kidney

Tissue Sentence Context


Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of kidney tissue in 842 abstracts.

PMID Senteces
32077660 Four cases (12.5%) were combined with one underlying disease (bronchial asthma, coronary heart disease, malignant tumor, chronic kidney disease), and one case (3.13%) was simultaneously combined with high blood pressure and malignant tumor.
32081428 However, since ACE2 is predominantly expressed in intestines, testis, and kidney, fecal-oral and other routes of transmission are also possible.
32105632 Most patients had organ function damage, including 35 (67%) with ARDS, 15 (29%) with acute kidney injury, 12 (23%) with cardiac injury, 15 (29%) with liver dysfunction, and one (2%) with pneumothorax. 37 (71%) patients required mechanical ventilation.
32120458 The observation indicators included total blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP), arterial blood gas analysis, myocardial injury markers, coagulation function, liver and kidney function, electrolyte, procalcitonin (PCT), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), blood lipid, pulmonary CT and pathogen detection. Results: Compared with the general group, the lymphocyte count (0.74×10(9) (0.34×10(9), 0.94×10(9))/L vs.
32159234 The first pool was from a Carassius auratus (crusian carp) cell line and the second was from Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp) head kidney tissue.
32170560 However, some patients also exhibit non-respiratory symptoms, such as kidney failure, implying that 2019-nCoV could also invade other organs. […] Through scRNA-seq data analyses, we identified the organs at risk, such as lung, heart, esophagus, kidney, bladder, and ileum, and located specific cell types (i.e., type II alveolar cells (AT2), myocardial cells, proximal tubule cells of the kidney, ileum and esophagus epithelial cells, and bladder urothelial cells), which are vulnerable to 2019-nCoV infection.
32172546 Objective: To investigate the pathological characteristics and the clinical significance of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (termed by WHO as corona virus disease 2019, COVID-19). Methods: Minimally invasive autopsies from lung, heart, kidney, spleen, bone marrow, liver, pancreas, stomach, intestine, thyroid and skin were performed on three patients died of novel coronavirus pneumonia in Chongqing, China. […] While the 2019-nCoV is mainly distributed in lung, the infection also involves in the damages of heart, vessels, liver, kidney and other organs.
32181990 This is a 52-year-old man who received kidney transplantation 12 years ago.
32199615 Although ACE2 is reported to be expressed in lung, liver, stomach, ileum, kidney and colon, its expressing levels are rather low, especially in the lung. […] Consistent with other recent reports, we confirmed that ACE2 was mainly expressed in lung AT2, liver cholangiocyte, colon colonocytes, esophagus keratinocytes, ileum ECs, rectum ECs, stomach epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubules.
32203970 Here, we review the most recent findings on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on kidney diseases, including acute kidney injury, and examine the potential effects of ARBs on the outcomes of patients with COVID-19. […] Lastly, we discuss the clinical management of COVID-19 patients with existing chronic renal disorders, particularly those in dialysis and with kidney transplants.
32209890 0.8%, χ = 93.222, P < 0.001), acute kidney injury (18.3% vs. 0, χ = 23.257, P < 0.001), shock (11.9% vs. 0, χ = 14.618, P < 0.001), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (6.4% vs. 0, χ = 7.655, P = 0.006). […] More patients in the death groups had complications such as ARDS, acute cardiac injury, acute kidney injury, shock, and DIC.
32211816 Complications were more common in patients with cardiac injury than those without cardiac injury and included acute respiratory distress syndrome (48 of 82 [58.5%] vs 49 of 334 [14.7%]; P < .001), acute kidney injury (7 of 82 [8.5%] vs 1 of 334 [0.3%]; P < .001), electrolyte disturbances (13 of 82 [15.9%] vs 17 of 334 [5.1%]; P = .003), hypoproteinemia (11 of 82 [13.4%] vs 16 of 334 [4.8%]; P = .01), and coagulation disorders (6 of 82 [7.3%] vs 6 of 334 [1.8%]; P = .02).
32216698 Patients with hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular illness, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and kidney dysfunction have worse clinical outcomes when infected with SARS-CoV-2, for unknown reasons.
32217556 Common complications observed more frequently in deceased patients included acute respiratory distress syndrome (113; 100%), type I respiratory failure (18/35; 51%), sepsis (113; 100%), acute cardiac injury (72/94; 77%), heart failure (41/83; 49%), alkalosis (14/35; 40%), hyperkalaemia (42; 37%), acute kidney injury (28; 25%), and hypoxic encephalopathy (23; 20%).
32222703 In this article, we report on a 75-year-old man infected with 2019 novel coronavirus who has end-stage kidney disease (ESKD).
32222713 The risk factors for severe presentations are concentrated in patients with chronic kidney disease, particularly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are dialysis dependent.
32224986 In the sequel of this epidemic or contagious disease, the patient experiences fever, chest paint, chills, a rapid heartbeat, breathing difficulties, pneumonia, and kidney failure.
32228252 Recognition that ACE2 is the coreceptor for the coronavirus has prompted new therapeutic approaches to block the enzyme or reduce its expression to prevent the cellular entry and SARS-CoV-2 infection in tissues that express ACE2 including lung, heart, kidney, brain, and gut.
32229732 Whether the patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 would commonly develop acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important issue worthy of clinical attention. […] Twelve (10.8%) patients showed mild increase of blood urea nitrogen or creatinine (<26 μmol/L within 48 h), and 8 (7.2%) patients showed trace or 1+ albuminuria in 111 COVID-19-confirmed patients without chronic kidney disease (CKD).
32232218 According to the findings of the present study, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), malignancy, and chronic kidney disease were among the most prevalent underlying diseases among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, respectively.
32243672 A kidney transplanted patient infected with SARS CoV2 infection showed a mild disease despite immune suppression.
32243690 Herein we report three cases of a familial cluster with one family member being a kidney transplant recipient.
32247631 Since information on kidney disease in patients with COVID-19 is limited, we determined the prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with COVID-19. […] Further, we evaluated the association between markers of abnormal kidney function and death in patients with COVID-19. […] Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients with kidney disease had a significantly higher risk for in-hospital death. […] Thus, our findings show the prevalence of kidney disease on admission and the development of AKI during hospitalization in patients with COVID-19 is high and is associated with in-hospital mortality. […] Hence, clinicians should increase their awareness of kidney disease in patients with severe COVID-19.
32249089 The number of cases has increased rapidly, but no data concerning kidney transplant (KTx) recipients infected with COVID-19 are available.
32250968 The current COVID-19 pandemic has affected everyone, but presents profound consequences for patients with kidney disease, health care providers, and biomedical researchers. […] In this Viewpoint, I will discuss a number of kidney-specific aspects of COVID-19 infection, noting therapeutic and basic research opportunities.
32251805 Multiple organ dysfunction can be observed, the most common organ damage was lung, followed by heart, kidney and liver.
32255507 Studies have shown that this virus causes worse outcomes and a higher mortality rate in older adults and those with comorbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and chronic kidney disease. […] Additionally, many adults with hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease are placed on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs).
32278616 Knowledge about this growing infection is also increasing although many uncertainties remain, especially in the kidney transplant population. […] This manuscript presents a proposal for action with general and specific recommendations to protect and prevent infection in this vulnerable population such as kidney transplant recipients.
32279081 Through a multivariate analysis of the causes of death in older patients, we found that males, comorbidities, time from disease onset to hospitalization, abnormal kidney function, and elevated procalcitonin levels were all significantly associated with death.
32279418 We present the case of a 36-year-old kidney transplanted woman affected by Senior-Loken syndrome diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia after a contact with her positive mother.
32281331 The location of the disease is lung, always involving spleen and stomach, and may further affect heart and kidney in severe cases.
32281333 The pungent medicines are mostly found in the early stage, the bitter drugs are the main flavor in the middle and severe stage, and the sweet medicines are mostly used in the recovery stage; ③the meridian of the drug is more concentrated at the lung, stomach, and heart, and most of drugs are into the lung meridian, accounting for 24.55%; these medicines are mostly into the lungs and stomach in the initial and middle stages, and into the heart and kidney in severe stages; ④oral drugs are mostly non-toxic, among which only 6 kinds are toxic, namely Armeniacae Semen Amarum, Dryopteridis Crassirhizomatis Rhizoma, Paridis Rhizoma, Pinelliae Rhizoma, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia; ⑤most of the drugs have five types of functions: treating exterior syndromes, resolving dampness, clearing heat, replenishing deficiency, resolving phlegm, cough, and asthma.
32281754 We are in the midst of a health emergency that is totally new for us all and that requires a concerted effort, especially when it comes to safeguarding patients on hemodialysis, and kidney transplant recipients.
32282982 Complete suspension of live donor kidney transplantation was reported by 71.8% and live donor liver by 67.7%. […] While complete suspension of deceased donor transplantation was less frequent, some restrictions to deceased donor kidney transplantation were reported by 84.0% and deceased donor liver by 73.3%; more stringent restrictions were associated with higher regional incidence of COVID-19. […] Respondents reported a total of 148 COVID-19 recipients from <1y to >10y post-transplant: 69.6% were kidney recipients, and 25.0% were critically ill.
32282991 Limited data are available regarding immunosuppression management in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.
32286245 Biomarkers of inflammation, cardiac and muscle injury, liver and kidney function and coagulation measures were also significantly elevated in patients with both severe and fatal COVID-19.
32292866 The management of the disease in patients with kidney disease is even more challenging, especially in those who are immunosuppressed or with severe comorbidities. […] Here we present the therapeutic approach employed in Brescia (Italy) for managing kidney transplant and hemodialysis patients with COVID-19.
32293003 This is related to the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells, and expression of ACE2 in the lung, cardiovascular system, kidney, and other tissues.
32298273 Meanwhile, ACE2 was also expressed in specific cell types of human fetal heart, liver and lung, but not in kidney.
32301155 We report our preliminary experience with 18 SOT (kidney [44.4%], liver [33.3%], and heart [22.2%]) recipients diagnosed with COVID-19 by March 23, 2020 at a tertiary-care center at Madrid.
32301198 Here, we report the clinical features and our treatment approach for a kidney transplant patient with a diagnosis of COVID-19.
32301766 Additionally, renin-angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors reduce adverse atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure and chronic kidney disease outcomes, but may increase ACE2 levels.
32304394 Complications on the intensive care units include acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute cardiac- and kidney injury as well as shock.Here, we present the first case report of a successful treatment of a COVID-19 patient presenting with ARDS plus refractory combined cardiogenic and vasoplegic shock, which could be successfully stabilized after implantation of a percutaneous ventricular assist device (pVAD) plus an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).
32307215 PATIENT SUMMARY: We used data from three high-volume Italian academic urology centres to evaluate how many surgeries performed for prostate, bladder, kidney, and upper tract urothelial cancer can be postponed in times of emergency.
32307268 Twelve disease pathways attributed to the Lung-Large Intestine meridians, with six and five attributed to the Kidney-Urinary Bladder and Stomach-Spleen meridians, respectively. […] RDS acts primarily in the Lung-Large Intestine, Kidney-Urinary Bladder and Stomach-Spleen meridians, with other Zang-fu viscera strategically covered by all nine ingredients.
32307955 Theoretically, this may be significant in several ways: acute kidney injury (AKI) as well as proteinuria and/or microhematuria could be associated with the penetration of COVID-19 into the cells. […] In the setting of chronic kidney disease, the risk of infection with COVID-19 is not clear at this time.
32310715 Acute kidney injury, a marked hypercoagulable state, and sometimes myocarditis can be features of COVID-19 in addition to the characteristic severe acute lung injury.
32315122 In this report, we present a dual-organ (heart/kidney) transplant recipient who was found to have COVID-19 and, despite the presence of a number of risk factors for poor outcomes, had a relatively mild clinical course.
32316719 Real-time PCR was performed to quantify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene expression in conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, iris, lens, retina, lung, heart, kidney, and liver from male mice. […] The expression of these two genes in conjunctiva were lower than that in kidney and lung.
32317180 To evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia in kidney transplant recipients. […] Kidney transplant recipients had more severe COVID-19 pneumonia than the general population, but most of them recovered after a prolonged clinical course and virus shedding.
32317402 We report 15 kidney transplant recipients from the Columbia University kidney transplant program who required hospitalization for confirmed COVID-19, and describe their management, clinical course, and outcomes. […] Kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 have presentations that are similar to that of the general population.
32320003 Clinical outcomes during hospitalization, such as invasive mechanical ventilation, kidney replacement therapy, and death. […] During hospitalization, 373 patients (14.2%) (median age, 68 years [IQR, 56-78]; 33.5% female) were treated in the intensive care unit care, 320 (12.2%) received invasive mechanical ventilation, 81 (3.2%) were treated with kidney replacement therapy, and 553 (21%) died.
32322766 Over the next few days, the patient developed acute kidney injury with oliguria and severe volume overload.
32324331 We describe the case of a 61-year-old kidney transplant recipient with several comorbidities who was hospitalized and later received a diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia; the infection was successfully managed with the use of hydroxychloroquine and a single administration of tocilizumab, after immunosuppression reduction; the patient did not require mechanical ventilation.
32327202 Although the respiratory and immune systems are the major targets of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), acute kidney injury and proteinuria have also been observed. […] Currently, detailed pathologic examination of kidney damage in critically ill patients with COVID-19 has been lacking. […] To help define this we analyzed kidney abnormalities in 26 autopsies of patients with COVID-19 by light microscopy, ultrastructural observation and immunostaining. […] Nine of the 26 showed clinical signs of kidney injury that included increased serum creatinine and/or new-onset proteinuria. […] In addition to the direct virulence of SARS-CoV-2, factors contributing to acute kidney injury included systemic hypoxia, abnormal coagulation, and possible drug or hyperventilation-relevant rhabdomyolysis. […] Thus, our studies provide direct evidence of the invasion of SARSCoV-2 into kidney tissue.
32329589 Some of the patients may have long-term impairment and dysfunctions, including pulmonary fibrosis, heart, liver, kidney, nerve and immune system.
32330343 Forty-six were kidney recipients, 17 lung, 13 liver, 9 heart, and 5 dual-organ transplants.
32330356 We report four cases of COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients including recipients of kidney, liver, lung, and heart transplants.
32331343 Data on the experimental animal have shown that 17ß-estradiol increases the expression and activity of ACE2 in both adipose tissue and kidney.
32333285 Children with kidney failure (chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5) are at significant risk for COVID-19.
32333581 In the hands of experienced examiners, the contrast enhanced sonography (CEUS) offers the possibility to analyze dynamic microcirculatory disturbances in real time dynamically without any risk for kidneys and thyroid gland even in severe progressing disease bedside. […] In the stage of an imminent organ failure with significantly reduced kidney and liver function, CEUS can be used to show a narrowing of the organ-supplying arteries, as well as a delayed capillary filling of vessels near the capsule, a regional reduced parenchymal perfusion or an inflammatory hyperemia with capillary hypercirculation.
32333836 We also show that SARS-CoV-2 can directly infect engineered human blood vessel organoids and human kidney organoids, which can be inhibited by hrsACE2.
32336007 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), also known as cluster of differentiation 26 (CD26), is a serine exopeptidase expressed ubiquitously in several tissues, including but not limited to lung, kidney, liver, gut, and immune cells.
32336612 ACE2 receptors are ubiquitous and widely expressed in the heart, vessels, gut, lung (particularly in type 2 pneumocytes and macrophages), kidney, testis and brain.
32337859 Kidney transplant (KT) recipients are one of the vulnerable populations for infection.
32338224 SARS-CoV binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2 which is present on nonimmune cells, such as respiratory and intestinal epithelial cells, endothelial cells, kidney cells (renal tubules) and cerebral neurons and immune cells, such as alveolar monocytes/macrophages [4-6].
32339157 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a member of the renin-angiotension system, however, the correlation between ACE2 and prognosis in UCEC (Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma) and KIRP (Kidney Renal Papillary Cell Carcinoma) is not clear.
32341519 Moreover, kidney injury was the second-most common organ affected by COVID-19 followed by heart and liver. […] Kidney and heart injury were more severe in critical-type patients than in severe-type patients.
32343085 The Northwest Kidney Center (NWC) in Seattle, Washington, has been a leader in nephrology care for almost 60 years, opening the first hemodialysis unit in the United States in 1962. […] On April 6, 2020, as a part of NNJ Extra - the Nephrology Nursing Journal’s podcast series, Beth Ulrich, EdD, RN, FACHE, FAONL, FAAN, Editor-in-Chief of the Nephrology Nursing Journal, talked with the leaders of the Northwest Kidney Centers - Suzanne Watnick, MD, the Chief Medical Officer, and Liz McNamara, MN, RN, Vice President of Patient Care Services and the Chief Nursing Officer, who discussed dealing with the onset of COVID-19 at NWC, how their team worked together to provide care for their patients and support for their staff members, and the lessons they learned that can benefit others.
32345072 COVID-19 patients with heart, liver and kidneycomorbidity, compared to patients without related comorbidities, were more likely to have cardiac injuries [9.1%(3/33) vs 2.2%(4/179), P = 0.043], liver injuries [13.0%(3/23) vs 3.2%(6/189), P = 0.027], kidney injury [54.5%(6/11) vs 2.0%(4/201), P < 0.001], and higher risk of mortality [Heart-comorbidity: 6.1%(2/33) vs 0.6%(1/179), P = 0.014; Liver-comorbidity: 8.7%(2/23) vs 0.5%(1/189), P = 0.002; Kidney-comorbidity: 27.3%(3/11) vs 1.0%(2/201), P < 0.001. […] Mortality was higher in patients with more severe Grade of organ injuries [Heart-injury: P = 0.044; Liver-injury: P = 0.020; Kidney-injury: P = 0.030].Conclusion: Male, older, co-existing of heart, liver, and kidney comorbidities, especially those with severe Grade organ injuries, had a poor prognosis after SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32345226 Importantly, we found liver, kidney, digestive tract, and heart injuries in COVID-19 cases besides respiratory problems.
32345702 Some patients with COVID-19 pneumonia also present with kidney injury, and autopsy findings of patients who died from the illness sometimes show renal damage. […] However, little is known about the clinical characteristics of kidney-related complications, including hematuria, proteinuria, and AKI. […] Among 35 patients who developed AKI (with AKI identified by criteria expanded somewhat beyond the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes definition), 16 (45.7%) experienced complete recovery of kidney function.
32346492 In addition to impairment of the respiratory system, acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major complication.
32351040 Ten kidney transplant recipients tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by polymerase chain reaction, and 9 were admitted. […] Three patients died (30%), and 5 (50%) developed acute kidney injury. […] Kidney transplant recipients infected with COVID-19 should be monitored closely in the setting of lowered immunosuppression.
32351121 This raises the question whether the use of RAS inhibitors, the backbone of treatment of cardiovascular, neurovascular, and kidney diseases could increase the susceptibility for coronavirus infection or unfortunate outcomes of COVID-19.
32353762 Diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, chronic Kidney diseases and cancer were the most common comorbidities with 3.81, 2.02 , 1.99 , 1.25, 0.60 and 0.57 %, respectively.
32354360 In severe cases, thrombocytopenia, acute kidney injury, acute myocardial injury, and adult respiratory distress syndrome were observed. […] However, severe cases showed persistent lymphopenia, severe acute respiratory dyspnea syndrome, refractory shock, anuric acute kidney injury, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, and death.
32354634 The outcome of SARS-CoV2 infection in patients who have received a kidney allograft and are being treated with immunosuppression is unclear. […] We describe 20 kidney transplant recipients (median age 59 years [inter quartile range 51-64 years], median age of transplant 13 years [9-20 years], baseline eGFR 36.5 [23-47.5]) with SARS-CoV2 induced pneumonia. […] At admission, all had immunosuppression withdrawn and were started on methylprednisolone 16 mg/day, all but one was commenced on antiviral therapy and hydroxychloroquine with doses adjusted for kidney function. […] Six patients developed acute kidney injury with one requiring hemodialysis. […] Overall, five kidney transplant recipients died after a median period of 15 days [15-19] from symptom onset. […] Thus, in this limited cohort of long-term kidney transplant patients, SARS-CoV-2 induced pneumonia is characterized by high risk of progression and significant mortality.
32354637 Little is known about risk, presentation and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection in kidney transplantation recipients, who may be at high-risk due to long-term immunosuppression, comorbidity and residual chronic kidney disease. […] Whilst COVID-19 is predominantly a respiratory disease, in severe cases it can cause kidney and multi-organ failure. […] Therefore, we report on seven cases of COVID-19 in kidney transplant recipients (median age 54 (range 45-69), three females, from a cohort of 2082 managed transplant follow-up patients) over a six-week period in three south London hospitals. […] Thus, our findings suggest COVID-19 infection in kidney transplant patients may be severe, requiring intensive care admission.
32357275 To summarize measures for the prevention and control of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the department of kidney transplantation. […] We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of outpatients and inpatients in the department of kidney transplantation from January 20 to March 1, 2020, and followed up the in-home kidney transplant recipients and those waiting for kidney transplantation through the Internet platform. […] Our department had formulated detailed prevention and control measures, mainly including kidney transplant outpatient management, kidney transplantation ward management, management of kidney transplant surgery, dialysis management of patients waiting for kidney transplantation, personal protection of medical staff, and follow-up management of discharged patients after kidney transplantation. […] During the epidemic period, there were no COVID-19 cases among 68 outpatient examined kidney transplant recipients, 32 hospitalized kidney transplant recipients, 19 patients waiting for kidney transplantation in hospital, and 30 medical staff. […] There were no COVID-19 cases among 160 follow-up recipients after kidney transplantation and 60 patients waiting for kidney transplantation.
32359188 During the coronavirus outbreak in China, our center performed 16 organ transplants (10 kidney, 4 liver and 2 lung transplants, from January 24 to March 11, 2020) harvested from deceased donors. […] Our approaches aiming to interrupt the spread of coronavirus within the transplantation wards were successful and allowed us to maintain the transplantation program for deceased liver, kidney and lung recipients.
32361701 in the reports presented about COVID-19, patients receiving kidney transplantation have not been specifically studied and based on national flowchart, this population is classified as highrisk group, thus it is necessary to be aware of the step-by-step treatment approach of these patients.
32362392 Liver and kidney insufficiency was seen in 5 and 6 recipients, respectively.
32364677 A liver and kidney transplant patient with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia without respiratory failure was treated in a clinical multimodal strategy consisting of symptomatic support therapy, immunosuppression reduction, use of anti-coronavirus drugs and heparin leading to a progressive improvement of patient symptoms till discharge.
32366279 Notably, overexpression of ACE2 have been observed in including colon adenocarcinoma (COAD), kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD), rectum adenocarcinoma (READ), stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD), and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD).
32367746 Potential but unconfirmed risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 in adults and children may include hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease, as well as the medications commonly prescribed for these conditions, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers.
32369191 Co-morbidities included diabetes mellitus (48%), chronic kidney disease (16%), and cardiovascular disease (12%).
32371536 The presence of viral particles in the renal tubular epithelium that were morphologically identical to SARS-CoV-2, and with viral arrays and other features of virus assembly, provide evidence of a productive direct infection of the kidney by SARS-CoV-2. […] Tubular isometric vacuolization observed with light microscopy, which correlates with double-membrane vesicles containing vacuoles observed with electronic microscopy, may be a useful histologic marker for active SARS-CoV-2 infection in kidney biopsy or autopsy specimens.
32374815 In all patients, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the lung at high concentrations; viremia in 6 of 10 and 5 of 12 patients demonstrated high viral RNA titers in the liver, kidney, or heart.
32375150 However, preliminary data suggests that kidney is a target for the virus and deterioration of renal function was associated with poor outcomes including in-hospital mortality. […] We also present the possible mechanisms for acute kidney injury in these patients. […] Acute kidney injury might help risk stratify critically ill patients on a fatal course of COVID-19.
32376099 Because ACEIs and ARBs are also used to retard the progression of chronic kidney disease, we suggest that these recommendations also apply to the use of these agents in chronic kidney disease.
32377638 Specifically, preexisting chronic conditions such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes are strongly associated with an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19; surprisingly, however, we found no correlation between chronic liver disease and increased disease severity. […] In addition, we found that both acute cardiac injury and acute kidney injury are highly correlated with an increased risk of COVID-19-related mortality.
32379199 The infant had life-threatening clinical features including high fever, septic shock, recurrent apnea, petechiae and acute kidney injury and persistent declined CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.
32380474 Hypernatraemic dehydration may contribute to the high rate of acute kidney injury in COVID-19.
32382463 Patients with rhabdomyolysis should receive aggressive fluid administration to prevent acute kidney injury (AKI).
32386444 Kidney transplantation might not be considered a life-saving procedure as there are alternative forms of renal replacement, although it is superior in the long-term life expectancy and overall costs. […] Since kidney grafts can also be transplanted from a living donor, the suspended elective activity has had a major significant impact for this organ compared to the others.
32390367 Acute respiratory distress syndrome (13/13 patients; 100%), septic shock (9/13; 69.2%), acute cardiac injury (9/13; 69.2%), and acute kidney injury (8/13; 61.5%) were more common in patients who received ICU care.
32400099 In this case report, we presented a 63 years old female kidney transplant recipient who presented with dyspnea and cough and diagnosed with COVID 19 pneumonia.
32400931 A 49-year-old male kidney recipient was admitted to the hospital on February 7, 2020, for fever and fatigue.
32400965 Notably, the elderly SOT patients commonly suffer from liver and kidney dysfunction of varying degrees, resulting in worse drug metabolism.
32403217 However, other major events usually observed in COVID-19 patients (e.g., high blood pressure, arterial and venous thromboembolism, kidney disease, neurologic disorders, and diabetes mellitus) indicate that the virus is targeting the endothelium, one of the largest organs in the human body.
32405974 COVID-19 can cause multiple organ dysfunction, such as respiratory and circulatory failure, liver and kidney injury, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and thromboembolism, and even death.
32407552 Some authors have reported the presence of cutaneous lesions related to new COronaVirus Disease 2019 (CoViD-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2, in up to 20.4% of the cases; however, these lesions are not well characterized either clinically or histopathologically.1 Recently, it has been highlighted the finding of congested and edematous blood vessels in the alveolar septum along with hyaline thrombi, and also in the heart, liver and kidney of autopsies of 3 patients deceased due to severe infection by SARS-CoV-2.
32407959 Hypertransaminasemia and acute kidney injury were the most frequent severe adverse events observed (42.8 % and 22.8 % of the cases, respectively).
32409114 This case series assesses the clinical course, imaging features, and outcomes for 12 patients with COVID-19 and a history of kidney transplantation.
32410141 In normal tissues, ACE2 expression distributions were organ-specific, mainly in the kidney, male testis and female breast, and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems.
32410714 Organ function damages were found in most of the patients: ARDS in 161 (71.2%) patients, septic shock in 34 (15.0%) patients, acute kidney injury occurred in 57 (25.2%) patients, cardiac injury in 61 (27.0%) patients, and lymphocytopenia in 160 (70.8%) patients.
32411313 All patients scored positive for the hemophagocytosis score (HScore) and were diagnosed with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (sHLH) characterized by pancytopenia, hyper-coagulation, acute kidney injury and hepatobiliary dysfunction.
32412159 Overall, 21 patients were included with a median age of 56 years (10 kidney, 5 liver, 1 pancreas, 1 lung, 1 heart and 3 combined transplantations).
32412303 Particularly, it has been reported a considerable incidence of many renal abnormalities associated to COVID-19, including proteinuria, hematuria and acute kidney injury (AKI). […] In this review, we discuss the biological aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, how understanding current knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 infection may partly explain the involvement of the kidneys in the pathophysiology of COVID-19, and what questions arise and remain to be explored.
32414626 Based on a review of the literature, patients with high-grade urothelial carcinoma, advanced kidney cancer, testicular cancer, and penile cancer should be prioritized for treatment during these challenging times.
32415494 The choice of drug to treat COVID-19-associated fever or pain should be based on a benefit-risk assessment for known side effects (e.g., kidney damage, gastrointestinal ulceration).
32416116 The rate of acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with patients hospitalized with Covid-19, and associated outcomes are not well understood. […] Patients younger than 18 years of age, with end stage kidney disease or with a kidney transplant were excluded.
32416412 I hypothesized that the damage induced by free DNA is a reason for severe COVID-19, which can explain many symptoms of this disease, such as cytokine storm, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and muscus plug, acute injuries of heart, liver and kidney, and some special symptoms of COVID-19.
32416769 Kidney involvement is frequent, with clinical presentation ranging from mild proteinuria to progressive acute kidney injury (AKI) necessitating renal replacement therapy (RRT). […] An understanding of the pathophysiology and mechanisms of kidney damage and AKI in the setting of critical illness and COVID-19 is emerging, although further research is needed to identify patients at risk of AKI and to guide management strategies.
32418146 The objective of this study was to rapidly gather expert knowledge and experience to guide the care of children with chronic kidney disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.
32418377 Objective: To investigate the relationship between novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) and kidney injury. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on COVID-19 confirmed patients in the Central Theater Command General Hospital of Chinese PLA on March 12, 2020. […] The recorded information included clinical data and indicators of kidney-related laboratory tests. Results: The average age of patients was (65.2±17.1) years, and 34.5% (30/87) patients were ≥ 75 years old and 31.0% (27/87) patients were 60~74 years old. […] Only two patients had an increase of SCr ≥26.5 μmol/L, and both of them were over 75 years old. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients with severe acute kidney injury are uncommon. […] However, attention should be paid to acute kidney injury of the elderly patients in the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. 目的: 分析新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)与肾损伤的关系。
32418532 Recently, SARS-CoV-2 [8, 9], the causative agent of COVID-19, has been described to interfere with the RAS [2] by interacting -via its spike (S) glycoprotein- with the metallopeptidase Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor [9, 10] that is expressed at the surface of epithelial cells from blood vessels, lung, kidney (renal tubules), intestine, and heart, as well as on cerebral neurons and immune monocytes/macrophages [11-13]. […] The main SARS-CoV-2-related COVID-19 symptoms/diseases reported hitherto are hypertension, atherosclerosis, thrombosis (coagulopathy), diarrhea, glaucoma, anosmia, ageusia, skin lesions (dermatitis), autoimmune inflammation of the central nervous system, and damages to various organs such as the lung, heart, kidney, and testicle [1, 2, 14]. […] COVID-19 Disorders: ‘Renin-Angiotensin’ System (RAS) & Counter-regulatory RAS In the RAS pathway [1, 15], Renin (kidney) cleaves Angiotensinogen (liver) to give Angiotensin I (i.e. peptide DRVYIHPFHL).
32420614 She also had a high albumin creatinine ratio but with normal kidney function.
32420949 Up to now, there is no yet literature on the subject, but, like in general population, the presence of comorbidities such as diabetes, heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, reduced kidney and/or liver function, worsen the effects of the infection.
32421292 The comorbid medical illnesses identified as risk factors are preexisting respiratory and cardiovascular disease, immunocompromised status, morbid obesity (ie, body mass index ≥40), diabetes mellitus, and possibly significant kidney or liver impairment.
32421367 While the main organ targeted in this diseased are the lungs, other vital organs such as the heart and kidney may be implicated.
32421703 The individualized prediction nomogram included seven predictors: body temperature at admission, cough, dyspnea, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, chronic liver disease, and chronic kidney disease.
32422204 People with chronic kidney disease were more likely to test positive in the adjusted analysis (68 [32·9%] of 207 with chronic kidney disease vs 519 [14·4%] of 3595 without; adjusted OR 1·91, 95% CI 1·31-2·78), but there was no significant association with other chronic conditions in that analysis. […] We provide evidence of potential sociodemographic factors associated with a positive test, including deprivation, population density, ethnicity, and chronic kidney disease.
32422983 The most common reported complications were: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney injury, cardiac injury, liver insufficiency, and septic shock.
32423095
  1. Background: Combating viral disease outbreaks has doubtlessly been one of the major public health challenges for the 21st century. (2) Methods: The host entry machinery required for COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was examined for the gene expression profiles and polymorphism. (3) Results: Lung, kidney, small intestine, and salivary glands were among the tissues which expressed the entry machinery coding genes Ace2, Tmprss2, CtsB, and CtsL.
32423908 Outcomes of kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 as outpatients have not been described. […] We obtained clinical data for 41 consecutive outpatient kidney transplant recipients with known or suspected coronavirus disease 2019. […] In an early cohort of outpatient kidney transplant recipients with known or suspected coronavirus disease 2019, many had symptomatic resolution without requiring hospitalization.
32425003 The rates of the acute cardiac and kidney complications were higher in IMV cases than those in NIV cases.
32429038 The aim of this study was to evaluate the severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients with underlying kidney and liver diseases. […] The data on two comorbidities, liver diseases and chronic kidney disease, were pooled and statistically analysed to explain the associated severity and mortality rate. […] The prevalence of liver diseases and chronic kidney disease (CKD) were 3% (95% CI; 2-3%) and 1% (95% CI; 1-2%), respectively.
32429249 This is a subjective analysis of literature concerning specific topics raised in our daily practice (e.g., clinical features of COVID-19 patients; ventilation of the critically ill COVID-19 patient; diagnostic of infection with SARS-CoV-2; stability of the virus; Covid-19 in specific patient populations, e.g., paediatrics, immunosuppressed patients, patients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, kidney or liver disease; co-medication with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); antiviral treatment) and we believe that these answers help colleagues in clinical decision-making.
32430140 The number of kidney transplantations decreased from 39 to 3 (-92%). […] Isolated kidney transplantation has been stopped (national statement).
32430651 By contrast, in patients treated with ACE-Is and ARBs, ACE-2 shows a downregulation at the mRNA and protein levels in kidney and cardiac tissues.
32432787 From two COVID-19-related deaths, samples of lung, heart and kidney were collected and processed for Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy (TEM and SEM) with the aim of identifying the virus.
32433342 Vulnerable patients with risk factors such as elderly, cardiovascular diseases (e.g. hypertension, coronary disease, or cardiomyopathy), diabetes, chronic kidney disease…etc., have worse outcomes after covid-19 infection.
32433344 Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), a novel anti-diabetic drug blocks the reabsorption of glucose in proximal tubules of kidney, are demonstrated to have cardiovascular and renal benefits for people with diabetes. […] Besides, SGLT2i induced natriuretic effect may also increase the risk of acute kidney injury and affect the hemodynamic stability during systemic infection disease.
32434806 Acute kidney injury has been reported in as many as 29% of COVID-19 patients. […] Reported risk factors include elevated baseline serum creatinine, elevated blood urea nitrogen, acute kidney injury, proteinuria, and hematuria.
32435879 Of these, 6 had end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) (3 transplant recipients and 3 on chronic hemodialysis).
32435920 In fact, treatment with lithium requires continuous monitoring of its serum levels in order to prevent acute toxicity and long-term side effects, most notably affecting the kidney and thyroid.
32436005 Stone disease is a unique condition that requires appropriate management in a timely manner as it can result in both emergent conditions and long term effects on kidney functions.
32436105 Four patients (67%) manifested acute kidney failure prior to stroke.
32437706 Subsequently, type I respiratory failure was diagnosed, coinciding with kidney injury, and subsequently, type II respiratory failure occurred, coupled with multiorgan failure including the heart and liver.
32438617 COVID-19 often leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI).
32438839 Most of the critical cases developed multiple organ dysfunction, including acute kidney injury (AKI).
32444366 Other risks were heart failure (4.4, 2.6 to 8.0), male sex (2.8, 2.4 to 3.2), chronic kidney disease (2.6, 1.9 to 3.6), and any increase in body mass index (BMI) (eg, for BMI >40: 2.5, 1.8 to 3.4).
32444393 In this retrospective, single-center study, we included 49 hospitalized patients on maintenance hemodialysis and 52 hospitalized patients without kidney failure (controls) with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 at Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University from January 30, 2020 to March 10, 2020.
32444460 The commonest comorbidities were chronic cardiac disease (31%, 5469/17 702), uncomplicated diabetes (21%, 3650/17 599), non-asthmatic chronic pulmonary disease (18%, 3128/17 634), and chronic kidney disease (16%, 2830/17 506); 23% (4161/18 525) had no reported major comorbidity. […] Increasing age, male sex, and comorbidities including chronic cardiac disease, non-asthmatic chronic pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, liver disease and obesity were associated with higher mortality in hospital.
32445573 There is a general concern that patients with immune-mediated kidney diseases, namely those on immunosuppressive therapies and/or those with more advanced kidney failure, could particularly be at risk for adverse outcomes due to a compromised antiviral immunity. […] The aim of the present review of the Immunonephrology Working Group of the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association is to provide recommendations for the management of patients with immune-mediated kidney diseases based on the available evidence, similar circumstances with other infectious organisms and expert opinions from across Europe. […] Such recommendations may help to minimize the risk of encountering COVID-19 or developing complications during COVID-19 in patients with immune-mediated kidney disease.
32445872 The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor (ACE2) is expressed in epithelial cells of many tissues including the kidney, and has been identified to interact with human pathogenic coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. […] Although diffuse alveolar damage and acute respiratory failure are the main features of COVID-19 infection, two recent studies demonstrate that kidney impairment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is common, and that kidney involvement is associated with high risk of in-hospital death. […] Interestingly, studies in rats have demonstrated that high dietary sodium intake results in down-regulation of the ACE2 expression in kidney tissue. […] We hypothesize that low sodium status makes kidney involvement during the course of COVID-19 infection more likely due to upregulation of membrane bound ACE2 in the kidneys. […] We propose that sodium intake and status should be monitored carefully during severe COVID-19 infections, and that low sodium intake be corrected early in its course, despite a potential conflict regarding common dietary recommendations to restrict dietary sodium intake in patients with hypertension, diabetes, and kidney disease.
32446267 Kidney transplant recipients are commonly prescribed renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (AAS) inhibitors given the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
32447505 Given this pediatric case of COVID-19-associated rhabdomyolysis, pediatric clinicians should be aware of this complication and manage fluids appropriately in order to prevent acute kidney injury.
32448633 Patients with cardiovascular risk and previous kidney risk have been identified as especially vulnerable for greater morbidity and mortality when they suffer from COVID-19. […] The situation during the epidemic and the uncertainty of the post-COVID-19 period, requires intensification in the control and monitoring of cardiovascular and kidney disease in our patients.
32449235 We report a case of the successful recovery from severe COVID-19 of a kidney-transplanted patient treated with hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, steroid and tocilizumab.
32450165 It is associated with the other organ damage such as cardiovascular risk via an increased level of hypertension through ACE2, gastrointestinal dysfunction, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, liver dysfunction, lung injury, CNS risk, ocular risks such as chemosis, conjunctivitis, and conjunctival hyperemia, cancer risk, venous thromboembolism, tuberculosis, aging, and cardiovascular dysfunction and reproductive risk.
32450197 Finally, several extra-respiratory manifestations, such as cardiac involvement, acute kidney injury, coagulation disorders and thrombotic complications, could be associated with a poor prognosis.
32452908 Since Taiwan has the highest incidence and prevalence of treated end-stage kidney disease worldwide, it is crucial to act in advance to prevent a potential disaster.
32453483 We report a case of a 50-year-old male with a history of HIV and kidney transplant who presented with SARS-CoV-2. […] We also present a review of COVID-19 cases in kidney transplant recipients.
32455090 The pathogen known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2), is notable for attacking the pulmonary system causing acute respiratory distress, but it can also severely affect other systems in at-risk individuals including cardiovascular compromise, gastrointestinal distress, acute kidney injury, coagulopathies, cutaneous manifestations, and ultimately death from multi-organ failure. […] A 58-year-old female with a history of morbid obesity, HTN, gout, CML managed with imatinib, and chronic kidney disease presented as a transfer from a community hospital to our burn center.
32457133 An estimated 1,670 kidney transplant opportunities may be lost, which will lead to 6,317 active patients on the kidney-alone waiting list, compared to 4,649 based on usual activity estimates.
32458021 Acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) is common in critically ill patients with COVID-19. […] Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and AKI and ambulatory patients with chronic kidney disease and impending need for RRT were included.
32459916 Black patients had higher prevalences of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease than white patients.
32460390 A total of 23 SOT transplant recipients suffering from COVID-19 were identified (n = 3 heart; n =15 kidney; n = 1 kidney-after-heart; n = 3 lung and n = 1 liver transplant recipient).
32461141 The novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 originates in the lungs, but may extend to other organs, causing, in severe cases, multiorgan damage, including cardiac injury and acute kidney injury. […] In severe cases, the presence of kidney injury is associated with increased risk of death, highlighting the relevance of this organ as a target of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32462305 In patients with COVID-19, 7.58% (95% CI 3.30-13.54%) developed acute kidney injury with a mortality rate of 93.27% (95% CI 81.46-100%) amongst them. […] Acute kidney injury leading to mortality is common amongst COVID-19 patients, likely as a result of direct viral toxicity.
32462378 Two groups were divided according to the patient’s primary renal disease: group 1 (16 patients with diabetic nephropathy), group 2 (12 patients with primary glomerulonephritis, 2 with obstructive kidney disease, 1 with hypertensive renal damage, and 1 with polycystic kidney).
32466289 The internalization of type II FIPV WSU 79-1146 in Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CrFK) cells was visualized using a fluorescence microscope, and optimization prior to phenotype microarray (PM) study was performed.
32469263 Sonography showed echo-dense and enlarged kidneys with high resistance indices (>0.8). […] In the further course of the disease renal function recovered, kidney size decreased and the renal perfusion normalized.
32471001 The SARS-Cov-2 infection disease (COVID-19) pandemic has posed at risk the kidney transplant (KT) population, particularly the elderly recipients.
32471884 Patients admitted to intensive care units were older, predominantly male (158/236, 66.9%), and had long lengths of stay (median 23 days, interquartile range 12-32 days); 78.0% (184/236) developed acute kidney injury and 35.2% (83/236) needed dialysis. […] Patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 at this medical center faced major morbidity and mortality, with high rates of acute kidney injury and inpatient dialysis, prolonged intubations, and a bimodal distribution of time to intubation from symptom onset.
32472827 Complications on the intensive care units include acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute cardiac, and kidney injury as well as shock.
32478936 Life-threatening complications described in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients include acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney failure and cardiac injury2 .
32479921 Recent findings indicate an increased risk for acute kidney injury during COVID-19 infection. […] The pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to acute kidney injury in COVID-19 infection are unclear but may include direct cytopathic effects of the virus on kidney tubular and endothelial cells, indirect damage caused by virus-induced cytokine release, and kidney hypoperfusion due to a restrictive fluid strategy. […] We describe 2 cases in which patients with COVID-19 infection developed a decrease in kidney function due to kidney infarction. […] One of these patients was treated with therapeutic doses of low-molecular-weight heparin, after which no further deterioration in kidney function was observed. […] Our findings implicate that the differential diagnosis of acute kidney injury in COVID-19-infected patients should include kidney infarction, which may have important preventive and therapeutic implications.
32483300 The scientific community faces an unexpected and urgent challenge related to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and is investigating the role of receptors involved in entry of this virus into cells as well as pathomechanisms leading to a cytokine “storm,” which in many cases ends in severe acute respiratory syndrome, fulminant myocarditis and kidney injury.
32483909 We describe the first case report of renal allograft infarction in a 46-year-old kidney-pancreas transplant recipient with no prior history of thromboembolism, who presented 26 days after diagnosis of COVID-19.
32487513 In this report, we aim to convey our experience of multi-task treatment approach with convalescent immune plasma and anti-cytokine drug combination in a COVID-19 patient with extremely challenging comorbidities including active myeloid malignancy, disseminated tuberculosis and kidney failure.
32489502 The incidence of acute kidney injury in patients with COVID-19 infection is about 3-15%; and in patients with severe infection requiring care in the intensive care unit, the rates of acute kidney injury increased significantly from 15% to 50%. […] Acute kidney injury is an independent risk factor for mortality in COVID-19 patients. […] In the current review article, we discussed the epidemiology and etiology of acute kidney injury, management of acute kidney injury including renal replacement therapy options (both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) for inpatient floor, as well as intensive care unit settings.
32491091 We estimated the proportion and number of adults (≥ 18 years) at risk of severe Covid-19 by sex, educational level, race/ethnicity, and state based on the presence of one or more of the following risk factors: age ≥ 65 years or medical diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, chronic respiratory disease, cancer, stroke, chronic kidney disease and moderate to severe asthma, smoking status, and obesity.
32493494
  1. Previous infection with SARS CoV2 (positive coronavirus PCR or positive serology with SARS Cov2 negative PCR and absence of symptoms); 2) Current treatment with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine; 3) Hypersensitivity, allergy or any contraindication for taking hydroxychloroquine, in the technical sheet; 4) Previous or current treatment with tamoxifen or raloxifene; 5) Previous eye disease, especially maculopathy; 6) Known heart failure (Grade III to IV of the New York Heart Association classification) or prolonged QTc; 7) Any type of cancer (except basal cell) in the last 5 years; 6) Refusal to give informed consent; 8) Evidence of any other unstable or clinically significant untreated immune, endocrine, hematological, gastrointestinal, neurological, neoplastic or psychiatric illness; 9) Antibodies positive for the human immunodeficiency virus; 10) Significant kidney or liver disease; 11) Pregnancy or lactation.
32495231 Here we report the results of a national survey on kidney transplantation activity in February and March 2020, and the results of a three-round Delphi consensus promoted by four scientific societies: the Italian Society of Organ Transplantation, the Italian Society of Nephrology, the Italian Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, and the Italian Group on Antimicrobial Stewardship. […] The survey revealed that, starting from March 2020, there was a decline in kidney transplantation activity in Italy, especially for living-related transplants. […] Based on the Italian experience, we discuss the reasons for the changes in kidney transplantation activity during the COVID-19 pandemic in Western countries. […] We also provide working recommendations for the organization and management of kidney transplantation under these conditions.
32496357 Solid organ transplant recipients (SOT) comprise a large proportion of this group, yet there is limited knowledge about the presentation, clinical course and immunosuppression management of this novel infection among heart, lung, liver, pancreas and kidney transplant recipients. […] Over half (56.2%) presented with elevated serum creatinine suggestive of acute kidney injury. […] Only 1 mortality (4.8%) to date, in a critically-ill heart/kidney patient who had been in the ICU prior to diagnosis.
32496364 ACE2 is an enzyme found in the heart, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and lung and is a coreceptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2), the virus responsible for COVID-19.
32498135 Secondary outcomes included length of stay, time to death and development of acute kidney injury in the first 48-h.
32498262 Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) or who are on hemodialysis (HD) could have increased susceptibility to the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) given their pre-existing comorbidities, older age, compromised immune system, and regular visits to populated outpatient dialysis centers.
32500199 All deceased, except for two women, in whom no significant pre-existing conditions were found autoptically, had relevant comorbidities (in descending order of frequency): (1) diseases of the cardiovascular system, (2) lung diseases, (3) central nervous system diseases, (4) kidney diseases, and (5) diabetes mellitus.
32500431 Patients with a high probability of postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission were considered as high risk and defined by an ASA score ≥ III and/or a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) ≥ 6 and/or a Revised Cardiac Risk Index for Preoperative Risk (RCRI) ≥ 3. 72 patients were operated, including 12 (16.6%) liver and kidney transplantations.
32500936 Few reports described the outcome of kidney transplanted patients (KTs) affected by COVID-19 treated with interleukin-6 receptor inhibitor Tocilizumab (TCZ).
32501731 Functional impairments in multiple organs have been reported in COVID-19 including lungs, heart, kidney, liver, brain and vascular system.
32503180 The outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with organ damage; however, the information about the relationship between acute kidney injury (AKI) and COVID-19 is still rare. […] AKI and its severity were defined according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network.
32503620 The patients are not severely hypoxic, do not need intubation or invasive oxygenation. known hypersensitivity to colchicine; known hepatic failure; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<30 ml/min/1.73m2 (by the CKD-EPI Creatinine Equation for Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) which estimates GFR based on serum creatinine. ; kidney transplant recipients, using Digoxin, QTc >450 msec.
32503657 Uncontrolled diseases of the blood and cardiovascular system, liver or kidney.4.
32504925 Interestingly, ACE2+ organs reveal the symptomatic repercussions, which are signals of the infection such as dry cough, shortness of breath, heart failure, liver and kidney damage, anosmia or hyposmia, and diarrhea.
32505811 With the exponential surge in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients worldwide, the resources needed to provide continuous kidney replacement therapy (CKRT) for patients with acute kidney injury or kidney failure may be threatened.
32506195 The DPP4 family/system was implicated in various physiological processes and diseases of the immune system, and DPP4/CD26 is variously expressed on epithelia and endothelia of the systemic vasculature, lung, kidney, small intestine and heart.
32510756 There is fast-emerging, cumulative clinical data on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in kidney transplant recipients. […] Although respiratory tract symptoms are often the initial presentation among kidney transplant recipients who contract COVID-19, other clinical features which may indicate underlying SARS-CoV-2-related inflammation, such as gastrointestinal symptoms, are not uncommon. […] Hyponatremia in COVID-19 has been reported in a few case series of non-kidney transplant patients and only one reported kidney transplant recipient. […] We report a kidney transplant recipient who was infected with COVID-19 and exhibited severe hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. […] Hyponatremia is one of the clinical presentations of COVID-19, although less common, and may occur more frequently in kidney transplant recipients.
32513290 Spectra Optia TM Apheresis System operates with acid-citrate dextrose anticoagulant (ACDA) as per Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2019 guidelines.
32513299 Combined with severe heart, lung (diagnosed with interstitial lung disease, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc.), liver and kidney disease or with endocrine, rheumatic, neurologic, malignant and other systemic diseases;2.
32514935 Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type‑1 receptor blockers (ARBs) are among the most widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of arterial hypertension, heart failure and chronic kidney disease.
32515039 Regarding that, some nephrologists have alerted about the potential shortages of our ability to deliver kidney replacement therapy to all patients who need it (1).
32515076 Limited reports in kidney transplant recipients suggest similar characteristics in that population.
32515085 We report the first experience of COVID-19 infection within 1 month of living donor kidney transplant (LDKT). […] Younger age, absence of other comorbidities, and lower dose of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) used as induction possibly contributed to good outcome in our recent LDKT recipients compared with earlier published cases of recent deceased donor kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19.
32515125 We evaluated fears, attitudes, and opinions associated with COVID-19 in 365 SOT recipients (95% liver, 5% pancreas/kidney), 112 SOT candidates, and 394 immediate household contacts in 2 German transplant centers.
32515544 Clinical decision-making in kidney transplantation (KT) during the COVID-19 pandemic is understandably a conundrum: both candidates and recipients may face increased acquisition risks and case fatality rates (CFRs).
32519617 Here, we aimed to determine the frequency of COVID-19 in our kidney and liver transplant patients. […] Seventy-four of them were liver transplant recipients (46 male, 28 female, of which 14 were pediatric and 60 were adult patients) and 509 of them were kidney transplant recipients (347 male, 162 female, of which 16 were pediatric and 493 were adult patients). […] One kidney transplant recipient had a positive COVID-19 test; he was followed with home isolation.
32520225 Twenty-three cases were described in kidney transplant (KT) patients.
32522191 The incidence of septic shock, acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring hemodialysis and admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) was 24% (n = 59), 21% (n = 52), 33% (n = 82) respectively.
32523141 The comorbidities associated with diabetes are overweight and obesity, systemic arterial hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia and in some patients peripheral vascular disease, kidney damage, neuropathy and retinopathy.
32523709 This paper will provide guidance on how to best manage patients with end-stage kidney disease who will be or are being treated with home dialysis during the COVID-19 pandemic. […] Program-specific documents, pre-existing, and related to COVID-19; documents from national and international kidney agencies; national and international webinars, including webinars that we hosted for input and feedback; with additional information from formal and informal review of published academic literature. […] The recommendations were further reviewed by community nephrologists and over a CSN-sponsored webinar, attended by 225 kidney health care professionals, for further peer input. […] The final consensus recommendations also incorporated review by the editors at the Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease (CJKHD).
32524743 Our current communication shares a protocol for donor and transplant recipient selection during the COVID-19 pandemic to continue life-saving solid organ transplantation for heart, lung, liver and kidney recipients.
32526083 During hospitalization, patients with abnormal LFTs had a higher rate of transfer to ICU (20vs8%; p<0.001), acute kidney injury (22vs13%, p=0.009), need for mechanical ventilation (14vs6%; p=0.005), and mortality (21vs11%; p=0.004) than those without.
32526746 It is a respiratory disease, and acute kidney injury (AKI) is rare; however, if a patient develops severe AKI, renal replacement therapy (RRT) should be considered.
32527342 To investigate the characteristics and the risk factors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated acute kidney injury (AKI). […] According to the diagnostic criteria of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO), patients with AKI were included in AKI group and those without AKI were included in non-AKI group.
32527343 All of the 3 patients with chronic kidney disease presented with poor appetite, nausea and vomiting, and 2 of them had diarrhea.
32527344 During the treatment period, the pharynx swab test of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) nucleic acid was carried out every 2 days, and the routine blood test, liver and kidney functions, blood coagulation function and myocardial enzymes were re-examined.
32527345 No patient was reported with liver, kidney or heart dysfunction or secondary infection.
32528760 Apart from respiratory findings, some studies have highlighted inflammatory consequences in the heart, kidney, and/or liver as well.
32529737 Minimization of immunosuppression and administration of antiretrovirals have been recommended for kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with COVID-19. […] We studied 29 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) who were admitted to our institution with COVID-19 between March,15- April, 24th , 2020.
32531808 Patients with COVID-19 often present with kidney failure.
32532356 2.3 Blood routine: white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils Acidic granulocyte count, basophil count, red blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit, average volume of red blood cells, average red blood cell Hb content, average red blood cell Hb concentration, RDW standard deviation, RDW coefficient of variation, platelet count, platelet specific platelet average Volume, platelet distribution width,% of large platelets; 2.4 Liver and kidney function tests: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, prealbumin, total protein, albumin, globulin, white / globule ratio , Total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, cholinesterase, urea, creatinine, total carbon dioxide, uric acid glucose, potassium, sodium, chlorine, calcium, corrected calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and phosphorus product, anion gap, penetration Pressure, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein a, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, estimated glomerular filtration rate.
32533197 Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been reported in up to 25% of critically-ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially in those with underlying comorbidities. […] The pathophysiology of COVID-19 associated AKI could be related to unspecific mechanisms but also to COVID-specific mechanisms such as direct cellular injury resulting from viral entry through the receptor (ACE2) which is highly expressed in the kidney, an imbalanced renin-angotensin-aldosteron system, pro-inflammatory cytokines elicited by the viral infection and thrombotic events.
32533615 Herein, we present a simultaneous heart-kidney transplant (SHKT) recipient who was hospitalized for the management of respiratory failure from volume overload complicated by failure to thrive, multiple opportunistic infections, and open non-healing wounds in the setting of worsening renal dysfunction weeks prior to the first case of SARS-CoV-2 being detected in the state of Connecticut.
32534129 Although the PD program was successful in its ability to provide much-needed kidney replacement therapy (KRT) when hemodialysis was not available, challenges to delivering adequate PD dosage included difficulties in providing nurse training and availability of supplies.
32535188 More than half of the patients (56.3%) had comorbidities, with hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes and chronic kidney failure being the most common.
32536670 In the kidney, uric acid handling is regulated by the balance of reabsorption and tubular secretion in the proximal tubules. […] Favipiravir and M1 act as moderate inhibitors of organic anion transporter 1 and 3 (OAT1 and OAT3), which are involved in uric acid excretion in the kidney. […] Nevertheless, the adverse effect of favipiravir might be clinically important in patients with a history of gout, hyperuricemia, kidney function impairment (in which blood concentration of M1 increases), and where there is concomitant use of other drugs affecting blood uric acid elevation.
32537615 Our analysis of published studies addressing the safety and extent to which delayed cancer care does not compromise oncological outcome revealed that most prostate cancer care and certain aspects of the bladder and kidney cancer care can be safely deferred for 2-6 months. […] Urothelial bladder cancer and advanced kidney cancer require a higher priority for timely surgical care.
32538805 Kidney cancer scenarios are quite different depending on their stage, distinguishing mainly between low priority of localized disease or high priority of locally advanced and metastatic under active treatment.
32538810 Referral of patients for risk complications such as kidney failure, recurrent hematuria and obstructive uropathy are a priority.
32538816 The COVID-19 pandemic poses significant challenges in the area of kidney donation and transplantation. […] The objective of this article is to establish general recommendations for surgical teams to manage the kidney transplant program duringthe COVID-19 era. […] A web and Pubmed search was performed using the keywords “SARS-CoV-2”," COVID-19“,”COVID Urology“,”COVID-19 surgery“, and”kidney transplantation." A modified nominal group technique was used. […] RESULTS: When health system saturation occurs, kidney transplants should be deferred, except in patients with low transplant possibilities and an optimal kidney available, combined transplants or life-threatening situations. […] Kidney transplant surgery must be efficient in terms of health, human resources, and clinical benefit. […] Se realizó una búsqueda web y en PubMed utilizando las palabras clave “SARSCoV-2”, “COVID-19”, “COVID Urology”, “COVID-19 surgery” y “kidney transplantation”.
32540268 As the viral infection is driven by increased angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) expression, with the kidney exhibiting the highest expression, it is crucial to gain insights into the mechanisms underlying renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Evidence is discussed from epidemiological studies on SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and molecular studies on the role of kidney in facilitating routes for SARS-CoV-2 entry, leading to increased virulence of SARS-CoV-2 and clinical manifestation of symptoms in RCC.
32540837 Mortality was strongly correlated with BMI, African American ethnicity, Hypertension, presence of multiple comorbidities with a mean of 2.32, worsening renal function with acute kidney injury or acute on chronic kidney injury and EKG findings of arrhythmias and heart blocks.
32541471 A 29-year-old kidney transplant recipient with the symptoms of COVID-19 pneumonia. […] COVID-19 pneumonia after kidney transplantation. […] In certain group of COVID-19 (e.g., mild to moderate cases, young patients without comorbidities), a reduction instead of an overall withdrawal of immunosuppressant in kidney transplant recipients is feasible.
32543348 In 788 COVID-19 patients from Zhejiang province, we observed decreased rate of severe/critical cases, increased liver/kidney damage, and prolonged period of nuclear acid positivity, compared with patients in Wuhan, China. […] Single-cell sequencing and ACE2-Furin co-expression results confirmed that the Furin expression was higher in the whole body, especially in glands, liver, kidneys, and colon.
32543702 Most patients (435 [94.0%]) had at least 1 comorbidity, including hypertension (295 patients [63.7%]), chronic kidney disease (182 patients [39.3%]), and diabetes (178 patients [38.4%]). […] Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.2; P = .001), severe obesity (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-3.6; P = .02), and chronic kidney disease (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.3; P = .006) were independently associated with intensive care unit admission. […] Patients admitted to the intensive care unit had longer length of stay and higher incidence of respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, acute kidney injury requiring dialysis, shock, and mortality (57 patients [40.4%] vs 15 patients [7.0%]) compared with patients in the general practice unit.
32544042 COVID-19 do effect genitourinary system from kidney to testis.
32544216 Severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung fibrosis, cardiovascular events, acute kidney injury, stroke, hospitalization, and mortality have been reported that result from pathogen-host interactions.
32545566 Kidney transplantation (KT) has been tremendously affected due to limited personal protective equipment (PPE) and intensive care unit (ICU) capacities. […] To provide valid information on risk factors for ICU admission in a high-risk cohort of old kidney recipients from old donors in the Eurotransplant Senior Program (ESP), we retrospectively conducted a bi-centric analysis. […] To conclude, potential kidney recipients with a low BMI, CAD and hypertensive nephropathy should only be transplanted in the ESP in times of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic if the local health situation can provide sufficient ICU capacities.
32547309 The laboratory tests liver and kidney function, blood routine, coagulation function, and immune status. Results: The study population included 70 hospitalized patients with confirmed CONV-2019.
32548166 The patient also presented with diarrhea, mild kidney injury, and live coronavirus was found in her feces.
32550066 We report a case of a middle-aged man with DM and COVID-19 who developed seizure and altered mental status, found to have diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), acute kidney injury, hypovolemic shock, and hyperammonemia all contributing to metabolic encephalopathy.
32550702 little is known on the risk factors, clinical presentation, therapeutic protocols, and outcomes of kidney transplantation recipients (KTRs) who become infected by SARS-CoV-2. to provide an updated view regarding the early experience obtained from the management of KTRs with COVID-19. […] Search terms included: “coronavirus”, “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2”, “SARS-CoV-2”, “COVID-19”, “COVID”, “renal transplantation”, and “kidney transplantation”.
32552872 The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of abnormal urine analysis and kidney dysfunction in COVID-19 patients and to determine the association of acute kidney injury (AKI) with the severity and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. […] A meta-analysis of eligible studies that reported the prevalence of abnormal urine analysis and kidney dysfunction in COVID-19 was performed. […] The incidence of abnormal urine analysis and kidney dysfunction in COVID-19 was high and AKI is closely associated with the severity and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. […] Therefore, it is important to increase awareness of kidney dysfunction in COVID-19 patients.
32553130 Estimates of the number of individuals at increased risk were most sensitive to the prevalence of chronic kidney disease, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic respiratory disease.
32553507 In essence, from the overall analysis of the data derived from the study of the positioning of patients based on the stage of renal function, the bands related to the development of psychopathological aspects, and the use of positive personal resources, it emerges that patients in stage V kidney failure are in the first bracket as regards the development of psychopathological aspects (absence of these experiences) and in the third bracket as regards the good use of positive resources to deal with isolation.
32554965 We sought to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) in this special population.
32561222 It typically presents with mild upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and may have life threatening complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute stroke, myocardial infarction, kidney failure, shock, and even death.
32561682 Kidney involvement is a feature of COVID-19 and it can be severe in black patients. […] To investigate genetic, histopathologic, and molecular features in six black patients with COVID-19 presenting with AKI and de novo nephrotic-range proteinuria, we obtained biopsied kidney tissue, which was examined by in situ hybridization for viral detection and by NanoString for COVID-19 and acute tubular injury-associated genes. […] Kidney biopsy specimens showed collapsing glomerulopathy, extensive foot process effacement, and focal/diffuse acute tubular injury. […] We found no direct viral infection in the kidneys, suggesting a possible alternative mechanism: a “two-hit” combination of genetic predisposition and cytokine-mediated host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32562597 Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a public health emergency with several million worldwide and a quarter of a million and soon half a million deaths including a third in the United States alone (as of May 10, 2020).1 It affects kidney transplantation and has caused mortality in waitlist dialysis and transplant patients.2,3 This inevitably raises questions about the practicality and direction of transplant surgeries during this critical period.
32562843 Here, we highlight recent findings on the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)/uPA receptor (uPAR) system that suggest its potential role as a main orchestrator of fatal progression to pulmonary, kidney, and heart failure in patients with coronavirus.
32564306 To the best of our knowledge, favipiravir and anti-cytokine treatments have not been previously reported in a kidney transplant recipient with SARS-CoV-2 infection before. […] We report a case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a kidney transplant recipient with fatal outcomes.
32564693 In nonsurvivors, older age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, coronary artery diseases, and heart failure were more represented than in survivors. […] After correction by multivariate analysis, only age (P=0.0001), diabetes mellitus (P=0.004), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.011), and chronic kidney disease (P=0.004) but not hypertension predicted mortality.
32564694 We showed ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) 2 is higher in the kidney of male compared with female mice. […] To further investigate this sex difference, we examined the role of ACE2 in Ang-[1-8] (angiotensin [1-8])-induced hypertension and regulation of the renin-angiotensin system in the kidney of WT (wild type) and Ace2 KO (knockout) mice.
32565254 The pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 patients is still poorly understood.
32566603 Severe patents had higher risk on complications including acute cardiac injury (OR 13.48; 95% CI, 3.60 to 50.47, P<0.001) or acute kidney injury (AKI) (OR 11.55; 95% CI, 3.44 to 38.77, P<0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR 26.12; 95% CI, 11.14 to 61.25, P<0.001), shock (OR 53.17; 95% CI, 12.54 to 225.4, P<0.001) and in-hospital death (OR 45.24; 95% CI, 19.43 to 105.35, P<0.001).
32567823 However, SARS-CoV-2 can affect several human organs due to high expressions of ACE2 receptor which is the main viral target and the virus may affect not only higher and lower respiratory tracts, but also heart, kidney, gastro enteric tract, liver, pancreas, nervous system and skin.
32568186 In COVID-19 ICU patients massive aggression of lung with severe pulmonary failure, as well as kidney and liver injuries, heart, brain, bowel and spleen damages with lymph nodes necrosis and even cutaneous manifestations have been observed.
32568741 The frequency of patients who required ICU (72% vs. 19%), who developed acute kidney injury (14% vs. 1%) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (71%vs. 18%) were also higher in patients with cardiac injury.
32573882 Experience with management of COVID-19 in kidney transplant recipients is scarce; effects of this virus on immunosuppressed individuals are not well understood. […] Hyponatremia, lymphopenia, acute kidney injury, and elevated inflammatory markers were common. […] Over the course of follow up, 23 have been discharged home with a functioning allograft and in stable condition; 4 experienced acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy; 7 patients were intubated and 6 expired. […] Our findings described the characteristics and outcomes of this highly fatal illness in a multi-ethnic kidney transplant cohort, with insights on immunosuppression management that could further our understanding of this unique disease in immunocompromised populations.
32573895 Preliminary data reported a high prevalence of CoV-2 infection and mortality due to severe acute respiratory syndrome-related to CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in kidney transplanted patients (KTRs).
32573903 For chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), cerebrovascular disease, and cancer, the pooled prevalences were all less than 4%.
32574284 For three of the five patients, the primary onset disease required an emergency operation or treatment, and included intussusception, acute suppurative appendicitis perforation with local peritonitis, and traumatic subdural hemorrhage with convulsion, while for the other two it was acute gastroenteritis (including one patient with hydronephrosis and a stone in his left kidney). […] We also found impaired liver, kidney, and myocardial functions; the presence of hypoproteinemia, hyponatremia, and hypocalcemia; and, in one case, abnormal coagulation function.
32574334 By the end of the disease, most patients suffered from severe complications, including ARDS (17/18; 94.4%), acute cardiac injury (10/18; 55.6%), acute kidney injury (7/18; 38.9%), shock (6/18; 33.3%), gastrointestinal bleeding (1/18; 5.6%), as well as perforation of intestine (1/18; 5.6%).
32574336 ACE2 protects the lung and heart from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute myocarditis and arrhythmias, because it breaks down Angiotensin II, which has inflammatory effects in the lung and heart as well as in the kidney.
32576358 After the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a series of expert recommendation or consensus have been developed to diagnose and treat the disease, including CRRT in acute kidney injury (AKI) and hyper inflammatory response.
32577056 The ACE2 receptors were widely disturbed among body tissues such as lung, kidney, small intestine, heart, and others in different percent and considered a target for the nCOVID-19 virus.
32578289 In our transplant center, infection with SARS-Cov-2 virus was confirmed in 4 organ transplant recipients (3 kidney and 1 liver transplant recipients) during their early post-transplant hospital stay.
32578324 We developed and implemented a systematic monitoring algorithm for kidney transplant recipients at our transplant center who reported mild symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. […] A total of 44 kidney transplant recipients thought to be symptomatic for COVID-19 disease were followed for a minimum of 14 days. […] More than half of these patients presented with hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen, 39% were intubated within 48 hours and 53% developed acute kidney injury but did not require dialysis. […] During surge outbreaks, kidney transplant patients with even mild symptoms have a high likelihood of COVID-19 disease and most will worsen requiring hospitalization for supportive measures.
32579293 No abnormalities were found in liver and kidney function.
32579986 Furthermore, organ-specific biomarkers demonstrate the involvement of cardiac muscle, kidney, and liver dysfunction in many patients.
32580257 SARS-CoV-2 infects host cells by targeting the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, which is present on endothelial cells in the lung, heart, kidney, and gastrointestinal tissue.
32582489 The patient experienced acute kidney injury with uptrending creatinine levels and remained lethargic and unresponsive throughout her ICU stay, suggestive of potential hypoxic brain injury.
32584441 We also summarize known and potential SARS-CoV-2 receptors on epithelial barriers, immune cells, endothelium and clinically involved organs such as lung, gut, kidney, cardiovascular and neuronal system.
32584797 Similarly, when comparing hospitalized patients with catchment area populations or nonhospitalized COVID-19 patients, high proportions have underlying conditions, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, or chronic respiratory disease (3,4).
32585191 We also used logistic regression to evaluate age, sex, race, body mass index, prevalent cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease and ICU status as potential risk factors for each arrhythmia.
32585765 We report a case of COVID-19 in kidney transplant patient in Thailand. […] A 58-year-old 2 years post kidney transplant recipient, with maintenance immunosuppression of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and prednisolone, presented with acute diarrhea which followed by fever on day 12. […] Drug interaction between tacrolimus and anti-viral treatment lead to severely high level of tacrolimus which caused reversible acute kidney injury (AKI) after supportive treatment.
32586396 Secondary outcomes are 7 day mortality after fulfilling the inclusion criteria, mortality until hospital discharge, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) measurement on day 1 and 3, need for mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of ICU-stay, catecholamine dose on day 1/2/3 after start of “CytoSorb” and acute kidney injury.
32587651 The purpose of this review is to analyze the impact of the virus on the kidney. […] COVID-19 infection causes acute kidney injury (AKI) and is an independent risk factor for mortality. […] The impact of COVID-19 infection on chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal transplant patients is also discussed in the manuscript. […] The patients with underlying kidney problems and renal transplant patients are vulnerable to developing COVID-19 infection.
32588340 Nonetheless, it would be prudent to generally discourage patients with diabetes form fasting this Ramadan to avoid the risk of life-threatening complications such severe dehydration and ensuing kidney damage.
32589755 The basic information, blood routine, pneumonia-related blood indexes, immune-related indexes along with liver, kidney and myocardial indexes in patients with different types were analyzed.
32589760 Seven transplanted patients (two liver, three kidneys, one double lung, one heart) admitted to the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich because of COVID-19 and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were included. […] Two kidney transplant recipients were intubated within 48 hours. […] One kidney and the lung transplant recipients were required to intubate after ten and 15 days, respectively.
32593209 The patient had significant comorbidities, including chronic kidney disease, arterial hypertension, and obesity, and our previous cohort suggested that he was thus at high risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and death from COVID-19.
32412915 COVID-19 presents challenges for management of children with renal diseases especially those receiving long-term immunosuppressive medications, including renal transplant recipients and those with chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury requiring dialysis.
32450631 Some patients had mild liver and kidney damage.
32594085 Hemoperfusion (HP) was helpful to prevent the development and progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney injury (AKI), liver failure, and septic shock by removing cytokines and other inflammatory mediators and ultimately preventing progression toward multiple organ failure.
32594325 COPD or asthma (OR 4.4; 95% CI 1.67-11.6; p = 0.003), RSV (OR 3.12; 95% CI 1.09-8.92; p = 0.023), and influenza B infections (OR 3.77; 95% CI 1.06-13.5; p = 0.041) were associated with NIV use, respectively, while chronic kidney disease was associated with IHD (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.14-5.51; p = 0.023).
32594606 Our goal was to understand the impact of the epidemic on kidney transplantation (KT), at both the national and center levels, accounting statistically for waitlist composition. […] Using Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data, we compared data on observed waitlist registrations, waitlist mortality, and living-donor and deceased-donor kidney transplants (LDKT/DDKT) March 15-April 30, 2020 to expected events calculated from preepidemic data January 2016-February 2020.
32595085 This evidence-based viewpoint will address two questions: (a) are individuals with underlying cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. high blood pressure or diabetes) or overt disease (e.g. coronary heart disease, heart failure, kidney disease) more likely to develop severe Covid-19 and to die than those without underlying conditions? […] Patients with heart failure or chronic kidney disease might show an excess risk; (b) neither ACE-i nor ARB are associated with greater risk of SARS-Cov2 infection, or severity or risk of death in patients with Covid-19.
32597550 The emergence of this world pandemic is particularly important for solid organ transplant recipients, who might have an increased risk of mortality, not only due to their chronic immunosuppression status, but also to the cardiovascular risk that correlates with several years of chronic kidney disease. […] To the extent that there is still a lack of knowledge about the clinical characteristics, evolution, and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in kidney transplant recipients, we will report the first 5 cases diagnosed and followed in our transplant unit, as well as share the therapeutic strategies adopted.
32598305 It has been now clearly established that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing COVID-19, infects the host cell through biding and being internalized with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a surface protein expressed in a noticeable number of human cells, especially in those of upper and lower respiratory tracts, heart, kidney, testis, adipose tissue, gastrointestinal system and in lymphocytes.
32602006 The objective was to evaluate the association between kidney failure severity on admission with the mortality of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Only 8.5% of patients had a history of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, 30% of patients had kidney dysfunction upon admission (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2).
32602046 Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the frequent organ damage in severe COVID-19 patients. […] In this study, we successfully established long term cultures of normal human kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells (KPTECs) in 2D and 3D culture systems using conditional reprogramming (CR) and organoids techniques. […] This integrated 2D CR and 3D organoid cultures provide a physiological ex vivo model to study kidney functions, innate immune response of kidney cells to viruses, and a novel platform for drug discovery and safety evaluation.
32602202 The main mechanism is related to damage of the liver and kidney.
32602676 The patients who met the primary outcome were older in age (56.5 years vs 50 years), had significantly higher SOFA scores (6 vs 3.5), were in shock (41.7% vs 5%), in higher respiratory distress (66.7% vs 10%), had lower mean arterial oxygen saturation (85% vs 89.5%), had higher CK-MB values (66 vs 26)U/L [6(54.5%) vs 2(9.5%)], had hypoalbuminemia (100% vs 50%) and acute kidney injury 8(72.7%) vs 5(23.8%) on admission.
32605278 Risk factors for severe COVID-19 include diabetes, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. […] In this regard, sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors were recently shown to protect the heart and kidney both within and outside of a diabetic milieu context.
32610165 Chronic kidney disease (CKD), history of atrial fibrillation (AF), and heart failure were independent risk factors for prolonged QTc.
32610859 Three patients (14.28 %) had underlying co morbidity in the form of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, chronic kidney disease or coronary artery disease. 11 patients (52.38%) had lymphopenia in their hemogram during the course of admission. 3 patients (14.28%) had leucocytosis and 4 patients (19.04%) presented with thrombocytopenia.
32610873 The most prevalent co morbidity was hypertension (42.46%) followed by Diabetes mellitus (39.72%), Old k-chest (20.54%), COPD/ Bronchial Asthma (16.43%), Coronary artery disease (13.69%), Chronic kidney disease (13.69%) and Valvular heart disease (6.84%) distributed in co morbid patients of COVID-19.
32612614 Thus far, there is no evidence that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) directly causes permanent damage to kidney, liver, or heart allografts.
32615555 In clinical reports on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is extremely variable, although AKI is described as an independent risk factor for mortality. […] Any supportive strategies to protect kidney could represent valuable intervention to reduce mortality in severe COVID-19 patients.
32616067 To be included in the trial the participant MUST: 1) Have given written informed consent to participate 2) Be aged 18 years to 70 years 3) Not previously have been diagnosed with COVID-19 4) Work in a high-risk secondary or tertiary healthcare setting (hospitals accepting COVID-19 patients) with direct patient-facing care EXCLUSION CRITERIA: The presence of any of the following will mean participants are ineligible: 1) Known COVID-19 positive test at baseline (if available) 2) Symptomatic for possible COVID-19 at baseline 3) Known hypersensitivity reaction to hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine or 4-aminoquinolines 4) Known retinal disease 5) Known porphyria 6) Known chronic kidney disease (CKD; eGFR<30ml/min) 7) Known epilepsy 8) Known heart failure or conduction problems 9) Known significant liver disease (Gilbert’s syndrome is permitted) 10) Known glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency 11) Currently taking any of the following contraindicated medications: Digoxin, Chloroquine, Halofantrine, Amiodarone, Moxifloxacin, Cyclosporin, Mefloquine, Praziquantel, Ciprofloxacin, Clarithromycin, Prochlorperazine, Fluconazole 12) Currently taking hydroxychloroquine or having a clinical indication for taking hydroxychloroquine 13) Currently breastfeeding 14) Unable to be followed-up during the trial 15) Current or future involvement in the active treatment phase of other interventional research studies (excluding observational/non-interventional studies) before study follow-up visit 16) Not able to use or have access to a modern phone device/web-based technology 17) Any other clinical reason which may preclude entry in the opinion of the investigator INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Interventions being evaluated are: A) Daily hydroxychloroquine or B) Weekly hydroxychloroquine or C) Placebo The maximum treatment period is approximately 13 weeks per participant.
32616077 The secondary outcomes included acute cardiac or kidney injury, shock, coagulopathy, and venous thromboembolism. […] On average, ARDS occurred in 14% of patients (95% PI, 2 to 59%; 999/6322 patients; 23 studies), acute cardiac injury in 15% (95% PI, 5 to 38%; 452/2389 patients; 10 studies), venous thromboembolism in 15% (95% PI, 0 to 100%; patients; 3 studies), acute kidney injury in 6% (95% PI, 1 to 41%; 318/4682 patients; 15 studies), coagulopathy in 6% (95% PI, 1 to 39%; 223/3370 patients; 9 studies), and shock in 3% (95% PI, 0 to 61%; 203/4309 patients; 13 studies).
32621527 The COVID-19 pandemic poses unprecedented operational challenges to nephrology divisions in every country as they cope with COVID-19-related kidney disease in addition to regular patient care.
32623470 In patients with severe COVID-19, we assessed the association between chronic ACEI/ARB use and the occurrence of kidney, lung, heart, and liver dysfunctions and the severity of the inflammatory reaction as evaluated by biomarkers kinetics, and their association with disease outcomes. […] ACEI/ARB use was independently associated with acute kidney injury, AKI stage ≥1 (OR, 3.28, 2.17-4.94). […] The daily dose of ACEI/ARB was independently associated with altered kidney markers with an increased risk of +25 to +31% per each 10 mg increment of lisinopril-dose equivalent. […] Patients chronically treated with ACEI/ARB who have severe COVID-19 are at increased risk of acute kidney injury.
32626733 Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of sepsis and has also been observed in some patients suffering from the new coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19, which is currently a major global concern. […] Here, we investigated the possible protective effects of TQ against kidney damage in septic BALB/c mice. […] After 48 h, we measured the histopathological alterations in the kidney tissue and the serum levels of creatinine (CRE) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).
32627319 The outcome of kidney transplant patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still unclear. […] Here we describe the clinical characteristics, disease outcome, and risk factors for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and death of a cohort of 53 kidney transplant patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] About 33% of the patients developed acute kidney injury, 60% ARDS, and 33% died.
32628990 Patients with hypertensive kidney disease were more often found to have SARS-CoV-2 infection and were more likely to be symptomatic than patients with another primary cause of kidney failure.
32629995 The other tissues assessed were heart, kidney, marrow, bowel, jejunum, skin and fat, which all varied with respect to mRNA levels for the different PADI isozymes. […] PADI isozyme 1-6 expression in other organ biopsies also reveals putative links to COVID-19 symptoms, including vascular, cardiac and cutaneous responses, kidney injury and stroke.
32631393 Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in 164 (68.6%) patients, coagulopathy in 150 (62.7%) patients, acute cardiac injury in 103 (43.1%) patients, and acute kidney injury (AKI) in 119 (49.8%) patients, which occurred 15.5 days, 17 days, 18.5 days, and 19 days after the symptom onset, respectively.
32634716 The comorbidities assessed in the study were Hypertension (HTN), Diabetes mellitus (DM), Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and Chronic Kidney disease (CKD). […] Presence of hypertension with OR 2.95, diabetes mellitus with OR 3.07, Cardio vascular disease with OR 4.58, COPD with OR 6.66 and Chronic kidney disease with OR 5.32 had significant association in patients with COVID 19 on having serious events.
32634827 Included covariates were age, hypertension, diagnoses including obesity, alcohol, sleep apnea, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, previous myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic heart disease (IHD), heart failure (HF), atrial fibrillation (AF), stroke, peripheral artery disease, cancer, liver-, rheumatic-, and chronic kidney disease (CKD).
32634830 Complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, septic shock, cardiac injury and coagulation disorder were less common in females; critical illness was also significant less common in females (31.1% vs 39.4%, p<0.0001). […] Among females, age, malignancy, chronic kidney disease and days from onset to admission were significant associated with mortality, while chronic kidney disease was not risk factor in males.
32638507 Twenty-seven (23.7%) T2DM patients died, who had more severe inflammation, coagulation activation, myocardia injury, hepatic injury, and kidney injury compared with non-DM patients.
32639084 Strikingly, ACE2 was up-regulated in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, oesophageal carcinoma, kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma and uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma compared to controls.
32640048 Many countries have suspended kidney transplantation programmes during the COVID-19 pandemic because of concerns for patient safety and the shortage of healthcare resources. […] This study aimed to describe patient, family member and potential donor perspectives on the suspension and resumption of kidney transplant programmes due to COVID-19. […] We conducted seven online focus groups involving 31 adult kidney transplant candidates (n = 22), caregivers (n = 4) and potential donors (n = 5). […] During the suspension of kidney transplantation programmes, patients felt medically vulnerable because of declining health, susceptibility to infection and reduced access to care. […] There is a need to address health vulnerabilities, disappointment, uncertainty and additional burdens arising from the suspension of kidney transplantation programmes.
32641296 Hematological, liver, kidney, and inflammation laboratory values were analyzed on the day of drug level determination.
32642005 Comparatively, ACE2 is expressed at low level by vascular endothelial cells of the heart and kidney but may also be targeted by the virus in severe COVID-19 cases.
32642390 We describe a 49-year-old man presenting with fever, cough, dyspnea, and myalgia diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 along with rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury.
32642770 Based on collected proteomic datasets from human lung, colon, kidney, liver and heart, we constructed a virus-receptor network, a virus-interaction network and a virus-perturbation network.
32643133 However, hypertension, coronary vascular disease, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and history of taking angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), were not significantly associated with the death of COVID-19 patients.
32643418 The pooled prevalence of pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease was 5.2% (2.8-8.1) and 2.3% (1.8-2.8), respectively. […] The pooled incidence over follow-up of 2-28 days was 12.5% (10.1-15.0) for electrolyte disturbance (e.g. hyperkalaemia), 11.0% (7.4-15.1) for acute kidney injury (AKI) and 6.8% (1.0-17.0) for renal replacement therapy (RRT). […] In this systematic meta-analysis of 22 observational cohort studies, the prevalence of pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) in COVID-19 patients was 5.2%. […] The most frequent renal complication was electrolyte disturbance (particularly hyperkalaemia) with an incidence of 12.5% followed by acute kidney injury (AKI) with an incidence of 11.0%; US populations and groups with higher prevalence of CKD had higher incidence of AKI.
32643874 In addition to acute respiratory distress syndrome, patients with severe COVID-19 can develop myocardial injury and cytokine storm, resulting in heart failure, arteriovenous thrombosis, and kidney injury.
32645174 Here, we report an adolescent with COVID-19-associated rhabdomyolysis who required hemodialysis due to acute kidney injury.
32645660 It has been demonstrated that macrophages populate the lung in three “developmental waves”, and it has been suggested that similar waves may be observed in other important organs, such as the heart and kidney.
32647285 A total of eight autopsy lungs, one placenta, and ten kidney biopsies from COVID-19 patients were stained with a panel of commercially available antibodies for IHC and commercially available RNA probes for ISH. […] All eight lungs and the placenta from COVID-19 patients stained positive by IHC and ISH, while the kidney biopsies stained negative by both methodologies.
32649023 However, other tissues are also susceptible to viral attack including the kidney, heart and brain.
32649791 Kidney transplant recipients may be at high risk of developing critical COVID-19 illness due to chronic immunosuppression and comorbidities. […] We identified hospitalized adult kidney transplant recipients at 12 transplant centers in the US, Italy and Spain who tested positive for COVID-19. […] Among 9,845 kidney transplant recipients across centers, 144 were hospitalized due to COVID-19 during the 9-week study period. 65% were male with a mean age of 60 (±12) years, 40% Hispanic and 25% African-American. […] During a median follow-up period of 52 days (IQR: 16-66 days), acute kidney injury occurred in 52% cases, respiratory failure requiring intubation in 29%, and mortality was 32%. […] In sum, hospitalized kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 have higher rates of acute kidney injury and mortality.
32651579 These conditions include thrombotic complications, myocardial dysfunction and arrhythmia, acute coronary syndromes, acute kidney injury, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatocellular injury, hyperglycemia and ketosis, neurologic illnesses, ocular symptoms, and dermatologic complications.
32651993 A significantly higher proportion of patients in the deceased group had cardiovascular diseases (49% vs. 20%), respiratory diseases (51% vs. 11%), chronic kidney disease (29% vs. 5%) and cerebrovascular disease (20% vs. 3%) than that in the discharged group.
32654275 Massie and coauthors provide data driven support for decision making by modeling the benefit to harm ratio of kidney transplant under varying environmental conditions, and providing a user-friendly calculator at transplantmodels.com/covid_sim.1.
32654296 The long-term use of lithium salts has long been associated with tubular damage and chronic kidney disease development. […] Nevertheless, there is some interest in the potential role of these drugs in inflammatory pathways regulation including those pathways in the setting of acute kidney injury (AKI).
32654332 The clinical characteristics of 47 SOTr (38 kidneys and 9 nonkidney organs) were compared to 100 consecutive hospitalized nontransplant controls. […] Chronic kidney disease (89% vs 57% P = .0007), diabetes (66% vs 33% P = .0007), and hypertension (94% vs 72% P = .006) were more common in the 35 hospitalized SOTr compared to controls. […] Acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy occurred in 20% of SOTr compared to 4% of controls (OR 6 CI [1.64-22] P = .007).
32654357 With COVID-19 pandemic, concerns about kidney transplant recipients are rising. […] We describe clinical and laboratory manifestations, radiologic findings, clinical course, and finally outcome of kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 pneumonia. […] Of 2493 kidney transplant recipients under follow-up in our clinic, 19 cases (4 cases diagnosed based on radiologic findings) were admitted.
32654422 In this pandemic, kidney transplant (KT) recipients are a high-risk population for severe infection and showed poor outcomes.
32655013 Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication of COVID-19.
32655019 Acute kidney injury has been reported with remdesivir in patients with severe COVID-19.
32655021 In this study, we aimed to evaluate the presentation and outcome of COVID-19 in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
32657186 The information on COVID-19 in kidney transplant recipients remains limited to small case series. […] A systematic literature search was conducted, and 12 case series totalling 204 kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 were identified.
32657540 Management of COVID-19 in kidney transplant recipients should include treatment of the infection, regulation of immunosuppression, and supportive therapy. […] This study aimed to our experiences with kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with COVID-19. […] Kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with COVID-19 from five major transplant centers in Istanbul, Turkey, were included in this retrospective cohort study. […] The secondary endpoints were acute kidney injury, the average length of hospital stay, admission to intensive care, and mechanical ventilation. […] COVID-19 has been seen to more commonly cause moderate or severe pneumonia in kidney transplant recipients. […] Induction therapy with lymphocyte-depleting agents should be carefully avoided in kidney transplant recipients during the pandemic period.
32657550 Clinical severity scales, kidney function biomarkers, white blood cell count parameters, the total neutrophils / total lymphocytes ratio and procalcitonin are early risk factors for mortality.
32658300 Acute kidney injury (AKI), albuminuria and hematuria are common in Covid-19 and have been shown to increase mortality. […] SARS-Cov-2 seems to enter and infect the endothelium and kidney cells, and contributes to damage in addition to hypercoagulability, multi organ failure and hyperinflammation.
32658868 Chronic kidney disease contributed mostly for death (RR: 7.10, 95% CI: 3.14-16.02), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for disease severity (RR: 4.20, 95% CI: 2.82-6.25), admission to intensive care unit (ICU) (RR: 5.61, 95% CI: 2.68-11.76), the composite endpoint (RR: 8.52, 95% CI: 4.36-16.65,), invasive ventilation (RR: 6.53, 95% CI: 2.70-15.84), and disease progression (RR: 7.48, 95% CI: 1.60-35.05), cerebrovascular disease for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (RR: 3.15, 95% CI: 1.23-8.04), coronary heart disease for cardiac abnormality (RR: 5.37, 95% CI: 1.74-16.54).
32658879 The use of medical devices (sphygmomanometer, glucometer, balance, etc.), connected by wireless to the clinician’s portal, might also allow a wider diffusion of incremental dialysis, an integrated therapy that combines conservative management of ESKD patients with a soft dialysis based on the residual kidney function and symptomatology, with potential prognosis and economic benefits.
32659757 There is no information on acute kidney injury (AKI) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) among invasively ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in Western healthcare systems.
32660970 Although a recent autopsy series of patients who died with severe COVID-19 in China found acute tubular necrosis in the kidney, a few patient reports have also described collapsing glomerulopathy in COVID-19. […] We evaluated biopsied kidney samples from ten patients at our institution who had COVID-19 and clinical features of AKI, including proteinuria with or without hematuria. […] Our analysis included ten patients who underwent kidney biopsy (mean age: 65 years); five patients were black, three were Hispanic, and two were white. […] Interestingly, although the patients had confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical staining of kidney biopsy samples for SARS-CoV-2 was negative in all ten patients. […] The most common finding in our kidney biopsy samples from ten hospitalized patients with AKI and COVID-19 was acute tubular necrosis. […] There was no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 in the biopsied kidney tissue.
32661498 In addition to the common lung and quite common pulmonary embolism and kidney injuries, he presented ocular and intestinal injuries that, to our knowledge, have not been described in COVID-19 patients.
32663789 To undertake a review and critical appraisal of published/preprint reports that offer methods of determining the effects of hypertension, diabetes, stroke, cancer, kidney issues, and high-cholesterol on COVID-19 disease severity. […] Other comorbidities, such as cancer, kidney disease, and stroke, must be further evaluated to determine a strong relationship to the virus. […] Reports associating cancer, kidney disease, and stroke with COVID-19 should be carefully interpreted, not only because of the size of the samples, but also because patients could be old, have a history of smoking, or have any other clinical condition suggesting that these factors might be associated with the poor COVID-19 outcomes rather than the comorbidity itself.
32663827 Little is known about the prevalence and pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in children affected by SARS-CoV-2.
32664161 Many commonly discussed medications being used to treat COVID-19 are not without potentially harmful side effects such as heart, liver, kidney problems, or other clinical symptoms.
32664919 Hypertension (64%), hyperlipidemia (62%), obesity (37%), diabetes mellitus (28%), chronic kidney disease (24%), and lung disease (21%) were the most common comorbidities.
32665227 Among the children in the 220 families included in data analysis, 113 (51%) children were on dialysis, and the other 107 (49%) had kidney transplants. […] Dialysis supply shortage (dialysis group) and hard to have blood tests (kidney transplantation group) were most commonly reported.
32665937 Most patients have mild symptoms, but a significant proportion have severe or critical disease, which can include cardiac injury, sepsis, acute kidney failure and respiratory failure.
32667578 to assess scientific evidence on SARS-CoV-2 Acute Kidney Injury in patients with COVID-19. an integrative review, with adoption of PICO strategy and classification of the level of evidence, carried out on April 10, 2020 in the PubMed database, of articles available between December 2019 and April 2020. the sample consisted of six original, five observational and one experimental articles. […] Observational studies addressed the clinical findings of patients with COVID-19 and association between kidney damage, infection, and morbidity-mortality. the studies addressed the mechanism of intracellular infection of SARS-CoV-2, its cytopathic effects on kidney cells and incidence of acute kidney injury in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. […] Acute kidney injury is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in these patients. […] This review realizes the need for new research that can mention kidney care to patients with COVID-19.
32667668 Factors independently associated with death included older age (≥80 vs <40 years of age: odds ratio [OR], 11.15; 95% CI, 6.19-20.06), male sex (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.19-1.90), higher body mass index (≥40 vs <25: OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.01-2.25), coronary artery disease (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.07-2.02), active cancer (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.35-3.43), and the presence of hypoxemia (Pao2:Fio2<100 vs ≥300 mm Hg: OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 2.11-4.08), liver dysfunction (liver Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of 2 vs 0: OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.30-5.25), and kidney dysfunction (renal Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of 4 vs 0: OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.46-4.05) at ICU admission.
32667716 The other was 67 years old with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, who experienced prolonged postoperative course, complicated with cytomegalovirus infection and kidney failure.
32668007 Patients had a high burden of comorbidities with a median Charlson comorbidity index of 3 points and a high prevalence of hypertension (57%), chronic kidney disease (28%) and obesity (27%).
32668317 We report a case of a kidney transplant recipient who presented with acute kidney injury and nephrotic-range proteinuria in a context of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. […] Kidney biopsy revealed collapsing glomerulopathy. […] This case illustrates that coronavirus disease 2019 infection may promote a collapsing glomerulopathy in kidney allografts with a low-risk APOL1 genotype in the absence of detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the kidney and that podocyte injury may precede SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia.
32669322 Patients with AKI and COVID-19 were more likely than those without COVID-19 to require RRT and were less likely to recover kidney function.
32669955 Our results suggested that ACE2 protein is mainly expressed in the small intestine, kidney, gallbladder, and testis, while the abundance of which in brain-associated tissues and blood common cells is low.
32675285 By expression in human embryonic kidney 293, esophageal EC9706, and lung epithelial A549 and 16HBE cells, Western blotting, and site-directed mutagenesis, we found that the activation cleavage of human TMPRSS11A was mediated by autocatalysis.
32675741 The largest reductions in SOT and waitlist deaths were seen in kidney and lung transplantation.
32677721 This study proposed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia in kidney transplant recipients. […] Clinical records, laboratory results, radiological characteristics, and clinical outcome of 24 kidney transplant patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated from March 20, 2020, to May 20, 2020.
32678882 Kidney graft recipients receiving immunosuppressive therapy may be at heightened risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and adverse outcomes. […] We performed a retrospective chart review of 73 adult kidney graft recipients evaluated for Covid-19 from 13 March to 20 April 2020. […] Primary outcomes included recovery from symptoms, acute kidney injury, graft failure and case fatality rate. […] Data from our study suggest that a strategy of systematic triage to outpatient or inpatient care, early management of concurrent bacterial infections and judicious adjustment of immunosuppressive drugs rather than cessation is feasible in kidney transplant recipients with Covid-19.
32680910 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is thought to cause kidney injury by a variety of mechanisms. […] We evaluated biopsy samples of native and allograft kidneys from patients with COVID-19 at a single center in New York City between March and June of 2020. […] Sixteen patients had comorbidities, including hypertension, obesity, diabetes, malignancy, or a kidney or heart allograft. […] Among 14 patients with a native kidney biopsy, 5 were diagnosed with collapsing glomerulopathy, 1 was diagnosed with minimal change disease, 2 were diagnosed with membranous glomerulopathy, 1 was diagnosed with crescentic transformation of lupus nephritis, 1 was diagnosed with anti-GBM nephritis, and 4 were diagnosed with isolated acute tubular injury. […] We found no definitive evidence of SARS-CoV-2 in kidney cells. […] Our findings provide evidence against direct viral infection of the kidneys as the major pathomechanism for COVID-19-related kidney injury and implicate cytokine-mediated effects and heightened adaptive immune responses.
32680914 Distribution of kidney-related research on preprint servers is rising at an exponential rate.
32681708 The number of kidney transplants has declined during the pandemic. […] We describe our deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT) experience during the pandemic. […] The kidney transplant (KT) recipients were followed until 5/31/20. […] Seventy-six patients received kidneys from 57 donors.
32681756 Its clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcome in kidney transplant recipients are little known. […] Therefore, we describe 22 kidney transplant recipients with SARS-CoV-2-induced pneumonia. […] All kidney transplant recipients who referred to the Razi Hospital of Rasht with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection from February 20 to 19th of April 2020 have been included in this observational study. […] We present 22 cases of COVID-19 in kidney transplant recipients (median age 52 years [interquartile range 40.75-62.75 years]) and baseline eGFR 60 (mL/min/1.73 m2) (44.75-86.75). […] Acute kidney injury (AKI) was observed in 12 patients during hospitalization. […] In this small observational study, we observed high AKI occurrence and mortality rate in kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19.
32681989 Twelve patients (17%) met severe sepsis criteria; 14 (20%) required vasopressor support; 21 (30%) developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); 9 (12.9%) met acute kidney injury criteria; 1 (1.4%) required renal-replacement therapy, and 2 (2.8%) had cardiac arrest.
32682106 COVID-19 causes severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, as well as several cardiovascular complications including myocarditis, venous thromboembolic disease, cardiogenic shock, and cardiac arrest.
32682453 Our study provided evidence that older age, male gender, Asian, indigenous or unknown race, comorbidities (smoking, kidney disease, obesity, pulmonary disease, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease), as well as fever and shortness of breath increased the risk of hospitalization.
32682491 All patients had clinically significant comorbidities, the most common being hypertension, chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnoea, and metabolic disease including diabetes and obesity. […] Coronavirus-like particles were detected in the respiratory system, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract.
32685180 Therefore, early evaluation and monitoring of both liver and kidney functions, as well as hematologic parameters, are pivotal to forecast the progression of COVID-19. […] In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association between several complications, including acute kidney injury (AKI), acute liver injury (ALI), and coagulopathy, with poor outcomes in COVID-19. […] Data extracted included author, year, study design, age, sex, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, respiratory comorbidities, chronic kidney disease, mortality, severe COVID-19, and need for ICU care. […] The AKI was associated with the composite outcome and was not influenced by age (P = .182), sex (P = .104), hypertension (P = .788), cardiovascular diseases (P = .068), diabetes (P = .097), respiratory comorbidity (P = .762), and chronic kidney disease (P = .77).
32685221 The renin-angiotensin system plays a very critical role in hypertension, diabetes, and kidney and heart diseases. […] We present the case series of four patients (2 men and 2 women; 1 Caucasian and 3 African Americans; two survived and two died) with confirmed COVID-19, presenting with respiratory symptoms and acute kidney injury, who have been on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. […] The factors contributing to acute kidney injury are diuretics, iodinated contrast administration, hemodynamic instability apart from ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers. […] The ACE inhibitors and ARBs were stopped in these patients due to acute kidney injury.
32685301 It is crucial to uncover the underlying pathogenesis of acute kidney insufficiency in COVID-19 patients to understand better the reasoning behind the grave outcomes in these patients. […] In this review, we have included articles stating the prevalence and specific mortality rates of COVID-19 patients with acute kidney insufficiency. […] Our study included 1098 COVID-19 positive patients, of whom 66 (6%) developed acute kidney insufficiency and 62 patients died, showing a mortality rate of 94%. […] Patients with acute kidney insufficiency showed a more severe disease course, and these patients ended up more in intensive care units. […] Particular attention should be paid to those with already established kidney disease, such as chronic kidney disease, or renal transplant recipients, as these patients are already on immunosuppressive therapy. […] Our review focuses on the prevalence of acute kidney insufficiency in COVID-19 patients and mortality rates in this subset of patients.
32685369 We report a case of COVID-19 in a patient with a kidney and liver transplant and discuss the early use of tocilizumab to prevent the cytokine storm and attempt to reduce the likelihood of progression to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS).
32686219 In preclinical models, senolytics delay, prevent or alleviate frailty, cancers and cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, liver, kidney, musculoskeletal, lung, eye, haematological, metabolic and skin disorders as well as complications of organ transplantation, radiation and cancer treatment.
32686373 Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurred in 3 (4.5%) of the 66 patients, and 1 patient with AKI stage 3 underwent hemodialysis.
32687551 Chronic kidney disease and asthma were risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalization in women but not men.
32688374 Biological markers of inflammation and liver/kidney function were monitored.
32690437 Kidney transplant recipients present a unique challenge given their need for ongoing monitoring and management as well as their higher risk of COVID-19 infection. […] This review will focus on the challenges faced by kidney transplant recipients and health care providers and provides strategies to address these issues.
32690572 Kidney transplant recipients have been reported at a particularly high risk of severe COVID-19 illness due to chronic immunosuppression and coexisting conditions. […] Yet, here we describe a remarkably mild case of COVID-19 in a 62-year-old female who had a kidney transplantation 10 years earlier due to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. […] The case demonstrates that kidney transplant recipients are not necessarily severely affected by COVID-19.
32691342 The novel coronavirus disease infection (COVID-19) outbreak that was declared a global pandemic in March 2020 had led to an internationally variable but concerning incidence of COVID-associated acute kidney injury (AKI), with prevalence reported as high as 46% in large cohorts of hospitalized patients. […] Further, AKI requiring kidney replacement therapies (KRT) has been associated with increased mortality. […] Proposed mechanisms of kidney injury include direct viral-induced tubular or glomerular injury, sepsis-associated AKI, and thrombotic disease. […] Kidney pathology include acute tubular injury, glomerular fibrin thrombi, pigmented tubular casts, and collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. […] “Viral-like” particles have been observed in renal samples at electron microscopy and viral RNA has been identified in both glomerular and tubular compartments of kidney specimens, but the link between viral presence and injury remain unclear. […] Though the link between AKI and poor outcomes is clear, prevalence and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with chronic kidney disease and end stage kidney disease has not yet been reported. […] In patients on immunosuppression like those with kidney transplants or glomerular disease, COVID-19 has presented a management dilemma. […] Herein, we review the existing literature on kidney disease in COVID-19 and discuss what remains to be learned.
32693711 In this review the characteristics and mechanism of kidney injury caused by SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infection are summarized and contrasted. […] In particular, urine-oral transmission, prevention and management of the kidney injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 are emphasized. […] We searched PubMed® for English language articles published since 2003 with the keywords “SARS,” “MERS,” “COVID-19” or “kidney injury.” […] Similar to 2 other coronaviruses including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 caused severe respiratory syndrome with rapid progression and kidney injury. […] Cases of COVID-19 combined with kidney impairment are associated with a higher risk of mortality than those without comorbidities. […] The pathological changes of the kidney are mainly due to local SARS-CoV-2 replication or indirectly by pro-inflammatory cytokine response. […] Ultimately this is significant for preventing potential urine-oral transmission and improving the cure rate of acute kidney injury with COVID-19. […] Emerging evidence supports that in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections the prevalence of kidney injury is high and usually leads to a poor prognosis. […] Optimal prevention and management of kidney injury will benefit patients with COVID-19.
32694915 Thus, this narrative review describes clinically important considerations about the treatment of COVID-19 and immunosuppressive regimens regarding modifications, side effects, and interactions in adult kidney or liver allograft recipients.
32695319 The kidney is not typically the main target of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, but surprisingly, acute kidney injury (AKI) may occur in 4-23% of cases, whereas the dialysis management of AKI from coronavirus 2019 has not gained much attention.
32695320 Although the pandemic outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) targets preferentially patient’s lungs, recent data have documented that COVID-19 causes myocarditis, acute myocardial infarction, exacerbation of heart failure and acute kidney injury.
32695321 Patients with chronic kidney disease, especially those on dialysis, are considered to be at higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 due to their immunocompromised status and frail condition.
32695324 Previous data from Wuhan city showed that acute kidney injury (AKI), proteinuria and hematuria occurred frequently in patients with severe COVID-19. […] However, the prevalence of kidney injury in milder cases remains unclear.
32695325 Among patients hospitalized for novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), between 10 and 14% develop an acute kidney injury and around half display marked proteinuria and haematuria. […] Post-mortem analyses of COVID-19 kidney tissue suggest that renal tubular cells and podocytes are affected. […] Despite our use of sensitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction techniques in this study, we failed to detect the virus in blood, urine and kidney tissues. […] Our observations suggest that these kidney lesions are probably not due to direct infection of the kidney by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
32695326 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) frequency, severity and characterization in critically ill patients has not been reported. […] AKI was defined using Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria.
32695327 A retrospective cohort of 42 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients without history of kidney disease hospitalized in University Hospital of Nancy was investigated. […] During follow-up, they presented a lower nadir of serum phosphate [median (interquartile range) 0.68 (0.43-0.76) versus 0.77 (0.66-1.07) mmol/L, P = 0.044] and Acute kidney Injury (AKI) during the hospitalization (P = 0.045).
32696264 These organs include the kidney, liver, muscles, nervous system, and spleen.
32698190 Chloroquine is an anti-malaria drug that is used for the treatment of COVID-19 as it inhibits the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the African green monkey kidney-derived cell line Vero1-3.
32698191 HCQ showed antiviral activity in African green monkey kidney cells (Vero E6) but not in a model of reconstituted human airway epithelium.
32699613 The current issue of Clinical Kidney Journal presents 15 articles on COVID-19 and kidney disease from three continents, providing a global perspective of the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on electrolytes and different kidney compartments (glomeruli, tubules and vascular compartments) and presenting clinically as a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, acute kidney injury, acute kidney disease, collapsing glomerulopathy and thrombotic microangiopathy, among others, in the context of a brand-new cardiorenal syndrome. […] Kidney injury may need acute dialysis that may overwhelm haemodialysis (HD) and haemofiltration capabilities. […] Additionally, pre-existent chronic kidney disease increases the risk of more severe COVID-19 complications.
32699615 In this regard, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a higher rate of all-type infections and cardiovascular disease than the general population.
32699689 Herein we report on the clinical features and fatal outcome of COVID-19 in a dual pancreas-kidney transplant recipient (with failure of the pancreas graft).
32701196 We seek to add to the current limited literature on COVID-19 in transplant recipients by describing the clinical course of two kidney transplant recipients with SARS-CoV-2 infection monitored by both RT-PCR and serology.
32701240 Patients of critical type more frequently have bacterial infection with more serious inflammatory reactions, severer heart, lung and kidney damages, and much higher levels of DD and LDH than those of the common type.
32701937 Risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated illness (illness requiring hospitalization, intensive care unit [ICU] admission, mechanical ventilation, or resulting in death) increases with increasing age as well as presence of underlying medical conditions that have shown strong and consistent evidence, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and obesity (1-4).
32702098 To account for confounders, patients were substratified by whether they developed hypotension and acute kidney injury (AKI) during the index hospitalization.
32702150 The aim of this review was to summarize the existing literature specifically in kidney transplant (KTx) recipients, with an emphasis on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, post-operative outcomes, and therapeutic strategies currently employed.
32702153 There is no consensus on immunosuppression management for kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.
32703636 We reviewed all relevant articles pertaining to kidney, upper tract urothelial cell, bladder, prostate, penile, and testicular cancer in regard to diagnostic, surgical, or treatment delay.
32703645 The COVID-19 epidemic represents a special risk for kidney patients due to their comorbidities and advanced age, and the need for hemodialysis treatment in group rooms.
32703929 Kidney transplantation at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic is challenging. […] In this study, we aim to review the published literature of kidney transplant recipients who encountered COVID-19. […] There were 24 articles that reported 129 kidney transplant recipients who encountered COVID-19. […] Acute kidney injury was observed in 34.1% of patients. […] Kidney transplant patients encountered COVID-19 were maintained on tacrolimus (Tac, 92%), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, 78.8%), and prednisone (Pred, 77%) and were manage by holding MMF in 79.1% of patients and holding Tac in 34.4% of patients. […] The clinical presentation of COVID-19 in kidney transplant recipients may be different from the general population with a higher rate of severe disease, complications including renal failure, and mortality.
32708430 It invades the cell at the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor and binds to hemoproteins, resulting in a severe systemic inflammatory response, particularly in high ACE-2 organs like the lungs, heart, and kidney, resulting in systemic disease.
32708858 However, there is a paucity of data regarding the clinical course and the therapeutic management of patients with chronic kidney disease and COVID-19 infection.
32709413 A kidney transplant center in Central Italy implemented a strategy to maintain follow-up of kidney transplant recipients by phone and e-mail during lockdown. […] From March 17 to April 23, 2020, a total of 143 kidney transplant recipients were contacted. […] In the context of a lockdown, such as that occurring in response to COVID-19, we suggest implementing remote surveillance programs in kidney transplant recipients with the help of any available technology and offering medical consulting and logistic support as needed.
32710733 Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a dangerous and broadly spread pathological illness.
32710735 BACKGROUND Acute kidney injury is one of the most common complications in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, occurring in up to 7% of cases and increasing to 23% in patients treated in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). […] Finally, the following diagnoses were integrated: Acute renal injury of etiology to be determined (acute chronic kidney disease secondary to T2DM vs. acute renal injury by SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19.
32711848 The high morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 in immunocompetent patients raises significant concern for immunosuppressed kidney transplant recipients (KTRs).
32712607 Severe acute respiratory viral infections are frequency accompanied by multiple organ dysfunction, including acute kidney injury (AKI).
32712623 Primary outcome was 30-day in-hospital mortality, and secondary outcomes were intubation, acute kidney injury (AKI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and acute cardiac injury (ACI).
32713060 There is a lack of data describing the impact of the novel coronavirus 19 pandemic on the patients of chronic kidney disease stage V-dialysis (CKD V-D) from resource-limited countries.
32713123 Thus, impairment of kidney function has been primarily attributed until now to secondary effects such as cytokine release or fluid balance disturbances. […] We provide evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can directly infiltrate a kidney allograft. […] A 69-year-old male, who underwent pancreas-kidney transplantation 13 years previously, presented to our hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and impaired pancreas and kidney allograft function. […] Kidney biopsy was performed showing tubular damage and an interstitial mononuclear cell infiltrate. […] SARS-CoV-2 binds to its target cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, which is expressed in a broad variety of tissues including the lung, brain, and kidney.
32713282 Everyday nephrologists see patients with hypertension, chronic kidney disease, maintenance dialysis treatment or kidney transplant who are also high-risk groups for the COVID-19. […] Beyond that, COVID-19 or severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) due to infection may directly affect kidney functions. […] This broad spectrum of COVID-19 influence on kidney patients and kidney functions obviously necessitate an up to date management policy for nephrological care. […] This review overviews and purifies recently published literature in a question to answer format for the practicing nephrologists that will often encounter COVID-19 and kidney related cases during the pandemic times.
32714077 In addition, as the exacerbation of pneumonia, some complications had the high probability to occur according to the meta-analysis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (RR=13.95; 95% CI=6.20 to 31.41; P<0.00001), shock (RR=24.29; 95% CI=4.66 to 126.69; P=0.0002), acute cardiac injury (RR=10.32; 95% CI=3.05 to 34.96; P=0.0002) and acute kidney injury (RR=5.90; 95% CI=1.32 to 26.35; P=0.02) between two groups.
32718215 Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) require specialized management. […] We aimed to investigate the influence of the COVID-19 on kidney patients’ follow-ups. […] In April 2020, we included patients who underwent kidney biopsy from January 2017 to December 2019 in a referral center of China, and then initiated a survey via telephone on different aspects of follow-up during the COVID-19 pandemic. […] We reached 1190 CKD patients with confirmed kidney biopsies, and included 1164 patients for analysis after excluding those on dialysis.
32718894 Compared with non-severe patients, severe patients had more obvious abnormal laboratory results related to inflammation, coagulation disorders, liver and kidney damage (all P < 0.05).
32719737 Kidney, Liver and Heart along with coagulopathies.
32719758 Although data from China and the United States indicate that pediatric cases often have a mild course and are less severe in comparison to adults, there have been several cases of kidney failure and multisystem inflammatory syndrome reported.
32720031 This is expressed in human tissues, not only in the respiratory epithelia, but also in the small intestines, heart, liver, and kidneys. […] Here, we examine the most recent findings on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on kidney diseases, mainly acute kidney injury, and the potential role of the chemokine network.
32721533 In patients with severe/fatal COVID-19, the most prevalent chronic comorbidities were obesity (42%, 95% CI 34-49%) and hypertension (40%, 95% CI 35-45%), followed by diabetes (17%, 95% CI 15-20%), cardiovascular disease (13%, 95% CI 11-15%), respiratory disease (8%, 95% CI 6-10%), cerebrovascular disease (6%, 95% CI 4-8%), malignancy (4%, 95% CI 3-6%), kidney disease (3%, 95% CI 2-4%), and liver disease (2%, 95% CI 1-3%). […] In order of the prediction, the pooled ORs of the comorbidities in patients with severe or fatal COVID-19 when compared to patients with non-severe/fatal COVID-19 were as follows: chronic respiratory disease, OR 3.56 (95% CI 2.87-4.41); hypertension, OR 3.17 (95% CI 2.46-4.08); cardiovascular disease, OR 3.13 (95% CI 2.65-3.70); kidney disease, OR 3.02 (95% CI 2.23-4.08); cerebrovascular disease, OR 2.74 (95% CI 1.59-4.74); malignancy, OR 2.73 (95% CI 1.73-4.21); diabetes, OR 2.63 (95% CI 2.08-3.33); and obesity, OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.04-2.85). […] Chronic comorbidities, including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, kidney disease, and malignancy are clinical risk factors for a severe or fatal outcome associated with COVID-19, with obesity being the most prevalent and respiratory disease being the most strongly predictive.
32722159 The risk factors for increased odds of death by COVID-19 were: sex (male: OR = 1.47, ref = female), age ((56-60) years, OR = 6.01; (61-65) years, OR = 10.5; (66-70) years, OR = 20.4; (71-75) years, OR = 34; (76-80) years, OR = 50.9; (81-85) years, OR = 70.7; (86-90) years, OR = 83.2; (91-95) years, OR = 91.8; (96-104) years, OR = 140.2, ref = (0-55)), Cardiac disease (OR = 2.86), Kidney disorder (OR = 2.95), and Neuromuscular disorder (OR = 1.58), while condition (None (absence of precondition); OR = 0.49) was associated with a reduced chance of dying after adjusting for other variables of interest.
32722927 Similar to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, nearly 20% of patients experienced various fatal complications, including acute kidney injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by cytokine storm.
32723027 After excluding prior kidney diseases, some patients showed abnormal urinalysis (32.11%), elevated blood creatinine (15.04%) and blood urea nitrogen (19.11%). […] Our data showed that male, aged 65 or above, smoking, with comorbidities including diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney diseases, would experience more severe COVID-19 pneumonia. […] It predominantly affects the lung as well as the kidney.
32723443 Acute kidney injury (AKI) is relatively common in critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and it increases mortality and prolongs hospital stay. […] This article aimed to investigate the history, virology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathophysiology and management of COVID-19 disease, in general, and the pathogenetic mechanisms of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2)-induced kidney damage, in particular. […] According to different studies, kidney involvement in COVID-19 typically occurs in patients who develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or multiorgan failure. […] The kidney damage in COVID-19 has been shown to be multifactorial, involving direct viral infection, indirect injury by sepsis, hemodynamic alterations, cytokine storm, disseminated intravascular coagulation and other unknown mechanisms. […] The presence in kidney of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor for the virus, has been proven, but few cases of direct viral presence in kidney tissue have been published. […] Therefore, further studies are needed to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying kidney impairment. […] Key Words: Acute kidney injury, Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Sepsis, Cytokine storm, Kidney replacement therapy, Coronavirus disease 2019.
32723520 In this study, 124 patients were transplanted with 12 (9.7%) hearts, 4 (3.2%) lungs, 39 (31.4%) livers, 67 (54%) kidneys, and 2 (1.6%) combined kidney-pancreas.
32725087 Compared to the Brazilian population, patients hospitalized for SARI-COVID showed a higher proportion of males, elderly individuals and those aged 40 to 59 years, comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and chronic lung diseases), and pregnant/postpartum women. […] Compared to the general population, Brazilians hospitalized for SARI-FLU showed higher prevalence rates of ages 0 to 4 years or over 60 years, white race/color, comorbidities (diabetes, chronic kidney disease, asthma, and other chronic lung diseases), and pregnant/postpartum women.
32725482 Renal involvement presenting as acute renal infarct and/or acute kidney injury has been described in literature; however, these typically occur in patients with severe COVID-19.
32725691 Moreover, COVID-19 patients with diabetes were prone to be classified as severe or critical cases (46.30%, 25/54) and had complications such as acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and acute kidney injury.
32725744 Limited data are available for information and prognosis on COVID-19 patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease. […] It is crucial to monitor changes of renal function in patients with COVID-19, especially those with primary kidney disease. […] Kidney protection interventions should be taken as early as possible, thereby improving the prognosis of patients with COVID-19.
32726241 Hypertension (60%) stands out to be the most common comorbidity followed by diabetes mellitus (47%), cardiovascular disease (17%), chronic kidney disease (17%), and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (9%).
32726868 Among those, a history of CVD (odds ratio (OR) = 3.15, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 2.26-4.41), acute cardiac (OR = 10.58, 5.00-22.40) or kidney (OR = 5.13, 1.78-14.83) injury, increased procalcitonin (OR = 4.8, 2.034-11.31) or D-dimer (OR = 3.7, 1.74-7.89), and thrombocytopenia (OR = 6.23, 1.031-37.67) conveyed the highest odds for the adverse composite endpoint. […] Advanced age, male sex, cardiovascular comorbidities, acute cardiac or kidney injury, lymphocytopenia and D-dimer conferred an increased risk of in-hospital death.
32727719 Although there are numerous potential mechanisms underlying COVID-19-associated AKI, our current knowledge of kidney pathologic findings in COVID-19 is limited. […] We examined the postmortem kidneys from 42 patients who died of COVID-19. […] We identified focal kidney fibrin thrombi in 6 of 42 (14%) autopsies.
32727811 The true impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on immunocompromised CAR T-cell therapy recipients and kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) has not yet been established. […] The second patient was a 52-year-old kidney transplant recipient (KTR) who took ciclosporin after renal transplantation for more than 7 years.
32727941 COVID-19 presents challenges for management of children with renal diseases, especially those receiving long-term immunosuppressive medications, including renal transplant recipients and those with chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury requiring dialysis.
32728473 Severe acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potential complication of COVID-19-associated critical illness. […] This has implications for the management of COVID-19-associated AKI and the resulting increased need for kidney replacement therapy (KRT) in the intensive care unit (ICU) and elsewhere in the hospital. […] The goal is the provision of the best possible care for the largest number of patients with kidney disease while considering how best to ensure the safety of the health care team. […] A working group of kidney specialist physicians was established with representation from across Canada. […] Kidney physician specialists met via teleconference and exchanged e-mails to refine and agree on the proposed suggestions in this document. […] (1) Nephrology programs should work with ICU programs to plan for the possibility that up to 30% or more of critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU will require kidney replacement therapy (KRT).
32729248 Further top ACE2 regulators in vivo or in primary cells include erlotinib and bleomycin in the lung and vancomycin, cisplatin, and probenecid in the kidney.
32729460 He developed acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy without reversibility, despite optimal treatment.
32730678 The disease called COVID-19 threatens health and life in patients with comorbid disease, especially in patients with kidney failure.
32730733 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 did not replicate efficiently in 13 bat cell lines, whereas severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replicated efficiently in kidney cells of its ancestral host, the Rhinolophus sinicus bat, suggesting different evolutionary origins.
32730812 During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, New York encountered shortages in continuous kidney replacement therapy (CKRT) capacity for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury stage 3 requiring dialysis. […] In sensitivity analyses, varying assumptions around: (1) the number of pre-COVID-19 surplus CKRT machines available and (2) the incidence of acute kidney injury stage 3 requiring dialysis requiring CKRT among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 resulted in projected shortages in 3 to 8 states (933-1,282 machines) and 4 to 8 states (945-1,723 machines), respectively. […] These findings, although based on limited data for CKRT demand and capacity, suggest there being value during health care crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic in establishing an inpatient kidney replacement therapy national registry and maintaining a national stockpile of CKRT equipment.
32731215 The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) population, with high mortality rates reported among patients on hemodialysis.
32731281 Increasing insight into the clinical phenotype and mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 has identified damage of the kidneys as a key player in the course of the disease. […] This manuscript summarizes the current knowledge on direct viral infection of kidney tissue, proteinuria and acute kidney injury in COVID-19, and management of patients on chronic dialysis as well as after kidney transplantation. […] In this context, any kidney affection is a predictor of worse outcomes among COVID-19 patients irrespective of the initial presentation and increases the risk of acute kidney injury. […] Specific therapies for kidney damage and acute kidney injury within COVID-19 that could be generally recommended are currently lacking. […] Immunosuppressive therapy after kidney transplantation needs to be adapted upon diagnosis of COVID-19 depending on the severity of the initial presentation.
32731751 Introduction: We introduced a nurse-led telephone-based virtual stone clinic (VSC) follow-up for the surveillance of patients with asymptomatic renal calculi or those at a high risk of recurrent kidney stone disease (KSD). […] The referral was for surveillance of asymptomatic small renal stones (230, 79.3%); history of recurrent stone disease (45, 15.5%); solitary kidneys (5, 1.7%); cystine stones; young age; and other conditions (10, 3.4%). […] The mean stone size was 5.0 ± 2.7 mm, followed up with kidney, ureter, and bladder radiograph (225, 77.6%) and ultrasound scan (USS) (65, 22.4%), for median duration of 12 months (range: 3-24 months).
32732016 The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which affects the entire population in general, poses a special risk for patients with chronic kidney disease because of their immunosuppression status, advanced age and the coexistence of significant comorbidity.
32732512 The rates of cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, as well as heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were significantly higher in the CAD population.
32733487 Major comorbid conditions associated with increased mortality include cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, being immunocompromised by cancer, and severe kidney disease with a senile immune system.
32733692 To provide guidance on the management of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) not requiring kidney replacement therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic. […] Program-specific documents, pre-existing, and related to COVID-19; documents from national and international kidney agencies; national and international webinars, including webinars that we hosted for input and feedback; with additional information from formal and informal review of published academic literature. […] The suggestions were presented at a CSN-sponsored interactive webinar, attended by 150 kidney health care professionals, for further peer input. […] Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease (CJKHD) editors reviewed the parallel process peer review and edited the manuscript for clarity. […] We identified 11 broad areas of advanced CKD care management that may be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic: (1) clinic visit scheduling, (2) clinic visit type, (3) provision of multidisciplinary care, (4) bloodwork, (5) patient education/support, (6) home-based monitoring essentials, (7) new referrals to multidisciplinary care clinic, (8) kidney replacement therapy, (9) medications, (10) personal protective equipment, and (11) COVID-19 risk in CKD.
32733980 Prevalence of comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, chronic kidney disease, malignancies, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic liver disease and smoking were extracted to measure the pooled estimates. […] Other most prevalent finding was diabetes mellitus (DM) in 11%, cerebrovascular disease in 2.4%, cardiovascular disease in 5.8%, chronic kidney disease in 3.6%, chronic liver disease in 2.9%, chronic pulmonary disease in 2.0%, malignancy in 2.7%, and smoking in 8.7% of the patients.
32736597 All subjects must be aged ≥18 years, male or female, must be willing and able to give informed consent and must not have any contraindications to take hydroxychloroquine (intolerance or previous toxicity for hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, bradycardia or reduction in heart rhythm with arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, retinopathy, congestive heart failure with use of diuretics, favism or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, diabetes type 1, major comorbidities such as advanced chronic kidney disease or dialysis therapy, known history of ventricular arrhythmia, any oncologic/hematologic malignancy, severe neurological and mental illness, current use of medications with known significant drug-drug interactions, and known prolonged QT syndrome or current use of drugs with known QT prolongation).
32736821 The most frequent comorbidities were cardiovascular disease (75.9%), hypertension (HT) (74.1%) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (50%).
32737423 We also summarize the current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection with an emphasis on ACE2, the cardiovascular system, and the kidney.
32738141 The IF pattern was composed of liver and gastric mucosa staining on rat kidney/liver/stomach sections.
32739424 This study aimed to investigate whether the presence of acute kidney injury (AKI) might increase the risk of severe infection and fatality in COVID-19 patients.
32742978 COVID-19 is characterized by acute respiratory disease, with 80% of patients presenting mild like flu-like symptoms; however, 20% of patients may have a severe or critical clinical presentation, which likely causes multiple organ injuries (e.g., kidney, heart, blood, and nervous system). […] Among them, acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication due to its high incidence and mortality rate. […] Multiple studies have shown that COVID-19 may involve the kidneys and cause AKI.
32744436 Acute kidney injury (AKI) was reported in parts of case-studies reporting characteristics of COVID-19 patients. […] Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technology was used to obtain evidence of potential route and ACE2 expressing cell in renal system for underlying pathogenesis of kidney injury caused by COVID-19. […] From Gene Ontology (GO) & KEGG enrichment analysis, imbalance of ACE2 expression, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation, and neutrophil-related processes were the main issue of COVID-19 leading kidney injury. […] Our study provided the cellular evidence that SARS-Cov-2 invaded human kidney tissue via proximal convoluted tubule, proximal tubule, proximal straight tubule cells, and glomerular parietal cells by means of ACE2-related pathway and used their cellular protease TMPRSS2 for priming.
32746481 COVID-19 is a severe infectious disease particularly of the respiratory system characterized by fatal complications such as severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS), pneumonia, cardiac arrhythmia, kidney failure/ multiple organ failure and even death.
32747155 Chronic kidney disease increased the risk of death the most (OR 2.31), followed by diabetes (OR 1.69), immunosuppression (OR 1.62), obesity (OR 1.42), hypertension (OR 1.24), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 1.20).
32750009 Our analysis suggests that cardiovascular and kidney diseases, obesity, and hypertension are significant risk factors for COVID-19 complications.
32750019 To be prepared for any possibility, we consider it important to summarize the current knowledge regarding COVID-19 of liver and kidney transplant patients. […] Stop (kidney transplanted patients) or decrease (liver transplanted patients) immunosuppression and maintain corticosteroids when pulmonal injury develops and consider anti-IL1 and anti-IL6 monoclonal antibody use when hyperinflammatory syndrome is evolving.
32750378 SARS-CoV-2 infection can result in diverse, multiorgan pathology, the most significant being in the lungs (diffuse alveolar damage in its different phases, microthrombi, bronchopneumonia, necrotizing bronchiolitis, viral pneumonia), heart (lymphocytic myocarditis), kidney (acute tubular injury), central nervous system (microthrombi, ischemic necrosis, acute hemorrhagic infarction, congestion, and vascular edema), lymph nodes (hemophagocytosis and histiocytosis), bone marrow (hemophagocytosis), and vasculature (deep vein thrombosis).
32750694 The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spotlighted the vulnerability of patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) to the viral infection. […] We also discuss the direct cytopathic effect of the virus on renal tissue and extracorporeal blood purification techniques that can prevent kidney damage or reduce acute kidney injury progression.
32753052 Renal biopsy findings in hospitalized COVID-19 patients presenting solely with acute kidney injury (AKI) have recently been described in published literature in few case reports. […] We describe the kidney biopsy findings of two patients who had recent diagnoses of COVID-19 and presented with new-onset nephrotic syndrome.
32753243 Kidney transplant recipients (KTR) present unique characteristics, including disease vintage, immunosuppression, and single functioning kidneys. […] We evaluated published information in peer-reviewed journals between January 1, 2020, and April 24, 2020, with available data on acute kidney injury (AKI), renal replacement therapy (RRT), intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and death and compared clinical outcomes in KTR vs nontransplant recipients with COVID-19.
32754159 In SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, cytokine storm appears important to the pathogenesis of several severe manifestations of COVID-19: acute respiratory distress syndrome, thromboembolic diseases such as acute ischemic strokes caused by large vessel occlusion and myocardial infarction, encephalitis, acute kidney injury, and vasculitis (Kawasaki-like syndrome in children and renal vasculitis in adult).
32755217 The most common such imaging manifestations were pulmonary embolus (n=21) on contrast-enhanced CT or CTA, thrombus in the upper or lower extremity veins (n=13) on Doppler US, end organ infarction in the bowel (n=4) and kidney (n=4) on contrast-enhanced CT, and thrombus or parenchymal infarction in the brain (n=2) on contrast-enhanced CTA or MRI with MRA.
32755393 We show that, in COVID-19, inflammatory microvascular thrombi are present in the lung, kidney, and heart, containing neutrophil extracellular traps associated with platelets and fibrin.
32758298 ◦ Chronic kidney disease with GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (stage 4 or greater) or need for hemodialysis.
32758363 It has also impacted different aspects of caring for people with kidney disease, including those with acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), those requiring kidney replacement therapy (KRT), and those with a kidney transplant. […] The lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic will hopefully serve to protect patients with kidney disease in a similar situation in the future.
32759311 ACE2 is expressed in numerous tissues especially the lung alveolar epithelial cells, heart, kidney and gastrointestinal tract. […] ACE2 may have a protective effect in the lung and kidney as knockout mice display susceptibility to acute respiratory distress and hypertensive nephropathy.
32759645 Most of the deceased patients had pre-existing comorbidities; over 20% had chronic kidney disease (CKD). […] Furthermore, although SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized mainly by diffuse alveolar damage and acute respiratory failure, acute kidney injury (AKI) has developed in a high percentage of cases. […] As AKI has been shown to be associated with worse prognosis, we believe that the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the kidney should be investigated. […] This review sets out to describe the main renal aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the role of the virus in the development and progression of kidney damage. […] In this article, attention is focused on the epidemiology, etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of kidney damage, histopathology, clinical features in nephropathic patients (CKD, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, AKI, transplantation) and prevention and containment strategies.
32762106 Risk factors for hospital admission included advanced age, male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.44 to 1.98), Hispanic/Latino ethnicity (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.18 to 1.92), hypertension (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.46 to 2.16), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.53 to 2.22), prior CVA (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.99 to 5.14), coronary artery disease (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.06), heart failure (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.23 to 2.61), chronic kidney disease (OR = 2.60, 95% CI = 1.77 to 3.83), end-stage renal disease (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.12 to 4.41), cirrhosis (OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.42 to 2.91), fever (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.19 to 1.71), and dyspnea (OR = 4.53, 95% CI = 3.75 to 5.47).
32762171 ACE2 and CLEC4M are expressed in alimentary system, heart, kidney, lung and placenta.
32763058 Acute kidney injury and pulmonary embolism were observed in 10% and 20% of patients, respectively.
32765952 Patients with hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 2.40; 95% CI, 2.08-2.78), cardiovascular disease (CVD) (OR = 3.54; 95% CI, 2.68-4.68), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR=3.70; 95% CI, 2.93-4.68), chronic liver disease (CLD) (OR=1.48; 95% CI, 1.09-2.01), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.47-2.30), chronic cerebrovascular diseases (OR = 2.53; 95% CI, 1.84-3.49) and chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disease (OR = 2.13; 95% CI, 1.12-4.05) were more likely to develop severe COVID-19. […] The incidence of acute organ injuries, including acute cardiac injury (ACI); (OR = 11.87; 95% CI, 7.64-18.46), acute kidney injury (AKI); (OR=10.25; 95% CI, 7.60-13.84), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); (OR=27.66; 95% CI, 18.58-41.18), and acute cerebrovascular diseases (OR=9.22; 95% CI, 1.61-52.72) was more common in patients with severe COVID-19 than in patients with non-severe COVID-19.
32766427 The early effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on transplantation are dramatic: >75% of kidney and liver programs are either suspended or operating under major restrictions. […] To investigate this, we studied severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 diagnostic test results among patients with end-stage renal disease or kidney transplants from the Johns Hopkins Health System (n = 235), and screening test results from deceased donors from the Southwest Transplant Alliance Organ Procurement Organization (n = 27), and donors, candidates, and HCWs from the National Kidney Registry and Viracor-Eurofins (n = 253) between February 23 and April 15, 2020. […] We found low rates of COVID-19 among donors and HCWs (0%-1%) who were screened, higher rates of diagnostic tests among patients with end-stage renal disease or kidney transplant (17%-20%), and considerable mortality (7%-13%) among those who tested positive.
32766541 Among acute myocardial injury (AMI), acute kidney injury (AKI) and acute liver injury (ALI), the heart was the earliest injured organ, whereas the time from AKI to death was the shortest.
32766815 Four hundred eighty-two SOT recipients from >50 transplant centers were included: 318 (66%) kidney or kidney/pancreas, 73 (15.1%) liver, 57 (11.8%) heart, and 30 (6.2%) lung.
32766817 However, information on kidney damage in older patients with COVID-19 is limited. […] Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in hospitalized adults and associated with poor prognosis. […] Acute kidney injury is not an uncommon complication in older patients with COVID-19 but is associated with a high risk of death.
32767940 By the infection, common symptoms have been observed like a sudden high fever in between 1 to 9 days and some of the problem in the neck region with starting infection day and then this infection spread into the lungs causes novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) and kidney failure.
32769232 However, a few children have been reported to have severe manifestations including pneumonia, acute kidney injury, multi-organ failure and cardiac injury.
32769322 Not only does it weaken the immune system causing multi-organ involvement but also helps in its progression and spread to others.Multiple organs especially lungs, heart, kidney, gastrointestinal and hepatic system, brain and skin are affected varying in their severity.
32770646 A family cluster of four laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients, one of those carried an underlying kidney transplant (KT) receiving immunosuppressants.
32771032 Those pregnant or lactating, severely dyspneic or with respiratory distress, already undergoing treatment, and with serious comorbidities like liver or kidney failure will be excluded.
32771034 Inclusion Criteria: - Patients with mild COVID19 (defined as upper respiratory tract infection symptoms in the absence of clinical or radiological signs of pneumonia). - Adult (18 - 65 years old). - Written informed consent by the patient (or legally authorized representative) prior to initiation of any study procedures. - All patients should understand and agree to comply with planned study procedures. - Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) from throat swab. - Patients with pneumonia or severe illness requiring admission to intensive care unit. - Severe chronic kidney disease (i.e. estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] < 30 mL / min) or end stage renal disease requiring dialysis - Severe chronic liver disease (Alanine transaminase [AlT] or Aspartate transaminase [AST] > 5 times the upper limit of normal). - Pregnancy or breast feeding. - Anticipated transfer within 72 hours to another hospital that is not a study site. - Allergy to the study medication The trial is currently conducted on patients recruited from King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
32771488 Respiratory failure and acute kidney injury (AKI) are associated with high mortality in SARS-CoV-2-associated Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32773284 We have also evaluated the impact of COVID-19 on our kidney transplant (KT) recipients and a control group of kidney living donors (KLD).
32773818 Everyone is susceptible to infection with this disease, and owing to the long-term use of immunosuppressants, the immunity of kidney transplant recipients is suppressed, and it is more likely to be infected with the disease. […] At present, its impact on kidney transplant recipients is unclear. […] A 37-year-old female patient who received a kidney transplant 6 months before was diagnosed with novel coronavirus pneumonia. […] In terms of treatment, because the immunity of kidney transplant recipients has been suppressed for a long time, it is a very common strategy to suspend the use of immunosuppressive agents.
32774232 Angiotensin converting enzyme II is an entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, which is highly expressed in the kidney, so some patients had symptoms of kidney damage.
32775814 There are limited data on the association of kidney dysfunction with prognosis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the extent to which acute kidney injury (AKI) predisposes patients to severe illness and inferior outcomes is unclear. […] Kidney dysfunction is common among patients with COVID-19, and patients who develop AKI have inferior outcomes.
32775986 Although kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk for viral infections, the impact of their chronic immunosuppressed status on the risk for acquiring coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and disease severity is unknown. […] All cases of COVID-19 infection in our cohort of kidney transplant recipients were prospectively monitored. […] 22 COVID-19 infections were diagnosed in our cohort of 1,200 kidney transplant recipients. […] After a median of 10 days, 13 kidney transplant recipients were discharged, 2 were hospitalized in non-ICU units, 1 was in the ICU, and 2 patients had died. […] A standard strategy of immunosuppression minimization and treatment was applied, with 11% mortality among kidney transplant recipients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection.
32775989 Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been associated with acute kidney injury, presumably due to acute tubular injury. […] We present 2 African American patients with glomerulopathy demonstrated by kidney biopsy in the setting of acute kidney injury and COVID-19 infection. […] Kidney biopsy specimens showed a collapsing variant of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in addition to acute tubular injury. […] More data from future kidney biopsies will further elucidate the pathology of kidney injury and glomerular involvement from COVID-19 infections.
32775990 However, kidney involvement is being frequently noted and is associated with higher mortality. […] Currently, kidney pathology data for COVID-19 are scant and mostly come from postmortem findings. […] We report 2 African American patients who developed acute kidney injury and proteinuria in temporal association with COVID-19 infection. […] Kidney biopsy specimens showed collapsing glomerulopathy, endothelial tubuloreticular inclusions, and acute tubular injury, without evidence by electron microscopy or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in situ hybridization of viral infection of kidney cells.
32776624 The disease manifestations in patients with chronic kidney disease and especially those on haemodialysis are still being understood, with only a few overseas case series, and small observational trials thus far.
32776805 To highlight this principle, we examined acute kidney injury (AKI) in IgA-dominant infection-associated glomerulonephritis (GN) and menstrual toxic shock syndrome (mTSS).
32777130 We aimed to determine nasopharyngeal and plasma viral loads via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and SARS-CoV-2 serology via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and study their association with severe forms of COVID-19 and death in kidney transplant recipients. […] In this study, we examined hospitalized kidney transplant recipients with nonsevere (n = 21) and severe (n = 19) COVID-19. […] SARS-CoV-2 shedding is prolonged in kidney transplant recipients and the humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 does not show significant impairment in this series of transplant recipients.
32777153 Kidney transplant recipients might be at higher risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] This is a multicentric kidney transplant cohort including 104 hospitalized patients between March 4 and April 17, 2020. […] In our cohort, ARDS was equally present among young and old kidney recipients.
32777178 Here, we report on immune monitoring facilitating a successful outcome of severe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated pneumonia, meningoencephalitis, gastroenteritis, and acute kidney and pancreas graft failure in a pancreas-kidney transplant recipient.
32777758 Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication in critically ill patients with COVID-19 with a reported incidence ranging from <5% to >25%.
32778033 ACE2 was expressed in oral Cavity, salivary glands of the mouth, esophagus, myocardial cells, kidney, and enterocytes, along all the respiratory tract, intestine, and blood vessels.
32778622 Last, tertiary prevention propose to hamper the progress of clinical disease and prevent more severe complications of the disease, for examples cardiac rehabilitation, or medications for prevent chronic kidney disease in patients with diabetes or hypertension.
32779808 Study cohort consisted of 885 patients, of them 24 SOT recipients (n = 22, kidney, n = 2 liver).
32779820 The most prevalent group was the kidney 57.0%, followed by 17.2% heart, and 13.6% liver. […] It was found that 96.8% and 72.4% of patients present with CRP level and lymphocytopenia, respectively, and 70.6% of kidney recipients patients presented with high creatinine levels.
32779838 We additionally find that patients with lymphocytopenia were more likely to develop an acute kidney injury (AKI), a marker of organ failure, during admission by an odds ratio of 4.29 (95% CI: 1.35-13.57; P = .01).
32779891 In Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), higher morbidity and mortality are associated with age, male gender and comorbidities, such as chronic lung diseases, cardiovascular pathologies, hypertension, kidney diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. […] All of the above conditions are characterized by increased sympathetic discharge, which may exert significant detrimental effects on COVID-19 patients, through actions on the lungs, heart, blood vessels, kidneys, metabolism and/or immune system.
32780165 Patients admitted within the first week had higher SOFA scores, more often had thrombocytopenia or acute kidney injury, had more limited radiographic involvement, and had significantly higher blood IL-6 levels. […] Age, COPD, immunocompromised status, time from disease onset, troponin concentration, and acute kidney injury were independently associated with mortality.
32782814 The rapid worldwide spread of COVID-19 has posed a serious threat to patients treated with kidney replacement therapy (KRT).
32783099 Comorbidities included arterial hypertension (71.4%), dyslipidemia (71.4%), diabetes mellitus (33.3%), chronic kidney failure requiring dialysis (28.6%) and chronic-obstructive lung disease/asthma (19.0%).
32784192 There was no significant difference in the odds of in-hospital mortality, upgrade to intensive medical care, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, acute kidney failure necessitating dialysis, or discharge from the hospital after recovery in both the HCQ and TCZ groups compared to their respective control groups.
32784239 We report the first case of a patient affected with sudden-onset severe pre-eclampsia complicated by acute fatty liver disease of pregnancy, HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet) syndrome and acute kidney injury following SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32785285 Multivariate regression identified the amount of supplemental oxygen required at admission (OR: 1.208, 95% CI: 1.011-1.443, p = .037), sputum production (OR: 6.734, 95% CI: 1.630-27.812, p = .008), insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (OR: 11.873, 95% CI: 2.218-63.555, p = .004) and chronic kidney disease (OR: 4.793, 95% CI: 1.528-15.037, p = .007) as significant risk factors for intensive care unit admission or death. […] Patients with increased sputum production and higher supplemental oxygen requirements at admission, and insulin dependent diabetes or chronic kidney disease may be at increased risk for severe illness.
32785928 A 78-year-old man had a medical history of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease, and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
32786152 Whether kidney transplant recipients are capable of mounting an effective anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) adaptive immune response despite chronic immunosuppression is unknown and has important implications for therapy. […] Herein, we analyzed peripheral blood cell surface and intracellular cytokine phenotyping by flow cytometry along with serum antibody testing in 18 kidney transplant recipients with active coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and 36 matched, transplanted controls without COVID-19. […] Our findings indicate that immunosuppressed kidney transplant recipients admitted to the hospital with acute COVID-19 infection can mount SARS-CoV-2-reactive adaptive immune responses. […] The findings raise the possibility that empiric reductions in immunosuppressive therapy for all kidney transplant recipients with active COVID-19 may not be required.
32787909 Kidney evaluation revealed the presence of hemosiderin in tubules or pigmented casts in most patients. […] IHC revealed positive cells with a heterogeneous distribution in the lungs of 11 of the 17 (65%) patients; RT-PCR yielded a wide distribution of SARS-CoV-2 in different tissues, with 8 patients showing viral presence in all tested organs (i.e., lung, heart, spleen, liver, colon, kidney, and brain).
32788120 Secondary outcomes include two-week and three-week mortality, the incidence of VTE, acute kidney injury and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT).
32790836 Complications in the course of disease were more common in patients with CVD, included acute respiratory distress syndrome (22.8% vs 8.1%), malignant arrhythmias (3.7% vs 1.0%) including ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation, acute coagulopathy(7.9% vs 1.8%), and acute kidney injury(11.6% vs 3.4%).
32790932 Recently, Akalin et al.1 reported a 28% mortality among kidney-transplant patients infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] During the coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 outbreak, kidney transplant programs were suspended in several countries2 . […] Although the pandemic is still ongoing, the stop of lockdown has prompted several transplant centers to restart kidney transplantation programs.
32791255 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is commonly associated with kidney damage, and the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor for SARS-CoV-2 is highly expressed in the proximal tubule cells. […] At the structural level, kidneys from patients with COVID-19 showed prominent tubular injury, including in the initial part of the proximal tubule, with brush border loss, acute tubular necrosis, intraluminal debris, and a marked decrease in the expression of megalin in the brush border.
32793544 The elderly, immunocompromised, and those with preexisting conditions-such as asthma, cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD), or obesity-experience higher risk of becoming severely ill if infected with the virus.
32793615 Patients with COVID-19 have displayed kidney damage through acute kidney injury, mild proteinuria, hematuria, or slight elevation in creatinine possibly as consequence of kidney tropism of the virus and multiorgan failure. […] The impact of COVID-19 on patients with pre-existing kidney impairment, including those with chronic kidney disease, kidney transplant recipients, and individuals on hemodialysis (HD) has not yet been clearly established.
32795841 This study aims to investigate mortality and renal recovery in patients with Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) due to COVID-19.
32796217 PLH were more likely to be men, African-American, obese and have concurrent hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and nicotine dependence compared with non-PLH cohort (all P values <0.05). […] We performed 1 : 1 matching for BMI, diabetes, hypertension, chronic lung diseases, chronic kidney disease, race, history of nicotine dependence and sex.
32798002 Kidney transplant recipients who develop symptoms consistent with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are bringing unique challenges to health care professionals. […] Herein we present reports of 3 kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 who were managed using telemedicine via synchronous video visits integrated with an electronic medical record system, from home to inpatient settings. […] While there is limited information about the duration of viral shedding for immunosuppressed patients, our findings underscore the importance of using telemedicine in the follow-up care for kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 who have recovered from symptoms but might have persistently positive nucleic acid tests. […] Our experience emphasizes the opportunities of telemedicine in the management of kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 and in the maintenance of uninterrupted follow-up care for such immunosuppressed patients with prolonged viral shedding. […] Telemedicine may help increase access to care for kidney transplant recipients during and beyond the pandemic as it offers a prompt, safe, and convenient platform in the delivery of care for these patients. […] Yet, to advance the practice of telemedicine in the field of kidney transplantation, barriers to increasing the widespread implementation of telemedicine should be removed, and research studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of telemedicine in the care of kidney transplant recipients.
32798701 Less-frequent comorbidities such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, and patients with immunosuppressed conditions also showed a significant risk for death (P < .0001).
32799217 BACKGROUND Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifests primarily as a lung infection, its involvement in acute kidney injury (AKI) is gaining recognition and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. […] CONCLUSIONS The etiology of kidney disease involvement in patients with COVID-19 is still evolving and appears to be multifactorial.
32799423 Besides the respiratory system, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was shown to affect other essential organs such as the kidneys. […] Early kidney involvement during the course of infection was associated with worse outcomes, which could be attributed to the direct SARS-CoV-2 infection of kidney cells. […] In this study, the effect of commonly used medications on the expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2, and TMPRSS2 protein in kidney tissues was evaluated. […] This was done by in silico analyses of publicly available transcriptomic databases of kidney tissues of rats treated with multiple doses of commonly used medications. […] The prolonged exposure to combinations of these medications could regulate the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in a way that may affect kidney susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Data presented here suggest that we should be vigilant about the potential effects of commonly used medications on kidney tissue expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2.
32800295 Clinical outcomes measured were intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, bleeding and transfusion events, acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality.
32800517 Kidney allograft biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis of rejection.
32800622 89%; P=.009), acute kidney injury (AKI) (58% vs.
32801291 Ringer’s lactate infusion was administered at a controlled rate to treat the rhabdomyolysis along with boluses of normal saline, with close monitoring of her oxygen saturation and kidney function.
32802523 Her clinical course exhibited complications, including pulmonary embolism, acute kidney injury, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, multiple cardiac arrests, and eventually death.
32802627 Background Kidney disease accompanying coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not well understood, and information about the presentation of acute kidney injury (AKI), its risk factors, and outcomes is scarce, particularly in Bahrain and the Gulf region. […] The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria were used to define AKI. […] Chronic kidney disease conferred an increased risk for AKI (P = 0.003) as did critical COVID-19 status (P < 0.001) and the necessity for mechanical ventilation or intensive care admission (P < 0.001 for both). […] Awareness of kidney disease in COVID-19 patients is crucial and of vital importance.
32804802 COVID-19 pandemic has posed at risk the kidney transplant (KT) population.
32805256 Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication of COVID-19 encompassing a wide range of presentations. […] We are, nevertheless, far from a comprehensive understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of the kidney injury in this infection. […] Unfortunately, no effective preventive strategy to decrease the risk of kidney damage in these patients has yet been identified.
32805730 And each 1-year increase in age (OR, 1.057; 95% CI, 1.018-1.098; P=0.004), Wuhan exposure history greater than 2 weeks (OR, 2.765; 95% CI, 1.040-7.355; P=0.042), diarrhea (OR, 24.349; 95% CI, 3.580-165.609; P=0.001), chronic kidney disease (OR, 6.966; 95% CI, 1.310-37.058; P = 0.023), myoglobin higher than 106 μg/L (OR, 8.910; 95% CI, 1.225-64.816; P=0.031), white blood cell higher than 10×109/L (OR, 5.776; 95% CI, 1.052-31.722; P=0.044), and C-reactive protein higher than 10 mg/L (OR, 5.362; 95% CI, 1.631-17.626; P=0.006) were risk factors for severe cases. […] Older age, Wuhan exposure history, diarrhea, chronic kidney disease, elevated myoglobin, elevated white blood cell and C-reactive protein were independent risk factors for severe patients with COVID-19 in Guangzhou.
32806998 Eight patients with acute cardiac injury were aged >60 years; seven of them had ≥2 underlying comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic kidney disease).
32810523 Given the high risk of infection-related mortality, patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) may be at increased risk with COVID-19.
32810610 Hypokalaemia occurred in 25.8% (78/302) and 18.5% (56/303) had acute kidney injury.
32812834 Acute kidney injury (AKI) was present on admission in 40.7% of patients, and developed subsequently in 36.0%; 50.9% of patients with AKI received renal replacement therapy (RRT).
32815238 We present a novel case series of three kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 who recovered after receiving COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) therapy.
32824683 The COVID-19 pandemic has led to frequent referrals to the emergency department on suspicion of this infection in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and kidney transplant (KT) patients.
32825629 The study population consisted of 49 COVID-19 patients, including 16 (32.6%) with severe illness, 12 (24.5%) with severe acute kidney injury (AKI), and 8 (16.3%) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT).
32825963 Herein, we thoroughly reviewed multiple organs including lung, gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, skin, heart, blood, spleen, lymph nodes, brain, blood vessels, and placenta in terms of COVID-19-related pathological alterations.
32826326 Pathologic studies were performed in kidney tissues from ten deceased patients with AKI. […] The proportion of Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) stage 1, stage 2, and stage 3 AKI were 26.8%, 31.7%, and 41.5%, respectively. […] Nucleic acid tests and immunohistochemistry failed to detect the virus in kidney tissues.
32826529 We evaluated FFPE sections from 8 COVID-19 autopsies, including 19 pulmonary and 39 extrapulmonary samples including the heart, liver, kidney, small intestine, skin, adipose tissue, and bone marrow. […] ISH, IHC, and qRT-PCR failed to detect the virus in the heart, liver, and kidney.
32826642 The adult population was affected with a severe respiratory illness as well as acute kidney injury, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, and thromboembolism.
32826796 We present 53 SOT recipients (31 kidney, 8 liver, 5 heart, 5 lung, 3 liver-kidney and one kidney-after-heart), transplanted at a Swedish high-volume transplant center and each diagnosed with COVID-19 between February 21, 2020, and June 22, 2020.
32826818 Acute kidney injury (29.7%) and secondary infection (28.2%) were also notable.
32829913 Peak hs-cTnI concentrations continued to be significantly associated with mortality after a multivariate regression controlling for comorbid conditions, inflammatory markers, acute kidney injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome.
32829962 In most cases, the cause of death has been attributed to respiratory failure, sepsis, cardiac failure, kidney injury, or coagulopathy.
32830935 The following is a high-level overview of basic immunology that can assist the nephrology nurse in the care and education of patients with kidney failure, as well as those in the community who may seek guidance and clarification of the issues that are inherent in the global response to COVID-19.
32830949 Although respiratory symptoms are a key feature of the disease, many people who are hospitalized with COVID-19 also suffer acute kidney injury, a condition that exacerbates patient mortality and may have to be treated through renal replacement therapy.
32831324 The analyses showed high co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the gastrointestinal tract and kidney, but not in the skin.
32833200 CoVs cause a variety of diseases in mammals and birds ranging from enteritis in cows and pigs, and upper respiratory tract and kidney disease in chickens to lethal human respiratory infections.
32834950 The novel PBPK model allows in-depth description of the pharmacokinetics of CQ in several key organs (lung, heart, liver, and kidney), and was applied to design dosing strategies in patients with acute COVID-19 (Day 1: 750 mg BID, Days 2-5: 500 mg BID, CQ phosphate), patients with moderate COVID-19 (Day 1: 750 mg and 500 mg, Days 2-3: 500 mg BID, Days 4-5: 250 mg BID, CQ phosphate), and other vulnerable populations (e.g., renal and hepatic impairment and elderly patients, Days 1-5: 250 mg BID, CQ phosphate).
32835277 A 50-year-old male presented with atrial flutter 25 days after heart and kidney transplantation.
32835326 SARS-CoV, but not SARS-CoV-2, infected and replicated in Rhinolophus sinicus bat kidney cells.
32835530 Moreover, HIV, cardiovascular, and kidney disease were diagnosed as factors that increase the risk of death in hypertensive patients. […] Moreover, the probability of other complications like diabetes, smoking, asthma, kidney, and cardiovascular diseases, and either some other infections such as HIV can make the condition complicated and need more consideration to prevent noxious outcomes.
32837106 In this paper, the theory of " Fear injury kidney " in traditional Chinese medicine is systematically reviewed, and it is found that long-term or excessive psychological changes of fear are likely to damage kidney qi and kidney essence. […] Modern researches on “Fear injury kidney” have also found that long-term or excessive fear could cause changes in the neuro-endocrine-immune system, which can induce diseases or susceptibility to some diseases.
32837109 A case of the absorption of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) promoted by professor Xu ZOU’s acupuncture technique for “benefiting kidney and strengthening anti-pathogenic qi” is introduced.
32837207 However, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 kidney injury is difficult to estimate worldwide.
32837217 Besides, potential anti-COVID-19 medicines have also been reported to cause adverse side effects to kidney.
32837573 Patients with chronic kidney diseases are particularly at risk of infections and must therefore be protected against the risks of infection in dialysis treatment.
32837729 We describe the first death in Libya from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presenting as acute kidney failure in an 86-year-old woman in Tripoli with no recent travel history. […] On 1 April 2020, the patient’s status deteriorated and she was diagnosed with acute kidney injury as a complication of sepsis, with a urea level of 240 mg/dL (reference range 5-50 mg/dL) and creatinine level of 7.69 mg/dL (reference range 0.4-1.3 mg/dL). […] However, the patient died, despite attempted resuscitation, from multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following acute kidney injury.
32837747 8.0%), and chronic kidney diseases (6.2% vs. 0%) was significantly higher than in COVID-19 patients without type 2 diabetes.
32837750 Adverse events, serious adverse events, liver function, kidney function and concurrent treatments will be monitored and recorded throughout the trial.
32838077 The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the care of patients with noncommunicable diseases, including those suffering from kidney-related ailments. […] We aimed to analyze the effect of lockdown imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the care of patients with kidney diseases in India. […] We surveyed 19 major hospitals (8 in the public and 11 in the private sector) to determine the effect of lockdown on the care of patients with kidney disease, including those on dialysis after the first 3 weeks of lockdown. […] Lack of preparedness before lockdown resulted in an interruption in health care services and posed an immediate adverse effect on the outcome of dialysis patients and patients with kidney disease in India. […] The long-term impact on the health of patients with less severe forms of kidney disease remains unknown.
32838177 Cytokine release syndrome caused by COVID-19 develops severe acute kidney failure.
32838184 Chronic kidney disease (aOR for women 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9) and smoking (aOR for women 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9) were more common in men.
32838205 To determine the incidence of and risk-factors for development of acute kidney injury (AKI) and investigate the association between AKI and mortality in patients hospitalized with Covid-19. […] Increasing age, chronic kidney disease, hyperlipidemia and being of African-American descent showed higher odds of AKI. […] We found significantly higher odds of AKI with increasing age, among hyperlipidemics and patients with chronic kidney disease and among African-Americans.
32838215 Lower circulating levels of natriuretic peptides, key regulators of vascular tone and kidney function, have been associated with salt-sensitive hypertension and obesity.
32838290 Persons with end-stage kidney disease receiving in-center maintenance hemodialysis may be at high risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) exposure and severe outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] These findings highlight the high risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure for patients with end-stage kidney disease living in poor urban areas.
32839726 SARS-CoV-2 is not only responsible for causing pneumonia, but there are also concerns regarding the involvement of other organs such as the heart, liver, and kidneys. […] Here, we review kidney involvement in COVID 19, the mechanism of kidney injury, and its impact on mortality.
32840379 Outcomes included critical illness (intensive care, mechanical ventilation, discharge to hospice, or death), thrombotic events, acute kidney injury, and death during admission. […] Patients with elevated presenting baseline D-dimer were more likely than those with normal D-dimer to have critical illness (43.9% versus 18.5%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.4 [95% CI, 1.9-3.1]; P<0.001), any thrombotic event (19.4% versus 10.2%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4-2.6]; P<0.001), acute kidney injury (42.4% versus 19.0%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.4 [95% CI, 1.9-3.1]; P<0.001), and death (29.9% versus 10.8%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.6-2.9]; P<0.001). […] Rates of adverse events increased with the magnitude of D-dimer elevation; individuals with presenting D-dimer >2000 ng/mL had the highest risk of critical illness (66%), thrombotic event (37.8%), acute kidney injury (58.3%), and death (47%). […] Abnormal D-dimer was frequently observed at admission with COVID-19 and was associated with higher incidence of critical illness, thrombotic events, acute kidney injury, and death.
32840491 Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of critical illness associated with hypertension, CHD, tumor, and age ≥ 60 years for male, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), tumor, and age ≥ 60 years for female.
32840579 Patients on dialysis were susceptible to COVID-19 and were prone to severe clinical characteristics after infection; acute kidney injury was related to mortality in COVID-19 cases. […] Evaluate clinical characteristics, course and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who did not require RRT and those on dialysis.
32840917 Severe COVID-19 patients had higher levels of urea and Pro, while their UA levels were lower, reflecting poor kidney function in severe patients.
32844161 Thrombotic features were observed in at least one major organ in all full autopsies, predominantly in the lung (eight [89%] of nine patients), heart (five [56%]), and kidney (four [44%]).
32844290 Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of critically ill adult patients with COVID-19. […] However, currently, no studies investigate kidney impairment in children with COVID-19. […] By extracting data from electronic medical records, we conducted a retrospective observational study of kidney involvement in confirmed pediatric COVID-19 cases in Wuhan Children’s Hospital during the coronavirus outbreak, from January 24 to March 20, 2020. […] The three patients with AKI were treated with plasma exchange (PE) and continuous kidney replacement therapy (CKRT), resulting in one complete recovery, one partial recovery, and one mortality due to critical illness.
32844546 There was a trend toward higher risk of acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy in SOT vs. non-SOT patients (37% vs.
32845276 Elevated troponin levels were also associated with a higher risk of in-hospital complications: heart failure (44 patients [19.2%] vs 7 patients [2.9%]; P < .001), sepsis (31 [11.7%] vs 21 [6.4%]; P = .03), acute kidney failure (41 [20.8%] vs 13 [6.2%]; P < .001), multiorgan failure (21 [10.9%] vs 6 [2.9%]; P = .003), pulmonary embolism (27 [9.9%] vs 17 [5.2%]; P = .04), delirium (13 [6.8%] vs 3 [1.5%]; P = .02), and major bleeding (16 [7.0%] vs 4 [1.6%]; P = .008).
32845926 We analyzed 11 comorbidities: cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and HIV/AIDS. […] Cardiovascular disease (risk ratio (RR) 2.25, 95% CI = 1.60-3.17, number of studies (n) = 14), hypertension (1.82 [1.43 to 2.32], n = 13), diabetes (1.48 [1.02 to 2.15], n = 16), congestive heart failure (2.03 [1.28 to 3.21], n = 3), chronic kidney disease (3.25 [1.13 to 9.28)], n = 9) and cancer (1.47 [1.01 to 2.14), n = 10) were associated with a significantly greater risk of mortality from COVID-19. […] Patients with COVID-19 with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease and cancer have a greater risk of mortality compared to patients with COVID-19 without these comorbidities.
32846367 The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic impacted healthcare services for kidney disease patients. […] The report analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on kidney disease patient care in Duhok City, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. […] This study took place in the Duhok Kidney Disease and Transplant Center and compared data from February-April 2019 and 2020. […] The number of patients visiting the kidney transplant consultation unit was significantly reduced (135.7 ± 37.7 versus 102.5 ± 26.3; P = 0.005). […] The number of kidney transplant operations per week was reduced from 1.167 to 0.5 (P = 0.025). […] The COVID-19 pandemic interrupted healthcare services and may continue to impart long-term negative consequences for kidney disease patients.
32846825 Based on our findings, we propose that the risk of cellular immune deficiency, hepatic injury, and kidney injury should be monitored.
32847984 COVID-19 has been associated with high morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. […] However, risk factors for COVID-19 disease in patients with kidney transplants remain poorly defined. […] We enrolled patients who underwent kidney transplantation and were actively followed up in two hospitals in Paris on March 1st, 2020. […] Among 1216 patients with kidney transplants enrolled, 66 (5%) patients were identified with COVID-19 disease, which is higher than the incidence observed in the general population in France (0.3%). […] Patients with kidney transplants display a high risk of mortality.
32848788 Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors exert beneficial effects in prevention/treatment of pulmonary fibrosis, heart, and kidney injury, and since they may be a long-term consequence caused by COVID-19, it is reasonable to expect that DPP-4 inhibitors might be beneficial in alleviating long-term consequences of COVID-19.
32850085 We present three patients with COVID-19 who developed acute renal failure during hospitalization and were seen to have an improvement in their kidney function after being started on therapeutic anticoagulation with heparin (Target PTT 58-93 seconds) for varying indications (atrial fibrillation, popliteal vein thrombosis and a pulmonary embolism). […] Their kidney functions improved significantly following anticoagulation with a clear temporal relationship between the former and latter. […] Anticoagulation was held for one patient due to concern of gastrointestinal bleeding and his kidney functions worsened a day after stopping anticoagulation.
32850917 Background: The kidney is a target organ that could be infected by SARS-CoV-2, and acute kidney injury (AKI) was associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 patients’ in-hospital death. […] Conclusions: COVID-19-related AKI was likely to be related to multiorgan failure rather than the kidney tropism of SARS-CoV-2. […] The potential risk factors of COVID-19 clinical classification, procalcitonin more than 0.1 ng/mL, and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 could help clinicians to identify patients with kidney injury at an early stage.
32850926 In addition, univariate and multivariate Cox analyses of potential factors for poor outcome patients indicated that cytokine storms and uncontrolled inflammation responses as well as liver, kidney, and cardiac dysfunction are related to the development of a poor outcome. […] We found that cytokine storms and uncontrolled inflammation responses as well as liver, kidney, and cardiac dysfunction may play important roles in the final outcome of severely ill patients with COVID-19.
32850927 Some authors proposed the discontinuation of ACEIs and ARBs for cardiovascular, kidney, and metabolic diseases, while expert opinions have discouraged that due to limited empirical evidence of their negative effect on COVID-19 outcomes, and that withdrawing treatment may contribute to clinical decompensation in high-risk patients.
32852058 In humans, CoVs can cause respiratory, kidney, heart, brain, and intestinal infections that can range from mild to lethal.
32852338 Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that famotidine was an independent predictor of both lower mortality and combined death/intubation, whereas older age, body mass index >30 kg/m, chronic kidney disease, National Early Warning Score, and higher neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio were all predictors of both adverse outcomes.
32852403 There is compelling evidence that renal complications in a native kidney are a major concern in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, the causal agent of COVID-19. […] In renal transplant patients receiving kidneys from donors with high-risk APOL1 variants, COVID-19 may promote acute glomerular injury in the form of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis.
32852405 Acute kidney injury occurred in 19% of patients, and 45% required supplementary oxygen.
32852576 We present a 15-year-old boy who tested positive for SARS-COV-2 infection and onset of nephrotic syndrome, without antecedent of kidney disease and who had normal urine tests shortly before being affected by COVID-19.
32853631 Notwithstanding the ongoing coronavirus disease-2019 (Covid-19) pandemic, information on its clinical presentation and prognosis in recipients of a kidney transplant remain scanty. […] The aim of this registry-based observational study was to explore characteristics and clinical outcomes of recipients of kidney transplants included in the French nationwide Registry of Solid Organ Transplant Recipients with Covid-19. […] Thus, Covid-19 in recipients of kidney transplants portends a high mortality rate.
32853823 Since ACE2 is expressed in various tissues, such as brain, gut, heart, kidney, and lung, and since these organs represent obvious targets for the SARS-CoV-2 infection, therapeutic approaches were developed to either inhibit ACE2 or reduce its expression as a means of prevention of the virus entry into the corresponding host cells.
32853989 Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with severe inflammation in mainly the lung, and kidney.
32856034 Comorbidities included hypertension (46.7%), diabetes (27.8%), cardiovascular disease (18.6%), obesity (16.1%), and chronic kidney disease (12.2%). […] Male sex, older age, obesity, geographic region, and the presence of chronic kidney disease or preexisting cardiovascular disease were associated with an increased odds of mechanical ventilation.
32857453 Complications during hospitalization, such as sepsis, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute cardiac injury, and acute kidney injury, were markedly more frequent in deceased patients than in surviving patients.
32858068 Ranked from lowest to highest these were: hypertension, chronic kidney disease, chronic respiratory and heart disease, and cancer or immunocompromised.
32860146 We evaluated lung and kidney perfusion abnormalities in patients with COVID-19 by dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and investigated the role of perfusion abnormalities on disease severity as a sign of microvascular obstruction. […] Pulmonary and kidney images were reviewed. […] We found that a large proportion of patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 had PDs in their lungs and kidneys, which may be suggestive of the presence of systemic microangiopathy with micro-thrombosis. […] • Perfusion abnormalities in the kidney are suggestive of a subclinical systemic microvascular obstruction in these patients.
32860307 Many deceased-donor and living-donor kidney transplants (KTs) rely on commercial airlines for transport. […] To understand potential pandemic-related disruptions in the transportation network of kidneys across the United States, we used national flight data to compare scheduled flights during the pandemic vs 1-year earlier, focusing on Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) pairs between which kidneys historically most likely traveled by direct flight (High Volume by direct Air transport OPO Pairs, HVA-OPs). […] Specific to the kidney transportation network, there were 65.1% fewer flights between HVA-OPs, with considerable OPO-level variation (interquartile range [IQR] 54.7%-75.3%; range 0%-100%).
32860432 Secondary outcomes were in-hospital death, septic shock, and acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring hemodialysis.
32860699 COVID-19 death was associated with male sex, increasing age, diabetes, hypertension and chronic kidney disease.
32861070 The typically clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients were fever and respiratory symptoms, and a proportion of patients were accompanied by extrapulmonary symptoms including cardiac injury, kidney injury, liver injury, digestive tract injury, and neurological symptoms. […] The mRNA expressions of both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were observed in the heart, digestive tract, liver, kidney, brain and other organs.
32861230 In this retrospective study, the data including demographic features and the patient’s clinical background in terms of co-morbidities such as diabetes, cancer, chronic lung disease (CLD), coronary heart disease (CHD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and weak immune system (WIS) were extracted from electronic medical records.
32861268 Our findings provide clinical evidence in support of continuing metformin treatment in individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D, but acidosis and kidney function should be carefully monitored in individuals with severe COVID-19.
32862472 However, this therapy has been scarcely studied in kidney transplant (KT) recipients.
32863339 Acute kidney injury was associated with heat-related illness, which could be key in distinguishing or evaluating patients with fever in the summer during the COVID-19 pandemic.
32864030 COVID-19 infection is associated with increased risk of acute kidney injury, but the imaging changes of the kidneys are not fully investigated yet.
32864178 MDT members are mainly physicians from critical medicine, infection and respiratory disciplines, but also include cardiovascular, kidney, endocrine, digestion, nerve, nutrition, rehabilitation, psychology and specialty care.
32864513 The scope of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) practices is not well defined.
32865671 In fact, conditions that cluster with diabetes in the context of the metabolic syndrome, such as obesity and hypertension, or complicate chronic hyperglycemia, such as cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease, have also been associated with poor prognosis in these individuals and the available studies have not consistently shown that diabetes predict disease severity independently of them.
32867706 Leucopenia and lymphopenia were the most common signs of infection while liver and kidney damage were rare but may cause bad outcomes for patients.
32869939 We discussed the influence of the virus on the urinary system, potential mechanisms of COVID-19- related acute kidney injury (AKI), and the role of cytokine release syndrome on the renal pathophysiology of the disease.
32871002 Through multivariate analysis of the causes of death in older patients, we found that male gender, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, dementia, cancer, admission to intensive care unit, computed tomography finding compatible with COVID-19 were all significantly associated with mortality in entire cohort.
32871592 Kidney involvement was underestimated in early reports and its role remains controversial. […] The aim of this study was to analyse the role of kidney damage in COVID-19 outcome. […] In total, 43.5% of those with an elevated sCr had previous chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 11.4% of those with normal sCr developed an in-hospital acute kidney injury (AKI); 17 patients needed acute haemodialysis; and 197 patients died during hospitalization. […] The prevalence of acute and chronic kidney disease on admission and in-hospital AKI is higher than previously reported in Wuhan, and is associated with high in-hospital mortality. […] We should increase our awareness towards kidney involvement and design specific strategies for management of COVID-19 in these patients.
32872802 By following the main subdiffusive routes across the PPI network, we identify proteins mainly expressed in the heart, cerebral cortex, thymus, testis, lymph node, kidney, among others of the organs reported to be affected by COVID-19.
32875490 Acknowledging the proven RAΑSi benefit in patients with several diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, coronary disease, and diabetic kidney disease in the non-COVID-19 era, it is a reasonable strategy in this period of uncertainty to use these agents judiciously with careful consideration and to avoid the use of RAASi in select patients whenever possible, until definitive evidence becomes available.
32875970 This short report describes the case discussion of 9-year-old patient with acute kidney injury due to paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with successful peritoneal dialysis via a peritoneal dialysis catheter inserted at the bedside in an intensive care setting.
32877491 Taking into account the necessary prioritization of the provision of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for patients with suspected or confirmed disease, as well as for healthcare professionals, the SBN is favorable concerning the wear of cloth masks by chronic kidney patients in dialysis, in public settings, except in the dialysis setting.
32877492 Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease are among those individuals at increased risk for developing more serious forms of Covid-19.
32877495 We produced this document to bring pertinent information to the practice of nephrology, as regards to the renal involvement with COVID-19, the management of acute kidney injury cases, and practical guidance on the provision of dialysis support.As information on COVID-19 evolves at a pace never before seen in medical science, these recommendations, although based on recent scientific evidence, refer to the present moment.
32877496 The impact of the new coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) and its worldwide clinical manifestations (COVID-19) imposed specific regional recommendations for populations in need of specialized care, such as children and adolescents with kidney diseases, particularly in renal replacement therapies (RRT). […] We present the recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology regarding the treatment of pediatric patients with kidney diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. […] We present recommendations on outpatient care, transportation to dialysis centers, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and kidney transplantation in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. […] Despite initial observations of higher mortality rates in specific age groups (the elderly) and with comorbidities (obese, diabetics, and those with cardiovascular diseases), patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on RRT are particularly prone to develop COVID-19.
32877497 In this document, the SBN Rare Diseases Committee (COMDORA) gives some guidelines on the care of patients with rare kidney diseases. […] These patients should follow the recommendations for the general population, bearing in mind that, as they have chronic kidney disease, they are included in the risk group for more serious outcomes if they develop Covid-19.
32878679 Health factors such as diabetes, severe obesity and chronic kidney disease are all associated with a more severe outcome following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection.
32878841 Severe rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury developed 4 days later and were suspected after noticing discolouration of the urine and a marked increase in plasma myoglobin levels. […] In addition to the coronavirus disease acute respiratory distress syndrome, he was diagnosed with possible SARS-CoV-2-induced myositis with severe rhabdomyolysis and kidney failure. […] The patient survived and was discharged from intensive care after 12 days, returning home 23 days after hospitalisation, fully mobilised with a partially restored kidney function.
32879096 To summarize the emergency management of the kidney transplantation for a large tertiary first-class hospital in response to the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] The clinical data of inpatients in the Department of Kidney Transplantation from January 24, 2020 to February 29, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. […] Since the outbreak of COVID-19, we conducted telephone, Wechat follow-up, and online education for kidney transplant recipients and patients on waiting-list for kidney transplantation one by one. […] To guarantee the security of medical staff and recipients and to reduce the transmission risk of COVID-19, we have made detailed approaches to prevent COVID-19, which mainly included 6 aspects of preventive approaches, such as kidney transplant clinic, kidney transplant ward, patients on waiting-list for kidney transplantation, kidney transplant operation, medical staff self-protection, and postoperative follow-up of kidney transplant recipients. […] There were altogether 47 inpatients which included 20 recipients who had just received kidney transplantation in the meantime, 2 577 kidney transplant recipients, 1 689 patients on waiting-list for kidney transplantation, and 794 outpatients in our hospital. […] Through strictly implementing proactive and preventive approaches, we avoid the occurrence of COVID-19 in carrying out kidney transplantation in the epidemic period.
32879103 A few critically ill patients may not only rapidly develop into acute respiratory distress syndrome, but also may cause coagulopathy, as well as multiple organs failure (such as heart, liver and kidney) or even death.
32880667 The articles address (1) pulmonary valve repair in patients with tetralogy of Fallot and in patients with congenital pulmonary stenosis which seems to be a promising technique in selected patients, (2) the use of Losartan in patients with Marfan syndrome mostly in addition to beta blockers may result in a lower aortic root dilation rate and better clinical outcomes, (3) a summary of the characteristics of adults with congenital heart disease in the USA showed a wide variation in prevalence, associated morbidities, health care utilization and insurance type in different locations in the USA, (4) a large single center study confirmed that right ventricular morphology is associated with worse outcomes after the Fontan operation and that atrioventricular valve regurgitation is an important predictor of worse outcomes and precedes ventricular dysfunction post Fontan operation, (5) a large study describing the multi system inflammatory syndrome in children temporarily related to the COVID-19 pandemic in the USA showing that ventricular dysfunction is the most common cardiac manifestation (6) the reality of “limping to transplantation” showing that patients with one or more modifiable risk factors including mechanical ventilation, kidney or liver dysfunction are at significant increase risk post cardiac transplantation.
32880774 Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32881214 Natural products like ginger, turmeric, garlic, onion, cinnamon, lemon, neem, basil, and black pepper have been scientifically proven to have therapeutic benefits against acute respiratory tract infections including pulmonary fibrosis, diffuse alveolar damage, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, as well as associated septic shock, lung and kidney injury, all of which are symptoms associated with COVID-19 infection.
32881220 There is a high risk of COVID-19 in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) because of chronic immunosuppression and severe cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis. […] The COVID-19 and CMV coinfection in KTRs resulted in large-size kidneys with severe parenchymal echogenicity and hydronephrosis.
32881315 Complications during admission included: acute kidney injury (63%), transaminitis (31%), shock (31%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (25%), neurological events (25%), arrhythmias (22%), and venous thromboembolism (9%).
32881976 Recent data have suggested the presence of a reciprocal relationship between COVID-19 and kidney function. […] To date, most studies have focused on the effect of COVID-19 on kidney function, whereas data regarding kidney function on the COVID-19 prognosis is scarce. […] Acute kidney injury was defined according to the KDIGO criteria. […] Acute kidney injury occurred in 29.2% of the patients.
32882350 Acute kidney injury on admission was a factor in 75.0% of those who died vs 18.2% in the survivors (P = .04).
32882706 It produces protean manifestations ranging from head to toe, wreaking seemingly indiscriminate havoc on multiple organ systems including the lungs, heart, brain, kidney, and vasculature.
32883700 Of survivors with AKI who were discharged, 35% had not recovered to baseline kidney function by the time of discharge. […] An additional 28 of 77 (36%) patients who had not recovered kidney function at discharge did so on posthospital follow-up. […] Of all patients with AKI, only 30% survived with recovery of kidney function by the time of discharge.
32883938 SARS-CoV-2 predominantly involves the lungs producing acute lung injury, but it can also give rise to a variety of complications involving the central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, kidney and also viral sepsis.
32887982 Most major chronic diseases were associated with hospitalization, with ORs ranging from 1.3-1.4 (e.g. stroke, ischaemic heart disease) to 2.6-3.4 (e.g. heart failure, hospital-diagnosed kidney disease, organ transplantation) and with mortality with ORs ranging from 1.1-1.3 (e.g. ischaemic heart disease, hypertension) to 2.5-3.2 (e.g. major psychiatric disorder, organ transplantation).
32890139 Median age of SOT recipients(9-heart, 3-lung, 16-kidney, 8-liver, 5-dual-organ) was 60 years, 80% were male and 67% were Black.
32890313 Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a common complication of COVID-19 critical illness but the pathophysiology is uncertain.
32892322 SARS-CoV-2 is characterized by a multiorgan tropism including the kidneys. […] Whereas tubular cell infiltration may contribute to acute kidney injury, data on a potential clinical correlative to glomerular affection is rare. […] A 35 year old male patient received a kidney allograft for primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).
32892687 Several features of this disease, including the etiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) and the hypercoagulable state, remain poorly understood.
32892789 The smallest survival curves were the ones for patients at the age of 68 years or more, black/mixed race, illiterate, living in the countryside, dyspnoea, respiratory distress, influenza-like outbreak, O2 saturation <95%, X-ray change, length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), invasive ventilatory support, previous heart disease, pneumopathy, diabetes, Down’s syndrome, neurological disease and kidney disease. […] The multiple model for increased risk of death when they were admitted to the ICU HR 1.28, diabetes HR 1.17, neurological disease HR 1.34, kidney disease HR 1.11, heart disease HR 1.14, black or mixed race of HR 1.50, asthma HR 0.71 and pneumopathy HR 1.12.
32894750 Patients who were intubated, had cardiac injury, or acute kidney injury from COVID-19 infection had higher neutralizing titers relative to those with mild symptoms.
32894811 The most common extra pulmonary organ dysfunction in acute respiratory distress syndrome is acute kidney injury. […] In this retrospective study, we analysed the clinical features of patients diagnosed with Covid-19 and investigated the effect of Covid-19 on kidney function. […] The clinical features of the patients were analysed and kidney function values before Covid-19 diagnosis were compared with kidney function values after Covid-19 diagnosis.
32894838 The reported incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the context of COVID-19 is variable, and its mechanism is not well understood. […] To date, there have been few reports of kidney biopsy findings in the context of AKI in COVID-19 infection. […] This article describes 2 cases of collapsing glomerulopathy, 1 in a native kidney and, for the first time, 1 in a kidney transplant. […] Here, we report 2 cases of AKI with collapsing glomerulopathy in COVID-19, one of which is in a kidney transplant recipient, not previously described elsewhere.
32895161 Patients of critical type more frequently have bacterial infection with more serious inflammatory reactions, severer heart, lung and kidney damages, and much higher levels of DD and LDH than those of the common type.
32896175 Apart from attacking respiratory system, it can induce multiorgan dysfunction, including cardiovascular system, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal, nervous system, and immune system.
32896292 Rates of adverse events, including clinically relevant ventricular arrhythmias, resuscitated cardiac arrest, acute kidney failure, and corrected QT interval prolongation, were not significantly different between groups.
32897278 Acute kidney injury (AKI) can affect hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with estimates ranging between 0.5% and 40%. […] We systematically searched 11 electronic databases until 29 May 2020 for studies in English reporting original data on AKI and kidney replacement therapy (KRT) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. […] Meta-regression analyses showed that age, male sex, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and chronic kidney disease were associated with the occurrence of AKI; in itself, AKI was associated with an increased risk of mortality, with a pooled risk ratio of 4.6 (95% CI 3.3-6.5).
32898845 Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the risk of mortality during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) episodes, and some reports have underlined the high incidence and severity of this infection in dialysis patients. […] All patients showed minimal to moderate kidney function deterioration during admission, with an eGFR decline below 5 mL/min in 6 cases.
32900008 Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been reported as a complication of COVID-19. […] Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, highly expressed in the kidney, providing a route for direct infection.
32900009 Individuals with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) are at higher risk due to impaired immunity, comorbid conditions, and dependence on travel to medical care settings.
32900245 The patient developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute kidney injury.
32903321 Identifying the expression of these cell receptor-related genes of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 in various tissues, especially in the kidney. […] The single-cell transcription datasets of the human cell landscape (HCL) and other relevant single-cell transcription databases were used to analyze the expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and SLC6A19 in various organs and tissues, but mainly in the kidney. […] ACE2 was widely expressed in specific cell subgroups of various human tissues, especially in intestinal epithelial cells, kidney PT cells, and also AT 2 cells of the lung.
32903640 Deaths from kidney diseases (Italy- p < 0.0001; Sweden- p < 0.0001; Netherlands- p = 0.0001; France- p = 0.0033) and neurological ailments (France- p = 0.0001; Netherlands- p < 0.0001) are significantly higher than the total hospitalized patients affected by the particular comorbidity.
32904757 The kidneys are susceptible to adverse effects from many diseases, including several that are not tissue-specific. […] Acute kidney injury is a common complication of systemic diseases such as diabetes, lupus, and certain infections including the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). […] For researchers with expertise in microfluidics, this brief perspective highlights potential applications of such devices to studying SARS-CoV-2-induced kidney injury.
32904923 Patients in the acute encephalopathy group were older (67 vs. 61 years) and had higher prevalence of medical co-morbidities including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, COPD, chronic kidney and liver disease among others.
32905208 Many patients develop acute kidney injury (AKI) during the course of their disease, especially in more severe cases. […] Many factors could cause kidney damage during infection from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. […] However, cases of collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis were reported as well in the absence of signs of direct viral infection of the kidney. […] Considering that severe hypoxia is a hallmark of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, the involvement of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) system is very likely, possibly influencing the inflammatory response and outcome in both the lungs and kidneys. […] Several bodies of evidence have shown a possible role of the HIF pathway during AKI in various kidney disease models.
32905336 In this issue of Clinical Kidney Journal, two reports emphasize the importance of transport modality on dialysis patient well-being and even survival.
32905500 Kidney injury is usually secondary to systemic abnormalities.
32908083 As the results, the BMI > 35 (p = 0.0003), lung cancer (p = 0.007), chronic kidney disease (p = 0.002), Immunocompromised condition (p = 0.003), and diabetes (p = 0.018) were more frequently observed in the expired group.
32909171 Topics of the study included pathophysiological, administrative, and clinical fields: translational (n = 14), COVID-19-related outcomes (n = 5), urology training (n = 4), telemedicine (n = 7), equipment and safety (n = 2), urology in general (n = 4), uro-oncology (n = 3), urolithiasis (n = 1), and kidney transplantation (n = 8).
32909541 We report a unique case of an immunosuppressed 67-year-old female with homozygous Z-allele mutation A1AT deficiency and liver transplant with baseline chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage IIIa with creatinine of 1 mg/dL and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 49 mL/min/1.73m2 ~ 6 months before the presentation. […] She presented with COVID-19 mediated hypoxic respiratory failure complicated by AKI requiring provisional renal replacement therapy with recovery of kidney function with a new baseline of creatinine of 1.6 - 1.8 mg/dL with GFR of 31 mL/min/1.73m2.
32912557 A 69-year-old male with history of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and hypothyroidism presented with one week of dyspnea, cough, diarrhea, and fevers.
32912875 We examined the frequency of acute intracranial abnormalities seen on CT and/or MR imaging in patients with COVID-19 and investigated possible associations between these findings and clinical parameters, including length of hospital stay, requirement for intubation, and development of acute kidney injury. […] The frequency of these findings was correlated with clinical variables, including body mass index, length of hospital stay, requirement for intubation, and development of acute kidney injury as documented in the electronic medical record. […] Significant associations were seen between abnormal CT/MR imaging findings and intensive care unit admission (P = .039), intubation (P = .004), and acute kidney injury (P = .030). […] Significant associations between abnormal neuroimaging studies and markers of disease severity (intensive care unit admission, intubation, and acute kidney injury) suggest that patients with severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 may have higher rates of neuroimaging abnormalities.
32914732 On the basis of clinical study, COVID-19 shows homology with other coronavirus pathogenesis i.e. inflammation, oxidative stress, and hyper-activation of immune system, results cytokine storm and causes acute lung infection (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and kidney dysfunction.
32914853 Tissues from the lung, heart, liver, kidney, spleen and bone marrow (but not the brain) were examined. […] Extra-pulmonary manifestations include hepatic, kidney, splenic and bone marrow involvement, and microvascular injury and thrombosis were also detected.
32916178 These data complement current evidence regarding SARS-CoV-2 presence and potential infection in the kidney.
32917504 Beyond the lungs, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, can infect a range of other tissues, including the kidney, potentially contributing to acute kidney injury in those with severe disease. […] The expression of ACE 2 was examined in 49 archival kidney biopsies from patients with diabetic kidney disease and from 12 healthy, potential living allograft donors using next-generation sequencing technology (RNA Seq). […] Increased ACE 2 messenger RNA in the diabetic kidney may increase the risk and/or severity of kidney infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the setting of COVID-19 disease.
32918409 He required readmission due to worsened hypoxia and was later found to have left renal artery thrombosis with left kidney infarction, associated with an ascending aortic thrombus.
32918413 Older patients, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic kidney disease were found more common among patients with severe disease. […] Acute kidney injury (AKI) was a significant complication, with 31% of clinical stage 3 and above developed AKI and 44% of them requiring haemodialysis. […] In this study risk and severity of acute kidney injury were found to be higher.
32918645 In addition, significant association for high risk of mortality were also found for cerebrovascular disease, COPD, coronary heart disease, chronic renal disease, chronic liver disease, chronic lung disease and chronic kidney disease.
32918766 In our first survey of transplant centers in March 2020, >75% of kidney and liver programs were either suspended or operating under restrictions. […] Suspension of live donor transplantation decreased from 72% in March to 30% in May for kidneys and from 68% to 52% for livers. […] Restrictions/suspension of deceased donor transplantation decreased from 84% to 58% for kidneys and from 73% to 42% for livers.
32920219 To qualitatively and quantitatively assess kidney imapairment in adults with COVID-19 by analysing imaging features on non-enhanced CT (NECT) and possible correlation between renal parenchymal attenuation (RPA) and serum creatinine (SCr) levels on admission. […] Eighty subjects with no kidney diseases were randomly selected as control group to determine the RPA of normal kidney performed on the same CT scanner.
32920644 After adjustment for possible confounders, we found no independent association between taking ARBs and in-hospital outcomes except for acute kidney injury (AKI), in patients with confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19, either hypertensive or not-hypertensive.
32921678 An 84-year-old woman with hypertension, Alzheimer’s disease, and chronic kidney disease presented with fever and was diagnosed with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32921708 Diabetic patients had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiac dysfunction [coronary heart disease (CHD)], and congestive heart failure (CHF).
32921724 The association between acute kidney injury (AKI) and outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not yet been conclusively established.
32922297 Moreover, patients with immune deficiencies, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and kidney disease often have altered activation of these pathways, either due to underlying disease or to medications, and may be more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32922804 Also here, we share our preliminary results suggesting that dornase alfa has an anti-viral effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection in a green monkey kidney cell line, Vero, and a bovine kidney cell line, MDBK, without determined cytotoxicity on healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
32923747 The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is responsible for coronavirus disease (COVID-19), potentially have severe kidney adverse effects. […] Therefore, early detection of the kidney manifestations of COVID-19 is crucial. […] Previous studies showed ACE2 role in various indications of this disease, especially in kidney effects. […] Furthermore, previous studies were analyzed for the kidney manifestations of COVID-19 and the miRNAs role that were published on the online databases, namely MEDLINE (PubMed) and Scopus.
32924059 Myocardial dysfunction requiring ionotropic support (57.4%) plus extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (5.3%), respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation (26.1%), and acute kidney injury (11.9%) were the major complications; anticoagulation was used commonly (54.4%) but thrombotic events occurred rarely (3.5%).
32929211 Compared to patients without SUD, patients with SUD had significantly higher prevalence of chronic kidney, liver, lung diseases, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity and cancer.
32931782 A growing body of evidence supports that magnesium supplementation (mainly magnesium sulfate and magnesium oxide) prevents or treats various types of disorders or diseases related to respiratory system, reproductive system, nervous system, digestive system, and cardiovascular system as well as kidney injury, diabetes and cancer.
32931980 Post-lockdown patients were significantly older, frailer with higher inflammatory indices and rates of acute kidney injury, and also were significantly more likely to present with gastrointestinal cancer, obstruction, and perforation.
32932331 We report the case of a COVID-19-infected adolescent presenting severe rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury without any fever or respiratory symptoms.
32935356 We present a retrospective description of 51 kidney transplant recipients (KTR) with confirmed moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia both through positive real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 in a respiratory specimen (n=48 patients); or positive serology IgM and/or IgG (n=3 patients).
32938419 In multiple analysis, male gender (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.20), advanced age ([reference: 15-29 years old] 30-44, RR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.94-1.11; 45-59, RR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.15-1.38; 60 years or older, RR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.29-1.60), chronic kidney disease (RR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.04-1.64) and thoracic pain (RR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.10-1.24) were associated with an increased risk of severe disease. […] Male gender and kidney illness were independently associated with the risk of severe COVID-19.
32939636 The protocol required 20 cores of the liver, 30 of lung, 12 of spleen, 20 of heart, 20 of kidney, 4 of breast, 4 of testis, 2 of skeletal muscle, and 4 of fat with total of 112 cores per patient. […] All organs for biopsy were successfully targeted with ultrasound guidance obtaining all required samples, apart from 2 patients where renal samples were not obtained due to atrophic kidneys. […] No virus was detected in the kidney (0/3, 0%).
32939857 Complications included reintubation in four (12.1%), acute kidney failure in two (6.1%), and cerebral infarction in one (3.0%).
32939955 Kidney transplant recipients have been supposed vulnerable to severe Covid-19 infection, due to their comorbidities and immunosuppressive therapies. […] Monitoring of viral replications after Covid-19 in kidney transplant recipients could permit to confirm these preliminary observations.
32942796 Based on search criteria, 12 studies were found for lung, 52 for heart, 23 for liver, 16 for stroke, and 9 for kidney. […] However, only 3 out of the 9 studies for kidney failure showed positive results.
32943372 Given the importance of the patient voice in these strategies, we conducted a survey of patients with kidney cancer to determine their treatment preferences. […] Our survey highlighted that most patients prefer to continue their current strategies of kidney cancer treatment and monitoring.
32943396 This study aimed to assess the characteristics of kidney injury and its association with disease progression and death of patients with coronavirus disease 2019. […] Any kidney injury was defined as the presence of any of the following: hematuria, proteinuria, in-hospital AKI, or prehospital AKI. […] AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) creatinine criteria. […] A total of 555 patients were enrolled; 42% of the cases (229 of 549) were detected with any kidney injury, 33% of the cases (174 of 520) were detected with proteinuria, 22% of the cases (112 of 520) were detected with hematuria, and 6% of the cases (29 of 520) were detected with AKI. […] Kidney injury is common in coronavirus disease 2019, and it is associated with poor clinical outcomes.
32945846 Underlying medical conditions examined included hypertension, coronary artery disease, history of stroke, diabetes, obesity [BMI ≥30 kg/m 2], severe obesity [BMI≥40 kg/m 2], chronic kidney disease, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. […] Among 5,416 adults, hospitalization rates were higher among those with ≥3 underlying conditions (versus without)(aRR: 5.0; 95%CI: 3.9, 6.3), severe obesity (aRR:4.4; 95%CI: 3.4, 5.7), chronic kidney disease (aRR:4.0; 95%CI: 3.0, 5.2), diabetes (aRR:3.2; 95%CI: 2.5, 4.1), obesity (aRR:2.9; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.5), hypertension (aRR:2.8; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.4), and asthma (aRR:1.4; 95%CI: 1.1, 1.7), after adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity.
32946668 When compared to control patients matched by age, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and administration of high dose corticosteroids, there was no significant difference in mortality (41% vs 28%, P = .27), hospital discharge (52% vs 72%, P = .26), or secondary infections (34% vs 24%, P = .55).
32946807 Intestinal goblet cells, enterocytes, and kidney proximal tubule cells appear highly permissive to SARS-CoV-2, consistent with clinical data.
32946851 Non-survivors combined with more comorbidities, more severe infection, and worse liver, kidney and cardiac function in patients without diabetes.
32946915 Along with that endothelial dysfunction activates the complement system pathways and contributes to the acute and chronic inflammation via cytokine storm with the production of the cytokines and chemokines, coagulation in different organs such as lung, brain, liver, heart, kidney and further leads to multi-organ failure.
32947798 Evidence about kidney transplant (KTx) recipients is still limited. […] Among them, 30% were admitted to the intensive care unit, 45% developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, and 44% had acute kidney injury with 23% needing renal replacement therapy. […] The main finding of our analysis was that the incidence of COVID-19 among kidney transplant patients is not particularly high, but when they do get infected, this is related to significant morbidity and mortality.
32949098 Among 5 transplant centers, 26 patients (62% male) were reviewed with a median age of 8 years. 6 were heart recipients, 8 kidney, 10 liver, and 2 lung.
32949175 We classified the patients according to the presence and number of damaged organs (heart, liver, and kidney).
32950045 COVID-19 infection is associated with increased mortalit in chronic kidney diseases patients.
32951300 We report a kidney transplant recipient with COVID-19 who presented with pneumonitis and acute kidney injury (AKI).
32953842 Subsequently, through the lens of gender, we describe these domains in detail for four selected medical conditions: Asthma, obesity and overweight, chronic kidney disease and coronavirus disease 2019.
32955690 Endothelial cell involvement with COVID-19 has been shown in the lung, heart, kidney, intestine and brain with histopathological evidence of endotheliitis and vasculitis.
32956843 Depending on the viral load, infection spread through the ACE2 receptor further to various organs such as heart, liver, kidney, brain, endothelium, GIT, immune cell, and RBC (thromboembolism).
32957548 In contrast, patients with a fatal course of COVID-19 failed to upregulate markers of inflammation, showed discoordination of the immune response, and progressed toward acute kidney failure.
32958991 The inflammation and coagulation biomarkers were normal in the majority of the cases, as for liver and kidney function.
32959148 We examined all-cause mortality rates among all deaths recorded from 2015 to 2020 and among chronic conditions (cardiovascular (cardiac & circulatory), chronic pulmonary, chronic kidney disease, cancer, and diabetes), comparing each week in 2020 to weeks in 2015-2019.
32960622 VDD tended to predict an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 after adjusting for age, gender, obesity, cardiac disease, and kidney disease [OR 3.2 (95 % CI: 0.9-11.4), p = 0.07].
32961244 Underlying kidney disease is an emerging risk factor for more severe COVID-19 illness. […] We examined the clinical courses of critically ill COVID-19 patients with and without pre-existing kidney disease and investigated the association between degree of underlying kidney disease and in-hospital outcomes. […] Retrospective cohort study SETTINGS PARTICIPANTS: 4,264 critically ill COVID-19 patients (143 dialysis patients, 521 chronic kidney disease [CKD] patients, and 3,600 patients without CKD) admitted to ICUs at 68 hospitals in the United States. […] Presence (versus absence) of pre-existing kidney disease OUTCOME(S): In-hospital mortality (primary); respiratory failure, shock, ventricular arrhythmia/ cardiac arrest, thromboembolic event, major bleed, and acute liver injury (secondary) ANALYTICAL APPROACH: We used standardized differences to compare patient characteristics (values >0.10 indicate a meaningful difference between groups) and multivariable adjusted Fine and Gray survival models to examine outcome associations. […] Dialysis patients had a shorter time from symptom onset to ICU admission compared to other groups (median [quartile 1-quartile 3] days: 4 [2-9] for dialysis patients; 7 [3-10] for CKD patients; 7 [4-10] for patients without pre-existing kidney disease). […] More dialysis patients (25%) reported altered mental status than those with CKD (20%, standardized difference = 0.12) and no kidney disease (12%, standardized difference = 0.36). […] Half of dialysis and CKD patients died within 28-days of ICU admission versus 35% of patients without pre-existing kidney disease. […] Compared to patients without pre-existing kidney disease, dialysis patients had a higher risk of 28-day in-hospital death (adjusted HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.09, 1.81), while patients with CKD had an intermediate risk (adjusted HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.08, 1.44). […] Potential residual confounding CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the high mortality of individuals with underlying kidney disease and severe COVID-19, underscoring the importance of identifying safe and effective COVID-19 therapies for this vulnerable population.
32961245 Outcomes of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and acute kidney injury (AKI) are not well understood. […] The goal of this study was to investigate the survival and kidney outcomes of these patients. […] Acute kidney injury. […] Secondary outcome - requiring dialysis at discharge, recovery of kidney function. […] The incidence rates of in-hospital death among patients without AKI, with AKI not requiring kidney replacement therapy (AKI non-KRT) and with AKI receiving KRT (AKI-KRT) were 10.8, 31.1 and 37.5/1000 patient-days, respectively. […] Among patients with AKI non-KRT who survived, 74.1% achieved kidney recovery by the time of discharge. […] Among those with AKI-KRT who survived, 30.6% remained on dialysis at discharge, and pre-hospitalization chronic kidney disease was the only independent risk factor associated with needing dialysis at discharge (adjusted OR 9.3 [95% CI 2.3 - 37.8]).
32961572 The study end point was disease worsening (acute respiratory failure, shock, myocardial dysfunction, bacterial or viral coinfections, and acute kidney injury) requiring ICU admission.
32962148 Here we describe, for the first time in Europe, a fatal case of co-infection between SARS-CoV-2 and Pneumocystis jirevocii in a kidney transplant recipient.
32963018 AKI was defined and staged according to the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria.
32963170 Severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can induce serious complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, and acute kidney injury.
32963790 The workgroup members used Internet search engines to retrieve documents from provincial and local hemodialysis programs; provincial public health agencies; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; webinars and slides from other kidney agencies; and nonreviewed preprints. […] Content was presented during an interactive webinar on April 11, 2020 attended by 269 kidney health professionals, and the webinar and first draft of the document were posted online.
32963854 The presentation of COVID-19 pneumonia in kidney transplant recipients is similar to that of the general population. […] We report a kidney transplant patient affected by COVID-19 pneumonia whose condition worsened 9 days after the initial presentation.
32964528 Those with COVID-19-related acute kidney injury and those chronic dialysis patients who required isolation or cohort dialysis because of the pandemic.
32965368 We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify original articles regarding clinical, laboratory, and anatomopathological kidney changes in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 published until May 7, 2020. […] The search was carried out across PubMed, Scopus, and Embase using the keywords “COVID-19”, “coronavirus”, “SARS-CoV-2”, “kidney injury” and “kidney disease”. […] Acute kidney injury (AKI) was a relevant finding in patients with COVID-19. […] There were also significant changes in laboratory tests that indicated kidney injury, such as increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), proteinuria, and hematuria. […] Histopathological analysis of the kidney tissue of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 suggested that the virus may directly affect the kidneys. […] Although COVID-19 affects mainly the lungs, it can also impact the kidneys.
32965728 The most frequent adverse outcomes were acute respiratory distress syndrome (27.4%), acute cardiac injury (16.2%) and acute kidney injury (12.6%). […] It is important as serious adverse outcomes can develop such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute cardiac injury, acute kidney injury and death.
32966801 We also demonstrate that Ace2 expression increases during lactation in lung, but not in kidney and intestine.
32968798 ACE2 is highly expressed in the bladder, ileum, kidney and liver, comparing with ACE2 expression in the lung-specific pulmonary alveolar type II cells.
32969470 Using the baseline Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (n = 29,748), multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds of having one and/or two (≤ 2) or multiple (≥3) medical conditions (i.e., diabetes, asthma, cancer, previous heart attack, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and obesity) based on socio-demographic characteristics.
32969711 Acute kidney injury is the most common complication of COVID-19-related pneumonia, and more than 20% of patients requiring ventilatory support develop renal failure. […] Additionally, chronic kidney disease is a major risk factor for COVID-19 severity and mortality. […] All these data demonstrate the relevance of renal function assessment in patients with COVID-19 and the need of early kidney-directed diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. […] However, the sole assessment of renal function could be not entirely indicative of kidney tissue status.
32970391 Their expression levels were found to be significantly altered in cancer types, including colon, kidney, liver, testis, thyroid and skin cancers (P < 0.0001); AUC > 0.80 suggests that TMPRSS2, CLEC4M and DPP4 are relevant markers of kidney, liver, and thyroid cancer, respectively.
32971153 However, comorbidities were more common in patients with diabetes specially hypertension {75% v 36.4%, a difference of 38.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.5-58.3} and chronic kidney disease (37.5 v 5.5, a difference of 32% (1.6-51.6).
32971157 A higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR 3.72, 95%CI: 1.42-9.72, p = 0.007) and of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR 3.08, 95%CI: 1.18-8.06, p = 0.022) and a lower prevalence of ever smokers (OR 0.30, 95%CI: 0.13-0.67, p = 0.003), of users of lipid lowering agents (OR 0.26, 95%CI: 0.12-0.54, p < 0.001), and of anti-hypertensive drugs (OR 0.39, 95%CI: 0.16-0.93, p = 0.033) were found among cases.
32971511 Of the 32 studied patients, 68.8% (22/32) of them were reported as normal, while 28.1% (9/32) had chronic kidney disease (CKD) II and 3.1% (1/32) had end-stage renal failure.
32971906 Therefore, here, we highlighted the most recent histopathological and imaging data concerning the SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung and other human organs such as the kidney, heart, and vascular system.
32972761 Kidney injury is a well-known complication in people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] In kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19, presentation with nephrotic syndrome has not been well described. […] We report on a 49-year-old black female kidney transplant recipient who presented 25 years after transplant with clinical features of nephrotic syndrome following a diagnosis of COVID-19. […] Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genetic testing confirmed 2 high-risk APOL1 alleles in the kidney donor.
32974111 In contrast, among younger people, men had higher odds of severe pneumonia, need for high oxygen support, acute kidney injury and acute liver injury when compared to women.
32974227 Significant differences in the frequency of comorbidities (hypertension, DM, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and chronic kidney disease; CKD) and complications (cardiac injury and acute respiratory disease syndrome; ARDS) were observed between fatal and non-fatal cases of COVID-19 (p<0.0001).
32975916 All of the patients had frequent urination > 10 times/day and abnormal sleep but had normal kidney function tests and other investigations.
32976364 We found 85 patients (66 liver, 16 kidney, 2 kidney-pancreas and 1 liver-kidney recipient) who acquired COVID-19. […] Overall, 17 patients (20%) died which included 31.3% of patients with kidney transplantations and 21.9% of patients with liver transplantations.All 4 pediatric patients in our series died. […] Liver and kidney transplant recipients have an increased risk of mortality compared to the general population due to COVID-19.
32978065 Acute kidney injury was associated with in-hospital mortality and hypertension with discharge to home. […] Other comorbidities (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, lung diseases, chronic kidney disease and dementia) were not associated with either outcome.
32978702 Other hepatic and kidney-related events were included in the top ten ADRs in males, whereas no hepatic or renal terms were reported for females.
32979369 The aim of this study was to investigate 28-day mortality after COVID-19 diagnosis in the European kidney replacement therapy population. […] In addition, we determined the role of patient characteristics, treatment factors, and country on mortality risk using ERA-EDTA Registry data on patients receiving kidney replacement therapy in Europe between February 1, 2020 and April 30, 2020. […] We identified differences in COVID-19 mortality across countries, and an increased mortality risk in older patients receiving kidney replacement therapy and male patients receiving dialysis. […] In recipients of kidney transplants older than 75 years of age 44.3% (35.7%-53.9%) did not survive COVID-19. […] Thus, the pandemic has had a substantial effect on mortality in patients receiving kidney replacement therapy; a highly vulnerable population due to underlying chronic kidney disease and high prevalence of multimorbidity.
32980137 We present our experience with the use of a diagnostic score, developed for rHLH, in a kidney transplant recipient hospitalized with COVID-19. […] Because this is only a single case, we plan to retrospectively review a series of patients to validate our initial experience-that a low H-Score may correlate with a milder hospital course in kidney transplant patients with COVID-19.
32980626 Patients with predisposing diseases are highly prone to COVID-19 and manifesting severe infection especially with organ function damage such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, septic shock, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and death.
32980942 Our goal was to understand changes to pediatric kidney transplantation (KT) at the national level during the COVID-19 epidemic. […] Transplant recipients during the pandemic were more likely to have received a DDKT, but had similar calculated panel-reactive antibody (cPRA) values, waitlist time, and cause of kidney failure as before the pandemic. […] The COVID-19 pandemic initially reduced access to kidney transplantation among pediatric patients in the USA but has not had a sustained effect.
32981025 While there are increasing reports of acute kidney injury among hospitalized adults with COVID-19, there is still limited information on renal complications associated with COVID-19 in children. […] The cause of kidney involvement in COVID-19 is likely multifactorial, and appears to involve a complex process, including complement dysregulation and thrombotic microangiopathy.
32981462 Recent data suggest that patients with age-related comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and dementia are highly susceptible to severe respiratory illness due to coronavirus infection.
32983831 Endothelial cell involvement with COVID-19 has been shown in the lung, heart, kidney, intestine and brain with histopathological evidence of endotheliitis and vasculitis.
32984768 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) not only causes pulmonary inflammation but also causes multiple organ damages, including the kidney. […] ACE2, as one of the receptors for SARS-CoV-2 intrusion, is widely distributed in kidney tissues. […] Currently, the diagnosis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are still unclear. […] Here, we review the recent findings of characteristics of COVID-19 in CKD patients and highlight the possible mechanisms of kidney injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] We then discuss the emerging therapeutic approaches aimed at reducing kidney damage and protecting kidney function including virus removal, immunotherapy, supporting treatment, special blood purification therapy, etc.
32984786 The spectrum of biochemical abnormalities and their kinetics were consistent with a multi-organ involvement, including lung, kidney, heart, liver, muscle, and pancreas, along with a severe inflammatory syndrome. […] The proportion of patients who developed an acute kidney injury (AKI) stage 3, increased significantly during follow-up (0·9%, day 0; 21·4%, day 14; P<0·001).
32984929 Hs-cTnI, chronic kidney disease, and chronic coronary artery disease mediated most of the risk of in-hospital death, with Hs-cTnI mediating 25% of such effect.
32986137 In this landscape, the management of patients with chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury or patients undergoing immunosuppressant therapies for kidney transplant or glomerular diseases, represent a clinical challenge for nephrologists, especially in patients with severe acute lung involvement.
32987038 It plays an important role in proteolytic processes in the kidney, cardiovascular regulation, immune response, cell proliferation, foetal development etc.
32987381 In the early phase of SARS-Cov-2 infection, the patient exhibited extensive lung lesions and significant acute kidney and heart injuries, which required treatment in the ICU. […] After correcting the arrhythmia and heart failure, the patient recovered quickly from the acute kidney injury with a treatment of intensive diuresis and strict control of fluid intake.
32989856 We describe our institutional experience with four immunosuppressed patients (two kidney transplant recipients, one lung transplant recipient, and one chronic myelogenous leukemia patient) treated with COVID-19 convalescent plasma through Expanded Access Program (NCT04338360).
32991495 Amid the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, an 89-year-old male with chronic kidney disease presented with acute dacryocystitis and a persistent dry cough.
32993540 Her hospital course was notable for profound acute kidney injury, leukocytosis, hypotension, and cardiac dysfunction requiring ICU admission and vasopressor support.
32994700 The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and new onset renal replacement therapy (RRT) with the outcome of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients.
32994803 The active ingredients of SB were mostly distributed in liver and kidney, and couldn’t be absorbed into brain via oral absorption.
32995318 Kidney transplantation at the time of a global viral pandemic has become challenging in many aspects.
32995705 An associated acute glomerulonephritis caused acute kidney failure.
32995920 In this review, we characterize the two RAAS axes and the role of their components in pediatric kidney diseases, including childhood hypertension (HTN), pediatric glomerular diseases, congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), and chronic kidney disease (CKD). […] We also present recent findings on potential interactions between the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and components of the RAAS, as well as potential implications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for pediatric kidney diseases.
32997700 We developed a risk model consisting of patient age, hypoxia severity, mean arterial pressure and presence of kidney dysfunction at hospital presentation.
32998645 Here we report three cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to pneumonia of severe COVID-19; they were treated with automated peritoneal dialysis (PD) with full recovery.
33000592 With these goals, the themes presented in this “mosaic” of topics include - Cardiovascular involvement in genetic syndromes, SIDS and infectious, endocrine, kidney, storage or autoimmune diseases. - Pulmonary hypertension and patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants. - Cardiovascular risk in obese or hypertensive children. - Bicupid aortic valve and aortic dysfunction - Covid 19 and heart disease in childhood I thank the Researchers and Professors of Catanzaro, Palermo, Pavia, Brescia, Taormina and Messina University for their interesting and up-to-date scientific contributions, and I hope the information gathered in this issue will be useful to the reader.
33001409 A significant univariate association between age; sex; body mass index; smoking; diabetes; cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurological, and kidney diseases; ACE inhibitor therapy; statin intake and an increased risk for complicated clinical stages of COVID-19 at diagnosis was found.
33002530 The future impact of telehealth in patient care remains to be seen, especially in the context of the Advancing American Kidney Health Initiative.
33003102 However, the presence of severe respiratory distress, multifocal pneumonia with pleural effusion on chest radiograph, acute kidney injury, and the discovery of coronary artery ectasia, pointed to the new entity “multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C).”
33004002 Preliminary reports suggest a high incidence of infection and mortality with SARS-CoV-2 in patients receiving kidney replacement therapy (KRT).
33004323 COVID-19 is primarily considered a respiratory illness, but the kidney may be one of the targets of SARS-CoV-2 infection, since the virus enters cells through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, which is found in abundance in the kidney. […] Information on kidney involvement in COVID-19 is limited but is evolving rapidly. […] This article discusses the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19, its optimal management, and the impact of COVID-19 on patients with chronic kidney disease, patients with end-stage kidney disease on dialysis, and kidney transplant recipients.
33005463 Although the lungs remain the main target of SARS-CoV-2, other organs, such as kidneys, can be affected, which has a negative impact on the outcomes of COVID-19 patients. […] Although previous studies of kidney disease in COVID-19 reported mainly SARS-CoV-2-induced tubular and interstitial injury, there is growing evidence coming out of Africa of glomerular involvement, especially collapsing glomerulopathy seen particularly in people of African descent. […] We report a case of collapsing glomerulopathy revealed by acute kidney injury and a new onset of full blown nephrotic syndrome in a black Congolese patient coinfected with COVID-19 and malaria.
33006440 Patients with myocardial injury had higher levels of inflammation markers, poorer liver and kidney function, and more complications compared with patients without myocardial injury.
33006999 From January 2020, COVID-19 is spreading around the world producing serious respiratory symptoms in infected patients that in some cases can be complicated by the severe acute respiratory syndrome, sepsis and septic shock, multiorgan failure, including acute kidney injury and cardiac injury.
33007327 Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has been associated with a host of symptoms affecting numerous organ systems, including the lungs, cardiovascular system, kidney, central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and skin, among others.
33008440 Common comorbidities are hypertension (32%), diabetes (32%), cardiovascular disease (24%), and kidney injury (12%), and the patients with gangrenes have the most comorbidities.
33008869 Thus, the objective of this minireview is to describe our current understanding of the role of GILZ in the cardiovascular system and the kidney along with outcome of GILZ-based interventions on associated disorders. […] Thus, this minireview will describe our current understanding of the role of GILZ in the kidney and the cardiovascular system which is of relevance and significance for pathologies affecting them including the multiorgan complications of COVID-19.
33009284 Data on COVID-19 in immunocompromised kidney transplant recipients (KTR) remain scanty.
33009770 Independent risk factors for death were age < 20 years (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 6.62, 95% CI: 1.85-23.64), 40-59 years (aHR = 4.45, 95% CI: 1.83-10.79), and ≥ 60 years (aHR = 13.63, 95% CI: 5.70-32.60) compared with those aged 20-39 years, with obesity (aHR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.24-4.27), and with chronic kidney disease (aHR = 5.33, 95% CI: 1.85-15.35).
33010495 SARS-CoV-2 could infect and productively replicate in the ex vivo human intestinal tissues with the release of infectious virus particles, but not in ex vivo human liver and kidney tissues.
33010584 However, the Covid-19 infection disrupts various organs, including the liver, kidney, and nervous system.
33010731 Higher rates of acute kidney injury (5.5% vs.
33011717 Although diffuse alveolar damage and respiratory failure are the key features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the involvement of other organs such as the kidney has also been reported. […] The reports of the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 patients vary widely.
33011887 The multi-organ dysfunction is characterized by acute lung failure, acute liver failure, acute kidney injury, cardiovascular disease, and as well as a wide spectrum of hematological abnormalities and neurological disorders. […] Although the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, a receptor of SARS-CoV2 in the lung, heart, kidney, testis, liver, lymphocytes, and nervous system was confirmed, there are controversial findings to about the observation of SARS-CoV2 RNA in these organs.
33012543 Here we report a single-center cohort of 6 patients (4 kidney only, and 2 simultaneous liver/kidney transplants) diagnosed with COVID-19 at a median of 1.9 years (range = 0.2-9.3 years) post transplant. […] None of the kidney-only transplants (4/6; 67%) had elevation in plasma donor-derived cell-free DNA above the previously published cut-off of 1%, suggesting absence of significant allo-immune injury.
33013059 ACE 2 is almost 100-fold higher in kidneys than lung, and the virus can also involve the kidney in the same manner. […] Kidney involvement manifests in the form of proteinuria, hematuria, and an acute rise in serum creatinine. […] Kidney involvement is an independent risk factor for mortality.
33013062 With a similar mechanism, it can cause acute kidney injury (AKI).
33013066 Result was that across India, elective living related kidney transplant came to a halt.
33014647 Coronavirus has caused thousands of deaths due to several mechanisms of injury including acute kidney injury (AKI).
33015108 Most patients had organ dysfunction during hospitalization, including 11 (29.7%) with ARDS, 8 (21.6%) with acute kidney injury, 17 (45.9%) with acute cardiac injury, and 33 (89.2%) with acute liver dysfunction.
33015551 This study aimed to determine if the MELD-Na score was associated with disease severity in patients with Covid-19, as assessed by multiple clinical outcomes including death within 30 days of discharge and development of an acute kidney injury (AKI).
33015942 While children appear to experience less severe disease than adults, those with underlying conditions such as kidney disease may be more susceptible to infection. […] Limited data are present for children with kidney disease, and there are limited prior reports of pediatric hemodialysis patients with COVID-19. […] This report describes the mild clinical disease course of COVID-19 in two pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease, one on hemodialysis and both on chronic immunosuppression.
33017170 Trials excluded pregnant women and adults with severe kidney or liver disease.
33017826 After identifying severe lung damage, injury to other organs, such as the kidney, has been identified. […] However, this strategy is rarely used for the management of acute kidney injury in severe lung disease.
33019829 Strong consideration should be given for performing a renal biopsy in patients who develop multifactorial acute kidney injury.
33020114 Patients in smokers group were more likely to be male and had higher incidence of underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (19% vs 6%, p<0.001), HIV infection (11% vs 5%,p<0.001), cancer (11% vs 6%, p=0.005), congestive heart failure (15% vs 8%, p<0.001), coronary artery disease (15% vs 9%, p=0.3), chronic kidney disease (11% vs 8%, p=0.037) and end-stage renal disease (10% vs 6%, p=0.009) compared with non-smokers.
33022004 In multivariable regression model main predictors of admission to ICU are male gender (OR 1,74 95% CI 1,36-2,22 p<0.0001) and presence of obesity (OR 2,88 95% CI 2,03-4,07 p<0.0001), chronic kidney disease (OR: 1,588; 95%, 1,036-2,434 p<0,05) and hypertension (OR: 1,314; 95% 1,039-1,662; p<0,05). […] In gender specific analysis, obesity, chronic kidney disease and hypertension are associated with higher rate of admission to ICU among men, whereas in women, obesity (OR: 2,564; 95% CI 1,336-4.920 p<0.0001) and heart failure (OR: 1,775 95% CI: 1,030-3,057) are associated with higher rate of ICU admission.
33022712 The occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 has been reported to be as high as 43%.
33022818 Frequently, the kidneys are involved through direct or indirect mechanisms. […] Kidney involvement mainly manifests itself as proteinuria and acute kidney injury (AKI). […] The SARS-CoV-2-induced kidney damage is expected to be multifactorial; directly it can infect the kidney podocytes and proximal tubular cells and based on an angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) pathway it can lead to acute tubular necrosis, protein leakage in Bowman’s capsule, collapsing glomerulopathy and mitochondrial impairment. […] Moreover, lower oxygen delivery to kidney may cause an ischaemic injury. […] Understanding the fundamental molecular pathways and pathophysiology of kidney injury and AKI in Covid-19 is necessary to develop management strategies and design effective therapies.
33023941 Hospitalised patients with COVID-19 have a variable incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) according to studies from different nationalities. […] Thus, it is extremely important for health systems to be aware about the impact of AKI on patients’ outcomes in order to establish proper screening, prevention of additional damage to the kidneys and adequate renal support when needed.
33023989 In spite of this, after correction for age and sex, risk of mortality was significantly associated with a history of hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.84, 95% CI 1.15-2.95; P = 0.011), coronary artery disease (aHR 1.56, 95% CI 1.04-2.35; P = 0.031), chronic kidney disease (aHR 2.07, 95% CI 1.27-3.38; P = 0.003), stroke (aHR 2.09, 95% CI 1.23-3.55; P = 0.006), and cancer (aHR 1.57, 95% CI 1.08-2.42; P = 0.04) but not with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.170).
33025225 Acute kidney injury during ICU stay was frequent (55%); its incidence was higher in patients receiving lopinavir (66 vs 53%, P = 0.03).
33025516 The prevalence of kidney involvement during SARS-CoV-2 infection has been reported to be high. […] Nevertheless, data are lacking about the determinants of acute kidney injury (AKI) and the combined effect of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and AKI in COVID-19 patients. […] Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or proteinuria at urinalysis within 180 days prior to hospital admission. […] Of 777 patients eligible for the study, acute kidney injury developed in 176 (22.6%). […] Of these, 79 (45%) showed an acute worsening of a preexisting CKD, and 21 (12%) required kidney replacement therapy. […] Independent associates of AKI were chronic kidney disease, C-reactive protein (CRP) and ventilation support. […] Among patients with acute kidney injury, 111 died (63%) and its occurrence increased the risk of death by 60% (HR 1.60 [95% IC 1.21-2.49] p = 0.002) independently of potential confounding factors including hypertension, preexisting kidney damage, and comorbidities. […] Awareness of kidney function, both preexisting CKD and development of acute kidney injury, may help to identify those patients at increased risk of death.
33026050 Similarly, patients with higher HbA1c level of ≥9% compared to less than 7%; (OR 1.58; p=0.047); patients with comorbidities such as, hypertension (OR 1.43; p=0.048), cardiovascular disease (OR 1.56; p=0.033), cerebrovascular disease (OR 2.38; p=0.016), chronic pulmonary disease (OR 1.51; p=0.018), malignancy (OR 2.45; p=0.025), chronic kidney disease (CKD) IIIa, IIIb, IV (OR 2.37; p=0.008), CKD V (OR 5.07; p=0.007) were significantly more likely to be hospitalized.
33026120 The pooled result in patients with hypertension (OR 2.57, 95% CI: 2.12-3.11), diabetes (OR 2.54, 95% CI: 1.89-3.41), cardiovascular diseases (OR 3.86, 95% CI: 2.70-5.52), chronic obstractive pulmonary disease (OR 2.71, 95% CI: 1.98-3.70), chronic kidney disease (OR 2.20, 95% CI: 1.27-3.80), and cancer (OR 2.42, 95% CI: 1.81-3.22) respectively.
33026201 In this article we detail the recommendations that must be followed by the nursing care staff when dealing with chronic kidney disease patients in dialysis or with kidney transplant patients.
33026202 We report the case of a 68-year-old patient who arrived at the hospital with a fever and a cough for 7 days, a history of high blood pressure and chronic kidney failure stage 2 according to CKD-EPI (GFR: 62 ml/minute with creatinine: 1.2 mg/dl). […] Kidney function parameters progressively deteriorated towards a severe acute kidney failure on the 15th day, with creatinine values of 6.6 mg/dl and urea of 210 mg/dl. […] Dialysis continued with high cut-off filters until the normalization of kidney function; the supportive medical therapy has also improved the course of the pathology and contributed to the favorable outcome for our patient.
33026312 The value of Canada’s Kidney Paired Donation program to the population cannot be overstated. […] Representatives from every transplant program in the country have been working toward increased use of kidney shipping in order to diminish the disincentive of donor travel. […] With transplantation program and travel restrictions in place to minimize the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the time to make a full transition from donor travel to the shipment of donor kidneys has clearly arrived.
33026922 We searched PubMed for English language articles published since 2003 with the key words “Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19),” “severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2),” “severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV” and “Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV”with “semen” and “kidney” We also used relevant data from websites including the World Health organization and Centers for disease control and prevention. […] All three coronaviruses have been found to affect kidney and testicular function.
33027032 At 7 days, acute kidney injury on admission, elevated LDH, tachypnea, and hyperglycemia were the strongest drivers of critical event prediction, while higher age, anion gap, and C-reactive protein were the strongest drivers for mortality prediction.
33029105 The novel coronavirus is not only causing respiratory problems, but it may also damage the heart, kidneys, liver, and other organs; in Wuhan, 14 to 30% of COVID-19 patients have lost their kidney function and now require either dialysis or kidney transplants.
33029494 More patients in the nonsurviving group had increased levels of nonspecific infection markers, abnormal liver and kidney function, cardiac injury, and blood coagulation abnormalities on admission.
33031368 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) are frequently prescribed for a range of diseases including hypertension, proteinuric chronic kidney disease, and heart failure.
33033687 We reported 13 ARDS cases in ICU patients (29%), eight with acute kidney injury (17.8%), and four thromboembolic events (8.8%).
33034038 The majority had kidney (n = 160) and lung (n = 108) involvement.
33035307 Half of the patients (n=1728) had a positive RT-PCR while 1748 were negative on RT-PCR but had clinical symptoms and characteristic CT signs suggestive of COVID-19 infection.No significant differences in frequency of symptoms, laboratory test results and risk factors for in-hospital mortality were found between those exclusively clinically diagnosed or with positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR.In a multivariable logistic regression model the following were associated with in-hospital mortality; older age (per 1 year increase) odds ratio [OR] 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03 - 1.06); male sex (OR 1.71, 1.24 - 2.37); chronic kidney disease (OR 2.99, 1.89 - 4.64); diabetes (OR 2.1, 1.46 - 2.99); chronic cardiac disease (OR 1.78, 1.24 - 2.57) and dementia (OR 2.73, 1.34 - 5.47).
33035967 Patients with severe COVID-19 may also develop acute cardiac, kidney and liver injury that are associated with poor prognosis and can lead to high mortality rate.
33036903 Delays were longer in Europe than in the Americas for kidney cancer (SRM follow-up, P = 0.014), prostate cancer (new visits, P = 0.003), and intravesical therapy for intermediate-risk bladder cancer (P = 0.043).
33038424 COVID-19 morbidity and mortality are increased in patients with diabetes and kidney disease via unknown mechanisms. […] Since ACE2 is a susceptibility factor for infection, we investigated how diabetic kidney disease and medications alter ACE2 receptor expression in kidneys. […] Single cell RNA profiling of healthy living donor and kidney biopsies from patients with diabetic kidney disease revealed ACE2 expression primarily in proximal tubular epithelial cells. […] ACE2 expression levels were unaltered by exposures to renin angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors in diabetic kidney disease. […] Bayesian integrative analysis of a large compendium of public-omics datasets identified molecular network modules induced in ACE2-expressing proximal tubular epithelial cells in diabetic kidney disease (searchable at hb.flatironinstitute.org/covid-kidney) that were linked to viral entry, immune activation, endomembrane reorganization, and RNA processing. […] The diabetic kidney disease ACE2-positive proximal tubular epithelial cell module overlapped with expression patterns seen in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. […] Thus SARS-CoV-2 receptor networks can seed further research into risk stratification and therapeutic strategies for COVID-19 related kidney damage.
33038425 The COVID-19 pandemic presents significant challenges for health systems globally, including substantive ethical dilemmas that may pose specific concerns in the context of care for people with kidney disease. […] In this paper we briefly describe such concerns and elaborate on issues of particular ethical complexity in kidney care: equitable access to dialysis during pandemic surges; balancing the risks and benefits of different kidney failure treatments, specifically with regards to suspending kidney transplantation programs and prioritizing home dialysis, and barriers to shared-decision making; and ensuring ethical practice when using unproven interventions.
33039218 Additionally, several studies demonstrated that patients with COVID-19 who developed acute kidney injury (AKI) had a greater risk of mortality.
33040272 The most frequent complications in the elderly were pleural effusion [10, (37.04%)], secondary infection [7, (25.93%)], and kidney damage [7, (25.93%)].
33040443 As almost all patients with end-stage kidney disease have been treated with hemodialysis in Japan, they have a higher risk of infection than the healthy population. […] The latest findings on novel coronavirus disease in patients with end-stage kidney disease and the guidelines for countermeasures against the spread of novel coronavirus disease worldwide are summarized in this review.
33040480 We assessed the impact of concomitant COVID-19 infection on in-hospital mortality, incidence of acute kidney injury, and myocardial injury. […] 10.6%; relative risk [RR] 4.70 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.42-9.12], P < 0.001} and were more likely to develop acute kidney injury [45% vs.
33041077 We reviewed the clinical experience of kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in order to understand the impact of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic infection on transplant recipients. […] Given that early reports from heavily affected areas demonstrated a very high mortality rate amongst kidney transplant recipients, ranging between 30% and 40%, we sought to evaluate outcomes at a center with a high burden of cases but not experiencing acute crisis due to COVID-19. […] In this single center retrospective observational study, medical records of all kidney transplant recipients at the UCLA Medical Center were reviewed for a diagnosis of COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction, followed by chart review to determine kidney transplant characteristics and clinical course. […] A total of 41 kidney transplant recipients were identified with COVID-19 positive polymerase chain reaction. […] COVID-19 infection in kidney transplant recipients results in a higher rate of hospitalization and mortality than in the general population. […] Future studies are needed to determine optimal approach to treatment and management of immunosuppression in kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 infection.
33041326 After intravenous administration of 20 mg/kg RDV in mice, the concentrations of the parent drug, nucleotide monophosphate (RMP) and triphosphate (RTP), as well as nucleoside (RN), in the blood, heart, liver, lung, kidney, testis, and small intestine were quantified. […] Moreover, RDV presented an extensive distribution, and the lung, liver and kidney showed high levels of the parent drug and metabolites. […] The metabolic stabilities of RDV and RMP were also evaluated using lung, liver, and kidney microsomes. […] RDV showed higher clearances in the liver and kidney than in the lung, with intrinsic clearance (CLint) values of 1740, 1253, and 127 mL/(min∙g microsomal protein), respectively.
33042442 ARDS is a severe syndrome of acute lung injury (ALI) that is predominantly triggered by inflammation and results in a sudden loss of, or damage to, kidney function.
33043273 Age-adjusted race-stratified prevalence of comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity), preexisting medical conditions (pulmonary disease, heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, malignancy), poor health behaviors (smoking, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity), and adverse socioeconomic factors (education, household income, health insurance) was computed in 435,139 American adult participants from 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey (BRFSS).
33043313 The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerged respiratory infectious disease with kidney injury as a part of the clinical complications. […] However, the dynamic change of kidney function and its association with COVID-19 prognosis are largely unknown. […] The dynamic changes of the three kidney function markers were associated with different severity and poor prognosis of COVID-19 patients.
33043447 In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the HR in patients with De Ritis ratios ≥1.63 (upper tertile of this parameter) remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, cardiovascular disease, intensity of care, diabetes, respiratory diseases, malignancies and kidney disease (HR: 2.46, 95% CI 1.05-5.73, P = .037).
33043597 The consequences of COVID-19 on patients waitlisted for kidney transplantation, however, have not previously been characterized. […] We studied 56 waitlisted patients and 80 kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 13- May 20, 2020.
33044282 To study the prevalence, evolution, and clinical factors associated with acute kidney injury in children admitted to PICUs with pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. […] All children were diagnosed and staged for acute kidney injury based on the level of serum creatinine above the upper limit of reference interval values according to published guidance. […] Severe acute kidney injury was defined as stage 2/3 acute kidney injury. […] Uni- and multivariable analyses were performed to study the association between demographic data, clinical features, markers of inflammation and cardiac injury, and severe acute kidney injury. […] Any-stage acute kidney injury occurred in 48 of 116 patients (41.4%) and severe acute kidney injury in 32 of 116 (27.6%) patients, which was mostly evident at admission (24/32, 75%). […] In univariable analysis, body mass index, hyperferritinemia, high C-reactive protein, Pediatric Index of Mortality 3 score, vasoactive medication, and invasive mechanical ventilation were associated with severe acute kidney injury. […] In multivariable logistic regression, hyperferritinemia was associated with severe acute kidney injury (compared with nonsevere acute kidney injury; adjusted odds ratio 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08; p = 0.04). […] Severe acute kidney injury was associated with longer PICU stay (median 5 days [interquartile range, 4-7 d] vs 3 days [interquartile range, 1.5-5 d]; p < 0.001) and increased duration of invasive mechanical ventilation (median 4 days [interquartile range, 2-6 d] vs 2 days [interquartile range, 1-3 d]; p = 0.04). […] Severe acute kidney injury occurred in just over a quarter of children admitted to United Kingdom PICUs with pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. […] Hyperferritinemia was significantly associated with severe acute kidney injury. […] Severe acute kidney injury was associated with increased duration of stay and ventilation. […] Although short-term outcomes for acute kidney injury in pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 appear good, long-term outcomes are unknown.
33044654 A subset of patients with acute abdominal pathology were identified with inflammatory pathology in organs with high ACE2 receptor expression including bowel, pancreas, urinary bladder, and kidney.
33045255 Kidney biopsy data inform us about pathologic processes associated with SARS CoV-2 infection. […] We conducted a multi-center evaluation of kidney biopsy findings in living patients to identify various kidney disease pathology in patients with COVID-19 and their association with SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] We identified 14 native and 3 transplant kidney biopsies performed for-cause in patients with documented recent or concurrent COVID-19 infection treated at 7 large hospital systems in the United States. […] Acute kidney injury (AKI; n=15) and proteinuria (n=11) were the most common indications for biopsy and these symptoms developed concurrently or within 1 week of COVID-19 symptoms in all patients. […] Cases of even symptomatically mild COVID-19 infection were accompanied by AKI and/or heavy proteinuria that prompted a diagnostic kidney biopsy. […] While acute tubular injury was seen among the majority of them, uncommon pathology such as collapsing glomerulopathy and acute endothelial injury were detected, and most of these patients progressed to irreversible kidney injury and dialysis.
33045775 Although some comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, lung disease, and chronic kidney disease, are known as risk factors for poor clinical outcome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is unknown if human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with COVID-19 would have poor prognosis than others.
33046113 Systemic inflammation in COVID-19 often leads to multiple organ failure, including acute kidney injury (AKI).
33046323 we aimed to explore the relationship of acute kidney injury (AKI) with the severity and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
33047081 Secondary outcomes included sepsis, acute respiratory failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, and pulmonary embolism. […] However, obesity is associated with worse clinical outcomes and disease severity as defined by the presence of complications, greater incidence of acute respiratory failure (ARF), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), need for mechanical ventilation, acute kidney injury (AKI), pulmonary embolism (PE), stroke, and sepsis.
33047097 We herein report a case of SARS-CoV-2 detection in ascitic fluid from a kidney transplant patient with decompensated cirrhosis and COVID-19 and then discuss about immune, cellular, and virological aspects of such clinical presentation of the disease, which also included a disseminated infection, demonstrated by viral detection in his blood sample.
33047493 Here, we report the first assessment of antibody and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 11 kidney transplanted patients recovered from RT-PCR-confirmed (n=5) or initially suspected (n=6) COVID-19.
33048372 We examined linkages of national transplant registry data with pharmaceutical claims and Medicare billing claims to study HCQ use among Medicare-insured kidney transplant recipients with SLE or scleroderma (2008-2017; N=1,820). […] HCQ may be used safely in selected kidney transplant recipients in addition to their maintenance immunosuppression, although attention to arrhythmias is warranted.
33048424 Here, we prospectively monitored the dynamic changes of SARS-CoV-2 RNA viral loads in serial nasopharyngeal swab, saliva, and respiratory specimens collected from kidney transplant recipients (KTR) hospitalized with a confirmed diagnosis of Covid-19.
33049583 GB-2 treatment could decrease ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression level of lung tissue and kidney tissue without adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity, in animal model.