pandemic, and how the skin damage can be avoided. […] The aim is to provide frontline staff with a clear, simple strategy on how to prevent the risk of personal skin damage and/or DRPU during the pandemic, as well as point them in the direction of more indepth guidance on long-term strategies for prevention, for both themselves and patients.
32421857 Since the outbreak of novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), reports concerning suspicious COVID-19 skin manifestations are progressively increasing.
32421877 Currently, several clinicians described an increasingly cases of coronavirus-positive patients reporting skin problems, either in early stage of infection or as late onset manifestation.
32421878 Our previous research revealed that long-term wearing of N95 masks could lead to various facial skin lesions, which might affect their routine work and mental health. […] More importantly, severe skin lesions (e.g. ulcers) might put them in danger of being infected.
32422693 In France, COVID-19 wasn’t known to cause cutaneous manifestations before April 6th 2020, when an alert about possible associated skin symptoms was raised to the general public and the professional social network2-4 .
32425356 •COVID-19 is associated with specific skin manifestations and drug eruption.
32425360 Some of the mechanisms and conditions underlying endothelial dysfunction.A-human skin capillaries, visualized with high-resolution intravital color microscopy in the finger of a patient with obesity, metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease.B- healthy control.
32436262 Nowadays hand hygiene practices with alcohol sanitizers are an unavoidable reality for many people which cause skin dryness and flaking.
32436617 While it is unclear whether the patients on ISAs for skin conditions are more prone to develop COVID 19, and what impact the ISA may have on the clinical outcome if a patient does get infected, rationalizations based on the specific immune effects of each drug, and existing literature on incidence of various infections with each, are possible.
32437936 The differential diagnosis of drug-induced skin rash and hand-foot-mouth disease was ruled out based on the patient’s previous history and course of the disease.
32438942 Due to the shortage of Covid-19 testing devices, passengers were screened by measuring skin temperature.
32441360 9 (37.5%) of these patients also had accompanying COVID-19 skin lesions (2 urticarial lesions, 2 livedo and necrosis, 2 maculopapular eruption, 2 vesicular rashes, 1 pseudo-chilblain).
32443177 We used MIA-US for tissue sampling of lungs, liver, heart, kidneys, spleen, brain, skin, skeletal muscle and testis for histology and RT-PCR to detect SARS-COV-2-RNA.
32445583 During examination of cases of chilblains in children and adolescents, we identified four patients who also showed skin lesions similar to erythema multiforme (EM). […] Skin biopsies from two patients showed features not typical of EM, such as deep perivascular and perieccrine infiltrate and absence of necrosis of keratinocytes.
32446866 The virus may bind to corneal and conjunctival angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors and potentially to the lipophilic periocular skin and superficial tear film with downstream carriage into the nasopharynx and subsequent access to the lungs and gut.
32447801 Herpes Zoster is a viral skin disease caused by varicella zoster that remains dormant in the dorsal root ganglia of cutaneous nerves following a primary chicken pox infection.
32447934 All patients had acro-ischemia presentations including finger/toe cyanosis, skin bulla and dry gangrene.
32449781 Subjects who reported sensitive skin and atopic predisposition, and those with facial dermatoses (acne, atopic dermatitis or seborrhoeic dermatitis) were at significantly higher risk of itch development.
32452036 The increase of hand sanitation during the COVID-19 pandemic impairs the skin of the hands across all HCWs, independent of direct intensive care of affected patients.
32452545 To establish the real prevalence of COVID-19 in patients with acral skin lesions, we firstly evaluated all the cases of acral lesions presented in dermatology and paediatrics departments and family doctors’ offices in an eastern Spanish region over a three-week period. […] Our study suggests that acral skin lesions are not a specific marker of SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Although larger prospective studies are needed, current evidence indicates that acral skin lesions should not be regarded as a sign of COVID-19 in otherwise asymptomatic patients.
32452563 In 2014, Woods et al. undertook a first-in-person study to assess the effect on skin of a 222 nm UVC emitting device (Sterilray disinfectant wand, Healthy Environment Innovations, Dover, NH, USA).
32453902 Colonna et al. reported four children with suspected COVID-19 cases with “[h]istology from one case showed signs of vasculitis with evident fibrin thrombus [1].” While various skin findings have been reported with COVID-19 infection, the chilblains lesions have been reported from Italy and Spain, and sporadically from China, the starting point of disease pandemic [2-5].
32455499 SARS-CoV-2 has been hypothesized as the aetiologic agent of CLL, on the basis of the temporal correlation between the “burst” of skin manifestations and the viral pandemic, even though we have scarce evidence of swab-confirmed infections.
32458530 We will focus on are skin disorders such as autoimmune connective tissue disorders, neutrophilic dermatoses and vasculitis.
32458536 Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis are common, chronic, inflammatory skin conditions, with immune dysregulation as a shared mechanism; therefore, mainstays of treatment include systemic immunomodulating therapies.
32458588 Because of the COVID-19 emergency, on March 9, 2020 Italy went in lock-down imposing the closure of non-urgent outpatient clinics devoted to care of chronic, severe, inflammatory skin diseases that require periodic follow-up. […] Remote monitoring was performed in 183 patients (126 moderate to severe psoriasis, 10 severe acne, 11 severe atopic dermatitis, 11 hidradenitis suppurativa, 9 blistering autoimmune diseases, 16 other autoimmune skin diseases). […] Our real-life experience shows that remote monitoring was effective in preventing unnecessary worsening of severe chronic skin diseases and poor outcomes due to withdrawal of current therapy.
32460421 The most frequent cancer worldwide is skin cancer, occurring at epidemic rates in countries exposed to high levels of chronic ultraviolet radiation such as Australia and New Zealand (ANZ). […] Australia has the highest incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in the world.
32461409 The increased frequency of ABHR use and the aerosols generated pose a potential threat to the skin and exposed mucosal surfaces, especially that of the eye due to the proximity of use.
32468052 CTSL was upregulated in lymphoid neoplasm diffuse large B‑cell lymphoma, oesophageal carcinoma, glioblastoma multiforme, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lower grade glioma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, skin cutaneous melanoma, stomach adenocarcinoma, and thymoma.
32468229 Herein we propose an alternative model of skin cancer screening and the organization of screening campaigns in order to detect malignant lesions early during this emergency period.
32471009 Mounting evidence shows that COVID-19 impacts several organ systems, including the skin.
32474160 While we would benefit from further research, efforts to increase direct, personal contact with biodiversity have clear benefits for multiple aspect of physical and mental health, the skin and gut microbiome, immune function, food choices, sleep, physical activity, and promotes environmental responsibility.
32474947 The relationship between this skin manifestation and COVID-19 infection has not been clarified yet. […] Following informed consent, patients underwent: (i) clinical evaluation, (ii) RT-PCR and serology testing for SARS-CoV-2, (iii) digital videocapillaroscopy of finger- and toe-nailfolds, (iv) blood testing to screen for autoimmune diseases and coagulation anomalies, and (v) skin biopsy for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence, and, in selected cases, electron microscopy. […] Nineteen patients, all adolescents (mean age: 14 years), were recruited. 11/19 (58%) of them and/or their cohabitants reported flu-like symptoms one to two months prior to skin manifestation onset. […] Though we could not formally prove SARS-CoV-2 infection in our patients, history data and the detection of anti-SARS-COV-2 IgA strongly suggest a relationship between skin lesions and COVID-19.
32475035 We conducted a systematic review to reveal the contribution of dermatologists in COVID-19 research. 298 articles were included and classified into cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19, operating experience against COVID-19, mechanisms and treatment of COVID-19, disinfection and personal protective equipment(PPE)-related skin diseases and other topics.
32478867 During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, providers and patients must engage in shared decision making regarding the pros and cons of early versus delayed interventions for localized skin cancer. […] They also have provided multidisciplinary recommendations regarding the timing of local therapy for early-stage skin cancers during this pandemic with input from experts at 11 different institutions.
32479659 Patients with BP and PV have higher potential risk factors for infections secondary to skin alterations, comorbidity and chronic treatment with immunosuppressing agents.
32479680 This narrative review summarizes the available data regarding clinical and histological features of COVID-19-associated skin manifestations.
32479979 Pernio-like skin changes of the feet and hands, without another explanation, may suggest COVID-19 infection and should prompt confirmatory testing.
32488318 Using MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) in PubMed, authors searched for articles cotaining information on COVID-19 and the skin. […] These systemic conditions may be associated with cutaneous lesions, that have polymorphic aspects, where at histopathological level show involvement in different skin changes. […] These lesions may be associated with multisystemic manifestations that could occur due to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and transmembrane serine protease action, allowing the pulmonary infection and possibly skin manifestation.
32488505 At least one feature of Kawasaki disease was found in all children (fever, n = 20, skin rash, n = 10; conjunctivitis, n = 6; cheilitis, n = 5; adenitis, n = 2), but none had the typical form.
32488910 Some of us are in the field, others are describing skin aspects related to this infection, either directly or indirectly caused (e.g: dermatoses resulting from prolonged contact with personal protective equipment and excessive personal hygiene).
32488946 Skins symptoms during COVID-19 have been recently described but their relation to SARS-CoV-2 is unclear while results for real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing were variable. […] Recalcati et al. reported 14 cases of patients with skin symptoms consistent with previous described COVID-19 lesions but all the patients were tested negative.
32490552 In Spain, the national COVID Piel study have reported 372 patients with skin manifestations related with COVID-19, including 71 patients with pseudo-chilblains, from April 3rd to April 16th [2].
32492559 Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between increased weight, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and inflammatory skin diseases. […] We suppose that due to aggressive isolation or restriction measures, in the next future dermatologist will face with a common worsening of chronic skin inflammatory conditions due to reduced physical activities, increased intake of calories with the derived increase body weight and always more frequent treatment discontinuation. […] It is time to start potential preventive strategies which could limit the expected negative impact of COVID-19 related quarantine on skin diseases.
32493473 Patients will be excluded for the following reasons: more than 72 hours from the onset of ARDS; age < 16 years; patient known to be pregnant; major trauma in previous 5 days; presence of any active malignancy (other than non-melanoma skin cancer); WHO Class III or IV pulmonary hypertension; venous thromboembolism currently receiving anti-coagulation or within the past 3 months; patient receiving extracorporeal life support; severe chronic liver disease (Child-Pugh > 12); Do Not Attempt Resuscitation order in place; treatment withdrawal imminent within 24 hours; prisoners; declined consent; non-English speaking patients or those who do not adequately understand verbal or written information unless an interpreter is available; previously enrolled in the REALIST trial.
32495393 We reviewed the most prevalent types of iatrogenic skin damage among health-care workers (HCWs), notably irritant, and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to PPE and hand-hygiene measures, as well as face mask induced pressure-related skin damage.
32496587 We performed RNA sequencing and explored available RNA-Seq databases to study gene expression and co-expression of ACE2, CD147 (BSG), CD26 (DPP4) and their direct and indirect molecular partners in primary human bronchial epithelial cells, bronchial and skin biopsies, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), monocytes, neutrophils, DCs, NK cells, ILC1, ILC2, ILC3, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells and plasmablasts. […] ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were coexpressed at the epithelial sites of the lung and skin, whereas CD147 (BSG), cyclophilins (PPIA and PPIB), CD26 (DPP4) and related molecules were expressed in both, epithelium and in immune cells. […] Interestingly, we also observed higher expression of ACE2- and CD147-related genes in the lesional skin of patients with atopic dermatitis.
32497796 A 68-year-old man with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was admitted to the intensive care unit with respiratory failure, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), and skin ischemia - microthrombosis. […] This was followed by resolution of the skin ischemia and CRS, while respiratory parameters improved.
32498128 The psychosocial effects of the pandemic, an increase in contact dermatitis and several other skin diseases because of stress, disinfectants and protective equipment use, especially in health care workers, the temporary limited access to dermatologic care, the dilemma whether or not to pause immunosuppressive therapy, and, finally, the occurrence of skin lesions in patients infected by COVID-19 all contribute to significant quality of life (QoL) impairment.
32500571 We investigated whether there had been a similar reduction in urgent cancer referrals (known in England as the Two Week Wait (TWW) pathway) and subsequent diagnosis of skin cancer in our dermatology service.
32500642 A test for SARS-CoV-2 was performed on a vesicle in two patients, and a direct immunofluorescence test on perilesional skin in one.
32500648 Although the skin is not the main target of the SARS CoV-2 infection, it is strongly involved both directly and indirectly, in many aspects of dermatological disease management, and particularly in pediatric dermatology.
32500852 Spraying individuals with disinfectant chemicals is strongly discouraged by various health authorities around the globe because of their propensity for eye and skin irritation, bronchospasm following inhalation, and gastrointestinal effects such as nausea and vomiting.
32502288 Early detection and definitive surgical treatment are key to improving MM prognosis, and in England there is a suspected skin cancer referral pathway that facilitates specialist Dermatology assessment within two weeks.
32502585 During the COVID-19 pandemic, several acral chilblain-like skin lesions (CBLL) were observed in young patients with suspected, but mostly unconfirmed, infection with SARS-CoV-2.
32506757 We discuss the anatomy, the critical issues of disinfection and reusability of masks, the alternative equipment available for the protection of the facial region from airborne diseases, such as face shields and powered air purifying respirators (PAPR), and the skin-health impact of prolonged wearing of facial protection by HCW.
32510821 (Guo et al., 2020; Zhang et al., 2020) In more recent studies, skin manifestations have also been reported in covid-19 patients.
32521564 They suggested that the skin lesions were similar to ones found in common viral diseases but emphasized that additional studies are necessary to confirm its association with COVID-19.
32524630 There is now also a growing body of literature regarding skin involvement in children, with reports of papulovesicular, petechial and widespread macular and papular lesions, as well as chilblains (pernio). […] We describe the case of a thirteen-year-old boy with confirmed COVID-19 in the United Kingdom who presented with skin findings localized to the plantar aspects of the feet, axillae and lower limbs.
32525251 The novel coronavirus, otherwise known as COVID-19 has fast become a major health concern.1 2 It has been reported that in addition to the conventional respiratory symptoms, patients also display skin manifestations such as Urticaria and angioedema.3 Here we present a case study of an elderly man who first presented with generalised pruritic hives ranging from 1.5 to 8.0 cm in diameter on the 5th of March 2020.
32525852 Thirty-nine percent of respondents reported engaging in nonrecommended high-risk practices with the intent of preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission, such as washing food products with bleach, applying household cleaning or disinfectant products to bare skin, and intentionally inhaling or ingesting these products. […] Messaging should also emphasize avoidance of high-risk practices such as unsafe preparation of cleaning and disinfectant solutions, use of bleach on food products, application of household cleaning and disinfectant products to skin, and inhalation or ingestion of cleaners and disinfectants.
32526040 Thus, we collected data from all COVID-19 cases presenting with skin manifestations in our hospital in Madrid during one month.
32526045 Most previous applications have used UVC light emitted from broad spectrum 254-nm low-pressure mercury lamps, which, however, has undesirable, harmful effects on the skin and retina of mammals due to, among other things, biomolecule damage by mutagenic and carcinogenic bipyrimidine photoproducts.
32530503 We found a significant increase in the frequency of diagnoses such as generalized pruritus, pityriasis rosea, alopecia areata, bacterial skin/mucosa diseases, and zona zoster after COVID-19. […] The frequency declined in diseases such as verruca vulgaris, hyperpigmentation, skin tag, melanocytic nevus, seborrheic keratosis/solar lentigo.
32530776 Pressure ulcers (PUs) involve the destruction of skin and underlying tissue due to prolonged pressure and shear forces. […] The skin assessment should be undertaken before proning and following positioning the patient back into the supine position. […] Although it is essential to keep the skin clean and moisturised, using pH-balanced cleansers, there is inconsistency in terms of the evidence to support the type of moisturiser. […] Further, using dressings such as hydrocolloids, transparent film and silicone may be of benefit in decreasing facial skin breakdown. […] Given the importance of PU prevention in this cohort of patients, adopting a focused prevention strategy, including skin assessment and care, offloading and pressure redistribution, and dressings for prevention may contribute to a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of these largely preventable wounds.
32530822 To determine if a repurposed silicone-based dressing used underneath a N95 mask is a safe and beneficial option for facial skin injury prevention without compromising the mask’s seal. […] At that time, without education enablers or resources that could be directly translated into practice, the hospital’s Pressure Injury Prevention Committee explored and created a stepwise process to protect the skin under these masks. […] Skin protection was achieved by repurposing a readily available silicone border dressing cut into strips. […] This was tested on 10 volunteer staff members of various skin types and both sexes who became part of this evidence generation project. […] This creative and novel stepwise process of developing a safe skin protection method by which staff could apply a repurposed silicone border dressing beneath an N95 mask was largely effective and aided by the creation of the enabler.
32533899 We reported demographical, laboratory and clinical features, history of close contact with COVID-19 patients, presence of similar skin lesions in other family members, precipitating and risk factors for chilblain onset. […] Skin lesion biopsy for histological and immunohistochemical evaluation was made in two cases and was consistent with chilblain. […] PCR-assay on skin lesion biopsy for Parvovirus B19, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and SARS-CoV-2 was performed in a patient and resulted negative.
32535943 Furthermore, different types of skin lesions have been described during the infection period of illness.1 In this exceptional situation of global health emergency, physicians are undertaking research work in order to achieve notions on the etiopathogenesis of these skin lesions. […] The first report of cutaneous manifestations described different forms of skin lesions such as erythematous rash, urticaria and chicken-pox-like vesicles.2 Further studies have classified 5 different type of skin lesions, and associated them with patient demographics, timing in relation to symptoms of the disease, severity and prognosis.
32535946 A Dermatology walk-in clinic available to all hospital staff (HS) was commenced to treat skin problems related to personal protective equipment (PPE) during the COVID-19 pandemic.
32541493 Due to the long-term use of PPE, many adverse skin reactions may occur. […] Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the adverse skin reactions among HCWs using PPE.Questionnaires were used for the research; a quantitative study was carried out to determine the incidence of adverse skin reactions among HCWs using PPE.A total of 61 valid questionnaires were collected. […] The most common adverse skin reactions among HCWs wearing N95 masks were nasal bridge scarring (68.9%) and facial itching (27.9%). […] The most common adverse skin reactions among HCWs wearing latex gloves were dry skin (55.7%), itching (31.2%), and rash (23.0%). […] The most common adverse skin reactions among HCWs wearing protective clothing were dry skin (36.1%) and itching (34.4%). […] When most HCWs wear PPE for a long period of time, they will experience adverse skin reactions. […] The incidence of adverse skin reactions to the N95 mask was 95.1%, that to latex gloves was 88.5%, and that to protective clothing was 60.7%.
32543296 Skin tissue may be a possible specific target for the SARS-CoV-2.
32543328 Different skin presentations and patterns of cutaneous signs were reported in COVID19 patients. […] Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection is responsible for two very common skin conditions. […] Cutaneous skin findings remain to be emerging every day as a marker or a complication of COVID 19.
32544288 Based on the currently available data, prolonged skin-to-skin contact and early and exclusive breastfeeding remain the best strategies to reduce the risks of morbidity and mortality for both the mother with COVID-19 and her baby.
32545409 Cancers that arise in the head and neck region are comprised of a heterogeneous group of malignancies that include carcinogen- and human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven mucosal squamous cell carcinoma as well as skin cancers such as cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. […] This review explores advances in diagnostic criteria, prognostic factors, and management for subsites including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and the various forms of skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and melanoma).
32550096 The patient was asymptomatic, hypothermic, his skin was jaundiced with the icteric sclera, with very high levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 4,933 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT; 4,758 U/L), and total bilirubin (183.9 mmol/L) levels.
32554425 Also, a characteristic lower extremity skin rash was present in our patient.
32554879 In this work we review the literature and identify details including nominal kilovoltage ranges, filtration, and focus-skin distances (FSDs).
32556449 These elastics cause constant compression on the skin and, consequently, on the cartilage of the auricle, leading to erythematous and painful lesions of the retroauricular skin when the masks are used for many hours a day.
32557847 Since December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 epidemic has spread all over the world.1 To date, few reports regarding the cutaneous involvement in COVID-19 have been published.2,3 Herein, we report a four cases series describing skin lesions probably related with COVID-19. […] At day 6 of hospitalization, an asymptomatic erythematous-pomphoid skin rash occurred on the trunk (Figure 1A).
32557889 He had bilateral and symmetrical well limited black skin on both legs (Figure).
32558435 PDE4 inhibitors (PDE4i) have anti-inflammatory properties with approved indications in inflammatory skin and joint diseases as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
32558979 Interestingly, a consistent number of COVID-19-associated skin manifestations seem to share a certain degree of vascular damage as common pathogenetic mechanism1 .
32559324 Clinically, many of these skin lesions are likely secondary to occlusion of small to medium blood vessels due to microthrombi formation or due to viral laden antigen-antibody immune complexes; and same explanation may hold true for possible hypoxemic injury simultaneously occurring in other vital organs like lungs, heart, brain and kidneys. […] The histopathology, immunoflorescence and RT-PCR analysis of skin biopsies can provide useful insights for ascertaining the pathogenesis of this complex viral syndrome.
32562567 We examined skin biopsies from 7 paediatric patients presenting with chilblains during the COVID-19 pandemic.
32563581 Coupled with dermoscopic images, diseases such as hair loss, pediculosis capitis, skin tumor, and scabies, were diagnosed promptly.
32564047 The immunomodulatory properties of chloroquine have led to its use in collagen diseases, rheumatic disease, chronic rheumatoid and ankylosing arthritis and autoimmune skin disease.
32565264 However, prolonged pressure on facial skin at the level of the bony structures may be responsible for facial pressure ulcers.
32565678 This article aims to evaluate a dataset of search terms to determine whether search queries and terms can be used to reliably predict skin disease breakouts. […] A Model was designed to distinguish a breakout in skin diseases based on the number of monthly discovered cases.
32567823 However, SARS-CoV-2 can affect several human organs due to high expressions of ACE2 receptor which is the main viral target and the virus may affect not only higher and lower respiratory tracts, but also heart, kidney, gastro enteric tract, liver, pancreas, nervous system and skin.
32569797 Dermatologists treating immune-mediated skin disease must now contend with the uncertainties associated with immunosuppressive use in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
32572334 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) appears with common symptoms including fever, dry cough, and fatigue, as well as some less common sysmptoms such as loss of taste and smell, diarrhea, skin rashes and discoloration of fingers.
32573990 At admission he was febrile, tachypnoeic, and mild hypoxic with dry cough; during hospitalization a diffuse morbilliform skin rash appeared. […] Skin rash, highly suggestive for COVID-19 cutaneous involvement, persisted for ten days despite tocilizumab administration.
32576055 Our review yielded in 10 categories (i) the risk of diagnostic procedures in suspected mothers on fetus/infant health, (ii) the risk of intrauterine or postpartum transmission to the fetus/infant, (iii) appropriate method and delivery time in women with confirmed COVID-19, (iv) umbilical cord clamping and skin to skin contact, (v) clinical manifestations of infected infants, (vi) confirmation of infection in a suspected neonate/infant, (vii) instructions for infant’s care and how to feed her/him, (viii) bathing the baby, (ix) the criteria of discharging baby from the hospital, (x) the impact of isolation on the maternal mental health.Results: Our findings showed that the possibility of intrauterine or perinatal transmission of COVID-19 is still questionable and ambiguous.
32576730 Skin manifestations of COVID-19 infections are diverse and are new to the dermatology community. […] What appears to be constant in all skin biopsies was the presence of prominent dilated blood vessels with a swollen endothelial layer, vessels engulfed with red blood cells, and perivascular infiltrates, consisting mainly of cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocytes and eosinophils.
32578309 Careful dermatological examination improves diagnostic accuracy in skin disorders and skin manifestations of COVID-19 infection that provides an early diagnosis and treatment, helps to improve the quality of the patient care and management.
32581288 Germicidal ultraviolet light, typically at 254 nm, is effective in this context but, used directly, can be a health hazard to skin and eyes.
32582327 Skin is the biggest organ and the first line of defense against different infections and external factors. […] Being the front line warriors, health care professionals are susceptible to various skin conditions due to prolonged use of personal protective equipment. […] These adverse skin conditions are redness, irritation, itching, contact dermatitis, and aggravation of underlying skin conditions like seborrheic dermatitis and acne vulgaris. […] These skin problems are manageable with the few precautionary measures. […] This article explores the different skin conditions that result from personal hygiene measures and usage of protective gear and will suggest some practical advice about how to manage and protect from these different adverse skin conditions.
32583301 Post-mortem surveillance in Ireland discloses skin-test negative cattle with presumptive evidence of infection of Mycobacterium bovis (lesions at routine slaughter (LRS)), the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). […] Here we report the proportion of herds with subsequent evidence of within-herd transmission, based on skin-test results. […] During the index tests of these breakdowns, 3931 revealed ≥1 skin-test reactor animals (19.54%; ≥1 standard reactors: 3827; 19.02%).
32584377 Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA on nasopharyngeal swabs for all patients and in skin biopsy specimens for 22 patients. […] Histologic (22 patients) and immunofluorescence examinations (15 patients) were performed on the skin biopsy specimens. […] Histopathologic analysis of skin biopsy specimens (22 patients) confirmed the diagnosis of chilblains and showed occasional lymphocytic or microthrombotic phenomena. […] In all patients, SARS-CoV-2 RNA remained undetected by RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs and in biopsy samples of the skin lesions.
32584397 In this context, some associated skin diseases have been described. […] Skin biopsies were performed in 6 patients.
32584760 A skin biopsy showed microthrombosis, interpreted as an activation of the coagulation system associated with COVID-19.
32585074 A consistent number of case reports and clinical series have been already published describing a complex spectrum of skin manifestations associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] The search of papers was conducted by using the key term ‘COVID-19’ or ‘SARS-CoV-2’ or ‘coronavirus’ combined with each of the following: ‘skin’, ‘cutaneous’, ‘dermatologic’ or ‘dermatology’, ‘manifestation’, ‘lesions,’ or ‘rash.’ […] Lastly, other skin manifestations to be considered are the cutaneous adverse reactions to the drugs prescribed for the treatment of COVID-19.
32585767 The patient stated that the skin of her feet acquired a bluish discoloration after standing for some time.
32588475 During the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several associated skin conditions were reported in infected patients, including; urticaria [1], exanthema [1], erythema multiforme [2], chickenpox-like vesicles [1], pityriasis rosea [3], herpes simplex reactivation [4], erythema nodosum like Sweet’s syndrome [5], Symmetrical Drug-Related Intertriginous and Flexural Exanthema [6], petechial rash [7], vasculitic purpura [7], acro-ischemia/necrosis [8], Kawasaki disease [2] and chilblain lesions [9].
32589293 Skin manifestations have been increasingly reported in the setting of COVID-19. […] Eight patients (1%, 6 males, 2 females, mean age 55.6) presented with skin lesions, mainly disseminated maculo-papular exanthema, but also digitate papulo-squamous rash (reported in1 ), herpes recurrence, papulo-vesicular rash and Grover’s disease.