Tissue Sentence Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of eye tissue in 240 abstracts.

PMID Senteces
32124000 Second, for environmental control, to reduce droplet transmission of COVID-19, installation of protective shields on slit lamps, frequent disinfection of equipment, and provision of eye protection to staff were implemented.
32127517 The person-to-person transmission routes of 2019-nCoV included direct transmission, such as cough, sneeze, droplet inhalation transmission, and contact transmission, such as the contact with oral, nasal, and eye mucous membranes. 2019-nCoV can also be transmitted through the saliva, and the fetal-oral routes may also be a potential person-to-person transmission route.
32170800 This is a consensus of Chinese experts on protective measures and advice on hand-cleaning- and medical-glove-related hand protection, mask- and goggles-related face protection, UV-related protection, eye protection, nasal and oral mucosa protection, outer ear, and hair protection.
32222713 He was placed in droplet-eye precautions while awaiting COVID-19 test results.
32223068 However, in late February 2020, 2 patients presented simultaneously to our eye casualty with sudden onset of unilateral painful red eye associated with a decline in visual acuity, their intraocular pressure (IOP) were over 40 mmHg and slit-lamp examination findings were suggestive of acute primary angle closure (APAC).
32224550 The threat of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) to health systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) can be compared metaphorically to a lake in Africa infested with a bask of crocodiles and the saying: “the eye of the crocodile.” In the lake, only the eyes of the crocodile appear on the surface while the rest of the body is submerged in water. […] In this Viewpoint, the eyes and the body of the crocodile represent the public health preparedness and health systems, respectively, in SSA.
32264666 Therefore, we aimed to have a contributor role for explaining this conundrum and present a bird’s eye view regarding this equivocal issue in this review.
32270477 The following personal protective equipment should be used: sterile fluid-repellant surgical gloves, an underlying pair of gloves, eye protection, FFP3 mask, surgical cap, and gown.
32270581 For any care or intervention in the upper aerodigestive tract region, irrespective of the setting and a confirmed diagnosis (eg, rhinoscopy or flexible laryngoscopy in the outpatient setting and tracheostomy or rigid endoscopy under anesthesia), it is strongly recommended that all health care personnel wear personal protective equipment such as N95, gown, cap, eye protection, and gloves.
32273245 As information concerning the COVID-19 disease continues to evolve, patients look to their eye care practitioners for accurate eye health guidance. […] During the pandemic there will potentially be significant changes in access to local eyecare. […] Patients should also avoid touching their face, including their eyes, nose and mouth, with unwashed hands and avoid CL wear altogether if unwell (particularly with any cold or flu-like symptoms).
32275082 The conjunctival mucosa is directly exposed to infectious droplets expelled by patients during close contact and fomites when the eye is touched by contaminated hands.2, 3 More over, the mucosa of the conjunctiva and upper respiratory tract is connected by nasolacrimal duct, and share the same entry receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), on host cell membranes.2, 3 Hence, it is reasonable to postulate that the conjunctiva may be easily involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection, and may even act as a route of transmission during SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32275742 Complete postmortem examinations were performed according to standard procedures in a negative-pressure autopsy suite/isolation room using personal protective equipment, including N95 masks, eye protection, and gowns.
32284146 The patient’s primary symptom was a red eye with watery discharge, though she did have mild respiratory symptoms, without fever. […] A conjunctival swab of the affected eye was positive for the SAR-CoV-2 virus.
32286916 Necessary otologic procedures on positive, suspected, or unknown COVID-19 status patients should be performed using enhanced personal protective equipment, including an N95 respirator and eye protection or powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR, preferred), disposable cap, disposable gown, and gloves. […] Powered instrumentation should be avoided unless absolutely necessary, and if performed, PAPR or sealed eye protection is recommended.
32295324 Eighty-one patients diagnosed as coronavirus disease-19 in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region People’s Hospital were enrolled with ophthalmological consultation screening for novel coronavirus related conjunctivitis, including the inquiring of eye symptoms and checking for conjunctivitis-related signs. […] Conjunctival swab novel coronavirus nucleic acid test was performed on patients with clinical manifestation of conjunctivitis. Results: Only 3 of the 81 patients (3.70%) complained of eye discomfort, which appeared on the day 16.67±9.29 after the diagnosis of coronavirus disease-19. […] The eye signs did not meet the characteristics of viral conjunctivitis.
32314034 Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH) Eye Centre is the only ophthalmology department supporting the National Centre for Infectious Diseases (NCID), which is the national screening center and the main center for management of COVID-19 patients in Singapore.
32316719 To evaluate the potential infection risk of 2019-nCoV on ocular surface, we compared ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression among different eye tissues. Methods: Experimental article. […] Results were analyzed using Student’s t-test. Results: The expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes were the highest in conjunctiva among all the six mice eye tissues explored. […] The expression level of human conjunctiva ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were significantly higher than that in the cornea (P=0.007), with 5.74-fold and 12.84-fold higher in the conjunctiva than in the corneal epithelium cells, which resembled the situation in mice. Conclusion: The observation of high-level ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in conjunctiva among the 6 eye tissues examined suggests that conjunctiva serves as an infection target tissue of 2019-nCoV. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2020, 56:). 目的: 分析眼部组织新型冠状病毒侵染和激活关键蛋白人血管紧张素转换酶2(ACE2)和跨膜丝氨酸蛋白酶2(TMPRSS2)的表达情况,探讨新型冠状病毒在眼部的侵染基础。
32317433 These guidelines will be applicable to all practice settings including tertiary institutions, corporate and group practices and individual eye clinics and should help Indian ophthalmologists in performing their professional responsibilities without being foci of disease transmission.
32323287 If the specifications for protective equipment (eye protection, FFP2 or FFP-3 mask, gown) are adhered to, inhalation therapy, nasal high-flow (NHF) therapy, CPAP therapy or NIV can be carried out according to the current state of knowledge without increased risk of infection to the staff.
32332516 In addition, infection of COVID-19 through unprotected eye exposure had been suspected in several articles. […] As a result, we strongly suggest that personal protective equipment (PPE) should cover the mouth, nose, and eyes of ophthalmologists, especially when conjunctivitis caused by SARS-CoV-2 is clinically indistinguishable from other viral follicular conjunctivitis.
32333644 A colorimetric change was used to report the results, which enables the outcome of viral RNA amplification to be read by the naked eye without the need of expensive or dedicated instrument.
32334119 Non-hermetically sealed eye protection does not fully protect the eyes from airborne particles. […] Hermetically sealed eye protection fully protects the eyes from particles, but tends to fog up, rendering it unusable. […] This study aimed to build and test a filtered eye mask (FEM) to protect the eyes from airborne particles, while being usable without excessive fog build up. […] A hermetically-sealed standard eye mask (SEM) and an FEM were examined at 1-minute, 5-minute and 60-minute periods for performance metrics relating to fog. […] An FEM may play an important role in preventing novel coronavirus (COVID-19) exposure by protecting the eyes from airborne particles and preventing fog, rendering it usable.
32334847 We report here the case of a 27-year-old man who consulted by telemedicine during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, due to foreign body sensation and left eye redness. […] Examination revealed unilateral eyelid edema and moderate conjunctival hyperemia.
32336042 The Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ) were used to assess the anterior ocular surface condition before and after the onset of disease.
32336079 Keeping the distancing and medical masks and eye protection during close contact efficiently protects against respiratory diseases transmitted via droplets.
32336578 While eye care practitioners (ECPs) may continue to provide urgent or emergency eye care, in many cases the travel restrictions present a unique challenge by preventing conventional face-to-face examination. […] The indeterminate period over which conventional practice will be suspended, and the risk that resumption of ‘normal’ practice could be impeded by a potential secondary peak in COVID-19 cases, hastens the need for practitioners to adapt their delivery of eyecare. […] Smartphone based ocular imaging is an area which has seen considerable growth, particularly for imaging the posterior eye. […] Smartphone imaging of the anterior eye requires additional specialised instrumentation unlikely to be available to patients at home. […] In general, digital photographs, are useful for detection of gross anterior eye changes, but subtle changes are less discernible.
32337386 Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare but life-threatening cancer of the eye. […] In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, hospitals and proton eye therapy facilities must analyze several factors to ensure appropriate treatment protocols for patients and provider teams. […] Given the unique circumstances for UM patients, along with indications of potential ophthalmologic transmission as a result of healthcare providers working in close proximity to patients and intrinsic infectious risk from eyelashes, tears and hair, practice strategies may be adapted to reduce the risk of viral transmission.
32345343 However, the standard of care for ICU patients, including delirium management, must remain the highest quality possible with an eye towards long-term survival and minimization of issues related to post-intensive care syndrome (PICS).
32353982 Although it seems, at the moment, that there is a low risk of coronavirus spreading through tears, it may survive for a long time or replicate in the conjunctiva, even in absence of conjunctivitis signs, indicating that eye protection (e.g., protective goggles alone or in association with face shield) is advisable to prevent contamination from external droplets and aerosol.
32354653 The aim of this project was to evaluate which personal protective equipment (PPE) eye care practitioners (ECP) will use during the next months and also what they will ask the patient to use in clinical practice.
32355114 We report on a family of three adults who experienced photophobia, intense eye pain, epiphora, blurred vision, and burning sensation over the face and neck area after a short period of unprotected exposure to UV germicidal lamps.
32363963 This is a report of a case with mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) with severe eye involvement and concurrent COVID-19 treated successfully using simultaneous high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and anti-viral treatment as hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and ribavirin.
32369475 For procedures in low risk patients, personnel must wear a disposable gown, gloves, eye or face shield, standard surgical mask, disposable hat, disposable shoe covers.
32369541 The association was most consistent for masks but was also observed for gloves, gowns, eye protection, and handwashing; evidence suggested a dose-response relationship.
32373467 For this reason, eye protection in the form of goggles or a face shield should be considered essential for all healthcare providers, even when taking care of patients who are not showing typical symptoms of COVID-19.
32375197 PubMed.gov was searched for relevant articles using the keywords “COVID-19”, “coronavirus”, and “SARS-CoV-2” in conjunction with “ophthalmology” and “eye”. […] As the eye can represent a route of infection (actively via tears and passively via the nasoacrimal duct), ophthalmological care has to undergo substantial modifications during this pandemic. […] In the eye, COVID-19 can manifest as keratoconjunctivitis. […] PubMed.gov wurde systematisch nach Artikeln mit den folgenden Schlüsselwörtern durchsucht: „COVID-19“, „Coronavirus“ und „SARS‐CoV‐2“ in Verbindung mit „Ophthalmology“ und „Eye“.
32377502 We describe the evidence-based practical approach taken in our ophthalmology department to continue delivering eye care during the pandemic by rescheduling visits, enhancing clinic safety, and adopting virtual video encounters.
32378180 Current recommendations from the United States and global eye bank associations call for the outright avoidance of tissues from donors recently infected with or exposed to COVID-19.
32391309 Recently, the role of the eye in transmitting 2019-nCoV has been intensively discussed. […] The role of the eye in the transmission of 2019-nCoV is discussed in detail. […] Although the conjunctiva is directly exposed to extraocular pathogens, and the mucosa of the ocular surface and upper respiratory tract are connected by the nasolacrimal duct and share the same entry receptors for some respiratory viruses, the eye is rarely involved in human CoV infection, conjunctivitis is quite rare in patients with 2019-nCoV infection, and the CoV RNA positive rate by RT-PCR test in tears and conjunctival secretions from patients with 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV infection is also extremely low. […] This suggests that the eye is neither a preferred organ of human CoV infection nor a preferred gateway of entry for human CoVs for infecting the respiratory tract.
32396445 Infection control strategies implemented for ENT outpatients and emergency room visits at the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University were reported. Results. […] After implementation of infection control strategies for outpatient clinics, emergency visits, and surgeries, no providers were infected at the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University. Conclusions and Relevance.
32397530 Indeed, cataract causes more than half of all cases of visual impairment in those countries with limited availability of means for performing eye operations (e.g., Africa or India). […] Despite the imperative need to continuously practice eye operations to avoid the abovementioned problems, there are currently little-shared and vague recommendations among the various countries on safety in operating rooms (for health care workers and patients) and poor legal protection for surgeons (potentially transmitting the COVID-19 infectious agent).
32405872 In case of surgery, adapted personal protective equipment in terms of gowns, gloves, masks and eye protection is highly recommended and described.
32406140 Evidence from animal studies is limited, with a single study suggesting viral particles on the eye can travel to the lung, resulting in very mild infection.
32406606 We dynamic detected the SARS-CoV-2 in eye sample of one COVID-19 patient with obstruction of common lacrimal ducts. […] Besides the routine examination, nasopharyngeal and eye swab were continuously measured by polymerase chain reaction assay and next-generation sequencing (NGS). […] Nasopharyngeal swabs were positive for 22 days, but eye swabs were still continuously positive for 2 weeks after nasopharyngeal swabs turned negative. […] As obstruction of common lacrimal duct, positively detection in one eye for 2 weeks more after nasopharyngeal swab became negative. […] More eye swabs should be collected from COVID-19 patients, especially from those immunocompromised, those with eye symptoms and those had a history of ocular diseases.
32408801 We highlight that mastering the technological platform of choice, optimizing lighting, camera positioning, and “eye contact,” being thoughtful and creative with the virtual eye examination, and ensuring good documenting and billing will make a successful and efficient VV.
32409243 Minimize exposure to the SARS-CoV-2, reduce the chances of cross-transmission between patients and healthcare personnel, and prevent the development of postoperative complications from the management of patients with eye diseases during the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19). […] The recommendations will promote the adoption of action and protection measures for eye care in outpatient clinics, surgical areas and hospitalization, for unconfirmed (asymptomatic and symptomatic) and confirmed COVID-19 patients. […] During the COVID-19 pandemic, attention to the potential health risks to the population caused by coronavirus should prevail over the possible progression of the common eye diseases. […] Ophthalmologists and other eye care professionals must assume a possible progression of these diseases due to the impossibility of adequate patient follow-up.
32412403 Although SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in the conjunctival secretions or tears of patients with COVID-19 and conjunctivitis, transmission of infection through respiratory droplets to ophthalmologists without eye protection or masks may be the bigger concern.
32418481 Ophthalmologists are considered at elevated risk of exposure when caring patients and vice versa, due to their close proximity during eye examination.
32419879 ENT examinations and procedures with exposure to these projections / aerosolizations require the so-called “airborne”, “contact”, and “droplets” additional precautions: FFP2/N95 respiratory protection device, eye protection, disposable headwear and long sleeve overgown.
32421258 Information on demographic characteristics, exposure history, ocular symptoms, eye drop medication, eye protections, chronic eye diseases, systemic concomitant symptoms, radiologic findings and SARS-CoV-2 detection in nasopharyngeal swabs by real-time PCR was collected from questionnaires and electronic medical records. […] The other ocular symptoms, including increased conjunctival secretion, ocular pain, photophobia, dry eye and tearing, were also found in patients with conjunctival congestion. […] Notably, hand-eye contact was independently correlated with conjunctival congestion in COVID-19 patients. […] We also found that some COVID-19 patients had chronic eye diseases, including conjunctivitis (33, 6.2%), xerophthalmia (24, 4.5%) and keratitis (14, 2.6%). […] Frequent hand-eye contact may be the risk factor for conjunctival congestion in COVID-19 patients. […] It is essential to provide eye-care equipment and strengthen education on eye protection.
32424327 However, it cannot be excluded that SARS-CoV-2 could both infect the eye and the surrounding structures.
32426752 This article provides as follows: 1) a conceptual introduction and approach to healthcare capacity strain including the etiologies of patient volume, patient acuity, special patient care demands, and resource reduction; 2) a framework for considering key resources during an acute surge event-the “four Ss” of preparedness: space (beds), staff (clinicians and operations), stuff (physical equipment), and system (coordination); and 3) an adaptable approach to and discussion of the most common domains that should be addressed during preparation for and response to acute surge events, with an eye toward combating novel respiratory viral pathogens.
32437124 In this regard, a selective “naked-eye” detection of SARS-CoV-2 is highly desirable, which can be tested without accessing any advanced instrumental techniques. […] Thus, the current study reports a selective and visual “naked-eye” detection of COVID-19 causative virus, SARS-CoV-2, without the requirement of any sophisticated instrumental techniques.
32446866 Respiratory infection transmission via the eye and lacrimal-nasal pathway elucidated during the 1918 influenza pandemic, remains to be explored in this crisis. […] The eye and its adnexae represent a large surface area directly exposed to airborne viral particles and hand contact. […] This pathway is accessible with eye drops or aerosols containing drugs which appear efficacious via systemic administration. […] A combination such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and zinc, all of which have previously been used topically in the eye and which work at least in part by blocking ACE2 receptors, may offer a safe, cost-effective and resource-sparing intervention.
32451906 To share a useful intervention to minimize risk of COVID-19 infection to both healthcare workers and patients in the eye clinic.
32454575 For nonemergent care, eye care providers should use telehealth. […] Eye care providers should prioritize patient care in order of absolute necessity, such as sudden vision loss, sudden onset flashes and floaters, and eye trauma. […] The close proximity between eye care providers and their patients during slit-lamp examination may require further precautions, such as shields, barriers, and mask use to lower the risk of transmission via droplets or through hand to eye contact. […] All nonemergent eye care appointments should be delayed or conducted remotely.
32456959 All health care professionals should ask patients about ocular symptoms consistent with SARS-CoV-2, and use eye protection such as goggles or face shields as part of the standard personal protective equipment for high-risk patients in addition to wearing of masks by both the patient and provider, and should consider tears to be potentially infectious.
32461409 The increased frequency of ABHR use and the aerosols generated pose a potential threat to the skin and exposed mucosal surfaces, especially that of the eye due to the proximity of use.
32472897 The main symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, fatigue, dry cough; however, myalgia and dyspnea and the transmission routes include direct transmission by cough, sneeze, droplet inhalation, or contact transmission with the oral, nasal, or eye mucous membranes.
32470381 Here we review how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects the eye and discuss implications for ophthalmologists.
32474850 We investigated clinical features and classified symptoms as general, digestive, ear-nose-throat, thoracic symptoms, and eye disease.
32478500 A major basis for physical protection from respiratory infections is eye, nose, and mouth protection. […] However, eye protection with goggles is problematic due to “fogging”, while nose/mouth protection is complicated by the breathing difficulties associated with non-valved respirators. […] Here, we give a brief review of the origins and development of face masks and eye protection to counter respiratory infections on the basis of experiments conducted 100 years ago, work that was presaged by the first use of personal protective equipment, “PPE”, by the plague doctors of the 17th Century. […] The results of the review lead to two conclusions: first, that eye protection using filtered eye masks be used to prevent ocular transmission; second, that new, pre-filtered, valved respirators be used to even more effectively block viral transmission.
32484728 Appropriate personal protective equipment includes selection of respiratory and eye protection.
32490022 The ease of transmission of this virus at close proximity presents a risk to eyecare workers. […] The purpose of this paper was to discuss measures, with a specific focus on standard precautions, to prevent further dissemination of COVID-19 at Eye Clinics.
32490972 To identify and classify available information regarding COVID-19 and eye care according to the level of evidence, within four main topics of interest: evidence of the virus in tears and the ocular surface, infection via the conjunctival route, ocular manifestations, and best practice recommendations.
32492293 We enrolled adults who had household or occupational exposure to someone with confirmed Covid-19 at a distance of less than 6 ft for more than 10 minutes while wearing neither a face mask nor an eye shield (high-risk exposure) or while wearing a face mask but no eye shield (moderate-risk exposure).
  1. Previous infection with SARS CoV2 (positive coronavirus PCR or positive serology with SARS Cov2 negative PCR and absence of symptoms); 2) Current treatment with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine; 3) Hypersensitivity, allergy or any contraindication for taking hydroxychloroquine, in the technical sheet; 4) Previous or current treatment with tamoxifen or raloxifene; 5) Previous eye disease, especially maculopathy; 6) Known heart failure (Grade III to IV of the New York Heart Association classification) or prolonged QTc; 7) Any type of cancer (except basal cell) in the last 5 years; 6) Refusal to give informed consent; 8) Evidence of any other unstable or clinically significant untreated immune, endocrine, hematological, gastrointestinal, neurological, neoplastic or psychiatric illness; 9) Antibodies positive for the human immunodeficiency virus; 10) Significant kidney or liver disease; 11) Pregnancy or lactation.
32497510 We aimed to investigate the effects of physical distance, face masks, and eye protection on virus transmission in health-care and non-health-care (eg, community) settings. […] We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the optimum distance for avoiding person-to-person virus transmission and to assess the use of face masks and eye protection to prevent transmission of viruses. […] Eye protection also was associated with less infection (n=3713; aOR 0·22, 95% CI 0·12 to 0·39, RD -10·6%, 95% CI -12·5 to -7·7; low certainty). […] Optimum use of face masks, respirators, and eye protection in public and health-care settings should be informed by these findings and contextual factors.
32500852 Spraying individuals with disinfectant chemicals is strongly discouraged by various health authorities around the globe because of their propensity for eye and skin irritation, bronchospasm following inhalation, and gastrointestinal effects such as nausea and vomiting.
32515358 Results report for the first time a bird’s eye view on the accumulation of mutations in SARS-CoV-2 genome in Eastern India.
32516571 Viral quantification revealed the lungs as the major site of infection, although viral RNA could also be found in the eye, heart, and brain in some mice.
32524194 Patients with a recent acute visual deterioration and severe eye pain were excluded from the VC. […] Of presentations in VC 70% were related to the symptoms of the anterior eye segment.
32543262 Several mechanisms for the ocular transmission of the virus are proposed with highlight on the nasolacrimal system as a conduit between the eye and the respiratory tract, and the role of the lacrimal gland in hematogenous spread.
32544566 Conjunctival signs and symptoms are observed in a subset of patients with COVID-19, and SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in tears, raising concerns regarding the eye both as a portal of entry and carrier of the virus. […] We analyzed human post-mortem eyes as well as surgical specimens for the expression of ACE2 (the receptor for SARS-CoV-2) and TMPRSS2, a cell surface-associated protease that facilitates viral entry following binding of the viral spike protein to ACE2. […] Across all eye specimens, immunohistochemical analysis revealed expression of ACE2 in the conjunctiva, limbus, and cornea, with especially prominent staining in the superficial conjunctival and corneal epithelial surface. […] All eye and conjunctival specimens also expressed TMPRSS2.
32556552 The appearance of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV‑2) poses challenges in ophthalmology particularly for eye banks.
32556553 Current eye banking guidelines do not recommend any type of routine testing for SARS-CoV‑2 RNA in post-mortem donor tissue.
32562915 34-35 °C) and assuming viral thermolability of SARS-CoV-2, local instillation or aerosol of antiviral (i.e. remdesivir) in humid heat vaporization (40°-41 °C) in the first phase of infection (phenotype I, before admission), both in asymptomatic but nasopharyngeal swab positive patients, together with antiseptic-antiviral oral gargles and povidone-iodine eye drops for conjunctiva (0,8-5% conjunctival congestion), would attack the virus directly through the receptors to which it binds, significantly decreasing viral replication, risk of evolution to phenotypes IV and V, reducing hospitalization and therefore death.
32564983 It is the first study to assess the utility of emergency teleophthalmology with a simple smartphone application or web browser and a webcam to manage emergency eye care in a population with sudden restricted access to ophthalmologists. […] The aim of the study was to describe the population and diagnoses and evaluate the main judgment criteria, defined as the ‘ability of teleconsultation to properly indicate a physical consultation for fair diagnosis and treatment in eye emergencies’.
32566494 To review international guidelines and to share our infection control experience during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic at a tertiary eye centre in Hong Kong.
32568064 Eye protection should be guaranteed whenever there is a risk of splashes, droplets or aerosols.
32574896 For each patient we evaluated the short version of the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders-Negative Statements (sQOD-NS), the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version (SXI-DV), The Standardized Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED), Schirmer test I, the Hearing Handicap Inventory For Adults (HHIA) and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI). […] In our population there was an alteration of the sense of taste, of the sense of smell, dry eyes and of the oral cavity and an auditory discomfort, symptoms probably linked to the neurotropism of the virus.
32579256 Conjunctival swab was collected from both eyes of 36 patients (72 eyes), detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA in conjunctival swab of two patients (5.5%). […] The presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in ocular samples highlights the role of the eye as a possible route of transmission of the disease.
32583042 In the eye both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed, although sometimes very weakly and with varying degrees in different tissues. […] Therefore, an infection of the eye seems possible, which has already been reported in various publications. […] According to current state of knowledge the eye is not considered to be a high-risk tissue due to the low ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression.
32586394 Primary safety endpoint: Major bleeding, defined as an acute clinically overt bleeding associated with one or more of the following: Decrease in haemoglobin of 2 g/dl or more;Transfusion of 2 or more units of packed red blood cells;Bleeding that occurs in at least one of the following critical sites [intracranial, intraspinal, intraocular (within the corpus of the eye; thus, a conjunctival bleed is not an intraocular bleed), pericardial, intra-articular, intramuscular with compartment syndrome, or retroperitoneal];Bleeding that is fatal (defined as a bleeding event that was the primary cause of death or contributed directly to death);Bleeding that necessitates surgical intervention Time to the occurrence of each of these events will be recorded.
32587148 A number of aspects of healthcare including eye donation and eye collection require adequate safety precautions in place to keep both the involved healthcare workers and patients safe. […] This paper highlights the consensus-based guidelines by an expert panel on how to restart eye banking and eye collection services and carry out emergency corneal surgeries during this COVID-19 time. […] These guidelines will be applicable to all eye banks across the country and should help ophthalmologists and eye banking staff to restart eye banking while safeguarding themselves and their patients.
32587150 At present with the better understanding of the safety precautions among the health care workers and general population the Government of India (GoI) has given clearance for functioning of eye care facilities. […] These guidelines will be applicable to all practice settings including tertiary institutions, corporate and group practices and individual eye clinics.
32587154 The recommendations pertain to listing conditions which need emergency or urgent care in the fields of pediatric ophthalmology and neuro-ophthalmology, precautions and technique of pediatric and neuro-ophthalmic eye examination and a protocol for delivering a safe general anesthesia for a pediatriceye surgery.
32587155 As the health-care system is finally re-organizing to mitigate the impact of the pandemic, it was necessary to re-structure primary eye care (PEC) activities as well on the same lines. […] A consensus meeting was held with leading eye-care experts on 2nd May 2020 to prepare a roadmap for PEC in the days to come.
32587157 Though tele-ophthalmology has been popular for screening, there are no clear guidelines on how to comprehensively manage patients seeking advice and treatment for a particular eye condition.
32587163 The growth of eye banking in India was showing positive trends until the nation was hit by unprecedented times as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. […] The impact of this has led to a downward spiraling in eye banking activities globally. […] While eye banks in India have been practicing short- term and intermediate storage preservation media, there is a definite need to evolve other methods of very long-term preservation. […] We reviewed relevant medical literature in English from PUBMED with the key words “Corneal preservation”, “Cryopreservation”, “Glycerol preservation”, Gamma Irradiation“,”Eye Banking" ,“COVID-19”.
32587167 It is the primeval first response of the body to any severe condition of the eye such as trauma, infections and inflammation. […] The pain can be due to conditions directly affecting the eye and ocular adnexa; or indirect which would manifest as referred pain from other organ structures such as the central nervous system.
32587169 An online survey targeting faculty members and resident doctors in a tertiary eye center in a government medical university in north India was conducted. […] Red eye was the commonest presenting complaint (22.8%), followed by watering (18.7%) and foreign body sensation (14.5%).
32587172 Pivoting teleconsultation platform can provide primary eye care to most of the patients and work as essential forward triage for rest.
32587179 Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, most of the eye banks have limited/stopped corneal collection, as this is a highly contagious disease. […] A total of 94 eyes of 91 patients underwent TPK from October 2011 to August 2017. […] FCT group included 60 eyes of 57 patients and GPC group included 34 eyes of 34 patients. […] The GPC is comparable to FCTs in therapeutic transplant and can be a useful interim procedure in saving the eyes in cases of infective keratitis in the time of crisis.
32588125 Although individual test results have to be interpreted with caution, serosurveillance in a tertiary eye care center and large eye research institute can reduce anxiety and provide clarity regarding the actual number of (unreported) SARS-CoV‑2 infections.
32588588 However, there is no evidence of the SARS-CoV-2 presence in the eye tissue of asymptomatic patients, even if the symptomatic incidence is low. […] Although the frequency of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection through the eye is low, ocular symptoms are not uncommon in COVID-19. […] In some cases, eye symptoms may be the first signs of illness.
32589459 The conjunctiva and the cornea can adopt antiviral countermeasures which may explain the low prevalence of eye involvement.
32589541 Increased awareness of eye care in the intensive care unit setting is therefore vital to help prevent visual loss and maintain quality of life for patients recovering from COVID-19.
32591880 The availability of N95 masks (47%) and disposable eye protectors or face shields (39.4%) was significantly associated with lower psychological stress (p = 0.01).
32306616 Based on the previous studies and our own research, we summarize the potential transmission route and clinical symptoms of COVID-2019 in the eye, as well as the further prevention and research, with the expectation of contributing to the development in the field of infectious eye disease in China.
32593563 A medically complex 20-year-old male presented via virtual visit for unilateral eye redness and discharge.
32605826 This case presents a successful urgent perioperative management of a 47 year-old male COVID-19 positive patient who presented to the Emergency Department with a left frontal headache that culminated with diplopia, left eye ptosis, and left visual acuity loss after 5 days.
32607305 Healthcare providers, particularly ophthalmologists, are at high risk of a COVID-19 infection through unprotected contact with eye secretions during routine ophthalmic examinations that involve the use of direct ophthalmoscopy and slit-lamp examinations, which are usually performed in a setting that allows for close doctor-patient contact.
32611912 Eye care professionals can be caught unaware because conjunctivitis may be one of the first signs of COVID-19 at presentation, even precluding the emergence of additional symptoms such as dry cough and anosmia. […] Breath and eye shields as well as N95 masks, should be worn while examining patients with fever, breathlessness, or any history of international travel or travel from any hotspot besides maintaining hand hygiene.
32615046 In case of reduced access to eye clinics or high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, patients’ management should be stratified based on their clinical presentation. […] In uncontrolled situations where there is real risk of permanent visual loss, high-dose intravenous steroids and/or systemic immunosuppressants and/or biotherapies can be administered depending on the severity of eye disease.
32641169 A 53-year-old man confirmed with COVID-19 developed symptoms of viral conjunctivitis in the left eye approximately 10 days after the onset of COVID-19. […] The results of a nucleic acid test were positive for SARS-CoV-2 in the conjunctival sac of the left eye. […] However, the patient was subsequently diagnosed with viral keratoconjunctivitis in both eyes 5 days after the symptoms in the left eye were satisfactorily relieved. […] Although SARS-CoV-2 could not be detected in conjunctival secretions, the levels of inflammatory factors, such as interleukin-6, were increased in both eyes. […] Both eyes were treated with glucocorticoids, and symptoms were controlled within 5 days.
32644878 With ongoing advances patients may benefit from improved detection and earlier treatment of eye diseases, resulting in better care and improved visual outcomes.
32650681 Multivariate stepwise regression analysis indicated that level of education, avoiding going to crowded places, eye, nose and mouth organs are sensitive organs to the virus, keeping physical distance due to epidemic affect by COVID-19 virus, isolation and treatment of people reduce the spread of COVID-19 virus and 14-days period of time, COVID-19 is mainly transmitted through contact with the respiratory droplets of an infected person, occupational status, health education programme needed and antibody treatment variables were significantly associated with fatigue after adjusting for age, gender and income variables.
32655856 Due to its pathophysiologic relevance, the right ventricle finds itself in the eye of the storm of corona virus disease of 2019, placing it at higher risk of failure.
32656359 Knowledge of the differences in ophthalmic management plans will allow ophthalmologists and all eye care providers to consider the variety of international approaches and apply best practices following evidence-based recommendations during pandemics.
32657805 This article discusses the measures put in place by the 3 largest ophthalmology centers in Singapore’s public sector in response to COVID-19, and the challenges of providing eye care in the face of stringent infection control directives, staff redeployments and “social distancing.”
32658132 Other recommendations provided by certain societies are related to shelter in place measures, hand hygiene and surface disinfection protocols, patient triage, and thyroid eye disease management.
32662416 Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to clarify eye involvement in COVID-19 in order to help with its diagnosis and to further prevent its transmission. […] Literature search on PubMed for relevant articles using the keywords ‘COVID-19’, ‘coronavirus’, and ‘SARS-CoV-2’ in conjunction with ‘ophthalmology’ and ‘eye’. […] Although the conjunctiva is directly exposed to extraocular pathogens, and the mucosa of the ocular surface and upper respiratory tract are connected by the nasolacrimal duct, the eye is rarely involved in human SARS-CoV-2 infection and the SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive rate by RT-PCR test in tears and conjunctival secretions from patients with COVID-19 is also extremely low. […] The eye can be affected by SARS-CoV-2, which is supported by some reports of conjunctivitis and retinal changes, but its role in the spread of the disease is still unknown. […] Given the current scarce evidence, more research is needed to clarify the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and the eye.
32667077 Moreover, we need a keen eye on deciding which pathologies have to be treated with priority: Coronary artery Disease showed a higher mortality rate in patients affected by COVID19, but it is, however, reasonable to think that all the cardiac pathologies affecting the lung circulation-such as symptomatic severe mitral diseases or aortic stenosis-might deserve a priority access to treatment, to increase the survival rate in case of an acquired-Coronavirus infection later on.
32671665 This finding has not been previously described in the literature but has important implications on eye health and infection prevention, as mask use is likely to continue for the foreseeable future.
32677858 EMS PPE (eye protection, mask, or gown) use was more frequently documented on records of patients who had hospital diagnosed COVID-19.
32678424 During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, eye care professionals caring for patients with sight-threatening diseases, such as glaucoma, have had to determine whether some patient appointments could safely get postponed, weighing the risk that the patient’s glaucoma could worsen during the interim vs the morbidity risk of acquiring COVID-19 while seeking ophthalmic care.
32679424 In this work, we discuss the significance of natural protective factors related to anatomical and physiological properties of the eyes and preventing the deposition of large number of virus-loaded particles on the ocular surface. […] Specifically, we advance the hypothesis that the standing potential of the eye plays an important role in repelling aerosol particles (microdroplets) from the surface of the eye and discuss factors associated with this hypothesis, possible ways to test it and its implications in terms of prevention of ocular infections.
32685386 First, community awareness of the disease and the ophthalmology related advices in how eye can transfers the infection and how to protect our eyes not to be infected through videos interviews of our consultants and distribution in social media like Instagram, Facebook, WhatsApp pages radio and TV interviews as well as leaflet health awareness for distribution for public.
32686219 In preclinical models, senolytics delay, prevent or alleviate frailty, cancers and cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, liver, kidney, musculoskeletal, lung, eye, haematological, metabolic and skin disorders as well as complications of organ transplantation, radiation and cancer treatment. […] Clinical trials for diabetes, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Alzheimer’s disease, COVID-19, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, eye diseases and bone marrow transplant and childhood cancer survivors are underway or beginning.
32687204 The authors describe the treatment of pediatric patients with ophthalmological problems during the COVID-19 pandemic in an Italian tertiary eye center.
32689586 Patient developed acute severe right eye visual loss of no light perception and was diagnosed with incomplete OAO.
32694270 In the emergency room, teleophthalmology can be utilized to triage patients and diagnose common ophthalmic eye diseases. […] Innovative technologies emerging in the market allow for increased remote monitoring, screening, and management of adult and pediatric patients for common eye diseases.
32696264 This occurs through liquid droplets by cough, sneeze, hand-to-mouth-to-eye contact and through contaminated hard surfaces.
32703010 The patient’s first application was to the ophthalmology clinic due to redness, stinging, tearing, and photophobia for one day in the right eye. […] This phenomenon shows that conjunctivitis may occur as a sole manifestation of COVID-19 which needs to be carefully evaluated by health care workers and eye care professionals during the pandemic.
32703783 Faced with a potential 50% increase in cataract surgery workload per week in the post-COVID-19 world, eye units should use this event to innovate, not just survive but to also evolve for a sustainable future. […] This includes limiting rationing based on visual acuity, limiting surgery to first or only seeing eyes, and postponing clinic and surgical dates according to referral dates.
32706642 Background: Ophthalmic clinicians report low confidence in telemedicine-based eye care delivery, but it may have changed given its rapid expansion during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. […] Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine clinician confidence in telemedicine-based eye care services during COVID-19. […] Materials and Methods: An electronic survey was sent to clinicians at University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center (April 17, 2020-May 6, 2020) when nonemergent in-person visits and procedures were restricted. […] The primary outcome was clinician confidence in using telemedicine-based eye care during COVID-19. […] Clinician confidence was associated with telemedicine visit volume and intention to continue using telemedicine.Conclusions: Policies that foster clinician confidence will be important to sustain telemedicine-based eye care delivery.
32708720 The aim of this study was to explore knowledge, practice of risk and guidelines of the novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) infection among the eye care practitioners and the potential associated factors. […] A cross-sectional self-administered online survey was distributed via emails and social media networks between 2nd and 18th May 2020 corresponding to the week of the lockdown in Nigeria to eye care practitioners (ECPs). […] ECPs in Nigeria displayed good knowledge about COVID-19 and provided eye care services during the COVID-19 lockdown in Nigeria, despite the majority not receiving any training on the use of PPEs with concerns over attending to patients.
32709769 As these practices gear up to provide eye examination and vision correction to people, they need to take necessary precautions to avoid any cross contaminations.
32709772 Forty-eight (37.80%) patients had upper respiratory tract symptoms, 20 (15.75%) patients had systemic illness, 18 (14.17%) patients were using spectacles, and 50 (39.37%) patients had history of hand-eye contact.
32709820 He developed severe follicular conjunctivitis of the right eye while on a ventilator, which was treated conservatively.
32711965 The lack of primary eye care in the National Health Service is a significant bottleneck, placing a huge stress on hospital-based care. […] The optometrist’s exclusion from differentiated, multisectoral and multidisciplinary eye care teams remains the main hurdle to overcome and insure universal eye care in Portugal. […] Universal eye care more than ever demands an evidence-based, integrated approach with primary eye care, in the community, on time and of proximity.
32712708 Age, sex, reason for injection, visual acuity (VA) for both treated and untreated eyes and number of injections were recorded. […] The proportion of patients and eyes with ≥ 70 letters were calculated as an assessment of quality of service provision. […] The proportion of patients that could be delayed was estimated based on published guidelines and varying the parameters of difference between treated and untreated eyes. […] About 3364 eyes (2229 neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), 427 diabetic macular oedema (DMO), 599 retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and 109 other) from 2924 patients were analysed. […] At the last appointment with injection, 64.4% of patients achieved ≥ 70 letters in their better-seeing eye. […] Mean VA of the treated eye was 61.5 letters, and 36.9% achieved ≥ 70. […] Of the patients receiving treatment to one eye, 57.6% was receiving treatment to their worse seeing eye. […] In 18.2% this eye was > 20 letters worse and in 5.07% > 40 letters worse than the untreated eye. […] If RCOphth guidelines were followed 24.8% could be delayed and if treating the worse seeing eye up to 57.6%.
32713774 During the ongoing pandemic, eye care practitioners should reinforce CL patient education to minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and CL-related complications requiring clinical care.
32715618 ACE2 expression was mainly observed in enterocytes, renal tubules, gallbladder, cardiomyocytes, male reproductive cells, placental trophoblasts, ductal cells, eye, and vasculature.
32718359 The distance between the surgeon’s eye and the microscope was measured in each personal protective equipment condition. […] The distance from the eye to the microscope inversely correlated with the diameter and area visible (p < 0.001). […] Solutions offering adequate eye protection for aerosol-generating procedures that require the microscope, including mastoidectomy, are urgently needed.
32719452 We then outline a road map for overcoming remaining technical challenges: identifying high-risk pathogens before they emerge, optimizing vaccine design with an eye to evolution, behaviour and epidemiology, and minimizing the risk of unintended consequences.
32719807 Respondents were most uncertain regarding the efficacy of mask and eye protection use, with 30.6 and 22.1%, respectively, unsure whether their use would slow disease spread.
32724668 The authors reviewed the clinical work arrangements during the epidemic situation at the Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University in China and analyzed the prevention and control measures that were applied during the laser corneal refractive surgery process.
32727583 Enhanced personal protective equipment (PPE) including N95 masks and full eye protection should be used for any AGMPs performed even in asymptomatic patients. […] Enhanced PPE including full eye protection, N95 masks and/or powered air purifying respirators (PAPRs) should be used for any AGMPs in symptomatic or presumptive positive COVID 19 patients.
32729433 Additionally, the eye and its tear drainage apparatus can track the SARS-CoV-2 from the eye into the respiratory tract of the patient. […] The potential ocular presence of the SARS-CoV-2 in the eye of a patient can target ACE2 receptors in the endothelium of the conjunctival vessels and use the lacrimal sac a potential space to evade immune detection and clinical isolation. […] Further studies, like isolation of SARS-CoV-2 from the eyes of patients with COVID-19, needed to identify the eyes as a potential source of SARS-CoV-2 infection trans-mission.
32735134 A 40-year old white male patient consulted for a slight decrease in the sensitivity of the visual field in his left eye (OS). […] Visual acuities (VA) were 20/20 in both eyes.
32738664 In the T1 survey, the “Typhoon Eye Effect” appeared.
32740062 Eye care professionals must exercise caution, as conjunctivitis may be the presenting or sole finding of an active COVID-19 infection.
32740063 Like COVID-19, the rapid emergence of Ebola required new clinical and surgical approaches to understand its associated spectrum of ophthalmic complications and the potential for Ebola viral persistence within the eye and in tear film. […] Gaps also remain in our understanding of eye disease associated with other high priority emerging infectious diseases including Nipah, Lassa fever, Marburg virus, and others.
32740064 The Eye Bank Association of America (EBAA) is currently not recommending asymptomatic PCR screening.
32740065 These changes underscore a need for targeted interventions to optimize emergent eye care during a pandemic.
32740069 Digital health solutions such as artificial intelligence and telehealth can facilitate the integration of community, primary and specialist eye care services, optimize the flow of patients within healthcare networks, and improve the efficiency of diabetic retinopathy management.
32748176 Each patient underwent two fundus and one anterior ocular segment images per eye, after mydriasis.
32748476 Noncompliance was seen most often for eye protection (45/567) (P = .01). […] Our HCW were adapting well to the new normal of donning appropriate PPE in the OR, except for the eye protection due to discomfort and visibility related issues.
32751615 Considering the widespread use of topical ophthalmic medications (e.g., eye drops) by the general population, for various reasons (e.g., artificial tears, anti-glaucoma medications, topical antibiotics, etc.), the existence of their side effects as antiviral action should be investigated in-depth because it could possibly explain the aforementioned controversial data and represent a potential antiviral treatment for SARS-CoV-2 replication/diffusion on the ocular surface. […] Here, we discuss and elucidate the antiviral side effect of many eye drops and ophthalmic ointments commonly used for others purposes, thus showing that these secondary effects (not to be confused with the ‘adverse effects’) might be of primary importance in a number of viral infections (e.g., those for which there is no validated treatment protocol), according to a drug repurposing approach.
32752043 Both electrochemical immunosensors and eye-based technologies have been described, showing detection times lower than 10 min after swab introduction.
32763128 Some animal models of different coronaviruses eye infections have described the viral pathogenesis through tear and conjunctival sampling.
32763350 Face shields not only act as a barrier against the soiling of N95 face masks, they also serve as more effective eye protection from respiratory droplets over standard eye shields.
32766413 The present longitudinal data reflect a bird’s eye view of people’s fears towards getting ill, their news media consumption, and their attitudes regarding the (Belgian) government’s handling of the COVID-19 crisis.
32769697 During routine outpatient clinic in cases of negative triage, it is recommended to use ASTM III surgical mask, plastic apron, disposable gloves and eye protection with goggles or face-shield.
32782038 Only 86 respondents (50%) identified the correct donning order; only 60 (35%) identified the correct doffing order; but the majority (n = 113, 70%) indicated the need to wash their hands immediately prior to removal of their mask and eye protection.
32785899 In 59.1% of clinics, safety equipment was supplemented with FFP2 masks and eye protection during thoracic surgeries due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
32788324 Therefore, good eye protection is an essential safeguard procedure, especially for medical staff.
32791260 To meet the request of eye-protecting devices, an interdisciplinary consortium involving practitioners, researchers, engineers and technicians developed and manufactured thousands of inexpensive 3D-printed face shields, inside hospital setting.
32794025 In this novel arena of medical practice, which may form new norms beyond the current pandemic crisis, we found it critical to define guidelines on the recommended practice in neurotology, including remote methods in examining the vestibular and eye movement function. […] The focus was on two topics: (1) an adequate eye movement and vestibular examination strategy using virtual platforms and (2) a decision pathway providing guidance about which patient should seek urgent medical care and which patient should have non-urgent but expedited outpatient management.
32796085 To describe the deployment and scaling to a large volume of teleophthalmology using a video consultation platform ‘Attend Anywhere’ in Moorfields Eye Hospital’s accident and emergency (A&E) department (London, UK). […] 78.6% of patients (n=260) were determined not to need hospital A&E review and were managed with advice (n=126), remote prescription (n=57), general practitioner referral (n=27), direct referral to hospital subspecialty services (n=26) or diversion to a local eye unit (n=24). […] Video consultations showed greater than expected usefulness in the remote management of eye disease and supported a substantial reduction in the number of people visiting the hospital.
32796445 Patients adherent to treatment were significantly younger (p<0.001) and had a lower best-corrected visual acuity in the fellow eye (p=0.046).
32799736 Ophthalmology, an outpatient surgical specialty, depends on regular in-person encounters to manage complex eye disease. […] Since implementing live videoconference appointments in late March, 840 patients received ophthalmic care during a 12-week period among all subspecialties at the Vanderbilt Eye Institute.
32801630 Most ophthalmologists (79.5%) thought that the virus could be detected in tears, and 72.2% thought that red eye as a symptom of COVID-19.
32803018 However, we believe this to be an under-reported phenomenon and suggest that all eye care providers screen patients for a history of seizures or epilepsy prior to fundus photography.
32807241 Primary Efficacy Endpoint: All-cause mortality at day 28 Secondary Efficacy Endpoints: - Ventilation free days (VFDs) at day 28, defined as the total number of days that patient is alive and free of ventilation (either invasive or non-invasive) between randomization and day 28 (censored at hospital discharge). - Need of rescue administration of high-dose steroids or immune-modulatory drugs; - Occurrence of switch from non-invasive to invasive mechanical ventilation during ICU stay; - Delay from start of non-invasive ventilation to switch to invasive ventilation; - All-cause mortality at ICU discharge and hospital discharge; - ICU free days (IFDs) at day 28, defined as the total number of days between ICU discharge and day 28. - Occurrence of new infections from randomization to day 28; including infections by Candida, Aspergillus, Adenovirus, Herpes Virus e Cytomegalovirus - Occurrence of new organ dysfunction and grade of dysfunction during ICU stay. - Objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism, stroke or myocardial infarction; Safety endpoints: - Occurrence of major bleeding, defined as transfusion of 2 or more units of packed red blood cells in a day, bleeding that occurs in at least one of the following critical sites [intracranial, intra-spinal, intraocular (within the corpus of the eye; thus, a conjunctival bleed is not an intraocular bleed), pericardial, intra-articular, intramuscular with compartment syndrome, or retroperitoneal], bleeding that necessitates surgical intervention and bleeding that is fatal (defined as a bleeding event that was the primary cause of death or contributed directly to death); - Occurrence of clinically relevant non-major bleeding, defined ad acute clinically overt bleeding that does not meet the criteria for major and consists of any bleeding compromising hemodynamic; spontaneous hematoma larger than 25 cm2, intramuscular hematoma documented by ultrasonography, haematuria that was macroscopic and was spontaneous or lasted for more than 24 hours after invasive procedures; haemoptysis, hematemesis or spontaneous rectal bleeding requiring endoscopy or other medical intervention or any other bleeding requiring temporary cessation of a study drug.
32809211 Importantly, the eye may constitute not only a potential site of virus replication but also an alternative transmission route of the virus from the ocular surface to the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. […] This review article critically evaluates available evidence on the ophthalmological mode of viral transmission and the value of earlier identification of the virus on the eye.
32815512 Most importantly, people who were geographically far from Lima, the epicenter in Peru, during the outbreak experienced less anxiety and mental distress, corroborating the ripple effect and disconfirming the typhoon eye theory.
32816518 This article gives a bird’s-eye view on how the 2nd-most populous country, that is, India, is fighting the COVID-19 pandemic.
32834194 This case presents a successful urgent perioperative management of a 47 year-old male COVID-19 positive patient who presented to the Emergency Department with a left frontal headache that culminated with diplopia, left eye ptosis, and left visual acuity loss after 5 days.
32834344 We name this counterintuitive phenomenon the “eye of the hurricane” paradox: the large majority of individuals who are not infected by the virus may be seeing their current condition in a more positive light than they normally would.
32834430 We also keep an eye on future outbreaks, where the modelers can find the most relevant strategies used in an emergency situation as the current one to help in fighting future pandemics.
32835131 A 28-year-old female tested positive for COVID-19. 19 days later, she developed a fever, rash and a burning sensation in both eyes. […] Her examination revealed mild ocular inflammation with bilateral eyelid and conjunctival involvement. […] She was initiated on corticosteroid eye drops and her ocular symptoms resolved three days later.
32836641 This article casts a critical eye over the potential implications of this opportunity in the context of information systems (IS) research and development.
32837248 There are several sophisticated eye tracking devices and associated algorithms for recording and classification of scanpath. […] In addition, even though the devices acquire and process eye movement data with fair accuracy but are intrusive and costly. […] The gaze points are tracked remotely as against sophisticated wearable eye tracking devices available in the market. […] The model maps and classifies eye movement gaze points into fixations and saccades and generates data for identified parameters. […] For eye detection and subsequent iris detection voila jones and circular hough transform (CHT) algorithms have been used. […] The present model requires no contact of human subject with any equipment including eye tracking devices, screen or computing devices.
32837296 According to the current state of knowledge inhalation therapy, nasal high-flow (NHF), and PAP therapy can be carried out without increased risk of infection for health care workers (HCW) as long as appropriate personal protective equipment (eye protection, FFP2 or FFP-3 mask, gown) is being used.This position paper of the German Society for Pneumology and Respiratory Medicine (DGP) and the German Society for Sleep Medicine (DGSM) offers detailed recommendations for the implementation of sleep medicine diagnostics and therapy in the context of the coronavirus pandemic.
32837713 Proper understanding of the mechanics of the complex processes whereby the two-phase flow emitted by an infected individual disperses into the environment would allow us to infer from first principles the practical rules to be imposed on social distancing and on the use of facial and eye protection, which to date have been adopted on a rather empirical basis.
32837739 Contamination by gloved hands was considered as a major exposure route for SARS-CoV-2 when compared with eye protection equipment.
32837802 Our goal is to provide a review of the impact, global estimates, and projection of vision impairment as well as ongoing systems for eye care delivery. […] Many of the blinding diseases in developing countries are preventable or curable, but the lack of ophthalmologists, the lack of education, and the lack of access to any eye care are some of the major obstacles encountered. […] Global ophthalmology is a field dedicated to building sustainable eye care delivery systems to deliver high-quality care in minimal resource settings, with the aim of reducing blindness around the world.
32838145 Here, we are proposing a molecular mechanism through which the novel coronavirus could act in order to affect the eye and use it as another, secondary but alternative, point of entry to the host organism.
32838559 To compare the number of eye surgical procedures performed in Italy during the first month of lockdown with those performed in the same period in 2019. […] With this analysis, the authors hope to provide some preliminary insights about the consequences of lockdown for the eyecare system in Italy.
32842326 Some scholars also pointed out that the possibility of transmission through the digestive system and eyes should not be ignored. […] Whether infection with 2019-nCoV will develop eye symptoms and whether the virus will spread through eyes are confusing to the medical workers and the general public, and it is ophthalmologists’ responsibility to carry out in-depth discussions. […] Based on the ocular manifestations of viral diseases, this article analyzes whether the eye secretions and tears carry the virus, and whether ophthalmologists and patients are at a high risk for 2019-nCoV infection, and then presents the current research methods and the necessary prevention and control measures in the field of ophthalmology, with an aim to contribute to the fight against 2019-nCoV.
32845280 The common ocular manifestations were conjunctival discharge (27 [55.1%]), eye rubbing (19 [38.8%]), and conjunctival congestion (5 [10.2%]). […] In this cross-sectional study, children hospitalized with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, presented with a series of onset symptoms including fever, cough, and ocular manifestations, such as conjunctival discharge, eye rubbing, and conjunctival congestion.
32849231 Overall, evidence-based stroke care is delivered in a re-organized manner, with a clear eye on infection control.
32852513 Users placed teleophthalmology consults on their mobile phone using the mobile eye care app, and an expeditionary ophthalmologist stationed at a military hospital in Afghanistan responded. […] The treatment and management followed recommendations outlined in the Joint Trauma System Clinical Practice Guidelines for Eye Trauma: Initial Care in 28 consults (100%).
32864068 Allergic conjunctivitis is encountered in nearly half of the population and the findings include itching, mucoid discharge, chemosis, and eyelid edema. […] Long-term usage of eye drops with preservatives in a patient with conjunctival irritation and discharge points to the toxic conjunctivitis as the underlying etiology.
32867706 We provided a bird’s-eye view of the COVID-19 during the current pandemic, which will help better understanding the key traits of the disease.
32870054 The evidence partly supports the eye as a portal of entry for SARS-CoV-2 to infect respiratory cells or viral shedding from respiratory cells via the nasolacrimal duct unto the ocular surface.
32870117 Tracheotomy for patients with COVID-19 can be done with minimal risk to the surgical providers when standard personal protective equipment is used (surgical gown, gloves, eye protection, hair cap, and N95 mask).
32871886 The aim of this study was to survey the prevalence of dry eye symptoms (DES) among doctors and nurses in the period of 2019, novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak.To evaluate the DES of doctors and nurses worked at front-line hospitals with protective glasses for a mean time of 4 to 6 hours, a questionnaire developed by the researchers with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) was used. […] The factors significantly correlated with OSDI scores were age and duration of wearing protective glasses, while the duration of wearing protective glasses may be a protective factor of dry eye symptoms.Our study showed that most of the doctors and nurses worked at the front-line of combating COVID-19 did not experience DES, while the symptoms of those who experienced DES might be improved by wearing protective glasses.
32873480 Immune-mediated conjunctivitis consists of eye redness, together with erythroderma and fever. […] Ophthalmologists have a considerable risk of developing COVID-19 due to close contact with the patient, exposure to tears and eye secretions, and the use of various pieces of equipment and devices susceptible to contamination.
32874038 The novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a substantial change in eye care and clinical practice.
32880786 Comparing the relation between the animal-to-human transmitted coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-1, SARS-Cov-2, MERS-CoV, CoV-229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1) and the eye may contribute to determining their actual eye-tissue tropism and risk of ocular transmission. […] Eye symptoms were not reported for the other coronaviruses. […] Data aggregation for coronaviruses shows a relatively low eye-tissue tropism. […] Albeit high viral loads in ocular tissue seem to have relatively low prevalence, the eye should be regarded as a potential source of infection dissemination for COVID-19.
32882437 Brain-computer interfaces and eye tracking expanded the field of augmentative and alternative communication in ALS but their potentialities go beyond communication, to cognition and robotics.
32889184 On arrival to the emergency department, her physical examination revealed that she was stuporous, with a Glasgow coma scale of 10 (eye response, 3; verbal response, 2; motor response, 5).
32889957 A 31-year-old African American female with a history of asthma, sleep apnea, obesity (BMI of 40), and bilateral keratoconus was noted to have acute corneal endothelial graft rejection three months after uncomplicated penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) of the left eye.
32890736 Simultaneously our children’s hospital launched a pediatric on-demand e-consult service, the data analytics of which could be used to determine how many visits were eye related. […] The pediatric on-demand service completed 290 visits, of which 25 had eye complaints. […] In our study cohort, the scheduled clinic e-visits had a low no-show rate (3%), and 8% of the on-demand virtual access for pediatric care was eye related.
32898686 These digital innovations include artificial intelligence (AI), 5th generation (5G) telecommunication networks and the Internet of Things (IoT), creating an inter-dependent ecosystem offering opportunities to develop new models of eye care addressing the challenges of COVID-19 and beyond. […] Furthermore as countries around the world have initiated a series of escalating containment and mitigation measures during the COVID-19 pandemic, the delivery of eye care services globally has been significantly impacted.
32905864 In this context, online Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is an emerging treatment for patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
32908681 Variable degrees of outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium changes were detected in most of the patients, with two patients showing macular telangiectasia, four patients presenting intraretinal crystal deposits, two patients disclosing a bull’s eye maculopathy, and two patients revealing midperipheral bone spicule-like pigment changes.
32910433 A 62-year-old man reported a 5-day history of binocular vertical diplopia and blurred vision in his left eye, noticing that his left pupil was dilated.
32911080 Multivariable logistic regression analysis exhibited that performing tracheal intubation or extubation (OR 4.057, 95% CI 1.183-13.909; p 0.026) was associated with an increased likelihood of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas consistent use of N95 respirators (OR 0.369, 95% CI 0.201-0.680; p 0.001) and eye protection (OR 0.217, 95% CI 0.116-0.404; p < 0.001) were associated with an increased likelihood of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Those who performed tracheal intubation or extubation were most likely to develop related symptoms, whereas those taking aggressive measures, including consistent use of N95 masks and eye protection, tended to be asymptomatic cases.
32911619 The ability of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2’s) to cause multi-organ ischemia and coronavirus-induced posterior segment eye diseases in mammals gave concern about potential sight-threatening ischemia in post coronavirus disease 2019 patients.
32914175 In inpatient wards, eye and face protection were unavailable to 19% (20/105). […] Eye and full body protection are in most lack of supply.
32917849 Ninety-five percent of the parents were concerned about their children’s eyesight. […] Because long screen time and insufficient outdoor activities can severely affect children’s eyesight, appropriate eye-protection measures should be implemented.
32923742 A 29-year-old man with no prior medical condition presented with a complaint of redness and foreign body sensation in his left eye, which started two days before his consultation. […] He had no symptoms in his fellow eye nor did he have any systemic symptoms. […] External examination of his left eye revealed a sectoral nasal conjunctival and episcleral injection and a clear cornea.
32929665 Patients with COVID-19 were more likely to complain of foreign body sensation (31.3% vs 3.1%, p = 0.005) and redness of the eye (25% vs 0%, p = 0.003).
32932574 Besides the well-known antibacterial effect, novel interest has been rising towards its potential application in the field of dry eye and viral infections. […] Nowadays, lactoferrin antiviral activity is of special interest, since lactoferrin-based eye drops could be adopted to treat/prevent the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, which has conjunctivitis among its possible clinical manifestations.
32934824 This manuscript reports on the systemic benefits of restoring and achieving dopamine homeostasis to reverse and normalize thoughts and behaviors of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) dysfunctional conditions and their effects on behavioral physiology; function of reward genes; and focuses on digestive, immune, eye health, and the constellation of symptomatic behaviors. […] In conjunction, the role of dopamine in aspects of sleep, rapid eye movement and waking are extensively discussed.
32940573 Comparative genomics offers new insights on putative and novel viral targets with an eye to both therapeutic innovation and prevention.
32947412 Splitting and preparing the donor tissue within an eye bank will improve tissue validation and donor tissue availability and may increase surgeon efficiency.
32949452 Pilot study involving phacoemulsification cataract surgery on enucleated porcine eyes by experienced ophthalmologists in an ophthalmic operating theatre. […] Standardized phacoemulsification of porcine eyes by two ophthalmologists accompanied by an assistant. […] With phacoemulsification instruments fully within the eye, spatter contamination was limited to <10 cm.
32957702 Socio-demographic data were collected in addition to four validated scales: CAGE (acronym cut-annoyed-guilty-eye) Questionnaire, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and Patient Health Questionnaire-2.
32958477 Use of ‘full’ PPE including mask (surgical or N95), eye protection, gown and gloves (MEGG) was 67%.
32958969 Among them, colorimetric strategies are promising since results can be interpreted by eye, and are simple to operate, which is advantageous for point-of-care testing (POCT).
32963819 The aim of this review was to summarize ophthalmological implications of SARS-CoV-2 infection to serve as a reference for eye care and other physicians for prompt diagnosis and management.
32967466 This delay or suspension in essential eye procedures may cause significant and rapid vision impairment to irreversible blindness.
32969842 When screening general patients for COVID-19-associated symptoms, frontline physicians can consider including questions about diplopia, eye pain, pain with extraocular movements, decreased vision, gait issues, and other neurologic symptoms.
32969843 The novel coronavirus epidemic is also analyzed, highlighting the relevance of the eye as a possible source of transmission, infection, and prognosis for the disease.
32971623 It also reports our operating protocols and initial experience while performing vitreoretinal surgeries during COVID-19 times at a government tertiary eye care hospital.
32971697 We report a unique case of vasculitic retinal vein occlusion (RVO) secondary to COVID-19 in a 52-year-old patient who presented with the diminution of vision in the left eye 10 days after he tested positive for SARS-CoV-2.
32976055 A 54 years old woman with COVID-19 related pneumonia presented to our emergency department complaining of scotomas and decreased vision in her right eye.
32979670 95.1% reported routine access to full PPE (N95 ± powered air purifying respirator [PAPR], gown, gloves, eye protection) for aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) in COVID-19 patients, while 68.9% had routine access to full PPE for AGPs in patients without confirmed COVID-19.
32984561 His clinical examination was remarkable for intact brainstem reflexes, roving eye movements, later transient ocular flutter; and then what appeared to be slow ocular dipping.
32985317 A literature review using keywords of “intensive care”, “critical care”, “eye care”, “ocular disorders”, “ophthalmic complications,” “coronavirus”, “COVID-19,” “prone” and “proning” was performed using the electronic databases of PUBMED, EMBASE and CINAHL.
32992752 We present a case of fulminant NPPE in a patient during general anesthesia which illustrates the eye-catching CT findings that can occur in NPPE and eventually support diagnosis.
33009081 When screening general patients for COVID-19-associated symptoms, frontline physicians can consider including questions about diplopia, eye pain, pain with extraocular movements, decreased vision, gait issues, and other neurologic symptoms.
33009087 The novel coronavirus epidemic is also analyzed, highlighting the relevance of the eye as a possible source of transmission, infection, and prognosis for the disease.
33014631 This has implicated the eye as a portal of transmission. […] Whilst the eye is unlikely to be a main transmission route, we need to consider the possibilities of conjunctivitis as a presenting complaint and of the eye playing a role in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. […] Further studies are needed to evaluate the viral tropism of SARS-CoV-2 and its role in the eyes.
33016144 To analyze the changes that SARS-CoV-2 has caused regarding the harvesting of corneal donor tissue and eye bank activities in Germany. […] A questionnaire was provided to 26 eye banks in Germany, consisting of questions about adaptations made in the screening of potential donors and the harvesting of corneal tissue following the pandemic spread of SARS-CoV-2. […] Eighteen eye banks actively reduced recruitment of donors and two banks ceased all activity. […] In six eye banks, additional protective measures, such as FFP2 masks and/or facial shields, were implemented.
33017601 Analysis of trade data shows that the US is the world’s largest importer of face masks, eye protection, and medical gloves, making it highly vulnerable to disruptions in exports of medical supplies.
33021847 Both patients developed eye redness 3 days after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. […] RT-PCR demonstrated the presence of viral RNA in conjunctival specimens from both eyes, which was unrelated to viral RNA from throat swabs.
33021856 A 53-year-old man presented with acute loss of vision, negative scotoma and dyschromatopsia in his left eye.
33031009 On December 16, 2019, Novartis relinquished its European patent on Kymriah as a result of a successful patent opposition lodged by ‘Public Eye’ and ‘Médicins du Monde’.
33031084 Five of 32 patients (16 %) without conjunctivitis or any eye symptoms had viral RNA in their tear-conjunctival samples.
33037895 In this study 60 patients treated for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in the eye hospital of the University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf between 15 March and 5 May 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. […] When compared to the period in the previous year there were no significant differences for sex, age, eye, length of symptoms, previous visit to doctor, visual acuity, macula status, degree of retinal detachment, proliferative vitreoretinopathy and type or length of procedure during the coronavirus pandemic.
33038683 As Covid-19 spreads across the world, governments turn a hopeful eye towards research and development of a vaccine against this new disease.
33042494 Healthcare workers are at higher risk of acquiring infection and they are additionally required to follow airborne and eye protection.
33044373 We report a rare case of dematiaceous fungus colonization in the therapeutic bandage contact lens (BCL), in an eye with peripheral ulcerative keratitis.