lung

Tissue Sentence Context


Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of lung tissue in 935 abstracts.

PMID Senteces
31981224 Gaining a deeper understanding of the interaction between Coronaviruses and the innate immune systems of the hosts may shed light on the development and persistence of inflammation in the lungs and hopefully can reduce the risk of lung inflammation caused by CoVs. […] In this review, we provide an update on CoV infections and relevant diseases, particularly the host defense against CoV-induced inflammation of lung tissue, as well as the role of the innate immune system in the pathogenesis and clinical treatment.
31986261 They and one asymptomatic child (aged 10 years) had radiological ground-glass lung opacities. […] Older patients (aged >60 years) had more systemic symptoms, extensive radiological ground-glass lung changes, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and increased C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels.
32017661 Typical CT findings included bilateral pulmonary parenchymal ground-glass and consolidative pulmonary opacities, sometimes with a rounded morphology and a peripheral lung distribution. […] Notably, lung cavitation, discrete pulmonary nodules, pleural effusions, and lymphadenopathy were absent. […] Follow-up imaging in a subset of patients during the study time window often demonstrated mild or moderate progression of disease, as manifested by increasing extent and density of lung opacities.
32020836 The two patients shared common clinical features including fever, cough, and multiple ground-glass opacities in the bilateral lung field with patchy infiltration.
32027573 Forty-four of 51 (86%) patients had bilateral lung involvement, while 41 of 51 (80%) involved the posterior part of the lungs and 44 of 51 (86%) were peripheral. […] There were more consolidated lung lesions in patients 5 days or more from disease onset to CT scan versus 4 days or fewer (431 of 712 lesions vs 129 of 612 lesions; P < .001). […] Patients older than 50 years had more consolidated lung lesions than did those aged 50 years or younger (212 of 470 vs 198 of 854; P < .001). […] Follow-up CT in 13 patients showed improvement in seven (54%) patients and progression in four (31%) patients.ConclusionPatients with fever and/or cough and with conspicuous ground-glass opacity lesions in the peripheral and posterior lungs on CT images, combined with normal or decreased white blood cells and a history of epidemic exposure, are highly suspected of having 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia.
32044814 Lung involvement was present in all cases, with most chest computed tomography scans showing lesions in multiple lung lobes, some of which were dense; ground-glass opacity co-existed with consolidation shadows or cord-like shadows.
32048163 The viral load of 2019-nCoV detected from patient respiratory tracts was positively linked to lung disease severity. […] ALB, LYM, LYM (%), LDH, NEU (%), and CRP were highly correlated to the acute lung injury. […] Age, viral load, lung injury score, and blood biochemistry indexes, albumin (ALB), CRP, LDH, LYM (%), LYM, and NEU (%), may be predictors of disease severity. […] Moreover, the Angiotensin II level in the plasma sample from 2019-nCoV infected patients was markedly elevated and linearly associated to viral load and lung injury.
32053470 Background Chest CT is used to assess the severity of lung involvement in COVID-19 pneumonia. […] The total CT score was the sum of lung involvement (5 lobes, score 1-5 for each lobe, range, 0 none, 25 maximum) was determined. […] Maximum lung involved peaked at approximately 10 days (with the calculated total CT score of 6) from the onset of initial symptoms (R2=0.25), p<0.001). […] Based on quartiles of patients from day 0 to day 26 involvement, 4 stages of lung CT were defined: Stage 1 (0-4 days): ground glass opacities (GGO) in 18/24 (75%) patients with the total CT score of 2±2; (2)Stage-2 (5-8d days): increased crazy-paving pattern 9/17 patients (53%) with a increase in total CT score (6±4, p=0.002); (3) Stage-3 (9-13days): consolidation 19/21 (91%) patients with the peak of total CT score (7±4); (4) Stage-4 (≥14 days): gradual resolution of consolidation 15/20 (75%) patients with a decreased total CT score (6±4) without crazy-paving pattern. […] Conclusion In patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia (without severe respiratory distress during the disease course), lung abnormalities on chest CT showed greatest severity approximately 10 days after initial onset of symptoms.
32054787 Prophylactic remdesivir treatment initiated 24 h prior to inoculation completely prevented MERS-CoV-induced clinical disease, strongly inhibited MERS-CoV replication in respiratory tissues, and prevented the formation of lung lesions. […] Therapeutic remdesivir treatment initiated 12 h postinoculation also provided a clear clinical benefit, with a reduction in clinical signs, reduced virus replication in the lungs, and decreased presence and severity of lung lesions.
32061066 Three patients were examined by chest X-ray examination, one of which was normal, one case showed infiltrates of right upper lung, and another showed in right lower lung. […] And 7 cases (7/9) showed multiple ground glass exudation, including 5 cases (5/7) involved bilateral lungs, 2 cases (2/7) involved unilateral lung, 3 cases (3/7) with patchy consolidation, and 2 cases (2/9) showed no abnormality. Conclusions: The patents with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in this study generally have an epidemiological history.
32062875 The CT images of these patients showed bilateral multiple patchy or nodular ground-glass opacities and/or infiltrating shadows in middle and outer zone of the lung or under the pleura.
32064855 Specific IgM antibody screening for patients whose pharyngeal swab nucleic acid test is negative but with ground glass-like lung lesions is very important for early detection and early isolation.
32072255 • Novel coronavirus (COVID-19)-infected pneumonia usually manifests as bilateral ground-glass opacities in the lung periphery on chest CT scans. […] • Role of radiologists includes not only early detection of lung abnormality, but also suggestion of disease severity, potential progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome, and possible bacterial co-infection in hospitalized patients.
32077440 For patients with lung occupying lesions, the whole process of diagnosis and treatment can not be carried out as usual due to the epidemic.
32077441 With the spread of COVID-19, the routine clinical diagnosis and treatment for lung cancer patients has been disturbed. […] Due to the systemic immunosuppressive of lung cancer patients caused by the malignancy and anticancer treatments, lung cancer patients are more susceptible to infection than healthy individuals. […] Lung cancer patients should be the priority group for COVID-19 prevention. […] The protection provisions and control measures aiming to protect lung cancer patients from COVID-19 have been increasingly concerned. […] During the COVID-19 outbreak period, it should be carefully differentiated for fever and respiratory symptoms for lung cancer patients receiving anti-tumor treatment, in order to evaluate the risk of COVID-19. […] Moreover, it is necessary to carry out meticulous and individualized clinical management for lung cancer patients to effectively protect the patients from COVID-19.
32077789 With a longer time after the onset of symptoms, CT findings were more frequent, including consolidation, bilateral and peripheral disease, greater total lung involvement, linear opacities, “crazy-paving” pattern and the “reverse halo” sign. […] Bilateral lung involvement was observed in 10/36 early patients (28%), 25/33 intermediate patients (76%), and 22/25 late patients (88%).
32081636 Bilateral lung involvement with ground-glass opacity was the most common finding from computed tomography images of the chest.
32088847 All patients had peripheral ground-glass opacities and/or lung consolidations in more than two pulmonary lobes. […] Lung lesions were characterized by a high 18F-FDG uptake and there was evidence of lymph node involvement.
32091414 Most of the lesions were multiple, with an average of 12 ± 6 lung segments involved. […] The most common involved lung segments were the dorsal segment of the right lower lobe (69/80, 86%), the posterior basal segment of the right lower lobe (68/80, 85%), the lateral basal segment of the right lower lobe (64/80, 80%), the dorsal segment of the left lower lobe (61/80, 76%), and the posterior basal segment of the left lower lobe (65/80, 81%). […] The common chest CT findings of COVID-19 are multiple ground glass opacity, consolidation, and interlobular septal thickening in both lungs, which are mostly distributed under the pleura.
32096366 The shape, number and distribution of lung shadows, as well as the characteristics of the lesions on the CT images were reviewed. […] The obvious shadows infiltrating the lungs were shown on CT images in 50 cases, for other 2 cases there was no abnormal changes in the lungs during the first CT examination.
32098422 This virus causes acute lung symptoms, leading to a condition that has been named as “coronavirus disease 2019” (COVID-19).
32100485 The peripheral and posterior lung fields were involved in 78% and 67% of the lesions, respectively. […] COVID-19 pneumonia in Korea primarily manifested as pure to mixed ground-glass opacities with a patchy to confluent or nodular shape in the bilateral peripheral posterior lungs.
32104915 Furthermore, some coronaviruses have been demonstrated able to spread via a synapse-connected route to the medullary cardiorespiratory center from the mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors in the lung and lower respiratory airways.
32105637 The mean number of involved lung segments was 10·5 (SD 6·4) overall, 2·8 (3·3) in group 1, 11·1 (5·4) in group 2, 13·0 (5·7) in group 3, and 12·1 (5·9) in group 4.
32107577 We analyzed the clinical characteristics of the patients, as well as the distribution characteristics, pattern, morphology, and accompanying manifestations of lung lesions. […] More than half of the patients presented bilateral, multifocal lung lesions, with peripheral distribution, and 53 (59%) patients had more than two lobes involved.
32112884 On chest computed tomography (CT), lung segments 6 and 10 were mostly involved. […] Lesions were more localized in the peripheral lung with a patchy form. […] The imaging pattern of multifocal peripheral ground glass or mixed opacity with predominance in the lower lung is highly suspicious of COVID-19 in the first week of disease onset.
32112966 Several recent case reports have described common early chest imaging findings of lung pathology caused by 2019 novel Coronavirus (SARS-COV2) which appear to be similar to those seen previously in SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infected patients. […] Moderate to severe progression of the lung infiltrates, with increasing percentage of high-density infiltrates sustained by a bilateral and multi-segmental extension of lung opacities, were seen. […] It could be an early alert radiological sign to predict initial lung deterioration. […] Finally, the pulmonary vessels enlargement in areas where new lung infiltrates develop in the follow-up CT scan, could describe an early predictor radiological sign of lung impairment.
32114094 Two patients who recently underwent lung lobectomies for adenocarcinoma were retrospectively found to have had COVID-19 at the time of the operation. […] Pathologic examinations revealed that apart from the tumors, the lungs of both patients exhibited edema, proteinaceous exudate, focal reactive hyperplasia of pneumocytes with patchy inflammatory cellular infiltration, and multinucleated giant cells. […] Because both patients did not exhibit symptoms of pneumonia at the time of operation, these changes likely represent an early phase of the lung pathology of COVID-19 pneumonia.
32114744 Their clinical material including placental tissue and lung CT, and laboratory results were collected, meanwhile, nucleic acid detection of 2019-nCoV of the placentas were performed by RT-PCR. Results: Three placentas delivered from pregnant women with confirmed 2019-nCoV infection, who were all in their third trimester with emergency caesarean section.
32118394 The diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer patients have been challenged greatly because of extraordinary public health measures since the lung cancer patients are a high-risk population during the COVID-19 outbreak period. […] Strict protection for lung cancer patients is needed to avoid infection. […] Lung cancer patients are difficult to differentiate from patients with COVID-19 in terms of clinical symptoms, which will bring great trouble to the clinical work and physical and mental health of lung cancer patients. […] This review will demonstrate how to applicate appropriate and individual management for lung cancer patients to protect them from COVID-19.
32124995 And we found that patients with a positive stool test did not experience gastrointestinal symptoms and had nothing to do with the severity of the lung infection.
32125130 In order to achieve the overall victory of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease epidemic in this ‘war’, especially to prevent the disease recurrence from rebounding during the resumption of labor, the government has not loosened any control of personnel mobility, which has obviously affected the normal examination and treatment of lung cancer patients under the influence of this epidemic. […] Among the infected cancer patients, lung cancer is the most common type. […] It is necessary to provide more appropriate individualized treatment recommendations for patients with lung cancer based on the epidemic situation of the patient’s location and in combination with the patient’s own condition. […] Through active prevention of infection, timely conversion of treatment strategies, online and offline joint control, and positive psychological counseling, we significantly hope to help patients with lung cancer to survive this difficult period.
32125131 The imaging data were reviewed and analyzed in detail. Results: (1) Distribution: the lesion detected in the lung unilaterally in 14 cases (10.7%) and bilaterally in 116 cases (89.3%). […] According to the distribution in the lobes of the lung, all cases could be classified into subpleural distribution (102 cases, 78.4%), centrilobular distribution (99 cases, 76.1%) and diffused distribution (8 cases, 6.1%).
32125132 Given the systemic immunosuppressive state caused by malignancy and anticancer treatments, patients with advanced lung cancer may be at a higher risk of COVID-19 infection. […] During epidemic of COVID-19, a guideline for the optimal management of patients with advanced lung cancer urgently needs to be proposed to distinguish the symptoms of COVID-19 and the side effects of antitumor drugs. […] This network questionnaire survey was conducted on the lung cancer group of the Chinese Thoracic Society, Chinese Medical Association; the lung cancer group of the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology Youth Committee; and the Chinese Respiratory Oncology Collaboration. 321 valid questionnaires were received. […] Based on the guidelines on lung cancer and the results of the questionnaires, a consensus was reached. […] 对于目前新冠肺炎疫情期间,晚期非小细胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer,NSCLC)患者管理、抗肿瘤药物使用的策略、具体注意事项、药物不良反应与新冠肺炎疑诊患者的鉴别诊断要点等方面给予了建议和推荐。
32125642 Currently there is no effective antiviral therapy for SARS-CoV-2 infection, which frequently leads to fatal inflammatory responses and acute lung injury. […] In the absence of a proven clinical FcR blocker, the use of intravenous immunoglobulin to block FcR activation may be a viable option for the urgent treatment of pulmonary inflammation to prevent severe lung injury.
32125873 Lesions present on CT images were more likely to have a peripheral distribution (88 [87.1%]) and bilateral involvement (83 [82.2%]) and be lower lung predominant (55 [54.5%]) and multifocal (55 [54.5%]). […] Lesions are more likely to have peripheral distribution and bilateral involvement and be lower lung predominant and multifocal.
32129583 In heart failure group, the ratio of the expansion of small pulmonary veins was also higher (3/7 vs. 0, P=0.013), and the lung lesions can be significantly improved after effective anti-heart failure treatment.
32129670 This study explains the findings from lung computed tomography images of some patients with COVID-19 treated in this medical institution and discusses the difference between COVID-19 and other lung diseases.
32129843 It is still unclear how fast the virus evolved and how the virus interacts with other microorganisms in the lung.
32134681 Compared with early-phase disease (≤ 7 days after the onset of symptoms), advanced-phase disease (8-14 days after the onset of symptoms) was characterized by significantly increased frequencies of GGO plus a reticular pattern, vacuolar sign, fibrotic streaks, a subpleural line, a subpleural transparent line, air bronchogram, bronchus distortion, and pleural effusion; however, GGO significantly decreased in advanced-phase disease. CONCLUSION. CT examination of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia showed a mixed and diverse pattern with both lung parenchyma and the interstitium involved. […] Lesions presented with a characteristic multifocal distribution in the middle and lower lung regions and in the posterior lung area.
32150618 Using the PBPK models, hydroxychloroquine concentrations in lung fluid were simulated under 5 different dosing regimens to explore the most effective regimen whilst considering the drug’s safety profile.
32157849 Take epidemiological history, fever, and the blood lymphocytes decline as clinical indicators, used CT to evaluate the possibility of COVID-19 and range of lung involvement.
32162081 Compared to reports in adults, we found similar but more modest lung abnormalities at CT in our small paediatric cohort.
32168162 The imaging findings of the 2019-nCoV infection in our young diabetic patient featured ground-glass opacities and consolidations in both lungs. […] The lung lesions may involute rapidly during the course.
32170560 Moreover, lung cells that have ACE2 expression may be the main target cells during 2019-nCoV infection. […] Through scRNA-seq data analyses, we identified the organs at risk, such as lung, heart, esophagus, kidney, bladder, and ileum, and located specific cell types (i.e., type II alveolar cells (AT2), myocardial cells, proximal tubule cells of the kidney, ileum and esophagus epithelial cells, and bladder urothelial cells), which are vulnerable to 2019-nCoV infection.
32170806 Lung lesions have been considered as the major damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32171193 Coronavirus-19 (COVI-19) involves humans as well as animals and may cause serious damage to the respiratory tract, including the lung: coronavirus disease (COVID-19). […] The binding of COVI-19 to the Toll Like Receptor (TLR) causes the release of pro-IL-1β which is cleaved by caspase-1, followed by inflammasome activation and production of active mature IL-1β which is a mediator of lung inflammation, fever and fibrosis.
32172546 Objective: To investigate the pathological characteristics and the clinical significance of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (termed by WHO as corona virus disease 2019, COVID-19). Methods: Minimally invasive autopsies from lung, heart, kidney, spleen, bone marrow, liver, pancreas, stomach, intestine, thyroid and skin were performed on three patients died of novel coronavirus pneumonia in Chongqing, China. […] Focal hemorrhage in lung tissue, organization of exudates in some alveolar cavities, and pulmonary interstitial fibrosiswere observed. […] Furthermore, degeneration and necrosis of parenchymal cells, formation of hyaline thrombus in small vessels, and pathological changes of chronic diseases were observed in other organs and tissues, while no evidence of coronavirus infection was observed in these organs. Conclusion: s The lungs from novel coronavirus pneumonia patients manifest significant pathological lesions, including the alveolar exudative inflammation and interstitial inflammation, alveolar epithelium proliferation and hyaline membrane formation. […] While the 2019-nCoV is mainly distributed in lung, the infection also involves in the damages of heart, vessels, liver, kidney and other organs.
32172669 The clinical features include fever, coughing, shortness of breath, and inflammatory lung infiltration.
32174095 Although there are no reports on the mechanism of COVID-19 inducing pulmonary fibrosis, based on the existing theoretical basis, we focus on the possible mechanism of COVID-19 sustained lung damaging, the key role of abnormal immune mechanism in the initiation and promotion of pulmonary fibrosis, and the corresponding therapeutic measures.
32174128 The median number of affected lung lobes and segments was higher in patients with positive RT-PCR results than in those with negative RT-PCR results (five vs 3.5 affected lobes and 15 vs nine affected segments; p < 0.05). […] Although the air bronchogram reticular pattern was more frequently seen in patients with positive results, centrilobular nodules were less frequently seen in patients with positive results. CONCLUSION. At the point during the COVID-19 outbreak when this study was performed, imaging patterns of multifocal, peripheral, pure GGO, mixed GGO, or consolidation with slight predominance in the lower lung and findings of more extensive GGO than consolidation on chest CT scans obtained during the first week of illness were considered findings highly suspicious of COVID-19.
32189015 Unlike other acute infectious diseases progressing to sepsis, the severe courses of COVID19 seemingly show prolonged progression from onset of first symptoms to life-threatening deterioration of (primarily) lung function.
32189175 Multiple patchy ground-glass opacities (GGOs) were seen in bilateral lung, mostly in subpleural areas. […] Our case of COVID-19 pneumonia showed multiple subpleural GGOs in bilateral lung, rapid progression, and it also accompanied nodular GGOs on chest CT.
32189428 We predict that these individuals are ‘primed’ to be at higher risk because nicotine can directly impact the putative receptor for the virus (ACE2) and lead to deleterious signaling in lung epithelial cells.
32191587 A total of 366 CT scans were acquired and reviewed by 2 groups of radiologists for the patterns and distribution of lung abnormalities, total CT scores and number of zones involved. […] Conclusion The extent of lung abnormalities on CT peaked during illness days 6-11.
32191588 Conclusions A deep learning model can accurately detect COVID-19 and differentiate it from community acquired pneumonia and other lung diseases.
32191764 CT findings of NCIP were featured by predominant ground glass opacities mixed with consolidations, mainly peripheral or combined peripheral and central distributions, bilateral and lower lung zones being mostly involved.
32191830 Severe forms of the infection, being an indication for treatment in the intensive care unit, comprise acute lung inflammation, ARDS, sepsis and septic shock.
32193037 Six patients (8%) were diagnosed as mild type pneumonia; these patients had no obvious abnormal CT findings or manifested mild changes of lung infection. […] All 43 patients (59 %) with common type presented unique or multiple ground-glass opacities (GGO) in the periphery of the lungs, with or without interlobular septal thickening. […] An extensive “white lung”, with atelectasis and pleural effusion were found in critical type patients (3, 4%).
32195705 Lung-protective ventilation, prone position ventilation, and adequate sedation and analgesia are essential components of ventilation management.
32196627 We report the case of a young man with documented nCoV-19 infection evaluated with lung ultrasound and discuss potential applications of lung ultrasound in this setting. […] Lung ultrasound allowed the identification of nCoV-19 infection at bed-side. […] Moreover, lung ultrasound can have several other advantages, such as reduced health worker exposition to infected patients, repeatability during follow-up, low-costs and easier application in low-resource settings.
32196933 For this family of viruses the host innate immune response appears the main driver of lung tissue damage during infection.
32197085 Therefore, we reinvestigated published data from pangolin lung samples from which SARS-CoV-like CoVs were detected by Liu et al.
32198291 Based on the structure, we developed the lead compound into a potent inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro The pharmacokinetic characterization of the optimized inhibitor reveals a pronounced lung tropism and suitability for administration by the inhalative route.
32198915 The lung injury and repair caused by COVID-19 has many similarities with the onset and progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) .
32199615 Although ACE2 is reported to be expressed in lung, liver, stomach, ileum, kidney and colon, its expressing levels are rather low, especially in the lung. […] Consistent with other recent reports, we confirmed that ACE2 was mainly expressed in lung AT2, liver cholangiocyte, colon colonocytes, esophagus keratinocytes, ileum ECs, rectum ECs, stomach epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubules.
32199619 The lesions in each lung segment of the patient’s chest CT images were characterised. […] The lesions were located mainly in the subpleural area of the lungs (92.4%). […] Of the 80 cases, 76 patients (95%) had bilateral lung disease, four (5%) patients had unilateral lung disease, and eight (10%) patients had cord shadow. […] The chest CT of NCP patients is characterised by the onset of bilateral ground-glass lesions located in the subpleural area of the lung, and progressive lesions that result in consolidation with no migratory lesions. […] As patients can have inflammatory changes in the lungs alongside a negative early nucleic acid test, chest CT, in combination with epidemiological and laboratory tests, is a useful examination to evaluate the disease and curative effect.
32202256 Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with any one of the following criteria will be eligible to receive lopinavir/ritonavir for 14 days after obtaining written informed consent: (i) respiratory distress with respiratory rate ≥22/min or SpO2 of <94 per cent; (ii) lung parenchymal infiltrates on chest X-ray; (iii) hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or need for vasopressor/inotropic medication; (iv) new-onset organ dysfunction; and (v) high-risk groups - age >60 yr, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, chronic lung disease and immunocompromised persons.
32204751 Preventive treatment has an important role to control and avoid the spread of severe respiratory disease, but often is difficult to obtain and sometimes cannot be effective to reduce the risk of deterioration of the underlining lung pathology. […] For an appropriate and effective approach to treat severe pediatric respiratory diseases, two main different strategies can be proposed according to the stage and severity of the patient conditions: patient in the initial phase and with non-severe lung pathology and patient with severe initial respiratory impairment and/or with delay in arrival to observation.
32204987 High resolution computed tomography (CT) allows objective evaluation of the lung lesions, thus enabling us to better understand the pathogenesis of the disease.
32207208 Under specific circumstances, such as during the current COVID-19 outbreak, pregnant women can be a target for respiratory infection, and lung examination may be required as part of their clinical evaluation, ideally avoiding exposure to radiation. […] We propose a practical approach for obstetricians/gynecologists to perform lung ultrasound, showing potential applications, semiology and practical aspects, which should be of particular importance in emergency situations, such as the current pandemic infection of COVID-19.
32207255 We report a case where serial follow-up chest computed tomography revealed progression of pulmonary lesions into confluent bilateral consolidation with lower lung predominance, thereby confirming COVID-19 pneumonia.
32211920 Unlike other acute infectious diseases progressing to sepsis, the severe courses of COVID19 seemingly show prolonged progression from onset of first symptoms to life-threatening deterioration of (primarily) lung function.
32215613 Cardiovascular disease and pharmacologic RAS inhibition both increase ACE2 levels, which may increase the virulence of SARS-CoV-2 within the lung and heart.
32215622 Maximal clinical signs of rapid breathing, weight loss, histopathological changes from the initial exudative phase of diffuse alveolar damage with extensive apoptosis to the later proliferative phase of tissue repair, airway and intestinal involvement with virus nucleocapsid protein expression, high lung viral load, and spleen and lymphoid atrophy associated with marked cytokine activation were observed within the first week of virus challenge. […] The lung virus titre was between 105-107 TCID50/g. […] Immunoprophylaxis with early convalescent serum achieved significant decrease in lung viral load but not in lung pathology.
32215691 CT visual quantitative evaluation was based on summing up the acute lung inflammatory lesions involving each lobe, which was scored as 0 (0%), 1 (1-25%), 2 (26-50%), 3 (51-75%), or 4 (76-100%), respectively.
32216717 A severity index was determined for each lung. […] The lung scores were summed to produce the final severity score.
32216961 Chest CT revealed abnormal lung shadows in 110 patients. […] Regarding lesion distribution, multi-lobe lesions in both lungs were present in most patients (80 cases; 72.7%).
32217117 This leads to a cytokine storm and subsequent progression to acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and often death.
32220574 Both patients had no identified comorbidities and developed mild illness with temporal fever, persistent cough, and lung interstitial infiltrates.
32221983 ACE2 is widely distributed in the heart, kidneys, lungs, and testes. […] Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical high-mortality disease, and ACE2 has a protective effect on this type of acute lung injury.
32222121 The inflammation indicators and fever of this patient were effectively controlled and the lung lesions remained stable after active anti-viral treatment, then the radical colorectomy was performed after the viral negative conversion for twice.
32222986 Furthermore, we observed that the lesion regions in SARS-Cov-2 infected lungs with severe-/critical-type of medical staff were more likely to exhibit lesions in the right upper lobe (31.7% vs 0%; P = .028) and right lung (61% vs 18.2%; P = .012).
32223665 CT scores were determined according to CT findings and lung involvement.
32224151 Lung cancer was the most frequent cancer type (7, 25.0%).
32226695 Patients with HAPE also exhibit patchy infiltrates throughout the pulmonary fields, often in an asymmetric pattern and CT findings reveal increased lung markings and ground glass-like changes as well.
32227357 Clinical trials should also be undertaken to use statins, which are lipid-lowering drugs but have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties to prevent acute lung injury in COVID-19 infection.
32227492 Growing evidence is showing the usefulness of lung ultrasound in patients with the 2019 new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). […] In this study, we share our experience and propose a standardized approach to optimize the use of lung ultrasound in patients with COVID-19.
32227511 A 57-year-old man was diagnosed with acute aortic dissection (AAD), but had marked infiltration shadows in his right lung. […] Intraoperative findings showed that large subadventitial hematomas had spread from the ascending aorta to the right pulmonary artery, which may have caused the infiltration of the lung.
32228252 Recognition that ACE2 is the coreceptor for the coronavirus has prompted new therapeutic approaches to block the enzyme or reduce its expression to prevent the cellular entry and SARS-CoV-2 infection in tissues that express ACE2 including lung, heart, kidney, brain, and gut.
32228825 In addition, germicidal UV radiation “breaks down” the oxygen O2 which then aggregate into O3 (ozone) molecules creating the ozone layer, capable of inhibiting viral replication and improving lung respiration.
32235187 Characteristic CT findings included the lobes of bilateral lung extensively involved, ground-glass opacity and ground-glass opacity with consolidation in the peripheral area, sometimes accompanied by interlobular septal thickening, and subpleural line and pleural thickening. […] Compared with the younger group, the proportion of extensive involvement of lung lobes was higher in the elderly group (71.4% vs. […] Elderly and younger patients with corona virus disease have some common CT features, but older patients are more likely to have extensive lung lobe involvement, and subpleural line and pleural thickening.
32235945 This severe presentation corresponds to the usage of a virus receptor that is expressed predominantly in the lung2,4. […] Infectious virus was readily isolated from throat- and lung-derived samples, but not from stool samples, in spite of high virus RNA concentration. […] Sequence-distinct virus populations were consistently detected in throat and lung samples from the same patient, proving independent replication.
32236856 U-HR-CT has a larger matrix size of 1024 × 1024 thinner slice thickness of 0.25 mm and can demonstrate terminal bronchioles in the normal lungs; as a result, Reid’s secondary lobules and their abnormalities can be identified. […] The distribution and hallmarks (ground-glass opacity, consolidation with or without architectural distortion, linear opacity, crazy paving) of the lung opacities on U-HRCT were visually evaluated on a 1 K monitor by two experienced reviewers. […] The CT lung volume was measured, and the ratio of the measured lung volume to the predicted total lung capacity (predTLC) based on sex, age and height was calculated. […] In these lesions, the secondary lobules were smaller than those in the un-affected lungs. […] CT lung volume decreased in two cases comparing predTLC. […] U-HRCT can evaluate not only the distribution and hallmarks of COVID-19 pneumonia but also visualize local lung volume loss.
32238223 This case report underlines the appearance of a “walking pneumonia” in a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patient, with evidence of progressive lung involvement on chest imaging studies.
32238232 Like the SARS-CoV disease, COVID-19 is a systematic disease and targets the lungs, vasculatures, and the immune system. […] The basic pathogenesis involves two interlinked processes: a severe lung inflammation and immune deficiency, both of which are related to an inappropriate immune response and over-production of cytokines.
32238438 While the majority of infected cases appear mild, in some cases individuals present serious cardiorespiratory complications with possible long-term lung damage.
32238757 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes serious respiratory illness such as pneumonia and lung failure, was first reported in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei, China.
32239472 SNR and CNR were significantly different in several thoracic structures between HD-DECT and LDCT, with exception of lung parenchyma.
32239532 Lung ultrasound (LU) has rapidly become a tool for assessment of patients stricken by the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). […] Over the past two and a half months (January, February, and first half of March 2020) we have used this modality for identification of lung involvement along with pulmonary severity in patients with suspected or documented COVID-19 infection.
32240123 The most commonly reported conditions were diabetes mellitus, chronic lung disease, and cardiovascular disease.
32240913 We aimed to compare chest HRCT lung signs identified in scans of differently aged patients with COVID-19 infections. […] Patients aged 45-59 years and aged ≥60 years had more bilateral lung, lung lobe, and lung field involvement, and greater lesion numbers than patients <18 years.
32242947 COVID-19 is a new clinical infectious disease that mainly causes bilateral pneumonia and lung function deteriorates rapidly.
32243697 After the diagnosis of COVID-19, immunosuppressive agents were discontinued and methylprednisolone with prophylactic antibiotics were initiated, however, the lung injury progressed.
32243911 It is therefore necessary to explore biomarkers to determine the extent of lung lesions and disease severity. […] We aimed to assess the usefulness of CRP levels in the early stage of COVID-19 and to correlate them with lung lesions and severe presentation. […] On admission CRP levels were collected, and the diameter of the largest lung lesion was measured in the most severe lung lesion by lung CT scan. […] CRP levels and the diameter of the largest lung lesion in the moderate group were higher than those in the mild group (Mann-Whitney test=-2.647, -2.171, P˂0.05), those in the severe group were higher than those in the moderate group (Mann-Whitney test=0.693, -2.177, P˂0.05), and those in the critical group were higher than those in the severe group (Mann-Whitney test=-0.068, -1.549, P˂0.05). […] CRP levels were positively correlated with the diameter of lung lesion and severe presentation (correlation coefficient=0.873, 0.734, P˂0.001). […] In the early stage of COVID-19 CRP levels were positively correlated with lung lesions and could reflect disease severity.
32244059 Ever since the first case was reported at the end of 2019, the SARS-COV-2 virus and associated lung disease COVID-19 has spread throughout the world and has become a pandemic.
32245904 Patients with lung cancer are at risk of pulmonary complications from COVID-19. […] We hereby propose a tool to support oncologists and physicians in treatment decision for patients with lung cancer.
32246819 Two of the 6 patients (33.3%) had bilateral lung involvements and 4 (66.7%) had single-lung involvement.
32246845 Here, we investigate ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels and their distribution across cell types in lung tissue (twelve donors, 39,778 cells) and in cells derived from subsegmental bronchial branches (four donors, 17,521 cells) by single nuclei and single cell RNA sequencing, respectively.
32247317 Early Lessons on the Importance of Lung Imaging in Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19).
32248675 Most of these patients recover and survive to ICU discharge with supportive care using lung protective ventilation strategies, avoiding excess fluids, screening and treating bacterial co-infection, and timely intubation.
32248966 COVID-19 results in mild symptoms in the majority of infected patients, but can cause severe lung injury, cardiac injury, and death.
32249471 We report a case of positive lung ultrasound findings consistent with COVID-19 in a woman with an initial negative RT-PCR result. […] The lung ultrasound-imaging findings were present between the negative and subsequent positive RT-PCR tests and correlated with CT findings. […] The point-of-care lung-ultrasound examination was easy to perform and, as such, could play an important role in the triage of women with suspected COVID-19.
32250244 To the contrary, compelling evidence exists that the ACE-1/angiotensin(Ang)II/ATR-1 pathway is involved in SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS, while the ACE-2/Ang(1-7)/ATR2/MasR pathway counteracts the harmful actions of AngII in the lung. […] A reduced ACE-1/ACE-2 ratio is, in fact, a feature of ARDS that can be rescued by human recombinant ACE-2 and Ang(1-7) administration, thus preventing SARS-CoV-2-induced damage to the lung.
32251003 Lung transplantation (LT) as the sole therapy for end-stage pulmonary fibrosis related to acute respiratory distress syndrome has been considered as the ultimate rescue therapy for these patients. […] The pathological results of the explanted lungs were concordant with the critical clinical manifestation, and provided insight towards better understanding of the disease. […] Lung transplantation can be performed in end-stage patients with respiratory failure due to COVID-19-related pulmonary fibrosis.
32251805 Multiple organ dysfunction can be observed, the most common organ damage was lung, followed by heart, kidney and liver.
32252784 Most of the lesions identified in chest CT images were multiple lesions of bilateral lungs, lesions were more localized in the peripheral lung, 109 (83%) patients had more than two lobes involved, 20 (15%) patients presented with patchy ground glass opacities, patchy ground glass opacities and consolidation of lesions co-existing in 61 (47%) cases.
32253318 Radiological examinations showed varying degrees of absorption of lung lesions within 7 d.
32253400 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease with few successful treatments, and is strongly associated with cigarette smoking (CS). […] Since the novel coronavirus has spread worldwide seriously, there is growing concern that patients who have chronic respiratory conditions like COPD can easily be infected and are more prone to having severe illness and even mortality because of lung dysfunction. […] Loquat leaves have long been used as an important material for both pharmaceutical and functional applications in the treatment of lung disease in Asia, especially in China and Japan. […] The present study uses a CS-induced mouse model to estimate the morphological changes in lung tissue. […] The results demonstrated that TF suppressed the histological changes in the lungs of CS-challenged mice, as evidenced by reduced generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and diminished the protein expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). […] Interestingly, TF could inhibit CS-induced oxidative stress in the lungs of COPD mice. […] Taken together, our findings showed that the protective effect and putative mechanism of the action of TF resulted in the inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress through the regulation of TRPV1 and the related signal pathway in lung tissues.
32255437 Peripheral distribution (45%) of lung lesions was predominant. […] Most of the lesions were multilobar (68%), with an average of three lung segments involved. […] Children with COVID-19 had relatively milder symptoms and less severe lung inflammation than adults.
32257554 Therefore, MSC therapy inhibiting the overactivation of the immune system and promoting endogenous repair by improving the lung microenvironment after the SARS-CoV-2 infection found in this study is striking.
32264791 ACE2 is widely expressed, including, in the lungs, cardiovascular system, gut, kidneys, central nervous system, and adipose tissue. […] The ACE2 system is a critical protective pathway against heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction including, myocardial infarction and hypertension, and against lung disease and diabetes.
32265310 Limited pre-clinical data suggest that systemic MSC administration can significantly reduce respiratory virus (Influenza strains H5N1 and H9N2)-induced lung injury, however, there are no available data in models of coronavirus respiratory infection.There are a rapidly increasing number of clinical investigations of cell-based therapy approaches for COVID-19. […] To provide a rationale strategy to maximise potential therapeutic use, it is critically important to understand the relevant pre-clinical studies and postulated mechanisms of MSC actions in respiratory virus-induced lung injuries.
32265331 A single intranasal administration of 104 PFU PIV5-MERS-S provided complete protection against a lethal challenge with mouse-adapted MERS-CoV (MERSMA6.1.2) and improved virus clearance in the lung. […] Intriguingly, an influx of eosinophils was observed only in the lungs of mice immunized with inactivated MERS-CoV, suggestive of a hypersensitivity-type response.
32267139 Brain metastasis is a major cause for cancer death in patients with lung cancer. […] Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and hsa-miR-217 has been identified to mediate the development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). […] This axis might be a potential target for the treatment of brain metastasis of lung cancer.
32267998 There is evidence in both animals and humans that fibrinolytic therapy in Acute Lung Injury and ARDS improves survival, which also points to fibrin deposition in the pulmonary microvasculature as a contributory cause of ARDS and would be expected to be seen in patients with ARDS and concomitant diagnoses of DIC on their laboratory values such as what is observed in more than 70% of those who die of COVID-19 (8-10).
32268018 The main medication characteristics are clearing heat, entilating lung, removing toxicity and removing turbidity.
32268454 Chest CT of two patients showed bilateral lung texture was thickening, and chest CT of other patients was normal.
32268515 In the present study we investigated in silico the basic mechanism of ACE2 in the lung and provided evidences for new potentially effective drugs for Covid-19.
32270184 We comprehensively investigated the replication, cell tropism, and immune activation profile of SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung tissues with SARS-CoV included as a comparison. […] SARS-CoV-2 infected and replicated in human lung tissues more efficiently than that of SARS-CoV. […] Within the 48-hour interval, SARS-CoV-2 generated 3.20 folds more infectious virus particles than that of SARS-CoV from the infected lung tissues (P<0.024). […] Importantly, despite the more efficient virus replication, SARS-CoV-2 did not significantly induce types I, II, or III interferons in the infected human lung tissues. […] Our study provided the first quantitative data on the comparative replication capacity and immune activation profile of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection in human lung tissues.
32270479 Fifteen (65.2%) patients were asymptomatic with patchy ground-glass opacity in a single lung lobe.
32271459 Compared with the non-severe group, the severe group showed statistical significance in older age, hypertension, bilateral lung plaque shadow, decrease in lymphocyte count, increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase. […] Age, combined hypertension, oxygenation index, double lung patch, decreased lymphocyte count, and elevated levels of C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase can be used as predictors of the disease severity.
32271942 Experiments were conducted on two test lungs with different compliances (0.02 and 0.04 l.cmH2 O-1 ). […] The ventilator was used in both pressure and volume control modes and was set to ventilate the low compliance lungs at end-tidal volumes of 500 ± 20 ml. […] A flow restrictor apparatus consisting of a Hoffman clamp and tracheal tube was connected in series to the inspiratory limb of the high compliance test lungs and the resistance modified to achieve end-tidal volumes of 500 ± 20 ml. […] The restriction apparatus successfully modified the inspiratory pressure, minute ventilation, and volume delivered to the high compliance test lungs in both pressure control (27.3-17.8 cm H2 O, 15.2-8.0 l.min-1 and 980-499 ml, respectively), and volume control (21.0-16.7 cm H2 O, 10.7-7.9 l.min-1 and 659-498 ml, respectively) ventilation modes. […] However, these experiments demonstrate the capacity to simultaneously ventilate two test lungs of different compliances, and using only standard hospital equipment, modify the delivered pressure, flow, and volume in each test lung.
32272262 Chest CT showed abnormal attenuation in bilateral multiple lung lobes, distributed in the lower and/or periphery of the lungs (94.98%), with multiple shapes. […] While chest HRCT provided the distribution, shape, attenuation and extent of lung lesions, as well as some typical CT signs of COVID-19 pneumonia.
32272630 However, asymptomatic lung involvement has not been reported. […] We hereby present the case of a 44-year-old health-care worker, who was found to be infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus after a CT-scan performed for an unrelated condition revealed a lesion in the lung field compatible with COVID-19 infection.
32274773 COVID-19, a new viral disease affecting primarily the respiratory system and the lung, has caused a pandemic with serious challenges to health systems around the world. […] Therapy is based on established recommendations issued for patients with acute lung injury (ARDS). […] Lung protective ventilation, prone position, restrictive fluid management and an adequate management of organ failures are the mainstays of therapy. […] In case of fulminant lung failure, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be used as a rescue in experienced centres.
32275257 The SARS-CoV-2 causes changes in blood cells and factors and makes lung abnormalities in patients, which can be detected by serological, molecular, and radiological techniques by detecting these changes and injuries.
32275347 Endomyocardial biopsy demonstrated low-grade myocardial inflammation and viral particles in the myocardium suggesting either a viraemic phase or, alternatively, infected macrophage migration from the lung.
32275452 More patients had multiple lung lobe involvement and pleural effusion in the critical group as compared to moderate group. […] Involvement of multiple lung lobes and pleural effusion were associated with the severity of COVID-19.
32275742 He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on postmortem nasopharyngeal and lung parenchymal swabs. […] Postmortem nasopharyngeal swab was positive for SARS-CoV-2; lung parenchymal swabs were negative.
32275753 Lungs from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have shown typical signs of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), formation of hyaline membrane mainly composed of fibrin, and ‘ground-glass’ opacity. […] We aimed to investigate whether plasminogen can improve lung lesions and hypoxemia of COVID-19. […] Levels of their lung lesions, oxygen saturation and heart rates were compared before and after treatment by CT scanning images and patient monitor. […] After plasminogen inhalation, conditions of lung lesions in 5 clinically moderate patients have quickly improved, shown as the decreased range and density of ‘ground glass’ opacity. […] Whereas it is reported that plasminogen is dramatically increased in adults with ARDS, this study suggests that additional plasminogen may be effective and efficient in treating lung lesions and hypoxemia during COVID-19 infections.
32275766 Ultrasound imaging of the lung and associated tissues may play an important role in the management of patients with COVID-19 associated lung injury. […] Compared to other monitoring modalities, such as auscultation or radiographic imaging, we argue lung ultrasound has high diagnostic accuracy, is ergonomically favourable and has fewer infection control implications. […] By informing the initiation, escalation, titration and weaning of respiratory support, lung ultrasound can be integrated into COVID-19 care pathways for patients with respiratory failure. […] Given the unprecedented pressure on healthcare services currently, supporting and educating clinicians is a key enabler of the wider implementation of lung ultrasound. […] This narrative review provides a summary of evidence and clinical guidance for the use and interpretation of lung ultrasound for patients with moderate, severe and critical COVID-19 associated lung injury. […] Mechanisms by which the potential lung ultrasound workforce can be deployed are explored, including a pragmatic approach to training, governance, imaging, interpretation of images and implementation of lung ultrasound into routine clinical practice.
32277351 However, in a subgroup of patients, the secondary immune response may be exaggerated, leading to inflammatory-induced lung injury and other complications including pneumonitis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory failure, shock, organ failure, and potentially death.
32277387 Recently, the new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has affected nearly 200 countries worldwide. 2019-nCov can cause severe lung disease, multiple-organ damage, and significant mortalities.
32278065 ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are not only expressed in lung, but also in the small intestinal epithelia.
32278670 The most common comorbidities identified were obesity (n = 48%), arterial hypertension (n = 44%) and chronic lung disease (n = 37%).
32281052 After the intravenous transplantation of MSCs, a significant population of cells accumulates in the lung, which they alongside immunomodulatory effect could protect alveolar epithelial cells, reclaim the pulmonary microenvironment, prevent pulmonary fibrosis, and cure lung dysfunction.
32281268 HCov-229E is one of the four flu-causing coronaviruses which share great sequence similitude, while many symptoms of patients infected with COVID-19 resemble those of patients infected with these known flu-causing coronaviruses.2 A previous study reported that human lung epithelial A549 cells treated with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) interfering RNA (RNAi) to lower G6PD activity displayed augmented (12-fold) viral production in comparison to normal counterparts when infected with coronavirus HCov-229E.
32281328 Rhei Radix et Rhizoma screened by Mpro and Trichosanthis Fructus screened by PLP were contained in Maxing Shigan Decoction and Xuanbai Chengqi Decoction, and could be applied to the syndromes of epidemic virus blocking lung. […] Mori Folium, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Forsythiae Fructus obtained by ACE2 inhibitors screening were included in the Sangju Decoction and Yinqiaosan, which might be applicable to the syndromes of warm pathogen attacking lung and cough and dyspnea.
32281329 With the exudation of inflammatory factors, cytokines increase abnormally in tissues and organs, interfering with the immune system, causing excessive immune response of the body, resulting in diffuse damage of lung cells, pulmonary fibrosis, and multiple organ damage, even death.
32281331 The pathogeny of COVID-19 in TCM is damp-toxin, with the core pathogenesis of damp-toxin retention in lung and Qi repression. […] The location of the disease is lung, always involving spleen and stomach, and may further affect heart and kidney in severe cases.
32281332 Among them, the four properties were mainly concentrated in temperature, cold and level, the five tastes were mainly concentrated in bitter, hot and sweet, and the meridians were mainly concentrated in lung, stomach and spleen.
32281333 The pungent medicines are mostly found in the early stage, the bitter drugs are the main flavor in the middle and severe stage, and the sweet medicines are mostly used in the recovery stage; ③the meridian of the drug is more concentrated at the lung, stomach, and heart, and most of drugs are into the lung meridian, accounting for 24.55%; these medicines are mostly into the lungs and stomach in the initial and middle stages, and into the heart and kidney in severe stages; ④oral drugs are mostly non-toxic, among which only 6 kinds are toxic, namely Armeniacae Semen Amarum, Dryopteridis Crassirhizomatis Rhizoma, Paridis Rhizoma, Pinelliae Rhizoma, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia; ⑤most of the drugs have five types of functions: treating exterior syndromes, resolving dampness, clearing heat, replenishing deficiency, resolving phlegm, cough, and asthma.
32283052 The most anatomic distributions were bilateral lung infection (78.2%) and peripheral distribution (76.95%). […] The most common CT features in patients affected by COVID-19 included ground glass opacities and consolidation involving the bilateral lungs in a peripheral distribution.
32285974 Here, we investigate ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels and their distribution across cell types in lung tissue (twelve donors, 39,778 cells) and in cells derived from subsegmental bronchial branches (four donors, 17,521 cells) by single nuclei and single cell RNA sequencing, respectively.
32286679 A lung-saving ventilation strategy must be implemented in acute respiratory distress syndrome and mechanically ventilated patients.
32289051 Lung US findings were consistent with diffuse B lines (100%) and subpleural consolidations (27.3%).
32289516 Here we report seven cases who were confirmed infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the perioperative period of lung resection. […] Retrospective analysis suggested that one patient had been infected with the SARS-CoV-2 prior to the surgery, the other 6 patients contracted the infection after the lung resection. […] Fever, lymphopenia and ground-glass opacities on computerized tomography (CT) are the most common clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in patients after lung resection surgery. […] Three out seven patients died from COVID-19 pneumonia, suggesting that lung resection surgery might be a risk factor for death in patients with COVID-19 in the perioperative period.
32291399 To gain knowledge about the pathology that may contribute to disease progression and fatality, we performed postmortem needle core biopsies of lung, liver, and heart in four patients who died of COVID-19 pneumonia. […] Histologically, the main findings are in the lungs, including injury to the alveolar epithelial cells, hyaline membrane formation, and hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes, all components of diffuse alveolar damage.
32291968 Lung cancer has the highest morbidity and mortality in China and the world. […] Most patients with lung cancer are smokers with poor underlying lung conditions and low immunity, thus it is vital to protect them from epidemic diseases during cancer treatment. […] It is necessary to provide individualized medical treatment and management of treatment-related adverse events for patients with lung cancer based on patients’ conditions and regional epidemic patterns.
32292213 The clinical course of the disease known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ranges from mild respiratory symptoms to severe lung failure.
32292624 The degree of lesions was visually scored by the radiologist, as follows, for each of the 5 lung lobes: 0, no lesion present; 1, <1/3 involvement; 2, >1/3 and < 2/3 involvement; and 3, >2/3 involvement. […] The parameters obtained using the computer tool included lung volume (mL), lesion volume (mL), lesion percentage (%), and mean lesion density (HU) of the whole lung, right lung, left lung, and each lobe. […] A Chi-square test was used to test the consistency of radiologist- and computer-derived lesion percentage in the right/left lung, upper/lower lobe, and each of the 5 lobes.
32292627 Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), lung failure, and fulminant pneumonia are major lung diseases in H7N9 patients. […] Because H7N9 and the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) share similar complications (such as ARDS and lung failure) and corresponding multi-organ dysfunction, MSC-based therapy could be a possible alternative for treating COVID-19.
32292866 This latter stage is characterized by the development of progressive lung involvement with increasing oxygen requirements and occasionally signs of the haemophagocitic syndrome.
32292901 Failure of SARS and MERS vaccines in animal trials involved pathogenesis consistent with an immunological priming that could involve autoimmunity in lung tissues due to previous exposure to the SARS and MERS spike protein.
32293003 We provide a critical review on the relationship of hypertension, RAS, and risk of lung injury. […] We also review in detail the molecular mechanisms linking the RAS to lung damage and the potential clinical impact of treatment with RAS blockers in patients with COVID-19 and a high cardiovascular and renal risk. […] This is related to the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells, and expression of ACE2 in the lung, cardiovascular system, kidney, and other tissues.
32293710 COVID-19 infection and its severity can be explained by the concentration of glycosylated SARS- CoV-2 viral particles in the lung epithelium, the concentration of glycosylated angiotensin converting enzyme receptor 2 (ACE2) in the lung epithelium, and the degree and control of the pulmonary immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at approximately day 8-10 after symptom onset, which may be related to both.
32293716 Only 25.8% of patients had lesions involving single lung and 75.7% of patients had lesions involving bilateral lungs. […] Bilateral lungs involvement was common.
32294796 This study was conducted to explore the clinical value of noninvasive assessment of bedside ultrasound in the diagnosis of lung lesions of Coronavirus Disease-19. […] All cases were examined by lung ultrasound and CT. […] Lung lesions were reviewed by blinded observers, with imaging scores being used to analyze the ultrasound findings of lung lesions in patients with Coronavirus Disease-19 and with chest CT being used as the reference standard. […] The clinical value of ultrasound in the noninvasive assessment of lung lesions was evaluated. […] Lung ultrasound signs in patients with Coronavirus Disease-19 were mainly manifested as interstitial pulmonary edema (90.0 %, 27/30) and pulmonary consolidations (20.0 %, 6/30). […] The lung lesions were mainly distributed in the subpleural and peripheral pulmonary zones. […] There was moderate agreement (Kappa = 0.529) between the noninvasive assessment of bedside ultrasound for lung lesions in patients with Coronavirus Disease-19 and CT. […] The ultrasound scores to evaluate mild, moderate and severe lung lesions exhibited sensitivity of 68.8 % (11/16), 77.8 % (7/9), 100.0 % (2/2), specificity of 85.7 % (12/14), 76.2 % (16/21), 92.9 % (26/28), and diagnostic accuracy of 76.7 % (23/30), 76.7 % (23/30), 93.3 % (28/30), respectively. […] The follow-up dynamic ultrasound examination showed that the condition of all patients worsened gradually, with the ultrasound scores of lung lesions increasing to varying degrees. […] Bedside ultrasound has important clinical significance for noninvasive assessment and dynamic observation of lung lesions in patients with Coronavirus Disease-19, which is worth further consideration. […] ZIEL: Diese Studie wurde durchgeführt, um den klinischen Wert der nicht-invasiven Beurteilung von Ultraschall direkt am Krankenbett bei der Diagnose von Lungenläsionen bei COVID-19-Erkrankung zu untersuchen. […] Alle Fälle wurden mittels Lungenultraschall und CT untersucht. […] Die Lungenläsionen wurden von verblindeten Beobachtern überprüft, wobei die sonografischen Befunde der Lungenläsionen bei COVID-19-Patienten mittels Bildgebungs-Scores analysiert wurden und Thorax-CT als Referenzstandard diente. […] Der klinische Nutzen der Sonografie bei der nicht-invasiven Beurteilung von Lungenläsionen wurde bewertet. […] Bei COVID-19-Patienten manifestierten sich die Lungenultraschallzeichen in erster Linie als interstitielles Lungenödem (90,0 %, 27/30) und Lungenkonsolidierungen (20,0 %, 6/30). […] Die Läsionen der Lunge waren überwiegend in den subpleuralen und peripheren Lungenzonen verteilt. […] Die Übereinstimmung zwischen der nicht-invasiven Beurteilung des Ultraschalls am Krankenbett und der CT für Lungenläsionen bei COVID-19-Patienten war moderat (Kappa = 0,529). […] Die Beurteilung mittels Ultraschall von leichten, moderaten und schweren Lungenläsionen ergab eine Sensitivität von 68,8 % (11/16), 77,8 % (7/9), 100,0 % (2/2), eine Spezifität von 85,7 % (12/14), 76,2 % (16/21), 92,9 % (26/28) und eine diagnostische Genauigkeit von 76,7 % (23/30), 76,7 % (23/30) bzw. […] Die anschließende dynamische Ultraschalluntersuchung zeigte, dass sich der Zustand aller Patienten allmählich verschlechterte, wobei die Ultraschall-Scores der Lungenläsionen in unterschiedlichem Maße anstiegen. […] Ultraschall direkt am Krankenbett hat eine wichtige klinische Bedeutung für die nicht-invasive Beurteilung und die dynamische Beobachtung von Lungenläsionen bei COVID-19-Patienten und sollte weiter in Betracht gezogen werden.
32294816 The results showed that the positive rate of bronchoalveolar lavage for detection of new coronavirus nucleic acid was high, and bronchoalveolar lavage for suspected or confirmed new coronavirus pneumonia patients with negative detection of nucleic acid in pharynx swabs but still residual lung lesions was helpful for early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
32294817 Clinical deterioration accompanied by decreasing viral load in the second week after symptom onset was noted both in SARS and COVID-19, suggesting that the lung damage at this phase is more related to excessive host immune response rather than uncontrolled viral replication.
32294858 There were 3 cases of mild type, 27 cases of common type and 3 cases of severe type.There were 2 cases with hypertension, 1 case with postoperative lung,1 case with diabetes, 1 case with chronic bronchitis, and 1 case with bronchiectasis.SPSS25.0 Chi-square test was used to analyze the distribution of lesions in each lung lobe; SPSS25.0 Spearman correlation coefficient was used to analyze the image score and clinical classification. Results: There were 3 cases (9.1%) with normal lung and 30 cases (90.9%) with Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia(COVID-19) of the 2019-nCoV infected patients. […] In the distribution of COVID-19, 29 cases (87.9%) were involved in bilateral lung and 1 case (3.0%) in unilateral lung. […] Among the 22 cases, 10 cases had more lesions, 6 cases had no changes and 6 cases had less lesions. Conclusion: Most of the patients with 2019-nCoV infection have pulmonary inflammation.CT manifestations include multiple parts, subpleural area or middle and lateral field of lung, ground glass shadow and consolidation, or coexistence.
32295322 Of the cases showing “white lung”, 87% were sever ill or critically ill.
32296808 There is emerging evidence to suggest that lung protective ventilation for ARDS can be further optimised while receiving ECMO so as to minimise ventilator-induced lung injury and subsequent contributions to multi-organ failure.
32297175 Thoracic ultrasound seems to adapt to the screening for lung involvement of patients with suspected or ascertained SARS-COVID-19 infection due to its characteristics of easy applicability. […] B lines are early finding of COVID-19, even in mild-symptomatic subjects; in the most serious cases such as pre-ARDS or ARDS, the B lines end up filling the ultrasound image almost completely, until it merges, so as to create a single hyperechoic image named as “white lung”, with distortion and irregularity of the pleural line. […] In advanced stage, lung consolidations are present, representing pulmonary pathological areas that are no longer normally ventilated.
32297671 Lymphocyte subsets and cytokines were detected on the first day of hospital admission and lung computed tomography results were quantified by PII.
32297988 Treatment with HCQ resulted in less number of cases showing the radiological progression of lung disease (odds ratio [OR], 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.9).
32298251 Among 178 (12%) adult patients with data on underlying conditions as of March 30, 2020, 89.3% had one or more underlying conditions; the most common were hypertension (49.7%), obesity (48.3%), chronic lung disease (34.6%), diabetes mellitus (28.3%), and cardiovascular disease (27.8%).
32298273 Meanwhile, ACE2 was also expressed in specific cell types of human fetal heart, liver and lung, but not in kidney. […] And in a study containing series fetal and post-natal mouse lung, we observed ACE2 was dynamically changed over the time, and ACE2 was extremely high in neonatal mice at post-natal day 1~3.
32299776 We examined skin and lung tissues from 5 patients with severe COVID-19 characterized by respiratory failure (n= 5) and purpuric skin rash (n = 3).
32300971 Besides ground-glass opacities (p = 0.032) and consolidation (p = 0.001) in the lung periphery, the lesion size (1-3 cm) is also significant for the diagnosis of COVID-19 (p = 0.027). […] Lung score presents no significant difference (p = 0.417).
32301099 Even among asymptomatic patients, 5 (62.5%) cases had lung injuries including 3 (60%) cases with bilateral involvement, which was not different compared with that of symptomatic cases (p = 0.58, p = 0.74). […] The clinical symptoms of children are mild, there is substantial lung injury even among children, but that there is less clinical disease, perhaps because of a less pronounced inflammatory response, and that the occurrence of this pattern appears to inversely correlate with age.
32301631 OBJECTIVE. This series of patients presented to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain, without the respiratory symptoms typical of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and the abdominal radiologist was the first to suggest COVID-19 infection because of findings in the lung bases on CT of the abdomen. CONCLUSION. COVID-19 infection can present primarily with abdominal symptoms, and the abdominal radiologist must suggest the diagnosis when evaluating the lung bases for typical findings.
32301647 Background Computed tomography (CT) of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease depicts the extent of lung involvement in COVID-19 pneumonia. […] Purpose The aim of the study was to determine the value of quantification of the well-aerated lung obtained at baseline chest CT for determining prognosis in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. […] CT was analyzed for quantification of well aerated lung visually (%V-WAL) and by open-source software (%S-WAL and absolute volume, VOL-WAL). […] Conclusion In patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia, visual or software quantification the extent of CT lung abnormality were predictors of ICU admission or death.
32301766 Pre-clinical models suggest that ACE2 upregulation confers protective effects in acute lung injury.
32302401 We show lung infiltration of neutrophils in an autopsy specimen from a patient who succumbed to COVID-19.
32302927 However, due to infection control issues related to patient transport to CT suites, the inefficiencies introduced in CT room decontamination, and lack of CT availability in parts of the world, portable chest radiography (CXR) will likely be the most commonly utilized modality for identification and follow up of lung abnormalities. […] The purpose of this pictorial review article is to describe the most common manifestations and patterns of lung abnormality on CXR in COVID-19 in order to equip the medical community in its efforts to combat this pandemic.
32302956 However, early nucleic acid tests were identified to be negative in some patients, whereas the patients exhibited characteristic CT changes of lung, and positive test results appeared after repeated nucleic acid tests, having caused the failure to diagnose these patients early. […] The study aimed to delve into the relationships between initial nucleic acid testing and early lung CT changes in patients with COVID-19. […] The consistency between the first COVID-19 nucleic acid test positive and lung CT changes was studied. […] The Kappa coefficient of initial nucleic acid positive changes and lung CT changes was -1.52. […] With a positive nucleic acid test as the gold standard, the sensitivity of lung CT was 12.00 %, 95 % CI: 4.6-24.3; with the changes of CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity of nucleic acid positive was 30.16 %, 95 % CI: 19.2-43.0. […] The consistency between the initial positive nucleic acid test and the CT changes in the lungs is poor; low sensitivity was achieved for initial nucleic acid detection and CT changes.
32303365 The potential effect of vitaminC in reducing inflammation in the lungs could play a key role in lung injury caused by coronavirus infection.
32303590 In SARS-CoV infection, lung lesions were typically more severe, whereas they were milder in MERS-CoV infection, where virus was detected mainly in type II pneumocytes.
32303609 For instance, it is an important question to understand whether patients with IBD (eg, due to intestinal ACE2 expression) might be particularly susceptible to covid-19 and the cytokine release syndrome associated with lung injury and fatal outcomes.
32304265 The working parties of TROG (head/neck/skin, genitourinary, breast and lung) were also sampled.
32304402 Depending on the severity of the disease, the number of involved lung segments and lobes, the frequencies of consolidation, crazy-paving pattern and air bronchogram increased in more severe cases. […] Qualitative indicators including total severity score for the whole lung and total score for crazy-paving and consolidation could distinguish groups B and C from A(69% sensitivity, 83% specificity and 73% accuracy) but were similar between group B and group C. […] Critical cases had higher total severity score(>10) and higher total score for crazy-paving and consolidation(>4) than ordinary cases, and had higher mean lung density(>-779HU) and full width at half maximum(>128HU) but lower relative volume of normal lung density(≦50%) than ordinary/severe cases. […] In our critical cases, eight patients with relative volume of normal lung density smaller than 40% received mechanical ventilation for supportive treatment, and two of them had died.
32304747 ARBs directly protect the lung from the severe acute respiratory syndrome as a result of viral infections, including those from coronavirus.
32305401 Based on the anti-inflammatory benefits of the upregulation of the ACE2/Ang1-7/Mas axis and previously demonstrated benefits of lung function improvement in SARS-CoV infections, we hypothesize that the benefits of treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in SARS-COV2 may outweigh the risks and at the very least should not be withheld.
32305501 Increasing evidence points to host Th17 inflammatory responses as contributing to the severe lung pathology and mortality of lower respiratory tract infections from coronaviruses.
32305506 Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a component of the renin-angiotensin system, whose expression dominates on lung alveolar epithelial cells, is the human cell receptor of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19.
32307268 Lung-toxin Dispelling Formula No. 1, referred to as Respiratory Detox Shot (RDS), was developed based on a classical prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the theoretical understanding of herbal properties within TCM. […] Twelve disease pathways attributed to the Lung-Large Intestine meridians, with six and five attributed to the Kidney-Urinary Bladder and Stomach-Spleen meridians, respectively. […] RDS acts primarily in the Lung-Large Intestine, Kidney-Urinary Bladder and Stomach-Spleen meridians, with other Zang-fu viscera strategically covered by all nine ingredients.
32307320 Except for one case with normal lung appearance, all the other four cases had certain characteristics, including ground-glass opacity (GGO), consolidation and atoll sign. […] The lesions were mainly distributed in the peripheral portion of lung.
32307653 Moreover, resident lung progenitor/stem are extensively differentiated into myofibroblasts during pulmonary fibrosis, a complication observed in COVID-19 patients. […] This process, and the possible direct viral invasion of progenitor/stem cells via CD147 or ACE2, could result in the decline of these cellular stocks and failing lung repair. […] Clinical tests with allogeneic MSCs from healthy individuals are underway to enhance endogenous lung repair and suppress inflammation.
32310715 Acute kidney injury, a marked hypercoagulable state, and sometimes myocarditis can be features of COVID-19 in addition to the characteristic severe acute lung injury.
32310920 Chest X-ray is characterized by low sensitivity in identifying earlier lung changes.
32312025 Variable CT features were observed: consolidation with ground-glass opacities, ground-glass opacities with subpleural reticular bands, and an anterior-posterior gradient of lung abnormalities resembling that of acute respiratory distress syndrome. […] In one patient, we noted evolution of CT findings, where there was interval resolution of bilateral lung consolidation with development of bronchiolectasis and subpleural fibrotic bands. […] While sensitive for detecting lung parenchymal abnormalities in COVID-19 pneumonia, CT for initial diagnosis is discouraged and should be reserved for specific clinical indications.
32312064 For patient 2 (son), the clinical symptoms were not obvious, but CT imaging clearly displayed dynamic changes of the lung lesions.
32312363 A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 115 children who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Wuhan Children’s Hospital, including general information, history of close contact with individuals of SARS-CoV-2 infection, early clinical symptoms, laboratory examination results, and lung CT results. […] Lung CT findings showed ground glass opacity, fiber opacities, patchy changes, and pulmonary consolidation in 49 children (42.6%), among whom 2 children had “white lung”; 39 children (33.9%) only had lung texture enhancement and 27 children (23.5%) had no pulmonary imaging changes.
32313662 On day 10, her chest radiography and lung compliance improved. […] Treatment of severe pneumonia in COVID-19 by ECMO should recognize lung plasticity considering time to ECMO introduction and interstitial biomarkers.
32313883 However, the inhalation of rapamycin, with its well-documented lung toxicity, could be contraindicated. […] Another class of drug, biguanides, can also inhibit mTOR, but have no lung toxicity.
32314010 Chest X-ray showed increased opacity on the right lower lung area, and C-reactive protein level was slightly elevated.
32314329 ACE2 counteracts ACE and angiotensin II in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and has critical functions in the lung and cardiovascular system.
32314503 The underlying pathophysiology is likely multi-stranded, ranging from complement system hyperactivation, increased Interleukin-6 secretion, chronic inflammation, presence of comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension, and a possible local, detrimental effect within the lung.
32314805 The results of the meta-analysis showed that most patients presented bilateral lung involvement (73.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 65.9%-81.1%) or multilobar involvement (67.3%, 95% CI: 54.8%-78.7%) and just little patients showed normal CT findings (8.4%). […] The lung lesions of patients with COVID-19 were mostly bilateral lungs or multilobar involved.
32316712 The aims were to investigate medical needs of lung cancer patients and their mental health status during the epidemic periods, so as to provide rational recommendations for subsequent diagnosis and treatment. […] During novel coronavirus pneumonia, 40%-75% of lung cancer patients have mental health problems, and more than 95% of patients support government’s prevention and control measures. […] During the emergence of NCP, the medical needs of patients with lung cancer have not been enough, especially those who discontinued chemotherapy or immunotherapy.
32316719 Real-time PCR was performed to quantify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene expression in conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, iris, lens, retina, lung, heart, kidney, and liver from male mice. […] The expression of these two genes in conjunctiva were lower than that in kidney and lung.
32317591 At each positive end-expiratory pressure level, we assessed arterial blood gases, respiratory mechanics, ventilation inhomogeneity, and potential for lung recruitment by electrical impedance tomography. […] Potential for lung recruitment was assessed by the recently described recruitment to inflation ratio. […] The ventilation-perfusion mismatch was elevated (median, 34% [32-45%] of lung units) and, in six out of seven patients, ventilated nonperfused units represented a much larger proportion than perfused nonventilated ones. […] In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome from coronavirus disease 2019, potential for lung recruitment presents large variability, while elevated dead space fraction may be a specific pathophysiological trait.
32318665 Viral replication of nasopharyngeal swabs, anal swabs and lung in old monkeys was more active than that in young monkeys for 14 days after SARS-CoV-2 challenge.
32318891 Pneumonia in COVID-19 has peculiar features and can be studied by lung ultrasound in the early approach to suspected patients.
32318916 There were 83 cases (55.33%) involving both lungs, 67 cases (44.67%) involving a single lung (left 25 cases and right 42 cases).
32319424 In these patients, lung protective ventilation is essential.
32319446 In the meanwhile, to prevent hospitals from risking collapse, it is crucial to stratify patients at high risk of poor lung progression, to find effective monitoring strategies, even at home, for the positive patients and/or those highly at risk of positivity of CoViD-19.
32319792 OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to report unanticipated lung base findings on abdominal CT in 23 patients concerning for coronavirus disease (COVID-19). […] Seventeen patients underwent polymerase chain reaction testing, which returned positive results for all 17. CONCLUSION. Unsuspected coronavirus disease may be strongly suggested on the basis of lung findings on abdominopelvic CT.
32319956 Male sex, advanced age, and lung diseases were associated with a higher risk of fever in the general population with a history of contact.
32320211 Recent reports suggest that it is not just the lung that the virus may be targeting; the human brain may soon emerge as the new abode of the virus.
32321232 The chest X-ray taken initially showed no lung affection.
32323287 Regarding the pathophysiological aspects of acute respiratory insufficiency (ARI), the pulmonary infection with SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 runs through three phases: early infection, pulmonary manifestation and severe hyperinflammatory phase.There are differences between advanced COVID-19-induced lung damage and those changes seen in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndromes (ARDS) as defined by the Berlin criteria. […] Versorgungskontinuum zur Behandlung der ARIZentrale Punkte wurden hierbei als Kernaussagen und Feststellungen herausgehoben. […] Bezüglich pathophysiologischer Aspekte der akuten respiratorischen Insuffizienz (ARI) verläuft die pulmonale Infektion mit SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 in drei Phasen: Frühe Infektion, pulmonale Manifestation und schwere hyperinflammatorische Phase.Der fortgeschrittene COVID-19-induzierte Lungenschaden weist häufig Unterschiede zu den bekannten Veränderungen entsprechend der Definition des Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) nach den Berlin-Kriterien auf.In einem pathophysiologisch plausiblen – zur Zeit aber noch nicht histopathologisch untermauerten – Modell wird in zwei Typen (L-Typ und H-Typ) unterschieden, die einer frühen und späten Phase entsprechen. […] Kommt es unter CPAP/NIV zur weiteren Progression des ARI, sollte ohne zeitliche Verzögerung die Intubation und nachfolgende invasive Beatmung erfolgen, wenn keine DNI-Order vorliegt.Bei Patienten, bei denen eine invasive Beatmung unter Ausschöpfung aller leitliniengerechter Maßnahmen nicht ausreicht, um eine ausreichende Sauerstoffaufnahme und CO2-Abgabe zu gewährleisten, soll ein extrakorporales Lungenersatzverfahren erwogen werden (ECMO).
32323565 Human lungs single-cell RNA sequencing data from healthy donors (elderly and young; GEO accession no. […] Other redox-active genes that were also downregulated in cells from the elderly included activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and metallothionein 2A (M2TA). ATF4 is an endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor that defends lungs via induction of heme oxygenase 1. […] These downregulated candidates were subjected to enrichment using the Reactome Database identifying that in the elderly, the ability to respond to heme deficiency and the ATF4-dependent ability to respond to endoplasmic reticulum stress is significantly compromised. SOD3-based therapeutic strategies have provided beneficial results in treating lung disorders including fibrosis. […] The findings of this study propose the hypotheses that lung-specific delivery of SOD3/ATF4-related antioxidants will work in synergy with promising antiviral drugs such as remdesivir to further improve COVID-19 outcomes in the elderly.
32324360 At the initial phase, the atypical presentations of the virus infection are multiplex, peripheral ground glass opacities situated in the right lower lobe of the lung evolving rapidly into a bilateral involvement of the middle and basal zones.
32325282 To evaluate lung abnormalities on thin-section computed tomographic (CT) scans in patients with COVID-19 and correlate findings to duration of symptoms. […] Each lung lobe was evaluated for extent affected by ground-glass opacities (GGO), crazy-paving pattern and consolidation, in five categories of percentual severity. […] Summation of scores from all five lung lobes provided the total CT score (maximal CT score, 25). […] The predominant patterns of lung abnormalities were GGOs, crazy-paving pattern, consolidation and linear opacities.
32326602 In addition, a clinically proven protease inhibitor, camostat mesylate, has been demonstrated to inhibit Calu-3 infection with SARS-CoV-2 and prevent SARS-2-spike protein (S protein)-mediated entry into primary human lung cells.
32327383 Ultrasound, although not used in the diagnosis of COVID-19 may be utilised by practitioners at the point of care (POC) or on the intensive care units (ITUs) where rapid assessment of the lung condition may be required. […] The aim of this article was to review current literature surrounding the use of lung ultrasound in relation to COVID-19 and provide Sonographers with a quick and digestible reference guide for lung pathologies. […] Ultrasound is being used in Italy and China to help review lung condition during the COVID-19 outbreak however not strictly as a diagnostic tool as Computed Tomography (CT) of the chest and chest radiographs are currently gold standard. […] Ultrasound is highly sensitive in the detection of multiple lung pathologies which can be demonstrated in conjunction with COVID-19 however to date there are no specific, nor pathognomonic findings which relate to COVID-19 on ultrasound. […] Lung ultrasound is highly sensitive and can quickly and accurately review lung condition creating potential to assess for changes or resolution over time, especially in the ITU and POC setting. […] The adoption of lung ultrasound to monitor lung condition during the COVID-19 outbreak may reduce the need for serial exposure to ionising radiation on the wards and in turn reduce the number of radiographers required to attend infected wards and bays, protecting both patients and the workforce.
32329246 The increase in proinflammatory cytokines within the lung leads to recruitment of leukocytes, further propagating the local inflammatory response. […] A consistent finding in ARDS is the deposition of fibrin in the air spaces and lung parenchyma. […] Fibrin deposits are found in the lungs of patients due to the dysregulation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. […] Tissue factor (TF) is exposed on damaged alveolar endothelial cells and on the surface of leukocytes promoting fibrin deposition, while significantly elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) from lung epithelium and endothelial cells create a hypofibrinolytic state. […] However, to degrade pre-existing fibrin in the lung it is essential to promote local fibrinolysis.
32329589 Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new disease characterized by lung damage and involvement in multiple tissues and organs in the whole body.
32330073 Amid efforts to care for the large number of patients with COVID-19, there has been considerable speculation about whether the lung injury seen in these patients is different than ARDS from other causes. […] One idea that has garnered considerable attention, particularly on social media and in free open access medicine is the notion that lung injury due to COVID-19 is more similar to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). […] Despite some similarities in clinical features between the two entities, such as hypoxemia, radiographic opacities and altered lung compliance, the pathophysiological mechanisms of HAPE and lung injury due to COVID-19 are fundamentally different and the entities cannot be viewed as equivalent.
32330308 Although the pathophysiology underlying severe COVID19 remains poorly understood, accumulating data suggest that a lung-centric coagulopathy may play an important role.
32330343 Forty-six were kidney recipients, 17 lung, 13 liver, 9 heart, and 5 dual-organ transplants.
32330356 We report four cases of COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients including recipients of kidney, liver, lung, and heart transplants.
32332319 F-FDG PET/CT spotted multiple ground glass opacity (GGO) lesions in the lungs, with increased tracer uptake in both lung GGOs and the whole colon. […] Serial CT examinations showed the emersion and dissipation of lung GGOs.
32333024 Intensive care respirators were specifically developed for the use in patients with pathological lung mechanics.
32333544 The utility of point-of-care ultrasound has been suggested, but detailed descriptions of lung ultrasound findings are not available. […] We evaluated lung ultrasound findings in 10 patients admitted to the internal medicine ward with COVID-19. […] All of the patients had characteristic glass rockets with or without the Birolleau variant (white lung). […] Point-of-care lung ultrasound has multiple advantages, including lack of radiation exposure and repeatability. […] Also, lung ultrasound has been shown to be more sensitive than a chest radiograph in detecting alveolar-interstitial syndrome. […] The utilization of lung ultrasound may also reduce exposure of healthcare workers to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 and may mitigate the shortage of personal protective equipment. […] Further studies are needed to evaluate the utility of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19.
32333546 Challenges and Opportunities for Lung Ultrasound in Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19).
32333836 We have previously provided the first genetic evidence that angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the critical receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and ACE2 protects the lung from injury, providing a molecular explanation for the severe lung failure and death due to SARS-CoV infections.
32333929 There are multiple ways that the COVID-19 pandemic will directly affect patients with fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD), particularly given their common risk factors for poor outcomes.
32335067 The risks from potential exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and resource reallocation that has occurred to combat the pandemic, have altered the balance of benefits and harms that informed current (pre-COVID-19) guideline recommendations for lung cancer screening and lung nodule evaluation. […] Consensus statements were developed to guide clinicians managing lung cancer screening programs and patients with lung nodules during the COVID-19 pandemic. […] The panel was provided with an overview of current evidence, summarized by recent guidelines related to lung cancer screening and lung nodule evaluation. […] Twelve statements related to baseline and annual lung cancer screening (n = 2), surveillance of a previously detected lung nodule (n = 5), evaluation of intermediate and high-risk lung nodules (n = 4), and management of clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer (n = 1) were developed and modified. […] The consensus statements provide guidance about situations in which it was believed to be appropriate to delay screening, defer surveillance imaging of lung nodules, and minimize nonurgent interventions during the evaluation of lung nodules and stage I non-small cell lung cancer. […] There was consensus that during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is appropriate to defer enrollment in lung cancer screening and modify the evaluation of lung nodules due to the added risks from potential exposure and the need for resource reallocation.
32335338 All of 10 patients showed lung abnormalities by pulmonary CT images after delivery.
32335367 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 can attack lung cells because there are many conserved receptor entries, namely Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2.
32335426 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly contagious, mainly causing inflammatory lesions in the lungs, and can also cause damage to the intestine and liver. […] The current gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19 is the detection of coronavirus nucleic acids, but imaging has an important role in the detection of lung lesions, stratification, evaluation of treatment strategies, and differentiation of mixed infections.
32335609 The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) cause various symptoms such as pneumonia, fever, breathing difficult and lung infection.
32335749 Immunological reactions to lung alveoles in particular (involving lung macrophages and alveolar epithelial cell damage) in late phase ARDS in SARS-like CoV diseases, so far may not have received enough attention.
32336007 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), also known as cluster of differentiation 26 (CD26), is a serine exopeptidase expressed ubiquitously in several tissues, including but not limited to lung, kidney, liver, gut, and immune cells.
32336564 The great pulmonary affectation produced by the COVID-19 infection, requires a fast diagnostic tool that complements the diagnostic test by PCR and which is also useful in evaluating the progression of lung lesions. […] Since most of these are peripheral, in this consensus document we propose the use of thoracic ultrasound for early diagnosis and for the daily evaluation of the progression of lung lesions by a single explorer without the need to use the chest CT.
32336612 ACE2 receptors are ubiquitous and widely expressed in the heart, vessels, gut, lung (particularly in type 2 pneumocytes and macrophages), kidney, testis and brain. […] In the lungs, such dysregulation would favor the progression of inflammatory and thrombotic processes triggered by local angiotensin II hyperactivity unopposed by angiotensin1-7.
32337769 Therefore, any treatment which can decrease the severe symptoms due to lung damage may help attenuate mortality rates. […] Inactivation of ACE2 during virus fusion into the host cell may be one of the underlying reasons for intense immunological reaction seen in the lung tissue.
32337795 Lung ultrasound has recently been suggested by the Chinese Critical Care Ultrasound Study Group and Italian Academy of Thoracic Ultrasound as an accurate tool to detect lung involvement during COVID-19. […] Although chest Computer Tomography (CT) represents the gold standard to assess lung involvement, with a specificity even superior to the nasal/pharyngeal swab for diagnosis, lung ultrasound examination can be a valid alternative to CT scan, with some advantages, particularly desirable for pregnant women. […] In the present study, we reported four cases of pregnant women affectd by COVID-19 infection who have been monitoring with lung ultrasound examination. […] All patients showed ultrasound features indicative of COVID-19 pneumonia at admission: irregular pleural lines and vertical artifacts (B-lines) were observed in all four cases, whereas patchy areas of white lung in two cases. […] Three patients had resolution of lung pathology at ultrasound after 96 h of admission.
32338224 From a pathogenic point of view, evidence has been provided that binding of S2 to ACE2 receptor leads to its down-regulation with subsequent lung damage in the course of SARS-CoV infection [17]. […] Down-regulation of ACE2 causes excessive production of angiotensin (ANG) II by the related enzyme ACE with stimulation of ANG type 1a receptor (AT1R) and enhanced lung vascular permeability [18]. […] In particular, same authors have reported that recombinant ACE2 could attenuate severe acute lung injury in mice [18]. […] There is evidence that ACE2 protects from severe acute lung failure and operates as a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) [18, 37]. […] Taken together, these evidences suggest that CoV-induced down-regulation of ACE2 activates RAS with collateral damage to organs, such as lungs, in the course of SARS-related pneumonia.
32338347 Pneumonia, severe disease and critical illness require admission and aggressive management for acute lung injury and shock and/or multiorgan dysfunction, if present.
32338605 We propose that this is due to a local vascular problem because of activation of bradykinin 1 receptor (B1R) and B2R on endothelial cells in the lungs. […] Without ACE2 acting as a guardian to inactivate the ligands of B1R, the lung environment is prone for local vascular leakage leading to angioedema. […] Here, we hypothesize that a kinin-dependent local lung angioedema via B1R and eventually B2R is an important feature of COVID-19. […] Common symptoms include a fever and persistent cough and COVID-19 patients also often experience an excess of fluid in the lungs, which makes it difficult to breathe. […] In some cases, this develops into a life-threatening condition whereby the lungs cannot provide the body’s vital organs with enough oxygen. […] The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, enters the lining of the lungs via an enzyme called the ACE2 receptor, which is present on the outer surface of the lungs’ cells. […] The related coronavirus that was responsible for the SARS outbreak in the early 2000s also needs the ACE2 receptor to enter the cells of the lungs. […] In SARS, the levels of ACE2 in the lung decline during the infection. […] However, other mouse studies have shown that ACE2 protects against a build-up of fluid in the lungs caused by a different molecule made by the body. […] This led van de Veerdonk et al. to propose that the excess of fluid in the lungs seen in COVID-19 patients may be because kinins are not being neutralized due to the shortage of the ACE2 receptor. […] If this hypothesis is correct, it would mean that directly inhibiting the receptor for the kinins (or the proteins that they come from) may be the only way to stop fluid leaking into the lungs of COVID-19 patients in the early stage of disease.
32339081 To classify COVID-19 versus other pneumonia for each patient, abnormal CT slices were input into the EfficientNet B4 deep neural network architecture after lung segmentation, followed by two-layer fully-connected neural network to pool slices together.
32339082 Methods The Dutch Radiological Society (NVvR) developed CO-RADS based on other efforts for standardization, such as Lung-RADS or BI-RADS.
32339221 The lungs are the target organ for COVID-19; patients develop acute lung injury which can progress to respiratory failure, although multiorgan failure can also occur.
32339391 This may significantly increase the severity of the local response to COVID-19 in the lung.
32340018 The patient’s symptoms and lung imaging changes were atypical.
32340583 Objectives: In the context of COVID-19 pandemic, the aim of this manuscript is to provide a standard of care of patients with ARDS for non-emergency medicine trained physicians who are not customary with mechanical ventilation.Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature to investigate the best practice recommendations regarding the mechanical ventilation of patients with ARDS.Conclusion: We summarized the principal strategies for lung-protective ventilation of patients with ARDS.
32341078 To report that patients who subsequently test positive for COVID-19 may present with acute abdominal pain and no pulmonary symptoms, although they already have typical lung lesions on computed tomography (CT) scan. […] CT scans demonstrated no abdominal anomaly, but bilateral lung lesions at the lung bases, typical of COVID-19 lesions, were observed.
32341103 This review discusses the role of the RAAS-SCoV-axis in acute lung injury and the effects, risks, and benefits of pharmacologic modification of this axis. […] There may be an opportunity to leverage the different aspects of RAAS inhibitors to mitigate indirect viral-induced lung injury. […] While relevant preclinical, experimental models to date favor a protective effect of RAAS-SCoV-axis inhibition on both lung injury and survival, clinical data related to the role of RAAS modulation in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 remains limited. […] We propose a preponderance of evidence that supports clinical equipoise regarding the efficacy of RAAS-based interventions, and the imminent need for a multisite randomised controlled clinical trial to evaluate the inhibition of the RAAS-SCoV-axis on acute lung injury in COVID-19.
32341111 Many intubated patients present with phenotype 4, characterised by pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction, being associated with severe hypoxaemia with “normal” (>40 mL·cmH2O-1) lung compliance and likely representing pulmonary microvascular thrombosis. […] Phenotype 5 is often associated with high plasma procalcitonin and has low pulmonary compliance, Which is a result of co-infection or acute lung injury after noninvasive ventilation.
32341442 On the other hand, animal data suggested a potential protective effect of ARBs against COVID-19 pneumonia because an ARB prevented the aggravation of acute lung injury in mice infected with SARS-CoV, which is closely related to SARS-CoV-2.
32341722 Even though prognosis is associated with lung injury, digestive symptoms seem significantly more frequent in patients presenting with severe COVID-19 infection.
32341785 The available data from the first 14 cases demonstrated that the median age of patients was 71 and the median PaO2/FIO2 ratio, positive end-expiratory pressure, mean airway pressure, and lung compliance were 70, 15 cmH2O, 21 cmH2O, and 28 mL/cmH2O, respectively. […] There seemed to be two phenotypes of COVID-19: one with impaired lung compliance and one with preserved lung compliance.
32342191 Peripheral lung consolidations and/or ground-glass opacities in two or more lobes were found. […] Lung abnormalities displayed increased [18F]FDG uptake (SUVmax 4.3-11.3).
32342863 The COVID-19 pandemic has caused radiotherapy resource pressures and led to increased risks for lung cancer patients and healthcare staff. […] An international group of experts in lung cancer radiotherapy established this practice recommendation pertaining to whether and how to adapt radiotherapy for lung cancer in the COVID-19 pandemic. […] For this ESTRO & ASTRO endorsed project, 32 experts in lung cancer radiotherapy contributed to a modified Delphi consensus process. […] The first, an early pandemic scenario of risk mitigation, is characterized by an altered risk-benefit ratio of radiotherapy for lung cancer patients due to their increased susceptibility for severe COVID-19 infection, and minimization of patient travelling and exposure of radiotherapy staff. […] Six common lung cancer cases were assessed for both scenarios: peripherally located stage I NSCLC, locally advanced NSCLC, postoperative radiotherapy after resection of pN2 NSCLC, thoracic radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation for limited stage SCLC and palliative thoracic radiotherapy for stage IV NSCLC. […] In a risk-mitigation pandemic scenario, efforts should be made not to compromise the prognosis of lung cancer patients by departing from guideline-recommended radiotherapy practice. […] This joint ESTRO-ASTRO practice recommendation established pragmatic and balanced consensus recommendations in common clinical scenarios of radiotherapy for lung cancer in order to address the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.
32344056 Third, do eosinophils contribute to the lung pathology induced during COVID-19 and will they contribute to immunopotentiation potentially associated with emerging COVID-19 vaccines?
32344177 Here we demonstrate that the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin has a synergistic effect in vitro on SARS-CoV-2 at concentrations compatible with that obtained in human lung.
32344438 The mean reduction in the last three weeks for PET/CT, scintigraphies of bone, myocardium, lung thyroid, sentinel lymph-node are -14.4 %, -47.2 %, -47.5 %, -40.7 %, -58.4 %, and -25.2 % respectively. […] Die Vorbereitungen der Gesundheitssysteme auf die Aufnahme einer großen Zahl schwerkranker COVID-19-Patienten im März/April 2020 haben erhebliche Auswirkungen auf nuklearmedizinische Abteilungen und Praxen, deren Ausmaß unbekannt ist. […] Ziel dieser Online-Umfrage ist es, den aktuellen Status der nuklearmedizinischen Abteilungen in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz zu erfassen. […] Ein webbasierter Fragebogen wurde entwickelt, um die Auswirkungen der Pandemie auf stationäre und ambulante nuklearmedizinische Abteilungen zu erfassen. […] Die Fragen bezogen sich auf die folgenden Themen: Merkmale der nuklearmedizinischen Abteilung, Auswirkungen auf die nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik und Therapie, Anwendung von Empfehlungen, persönliche Schutzausrüstung (PSA) und organisatorische Anpassungen an die neuen Rahmenbedingungen. […] Die durchschnittliche Abnahme in den letzten drei Wochen für PET/CT, Szintigraphien von Knochen, Myokard, Lunge, Schilddrüse, Sentinel-Lymphknoten beträgt –14,4 %, –47,5 %, –40,7 %, –58,4 % beziehungsweise –25,2 %. 76 % der Teilnehmer berichten über einen Rückgang der Therapien.
32344526 Previous evidence suggests that RAS may represent an important target for the treatment of lung pathologies, especially for acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic fibrotic disease.
32345328 Recent studies have reported that COVID-19 patients with lung cancer have a higher risk of severe events than patients without cancer. […] In this study, we investigated the gene expression of angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) with prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). […] Lung cancer patients in each age stage, subtype, and pathological stage are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, except for the primitive subtype of LUSC.
32345594 Patients with hematologic cancer, lung cancer, or with metastatic cancer (stage IV) had the highest frequency of severe events.
32345741 We designed a simulation-based study to allow complete control over the relevant variables to determine the effects of various degrees of resistance-compliance imbalance on tidal volume (VT), end-expiratory lung volume (EELV), and imputed pH. […] Evidence-based lung models simulated a range of differences in resistance and compliance (6 pairs of simulated patients).
32346594 Firstly, a quantitative method based on multi-scale convolutional neural networks was used to assess the infected lung segments and this was compared with the semi-quantitative method.
32347747 The programmed cell death coronaviruses cause, which can result in significant lung damage, is also inhibited by melatonin. […] Coronavirus causes inflammation in the lungs which requires inflammasome activity.
32347972 We concluded that elevations of serum cancer biomarkers positively correlated with the pathological progressions of COVID-19, demonstrating diffuse and acute lung injuries.
32349055 The potential prothrombotic action of the SARS-CoV-2 is supported by the topographical involvement of the lung regions with a predilection for the lower lobe with peripheral involvement.
32349982 Due to the frequent presence of interstitial lung disease and widespread use of immunosuppressive treatment, systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients may be considered at risk for a more severe disease course and higher mortality when they develop Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus infection.
32350134 CT scans manifested that the lung lesion opacity absorbed in 19 patients (90.5%).
32351851 A computed tomography scan of the thorax revealed multifocal bilateral ground-glass lung opacities with areas of subpleural sparing.
32352308 OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to review new pediatric lung disorders-including disorders that have occurred in recent years years such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), swine-origin influenza A (H1N1), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI), and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia-to enhance understanding of the characteristic imaging findings. CONCLUSION. Although the clinical symptoms of SARS, H1N1, MERS, EVALI, and COVID-19 pneumonia in pediatric patients may be nonspecific, some characteristic imaging findings have emerged or are currently emerging. […] It is essential for radiologists to have a clear understanding of the characteristic imaging appearances of these lung disorders in pediatric patients to ensure optimal patient care.
32352944 The administration of glucocorticosteroids and research drugs (tocilizumab) is acceptable for massive infiltrative lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma causing severe lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
32353252 Here, we demonstrate a CRISPR-Cas13-based strategy, PAC-MAN (prophylactic antiviral CRISPR in human cells), for viral inhibition that can effectively degrade RNA from SARS-CoV-2 sequences and live influenza A virus (IAV) in human lung epithelial cells.
32353597 The lungs are the target of the primary infection and patients with lung cancer seem to have a poor prognosis. […] To our knowledge, this is the first reported investigation of a possible role of interleukin-17 target therapy in patients with lung cancer and concomitant severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection.
32356025 Here we describe the pathologic features of early lung involvement by Covid-19 in a surgical sample resected for carcinoma from a patient who developed SARS-CoV-2 infection soon after surgery.
32356672 COVID-19 - More Lung Pocus and Sparing Use of Stethoscope, Chest X-Ray and Lung CT Abstract. For an optimal management of COVID-19 (Coronary Virus Disease) we depend on a fast and reliable diagnosis and severity assessment. […] In addition to oxygen saturation for severity classification, stethoscope, chest X-ray and lung computer tomography are routinely used. […] In view of the contagiousness of SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus), lung point-of-care ultrasound (Lu-PoCUS) is a still underutilized valuable alternative, especially when using pocket devices. […] In this review the current value and role of stethoscope, pulsoxymetry, chest x ray, lung computer tomography and lung point-of-care ultrasound will be determined based on the available literature. Zusammenfassung. Für ein optimales Management der COVID-19 (Coronary Virus Disease 19) sind wir auf eine schnelle und zuverlässige Diagnose sowie Schweregradeinschätzung angewiesen. […] Neben der Sauerstoffsättigung zur Schweregradeinteilung werden das Stethoskop, das Thoraxröntgen und die Lungen-Computertomografie routinemässig für die Diagnose eingesetzt. […] Angesichts der Kontagiosität des SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus) ist der Lungen-Point-of-Care-Ultraschall (PoCUS), insbesondere in der Anwendung als Taschenkittelgerät, eine noch zu wenig genutzte, wertvolle Alternative. […] In dieser Review werden die aktuelle Wertigkeit und Rolle von Stethoskop, Pulsoximetrie, Thoraxröntgen, Lungen-Computertomografie und Lungen-Point-of-Care-Ultraschall anhand der vorliegenden Literatur bestimmt.
32356760 Lung infection or pneumonia is the common complication of COVID-19, and imaging techniques, especially computed tomography (CT), have played an important role in diagnosis and treatment assessment of the disease. […] CT, positron emission tomography - CT (PET/CT), lung ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used for detection, treatment, and follow-up.
32356926 In late 2019, a new coronavirus emerged in Wuhan Province, China, causing lung complications similar to those produced by the SARS coronavirus in the 2002-2003 epidemic. […] High levels of angiotensin II on the lung interstitium can promote apoptosis initiating an inflammatory process with release of proinflammatory cytokines, establishing a self-powered cascade, leading eventually to ARDS.
32357994 A total of 61 (28%) cancer patients died from COVID-19 with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 37% (20/54) for hematologic malignancies and 25% (41/164) for solid malignancies. 6/11 (55%) lung cancer patients died from COVID-19 disease.
32358689 At present, chest-computed tomography imaging is considered the most effective method for the detection of lung abnormalities in early-stage disease and quantitative assessment of severity and progression of COVID-19 pneumonia. […] Although chest X-ray (CXR) is considered not sensitive for the detection of pulmonary involvement in the early stage of the disease, we believe that, in the current emergency setting, CXR can be a useful diagnostic tool for monitoring the rapid progression of lung abnormalities in infected patients, particularly in intensive care units.
32358691 To improve the risk stratification of patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an experimental chest X-ray (CXR) scoring system for quantifying lung abnormalities was introduced in our Diagnostic Imaging Department. […] Nonparametric statistical tests were used to examine the relationship between the severity of lung disease and the age or sex. […] Males aged 50 years or older and females aged 80 years or older showed the highest risk of developing severe lung disease.
32359188 During the coronavirus outbreak in China, our center performed 16 organ transplants (10 kidney, 4 liver and 2 lung transplants, from January 24 to March 11, 2020) harvested from deceased donors. […] Our approaches aiming to interrupt the spread of coronavirus within the transplantation wards were successful and allowed us to maintain the transplantation program for deceased liver, kidney and lung recipients.
32359210 We also highlight the role of lung ultrasonography in early diagnosis of the inflammatory phase of COVID-19.
32360111 Lung ultrasound examination has been demonstrated to be an accurate imaging method to detect pulmonary and pleural conditions. […] During pregnancy, there is a need for a rapid assessment of the maternal lung in patients suspected to have COVID-19. […] We report our experience on lung ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of Sars-Cov-2 pneumonia in a pregnant woman. […] Typical ultrasound features of this pulmonary pathology, including diffuse hyperechoic vertical artifacts with thickened pleural line and “white lung” with patchy distribution, were observed. […] We suggest point of care lung ultrasound examination as a diagnostic imaging tool in pregnant women with suspected COVID-19.
32360205 Even though prognosis is associated with lung injury, digestive symptoms seem significantly more frequent in patients presenting with severe COVID-19 infection.
32360516 While a “cytokine storm” involving IL-6 and other cytokines has been documented, complement C3 activation has been implicated as an initial effector mechanism that exacerbates lung injury in preclinical models of SARS-CoV infection.
32360578 The overarching goals of these approaches are the following: (1) reduce the number of visits to a health care facility, (2) reduce the risk of exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2, (3) attenuate the immunocompromising effects of lung cancer therapies, and (4) provide effective oncologic therapy.
32360729 Here, we report the postmortem lung findings from a 37-year-old man with asthma, who met the clinical criteria for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and died of COVID-19 less than 2 weeks after presentation to the hospital. […] His lungs showed mucus plugging and other histologic changes attributable to asthma, as well as early diffuse alveolar damage and a fibrinous pneumonia. […] The presence of diffuse alveolar damage is similar to descriptions of autopsy lung findings from patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and the absence of a neutrophil-rich acute bronchopneumonia differs from the histologic changes typical of influenza.
32361001 This activity is possibly able to provoke a robust proinflammatory response via TLR7/8 recognition and cause acute lung injury.
32361911 Being infected by SARS-CoV-2 may cause damage to multiple organs in patients, such as the lung, liver and heart.
32362061 The hyper-activation of these cells may cause the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that may result in lung impairment.
32362314 Here, we report that the cellular protease furin cleaves the spike protein at the S1/S2 site and that cleavage is essential for S-protein-mediated cell-cell fusion and entry into human lung cells.
32362440 Rationale of the treatment is to mitigate the local inflammation with inhaled steroid that stays in the lung and to inhibit proliferation of the virus by antiviral activity.
32362644 Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with any one of the following criteria will be eligible to receive lopinavir/ritonavir for 14 days after obtaining written informed consent: (i) respiratory distress with respiratory rate ≥22/min or SpO2of <94 per cent; (ii) lung parenchymal infiltrates on chest X-ray; (iii) hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or need for vasopressor/inotropic medication; (iv) new-onset organ dysfunction; and (v) high-risk groups - age >60 yr, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, chronic lung disease and immunocompromised persons.
32363143 His chest X-ray revealed ground-glass opacity in the right middle and lower zone of the lung.
32363726 What was initially a lung infection epidemic in the metropolitan area of Wuhan followed by a now contained extension to mainland China has now spread to all continents as a major pandemic with current hotspots in Europe and the USA.
32364028 Among others, a triage process to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity in patients with cancer was developed consisting of high-resolution low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan followed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of SARS-CoV-2 in nose-throat swabs whenever CT was suggestive of lung infection.
32364961 To enter airway and lung epithelia, SARS-CoV-2 attaches to ACE2 receptors by spike (S) glycoproteins.
32365046 We also confirmed that 54% of the asymptomatic patients with a positive RT-PCR result had lung opacities on chest computed tomography.
32365556 This mechanism has been recognized as a critical mediator of influenza-induced lung disease, and it could be pivotal for COVID-19 infections.
32365944 Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) initiates the cytokine/chemokine storm-mediated lung injury. […] The chemokine profile analysis indicated that SARS-CoV SUD significantly up-regulated the expression of CXCL10, CCL5 and interleukin (IL)-1β in human lung epithelial cells and in the lung tissues of the mice intratracheally instilled with the recombinant plasmids.
32366279 Notably, overexpression of ACE2 have been observed in including colon adenocarcinoma (COAD), kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD), rectum adenocarcinoma (READ), stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD), and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD).
32366290 The main pathologic features of severe or critical COVID-19 were consistent with acute lung injure (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), characterized by cellular fibromyxoid exudates, extensive pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema, and hyaline membrane formation.
32366740 However, available data from limited studies show administration of recombinant ACE2 improves lung damage caused by respiratory viruses, suggesting ibuprofen use may be beneficial in COVID-19 disease.
32367319 Asymptomatic patients may also have lung lesions on imaging. […] Thoracic VCAR offers quantitative measurements of the lung involvement. […] Therefore, keeping in mind that CT has high diagnostic sensitivity in identifying lesions, but not specific for Covid-19 and similar to other infectious viral diseases, it is mandatory to have an AI software that expresses objective evaluations of the percentage of ventilated lung parenchyma compared to the affected one.
32367418 Four patients with lung abnormalities on CT first showed negative RT-PCR result and turned positive afterwards. […] • In the early rapid progressive stage, GGO plus a reticular pattern, GGO plus consolidation, and GGO were all common signs; in the advanced stage, signs of progression and absorption coexisted; lung abnormalities showed an asynchronous process with parts with absorption and parts progressing. […] • Lung abnormalities mainly showed predominantly peripheral, middle, and lower distribution.
32367422 Among the 130 patients, we can see (1) distribution: 14 cases with unilateral lung disease and 116 cases with bilateral disease, the distribution was mainly lobular core (99 cases) and subpleural (102 cases); (2) number: 9 cases with single lesion, 113 cases with multiple lesions, and 8 cases with diffuse distribution; (3) density: 70 cases of pure ground glass opacity (GGO), and 60 cases of GGO with consolidation; (4) accompanying signs: vascular thickening (100 cases), “parallel pleura sign” (98 cases), “paving stone sign” (100 cases), “halo sign” (18 cases), “reversed halo sign” (6 cases), pleural effusion (2 cases), and pneumonocele (2 cases).
32367431 Based on previous studies of neuroinvasive human respiratory coronaviruses, it is proposed that after physical contact with the nasal mucosa, laryngopharynx, trachea, lower respiratory tract, alveoli epithelium, or gastrointestinal mucosa, SARS-CoV-2 can induce intrinsic and innate immune responses in the host involving increased cytokine release, tissue damage, and high neurosusceptibility to COVID-19, especially in the hypoxic conditions caused by lung injury.
32367558 According to the current studies, numerous diseases including lung disease, cardiovascular disease, and immunosuppression appear to be at higher risk for severe forms of the COVID-19.
32368550 However, CT findings of some lung contusions are similar to those of COVID-19, as shown in the present case. […] CT performed on February 7, 2020 revealed that both lungs were scattered with patchy ground-glass opacity. […] Differential diagnosis of lung contusion and COVID-19 must be emphasized.
32368875 After the lung computerized tomography (CT) findings which are important in the diagnosis of COVID-19 are described, protection measures against infection were defined in radiology departments. […] These lung findings detected in hybrid images will be helpful in the early diagnosis of pulmonary involvement.
32369209 Lung cancer was the most frequent cancer type (10, 19.2%).
32369611 Airway management for such patients during the COVID-19 pandemic including tracheal intubation, lung isolation, one-lung ventilation and flexible bronchoscopy may pose a significant risk to healthcare professionals and patients. […] That said, there remains a need for timely thoracic surgery for patients with lung cancer or thoracic trauma.
32373237 There was an association of older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.06; P = 0.003), larger consolidation lesions in the upper lung (Right: OR, 1.13; 95%CI: 1.03-1.25, P =0.01; Left: OR,1.15; 95%CI: 1.01-1.32; P = 0.04) with increased odds of adverse endpoints. Conclusion: There was an association of older age and larger consolidation in upper lungs on admission with higher odds of poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19.
32373721 Low dose radiotherapy (0,5 Gy), is an evidence-based anti-inflammatory treatment, that could modify the immune landscape in the lung affected of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, through macrophages polarization to alternatively activated Macrophages (M2 phenotype).
32374007 Especially, we also presented several novel techniques for diagnosing COVID-19 like lung ultrasound. […] We suggest clinicians further explore the saliva’s utility as a specimen for nuclear acid test and the use of lung ultrasound.
32374419 The aim of this study was to explore pulmonary pathology of early phase COVID-19 pneumonia in a patient with a benign lung lesion. […] We analyzed the pathological changes of lung tissue from a 55-year-old female patient with early phase SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] This case was confirmed to have preoperative SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time RT-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization on surgically removed lung tissues. […] Immunohistochemical staining results showed that an abnormal accumulation of CD4+ helper T lymphocytes and CD163+ M2 macrophages in the lung tissue.
32374430 The current pandemic and its pleotropic effects can be explained in part by interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S, the ACE2/L-SIGN/CD209 receptor on the type II alveolar cell of the lung, and the DC-SIGN receptor on the respiratory dendritic cell (DC) and associated endothelial cells.
32374457 These results are in agreement with published pathology observations of extensive syncytia formation in lung tissues of patients with COVID-19.
32374540 However, lung function testing and nebulisers should be performed with caution during the COVID-19 pandemic due to a potential risk of virus aerosolisation and contagion during the procedure. […] Asthma and COPD treatments should be pursued and adapted to ensure optimal control of the lung disease throughout the epidemic, thus reducing the risk of severe COVID-19 disease.
32374815 Postmortem computed tomography revealed reticular infiltration of the lungs with severe bilateral, dense consolidation, whereas histomorphologically diffuse alveolar damage was seen in 8 patients. […] In all patients, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the lung at high concentrations; viremia in 6 of 10 and 5 of 12 patients demonstrated high viral RNA titers in the liver, kidney, or heart.
32374823 In addition, lung metagenomic studies on infected patients revealed overrepresented Prevotella spp. producing certain proteins in abundance.
32375446 In order to achieve the overall victory over 2019 novel coronavirus disease epidemic, especially to prevent the disease recurrence from rebounding during the resumption of labor, the government has not loosened any control of personnel mobility, which has obviously affected the normal examination and treatment of lung cancer patients under the influence of this epidemic. […] Among the infected cancer patients, lung cancer is the most common type. […] It is necessary to provide more appropriate individualized treatment recommendations for patients with lung cancer based on the epidemic situation of the patient’s location and in combination with the patient’s own condition. […] Through active prevention of infection, timely conversion of treatment strategies, online and offline joint control, and positive psychological counseling, we do our best to help patients with lung cancer to survive this difficult period.
32375845 Some of these patients might have a relatively normal lung compliance.
32376402 The present study identified a specific set of biological pathways altered in primary human lung epithelium upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a comparison with SARS-CoV from the 2003 pandemic was studied.
32376543 Seven of the SARSCoV-2-associated pneumonia patients had multiple lesions in bilateral lungs, compromising mainly the lung field and the subpleural area and showing patchy, lumpy, and umbrella-shaped ground glass opacity, often accompanied by pulmonary vascular thickening and increased microvessels, interlobular septal thickening and fibrosis and lined with grid-like and small-bubble-like “crazy-paving” patterns.
32376573 To investigate the correlation between the clinical classification of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the imaging characteristics of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) volume scanning of the lungs. […] The imaging characteristics including the lung sides of the lesions, lung segment involved, lesion distribution, and lesion number and density were compared among the patients with different clinical types of COVID-19. […] Two patients presented with no obvious abnormality in the first CT examinations; in the remaining 100 patients, 89.0% had bilateral lung lesions, 16.0% had diffuse lesions, involving a mean of 6.56±4.22 lung segments. […] Compared with the patients with the common type, the severe and critical patients had a significantly greater number of lung segments involved (P < 0.05), and were also more likely to show diffuse lesions (P < 0.05).
32376589 The differences in chest CT signs and the lung injury scores based on CT findings were compared among the 4 stages.ResultsIn stage 1, ground-glass opacities (GGO) was found frequently in the subpleura, and the CT score was the lowest at 4.00±0.40. […] Stage 2 was characterized by an increased and mixed density (crazy-paving pattern) with mild consolidation of the lungs, and the CT score reached its peak level of 7.38±3.34 (P < 0.05). […] In stage 3, an expanded range of consolidation and linear lesions were found in the lungs, and the total CT score averaged 6.86±2.91. […] In stage 4, a gradual resolution of the consolidation occurred with more linear lesions in the lungs, and the total CT score was 6.21±1.56.
32376697 Hu, et al., Nature 579:270-273, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7), we note a strong homology to numerous sequence reads in metavirome data sets generated from the lungs of deceased pangolins reported by Liu et al. […] While analysis of these reads indicates the presence of a similar viral sequence in pangolin lung, the similarity is not sufficient to either confirm or rule out a role for pangolins as an intermediate host in the recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2.
32377597 Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a common toxicity of thoracic radiotherapy with overlapping clinical and imaging features with COVID-19, however, RP is treated with high-dose corticosteroids, which may exacerbate COVID-19-associated lung injury.
32378737 Plasma total Cmax was determined and then multiplied by the lung:plasma ratio reported in cattle to predict the lung Cmax after administration of each single dose. […] Even with the high lung:plasma ratio, ivermectin is unlikely to reach the IC50 in lungs after single oral administration of the approved dose (predicted lung: 0.0873 µM) or at doses 10x higher that the approved dose administered orally (predicted lung: 0.820 µM).
32379637 The following outcomes were measured: pulmonary function tests including plethysmography and diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), functional tests (6-min walk distance test), Quality of life (QoL) assessments (SF-36 scores), activities of daily living (Functional Independence Measure, FIM scores), and mental status tests (SAS anxiety and SDS depression scores).
32380511 Weight loss and virus replication in lung were observed in hACE2 mice infected with SARS-CoV-2.
32380844 The role of chest radiography (CXR), computed tomography (CT), and lung ultrasound is discussed.
32382146 Compared with the lung A549 cells, similar expression was noted in conjunctival and pterygium cells. […] In addition, mouse cornea had comparable expression of Tmprss2 gene and lower but prominent Ace2 gene expression compared with the lung tissue.
32384397 All of severe children displayed the lesions on chest CT, more lung segments were involved in severe children than in non-severe children, which was only risk factor associated with severe COVID-19 pneumonia in multivariable analysis. […] More than 3 lung segments involved were associated with greater risk of development of severe COVID-19 in children.
32384516 Chest X-rays revealed bilateral infiltrates worse at the lung bases and CT scan of the chest showed bilateral ground-glass opacities consistent with COVID-19.
32385976 However, with predominant respiratory manifestations of COVID-19, particularly in more severe cases, chest imaging using computed tomography (CT) plays a major role in detecting viral lung infection, evaluating the nature and extent of pulmonary lesions, and monitoring the disease activity.
32386014 In the case of inner-middle zone distribution, the long axis of the lesion was mostly parallel and surrounded the bronchial vascular bundle, or distributed along the lung lobules (31.58%).
32386015 The early CT images of lung in 187 cases (100%) showed multiple patchy and ground-glass opacities with fine mesh and consolidation shade, which mainly distributed in pulmonary band or under the pleura. […] Severe pulmonary CT images in 15 cases (8%) showed diffuse lesions in both lungs, displaying consolidation, or “white lung”. […] The imaging features of 6 times of lung CT examination in one case showed continuous progress. […] The original lesion in one case was obviously absorbed, but new lesions appeared under the pleura of both lungs at the third review of CT scanning.
32386449 Lung injury has been reported as the major outcome of COVID-19 infection.
32386571 We isolated SARS-CoV-2 from a patient with confirmed COVID-19, and compared virus tropism and replication competence with SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 (H1N1pdm) in ex-vivo cultures of human bronchus (n=5) and lung (n=4). […] SARS-CoV-2 infected ciliated, mucus-secreting, and club cells of bronchial epithelium, type 1 pneumocytes in the lung, and the conjunctival mucosa. […] In the lung, SARS-CoV-2 replication was similar to SARS-CoV and H1N1pdm, but was lower than MERS-CoV.
32386675 The time from contact symptomatic case to illness was 7.7 days, and 88 patients (64.7%) were cluster cases, radiological evidence found bilateral lung involvement was common (57.4%).
32387040 While the majority of infected cases appear mild, in some cases individuals present respiratory complications with possible serious lung damage.
32387682 The laboratory indicators and lung lesion on chest CT were mild.
32387756 Instead, the rate of transmission is significative higher, with a faster spread of the virus responsible of the worldwide outbreak and a significative higher mortality rate due to the development of a severe lung injury. […] The CD4 + memory exploiting could help immune system to recall immunity of already know antigens against coronaviruses, avoiding or limiting “lung crash” until virus specific immunity develops and making it faster and prolonged.
32388326 Secondly, it could improve respiratory system functions by acting as an antibiotic, antioxidant, and antimycotic, restoring normal lung tissue elasticity and strength.
32388330 The RAS has an essential role in glucose homeostasis and may have a role in COVID-19-induced lung injury. […] Some antihyperglycemic medications modulate RAS and might hypothetically alleviate the deleterious effect of angiotensin II on lung injury. […] Furthermore, most antihyperglycemic medications showed anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of lung injury. […] Some antihyperglycemic medications might have protective effects against COVID-19-induced lung injury. […] Early insulin therapy seems very promising in alleviating lung injury.
32388451 Recent reports suggest that ACE2, which is the target protein to invade the host, has a ubiquitous presence in human organs, including lung parenchyma, gastrointestinal tract, nasal mucosa, renal and urinary tract, airway epithelia, lymphoid tissues, reproductive organs, vascular endothelium and neurons.
32388486 Moreover, in patients, red light has been shown to alleviate chronic obstructive lung disease and bronchial asthma.
32388937 There was also no significant difference in the rate of negative conversion rate of 2019-nCoV nucleic acid, the improvement ration in clinical symptoms, and the improvement ration of pulmonary infection in the lung CT imaging (P> 0.05).
32388947 Specific IgM antibody screening for patients whose pharyngeal swab nucleic acid test is negative but with ground glass-like lung lesions is very important for early detection and early isolation.
32391282 In particular, lung cancer patients were reported to be at high risk of pulmonary complications related to SARS-CoV2 infection. […] Potential risks associated with COVID-19 infection should be considered, considering tumor histology and natural course, disease setting, clinical conditions, and disease burden, together with the expected benefit, toxicities (e.g., myelosuppression or interstitial lung disease), and response obtained from the planned or ongoing treatment. […] In this study, we report the results of proactive measures including social media, telemedicine, and telephone triage for screening patients with lung cancer during the COVID-19 outbreak in the European Institute of Oncology (Milan, Italy).
32391519 Severe infection was defined according to published criteria by patient reported dyspnea, respiratory rate > 30 per minute, blood oxygen saturation ≤ 93% on room air, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen <300 and/or lung infiltrates >50% within 24 to 48 hours on chest imaging.
32391663 The shape, number and distribution of lung shadows, as well as the characteristics of the lesions on the CT images were reviewed. […] The obvious shadows infiltrating the lungs were shown on CT images in 50 cases, for other 2 cases there was no abnormal changes in the lungs during the first CT examination.
32391671 Cough, fever, fatigue, lung imaging changes were the main manifestations.
32391672 The inflammation indicators and fever of this patient were effectively controlled and the lung lesions remained stable after active anti-viral treatment, then the radical colorectomy was performed after the viral negative conversion for twice.
32391675 The main medication characteristics are clearing heat, entilating lung, removing toxicity and removing turbidity.
32391741 Patients without known COVID-19 were included who presented to the emergency room (ER) with primary non-respiratory [gastrointestinal (GI) or neurological] symptoms, had lung parenchymal findings suspicious for COVID-19 on a non-chest CT but no concurrent chest CT and had COVID-19 testing in the ER.
32391742 Background Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a target of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), demonstrates its highest surface expression in the lung, small bowel, and vasculature, suggesting abdominal viscera may be susceptible to injury.
32392461 In the last decades lung ultrasound (LUS) has become of crucial importance in the evaluation and monitoring of a widely range of pulmonary diseases. […] Specific LUS findings have proved useful and predictive of acute respiratory distress syndrome which is of particular relevance in the suspicion and monitoring of patients with lung disease. […] Furthermore, several studies have confirmed the role of LUS in the screening of interstitial lung diseases in connective tissue diseases. […] Herein, we provide a summary on emerging role of lung ultrasound in COVID-19 pneumonia.
32392859 We report two different radiological findings on computed tomography (CT) in two patients affected by SARS-CoV-2: a lung acute embolism (APE) in the first case and a radiological picture of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the second case.
32393591 It is unclear if specific patient populations such as lung transplant patients are at higher risk for COVID-19. […] Recommendations for the care of lung transplant patients during the COVID-19 pandemic are discussed and will likely change as the pandemic evolves.
32394639 COVID-19 disease severity is worse in older obese patients with comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic lung disease.
32395098 Besides, IFN-γ and anti-antigen IgG2a enriched in immunized mice which meanwhile showed no obvious lung inflammation indicated balanced Th1/Th2 responses were safely induced.
32395550 There was a development of multiple ground-glass shadows and infiltrative shadows in both lungs with mild pleural effusion. […] We presume that 2019-nCoV can also manifest in the nervous system alone, and lung CT, which has relative specificity, should be used as a routine screening method.
32395673 Volumetric CT image-guidance is commonly employed in patients undergoing radiotherapy and presents a unique opportunity to screen for COVID-specific lung changes.
32395696 To explore lung involvement in patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). […] In the early-stage (0-3 days), the percentage of lung involvement was 4%, with a mean density of - 462 ± 99 HU. […] In the intermediate-stage (4-6 days), the mean percentage of lung involvement noticeably increased compared with that in early stage (7%, p < 0.05). […] In late stage (7-14 days), the percentage of lung involvement decreased to 5%.
32395910 It has been hypothesized that COVID-19 lung involvement could represent not only a viral effect but also an immune response induced by the infection, causing epithelial/endothelial lesions and coagulation disorders.
32396922 Pulmonary infiltrates, a hallmark of human disease, were visible in lung radiographs.
32396996 It should be noted that many aspects of severe patients are unique to COVID-19 and are rarely observed in other respiratory viral infections, such as severe lymphopenia and eosinopenia, extensive pneumonia and lung tissue damage, a cytokine storm leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure.
32397951 After entering, the viral RNA interrupts the cell proliferation system to activate self-proliferation.However, having all the information about the prevalence of the SARS-COV-2, it is not still clear which factors determine the severity of lung and heart function impairment induced by COVID-19. […] In this review, the structure and origin of CoV, the role of ACE2 as a receptor of SARS-COV-2 on the surface of host cells, and the ACE2 distribution in different tissues with a focus on lung and cardiovascular system has been discussed.
32398243 To address this uncertainty, we examined consecutive patients with lung cancers who were diagnosed with COVID-19 and examined severity based on no or prior receipt of PD-1 blockade. […] Overall, the severity of COVID-19 in patients with lung cancer was high, including need for hospitalization in more than half of patients and death in nearly a quarter. […] PD-1 blockade does not appear to impact the severity of COVID-19 in patients with lung cancers.
32398268 At this moment, the role of lung ultrasound (LUS) has yet to be explored.
32399481 Chest CT revealed multiple ground glass opacities in both lungs, mainly distributed subpleurally and in the middle and lateral lung fields, particularly in the right lung, where they had partially fused into patches.
32399620 Severity of lung changes on chest CT of early, progressive, peak, and absorption stages was scored according to the percentage of lung involvement (5 lobes, scores 1-5 for each lobe, range 0-20). […] Severity of lung abnormalities quantified on chest CT might correlate with laboratory parameters in the early and progressive stages.
32399710 Pneumonia in 50 patients with COVID-19 (45%) distributed in the peripheral regions of the lung, while it showed mixed distribution in 26 patients (74%) with influenza (p = 0.022).
32399901 The recruitment-to-inflation (R/I) ratio (i.e. the ratio between the recruited lung compliance and CRS at PEEP 5 cmH2O) was used to assess lung recruitability.
32400017 For those who work in the field of islet transplantation, the micro vascular COVID-19 lung vessels obstructive thrombo-inflammatory syndrome (recently referred to as MicroCLOTS) is familiar, as one cannot fail to recognize the presence of similarities with the instant blood mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) occurring in the liver hours and days after islet infusion.
32400074 In this paper we report anamnestic data, clinical features and therapeutic management of two lung transplant recipients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia.
32400084 Lung transplant recipients may be particularly at risk due to the high degree of immunosupression and the lung being the organ primarily affected by COVID-19. […] We describe a 16-year old male and a 64-year old female recently lung transplanted patients with COVID-19 during inpatient rehabilitation. […] In conclusion, our report of patients with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild COVID-19 respectively, may indicate that lung transplant recipients are not per se at risk for severe COVID-19. […] Further observations and controlled trials are urgently needed to study SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung transplant recipients.
32400087 The isolation of SARS-CoV-2 from non-lung clinical specimens, the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in autopsy specimens, previous experience with the related coronaviruses SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and the vast experience with other common RNA respiratory viruses are all addressed.
32401352 Though infection with the SARS-CoV2 virus predominantly manifests in the lung as an interstitial pneumonia (“ground glass opacities”), there is increasing evidence that the virus invades all compartments of the body, particularly the eyes, heart, skin, kidneys, and the central nervous system(CNS).1 This article is protected by copyright.
32401360 Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group; Australasian Lung Cancer Trials Group; Australian and New Zealand Children’s Haematology/Oncology Group; Australia and New Zealand Society of Palliative Medicine; Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases; Bone Marrow Transplantation Society of Australia and New Zealand; Cancer Council Australia; Cancer Nurses Society of Australia; Cancer Society of New Zealand; Clinical Oncology Society of Australia; Haematology Society of Australia and New Zealand; National Centre for Infections in Cancer; New Zealand Cancer Control Agency; New Zealand Society for Oncology; and Palliative Care Australia.
32401673 Lethality of Covid-19 during the 2020 pandemic, currently still in the exponentially-accelerating phase in most countries, is critically driven by disruption of the alveolo-capillary barrier of the lung, leading to lung edema as a direct consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] We argue for inhibition of the TRPV4 calcium-permeable ion channel as a strategy to address this issue, based on the rationale that TRPV4 inhibition is protective in various preclinical models of lung edema, and that TRPV4 hyperactivation potently damages the alveolo-capillary barrier, with lethal outcome. […] A clinical trial using a selective TRPV4 inhibitor demonstrated a benign safety profile in healthy volunteers and in patients suffering from cardiogenic lung edema. […] We argue for expeditious clinical testing of this inhibitor in Covid-19 patients with respiratory malfunction and at risk for lung edema.
32402766 During the infection of alveolar epithelial cells of the lung, the ACE2 receptor has a central function. […] In a first clinical trial, CQ was effective in inhibiting exacerbation of pneumonia, improving lung imaging findings, promotion of virus-negative conversion, and shortening the disease. […] Concretely, this relates to (a) the inconsistent individual bioavailability of these drugs at the alveolar target cells, depending on intestinal resorption, hepatic first-pass metabolism and accumulation in liver, spleen and lung, and (b) the need for a relatively high concentration of 1-5 µM at the alveolar surface.
32403153 Pulmonary auscultation showed basal soft crackling noises of the left lung FINDINGS AND DIAGNOSIS: Laboratory examination showed increased values for LDH, pro-BNP and CRP and normal values for leucocytes and procalcitonin. […] Bei Verdacht auf Pneumonie wurde zunächst ein konventionelles Röntgenbild der Lunge durchgeführt, das laterale Verschattungen in beiden Lungen zeigte, verdächtig auf eine atypische Pneumonie.
32403194 This commentary addresses the key paired issues of minimizing performance of diagnostic/staging bronchoscopy in patients with suspected/known lung cancer while maximizing the safety of the procedure with respect to HCW transmission of COVID-19.
32403201 Recent articles published in Obesity (1-3) discuss the possible effects of increased proinflammatory cytokines and disturbances of lung function in people with obesity, but we believe that they overlook an important player in this scenario, which is endothelial dysfunction.
32404786 There were only 13 cases with abnormal CT imaging, most of which were located in the subpleural area of the bottom of the lung.
32404799 The diagnosis of COVID-19 on the basis of the imaging features may be more challenging in patients with preexisting cardiothoracic conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung disease, cardiovascular disease, and malignancies with cardiothoracic involvement.
32404898 Similarly, despite the recognition of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2), and the role of ACE2 in lung injury; there are conflicting results with the use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) in these patients.
32405081 The present analytical paper on the role of point-of-care lung ultrasound in this pandemic examines its diagnostic accuracy, clinical utility, and physical practicality in the intensive care unit.
32405160 Pneumonia with respiratory failure represents the main cause of death in COVID-19, where hyper inflammation plays an important role in lung damage.
32405226 The use of artemisinins against different respiratory diseases has been investigated in lung cancer models and inflammatory-driven respiratory disorders.
32405877 C3 knockout mice infected with SARS-CoV had less lung disease than wild-type mice, suggesting that complement may play a role in coronavirus pathogenesis.
32406081 With significant relevance to the Covid-19 pandemic, this paper contributes to emerging ‘aerographic’ research on the socio-materialities of air and breath, based on an in-depth empirical study of three hospital-based lung infection clinics treating people with cystic fibrosis.
32406140 Evidence from animal studies is limited, with a single study suggesting viral particles on the eye can travel to the lung, resulting in very mild infection.
32406420 Critical cases had multiple consolidation surrounded by wide range of GGOs distributed in the whole lung fields.
32406829 Deep learning (DL) has proved successful in medical imaging and, in the wake of the recent COVID-19 pandemic, some works have started to investigate DLbased solutions for the assisted diagnosis of lung diseases. […] While existing works focus on CT scans, this paper studies the application of DL techniques for the analysis of lung ultrasonography (LUS) images.
32407255 Each patient’s ED CXR was divided into 6 zones and examined for opacities by two cardiothoracic radiologists with scores collated into a total concordant lung zone severity score.
32408155 As an S1P analogue, fingolimod might enhance lung endothelial cell integrity.
32408222 We trained a multi-view fusion model using deep learning network to screen patients with COVID-19 using CT images with the maximum lung regions in axial, coronal and sagittal views.
32408338 Immunohistochemistry demonstrated viral antigens in nasal mucosa, bronchial epithelial cells, and in areas of lung consolidation on days 2 and 5 post-inoculation (dpi), followed by rapid viral clearance and pneumocyte hyperplasia on 7 dpi.
32409114 A combination of consolidation and ground glass opacity was the most predominant (75%) pattern of lung involvement on computed tomography (CT).
32409232 Recent evidence indicates the usefulness of lung ultrasound (LUS) in detecting coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pneumonia. […] LUS revealed signs of lung involvement during COVID-19 infection. […] In particular, vertical artifacts (70%), pleural irregularities (60%), areas of white lung (10%) and subpleural consolidations (10%) were the main findings in patients with COVID-19.
32409313 We report the case of an asymptomatic patient undergoing a spine CT examination for trauma who was incidentally found to have lung abnormalities later confirmed to be COVID-19.
32409430 Risk factors for a more severe course of COVID-19 include age 65 and older, living in a nursing home or long term care facility, chronic lung disease, and others.
32409431 Lung ultrasound has the potential to aid the diagnosis and management of patients with COVID-19 infection.
32409436 Analyses of COVID-19 patients with preexisting interstitial lung disease (ILD) or pulmonary sarcoidosis is lacking but registries are ongoing.
32409443 These patients need to be managed according to guidelines for the low-tidal-volume lung-protective ventilation.
32409498 Here, we describe the clinical characteristics of and outcomes in patients with diabetes in whom COVID-19 has been confirmed or clinically diagnosed (with typical features on lung imaging and symptoms), and their association with glucose-lowering or blood pressure-lowering medications.
32410003 ACE-2 has lung protective effects by limiting angiotensin-2 mediated pulmonary capillary leak and inflammation.
32410412 Baseline CT findings including lobar distribution, presence of ground glass opacities, consolidation, linear opacities, and lung severity score were evaluated. […] After controlling for age, onset time, lesion characteristics, number of lung lobes affected, and bilateral involvement, the lung severity score on baseline CT (> 4 vs. ≤ 4 [reference]: adjusted HR = 0.41 [95% confidence interval, CI = 0.18-0.92], p = 0.031) and initial lymphocyte count (reduced vs. normal or elevated [reference]: adjusted HR = 0.14 [95% CI = 0.03-0.60], p = 0.008) were two significant independent factors that influenced recovery and discharge. […] Lung severity score > 4 and reduced lymphocyte count at initial evaluation were independently associated with a significantly lower rate of recovery and discharge and extended hospitalization in patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia.
32412159 Overall, 21 patients were included with a median age of 56 years (10 kidney, 5 liver, 1 pancreas, 1 lung, 1 heart and 3 combined transplantations).
32412511 Intubation per se induces lung damage, increases the risk of superinfection, and the number of days of ICU stay.
32412514 To communicate the results of a mechanical ventilation exercise with a ventilator in a lung simulator, and simultaneously in two and four. […] No statistically significant differences were observed between programmed, recorded and measured positive end-expiratory pressure, mean airway pressure and peak pressure, except when simultaneously ventilating four lung simulators.
32412811 Delay requirements were statistically more frequent among patients with prostate or breast cancer compared with those with lung or pancreatic cancer.
32412897 An autopsy of a patient in Japan with coronavirus disease indicated pneumonia lung pathology, manifested as diffuse alveolar damage.
32413319 We identify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within lung type II pneumocytes, ileal absorptive enterocytes, and nasal goblet secretory cells. […] Our data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 could exploit species-specific interferon-driven upregulation of ACE2, a tissue-protective mediator during lung injury, to enhance infection.
32413619 Coronavirus pneumonia is accompanied by rapid virus replication, where a large number of inflammatory cell infiltration and cytokine storm may lead to acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and death. […] Specifically, the impact on the immunomodulatory and cytoprotective properties of our novel in ‘house’ (IH-Lentinan, IHL) and a commercial (Carbosynth-Lentinan, CL) Lentinan extract were investigated using in vitro models of lung injury and macrophage phagocytosis.
32414594 Remittent fever and resected lung segments ≥5 were associated with fatality.
32414646 This molecule is a peptidase expressed at the surface of lung epithelial cells and other tissues, that regulates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
32414711 COVID-19, caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, is a disease characterised by cough, fever and fatigue, which progresses to life-threatening lung injury in approximately 5% of patients. […] However, ACE2 is protective against lung injury while ANG II (which is catabolised by ACE2) is associated with lung injury both in mice and humans. […] Here we give an overview of the RAS pathway with respect to COVID-19 and argue that strategies which manipulate this pathway might reduce the destructive lung manifestations of COVID-19 and improve patient outcomes.
32416318 Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) technique used for its portability, widespread availability, and ability to provide real-time diagnostic information procedural guidance. […] LUS outperforms lung auscultation and chest X-ray, and is an alternative to chest computed tomography in select cases.
32416433 Aiming to reduce hospitalization of our patients with advanced lung cancer, vinorelbine in its metronomic formulation is one of the best strategy.
32417304 The inflammatory process, cytokine storm, and lung injury that are associated with COVID-19 can put patients at an increased risk of thrombosis.
32418532 Recently, SARS-CoV-2 [8, 9], the causative agent of COVID-19, has been described to interfere with the RAS [2] by interacting -via its spike (S) glycoprotein- with the metallopeptidase Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor [9, 10] that is expressed at the surface of epithelial cells from blood vessels, lung, kidney (renal tubules), intestine, and heart, as well as on cerebral neurons and immune monocytes/macrophages [11-13]. […] The main SARS-CoV-2-related COVID-19 symptoms/diseases reported hitherto are hypertension, atherosclerosis, thrombosis (coagulopathy), diarrhea, glaucoma, anosmia, ageusia, skin lesions (dermatitis), autoimmune inflammation of the central nervous system, and damages to various organs such as the lung, heart, kidney, and testicle [1, 2, 14].
32418550 SARS-CoV-2 and mustard gas inducing oxidative stress, immune system dysregulation, cytokine storm, and overexpression of ACE2 receptor in lungs that act as functional entry receptors for SARS-CoV-2. […] Therefore, in this review, we discussed the different pathologic aspects of lung injury caused by mustard gas and also the relationship between these damages and the increased susceptibility of Iranian mustard gas exposed survivors to Covid-19.
32418728 In 2019, a multi-source analysis of complementary pharmacological data showed that using NSAIDs in these indications (potentially indicative of an underlying infection) increases the risk of a severe bacterial complication, in particular in the case of lung infections.
32418885 These agents could attenuate ARDS and help control SARS-CoV-2 via multiple mechanisms including: 1) inhibition of viral replication; 2) decrease of iron availability; 3) upregulation of B cells; 4) improvement of the neutralizing anti-viral antibody titer; 5) inhibition of endothelial inflammation and 6) prevention of pulmonary fibrosis and lung decline via reduction of pulmonary iron accumulation.
32420305 Chest imaging revealed bilateral ground-glass lung changes.
32420932 We had 21/61 (34.4%) patients resulted positive for COVID-19 and 11/61 in Parma (18.3%), based on nasal-pharyngeal swab, chest CT scan and/or lung US findings.
32420958 According the limited experimental evidences, it is hypothesized that sofosbuvir might be a potential option to improve care of patients with COVID-19 especially at the start of the disease and before invasion of the virus into the lung parenchymal cells.
32421539 Continuous, unresolved dyspnea often indicates the progression of lung lesions. […] However, our clinical observations showed that although some patients had significant chest distress and dyspnea, the lesions that were observed in the lungs during computed tomography were milder and not completely consistent with clinical symptoms.
32422081 Congruent with the ARDS clinical impression, autopsy findings were remarkable for extensive and markedly severe acute lung injury consistent with viral pneumonia, characterized by diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary infarction, severe pulmonary edema, desquamation of pneumocytes with intraalveolar aggregation, and pneumocyte morphological alterations suspicious for viral cytopathic effect.
32422178 Furthermore, several licensed and potential antifibrotic compounds have been assessed in models of acute lung injury and viral pneumonia.
32422280 ACE2 expression increases on lung alveolar epithelial cells and adipose tissue due to obesity, smoking and air pollution.
32422305 The leading cause of death is severe acute respiratory syndrome as a consequence of exacerbated inflammatory response accompanied by uncontrolled oxidative stress as well as the inflammatory reaction at the lung level.
32422320 COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is a major source of morbidity and mortality due to its inflammatory effects in the lungs and heart. […] The p38 MAPK pathway plays a crucial role in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and has been implicated in acute lung injury and myocardial dysfunction. […] ACE2 is highly expressed in the lungs and heart and converts Angiotensin II into Angiotensin 1-7.
32422364 Lung cancer patients, especially those with reduced lung function and cardiopulmonary comorbidities are more likely to have increased risk and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 as one of its common manifestations is as an acute respiratory illness. […] The purpose of this manuscript is to present a practical multidisciplinary and international overview to assist in treatment for lung cancer patients during this pandemic, with the caveat that evidence is lacking in many areas.
32423095
  1. Background: Combating viral disease outbreaks has doubtlessly been one of the major public health challenges for the 21st century. (2) Methods: The host entry machinery required for COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was examined for the gene expression profiles and polymorphism. (3) Results: Lung, kidney, small intestine, and salivary glands were among the tissues which expressed the entry machinery coding genes Ace2, Tmprss2, CtsB, and CtsL.
32423435 One case (12.5%) was classified as critical type and showed bronchial pneumonia-like changes in the bilateral lungs, presenting blurred and messy bilateral lung markings and multiple patchy shadows scattered along the lung markings with blurry margins.
32423449 Inflammation, pulmonary edema and an over-reactive immune response can lead to hypoxia, respiratory distress and lung damage. […] Multiple in vivo studies in animal models and ex vivo human lung models have demonstrated the MSC’s impressive capacity to inhibit lung damage, reduce inflammation, dampen immune responses and aid with alveolar fluid clearance. […] Upon administration by the intravenous route, the cells travel directly to the lungs where the majority are sequestered, a great benefit for the treatment of pulmonary disease.
32423499 Radiology Departments have been directly involved form the beginning of the COVID-19 emergency to provide imaging lung assessment of suspected and positive patients while ensuring the execution of other routine and emergency examinations for non-COVID-19 patients.To limit the risk of the infection spread, the Radiology Department should be reconfigured.
32423664 COVID-19 mainly invades the lungs, causing its serious damage. […] In the process of management of COVID-19 infections, close attention should be paid on both lung and cardiovascular damage, especially on those with only symptoms of cardiovascular diseases.
32423888 More lung lobes were involved in the third week. […] Although CT score had correlations with arterial blood gas indices, long-term follow-up of pulmonary function test is needed to determine the recovery of lung.
32423911 A repeat chest radiograph demonstrated lung re-expansion, and the patient was admitted to a COVID-19 specific ward for further observation.
32425009 We present an unusual case of a patient with bilateral-lung transplantation due to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who subsequently suffered complications with acute myocardial infarction and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
32425305 DEC has inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid metabolism to prostaglandins, little known anti-viral effects on animal retroviruses and demonstrated anti-inflammatory actions in animal models of lung inflammation indicating the need to explore this hypothesis further.
32425307 The resultant cytokine storm is responsible for the severe lung injury leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome seen in COVID 19 patients.
32425337 All thin-section CT scans of the lungs were performed in all of patients. […] On initial CT scans, the bilateral lung involved was shown in 24 cases (70.59%), while 29 (82.35%) cases were distributed in peripheral. […] Follow-up imaging in 19 patients during the study time window demonstrated mild, moderate or severe progression of disease, as manifested by increasing extent and density of lung opacities.
32425701 Here, we show that cigarette smoke causes a dose-dependent upregulation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, in rodent and human lungs. […] Furthermore, our work identifies ACE2 as an interferon-stimulated gene in lung cells, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infections could create positive-feedback loops that increase ACE2 levels and facilitate viral dissemination.
32426292 The global COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted healthcare delivery, particularly for patients with advanced lung cancer. […] While certain aspects of care can be safely omitted or delayed, systemic therapy plays an important role in survival and quality of life for patients with advanced lung cancer; limiting access to systemic therapy will compromise cancer-related outcomes. […] Here, we review currently available oral cytotoxic agents with a potential role in the treatment of lung cancer.
32426653 Several case series from Italy and China have highlighted the lung ultrasound findings of this disease process and may demonstrate its clinical utility during the current pandemic. […] As the lung involvement of COVID-19 is primarily a peripheral process it is readily identifiable via lung ultrasound.
32426877 Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) is now a pandemic disease with lung manifestations, which can bring severe acute respiratory distress.
32427192 The treatment of patients with chronic lung diseases must be adapted during the pandemic, but must still be guaranteed.
32427582 SARS-CoV-2 was demonstrated to infect type II, type I pneumocytes and endothelial cells, leading to severe lung damage through cell pyroptosis and apoptosis. […] In severe cases, lymphopenia, neutrophilia, depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, and massive macrophage and neutrophil infiltrates were observed in both blood and lung tissues.
32427651 Specifically, patchy ground-glass opacities in the periphery of the lower lungs may be present initially, eventually undergoing coalescence, consolidation, and organization, and ultimately showing features of fibrosis. […] Familiarity with these findings and their evolution will help radiologists recognize potential COVID-19 and recognize the significant overlap with other causes of acute lung injury.
32428291 A minority, especially patients with chronic lung disease, develops lethal disease including severe pneumonia, pulmonary edema, rapidly developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple organ failure and septic shock.
32428379 Given that most viruses use endocytosis to enter the host cell, mechanistic investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infection needs to consider the diversity of endocytic pathways available for SARS-CoV-2 entry in the human lung epithelium.
32428864 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is not only an entry receptor of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the virus that causes COVID-19, but also can protect from lung injury.
32428957 The clinical examination shows fine crackles over both lungs and a respiratory failure of the husband. […] Radiologically lung infiltrates of different severity. […] Notfallmäßige Vorstellung eines Ehepaars in der zentralen Notaufnahme. […] In der klinischen Untersuchung fallen feinblasige Rasselgeräusche über beiden Lungen beider Patienten und eine respiratorische Insuffizienz des Ehemanns auf. […] Intubation und Beatmung des männlichen Patienten bei mittelschwerem ARDS mit langer intensivmedizinischer Behandlung.
32429580 Normal human fibroblast lung cells (MRC-5) were used to determine the cytotoxicity of the compounds.
32430279 Although, SARS-Cov-2 primarily causes lung infection through binding of ACE2 receptors present on the alveolar epithelial cells, yet it was recently reported that SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in the faeces of infected patients. […] Role of the gut microbiota in influencing lung diseases has been well articulated.
32430459 We aimed to explore risk factors affecting susceptibility to infection and prioritize drug repositioning candidates, based on Mendelian randomization (MR) studies on ACE2 lung expression. […] We conducted a phenome-wide MR study to prioritize diseases/traits and blood proteins causally linked to ACE2 lung expression in GTEx. […] Other diseases/traits having nominal significant associations with increased expression included inflammatory bowel disease, (estrogen receptor-positive) breast cancer, lung cancer, asthma, smoking, and elevated alanine aminotransferase.
32430481 Authors have noticed an increase in lung apex abnormalities on CT angiography (CTA) of the head and neck performed for stroke workup during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. […] Assessment of COVID-19 related lung findings on CTA was made blinded to COVID-19 status. […] Among all code patients who had a stroke, 28% (33/118) had COVID-19 related lung findings. […] The incidence of COVID-19 related lung findings in stroke CTA scans was 28% in all code patients who had a stroke and 37.5% in patients with a stroke confirmed by imaging. […] Stroke teams should closely assess the lung apices during this COVID-19 pandemic as CTA findings may be the first indicator of COVID-19 infection.
32432121 According to the number of lung segments involved in the lesion, the lesions range from <30% of the lung area (Common type), 30-50% (Severe type), and> 50% (Critical type). […] During this study, a total of 173 patients (64.08%) were recovered after treatment. Conclusion: In some epidemiological backgrounds, CT imaging manifestations and evolutionary characteristics are of great significance for early warning of lung injury, assessment of disease severity, and assistance in clinical typing and post-treatment follow-up.
32432787 From two COVID-19-related deaths, samples of lung, heart and kidney were collected and processed for Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy (TEM and SEM) with the aim of identifying the virus.
32433160 We present the case of an asymptomatic patient referred for FDG PET/CT imaging of a lung nodule who demonstrated the typical CT findings of COVID-19 infection and was subsequently found to be positive on testing.
32433293 There are currently no guidelines for the conduct of elective lung resection surgery in this context. […] A working group composed of 1 thoracic surgeon, 2 anesthesiologists and 1 critical care specialist assessed the risk for aerosol during lung resection surgery and proposed steps for mitigation. […] The working group divided the risk for aerosol into 6 time-points: (1) intubation and extubation; (2) Lung isolation and patient positioning; (3) access to the chest; (4) conduct of the surgical procedure; (5) procedure termination and lung re-expansion; (6) chest drainage. […] In the context of lung resection surgery, specific time points during the procedure seem to pose specific risks for the genesis of aerosol and thus should be the focus of attention.
32433817 On admission GCS was 14/15, vital signs were within the normal limits and bilateral crepitation at the lung base. […] This case illustrates acute confusion may be the only presenting symptom of COVID-19 without overt lung disease.
32434416 It is time for public health agencies to revisit regulation on transplantation of human pluripotent stem cells for the possibility of the development of a humanized mice model with a humanized lung.
32434788 The SARS-CoV-2 could in some case induce excessive and aberrant non-effective host immune responses that are associated with potentially fatal severe lung injury and patients can develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). […] Acute lung injury results from inflammatory monocyte and macrophage activation in the pulmonary luminal epithelium which lead to a release of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α.
32435065 COVID-19, a new viral disease affecting primarily the respiratory system and the lung, has caused a pandemic posing serious challenges to healthcare systems around the world. […] Therapy is based on established recommendations issued for patients with acute lung injury (ARDS). […] Lung protective ventilation, prone position, restrictive fluid management and adequate management of organ failure are the mainstays of therapy. […] In case of fulminant lung failure, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be used as a rescue in experienced centres.
32435607 As a crucial enzyme of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), ACE2 not only mediates the virus entry but also affects the pathophysiological process of virus-induced acute lung injury (ALI), as well as other organs’ damage. […] ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) have been shown to increase the level of expression of ACE2 and could be potential strategies in protecting lungs, heart, and kidneys.
32435925 The CT images were evaluated for the number, type and distribution of the opacity, and the affected lung lobes. […] Forty patients (83.6%) had two or more opacities in the lung. […] The first follow-up CT scans showed that twelve patients (30%) had improvement, 26 (65%) patients had mild-moderate progression, and two patients (5%) had severe progression with “white lungs.” The second follow-up CT showed that 22 patients (71%) showed improvement compared with the first follow-up CT, four patients (12.9%) had aggravated progression, and five patients (16.1%) showed unchanged radiographic appearance. […] The common CT features of COVID-19 pneumonia are multiple lung opacities, multiple types of the opacity (ground-glass, ground-glass and consolidation, and consolidation alone), and multiple lobes especially the lower lobe involved. […] • The predominant CT features of COVID-19 pneumonia are multiple ground-glass opacities with or without consolidation and, with both lungs, multiple lobes and especially the lower lobe affected.
32436229 It was found that ACE2, Angiotensin (1-7) and its MAS receptors are present, over in the lung, also in the testicles, in particular in Leydig and Sertoli cells.
32436847 The lower lobes of both lungs were the most commonly involved. […] In the follow-up, the progression group showed more involvement of the upper lobe of the left lung than the recovery group.
32437596 Despite widespread interest in the pathophysiology of the disease, relatively little is known about the associated morphologic and molecular changes in the peripheral lung of patients who die from Covid-19. […] We examined 7 lungs obtained during autopsy from patients who died from Covid-19 and compared them with 7 lungs obtained during autopsy from patients who died from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to influenza A(H1N1) infection and 10 age-matched, uninfected control lungs. […] The lungs were studied with the use of seven-color immunohistochemical analysis, micro-computed tomographic imaging, scanning electron microscopy, corrosion casting, and direct multiplexed measurement of gene expression. […] In patients who died from Covid-19-associated or influenza-associated respiratory failure, the histologic pattern in the peripheral lung was diffuse alveolar damage with perivascular T-cell infiltration. […] The lungs from patients with Covid-19 also showed distinctive vascular features, consisting of severe endothelial injury associated with the presence of intracellular virus and disrupted cell membranes. […] In lungs from patients with Covid-19, the amount of new vessel growth - predominantly through a mechanism of intussusceptive angiogenesis - was 2.7 times as high as that in the lungs from patients with influenza (P<0.001).
32437667 Ultrasound has been suggested as a reliable and accurate tool for assessing the lungs in patients with suspected pneumonia. […] Lung ultrasound can show specific signs of interstitial pneumonia, which is characteristic of COVID-19 pulmonary infection. […] We present a systematic approach to lung examination, simplified to encourage its adoption by obstetricians and gynecologists, together with an example of a recent pregnant woman with COVID-19 infection, in which lung ultrasound was useful in the management.
32437696 The distribution of lung lesions was peripheral in 85.0% of patients, multifocal in 69.4%, and bilateral in 68.2%.
32437706 On day 9, after admission, the chest computed tomography scan showed diffuse ground-glass shadows in the patient’s bilateral lungs. […] Lung biopsy showed areas of diffuse alveolar damage, characterized by extensive acute alveolitis with numerous intra-alveolar neutrophil, lymphocyte, and macrophage infiltrations.
32438383 Inhaled modified recombinant human ACE2, may bind SARS-CoV-2 and mitigate lung damage.
32438446 However, this has not been accompanied by a comprehensive evaluation of the target plasma and lung concentrations of these drugs following approved dosing in humans. […] An unbound lung to plasma tissue partition coefficient (Kp Ulung ) was also simulated to derive a lung Cmax/EC50 as a better indicator of potential human efficacy. […] Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, mefloquine, atazanavir (ritonavir-boosted), tipranavir (ritonavir-boosted), ivermectin, azithromycin and lopinavir (ritonavir-boosted) were all predicted to achieve lung concentrations over 10-fold higher than their reported EC50 . […] Nitazoxanide and sulfadoxine also exceeded their reported EC50 by 7.8- and 1.5-fold in lung, respectively. […] Future studies should focus on EC90 values and discuss findings in the context of achievable exposures in humans, especially within target compartments such as the lung, in order to maximise the potential for success of proposed human clinical trials.
32438620 These include the presence of poor nutritional status and pre-existing noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes mellitus, chronic lung diseases, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), obesity, and various other diseases that render the patient immunocompromised.
32440666 To date, only a few studies have reported the distribution of lung lesions by segment. […] COVID-19 mainly affects the lower lobes of the lungs. […] GGO and consolidation in the lung periphery is the imaging hallmark in patients with COVID-19 infection.
32440906 We propose a management algorithm that combines the respiratory rate and oxygenation index with bedside lung ultrasound examination and monitoring that could help determine earlier the requirement for intubation and other surveillance of COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure.
32441764 PARPi’s can effectively decrease IL-6, IL-1 and TNFα levels (key interleukins in SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storm) and can alleviate subsequent lung fibrosis, as demonstrated in murine experiments and clinical trials. […] PARPi’s had beneficial effects in animal models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), asthma and ventilator-induced lung injury.
32441783 ARDS is caused and sustained by an uncontrolled inflammatory activation characterized by a massive release of cytokines (cytokine storm), diffuse lung edema, inflammatory cell infiltraton and disseminated coagulation.
32441805 Acute lung injury (ALI) represents the most severe form of the viral infection sustained by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] In particular, antiviral treatment used for the treatment of several viral infections (eg, hepatitis C, HIV, Ebola, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus) are today used with a mild or moderate effect on the lung injury. […] In this article reviewing literature data related to the use of escin, an agent having potent anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects in lung injury, we suggest that it could represent a therapeutic opportunity as add-on therapy in ALI related to COVID-19 infection.
32442030 Two cardiothoracic radiologists and a cardiothoracic imaging fellow characterized and scored the extent of lung involvement. […] Positive CT findings seen in children included ground-glass opacities with a peripheral lung distribution, a crazy paving pattern, and the halo and reverse halo signs.
32442105 These data indicate that auranofin could be a useful drug to limit SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated lung injury due to its antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-reactive oxygen species (ROS) properties.
32442317 We hypothesize that the intrinsic circadian clock of the lung and the immune system may regulate individual components of CRS and thus chronotherapy may be used to effectively manage ARDS in COVID-19 patients.
32443442 Two radiologists evaluated the severity of findings in computed tomography (CT) images on a scale from 1 (no characteristic signs of COVID-19) to 5 (confluent ground glass opacities in over 50% of the lung parenchyma). […] The volume of affected lung was quantified using commercially available software. […] The need for ICU treatment is independently associated with affected lung volume, radiological severity score, CRP, and IL-6.
32444393 Comparing patients on hemodialysis with controls, creatine kinase-muscle and brain type, myoglobin, hypersensitive troponin I, B-type natriuretic peptide, and procalcitonin were increased, and the percentage of abnormalities in bilateral lung was higher in computed tomographic scan (82% versus 69%, P=0.15) and unilateral lung was lower (10% versus 27%, P=0.03).
32444412 Firstly, 4106 patients with computed tomography images were used to pre-train the DL system, making it learn lung features.
32444415 Patients with pre-existing interstitial lung disease showed massive fibrous stripes and crazy-paving signs at an early stage.
32446305 Further, TB patients often have underlying co-morbidities and lung damage that may make them prone to more severe COVID-19.
32447007 Chronic exposure to air pollutants have been associated with lung ACE-2 over-expression which is known to be the main receptor for SARS-coV2. […] High atmospheric NO2 may provide a second hit causing a severe form of SARS-CoV-19 in ACE-2 depleted lungs resulting in a worse outcome.
32448136 The lung window was reconstructed by Karl 3D iterative technique in the study group.
32448282 Pulmonary function testing should be performed in children with chronic lung disease only if it is needed to guide management and limited to the necessary tests, namely spirometry.
32448377 Acute lung injury (ALI), an increasingly devastating human disorder, is characterized by a multitude of lung changes arising from a wide variety of lung injuries. […] In this review, we detail the present stem cell-based therapeutics for lung injury caused by influenza virus and the outlook for the future state of stem cell therapy to deal with emerging influenza and coronaviruses.
32448391 Lung lesions in COVID-19 pneumonia patients can be absorbed completely during short-term follow-up with no sequelae.
32448880 Physical activity is useful in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and lung diseases, metabolic diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, cancer and depression.
32449333 In fatal COVID-19 cases the balance between the immune response and the inflammatory outcome fails, due to which the patients at risk, mostly aged, have higher levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and an enhanced inflammatory process in the lung.
32449782 Lung function abnormalities, psychological impairment and reduced exercise capacity were common in SARS and MERS survivors.
32450107 After controlling for multiple confounding factors (age, sex, race or ethnicity, body-mass index, underlying cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, diabetes, underlying lung disease, smoking, immunosuppressed condition, and baseline disease severity), when compared with mortality in the control group (9·3%), hydroxychloroquine (18·0%; hazard ratio 1·335, 95% CI 1·223-1·457), hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide (23·8%; 1·447, 1·368-1·531), chloroquine (16·4%; 1·365, 1·218-1·531), and chloroquine with a macrolide (22·2%; 1·368, 1·273-1·469) were each independently associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality.
32450165 It is associated with the other organ damage such as cardiovascular risk via an increased level of hypertension through ACE2, gastrointestinal dysfunction, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, liver dysfunction, lung injury, CNS risk, ocular risks such as chemosis, conjunctivitis, and conjunctival hyperemia, cancer risk, venous thromboembolism, tuberculosis, aging, and cardiovascular dysfunction and reproductive risk.
32450344 The effects might be sustained by the prevention and interference on forming clots in lung capillary vessels and by modulating megakaryocytes’ function and platelet adhesion.
32450346 The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause acute lung injury (ALI) and even acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); with a fatality of 7.0 %.
32450727 There were no significant differences in the number of lesions, bilateral lung involvement, large irregular/patchy opacities, rounded opacities, linear opacities, crazy-paving patterns, halo signs, interlobular septal thickening or air bronchograms.
32451194 Lung ultrasound gained a leading position in the last year as an imaging technique for the assessment and management of patients with acute respiratory failure. […] We performed a complete daily examination with lung ultrasound score computation and systematic search of complications (pneumothorax, ventilator-associated pneumonia); on-duty physicians were free to perform CT or chest X-ray when deemed indicated.
32451533 SARS-CoV-2 viral genome was sequenced by next-generation sequencing (NGS) from FFPE lung tissue blocks. […] Viral RNA was detected in lungs, bronchi, lymph nodes, and spleen in both cases using qRT-PCR method.
32451626 Patients with COVID-19 ARDS are divided into two phenotypes (L phenotype and H phenotype) according to their lung compliance. […] Heart-lung interaction methods can be used only in patients with L phenotype ARDS. […] Evaluation of the volume status should be comprehensive; therefore, the presence of signs of volume overload such as lower limb edema, lung edema, and severe hypoxemia should be considered beside the usual indices for fluid responsiveness.
32452050 SARS-CoV2 elicits infections from the common cold to severe conditions accompanied by lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and other organ destruction.
32452947 All cannulations were performed at the bedside in the intensive care unit in patients who had undergone a trial of rescue therapies for acute respiratory distress syndrome including lung protective ventilation, paralysis, prone positioning, and inhaled nitric oxide.
32453656 Patients with lung cancer are a particularly vulnerable population, where the risk of mortality from cancer must now be balanced by the potential risk of a life-threatening infection. […] We have developed guidelines at our academic cancer center to standardize management of patients with lung cancer across our health care system and provide guidance to the larger oncology community. […] We recommend that general principles of lung cancer treatment continue to be followed in most cases where delays could result in rapid cancer progression. […] In principle, however, treatment paradigms must continue to be individualized, with careful consideration of risks and benefits of continuing or altering lung cancer-directed therapy.
32453889 During critical care, at least until the late stage of the disease, severely ill COVID-19 patients may have relatively well preserved lung compliance but remain severely hypoxaemic.
32454090 Longitudinal outcome data can then be combined with other epidemics and old-age health data, to discover the best biomarkers to predict (i) coping with infection & inflammation and thus hospitalization or intensive care, (ii) long-term health challenges, e.g. deterioration of lung function after intensive care, and (iii) treatment & vaccination response. […] Further, there are universal triggers of old-age morbidity & mortality, and the elimination of senescent cells improved health in pilot studies in idiopathic lung fibrosis & osteoarthritis patients alike.
32454807 Nine studies reported radiographic imaging, including 5 with images of pneumonia, increased lung marking, thickened texture, or high-density nodular shadow.
32455515 Objective: To analyse the clinical history, laboratory tests and pathological data of a patient who suffered from novel coronavirus pneumonia(COVID-19) and provide reference for the clinical treatment of similar cases. Methods: Data of clinical manifestation, laboratory examination, bronchoscopy, echocardiography and cardiopulmonary pathological results were retrospectively reviewed in a case of COVID-19 with rapid exacerbation from mild to critical condition. Results: This patient hospitalized at day 9 post 2019 novel coronavirus(2019-nCoV) infection, experienced progressive deterioration from mild to severe at day 11, severe to critical at day 18 and underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation(ECMO) and continuous renal replacement therapy(CRRT) as well as heart lung transplantation during day 28-45 day post infection, and died on the second day post heart and lung transplantation. […] The patient underwent lung and heart transplantation and finally died of multi organ failure at the second day post lung and heart transplantation. […] The pathological changes were mainly diffused pulmonary hemorrhagic injuries and necrosis, fibrosis, small vessel disease with cardiac edema and lymphocyte infiltration. Conclusions: The clinical course of COVID-19 can exacerbate rapidly from mild to critical with lung, liver and heart injuries.
32455539 We analyzed sequencing data from lung and oral epithelial samples obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). […] We found that the receptor and transmembrane protease necessary for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, respectively, were upregulated in smoking samples from both lung and oral epithelial tissue.
32458044 In the setting of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, only few data regarding lung pathology induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is available, especially without medical intervention interfering with the natural evolution of the disease. […] Diagnosis was made at necropsy and lung histology showed diffuse alveolar damage, edema, and interstitial pneumonia with a geographically heterogeneous pattern, mostly affecting the central part of the lungs. […] This death related to COVID-19 pathology highlights the heterogeneity and severity of central lung lesions after natural evolution of the disease.
32458279 This analysis is based on the following observations: plasma exposures of remdesivir and its active metabolite are unlikely to be correlated with its clinical efficacy; remdesivir and its active metabolites are unlikely to be adequate in the lung to kill the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
32459123 In brief, we propose a model wherein dysregulated type I interferon signalling leads to aberrant recruitment and accumulation of innate immune lineages in the lung, impairing establishment of productive adaptive responses, and permitting a pathologic pro-inflammatory state.
32460208 Sodium Chromo-Glycate (SCG) described as a MC stabilizer, prevents the release of inflammatory chemical compounds, improve mouse survival and respiratory pathological changes in lung viral infection and suppresses inflammation. […] Here, we hypothesize for the first time, that SCG and/or PEA suppress MC activation and pro-inflammatory mediators release, playing an anti-inflammatory therapeutic role in the inflamed lung of patients with COVID-19.
32460302 However, due to specific characteristics of COVID-19 (e.g., rapidly expanding lung lesions), a single imaging method such as lung POCUS will have significant limitations. […] Herein, we suggest a Tri-POCUS approach that represents concurrent bedside assessment of the lungs, heart, and the venous system.
32460390 A total of 23 SOT transplant recipients suffering from COVID-19 were identified (n = 3 heart; n =15 kidney; n = 1 kidney-after-heart; n = 3 lung and n = 1 liver transplant recipient).
32460624 In severe phenotype, resembling a “cytokine-release syndrome”, SARS-CoV2 causes the lysis of the immune-mediators leading to a cytokine storm able to induce lung epithelium damage and acute respiratory distress syndrome.
32460829 COVID-19 patients were defined as those with either a positive RNA test or typical, newly appeared lung CT scan abnormalities. […] We found no association between prior radiation therapy fields or extent of radiation therapy sequelae and extent of COVID-19 lung lesions.
32461141 The novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 originates in the lungs, but may extend to other organs, causing, in severe cases, multiorgan damage, including cardiac injury and acute kidney injury. […] COVID-19-associated tissue injury is not primarily mediated by viral infection, but rather is a result of the inflammatory host immune response, which drives hypercytokinemia and aggressive inflammation that affect lung parenchymal cells, diminishing oxygen uptake but also endothelial cells, resulting in endotheliitis and thrombotic events and intravascular coagulation. […] The complement system represents the first response of the host immune system to SARS-CoV-2 infection, but there is growing evidence that unrestrained activation of complement induced by the virus in the lungs and other organs plays a major role in acute and chronic inflammation, endothelial cell dysfunction, thrombus formation and intravascular coagulation, and ultimately contributes to multiple organ failure and death. […] In this review we will discuss the relative role of the different complement activation products in the pathogenesis of COVID-19-associated tissue inflammation and thrombosis and propose the hypothesis that blockade of the terminal complement pathway may represent a potential therapeutic option for the prevention and treatment of lung and multi-organ damage.
32462378 Chest CT revealed ground-glass-like lesions in 18 cases, unilateral lung patchiness in 7 cases, bilateral lung patchiness in 7 cases, and pleural effusion in 2 cases.
32462412 Both had a history of lung disease and during their hospitalization tested positive for SARS-CoV-2.
32462705 The younger patient with a mild upper respiratory illness and a brief viral shedding, while the elderly with multi-morbidity had pneumonia, prolonged viral shedding, and residual lung damage.
32463562 Obesity has various negative consequences relative to the course of COVID-19, including adverse effects on lung physiology, and induces comorbidities such as type II diabetes or hypertension.
32463794 Pathological signaling in the lung induced by particulate matter (PM) air pollution partially overlaps with that provoked by COVID-19, the pandemic disease caused by infection with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.
32464579 Thirty-four (35.8%) patients were classified in the ‘progression stage’ based on CT imaging; these patients typically showed lesions in multiple lung segments and lobes (21/34,61.8%), and an uneven increase in ground-glass opacity density accompanied by consolidation and grid-like or cord-like shadows(30.5%). […] These showed diffuse bilateral lung lesions, mixed ground-glass opacities and consolidation with cord-like interstitial thickening and air bronchograms, entire lung involvement with a “white lung” presentation, and mild pleural effusion.
32466623 Home monitoring of lung function in asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF) may help to detect deterioration of lung function at an early stage, but the reliability is unclear. […] We investigated whether lung function measurements at home were comparable to measurements during clinical visits.
32466822 Since December 2019, a number of new infectious diseases, mainly lung diseases caused by novel coronavirus infections, have been discovered in Wuhan, Hubei province.
32467422 Due to the delay in the reporting of the PCR test results, our postprocedural triage regarding COVID-19, followed by the isolation strategy, was based on lung CT scan results.
32468193 However, it is assumed that these patients are at high risk, because of respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function.
32468775 Respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, dyspnoea, myalgia, fatigue, breathing difficulties and bilateral lung infiltrates on C.T are common findings.
32469732 Lung lesions primarily manifested as interstitial opacities (71.7%) and AO opacities (60.5%), more frequently bilateral (64.5%) and with a peripheral predominance (62.5%). […] Patients admitted to the emergency radiology department after 5 days from symptoms onset, more frequently had interstitial and AO opacities, in comparison to those admitted within 5 days, and lung lesions were more frequently bilateral and peripheral.
32470148 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced direct cytopathic effects against type I and II pneumocytes mediate lung damage. […] Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) is mainly produced by damaged or regenerating alveolar type II pneumocytes.
32470948 In the clinic, COVID-19 patients most commonly present with fever, cough and dyspnea, and from there the disease can progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung consolidation, cytokine release syndrome, endotheliitis, coagulopathy, multiple organ failure and death.
32471272 SARS-CoV-2 causes mild to severe respiratory tract inflammation, often developing into lung fibrosis with thrombosis in pulmonary small vessels and causing even death.
32471278 A subsequent progression to acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can take place, which is often followed by death. […] Moreover, fenretinide administration by pulmonary delivery systems could further increase its therapeutic value by carrying high drug concentrations to the lungs and triggering a rapid onset of activity.
32471650 Computed tomographic findings ranged from massive acute pulmonary embolism to a segmental or sub-segmental pattern; furthermore, thrombosis of sub-segmental pulmonary arteries within lung infiltrates were occasionally seen, suggesting local mechanisms.
32471794 The laboratory findings revealed normal WBC and CRP despite apparent lung infiltrations, and typical observations on CT imaging were important diagnostic clues.
32472516 Our clinical evaluation was consistent with an involvement of the brainstem and especially of respiratory centre thus possibly explaining the weaning failure in patients that were awake and had recovered from lung involvement.
32472653 A trend was found of improved radiographic findings, pulmonary function (lung compliance, tidal volumes, PaO2 /FiO2 ratio, alveolo-capillary injury), and inflammatory biomarker levels.
32467189 Their initial work-up did not suggest COVID-19 as a diagnosis but showed unsuspected/incidental lung findings, which led to further investigations and a diagnosis of COVID-19.
32469164 Patients with lung cancer are highly susceptible to infection compared to healthy individuals because of systemic immunosuppression induced by malignancy and anticancer therapy. […] Hence, patients with lung cancer should be considered a priority group for COVID-19 prevention. […] Here, we provide some suggestions for early identification of COVID-19 and differential diagnosis in patients with lung cancer who have fever and respiratory symptoms. […] Our medical team also provide clinical recommendations on lung cancer management during the COVID-19 pandemic, for carrying out meticulous and individualized clinical management of lung cancer patients and maximum protection to effectively prevent COVID-19. […] KEY POINTS: Significant findings of the study This article provides suggestions for early identification of COVID-19 and differential diagnosis in patients with lung cancer with fever and respiratory symptoms. […] What this study adds This article makes clinical recommendations on lung cancer management during the COVID-19 pandemic.
32470167 All severe and critical patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 showed bilateral lung involvement and have more multiple lobes involvement than common patients (p<0.001). […] In addition, COVID-19 patients with bilateral lung involvement or multiple lobes involvement should be taken seriously and actively treated to prevent deterioration of the disease.
32470851 When oxLDL-trained macrophages encounter SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) in the lung, it causes unregulated cytokine secretion, leading to the alveolar damage.
32471004 Herein, we report the first case of COVID-19 in a lung transplant recipient in the immediate posttransplant period, and we describe the epidemiologic challenges in identifying the source of infection in this unique situation.
32473964 On the basis of three representative cases, it is possible to propose the following hypotheses: (i) how patients are positioned has a strong influence on their oxygen saturation levels; (ii) saturation-optimalised positions are patient-specific; (iii) prone positions require ergonomic devices; and (iv) saturation-optimalised positions should aim to place the most affected part(s) of the lung(s) on top.
32474064 Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are common lung disorders characterized by alveolar-capillary barrier disruption and dyspnea, which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. […] However, the direct visualization of lung epithelial injuries caused by NETs, and the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of this damage are still lacking. […] Therefore, we established a cell-based assay for detecting NETs during lung epithelial cells-neutrophils co-culture using the xCELLigence system, a recognized real-time, dynamic, label-free, sensitive, and high-throughput apparatus. […] Our results demonstrated that lung epithelial injuries, reflected by declines in cell index (CI) values, could be induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated PMNs, or NETs in a time and dose-dependent manner.
32474629 Their clinical and medical records were analyzed, and the chest CT images were assessed to determine the involvement of lobes and the distribution of lesions in the lungs between the patients who recovered from the illness and those who died. […] Older patients with comorbidities such as diabetes and emphysema, and higher CRP and NLRs with diffuse lung involvement were more likely to die of COVID-19. […] • Almost all patients critically ill with COVID-19 pneumonia had five lung lobes involved. […] • Medial or parahilar area involvement and degree of lung involvement were more serious in the deceased patients when compared with those who recovered from treatment. […] • Chronic lung disease, e.g., emphysema, diabetes, and higher serum CRP and NLR characterized patients who died of COVID-19.
32474630 • The predominant lung changes were GGO and reticular alteration, while consolidation was less frequent. […] • Chest radiography showed lung abnormalities in 75% of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, range varied from 63.3 to 83.9%, respectively, at 0-2 days and > 9 days from the onset of symptoms.
32474885 Early recognition and appropriate treatment of immunologic complications will decrease the morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 infection, which requires the collaboration of infectious disease, lung, and intensive care unit specialists with other experts such as immunologists, rheumatologists, and hematologists.
32475230 Given the high levels of cytokines induced by SARS-CoV-2, treatment to reduce inflammation-related lung damage is critical.
32475597 Some traditional Chinese medicines, especially the Lung Cleansing and Detoxifying Decoction (Qing Fei Pai Du Tang), have shown therapeutic effects on mild and ordinary COVID-19 patients. […] This review summarizes the potential pharmacological activities of polysaccharides isolated by hot water extraction from Lung Cleansing and Detoxifying Decoction, which is consistent with its production method, to provide the theoretical basis for ongoing research on its application.
32475876 In all seven patients with COVID-19, ground glass opacity (GGO) was found in the HRCT images, mainly distributed in the subpleural region of the lungs. […] The right lung was more extensively involved than the left lung in six patients, and the lower lobe was more extensively involved than the upper lobe in five patients. […] The initial chest HRCT images of the lungs of COVID-19 patients had specific characteristics; the typical manifestations of the bilateral lungs showed extensive GGO-type infiltrate, with thickened vascular bundles and focal center consolidation.
32476258 We describe our institutional experience with COVID-19 among ten SOT patients, including the clinical presentation, treatment modalities, and outcomes of seven renal transplant recipients, one liver transplant recipient, one heart transplant recipient, and one lung transplant recipient.
32476308 A proper combination of antiviral agents, immune modulators such as prednisolone, and anticoagulants such as heparin and anti-C5a antagonists could be employed to minimize lung damage and prevent systemic involvements.
32476472 In various experimental models of lung injury, the imbalance between angiotensin II over-activity and of antiotensin1-7 deficiency triggered inflammation, thrombosis and other adverse reactions.
32478445 Lung ultrasound (LUS) is an effective tool to detect and monitor patients infected with 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). […] A routinely performed LUS examination revealed serious lung involvement in 7 cases: 2 were initially asymptomatic; 3 have chest computed tomography; 1 had initial negative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results; and 1 had initial negative computed tomographic findings.
32479771 A risk score was developed incorporating twelve characteristics: age>40, male, non-white ethnicity, oxygen saturations<93%, radiological severity score>3, neutrophil count>8.0 x109/L, CRP>40 mg/L, albumin<34 g/L, creatinine>100 µmol/L, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and chronic lung disease.
32479787 The most common solid tumour types were breast (40 [20%] patients), colorectal (28 [14%]), and lung cancer (24 [12%]). 54 (30%) of 182 patients received antitumour therapies within 4 weeks before symptom onset. 30 (15%) of 205 patients were transferred to an intensive care unit and 40 (20%) died during hospital admission.
32481381 He sought medical consultation for right lower lung nodules found by CT scan. […] The patient’s postoperative pathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma of the right lower lung.
32482483 Lung ultrasound is well-established as an important means of evaluating lung pathology in patients in the emergency department and in intensive care units. […] Here we present a case series of a group of physician patients with COVID-19 who monitored themselves daily while in home isolation using lung point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS). […] Lung POCUS findings corresponded with symptom onset and resolution in all 3 patients with confirmed COVID-19 during the 14-day isolation period. […] Lung POCUS may offer a feasible means of monitoring patients with COVID-19 who are on home isolation.
32482538 The outcome of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection fundamentally affects the lung field, causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
32483490 The selectivity determines susceptibility of clinical disease and extent of pathogenesis, including fatal lung and myocardial injury, and may be more cogent than the recently reported risk factors.
32483500 Consequently, the use of respiratory devices that may potentially promote aerosolization like non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) for diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), advanced chronic obstructive lung disease, pulmonary hypertension (PH), and neuromuscular respiratory disease has been called into question.
32484232 We here describe the current knowledge about the radiologic and histologic pulmonary features of covid-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, and present lung histology from a case with fatal disease. […] The posterior parts of the lungs and the lower lobes are typically more markedly affected.
32484966 Some cases rapidly develop deteriorating lung function, which causes deep hypoxaemia and requires urgent treatment. […] Therefore, this mini review has prioritised previous and ongoing research to find explanations based on three scientific areas: gravity, lung structure and fractal geometry and vascular regulation. […] It concludes that gravity is one of the variables responsible for ventilation/perfusion matching but in concert with lung structure and fractal geometry, ventilation and regulation of lung vascular tone. […] Since ventilation distribution does not change between supine and prone positions, the higher expression of nitric oxide in dorsal lung vessels than in ventral vessels is likely to be the most important mechanism behind enhanced oxygenation in the prone position.
32485147 The risks from potential exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and resource reallocation that has occurred to combat the pandemic, have altered the balance of benefits and harms that informed current (pre-COVID-19) guideline recommendations for lung cancer screening and lung nodule evaluation. […] Consensus statements were developed to guide clinicians managing lung cancer screening programs and patients with lung nodules during the COVID-19 pandemic. […] The panel was provided with an overview of current evidence, summarized by recent guidelines related to lung cancer screening and lung nodule evaluation. […] Twelve statements related to baseline and annual lung cancer screening (n = 2), surveillance of a previously detected lung nodule (n = 5), evaluation of intermediate and high-risk lung nodules (n = 4), and management of clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer (n = 1) were developed and modified. […] The consensus statements provide guidance about situations in which it was believed to be appropriate to delay screening, defer surveillance imaging of lung nodules, and minimize nonurgent interventions during the evaluation of lung nodules and stage I non-small cell lung cancer. […] There was consensus that during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is appropriate to defer enrollment in lung cancer screening and modify the evaluation of lung nodules due to the added risks from potential exposure and the need for resource reallocation.
32485164 In comparison with wild-type C57BL/6 mice, both young and aged hACE2 mice sustained high viral loads in lung, trachea, and brain upon intranasal infection.
32485335 The percentage of lung involvement (range <25 % to 75-100 %) was also calculated. […] Lung lesions in patients with SARS-Cov2 pneumonia primarily manifested as alveolar and interstitial opacities and were mainly bilateral (60.8 %). […] Lung abnormalities were more frequent and more severe by symptom duration and by increasing age.
32486534 Objectives: To observe the pulmonary changes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in postmortem needle specimens, to detect the presence of 2019 novel coronavirus(2019-nCoV) in the lung tissues, and to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics. Methods: For 10 decedents with 2019-nCoV infection in Wuhan, bilateral lungs underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous multi-point puncture autopsy, and pulmonary pathological changes were described in routine hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) slides. […] The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to detect 2019-nCoV nucleic acid in lung tissue, and the pathological characteristics were demonstrated in combination with clinical data analysis. Results: Of the 10 deaths associated with COVID-19, 7 were male and 3 were female.
32486557 The differences in CT typing at different time were statistically significant (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The clinical features of COVID-19 and HRCT images are diverse, extensive GGO and infiltrates in both lungs are typical. […] In some epidemiological backgrounds, CT imaging manifestations and evolutionary characteristics are of great significance for early warning of lung injury, assessment of disease severity, and assistance in clinical typing and post-treatment follow-up. 目的: 探讨新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)临床表现及高分辨率CT(HRCT)影像分型和影像演变特征的临床意义。
32487005 The COVID-19 virus directly targets the lungs, leading to pneumonia-like symptoms and shortness of breath with life-threatening consequences. […] The acquired breathing sounds can be analyzed using advanced signal processing and analysis in tandem with new deep/machine learning and pattern recognition techniques to separate the breathing phases, estimate the lung volume, oxygenation, and to further classify the breathing data input into healthy or unhealthy cases.
32488318 The pathophysiology of the disease is multifactorial: association with innate immune response, hypercoagulability state, lung tissue damage, neurological and/or gastrointestinal tract involvement, monocytic/macrophage activation syndrome, culminating in exaggerated cytokine secretion, called “cytokine storm”, which leads to worsening and death.
32488686 In this review, we share our experience in using point-of-care ultrasound, particularly lung ultrasound, to indicate the probability of COVID-19 in patients with end-stage renal disease treated by hemodialysis. […] We also propose recommendations for the application of lung ultrasound, focused echocardiography and inferior vena cava ultrasound in the management of patients in hemodialysis.
32488958 Demographic features, medical histories, clinical symptoms, lung computerized tomography (CT) findings, and laboratory indexes on admission were collected.
32489022 In the previous research, our laboratory established a mouse model combining disease with syndrome of human coronavi-rus pneumonia with pestilence attacking the lung syndrome, based on the national traditional Chinese medicine clinical classification of Novel Coronavirus Infected Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Plan. […] In this study, a mouse model combining disease with syndrome of human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking the lung syndrome was used to evaluate the effectiveness of Reyanning Mixture to provide animal experimental support for clinical application. […] Blood was collected on the 4 th day and the lung tissue was dissected to calculate the lung index and inhibition rate; flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage of T and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood; RT-PCR was used to detect the nucleic acid virus load in lung tissue; ELISA was used to detect motilin and gastrin in serum, and inflammatory factors TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 in lung tissue proteins. […] Reyanning Mixture could reduce the lung index(P<0.01) of coronavirus pneumonia mice with pestilence attacking the lung; it could significantly increase the percentage of CD8~+ T lymphocytes and CD4~+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood of model mice(P<0.05, P<0.01). […] The low dose of Reyanning could effectively increase the percentage of total B lymphocytes(P<0.05), reduce virus load in lung tissue of model mice(P<0.01), reduce the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 in the lung tissue of model mice(P<0.01), reduce the content of motilin in the serum of model mice(P<0.01). […] Reyanning Mixture convey a better effect in treating coronavirus pneumonia mice with pestilence attacking the lung. […] It manifested obvious effects in improving lung lesions, enhancing the gastrointestinal function of mice, improving the autoimmune function of mice, and reducing the expression of inflammatory factors in vivo, which could provide evidences for clinical research.
32489023 The aim of this paper was to investigate the therapeutic effect of Compound Qinlan Oral Liquid recommended by Provincial Novel Coronary Virus Pneumonia Treatment Scheme on the treatment of BALB/c mice with combining disease with syndrome of human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking lung syndrome and to explore its clinical application in the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia, and to provide laboratory data support for clinical Chinese medicine. […] According to the classification of syndromes of novel coronavirus pneumonia by the national competent department of traditional Chinese medicine, this study determined that human coronavirus 229 E(HCoV-229 E)-infected mouse model of cold and dampness syndrome can be used to study human coronavirus pneumonia combined with pestilence attacking the lung syndrome model. […] On the last dosing day, the lung tissue was dissected, and the lung index and inhibition rate were calculated. […] The nucleic acid of lung tissue was extracted and the HCoV-229 E virus load was detected by RT-PCR. […] Lung tissue protein was extracted and the contents of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ were detected by ELISA. […] Histopathological analysis was performed with lung tissue. […] The high and low doses of Compound Qinlan Oral Liquid significantly reduced the lung index(P<0.01) of mice with combining disease with syndrome of human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking lung syndrome, and the inhibition rates were 59.01% and 47.72%, respectively. […] Compared with the model control group, the high and low doses of Compound Qinlan Oral Liquid significantly reduced lung tissue viral load(P<0.01), increased cross blood CD4~+ T lymphocytes, CD8~+ T lymphocytes and total B lymphocyte percentage(P<0.01), reduced serum motilin content(P<0.01), reduced IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in lungs(P<0.01) and reduced lung tissue inflammation. […] Compound Qinlan Oral Liquid has a better effect on the mouse model with combining disease with syndrome of human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking lung syndrome, which may attribute to its function of in virus replication inhibition, gastrointestinal function improvement, immunity enhancement, and inflammatory factor reduction.
32489024 Pulmonary fibrosis, which may be one of the sequela caused by COVID-19, not only brings dyspnea and deterioration of lung function, but also affects patients’ life because of its high mortality and poor prognosis. […] The potential herbs for treating pulmonary fibrosis mostly belong to lung(degree=14) and spleen(degree value=8), and the efficacy is focused on reinforcing deficiency(degree=9). […] The main symptom of COVID-19 is damp-heat stagnating in the lung, which always causes impairment of body fluid and Qi.
32489027 Viral pneumonia is caused by a spreading of lung infection caused by respiratory viruses. […] Some virus infections were found to be highly aggressive, leading to lung inflammation and severe damage in respiratory system with high fatality rate.
32489692 The MSCs therapy outcomes reported, are striking, as these cells inhibit the over-activation of the immune system, promoting endogenous repair, by improving the lung microenvironment after the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32489696 A cytokine storm induced by SARS-Cov2 may produce pneumonitis which may be fatal for older patients with underlying lung disease. […] Hyper-elevation of Interleukin1 (IL-1), Tumor necrosis factor-1alfa (TNF-1 alfa), and Interleukin 6 (IL-6) produced by inflammatory macrophage M1 may damage the lung alveoli leading to severe pneumonitis, decreased oxygenation, and potential death despite artificial ventilation. […] Low dose total lung (LDTL) irradiation at a single dose of 50 cGy may stop this cytokine cascade, thus preventing, and/or reversing normal organs damage.
32489929 Chest computed tomography (CT) is frequently used in diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for detecting abnormal changes in the lungs and monitoring disease progression during the treatment process. […] Pulmonary lesions more often involved bilateral lungs (78%, 95% CI: 45-100%) and were more likely to have a peripheral (65.35%, 95% CI: 25.93-100%) and peripheral plus central distribution (31.12%, 95% CI: 1.96-74.07%), but less likely to have a central distribution (3.57%, 95% CI: 0.99-9.80%). […] CT has low specificity in differentiating pneumonia-related lung changes due to significant overlap between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients with no significant differences in most of the imaging findings between these two groups (P>0.05).
32490715 The aim of the present bioinformatics study was to assess expression changes of the RAS and non-RAS genes, particularly immune response genes, in the lung epithelial cells after infection with SARS-CoV. […] The whole-genome expression data of the lung epithelial cells infected with SARS-CoV for 12, 24, and 48 hours were analyzed, and a total of 15 RAS family and 29 immune genes were found to be highly correlated with the exposure time to the virus in the studied groups.
32490829 Of the 70 patients, 84.3% showed bilateral lung involvement on CT; 27 cases (38.6%) showed ground-glass opacity (GGO), which was mostly distributed in the subpleural area (55.7%), and this sign was mainly observed in early COVID-19 patients. […] In addition, 41 cases (58.6%) manifested GGO combined with focal consolidation opacity, 2 (2.8%) had flake-like consolidation opacity, with involvements of the periphery of lung field and the central zone (44.3%), and this sign was mostly observed in severe or critical patients.
32490931 Considering that female sexual hormones may modulate the inflammatory response and also exhibit direct effects on the cells of the immune system, herein, we intend to discuss the sex differences and the role of estradiol in modulating the lung and systemic inflammatory response, focusing on its possible application as a treatment modality for SARS-CoV-2 patients. […] Studies showed that the viral infection induces a vascular process in the lung, which included vasodilation and endothelial dysfunction.
32491919 Asymptomatic infection may be associated with subclinical lung abnormalities, as detected by computed tomography.
32491949 The differences in the clinical course are highlighted by the lack of progression of the SARS-CoV-2 infection beyond mild symptoms in a majority of children, whereas in adults the disease progresses to acute lung injury and an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like phenotype with high mortality. […] The pathophysiological mechanisms leading to decreased lung injury in children may involve the decreased expression of the mediators necessary for viral entry into the respiratory epithelium and differences in the immune system responses in children. […] Notably, the developing lung in children may have a greater capacity to recover and repair after viral infection. […] Understanding the relative contributions of the above processes to the protective phenotype in the developing lung can guide the trial of the appropriate therapies in adults.
32492203 Recent days have seen growing evidence of cancer’s susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and of the effect of genomic differences on the virus’ entrance genes in lung cancer. […] Genetic confirmation of the hypotheses regarding gene expression and mutation pattern of target genes, including angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), basigin (CD147/BSG) and paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme (FURIN/PCSK3), as well as correlation analysis, was done in relation to lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC) using in silico analysis. […] The challenge for today is building the assessment of genomic susceptibility to COVID-19 in lung cancer, requiring detailed experimental laboratory studies, in addition to in silico analyses, as a way of assessing the mechanism of novel virus invasion that can be used in the development of effective SARS-CoV-2 therapy.
32492485 Evidence supports the chest CT scans for confirmed asymptomatic cases to evaluate the extent of lung involvement.
32492557 Our case series documents four patients who presented with abdominal symptoms whose abdominopelvic CT revealed incidental pulmonary parenchymal findings in the imaged lung bases and were subsequently confirmed positive for COVID-19 via laboratory testing. […] While it is possible that the patients’ abdominal complaints are coincidental with CT findings, it is interesting that patients can have such extensive incidental disease in the lungs on CT without respiratory symptoms.
32492560 DEC has inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid metabolism to prostaglandins, little known anti-viral effects on animal retroviruses and demonstrated anti-inflammatory actions in animal models of lung inflammation indicating the need to explore this hypothesis further.
32493030 The devastating third phase is in the gas exchange units of the lung, where ACE2 expressing alveolar type II cells and perhaps type I cells are infected. […] Repair might be normal, but if the type II cells are severely damaged, alternative pathways for epithelial repair may be activated, which would result in some residual lung disease.
32493443 Increased use of radiotherapy or chemoradiation instead of surgical treatment was recommended for defined patient groups with head-and-neck cancer, lung cancer, cervix cancer, esophageal cancer and prostate cancer.
32493514 This inflammation is supposed to be the main driver in the pathogenesis of lung failure (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) in COVID-19.
32494330 Physical examination showed bilateral rales on the lung exam, yet no lower extremity edema.
32495027 Thrombocytopenia was resulting from the consumption and/or the reduced production of platelets in damaged lungs. […] The activation of monocyte-macrophage system aggravates the immune damage of lung and other tissues, which leads to the increase of D-dimer, prothrombin time, and platelet consumption.
32495299 It has been recently observed that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), the receptor for MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus) and ACE2 have similar expression profiles in the lung.
32495372 Emerging evidence suggests that activation of the complement system is critical in the pathogenesis of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 related lung injury.
32495574 The lung inhibition index reached up to 86.86%. […] The lung CT showed more than 50% of lesion absorption rate, and the viral nucleic acid test showed the average clearance time of patients was 16.6 days, and the average length of hospital stay was 25.9 days. […] According to the chest CT for short-term review, the absorption of lung lesions was faster than before, especially for grid-like and fibrotic lesions.
32495577 As a result, ten of the 13 herbs in XFBD belonged to the lung meridian, and 326 of the 1 224 putative XFBD targets were associated with the disease target of COVID-19, among which 109 targets were enriched in the disease pathways of viral infection and lung injury. […] In conclusion, the therapeutic mechanism of XFBD in COVID-19 showed a multi-herb, multi-constituent, multi-target pattern, with lung as the chief targeted organ.
32495578 The main meridian of these TCM is lung, heart, spleen, liver, and stomach meridian.
32496357 Solid organ transplant recipients (SOT) comprise a large proportion of this group, yet there is limited knowledge about the presentation, clinical course and immunosuppression management of this novel infection among heart, lung, liver, pancreas and kidney transplant recipients.
32496364 ACE2 is an enzyme found in the heart, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and lung and is a coreceptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2), the virus responsible for COVID-19. […] However, several studies have also shown that ACE2 exhibits reno- and cardioprotection and preserves lung function in acute respiratory distress syndrome, which would favor ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy.
32496422 Corticosteroid might have a negative effect on lung injury recovery in non-severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients, however the results of this study must be interpreted with caution because of confounding factors.
32496430 We add to current knowledge and testing capacity for ventilator splitters by reporting the ability to examine the functionality of ventilator splitters by using 2 high-fidelity lung simulators. […] Data obtained by the high-fidelity lung simulators included: tidal volume, respiratory rate, minute ventilation, peak inspiratory pressure, peak plateau pressure, and positive end-expiratory pressure.
32496587 ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were coexpressed at the epithelial sites of the lung and skin, whereas CD147 (BSG), cyclophilins (PPIA and PPIB), CD26 (DPP4) and related molecules were expressed in both, epithelium and in immune cells.
32497257 Our attention has been focused on the role of ACE2 in that its blockade by the virus increases Bradykinin and its metabolites, well known to facilitate inflammation in the lung (responsible for cough and fever), facilitate both the coagulation and complement system, three mechanisms that are typical of angioedema, cardiovascular dysfunction and sepsis, pathologies which symptoms occur in COVID-19 patients.
32497535 Due to their mechanism of action targeting an early stage of the inflammatory response and ameliorating lung inflammation, we believe that selective PDE4 inhibitors may represent a promising treatment option for the early phase of COVID-19 pneumonia before the cytokine storm and severe multiorgan dysfunction take place.
32497778 The SARS-CoV-2 virus infects cells of the airway and lungs in humans causing the disease COVID-19. […] We hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 infection drives changes in immune cell-derived factors that then interact with receptors expressed by the sensory neuronal innervation of the lung to further promote important aspects of disease severity, including ARDS. […] We sought to quantify how immune cells might interact with sensory innervation of the lung in COVID-19 using published data from patients, existing RNA sequencing datasets from human dorsal root ganglion neurons and other sources, and a genome-wide ligand-receptor pair database curated for pharmacological interactions relevant for neuro-immune interactions. […] Our findings reveal a landscape of ligand-receptor interactions in the lung caused by SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and point to potential interventions to reduce the burden of neurogenic inflammation in COVID-19 pulmonary disease.
32499154 SARS-CoV2 viral manifestation poses a serious human life risk by causing acute lung injury and various respiratory outcomes and has become a global concern.
32499236 The initial mechanism for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is the binding of the virus to the membrane-bound form of ACE2, which is mainly expressed in the lung.
32499314 Interleukin 6 is involved in the cytokine cascade, which originates as a consequence of an excessive immune response secondary to viral infection, aggravating lung affectation.
32500199 In six cases, SARS-CoV-2 infection was diagnosed postmortem by a positive PCR test in a nasopharyngeal or lung tissue swab. […] All deceased, except for two women, in whom no significant pre-existing conditions were found autoptically, had relevant comorbidities (in descending order of frequency): (1) diseases of the cardiovascular system, (2) lung diseases, (3) central nervous system diseases, (4) kidney diseases, and (5) diabetes mellitus.
32500509 This paper reports the CT findings with some hints on the temporal changes over the course of the disease: the CT hallmarks of COVID-19 are bilateral distribution of ground glass opacities with or without consolidation in the posterior and peripheral lung, but the predominant findings in later phases include consolidations, linear opacities, “crazy-paving” pattern, “reversed halo” sign and vascular enlargement.
32500700 All patients underwent CT examination and a total CT score and the number of involved lung lobes were calculated and compared against collected laboratory and clinical information. […] By univariable analysis, in-hospital mortality was higher in patients with lower O2 saturation on admission (<88%), higher CT scores and higher number of lung lobes (> 4) involved with a diffuse parenchymal pattern. […] By multivariable analysis, in-hospital mortality was higher in patients with O2 saturation below 88% on admission and a higher number of lung lobes involved with diffuse parenchymal pattern.
32500773 On computed tomography scans, she had extensive interstitial lung fibrosis in addition to a positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction test requiring 6 L of oxygen via nasal cannula on admission.
32500849 Recent data suggested the utility of lung ultrasound (LUS) in the diagnosis of COVID-19 by detecting an interstitial pattern (B-pattern). […] Hence, we aimed to pool the proportion of various reported lung abnormalities detected by LUS in symptomatic COVID-19 patients. […] The pooled proportion (PP) of B-pattern detected by lung ultrasound (US) was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94-1.00 I2 0%, Q 4.6). […] Our meta-analysis revealed that almost all SARS-CoV-2-infected patients have abnormal lung US.
32501218 The presence of more than one Cav-1 binding sites on coronavirus is an important finding supporting the possible relationship between SARS-CoV-2-mediated lung injury.
32501315 Respiratory viral infections such as coronavirus (COVID-19) will cause a great mortality, especially in people who underly lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary and asthma.
32501511 Additionally, unbound interstitial lung concentrations were simulated. […] Simulated unbound hydroxychloroquine concentrations in lung interstitial fluid mirrored those in unbound plasma and were notably lower than in vitro concentrations needed to mediate antiviral activity.
32503620 Hospitalized patients with positive nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19 infection (RT -PCR) and lung Computed tomography scan involvement compatible with COVID-19 pneumonia. […] Primary: Time for clinical improvement and lung CT score changes 14 days after treatment.
32503657 Lung image improved.3.
32503663 The hypothesis of the proposed intervention is that Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has profound effects on antiviral immunity, and can provide the stimulus to restore immune homeostasis in the lung with acute lung injury post COVID-19, and can promote lung repair mechanisms, that lead to a 25% improvement in lung oxygenation parameters.
32503707 Lung ultrasound also facilitates successful weaning from mechanical ventilation. […] Ultrasonography of the lung, pleura, and diaphragm are easily mastered by experienced echocardiographers.
32503815 COVID-19 is viral respiratory infection with frequently fatal lung complications in the elderly or in people with serious comorbidities. […] Lung destruction appears to be associated with a cytokine storm related to an increased level of interleukin-6 (IL6).
32504135 Our objective was to describe the ultrasonographic lung pattern on newborns with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the COVID-19 pandemic. […] Newborns who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 PCR in respiratory samples and were evaluated with point-of-care lung ultrasound (LU) from March to April 2020 were included. […] We describe the findings of lung ultrasound monitoring during the first week following diagnosis in three neonates with SARS-CoV-2 infection.What is known:• Lung ultrasound (LU) is a useful tool in COVID-19 management in adults.
32504146 Patients with COVID-19 mainly have a mild disease course, but severe disease onset might result in death due to proceeded lung injury with massive alveolar damage and progressive respiratory failure.
32504751 Acute lung injury (ALI) and the subsequent multi-system organ failure is a serious health problem with devastating impacts on the health care systems. […] Indeed, the world has been facing an un-preceded situation in the past couple of months following COVID-19 infestation and the associated high-mortality rates mainly attributed to sepsis and the associated multiple organ failures of particular concern; acute respiratory distress syndrome post lung injury. […] Nifuroxazide administration was associated with a significant improvement in lung and heart histopathological characteristics and architecture with retraction of LPS-induced inflammatory-infiltration. […] Nifuroxazide administration was associated with a significant improvement in both lung and heart oxidative status. […] Such positive outcomes were underlined by a significant inhibitory effect of nifuroxazide on lung and heart contents of toll-like receptor (4) (TLR4)/the inflammasome NALPR3/interleukin- 1β (IL-1β).
32504925 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease with fast spreading all over the world caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus which can culminate in a severe acute respiratory syndrome by the injury caused in the lungs. […] ACE2 is then downregulated in lung tissues with augmented serum levels of ACE2 in SARS-CoV-2 patients.
32505070 It has been proposed that COVID-19-related hyperinflammation and dysregulated immune response might play a critical role in developing a cytokine storm which usually progresses to a life-threatening acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome in infected individuals. […] It is proposed that nebulized lidocaine might be beneficial in reducing cytokines, protecting patients’ lungs and improving outcomes in COVID-19 patients when administered via inhalation as an adjunctive treatment for severe respiratory symptoms in patients fighting the novel Coronavirus.
32505076 Currently there are no reported series determining the Covid-19 infected lung cancer patient´s characteristics and outcome that allow us to clarify strategies to protect our patients. […] In our study we determine whether exists differences in cumulative incidence and severity of Covid-19 infection between lung cancer patients visiting our Medical Oncology department and the reference population of our center (320,000 people), in the current epicenter of the pandemic in Europe (Madrid, Spain). […] We retrospectively reviewed 1878 medical records of all Covid-19 patients who were admitted at Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor of Madrid between March 5, 2020 and April 7, 2020, in order to detect cumulative incidence of Covid-19 in lung cancer patients. […] We also described Covid-19 treatment outcome, mortality and associated risk factors using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. 17/1878 total diagnosis in our center had lung cancer (0.9 %) versus 1878/320,000 of the total reference population (p = 0.09). 9/17 lung cancer patients with Covid-19 diagnosis died (52.3 %) versus 192/1878 Covid-19 patients in our center (p < 0.0001). […] Dead lung cancer patients were elderly compared to survivors: 72 versus 64.5 years old (p = 0.12). […] Combined treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin improves the outcome of Covid-19 in lung cancer patients, detecting only 1/6 deaths between patients under this treatment versus others treatment, with statistical significance in the univariate and multivariate logistic regression (OR 0.04, p = 0.018). […] Lung cancer patients have a higher mortality rate than general population.
32505492 We discuss how the classical ethical principles of utility, justice, and efficiency may need to be adapted, and we give specific recommendations for thoracic transplantation and mechanical circulatory support centers to balance their clinical decisions and strategies for advanced heart and lung disease during the current pandemic.
32505910 The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and its pathology of associated acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis, coagulopathy and multiorgan failure is not known. […] In a closely related coronavirus (SARS-CoV), the transmembrane E protein exerts an important role in membrane-ionic transport through viroporins, deletion of which reduced levels of IL-1β and a remarkably reduced lung edema compared to wild type. […] However, uncontrolled NET production can cause acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), coagulopathy, multiple organ failure, and autoimmune disease.
32506142 In orthopaedic or trauma emergency, abdomen, pelvis, cervical, dorsal, and lumbar spine CT are performed to investigate patients; the result is a thoracic CT scan incorporating usually the thorax; however, information about lung parenchyma can be obtained on this thorax CT, and manifestations of COVID-19 can be diagnosed.
32506195 The DPP4 family/system was implicated in various physiological processes and diseases of the immune system, and DPP4/CD26 is variously expressed on epithelia and endothelia of the systemic vasculature, lung, kidney, small intestine and heart. […] The use of DPP4 inhibitors, such as gliptins, in patients with COVID-19 with, or even without, type 2 diabetes, may offer a simple way to reduce the virus entry and replication into the airways and to hamper the sustained cytokine storm and inflammation within the lung in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection.
32507536 The most frequent associated tumor was lung (8/15 patients, 53.3%), 11 with metastatic disease (11/15, 73.3%).
32508022 According to the clinical data of infected patients, radiologic evidence of lung edema is common and deserves clinical attention. […] Lung edema is a manifestation of acute lung injury (ALI) and may progress to hypoxemia and potentially acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). […] In this article, we focus on the lung edema and ALI of patients with this widely transmitted COVID-19 infection in order to provide clinical indications and potential therapeutic targets for clinicians and researchers.
32508062 Critically ill COVID-19 patients have relatively well-preserved lung mechanics despite severe gas exchange abnormalities, a feature not consistent with classical ARDS but more consistent with pulmonary vascular disease.
32508311 TMPRSS2 and ACE2 are expressed in multiple human tissues beyond the lung including the testes where predisposition to SARS-CoV-2 infection may exist.
32510155 On admission, the patient underwent a computed tomography scan which demonstrated interstitial infiltration in the left lung, highly suspicious for a COVID-19 infection that could not be confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing.
32510771 Limited data are currently available regarding the course of COVID-19 in lung and solid organ transplant recipients. […] We hereby present four cases of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in lung transplant recipients from our center, set in Milan, Italy.
32510978 Approach and Results: Cytokine-driven vascular leak in the lung alveolar-endothelial interface facilitates acute lung injury in the setting of viral infection.
32511867 A population pharmacokinetic model was implemented to predict lung, intracellular poly/mononuclear cell (PBM/PML), and alveolar macrophage (AM) concentrations using published data and compared against preclinical EC90 for SARS-CoV-2. […] Consistent with its known properties, concentrations were higher in AM and PBM/PML, followed by lung tissue, and lowest systemically.
32512291 Although it has been suggested that ARBs might lead to a higher susceptibility and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection, experimental data suggest that ARBs may reduce acute lung injury via blocking angiotensin-II-mediated pulmonary permeability, inflammation, and fibrosis.
32512383 The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by SARS-CoV-2-mediated cytokine storm (CS) in lungs leads to the high mortality in COVID-19 patients. […] Here, a potential radiation-mediated CS regulation is raised by reevaluating the radiation-mediated pneumonia control in the 1920s, with the following latent advantages of lung radiotherapy (LR) in treatment of COVID-19: (1) radiation accesses poorly circulated tissue more efficiently than blood-delivered medications; (2) low-dose radiation (LDR)-mediated metabolic rewiring and immune cell activation inhibit virus loading; (3) pre-consumption of immune reserves by LDR decreases CS severity; (4) higherdose radiation (HDR) within lung-tolerable doses relieves CS by eliminating in situ overactive cytokine-releasing cells.
32512929 SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity in humans leads to increased mortality rates due to alterations of significant pathways, including some resulting in exacerbated inflammatory responses linked to the “cytokine storm” and extensive lung pathology, as well as being linked to a number of comorbidities.
32513299 High-resolution CT of the lung (HRCT) indicates pulmonary fibrosis (thickness of lobular septum, honeycomb-like changes, with or without bronchial / pleural distraction);4. […] Combined with severe heart, lung (diagnosed with interstitial lung disease, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc.), liver and kidney disease or with endocrine, rheumatic, neurologic, malignant and other systemic diseases;2. […] Changes in high-resolution computer tomography of the lung Changes in ground-glass shadows, interstitial or air nodules found on high-resolution computer tomography [Time Frame: 3 months] 2.
32513515 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammation in the lungs that causes obstruction in the airway, poor airflow, and irreversible loss of lung function. […] The diagnosis is based on symptoms, dyspnea and lung function impairment and can be mild to very severe. […] These measures include the addition of long-acting inhaler therapies, pulmonary rehabilitation, oral therapies, oxygen and lung transplantation.
32513566 In the most severe cases, the prognosis can be markedly worsened by the hyperproduction of mainly proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, preferentially targeting lung tissue.
32513797 Suramin also decreased the viral load by 2-3 logs when Vero E6 cells or cells of a human lung epithelial cell line (Calu-3) were treated.
32513850 In this review, we discuss the earliest knowledge and hypotheses of the mechanisms of immune pathology in the lung during acute infection as well at the later stages of disease resolution, recovery, and immune memory formation.
32514674 The COVID-19 infection might complicate the clinical scenario of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in SSc because it determines a severe pneumonia characterized by radiological features similar to SSc-ILD. […] • COVID-19 pneuminia is hard to distinguish from an interstitial lung disease due to SSc lung involvment.
32515387 The role of portable lung ultrasound, reported to be useful in emergency, is yet to be established in the guidelines.
32515982 Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a novel gasotransmitter has been shown to protect against lung damage via its anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, anti-viral, pro-survival, and anti-aging effects. […] It is suggested that H2S may block SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells by interfering with ACE2 and TMPRSS2, inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication by attenuating virus assembly/release, and protect SARS-CoV-2-induced lung damage by suppressing immune response and inflammation development.
32516107 In the present report, we described a patient with the chief complaints of dyspnea and dry cough referred to the oncology center at Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran with the differential diagnosis of lung cancer who was diagnosed and treated for COVID-19 infection in follow up. […] The patient had been referred to this center with the differential diagnosis of lung cancer due to the massive pleural effusion in initial chest CT scan. […] The CT report indicated the clear pattern of COVID-19’s lung involvement in the absence of pleural effusion. […] Therefore, we recommend ruling out the COVID-19 infection in all the patients with any pattern of lung involvement to avoid missing the potential cases of this vicious infection.
32516119 Immunosuppressives and biological treatments multiply the chances of opportunistic and lung infections, especially in combination therapy, so due to the new coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) epidemic, which primarily causes respiratory disease, it is advisable to use different therapeutic considerations for effective and safe patient care.
32516506 Advanced organ support for lung and heart offers the possibility to buy the time needed for recovery.
32516571 Viral quantification revealed the lungs as the major site of infection, although viral RNA could also be found in the eye, heart, and brain in some mice. […] Virus identical to SARS-CoV-2 in full-genome sequences was isolated from the infected lung and brain tissues.
32516704 This could be attributed to immunosuppression, co-existing medical conditions and underlying pulmonary compromise which is often the case in lung malignancy.
32516797 At necropsy, lung viral loads of remdesivir-treated animals were lower and there was a reduction in damage to the lungs.
32517769 In lung cancer patients infected with COVID-19, pathological features are not easy to distinguish. […] These ‘pure’ cases differ in the time of presentation of symptoms, the phase of lung anatomopathological patterns (acute lung injury versus diffuse alveolar damage) and the mechanism of death.
32518987 Of the 34 (50%) patients, 17 had five lobes of lung involvement, while the 23 (68%) patients had lower lobe involvement.
32518989 Clinical classification, lung involvement of COVID-19 pneumonia, and CT total severity score were compared between APE group and non-APE group. […] There was no significant difference between APE and non-APE groups concerning clinical type, COVID-19 pneumonia lung lesions (ground-glass opacity: 85% vs. 97%; consolidation: 69% vs. 68%; crazy paving: 38% vs. 37%; linear reticulation: 69% vs.
32519256 The following alterations were more commonly observed: 135 patients with lung consolidations (57.7%), 147 (62.8%) with GGO, 55 (23.5%) with nodules and 156 (66.6%) with reticular-nodular opacities.
32519302 By releasing a variety of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles, MSC can exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-microbial, and pro-angiogenic effects, promote bacterial and alveolar fluid clearance, disrupt the pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, eventually avoiding the lung and distal organ injuries to rescue patients with ARDS. […] Since low cell engraftment and survival in lung limit MSC therapeutic potentials, several strategies have been developed to enhance their engraftment in the lung and their intrinsic, therapeutic properties.
32519753 We suggest the hypothesis that Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid, has the potential to limit the severity and progression of the disease for several reasons: 1) High-CBD Cannabis Sativa extracts are able to downregulate the expression of the two key receptors for SARS-CoV2 in several models of human epithelia 2) CBD exerts a wide range of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and it can mitigate the uncontrolled cytokine production featuring Acute Lung Injury 3) Being a PPARγ agonist, it can display a direct antiviral activity 4) PPARγ agonists are regulators of fibroblast/myofibroblast activation and can inhibit the development of pulmonary fibrosis, thus ameliorating lung function in recovered patients.
32519786 Our 2 patients with a confirmed influenza SARS-CoV-2virus infection had respiratory distress with lung crackles on auscultation of one or both lungs and with alveolar pulmonary edema on the chest CT-Scan.
32519892 Pannexin1 (PANX1) is a ubiquitously expressed, channel-forming protein found in a number of tissues thoughout the body (e.g. lung, vasculature, liver, central nervous system, immune system) that is important in many key physiological and immune responses.
32520406 Lung ultrasound could facilitate the triage of patients with suspected COVID-19 infection admitted to the emergency room. […] We developed a predictive model for COVID-19 diagnosis based on lung ultrasound and clinical features. […] We used ultrasound to image the lung bilaterally at two anterior sites, one and two hands below each clavicle, and a posterolateral site that was the posterior transverse continuation from the lower anterior site.
32520506 It showed intense avid FDG subpleural mixed ground-glass and consolidative lesions, especially in the left lung.
32520509 All patients except one had bilateral ground-glass opacities and/or lung consolidations in at least 2 pulmonary lobes. […] All lung lesions had an increased FDG uptake corresponding to the interstitial pneumonia, and in one case, mediastinal nodal involvement was registered.
32520888 There were only 13 cases with abnormal CT imaging, most of which were located in the subpleural area of the bottom of the lung.
32521074 Management of lung transplant recipients can be particularly challenging given high levels of maintenance immunosuppression, high incidence of rejection, constant exposure of the graft to the external environment, and diagnostic uncertainty in patients with respiratory symptoms. […] There is currently limited data on manifestations, management, and outcomes in lung transplant recipients who develop this novel infection (1).
32521120 Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which induced the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), mainly invades respiratory tract and lung.
32522282 There will be stratification for age (>70 years vs. <=70 years), site of recruitment and whether the patient has any of the following chronic lung diseases: COPD, asthma, bronchiectasis, interstitial lung disease (Yes vs.
32522666 This suggests that nicotine may have some preventive or modulatory effect on the inflammatory response in the lungs. […] Because it is known that the response to, and resolution of the SARS-CoV-2 infection depends mainly on the lung macrophages, we discuss the recent scientific findings, which may explain why and how nicotine may modulate lung macrophage response during COVID-19 infection.
32522754 No GI symptoms were reported during hospitalisation, but a lung contrast-enhancement CT (CE-CT) excluding thromboembolism showed, as collateral finding, intraperitoneal free bubbles not present on a previous CT examination; the subsequent abdominal CE-CT described pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) involving the caecum and the right colon.
32522830 PRCV has a tissue tropism for the upper and lower respiratory tracts and a cellular tropism for type 1 and 2 pneumocytes in lung, but is generally a mild infection unless complicated by other exacerbating factors, such as bacterial or viral co-infections and immunosuppression (corticosteroids).
32522846 ACE2 antagonises the activation of the classical RAS ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis and protects against lung injury. […] In the meantime, however, the use of RAS blockers such as ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers that inhibit the damaging (ACE-Ang II) arm of the RAS cascade in the lung may also be promising.
32523145 The drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are in many cases the backbone for the management of these diseases, it has been known for a long time that these drugs significantly increase the expression of receptors for angiotensin conversion enzyme type 2 in the lung tissue.
32523872 Here, we report a 40 year old female who presented with acute onset nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and vague abdominal pain as a clinical picture of appendicitis, but her CT abdomen image showed normal appendix, bilateral patchy peripheral lung basal consolidation, and ground-glass attenuation, so she was tested for coronavirus disease-19, which was positive.
32523929 We describe an overweight COVID-19 patient with respiratory distress preceded by anosmia/dysgeusia with no lung injury shown on CT, angio-CT or ventilation/perfusion scans.
32523933 Lung ultrasound showed diffuse bilateral B lines with irregular pleural thickening, and consolidation with air bronchogram and slight pleural effusion in the lower left lobe.
32524223 Following disease onset, posteroinferior subpleural area of the lung was the most common location for pulmonary opacities.
32524743 Our current communication shares a protocol for donor and transplant recipient selection during the COVID-19 pandemic to continue life-saving solid organ transplantation for heart, lung, liver and kidney recipients.
32524792 Unilateral lung involvement was observed in two patients, and one patient showed bilateral lung involvement. […] Small patches of ground-glass opacity with subpleural distribution and unilateral lung involvement were common findings on CT scans of pediatric patients in the early stage of the disease.
32525726 Introduction: Thoracic surgery in children with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pulmonary disease is rare, as very limited virus-related lung lesions require intervention. […] However, some patients may suffer from other pulmonary abnormalities that can be worsened by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and they may consequently require lung surgery.
32525844 Of the 36 reported SAEs, there were 25 reported incidences of related SAEs, including mortality (n = 4), transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO; n = 7), transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI; n = 11), and severe allergic transfusion reactions (n = 3).
32526012 who died from COVID-19 often had comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, and chronic obstructive lung disease. […] Although angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is crucial for SARS-CoV2 to bind and enter host cells, no study has systematically assessed the ACE2 expression in the lungs of patients with these diseases. […] Here, we analyzed over 700 lung transcriptome samples of patients with comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19 and found that ACE2 was highly expressed in these patients, compared to control individuals. […] Correlation and network analyses revealed many potential regulators of ACE2 in the human lung, including genes related to histone modifications, such as HAT1, HDAC2, and KDM5B.
32526079 Interestingly, MSCT preclinical data specifically on immune/inflammatory disorders of the lungs were among the earliest to be reported in 2003, with the first clinical use of MSCT for graft-vs-host disease reported in 2004. […] There is much preclinical evidence for MSCT in noninfectious-including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-as well as infectious bacterial immune/inflammatory lung disorders, with data generally demonstrating therapeutic effects; however, for infectious viral pulmonary conditions, the preclinical evidence is more scarce with some inconsistent outcomes.
32526193 Analysis of the pathological features in the lung tissues of patients who have died with COVID-19 could help us to understand the disease pathogenesis and clinical outcomes. […] We systematically analysed lung tissue samples from 38 patients who died from COVID-19 in two hospitals in northern Italy between Feb 29 and March 24, 2020. […] The most representative areas identified at macroscopic examination were selected, and tissue blocks (median seven, range five to nine) were taken from each lung and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for at least 48 h. […] The predominant pattern of lung lesions in patients with COVID-19 patients is diffuse alveolar damage, as described in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses.
32526206 COVID-19 autopsied lung studies identified focal disease and, congruent with culture data, SARS-CoV-2-infected ciliated and type 2 pneumocyte cells in airway and alveolar regions, respectively. […] These findings highlight the nasal susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 with likely subsequent aspiration-mediated virus seeding to the lung in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis.
32526252 Severity of lung and liver (according to CLIF-C, CLIF-OF and MELD scores) diseases independently predicted mortality.
32527136 However, two days later, the patient had a sudden chest stuffiness, CT images indicted: his lung didn’t heal like others, but developed a large pulmonary cavity in the lower lobe of right lung. […] This case suggested: it is important to follow convalescent COVID-19 patients, especially their lung CT images, to make sure a fully recovery.
32527255 In a subset of patients with CT images within the first week, higher total severity score, and more involved lung lobes (5 involved lobes) in CT images within the first week were significantly associated with fatality.
32527257 Thus, about the pneumonia of Covid-19, we might speculate that the complicated alveolar-capillary network of lungs could be targeted by T2DM micro-vascular damage. […] In addition, pro-inflammatory pathways as that involving interleukin 6 (IL-6), could be a severity predictor of lung diseases. […] To date, an ongoing experimental therapy with monoclonal antibody against the IL-6 receptor in Italy seems to have beneficial effects on severe lung disease and prognosis in patients with Covid-19 infection.
32527340 About 2/3 of doctors would perform lung recruitment or prone position treatment for critical patients with invasive ventilation.
32527344 The routine blood test and biochemical results of two groups were observed, and the efficacy evaluation was performed by monitoring the time for significant improvement of symptoms, negative conversion time of throat swab virus nucleic acid, lung lesion absorption time, adverse drug reactions and the length of hospital stay of the two groups. […] 6.68±3.76), lung lesion absorption starting time (days: 5.39±2.36 vs. […] 7.48±3.78), lung lesion absorption greater than 70% time (days: 14.11±4.16 vs.
32527347 To achieve good therapeutic effect, the main experience was to choose the proper timing and mode of ECMO; intact transportation vehicles and equipment to reduce or avoid mechanical complications; the effective management of respiration and circulation during the transportation to avoid ventilation-associated lung injury (VALI) and serious hypoxemia; the appropriate space for the transfer team to quickly handle various critical situations; and personal protection to avoid infection.
32527471 Furthermore, pleural and lung ultrasound can be an alternative diagnostic test to assess the degree of involvement of the lung parenchyma by means of the evaluation of specific ultrasound patterns, identification of pleural effusions and barotrauma.
32527925 In mice, we demonstrate IFN-λ produced by lung dendritic cells in response to a synthetic viral RNA induces barrier damage, causing susceptibility to lethal bacterial superinfections.
32527928 Excessive cytokine signaling frequently exacerbates lung tissue damage during respiratory viral infection. […] Here we show that IFN signaling interferes with lung repair during influenza recovery, with IFN-λ driving these effects most potently. […] Thus, excessive or prolonged IFN-production aggravates viral infection by impairing lung epithelial regeneration.
32528233 Evidences suggest that the S1 domain of the SARS-CoV-2 (causative agent of COVID-19) membrane spike has a high affinity towards the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor found on the host’s lung epithelium. […] This mini-review provides a consolidated account on the role of inflammation and immune responses, proteases, and epithelial permeability by smoking and vaping during SARS-CoV2 infection with future directions of research, and provides a list of the potential targets for therapies particularly controlling cytokine storms in the lung.
32529595 Although COVID-19 is an infectious disease primarily affecting the lung, its multi-organ involvement requires an interdisciplinary approach encompassing virtually all branches of internal medicine and geriatrics.
32529815 A three-dimensional slicer was used to precisely quantify the volume and CT value of the lung and lesions.
32530507 Severe COVID-19 is characterized by an excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine storm, resulting in acute lung injury and development of ARDS.
32531256 A novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently spreading globally, causing severe pneumonia and acute lung injury in many patients.
32531548 We observed that all thrombotic lesions in COVID-19 patients were found to be in lung parenchyma affected by COVID-19.
32531806 Notably, with respect to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI), evidence is mounting that obesity is a risk factor for ARDS/ALI, but among people with ARDS/ALI, obesity is associated with better outcome, a phenomenon which has been called the “obesity paradox” [4,5].
32531808 We use a mechanistic lung model to demonstrate that accumulation of chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) in the lungs is sensitive to changes in lung pH, a parameter that can be affected in patients with COVID-19. […] A reduction in pH from 6.7 to 6 in the lung, as observed in respiratory disease, led to 20-, 4.0- and 2.7-fold increases in lung exposure of CQ, HCQ and AZ, respectively. […] Simulations indicated that the relatively high concentrations of CQ and HCQ in lung tissue were sustained long after administration of the drugs had stopped. […] Our simulations indicate that renal impairment (plus lung pH reduction) caused 30-, 8.0- and 3.4-fold increases in lung exposures for CQ, HCQ and AZ, respectively, with relatively small accompanying increases (20 to 30%) in systemic exposure. […] Although a number of different dosage regimens were assessed, the purpose of our study was not to provide recommendations for a dosing strategy, but to demonstrate the utility of a PBPK modelling approach to estimate lung concentrations.
32532094 We previously found that nafamostat mesylate, an existing drug used for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), effectively blocked Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) S protein-mediated cell fusion by targeting transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), and inhibited MERS-CoV infection of human lung epithelium-derived Calu-3 cells.
32532356 Twenty serious COVID-19 cases will be enrolled in the trial from April 6th to December 31st 2020. hospitalised patients at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University satisfy all criteria as below: 1)Adults aged 18-65 years;2)Voluntarily participate in this clinical trial and sign the “informed consent form” or have consent from a legal representative.3)Diagnosed with severe pneumonia of COVID-19: nucleic acid test SARS-CoV-2 positive; respiratory distress (respiratory rate > 30 times / min); hypoxia (resting oxygen saturation < 93% or arterial partial pressure of oxygen / oxygen concentration < 300 mmHg).4)COVID-19 featured lung lesions in chest X-ray image.
32532449 In most symptomatic individuals, the disease is a mild immune-mediated syndrome, with limited damage to the lung tissues.
32532946 Most of the lesions were bilateral (97%), posterior (95%) and located near pleura (50%) or lung fissures (45%), mainly involving the lower right lobe (56%) and lower left lobe (23%).
32533443 The treatment of patients with chronic lung diseases has to be adapted during the pandemic but must still be guaranteed.
32533777 Since the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia, many patients with underlying disease, such as interstitial lung disease (ILD), were admitted to Tongji hospital in Wuhan, China.
32534244 Along with direct viral pathogenicity, in some individuals, CoV infection triggers an uncontrolled aberrant inflammatory response, leading to lung tissue damage.
32534337 The mortality related to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ failure in COVID-19 patients has been suggested to be connected with cytokine storm syndrome (CSS), an excessive immune response that severely damages healthy lung tissue.
32534598 Daily Evaluation of COVID-19 Patients Primarily Based on Lung Ultrasound: In Times of Emergency, It’s Time to Change Some Paradigms.
32535188 Median Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE) score was 9 (IQR 4-16).
32535725 Also, some uncommon imaging findings were seen, such as a tree-in-bud and lung collapse. […] CT imaging also has a lower sensitivity in detecting abnormal lungs compared to adult patients.
32535787 In recent years, point-of-care lung ultrasound has gained significant popularity as a diagnostic tool in the acutely dyspnoeic patients. […] In the era of Sars-CoV-2 outbreak, lung ultrasound seems to be strongly adapting to the follow-up for lung involvement of patients with ascertaining infections, till to be used, in our opinion emblematically, as a screening test in suspected patients at the emergency triage or at home medical visit. […] In this brief review, we discuss the lung ultrasound dichotomy, certainties and uncertainties, describing its potential role in validated clinical contexts, as a clinical-dependent exam, its limits and pitfalls in a generic and off-label clinical context, as a virtual anatomical-dependent exam, and its effects on the clinical management of patients with COVID-19.
32536988 SARS-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of the new lung disease COVID-19 is closely related to SARS-CoV, and together with MERS-CoV are three new human coronaviruses that emerged in the last 20 years.
32537478 To investigate the expression level of these SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry genes in the lung airway, we used public gene expression datasets. […] Moreover, the lung airway expression of both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was found to be significantly upregulated in smokers compared with non-smokers, and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with healthy subjects.
32537610 Acute respiratory failure due to widespread lung inflammation progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with an altered pulmonary and alveolar function that can lead to disability, prolong hospitalizations, and adverse outcomes. […] While there is no specific treatment for severe acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS due to the COVID-19 and the management is mostly supportive, it is very important to better understand the pathophysiological processes activated by the inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and metalloproteinases with the aim of their subsequent inhibition in the course of the complex treatment.
32537957 Nosocomial acquisition, diabetes, chronic lung diseases, and chronic neurologic diseases were significant risk factors for both death and MV/HFNC.
32537960 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the coronavirus responsible for our recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, is driving a lung immunopathology that strongly resembles a severe form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP).
32538098 We present the case of a critically ill 47-year-old man diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) who developed extensive pneumatosis intestinalis and portal venous gas in conjunction with an acute abdomen during the recovery phase of his acute lung injury.
32538830 Digital storage of cine sequences of the lung sound with abdomen for independent assessment with the subsequently performed contrast-enhanced dual-source CT.
32538893 In the progression state, GGOs increase in number and/or size, and lung consolidations may become visible. […] The main manifestation in the absorption stage is interstitial change of both lungs, such as fibrous cords and reticular opacities.
32539019 To communicate the results of a mechanical ventilation exercise with a ventilator in a lung simulator, and simultaneously in two and four. […] No statistically significant differences were observed between programmed, recorded and measured positive end-expiratory pressure, mean airway pressure and peak pressure, except when simultaneously ventilating four lung simulators.
32539257 Severe patients with COVID-19 are characterized by persistent lung damage, causing respiratory failure, secondary circulatory changes and multiple organ dysfunction after virus invasion. […] The recommendations mainly cover the following aspects: (1) lung ultrasound in patients with COVID-19 is mainly manifested by thickened and irregular pleural lines, different types of B-lines, shred signs, and other consolidation like dynamic air bronchogram; (2) Echocardiography may show right heart dysfunction, diffuse cardiac function enhancement, stress cardiomyopathy, diffuse cardiac depression and other multiple abnormalities; (3) Critical ultrasonography helps with initiating early treatment in the suspect patient, screening confirmed patients after intensive care unit admission, early assessment of sudden critical events, rapid grading assessment and treatment based on it; (4) Critical ultrasonography helps to quickly screen for the etiology of respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19, make oxygen therapeutic strategy, guide the implementation of lung protective ventilation, graded management and precise off-ventilator; (5) Critical ultrasonography is helpful for assessing the circulatory status of patients with COVID-19, finding chronic cardiopulmonary diseases and guiding extracorporeal membrane oxygenation management; (6) Critical ultrasonography Contributes to the management of organs besides based on cardiopulmonary oxygen transport; (7) Critical ultrasonography can help to improve the success of operation; (8) Critical ultrasonography can help to improve the safety and quality of nursing; (9) When performing critical ultrasonography for patients with COVID-19, it needs to implement three-level protection standard, pay attention to disinfect the machine and strictly obey the rules from nosocomial infection.
32539283 To minimize the production of airborne droplets, including pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), from the endotracheal tube during procedures requiring lung deflation, we devised a technique to mitigate the risk of infection transmission to health care personnel.
32539446 In this review, we summarize aspects involved with obesity, such as changes in the immune response, nutritional factors, physiological factors, and the gut-lung axis, that impact the viral response and the COVID-19 prognosis.
32539627 The lung is a key target of the cytokine storm that can be triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for the widespread clinical syndrome known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Hypercytokinemia underlies the hyperinflammatory state leading to injury of alveolar epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells, as well as to lung infiltration sustained by neutrophils and macrophages.
32539661 We performed a series of 30-second ventilation experiments on porcine larynx-trachea-lung specimens.
32539692 Compared with group 1, patients in group 2 presented with smaller lesions, and all lesions were distributed in fewer lung segments.
32539942 Eligibility criteria were the presence of any thoracic cancer (non-small-cell lung cancer [NSCLC], small-cell lung cancer, mesothelioma, thymic epithelial tumours, and other pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms) and a COVID-19 diagnosis, either laboratory confirmed with RT-PCR, suspected with symptoms and contacts, or radiologically suspected cases with lung imaging features consistent with COVID-19 pneumonia and symptoms. […] Between March 26 and April 12, 2020, 200 patients with COVID-19 and thoracic cancers from eight countries were identified and included in the TERAVOLT registry; median age was 68·0 years (61·8-75·0) and the majority had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1 (142 [72%] of 196 patients), were current or former smokers (159 [81%] of 196), had non-small-cell lung cancer (151 [76%] of 200), and were on therapy at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis (147 [74%] of 199), with 112 (57%) of 197 on first-line treatment. 152 (76%) patients were hospitalised and 66 (33%) died. 13 (10%) of 134 patients who met criteria for ICU admission were admitted to ICU; the remaining 121 were hospitalised, but were not admitted to ICU.
32539986 Patients with COVID-19 can develop asymptomatic lung infection with viral shedding and those with evidence of pneumonia on imaging tend to have an increased antibody response.
32540605 It is now becoming more apparent that Covid-19 is not solely a lung disease, but a complex systemic disease involving several organs and systems. […] This is due to an abnormal inflammatory response which eventually leads to multisystemic coagulopathy which mainly, but not uniquely, targets the lungs. […] If the hypothesis is confirmed experimentally, 18F-Fluorocholine PET/CT could be used to in vivo image and quantify the degree of lung inflammation and potentially stratify the gravity of this disease.
32540737 Medications, including pioglitazone, that upregulate tissue expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), might have a dual role in COVID-19; on the one hand they might increase risk of infection as SARS-CoV2 uses ACE2 as a coreceptor to enter alveolar cells, but on the other hand, by reducing angiotensin II levels, they can protect against acute lung injury. […] There is no evidence to date that pioglitazone upregulates ACE2 in the alveolar cells; rather, there is evidence from animal studies of upregulation of ACE2 in insulin sensitive tissues, which might have a protective effect on lung injury.
32540903 We showed that passive transfer of a nAb provides protection against disease in high-dose SARS-CoV-2 challenge in Syrian hamsters, as revealed by maintained weight and low lung viral titers in treated animals.
32542102 On a computed tomography scan examination of the abdomen to rule out bowel ischemia, an incidental finding of a typical appearance of COVID-19 pneumonia was found at the visualized lung bases. […] Conclusion: Typical COVID-19 findings can be suggested on lung bases at abdominal CT.
32542396 (Lond.) (2020) 134, 543-545) it was suggested that soluble recombinant ACE2 could be used as a novel biological therapeutic to intercept the virus, limiting the progression of infection and reducing lung injury.
32542743 Here, we assess lung autopsy findings in COVID-19 inpatients and untreated, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive individuals who died in the community to understand the relative impact of medical intervention on lung histology. […] Lung sections from autopsy cases were reviewed by three pulmonary pathologists, including two who were blinded to patient cohort. […] DAD is the primary histologic manifestation of severe lung disease in COVID-19 patients who die both in the hospital and in the community, suggesting no contribution of hyperoxemic mechanical ventilation to the histologic changes.
32543119 These spectacularly raised D-dimer levels may actually signify the failing attempt of the fibrinolytic system to remove fibrin and necrotic tissue from the lung parenchyma, being consumed or overwhelmed in the process.
32543176 The key processes were integrated, including viral shedding, dispersion, deposition in air, biologic decay, lung deposition, and the infection risk based on the dose-response model.
32544216 Severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung fibrosis, cardiovascular events, acute kidney injury, stroke, hospitalization, and mortality have been reported that result from pathogen-host interactions.
32544615 Mesenchymal stem cells can suppress nonproductive inflammation and improve/repair lung cells including endothelial and alveolar cells, which damaged by COVID-19 virus infection.
32544911 However, there is a concern regarding both vaccine-induced eosinophilic lung disease and eosinophil-associated Th2 immunopotentiation following infection after vaccination.
32546125 EPO is expected to: (1) improve respiration at several levels including lung, brainstem, spinal cord and respiratory muscles; (2) counteract overshooting inflammation caused by cytokine storm/ inflammasome; (3) act neuroprotective and neuroregenerative in brain and peripheral nervous system.
32546365 To evaluate the diagnostic utility of additional whole-chest computed tomography (CT) in identifying otherwise unheralded COVID-19 lung disease as part of an acute abdominal pain CT imaging pathway in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. […] CT examinations in the latter two categories were further divided into one of three anatomical distributions (lung base, limited chest [below carina], whole chest [above carina]) based on location of findings. […] All COVID-19 positive cases could be identified on review of the lung base alone. […] All COVID-19-positive patients in our cohort were identified on review of the lung bases on the abdominal CT and this offers an alternative imaging approach in this patient group.
32546764 Lung injury and fibrosis represent the most significant outcomes of severe and acute lung disorders, including COVID-19. […] However, there are still no effective drugs to treat lung injury and fibrosis. […] In this study, we report the generation of clinical-grade human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-derived immunity- and matrix-regulatory cells (IMRCs) produced under good manufacturing practice requirements, that can treat lung injury and fibrosis in vivo. […] Moreover, intravenous delivery of IMRCs inhibits both pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mouse models of lung injury, and significantly improves the survival rate of the recipient mice in a dose-dependent manner, likely through paracrine regulatory mechanisms. […] In light of public health crises involving pneumonia, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, our findings suggest that IMRCs are ready for clinical trials on lung disorders.
32547309 NCP patients (43males and 27 females) with a mean age of 48.57±17.80 (9~82) years and only 4.3% of patients have lung-related diseases.
32549071 The patients presented clinical symptoms of dry cough, fever, dyspnea, and bilateral lung infiltrates on imaging.
32549125 SARS was characterized by severe lung injury due to virus-induced cytopathic effects and dysregulated hyperinflammatory state.
32549531 While early observational studies highlighted the role of the virus in lung failure, in a second moment thrombosis emerged as a possible explanation of the worse clinical course in some patients.
32550040 Here, we aimed to clarify the potential role of ACE2 in SARS-CoV-2-induced acute lung injury and its underlying mechanism. […] On the other hand, ACE2 negatively regulates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) primarily by converting angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, which exerts a beneficial effect on coronavirus-induced acute lung injury.
32550056 Radiological changes show lung changes such as consolidations and opacities, and the pathological findings were infiltration of inflammatory cells and hyalinization.
32550066 The patient had no lung involvement throughout the illness. […] We report this case to highlight that COVID-19 can lead to multi-organ failure in patients with DM even in the absence of lung involvement which all physicians should be mindful of.
32550139 Many studies have described lung lesion computed tomography (CT) features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients at the early and progressive stages. […] In this study, we aim to evaluate lung lesion CT radiological features along with quantitative analysis for the COVID-19 patients ready for discharge. […] Compared with the pre-discharge CT results, quantitative analysis shows the lung lesion volume regressed significantly at follow-up.
32551679 Two types of cellular nanosponges are made of the plasma membranes derived from human lung epithelial type II cells or human macrophages.
32551862 Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with inflammation, hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage and lung coagulopathy promoting endothelial dysfunction and microthrombosis.
32552110 Most common sites of cancer were breast (n = 114), lung (n = 44), ovary (n = 34), and colon (n = 20).
32552178 We performed postmortem core needle biopsies from lung, heart, and liver on 7 deceased patients who had died of coronavirus disease 2019. […] Diffuse alveolar damage was the main pathologic finding in the lung tissue samples. […] Multinucleated cells in alveolar spaces and alveolar walls, atypical enlarged cells, accumulation of macrophages in alveolar spaces, and congestion of vascular channels were the other histopathologic alteration of the lung. […] Similar to the previous coronavirus infection in 2003, the main pathologic finding in the lung was diffuse alveolar damage with a pattern of organization in prolonged cases.
32552296 It is not necessary for the patient to cough or sneeze. Results: The exhaled aerosol particles are generated by normal breathing in the deep lung through reopening of collapsed small airways during inspiration. […] These mucus/surfactant aerosols (size range between 0.2 and 0.6 μm) can transport viruses out of the lungs of patients and be present in the room air for hours. Conclusion: These aerosol particles are difficult to filter out of the air; because of their physical properties, new strategies must be developed to protect people from these virus aerosols.
32552811 Adult wild-type (WT), nAChRα7 knockout (KO), and lung epithelial cell-specific KO (nAChRα7 CreCC10) mice were exposed to e-cig aerosol containing propylene glycol (PG) with or without nicotine. […] Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and lung tissues were collected to determine e-cig induced inflammatory response and ECM remodeling, respectively. […] Overall, sub-chronic e-cig exposure with or without nicotine affected lung inflammation and repair responses/ECM remodeling, which were mediated by nAChRα7 in a sex-dependent manner.
32553273 Here, we transduced replication-defective adenoviruses encoding human ACE2 via intranasal administration into BALB/c mice and established receptor expression in lung tissues. hACE2-transduced mice were productively infected with SARS-CoV-2, and this resulted in high viral titers in the lung, lung pathology, and weight loss. […] Passive transfer of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody reduced viral burden in the lung and mitigated inflammation and weight loss.
32554285 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which affects the lung and other organs.
32554825 However, patients developing acute secretory syndromes due to functional neuroendocrine neoplasms (such as of the pancreas, intestine or lung), phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, will require prompt treatment.
32554879 The approximate sources were projected through a radiologically anthropomorphic phantom to provide detailed dose distributions within a targeted lung volume (approximate right middle lobe). […] After accounting for the reported exposure levels, mean lung doses fell in a relatively narrow range: 30 - 80 cGy.
32555006 Imaging features from whole-lung images from baseline computed tomography (CT) scans were extracted and dimensionality reduction was performed. […] The radiomics signature of the whole lung based on machine learning may reveal the changes of lung microstructure in the early stage and help to indicate the progression of the disease.
32555134 Among 287,320 (22%) cases with sufficient data on underlying health conditions, the most common were cardiovascular disease (32%), diabetes (30%), and chronic lung disease (18%).
32556323 A working group conducted a purposive scan of the literature and drafted initial recommendations based on the knowledge of symptoms in patients with COVID-19, and current practice for physical therapist management for patients hospitalized with lung disease and patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).
32556400 We also noted several characteristics of the perfusion and ventilation depending on the lung lesions on the CT scan.
32557270 Here we summarize applications of conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRCs), long-term cultures of normal airway epithelial cells from human nose to lung generated by conditional cell reprogramming (CR) technology, as an ex vivo model in studies of emerging viruses.
32557557 In the lung, it seems that pro-resolving molecules or strategies that promote their increase tend to decrease inflammation and lung injury and facilitate control of bacterial or viral burden.
32558360 CDC stating that 40/345 (~11.5%) children with data on chronic conditions had “chronic lung diseases including asthma”, and one from a tertiary hospital in New York that reported asthma in 11/46 (~23.9%) children hospitalized for COVID-19.
32558435 Furthermore, multiple animal models demonstrate strong anti-inflammatory effects of PDE4i in respiratory models of viral and bacterial infection and also after chemically mediated lung injury.
32558645 Lesions were distributed predominantly at peripheral (87.1%) and posterior (46.3%) areas of lung parenchyma. […] Multifocal and bilateral GGO infiltration predominantly distributed in peripheral, posterior, and lower lung areas was the most common infiltration pattern.
32558956 Lung abnormalities are noted in almost all of the patients, presenting with encephalopathy.
32559026 Understanding the latest literature in ventilator management can improve patient outcomes by ensuring optimal oxygenation and ventilation and reducing the potential for ventilator-induced lung injury.
32559338 These include increased thromboembolism and vascular dysfunction (Lax et al, 2020; Menter et al, 2020; Wichmann et al, 2020), infection of endothelial cells (Varga et al, 2020), viral spread in different organs (Puelles et al, 2020), or the pathological mechanisms of lung injury (Ackermann et al, 2020; Schaller et al, 2020).
32559343 The immunopathology and acute lung injury orchestrated through the influx of pro-inflammatory macrophages and neutrophils can be directly activated by complement components to prime an overzealous cytokine storm.
32560665 In this viewpoint, we summarize the relevance of thromboinflammation in COVID-19 and discuss potential mechanisms of endothelial injury as a key point for the development of lung and distant organ dysfunction, with a focus on direct viral infection and cytokine-mediated injury.
32560745 Anti-inflammatory drugs including corticosteroids can be used to effectively reduce the effect of this cytokine storm and lung damage. […] They will be hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 who have positive RT-PCR test and have blood oxygen saturation levels (SpO2) less than 90% and respiratory rate higher than 24 per minute or have involvement of more than 50% of their lung when viewed using computed tomography (CT)-scan.
32560746 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may trigger severe pneumonia in coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) patients through release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and recruitment of neutrophils in the lungs. […] This drug might make lung mucus thinner and looser, promoting improved clearance of secretions and reduce extracellular double-stranded DNA-induced hyperinflammation in alveoli, preventing further damage to the lungs.
32561291 Once inside the cells, SARS-CoV-2 exploits the endogenous transcriptional machinery of alveolar cells to replicate and spread through the entire lung.
32561366 Even though pulmonary involvement is not widely appreciated by clinicians, an obstructive lung disease is another recognized component of Fabry disease.
32561401 Patients with lung cancers may have disproportionately severe COVID-19 outcomes. […] We examined consecutive patients with lung cancer and confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 (n=102) at a single center from March 12-May 6, 2020. […] HLA alleles were inferred from MSK-IMPACT (n=46) and compared to controls with lung cancer and no known non-COVID-19 (n=5166). […] COVID-19 was severe in patients with lung cancer (62% hospitalized, 25% died). […] Although severe, COVID-19 accounted for a minority of overall lung cancer-deaths during the pandemic (11% overall). […] COVID-19 is associated with high burden of severity in patients with lung cancer.
32561657 Mortality in COVID-19 cases is strongly associated with progressive lung inflammation and eventual sepsis.
32561849 We examine in situ expression of SARS-CoV-2 in airways and lung obtained at autopsy of individuals with confirmed COVID-19 infection. […] In two patients with organizing DAD (>14 days from onset of respiratory failure), no virus was detected in lungs or airways. […] The findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection of epithelial cells in lungs and airways of patients with COVID-19 who developed respiratory failure can be detected during the acute phase of lung injury and is absent in the organizing phase.
32562109 In diagnosis, chest computed tomography most commonly showed ground-glass opacity with or without consolidative patterns.Herein, we report a case of a patient affected by COVID-19 pneumonia referred in the emergency department of our institution on April 4, 2020, with peculiar lung ultrasound findings.
32562483 Current COVID-19 data clearly highlight that cytokine storm and activated immune cell migration to the lungs characterize the early immune response to COVID-19 that causes severe lung damage and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. […] Such immunotherapies based on inflammatory cytokine neutralization, immunomodulation, and passive viral neutralization not only reduce inflammation, inflammation-associated lung damage, or viral load but could also prevent intensive care unit hospitalization and dependency on mechanical ventilation, both of which are limited resources.
32562701 We believe that, in parallel to the attempts for direct blockade of the SARS-CoV-2 penetration into host cell and repurposing drugs, finding new therapeutic strategies for patients with lung injury or cardiovascular complications/coagulopathies associated with COVID-19 should be paid particular attention. […] These drugs have potential to improve acute lung injury and cardiovascular/coagulopathy complications in COVID-19 which are associated with elevated Ang-II/Ang(1-7) ratio.
32562764 Recent analysis concerning the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)- angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) receptor interaction in enterocytes, the definition of gut-lung axis, as well as the molecular basis of sialic acid-related dual recognition concept in gastrointestinal SARS-CoV-2 infection, have brought a new perspective to potential therapeutic targets.
32562826 In this context, resveratrol may have potential value for its anti-inflammatory activity, since most of the severe virus-associated complications are related to the overactivation of the host-immune response, leading to lung damage.
32562911 MSCs suppress inflammation and reduce lung injury through their immunomodulatory properties. […] MSCs also have the potential to prevent apoptosis of the lung cells and regenerate them. […] In the final section, lung function assessment, histological examination, micro-CT, differential leukocyte, viral load analysis, cytokine assay, and CRP level analysis can be investigated. […] Since the pathogenesis of this disease was identified in previous studies and can cause lung injury with ARDS, investigation of the therapeutic approaches that can suppress inflammation, cytokine storm and ARDS can be helpful in finding a novel therapeutic approach for this disease.
32562915 The arrival of SARS-CoV-2 in the lungs causes severe primary interstitial viral pneumonia that can lead to the “cytokine storm syndrome”, a deadly uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response triggered by the activation of interleukin 6 (IL-6), whose effect is extensive lung tissue damage and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), that are life-threatening for patients with COVID-19.
32563600 Patient-reported anosmia and the presence of bilateral B lines on lung ultrasonography had the highest positive likelihood ratio for the diagnosis of COVID-19 (7.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.36 to 24.36; and 7.09, 95% CI 2.77 to 18.12, respectively). […] The absence of a high clinical probability determined by the emergency physician and the absence of bilateral B lines on lung ultrasonography had the lowest negative likelihood ratio for the diagnosis of COVID-19 (0.33, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.43; and 0.26, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.45, respectively). […] Anosmia, emergency physician estimate of high clinical probability, and bilateral B lines on lung ultrasonography increased the likelihood of identifying COVID-19 in patients presenting to the ED.
32564028 Two types (type L and type H) are differentiated, corresponding to early- and late-stage lung damage.
32564306 While 10% of the patients have asymptomatic infection, 15-20% have lung involvement, 5-10% have multiple organ failure, and macrophage activation syndrome.
32565134 We found that the gene and protein expression of DPPIV, MERS-CoV receptor, were more dominantly located in nasal and bronchial epithelium although human nasal mucosa exhibited relatively lower DPPIV expression than lung parenchymal tissues.
32565152 Cough and fever, increased blood CRP levels, and CT findings of bilateral ground-glass opacities predominantly in the peripheral lung were characteristic of the COVID-19 cases in this study.
32565362 Nonetheless, the differences in ACE2 expression pattern in lung versus other normal and solid tumor tissues remain incompletely characterized.
32565512 This study aimed to determine the clinical significance of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) in patients with COVID-19, so as to find a marker with high sensitivity, specificity and easy detection to evaluate the lung injury and inflammation of COVID-19. […] In conclusion, KL-6 could be an indicator to evaluate the progression of COVID-19, which is parallel to the level of lung injury and inflammation in patients.
32565763 The new virus infects and replicates in the lung parenchyma pneumocytes and macrophages in which the ACE-2 cell receptor resides.
32565838 Exposure to particulate matter (PM) and harmful gases contributes to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, including allergies and obstructive lung disease.
32565968 We have outlined our clinical experience in managing patients with gastrointestinal, hematological, gynaecological, dermatological, neurological, thyroid, lung and paediatric cancers in the COVID-19 era and have reviewed the emerging literature around barriers to care of oncology patients and how this crisis affects them.
32566237 Furthermore, the patient received lung protective ventilation with a tidal volume of 6-8 mg/kg (predicted body weight). […] Serial chest computed tomography revealed a change from ground-glass opacity to consolidation pattern in both lungs.
32566476 All 3 cases involved older adults (age >65 years), one of whom was immunosuppressed in the setting of lung transplantation (Case 3).
32566483 In this article, we argue for the potential benefits of using doxycycline with either hydroxycholoroquine or other putative agents for COVID-19 treatment, as doxycycline has antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities by dampening the cytokine storm and to prevent lung damage.
32566564 In adults with COVID-19, the use of systemic glucocorticoid did not reduce mortality [risk ratio (RR) =2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69 to 5.75, I2=90.9%] or the duration of lung inflammation [weighted mean difference (WMD) =-1 days, 95% CI: -2.91 to 0.91], while a significant reduction was found in the duration of fever (WMD =-3.23 days, 95% CI: -3.56 to -2.90). […] In patients with SARS, glucocorticoids also did not reduce the mortality (RR =1.52, 95% CI: 0.89 to 2.60, I2=84.6%), duration of fever (WMD =0.82 days, 95% CI: -2.88 to 4.52, I2=97.9%) or duration of lung inflammation absorption (WMD =0.95 days, 95% CI: -7.57 to 9.48, I2=94.6%). […] Glucocorticoid therapy was found to reduce the duration of fever, but not mortality, duration of hospitalization or lung inflammation absorption.
32566621 The VB-Ne model was sensitive and stable for pulmonary lesion segmentation, and quantitative analysis indicated that the total volume and average density of the lung lesions were not related to ARDS.
32567171 RAAS has also been implicated in acute lung injury as well as myocardial injury and has thus attracted interest as a potential regulator of COVID-19 severity.
32568102 A chest CT showed a patchy high-density shadow surrounded by ground-glass opacity in the lower portion of his right lung.
32568186 In COVID-19 ICU patients massive aggression of lung with severe pulmonary failure, as well as kidney and liver injuries, heart, brain, bowel and spleen damages with lymph nodes necrosis and even cutaneous manifestations have been observed.
32568687 The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is again argued to be a convenient model pharmacophore perhaps representing an ensemble of targets, and it is noted that it occurs both in lung and alimentary tract.
32569635 Chronic lung disease and steroids were associated with virus detection in sputum, and diabetes mellitus was associated with virus detection in both NPS and sputum.
32570174 Viral infection-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury occur because of dysregulation of the immune response. […] Mesenchymal stem cells appear to be a promising cell therapy given that they favorably modulate the immune response to reduce lung injury. […] The use of exogenous stem cells may lead to lung repair. […] Therefore, intervention by transplantation of exogenous stem cells may be required to replace, repair, remodel, and regenerate lung tissue in survivors infected with coronavirus.
32570265 Lung ultrasound (LUS) is an accurate, safe, and cheap tool assisting in the diagnosis of several acute respiratory diseases.
32571455 Lung CT of 18 children with subclinical COVID-19 showed ground-glass opacities, linear opacities, and patchy opacities, with relatively limited lesions.
32571747 Cumulative incidence of fortuitous diagnosis if COVID-19 pneumonia did not exceed 3% during the highest pandemic phase and was predominantly associated with limited lung involvement.
32571748 Lung disease extent on CT correlates with clinical severity.
32571934 SARS-CoV-2 isolates replicated efficiently in the lungs of hamsters, causing severe pathological lung lesions following intranasal infection. […] In addition, microcomputed tomographic imaging revealed severe lung injury that shared characteristics with SARS-CoV-2-infected human lung, including severe, bilateral, peripherally distributed, multilobular ground glass opacity, and regions of lung consolidation. […] Moreover, passive transfer of convalescent serum to naïve hamsters efficiently suppressed the replication of the virus in the lungs even when the serum was administrated 2 d postinfection of the serum-treated hamsters.
32572155 Moreover, low and high elastance phenotypes can be distinguished in mechanically ventilated patients, based on lung mechanics, ventilation-to-perfusion ratio, and CT scans; these two phenotypes have presumed differences in their underlying pathophysiology. […] In lung samples (n = 131 cases), we identified three main histological patterns: epithelial (n = 110, 85%), with reactive epithelial changes and DAD; vascular (n = 76, 59%) with microvascular damage, (micro)thrombi, and acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia; and fibrotic (n = 28, 22%) with interstitial fibrosis.
32572532 The IAPA case definitions may be useful to classify patients with COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), while awaiting further studies that provide more insight into the interaction between Aspergillus and the SARS-CoV-2-infected lung.
32572707 The initial chest X-ray was graded on a scale of 0-3 with grade 0 representing no alveolar opacities, grade 1: < 1/3 alveolar opacities of the lung, Grade 2: 1/3 to 2/3 lung with alveolar opacities and grade 3: > 2/3 alveolar opacities of the lung.
32573353 Pneumonia was identified in 97.5% (314/322) of cases by chest CT scan; 42.9% had bilateral lung involvement.
32573419 Retrospective analysis of a case series of patients with COVID-19-ARDS, evidenced by RT-PCR and lung CT-scan.
32573776 Lung (21 patients; 19.6%), gastrointestinal (20 patients; 18.7%), and genitourinary (20 patients; 18.7%) cancers were the most common cancer diagnoses.
32574237 There is an urgent need to identify effective strategies that can stop or reverse the inflammatory process that causes acute lung injury, ARDS, and multi-organ failure in COVID-19. […] This article summarizes the insights and lessons learned from clinical immune-oncology trials as well as lung transplantation that are informing the clinical development of promising new strategies aimed at reducing the fatality rate in COVID-19.
32574272 We aim to describe how the lung and systemic host innate immune responses affect survival either positively, through downregulating initial viral load, or negatively, by triggering uncontrolled inflammation.
32574274 The progression of this viral infection occurs in the airways of the lungs with an exaggerated inflammatory response referred to as the “cytokine storm” that can lead to lethal lung injuries.
32574277 Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) have revolutionized the management and prognosis of fit patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
32574284 Chest CT images of all the patients showed patches or ground-glass opacities in the lung periphery or near the pleura, even large consolidations.
32574292 This stimulates a systemic inflammatory response, thus forming a cytokine storm, which leads to lung tissue injury.
32574297 The grid-form shadow was a typical presentation of COVID-19 on the lung CT image, and the disease usually progressed quickly within a week. Conclusion: Influenza pneumonia and COVID-19 are two different types of respiratory viral pneumonia with very similar clinical manifestations. […] Glass-ground density exudation shadow located peripherally is the typical sign of COVID-19 on the lung CT image, and the shadow often with grid-form sign.
32574317 While these treatments can improve patient’s recovery and survival, these therapeutic strategies do not lead to unequivocal restoration of the lung damage inflicted by this disease. […] Stem cell therapies and, more recently, their secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs), are emerging as new promising treatments, which could attenuate inflammation but also regenerate the lung damage caused by COVID-19. […] In this review article, we outline the mechanisms of cytokine storm and lung damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus leading to COVID-19 disease and how mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their secreted EVs can be utilized to tackle this damage by harnessing their regenerative properties, which gives them potential enhanced clinical utility compared to other investigated pharmacological treatments.
32574321 Among patients with lung changes on admission, the risk of lesions was 13.8 times greater in the left lower lobe than in the right middle lobe. […] Most lung lesions appeared within 2 weeks of onset (median 4-5 days). […] The predominant sites of lung lesions are both lower lungs, whereas the lowest risk region is the right middle lobe.
32574328 CT images displayed ground-glass opacification (GGO) patterns (80%) as well as bilateral lung involvement (69%).
32574336 ACE2 protects the lung and heart from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute myocarditis and arrhythmias, because it breaks down Angiotensin II, which has inflammatory effects in the lung and heart as well as in the kidney. […] Drugs that prevent the inflammatory actions of Angiotensin II (i.e., Angiotensin receptor blockers, ARBs) prevent acute lung injury caused by SARS-CoV.
32574694 To study the and correlations of lymphocytes and cytokines between changes of lung lesion volumes in patients with COVID-19, and to predict their correlation. 93 patients with COVID-19 were divided into mild and severe groups. […] The lung CT lesion volume of all patients was 241.45 ± 282.92 cm3, among which the mild group was 151.29 ± 226.04 cm3 and the severe group was 405.38 ± 304.90 cm3, respectively. […] In critically ill patients, the decrease of absolute value of CD4 + T cells and increase of IL-6 level are significantly correlated with the volume of lung lesions. […] The severity of lung lesions predicts poor clinical outcomes and may be a predictor of the transition from mild to severe.
32574840 Our data show that patients with persistent viral presence (>16 days) have more severe disease outcomes including extensive lung involvement and requirement of respiratory support.
32574956 We report the fundamental pathological investigation in the lungs and other organs of fatal cases for the mechanistic understanding of severe COVID-19 and the development of specific therapy in these cases. […] Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) staining and Masson staining were performed for the examinations of mucus, fibrin and collagen fiber in lung tissues. […] Immunohistochemical staining were performed on the slides of lung tissues from two patients. […] The main pathological features in lungs included extensive impairment of type I alveolar epithelial cells and atypical hyperplasia of type II alveolar cells, with formation of hyaline membrane, focal hemorrhage, exudation and pulmonary edema, and pulmonary consolidation. […] Infection of Alveolar macrophage by SARS-CoV-2 might be drivers of the “cytokine storm”, which might result in damages in pulmonary tissues, heart and lung, and leading to the failure of multiple organs .
32575076 Upregulation of inflammatory response proteins is in line with the propagation of inflammatory reaction and lung injury that is observed in advanced stages of COVID-19 patients and which worsens with age.
32575554 COVID-19 patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are often critically ill and show lung injury and hemolysis.
32575825 Cardiovascular diseases, chronic lung diseases and diabetes mellitus showed a significant association with the outcome.
32576343 Latent structure model was established based on 53 symptoms with frequency over 10, and 14 latent variables and 7 syndromes were concluded by comprehensive clustering, including syndrome of pathogenic heat invading lung, internal block and outward desertion, syndrome of dampness heat accumulating lung, syndrome of Qi and Yin deficiency, syndrome of epidemic virus closing lung, syndrome of cold dampness closing lung and syndrome of Qi deficiency of lung and spleen. […] Symptoms with load coefficient over 0.3 were clustered and 6 syndromes were obtained, including syndrome of epidemic virus closing lung, syndrome of pathogenic heat invading lung, syndrome of Qi and Yin deficiency, internal block and outward desertion, syndrome of cold dampness closing lung, and syndrome of dampness heat accumulating lung. […] The literatures included 25 syndromes, and the syndromes with constituent ratio over 5% were internal block and outward desertion (14.62%), syndrome of epidemic virus closing lung (13.68%), syndrome of dampness heat accumulating lung (12.74%), syndrome of Qi deficiency of lung (10.85%), spleen and syndrome of cold dampness closing lung (8.50%), syndrome of Qi and Yin deficiency (8.50%), syndrome of pathogenic heat invading lung (8.02%) and syndrome of dampness repressing defensive Qi of lung (5.66%). […] According to the results above, the common syndromes and their symptoms of COVID-19 were: (1) syndrome of pathogenic heat invading lung: fever, cough, throat-drying, headache, all of the body distressed and constipation, etc.; (2) syndrome of cold dampness closing lung: aversion to cold, all of the body distressed, nausea and vomiting, abdominal distention and loose stool, etc.; (3) syndrome of dampness heat accumulating lung: cough, sticky phlegm, anorexia, thirst without desire to drink and constipation, etc.; (4) syndrome of epidemic virus closing lung: fever, cough, yellow phlegm, wheezing, suffocation and purple lips, etc.; (5) internal block and outward desertion: coma, feel fidgety, suffocation, sweating and feel cold and purple lips, etc.; (6) syndrome of Qi and Yin deficiency: dry cough, sweating, fatigue, thirsty, feverish feeling in palms and soles and loose stool, etc.; (7) syndrome of Qi deficiency of lung and spleen: cough, wheezing, sweating, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, and loose stool, et al. […] The common syndromes of COVID-19 were syndrome of pathogenic heat invading lung, syndrome of cold dampness closing lung, syndrome of dampness heat accumulating lung, syndrome of epidemic virus closing lung, internal block and outward desertion, syndrome of Qi and Yin deficiency and syndrome of Qi deficiency of lung and spleen.
32576345 The differences of clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory examination indexes and CT image features of lung in different clinical types were analyzed and compared, and the relationship between clinical and imaging features and clinical types of diseases were analyzed. […] Compared with the ordinary patients, the lesions increase, and the scope of the lesion expanded to show double lungs. […] Critical type was mainly manifested as diffuse consolidation of both lungs with multiple patchy density increase shadows, multiple leafy patchy density increase shadows were seen on each leaf, most of them were ground glass-like density, and some were shown separately lung consolidation.
32576357 The imbalance of RAS takes part in the development of organ injury of different systems through pro-inflammation, oxidative stress, cell proliferation and so on. 2019-nCoV not only attacks the lung, but also influences many other systems.
32576712 The mean age was 78 ± 7.8 years, 55.5% were men, CT scan lung damage was observed in 76% of the patients (mild 23%, moderate 38%, extensive 22%, and severe 7%).
32576928 By using the DREAM-in-CDM approach, lapatinib has been identified as a promising mPGES-1 inhibitor which may have significant anti-inflammatory effects to relieve various forms of pain and possibly treat various inflammation conditions involved in other inflammation-related diseases such as the lung inflammation caused by the newly identified COVID-19.
32576980 Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a myelopoietic growth factor and pro-inflammatory cytokine, plays a critical role in alveolar macrophage homeostasis, lung inflammation and immunological disease.
32577056 COVID-19 is a new viral illness that can affect the lungs and airways with lethal consequences leading to the death of the patients. […] The ACE2 receptors were widely disturbed among body tissues such as lung, kidney, small intestine, heart, and others in different percent and considered a target for the nCOVID-19 virus. […] We used method of analysis of the published papers with described studies about COVID-19 connected with pharmacological issues and aspects which are included in global fighting against COVID-19 infection, and how using DMF (Nrf2 activator) in clinical trial for nCOVID-19 produce positive effects in patients for reduce lung alveolar cells damage. we are found that Nrf2 activators an important medication that’s have a role in reduce viral pathogenesis via inhibit virus entry through induce SPLI gene expression as well as inhibit TRMPSS2, upregulation of ACE2 that’s make a competition with the virus on binding site, induce gene expression of anti-viral mediators such as RIG-1 and INFs, induce anti-oxidant enzymes, also they have a role in inhibit NF-κB pathway, inhibit both apoptosis proteins and gene expression of TLRs. […] We are concluded that use DMF (Nrf2 activator) in clinical trial for nCOVID-19 positive patients to reduce lung alveolar cells damage.
32577525 The vaccine protected against respiratory injury and pneumonia and reduced viral load in lung tissue by several orders of magnitude.
32577901 We recorded the prevalence of OCMT and related it to age, sex, need for invasive ventilation during hospital stay, outcome, length of hospital stay, diffusion of lung SARS-CoV-19 lesions and outcome. 63 eligible patients were identified (39 male, 24 female; median age 77.82 ± 17.77 years). […] It is associated with a worse disease course irrespective of age, sex and diffusion of lung lesions, although with no direct effect on survival.
32578131 This study was performed retrospectively using data from Coronial autopsies over the period 2012-2019 from which swabs from the nasopharyngeal region, trachea and lung parenchyma, in addition to samples of lung tissue, had been submitted for multiplex PCR detection of respiratory pathogens.
32578167 However, emerging evidence suggests that it has a significant impact on the cardiovascular (CV) system by direct myocardial damage, severe systemic inflammatory response, hypoxia, right heart strain secondary to ARDS and lung injury, and plaque rupture secondary to inflammation.
32578826 Although the virus is not restricted to the lung parenchyma, the use of chest imaging in COVID-19 can be especially useful for patients with moderate to severe symptoms or comorbidities. […] The structured report can also contain an estimate of the extent of lung involvement (e.g., more or less than 50% of the lung parenchyma).
32578829 Patients with lung cancer are at risk of pulmonary complications from COVID-19, and as such, the risk/benefit ratio of local and systemic anticancer treatment has to be considered. […] In this regard, the Brazilian Thoracic Oncology Group has developed recommendations to guide decisions in lung cancer treatment during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
32579043 However, the human and animal studies cited as supportive evidence have significant limitations, and whether LDRT produces anti-inflammatory effects in the inflamed lung or exacerbates ongoing COVID-19 damage remains unclear.
32580215 Clinical information about patients undergoing lung resection while infected with this virus and pathological information about early COVID-19 pneumonia are still scarce. […] A 69-year-old male patient underwent a right pneumonectomy for squamous cell lung carcinoma. […] From this day, the COVID-19 test, which was performed after the appearance of symptoms such as fever and shortness of breath, lymphopenia and diffuse ground glass opacity in the left lung on computed tomography, was reported to be positive. […] He was discharged on the 17th postoperative day with healing of the lung lesions.
32580257 The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak that began in 2019 and spread rapidly across the globe has been observed to cause acute lung injury and multiorgan system failure. […] SARS-CoV-2 infects host cells by targeting the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, which is present on endothelial cells in the lung, heart, kidney, and gastrointestinal tissue. […] The pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in SARS-CoV-2 infection has a component of lung perfusion dysregulation and is described as a “cytokine storm” that causes increased vascular permeability and disease severity. […] Treatment recommendations have outlined ventilation goals to minimize further lung injury.
32580258 COVID-19 can manifest with cytokine storm - an exaggerated systemic inflammatory phenomenon due to over-production of proinflammatory cytokines by immune cells that results in diffuse inflammatory lung disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome.
32580440 Moreover, PM induces inflammation in lung cells and exposure to PM could increase the susceptibility and severity of the Covid-19 patient symptoms.
32581017 This study’s objective was to apply morphoproteomics to pulmonary lung sections from a forensic autopsy of an untreated COVID-19 victim, so that we may better define its biology from the perspective of its interaction with the host and provide options for therapeutic targets. […] Representative sections of the COVID-19 victim’s lung showed: nuclear expression of p-STAT3 (Tyr 705) in many of the alveolar pneumocytes and in occasional endothelial cells; COX-2 expression in the alveolar pneumocytes; a relative paucity of CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes; absence of CD56+ NK lymphoid cells; abundance of intra-alveolar and alveolar interstitial CD163+ macrophages/monocytes; PD-L1 expression on occasional macrophages, focally on collections of alveolar pneumocytes, and on cells in the alveolar interstitium; and rare PD-1+ lymphocytes in similar regions as CD8+ lymphocytes.
32581069 Within this framework, it is crucial to ensure no disruption to essential oncological services and guarantee the optimal care.This is a structured proposal for the management of lung cancer, comprising three levels of priorities, namely: tier 1 (high priority), tier 2 (medium priority) and tier 3 (low priority)-defined according to the criteria of the Cancer Care Ontario, Huntsman Cancer Institute and Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale.The manuscript emphasises the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on lung cancer care and reconsiders all steps from diagnosis, staging and treatment.These recommendations should, therefore, serve as guidance for prioritising the different aspects of cancer care to mitigate the possible negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the management of our patients.As the situation is rapidly evolving, practical actions are required to guarantee the best patients’ treatment while protecting and respecting their rights, safety and well-being.
32581077 COVID-19 is often related to hyperinflammation that drives lung or multiorgan injury. […] Second, analysis of RNA-seq data sets of lung cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 revealed that infected cells expressed neutrophil-attracting chemokines.
32581854 The death upon respiratory failure may be also associated with the local inflammation- and thrombi-derived damages to the respiratory reflexes in both the lung neuronal network and brainstem center.
32582134 Changes in the lung microbiota were identified in COVID-19 patients, and the enrichment of the lung microbiota with bacteria found in the intestinal tract is correlated with the onset of acute respiratory distress syndrome and long-term outcomes. […] In turn, respiratory viruses are known to influence microbial composition in the lung and intestine.
32582138 Role of the “gut-lung axis” has also been well-articulated.
32582222 Moreover, reallocation of viral-containing macrophages migrating out of the lung to other tissues is theoretically plausible in the context of viral spread with the involvement of other organs.
32582307 The mortality accounted for 2.8% cases at Hyderabad isolation center and all were having smoking history and co-morbidities as ischemic heart diseases, diabetes mellitus, obstructive lung disease and cerebrovascular accident whereas no mortality was observed at Sukkur isolation center.
32582309 Two (7%) patients had normal and seven (23%) had classical COVID CXRs. 21 (70%) patients were in indeterminate group with only one (3%) having unilateral lung disease. […] Three (10%) patients had diffuse lung involvement and 18(60%) had peripheral lung involvement. […] In this study, COVID-19 CXRs generally manifested a spectrum of pure ground glass, mixed ground glass opacities to consolidation in bilateral peripheral middle and lower lung zones.
32582324 As COVID-19 transmits through salivary droplets and causes severe lung pneumonia, tobacco smokers are also at high risk of severe COVID-19 infection due to poor lung function, cross-infection and susceptible hygiene habits.
32582574 We review the physiological functions of ACE2 in the cardiovascular system and the lungs, and how the activation of ACE2/MAS/G protein coupled receptor contributes in reducing acute injury and inhibiting fibrogenesis of the lungs and protecting the cardiovascular system. […] Furthermore, we speculate the potential of exploiting the modulation of ACE2/MAS pathway as a natural protection of lung injury by modulation of ACE2/MAS axis or by developing targeted drugs to inhibit proteases required for viral entry.
32582576 SARS-CoV-2 enters the lungs through the ACE2 enzyme, a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). […] Although there are no data for the lung, the expressions of RAS components in other tissues are modulated by sex hormones, androgens, and estrogens. […] If there is a sex difference in the expression of ACE2 in the lung, this could theoretically explain the gender disparity in COVID-19 disease.
32582615 In the other model, patients with the lung CT feature (e.g., ground-glass opacity, reticular/linear, air bronchogram, or consolidation shadow) were more likely to reach the endpoint. Conclusion: Older age, comorbidity, special chest CT features (e.g., ground-glass opacity, reticular/linear, air bronchogram, or consolidation shadow) are associated with poor prognosis for mild-moderate patients.
32583169 The most involved area was middle cerebral artery (MCA) (five in MCA versus one in basal ganglia) and the majority of our patients had a low lung involvement score (mean ± SD: 13.16 ± 6.49 out of 24). […] Stroke may be unrelated to age and the extent of lung involvement.
32583640 Italy and Spain reported a lung disease that causes severe oxidative disruption but no disruption in ventilation unlike ARDS.
32584322 Chest X-rays improved in 7/10 cases and in 6/10, computerized tomography scans also revealed improvement of the lung injury.
32584421 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by novel SARS-CoV-2, leads to significant mortality and morbidity with increasing evidence for inflammatory pathways being implicated in the lung damage it causes.
32584441 We also summarize known and potential SARS-CoV-2 receptors on epithelial barriers, immune cells, endothelium and clinically involved organs such as lung, gut, kidney, cardiovascular and neuronal system.
32584474 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), serves as the major entry point into cells for SARS-CoV-2 which attaches to human ACE2, thereby reducing the expression of ACE2 and causing lung injury and pneumonia. […] It can induce ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis activity and inhibits renin and the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis, thereby increasing expression and concentration of ACE2, MasR and Ang-(1-7) and having a potential protective role against acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
32584604 Although the reported imaging findings of coronavirus infection are variable and nonspecific, the most common initial chest radiograph (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) findings are ground-glass opacities and consolidation with peripheral predominance and eventually spread to involve both lungs as the disease progresses. […] CT is more sensitive to detect early parenchymal lung abnormalities and disease progression, and can provide an alternative diagnosis.
32584795 Chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease were more commonly reported among pregnant women than among nonpregnant women.
32585295 Patients with severe COVID-19 experience elevated plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can result in cytokine storm, followed by massive immune cell infiltration into the lungs leading to alveolar damage, decreased lung function, and rapid progression to death.
32585497 The coronavirus is more dangerous to the elderly and those with certain pre-existing medical conditions which is precisely the profile of lung cancer patients. […] An international panel with expertise in the management of lung cancer in high-volume comprehensive centres has come together to share its experience on COVID-19 preparedness to deliver optimal care in such exceptional circumstances. […] Twelve recommendations including, among others, the consideration of shorter courses, delays, and the omission of RT for lung cancer are proposed by the panel. […] In summary, we recommend the screening of every single person accessing the treatment room, the consideration of hypofractionation and to delay postoperative RT for non-small cell lung cancer, to avoid twice-daily treatments and delay or deliver prophylactic cranial irradiation during radio(chemo)therapy for limited-stage small cell lung cancer, review image guided RT images for suspicious image findings, and the use of single-fraction RT for the palliative treatment of stage IV lung cancer patients. […] Given that lung cancer is one of the most common and severe pathologies in radiation oncology departments, the following recommendations require particularly urgent consideration. […] The decision-making paths strongly depend on locally available resources, and a tailored approach should be used to attend lung cancer patients during this pandemic.
32585699 Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of non-communicable disease globally and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lung disease.
32586724 Multivariate logistic analyses model confirmed the predictive value of severe neutropenia (odds ratio [OR] 16.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-190.9, p 0.025), bilateral infiltrates (OR 32.83, CI 95% 3.51-307, p 0.002) and tumour lung involvement (OR 4.34, CI 95% 1.2-14.95, p 0.02).
32586885 Major epidemics including some that qualify as pandemics, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle-Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Human Immunodeficiency Virus, pandemic H1N1/09 and most recently COVID-19 affect the lung. […] The aim of this consensus-based document is to describe the effects of the viral infections resulting in epidemics and pandemics that affect the lung (MERS, SARS, HIV, influenza A (H1N1)pdm/09 and COVID-19) and their interactions with TB.
32587093 The recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the devastating COVID-19 lung disease pandemic.
32588801 Based on the results of Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) logistic regression, age, and suggestive chest X-ray (CXR) findings for SARS-CoV-2 infection, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, chronic lung diseases, and intensive care units admission had significant associations with positive RT-PCR results for COVID-19 infection. […] It seems that patients with underlying disease(s), such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and chronic lung diseases, had a higher probability to have positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 infection than those with no underlying disease(s).
32589264 COVID-19 patients are more fragile with underlying metabolic illness, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, chronic lung diseases (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and emphysema), and metabolic syndrome.
32589448 Our protocol, consisted of a rhino-pharingeal and a tracheal swab in order to search for the virus in the upper airways and of two swabs on the parenchyma of each lung. […] We also performed a fifth swab on the parenchyma of both lungs in order to search for other viruses that could evolve in a clinical picture of interstitial pneumonia Results Overall we found that 9 out of 12 cases had at least one postmortem swab to be positive for Sars-CoV-2.
32589718 Second, over 90% of individuals who contract and die from COVID-19 have co-morbidities, most notably cardiovascular disease, hypertension, chronic lung disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity.
32589760 Seven transplanted patients (two liver, three kidneys, one double lung, one heart) admitted to the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich because of COVID-19 and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were included. […] One kidney and the lung transplant recipients were required to intubate after ten and 15 days, respectively.
32589990 The COVID-19 pandemic has caused radiotherapy resource pressures and led to increased risks for lung cancer patients and healthcare staff. […] An international group of experts in lung cancer radiotherapy established this practice recommendation pertaining to whether and how to adapt radiotherapy for lung cancer in the COVID-19 pandemic. […] For this ESTRO & ASTRO endorsed project, 32 experts in lung cancer radiotherapy contributed to a modified Delphi consensus process. […] The first, an early pandemic scenario of risk mitigation, is characterized by an altered risk-benefit ratio of radiotherapy for lung cancer patients due to their increased susceptibility for severe COVID-19 infection, and minimization of patient travelling and exposure of radiotherapy staff. […] Six common lung cancer cases were assessed for both scenarios: peripherally located stage I NSCLC, locally advanced NSCLC, postoperative radiotherapy after resection of pN2 NSCLC, thoracic radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation for limited stage SCLC and palliative thoracic radiotherapy for stage IV NSCLC. […] In a risk-mitigation pandemic scenario, efforts should be made not to compromise the prognosis of lung cancer patients by departing from guideline-recommended radiotherapy practice. […] This joint ESTRO-ASTRO practice recommendation established pragmatic and balanced consensus recommendations in common clinical scenarios of radiotherapy for lung cancer in order to address the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.
32590326 In the lung, the ACE2 receptor sits on the top of lung cells known as alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells. […] Pulmonary surfactant is believed to regulate the alveolar surface tension in mammalian lungs. […] The coronavirus can survive in the lung tissue because of the exhaustion of pulmonary surfactant.
32591166 Lung ultrasound (LUS) imaging has become a safe bedside imaging alternative that does not expose the patient to radiation and minimizes the risk of contamination.
32591393 In a murine model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 2B04 protected challenged animals from weight loss, reduced lung viral load, and blocked systemic dissemination.
32591762 The transcriptional differences in critical cases compared to moderate cases likely contribute to clinical observations of heightened inflammatory tissue damage, lung injury and respiratory failure.
32591839 Reports that the ACE2 receptor - critical for virus entry into lung cells - is found in different neurons supports this expectation.
32591888 Lungs were divided by Hounsfield unit intervals. […] Compromised lung (%CL) volume was the sum of poorly and non-aerated volumes (- 500, 100 HU). […] Compromised lung volume was the most accurate outcome predictor (logistic regression, p < 0.001). […] The compromised lung volume is accurate in predicting the need for oxygenation support and intubation and is a significant risk factor for in-hospital death. […] • The compromised lung volume measured in the - 500, 100 HU interval predicts oxygenation support and intubation and is a risk factor for in-hospital death. […] • Compromised lung values in the 6-23% range prompt oxygenation therapy; values above 23% increase the need for intubation.
32591890 Lung lesion development on chest CT reflects the clinical time course of COVID-19 progression over 1-6 days, followed by clinical improvement and the resorption of lesions.
32592113 This altered immune profile may induce important clinical consequences, including increased susceptibility to lung infections; and enhanced local inflammatory response. […] Furthermore, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) enzyme is highly expressed in the lung, and that it may have additional actions besides its effects on glucose metabolism, which might exert profound pro-inflammatory effects.
32592118 From 1 to 22 March 2020, patients with pneumonia symptoms, positive lung CT scan, and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were consecutively enrolled.
32592836 The chest computed tomography (CT) score was defined by the summation of individual scores from 5 lung lobes: scores of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were respectively assigned for each lobe if pulmonary involvement was 0%, less than 5%, 5%-25%, 26%-49%, 50%-75%, or more than 75% of each region.
32592841 Metformin, as a strong base, a potential regulator of Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) and endosomal Na+/H+ exchangers (eNHEs), additionally a regenerative agent for lung fibrosis, seems to be beneficial for patients in acute, chronic and recovery phases of COVID-19.