Transmission Sentence Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of 4485 absracts clustered as Transmission.

Title Gene Context Sentence ePubDate
Cross-species transmission of the newly identified coronavirus 2019-nCoV. Taken together, our results suggest that homologous recombination may occur and contribute to the 2019-nCoV cross-species transmission. 2020-03-19
A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. No data on person-to-person or nosocomial transmission have been published to date. […] Our findings are consistent with person-to-person transmission of this novel coronavirus in hospital and family settings, and the reports of infected travellers in other geographical regions. 2020-03-13
Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. 2020-03-13
Real-time tentative assessment of the epidemiological characteristics of novel coronavirus infections in Wuhan, China, as at 22 January 2020. Information on reported cases strongly indicates human-to-human spread, and the most recent information is increasingly indicative of sustained human-to-human transmission. 2020-02-19
Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia. On the basis of this information, there is evidence that human-to-human transmission has occurred among close contacts since the middle of December 2019. […] Considerable efforts to reduce transmission will be required to control outbreaks if similar dynamics apply elsewhere. […] Measures to prevent or reduce transmission should be implemented in populations at risk. 2020-04-01
Receptor Recognition by the Novel Coronavirus from Wuhan: an Analysis Based on Decade-Long Structural Studies of SARS Coronavirus. Third, several other critical residues in 2019-nCoV RBM (particularly Asn501) are compatible with, but not ideal for, binding human ACE2, suggesting that 2019-nCoV has acquired some capacity for human-to-human transmission. 2020-03-23
Potential of large “first generation” human-to-human transmission of 2019-nCoV. On the basis of our results, the star-like signal and topology of 2019-nCoV may be indicative of potentially large “first generation” human-to-human virus transmission. 2020-03-17
Full-genome evolutionary analysis of the novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) rejects the hypothesis of emergence as a result of a recent recombination event. A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) associated with human to human transmission and severe human infection has been recently reported from the city of Wuhan in China. 2020-03-18
Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. As of Jan 26, 2020, more than 2000 cases of 2019-nCoV infection have been confirmed, most of which involved people living in or visiting Wuhan, and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed. 2020-03-16
History is repeating itself: Probable zoonotic spillover as the cause of the 2019 novel Coronavirus Epidemic Pathogen transmission from a vertebrate animal to a human, also known as zoonotic spillover, represents a global public health burden, which while associated with multiple outbreaks, still remains a poorly understood phenomenon. 2020-03-16
Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), December 2019 to January 2020. We estimated the basic reproduction number R0 of 2019-nCoV to be around 2.2 (90% high density interval: 1.4-3.8), indicating the potential for sustained human-to-human transmission. […] Transmission characteristics appear to be of similar magnitude to severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and pandemic influenza, indicating a risk of global spread. 2020-03-18
The first two cases of 2019-nCoV in Italy: Where they come from? In this short report, phylogenetic reconstruction was used to better understand the transmission dynamics of the virus from its first introduction in China focusing on the more recent evidence of infection in a couple of Chinese tourists arrived in Italy on 23rd January 2020 and labeled as Coronavirus Italian cases. […] The Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction showed that 2019-2020 nCoV firstly introduced in Wuhan on 25 November 2019, started epidemic transmission reaching many countries worldwide, including Europe and Italy where the two strains isolated dated back 19 January 2020, the same that the Chinese tourists arrived in Italy. […] In conclusion, this report suggests that further spread of 2019-nCoV epidemic was supported by human mobility and that quarantine of suspected or diagnosed cases is useful to prevent further transmission. […] Viral genome phylogenetic analysis represents a useful tool for the evaluation of transmission dynamics and preventive action. 2020-03-18
[2019-nCoV: new challenges from coronavirus]. According to current observations, 2019-nCoV is weaker than SARS in pathogenesis, but has stronger transmission competence; it’s mechanism of cross-species spread might be related with angiotensin-converting enzyme Ⅱ (ACE2), which is consistent with the receptor SARS-CoV. 2020-02-05
[Early detection and disease assessment of patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia]. The novel coronavirus has the characteristics of rapid transmission, atypical clinical symptoms, and easy to affect both lungs, leading to missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis, as well as difficult to detection and assessment at early stage. 2020-02-05
Transmission dynamics and evolutionary history of 2019-nCoV. To investigate the time origin, genetic diversity, and transmission dynamics of the recent 2019-nCoV outbreak in China and beyond, a total of 32 genomes of virus strains sampled from China, Thailand, and the USA with sampling dates between 24 December 2019 and 23 January 2020 were analyzed. […] Phylogenetic, transmission network, and likelihood-mapping analyses of the genome sequences were performed. […] We identified three phylogenetic clusters using the Bayesian inference framework and three transmission clusters using transmission network analysis, with only one cluster identified by both methods using the above genome sequences of 2019-nCoV strains. […] On the basis of our study, undertaking epidemiological investigations and genomic data surveillance could positively impact public health in terms of guiding prevention efforts to reduce 2019-nCOV transmission in real-time. 2020-03-18
Initial Public Health Response and Interim Clinical Guidance for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak - United States, December 31, 2019-February 4, 2020. Cases have also been reported in 26 locations outside of mainland China, including documentation of some person-to-person transmission and one death (2). […] CDC, multiple other federal agencies, state and local health departments, and other partners are implementing aggressive measures to slow transmission of 2019-nCoV in the United States (4,5). […] Although these measures might not prevent the eventual establishment of ongoing, widespread transmission of the virus in the United States, they are being implemented to 1) slow the spread of illness; 2) provide time to better prepare health care systems and the general public to be ready if widespread transmission with substantial associated illness occurs; and 3) better characterize 2019-nCoV infection to guide public health recommendations and the development of medical countermeasures including diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. 2020-02-07
2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, Australia: Epidemiology Report 1 (Reporting week 26 January - 1 February 2020). It includes data on Australian cases notified during the week 26 January to 1 February 2020 and in the previous week (19 to 25 January 2020), the international situation and current information on the severity, transmission and spread of the 2019-nCoV infection. 2020-03-17
Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Presumed hospital-related transmission was suspected if a cluster of health professionals or hospitalized patients in the same wards became infected and a possible source of infection could be tracked. […] Hospital-associated transmission was suspected as the presumed mechanism of infection for affected health professionals (40 [29%]) and hospitalized patients (17 [12.3%]). […] In this single-center case series of 138 hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP in Wuhan, China, presumed hospital-related transmission of 2019-nCoV was suspected in 41% of patients, 26% of patients received ICU care, and mortality was 4.3%. 2020-03-13
Molecular Diagnosis of a Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Causing an Outbreak of Pneumonia. Outbreaks in health care workers indicate human-to-human transmission. 2020-04-03
[Expert consensus for bronchoscopy during the epidemic of 2019 Novel Coronavirus infection (Trial version)]. Infection with 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is mainly transmitted by respiratory droplets, airborne transmission and direct contact. 2020-02-08
Emerging novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-current scenario, evolutionary perspective based on genome analysis and recent developments. The zoonotic transmission (animal-to-human) is suspected as the route of disease origin. 2020-03-16
Estimation of the Transmission Risk of the 2019-nCoV and Its Implication for Public Health Interventions. Sensitivity analyses show that interventions, such as intensive contact tracing followed by quarantine and isolation, can effectively reduce the control reproduction number and transmission risk, with the effect of travel restriction adopted by Wuhan on 2019-nCoV infection in Beijing being almost equivalent to increasing quarantine by a 100 thousand baseline value. 2020-03-20
The global spread of 2019-nCoV: a molecular evolutionary analysis. We are able to clarify the mechanism of transmission among the countries which have provided the 2019-nCoV sequence isolates from their patients. 2020-04-08
Preliminary prediction of the basic reproduction number of the Wuhan novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV. The early transmission ability of 2019-nCoV is close to or slightly higher than SARS. 2020-03-16
Overview of The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): The Pathogen of Severe Specific Contagious Pneumonia (SSCP). Person-to-person transmission may occur through droplet or contact transmission and jeopardized first-line healthcare workers if lack of stringent infection control or no proper personal protective equipment available. 2020-02-12
COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 2 (Reporting week ending 19:00 AEDT 8 February 2020). It includes data on Australian cases notified during the week ending 19:00 AEDT 8 February 2020, the international situation and current information on the severity, transmission and spread of the COVID-19 infection. 2020-03-17
[Perinatal and neonatal management plan for prevention and control of 2019 novel coronavirus infection (1st Edition)]. Due to immaturity of immune function and the possibility of mother-fetal vertical transmission, neonates are particularly susceptible to 2019-nCoV. 2020-02-19
Persons Evaluated for 2019 Novel Coronavirus - United States, January 2020. Recognizing persons at risk for 2019-nCoV is critical to identifying cases and preventing further transmission. 2020-02-18
Initial Cluster of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Infections in Wuhan, China Is Consistent with Substantial Human-to-Human Transmission. Reanalysis of the epidemic curve from the initial cluster of cases with novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in December 2019 indicates substantial human-to-human transmission. […] It is possible that the common exposure history at a seafood market in Wuhan originated from the human-to-human transmission events within the market, and the early, strong emphasis that market exposure indicated animal-to-human transmission was potentially the result of observer bias. 2020-03-20
Novel Coronavirus Outbreak in Wuhan, China, 2020: Intense Surveillance Is Vital for Preventing Sustained Transmission in New Locations. Fortunately, there has only been limited human-to-human transmission outside of China. […] Here, we assess the risk of sustained transmission whenever the coronavirus arrives in other countries. […] Data describing the times from symptom onset to hospitalisation for 47 patients infected early in the current outbreak are used to generate an estimate for the probability that an imported case is followed by sustained human-to-human transmission. […] Under the assumptions that the imported case is representative of the patients in China, and that the 2019-nCoV is similarly transmissible to the SARS coronavirus, the probability that an imported case is followed by sustained human-to-human transmission is 0.41 (credible interval [0.27, 0.55]). […] However, if the mean time from symptom onset to hospitalisation can be halved by intense surveillance, then the probability that an imported case leads to sustained transmission is only 0.012 (credible interval [0, 0.099]). 2020-03-20
Case of the Index Patient Who Caused Tertiary Transmission of COVID-19 Infection in Korea: the Application of Lopinavir/Ritonavir for the Treatment of COVID-19 Infected Pneumonia Monitored by Quantitative RT-PCR. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. […] This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. […] Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. 2020-03-16
The First Disease X is Caused by a Highly Transmissible Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. With high human-to-human transmission rate (R0), 2019-nCoV has quickly spread in China and other countries, resulting in 34,953 confirmed cases and 725 deaths as of 8 February 2020, thus calling for urgent development of therapeutics and prophylactics. 2020-02-15
[Conventional respiratory support therapy for Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI): Clinical indications and nosocomial infection prevention and control]. Therefore, it is meaningful to established a standardized indication of respiratory support and to prevent related nosocomial transmission in SARI patients. 2020-02-16
[The network investigation on knowledge, attitude and practice about Novel coronavirus pneumonia of the residents in Anhui Province]. Residents have a high awareness rate of the main symptoms, transmission routes, using of masks, hand washing and treatment information of NCP, while a low awareness rate of the atypical symptoms. 2020-02-17
A familial cluster of infection associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating potential person-to-person transmission during the incubation period. It is unclear if the infectivity exists during the incubation period, although a person-to-person transmission has been reported in previous studies. […] The epidemiological evidence has shown a potential transmission of the 2019-nCoV during the incubation period. 2020-04-03
First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in France: surveillance, investigations and control measures, January 2020. Strengthened surveillance was implemented in France on 10 January 2020 in order to identify imported cases early and prevent secondary transmission. […] As at 12 February 2020, two cases have been discharged and the third one remains symptomatic with a persistent cough, and no secondary transmission has been identified. 2020-03-18
COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 3 (Reporting week ending 19:00 AEDT 15 February 2020). It includes data on the COVID-19 Australian cases, the international situation and current information on the severity, transmission and spread. 2020-03-17
[Several suggestion of operation for colorectal cancer under the outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 19 in China]. However, fecal-oral transmission and aerosol transmission have not been excluded. 2020-02-19
[Treatment strategy for gastrointestinal tumor under the outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia in China]. Tertiary prevention measure must be adopted for all anesthetists with additional face mask or medical goggle protection to prevent respiratory droplet transmission. 2020-03-12
Clinical findings in a group of patients infected with the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) outside of Wuhan, China: retrospective case series. According to research, none of the infected patients in Zhejiang province were ever exposed to the Huanan seafood market, the original source of the virus; all studied cases were infected by human to human transmission. 2020-02-28
[Expert consensus on preventing nosocomial transmission during respiratory care for critically ill patients infected by 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia]. A lot of respiratory treatments for critically ill patients are deemed as high-risk factors for nosocomial transmission, such as intubation, manual ventilation by resuscitator, noninvasive ventilation, high-flow nasal cannula, bronchoscopy examination, suction and patient transportation, etc, due to its high possibility to cause or worsen the spread of the virus. […] As such, we developed this consensus recommendations on all those high-risk treatments, based on the current evidence as well as the resource limitation in some areas, with the aim to reduce the nosocomial transmission and optimize the treatment for the COVID-19 pneumonia patients. 2020-02-20
[Technologies and requirements of protection and disinfection in key places during the novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) outbreak]. Inappropriate protection and disinfection measures are potential risk factors of transmission and outbreak of NCP in key places. 2020-02-20
2019 novel coronavirus of pneumonia in Wuhan, China: emerging attack and management strategies. With the spread of the new coronavirus accelerating, person-to-person transmission in family homes or hospitals, and intercity spread of 2019-nCoV occurred. […] According to the current status, blocking transmission, isolation, protection, and alternative medication are the urgent management strategies against 2019-nCoV. 2020-03-06
Virus Isolation from the First Patient with SARS-CoV-2 in Korea. Coronavirus was confirmed with spherical particle having a fringe reminiscent of crown on transmission electron microscopy. 2020-03-16
Structure analysis of the receptor binding of 2019-nCoV. However, since ACE2 is predominantly expressed in intestines, testis, and kidney, fecal-oral and other routes of transmission are also possible. 2020-03-26
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges. It is spread by human-to-human transmission via droplets or direct contact, and infection has been estimated to have mean incubation period of 6.4 days and a basic reproduction number of 2.24-3.58. 2020-03-25
The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics, the newest and biggest global health threats: what lessons have we learned? Utilizing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, USA) website, and a comprehensive review of PubMed literature, we obtained information regarding clinical signs and symptoms, treatment and diagnosis, transmission methods, protection methods and risk factors for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19. 2020-02-22
The epidemic of 2019-novel-coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia and insights for emerging infectious diseases in the future. Intensive research on the novel emerging human infectious coronaviruses is urgently needed to elucidate their route of transmission and pathogenic mechanisms, and to identify potential drug targets, which would promote the development of effective preventive and therapeutic countermeasures. […] Herein, we describe the epidemic and etiological characteristics of 2019-nCoV, discuss its essential biological features, including tropism and receptor usage, summarize approaches for disease prevention and treatment, and speculate on the transmission route of 2019-nCoV. 2020-03-18
Preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against importations of COVID-19: a modelling study. Local cycles of transmission have already occurred in 12 countries after case importation. […] Resources, intensified surveillance, and capacity building should be urgently prioritised in countries with moderate risk that might be ill-prepared to detect imported cases and to limit onward transmission. 2020-03-26
First respiratory transmitted food borne outbreak? Rigorous surveillance in other countries is required to prevent further global expansion of the outbreak, but resolving the exact mechanism of the initial transmission events is crucial. […] Based on the limited initial human-to-human transmission and timely clustering of cases in Huanan market among elderly men, coupled with knowledge that coronaviruses are derived from animals and relationship of SARS-CoV-2 to bat coronavirus, zoonotic transmission in the first instance is probable. […] The mode of transmission may become clearer in future: usually in outbreak investigations, hindsight is easy, but for now information about the initial source of this outbreak is limited. 2020-04-10
2019-nCoV (Wuhan virus), a novel Coronavirus: human-to-human transmission, travel-related cases, and vaccine readiness. While zoonotic transmission appears to be the original source of infections, the most alarming development is that human-to-human transmission is now prevelant. […] There are several critical clinical questions that need to be resolved, including how efficient is human-to-human transmission? 2020-03-18
Estimated effectiveness of symptom and risk screening to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Our work underscores the need for measures to limit transmission by individuals who become ill after being missed by a screening program. 2020-03-18
Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak: What the Department of Radiology Should Know. Implementation of a robust plan in the radiology department is required to prevent further transmission of the virus to patients and department staff members. 2020-04-10
Characteristics of and Public Health Responses to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak in China. Human-to-human transmission is confirmed, and this disease (named COVID-19 by World Health Organization (WHO)) spread rapidly around the country and the world. 2020-03-22
Short-term Forecasts of the COVID-19 Epidemic in Guangdong and Zhejiang, China: February 13-23, 2020. Forecasts from each of the models suggest the outbreaks may be nearing extinction in both Guangdong and Zhejiang; however, the sub-epidemic model predictions also include the potential for further sustained transmission, particularly in Zhejiang. […] In the best-case scenario, current data suggest that transmission in both provinces is slowing down. 2020-03-20
Emergence of Novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV: Need for Rapid Vaccine and Biologics Development. Inter-human transmission was reported in a few countries, including the United States. 2020-02-26
An updated estimation of the risk of transmission of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCov). With the spreading of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection, the reproduction number has been found to vary, reflecting the dynamics of transmission of the coronavirus outbreak as well as the case reporting rate. […] Due to significant variations in the control strategies, which have been changing over time, and thanks to the introduction of detection technologies that have been rapidly improved, enabling to shorten the time from infection/symptoms onset to diagnosis, leading to faster confirmation of the new coronavirus cases, our previous estimations on the transmission risk of the 2019-nCoV need to be revised. […] By using time-dependent contact and diagnose rates, we refit our previously proposed dynamics transmission model to the data available until January 29th, 2020 and re-estimated the effective daily reproduction ratio that better quantifies the evolution of the interventions. 2020-04-01
Passengers’ destinations from China: low risk of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) transmission into Africa and South America. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of transmission of 2019-nCoV through human passenger air flight from four major cities of China (Wuhan, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou) to the passengers’ destination countries. […] We estimated a risk index of 2019-nCoV transmission based on the number of travellers to destination countries, weighted by the number of confirmed cases of the departed city reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). […] Outside China, countries with a higher risk of 2019-nCoV transmission are Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Canada and the USA, all of which reported at least one case. […] In Africa and South America, the risk of transmission is very low with Ethiopia, South Africa, Egypt, Mauritius and Brazil showing a similar risk of transmission compared to the risk of any of the countries where at least one case is detected. […] The risk of transmission on 31 January 2020 was very high in neighbouring Asian countries, followed by Europe (UK, France, Russia and Germany), Oceania (Australia) and North America (USA and Canada). 2020-03-19
Composition and divergence of coronavirus spike proteins and host ACE2 receptors predict potential intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 is spreading among the public and causing substantial burden due to its human-to-human transmission. 2020-03-11
Evolutionary history, potential intermediate animal host, and cross-species analyses of SARS-CoV-2. We performed phylogenetic, split network, transmission network, likelihood-mapping, and comparative analyses of the genomes. 2020-03-11
Development and clinical application of a rapid IgM-IgG combined antibody test for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis. There is an urgent need for an accurate and rapid test method to quickly identify a large number of infected patients and asymptomatic carriers to prevent virus transmission and assure timely treatment of patients. 2020-04-13
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pregnancy: what obstetricians need to know. All but 2 pregnancies were cesarean deliveries and no evidence of in utero transmission was seen. […] No evidence of in utero transmission was seen in severe acute respiratory syndrome or Middle East respiratory syndrome. 2020-04-15
Update: Public Health Response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak - United States, February 24, 2020. This report summarizes the aggressive measures (2,3) that CDC, state and local health departments, multiple other federal agencies, and other partners are implementing to slow and try to contain transmission of COVID-19 in the United States. […] These measures require the identification of cases and contacts of persons with COVID-19 in the United States and the recommended assessment, monitoring, and care of travelers arriving from areas with substantial COVID-19 transmission. […] Although these measures might not prevent widespread transmission of the virus in the United States, they are being implemented to 1) slow the spread of illness; 2) provide time to better prepare state and local health departments, health care systems, businesses, educational organizations, and the general public in the event that widespread transmission occurs; and 3) better characterize COVID-19 to guide public health recommendations and the development and deployment of medical countermeasures, including diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. 2020-03-02
Coronavirus Disease 2019: Coronaviruses and Blood Safety. Therefore, there is still a theoretical risk of transmission of coronaviruses through the transfusion of labile blood products. […] In this review, we detail current evidence and understanding of the transmission of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 through blood products as of February 10, 2020, and also discuss pathogen inactivation methods on coronaviruses. 2020-04-09
Radiology Perspective of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Lessons From Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. The virus is rapidly spreading with human-to-human transmission despite imposed precautions. 2020-02-28
Real-time forecasts of the COVID-19 epidemic in China from February 5th to February 24th, 2020. While early cases of the disease were linked to a wet market, human-to-human transmission has driven the rapid spread of the virus throughout China. […] Our findings suggest that the containment strategies implemented in China are successfully reducing transmission and that the epidemic growth has slowed in recent days. 2020-03-02
A mathematical model for simulating the phase-based transmissibility of a novel coronavirus. In this study, we developed a Bats-Hosts-Reservoir-People transmission network model for simulating the potential transmission from the infection source (probably be bats) to the human infection. […] Since the Bats-Hosts-Reservoir network was hard to explore clearly and public concerns were focusing on the transmission from Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market (reservoir) to people, we simplified the model as Reservoir-People (RP) transmission network model. 2020-03-18
A Well Infant with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) with High Viral Load. These patients may play important roles in human-to-human transmission in the community. 2020-02-29
Characteristics of COVID-19 infection in Beijing. The measures to prevent transmission was very successful at early stage, the next steps on the COVID-19 infection should be focused on early isolation of patients and quarantine for close contacts in families and communities in Beijing. 2020-04-06
[Fitting and forecasting the trend of COVID-19 by SEIR(+ CAQ) dynamic model]. Objectives: Fitting and forecasting the trend of COVID-19 epidemics. Methods: Based on SEIR dynamic model, considering the COVID-19 transmission mechanism, infection spectrum and prevention and control procedures, we developed SEIR(+ CAQ) dynamic model to fit the frequencies of laboratory confirmed cases obtained from the government official websites. 2020-03-01
The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 infection led to the isolation of patients that were subsequently administered a variety of treatments. […] Extensive measures to reduce person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 have been implemented to control the current outbreak. […] Special attention and efforts to protect or reduce transmission should be applied in susceptible populations including children, health care providers, and elderly people. […] In this review, we highlights the symptoms, epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, phylogenetic analysis and future directions to control the spread of this fatal disease. 2020-04-15
[Pregnant women with new coronavirus infection: a clinical characteristics and placental pathological analysis of three cases]. Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and placental pathology of 2019-nCoV infection in pregnancy, and to evaluate intrauterine vertical transmission potential of 2019-nCoV infection. Methods: The placentas delivered from pregnant women with confirmed 2019-nCoV infection which were received in the Department of Pathology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology collected by February 4th, 2020 and retrospectively studied. […] Currently no evidence for intrauterine vertical transmission of 2019-nCoV is found in the three women infected by 2019-nCoV in their late pregnancy. 目的: 探讨新型冠状病毒(2019-nCoV)感染孕妇的临床特点及胎盘病理学变化,并评估有无宫内垂直传播的可能。 2020-03-02
Feasibility of controlling COVID-19 outbreaks by isolation of cases and contacts. Here we use a mathematical model to assess if isolation and contact tracing are able to control onwards transmission from imported cases of COVID-19. […] We developed a stochastic transmission model, parameterised to the COVID-19 outbreak. […] We considered scenarios that varied in the number of initial cases, the basic reproduction number (R0), the delay from symptom onset to isolation, the probability that contacts were traced, the proportion of transmission that occurred before symptom onset, and the proportion of subclinical infections. […] We assumed isolation prevented all further transmission in the model. […] Outbreaks were deemed controlled if transmission ended within 12 weeks or before 5000 cases in total. […] Simulated outbreaks starting with five initial cases, an R0 of 1·5, and 0% transmission before symptom onset could be controlled even with low contact tracing probability; however, the probability of controlling an outbreak decreased with the number of initial cases, when R0 was 2·5 or 3·5 and with more transmission before symptom onset. […] For R0 values of 2·5 or 3·5, if there were 40 initial cases, contact tracing and isolation were only potentially feasible when less than 1% of transmission occurred before symptom onset. […] The probability of control decreases with long delays from symptom onset to isolation, fewer cases ascertained by contact tracing, and increasing transmission before symptoms. […] This model can be modified to reflect updated transmission characteristics and more specific definitions of outbreak control to assess the potential success of local response efforts. 2020-03-26
Anti-HCV, nucleotide inhibitors, repurposing against COVID-19. Human to human transmission is confirmed for COVID-19 by China a month ago. 2020-03-26
Stepping up infection control measures in ophthalmology during the novel coronavirus outbreak: an experience from Hong Kong. Second, for environmental control, to reduce droplet transmission of COVID-19, installation of protective shields on slit lamps, frequent disinfection of equipment, and provision of eye protection to staff were implemented. […] In order to minimise transmission of COVID-19, ophthalmologists should work closely with local infection control teams to implement infection control measures that are appropriate for their own clinical settings. 2020-03-03
[Analysis on the epidemic factors for the Corona Virus Disease]. Routes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission are diversified and the main routes of transmission for COVID-19 are droplet transmission and close contact transmission. 2020-03-03
Community Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, Shenzhen, China, 2020. The mode of community and intrafamily transmission is threatening residents in Shenzhen. 2020-03-03
Epidemiologic Features and Clinical Course of Patients Infected With SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has spread globally with sustained human-to-human transmission outside China. 2020-03-17
Differential diagnosis of illness in patients under investigation for the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), Italy, February 2020. Most cases and sustained transmission occurred in China, but travel-associated cases have been reported in other countries, including Europe and Italy. 2020-03-18
Transmission routes of 2019-nCoV and controls in dental practice. The person-to-person transmission routes of 2019-nCoV included direct transmission, such as cough, sneeze, droplet inhalation transmission, and contact transmission, such as the contact with oral, nasal, and eye mucous membranes. 2019-nCoV can also be transmitted through the saliva, and the fetal-oral routes may also be a potential person-to-person transmission route. […] Dental professionals play great roles in preventing the transmission of 2019-nCoV. […] Here we recommend the infection control measures during dental practice to block the person-to-person transmission routes in dental clinics and hospitals. 2020-03-17
[Expert consensus on Pulmonary Function Testing during the epidemic of Corona Virus Disease 2019]. Pulmonary function testing procedures have been associated with an increasing risk of COVID-19 transmission among patients/subjects and medical staffs. 2020-03-04
[Prediction modeling with data fusion and prevention strategy analysis for the COVID-19 outbreak]. In the early stage of the outbreak of COVID-19, it is of great practical significance to analyze the transmission risk of the epidemic and evaluate the effectiveness and timeliness of prevention and control strategies by using mathematical models and combining with a small amount of real-time updated multi-source data. […] On the basis of our previous research, we systematically introduce how to establish the transmission dynamic models in line with current Chinese prevention and control strategies step by step, according to the different epidemic stages and the improvement of the data. […] By summarized our modelling and assessing ideas, the model formulations vary from autonomous to non-autonomous dynamic systems, the risk assessment index changes from the basic regeneration number to the effective regeneration number, and the epidemic development and assessment evolve from the early SEIHR transmission model-based dynamics to the recent dynamics which are mainly associated with the variation of the isolated and suspected population sizes. 2020-03-04
Genomic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 in Coronavirus Disease 2019 patients. However, very few intra-host variants were observed in the population as polymorphism, implying either a bottleneck or purifying selection involved in the transmission of the virus, or a consequence of the limited diversity represented in the current polymorphism data. […] Although current evidence did not support the transmission of intra-host variants in a person-to-person spread, the risk should not be overlooked. 2020-04-03
Protecting Chinese Healthcare Workers While Combating the 2019 Novel Coronavirus. Hospital-associated transmission is an important route of spreading the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection and pneumonia (Corona Virus Disease 2019, COVID-19) [1]. 2020-03-05
Escalating infection control response to the rapidly evolving epidemiology of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong. None of these was infected, and nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was not observed. […] Appropriate hospital infection control measures was able to prevent nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-04-09
Phase-adjusted estimation of the number of Coronavirus Disease 2019 cases in Wuhan, China. In the second assumption, R t was assumed to gradually decrease at different phases from high level of transmission (R t = 3.1, 2.6, and 1.9) to below 1 (R t = 0.9 or 0.5) owing to increasingly implemented public health intervention. 2020-03-08
[Investigation and analysis on characteristics of a cluster of COVID-19 associated with exposure in a department store in Tianjin]. Objective: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of a cluster of COVID-19 cases reported in Baodi district of Tianjin as of 18 February, 2020, which might be associated with the exposure in a local department store, and provide suggestions for prevention and control strategy development. Methods: The basic characteristics, time and area distributions, clinical manifestations, epidemiological history and transmission mode of the COVID-19 cases associated with the department store exposure were analyzed. Results: A total of 40 COVID-19 cases were associated with the department store exposure, accounting for 75.47% of the total confirmed cases (53 cases) reported in Baodi district. 2020-03-05
[Epidemiological analysis on a family cluster of COVID-19]. Objective: To understand the possible transmission route of a family cluster of COVID-19 in Zhengzhou and the potential infectivity of COVID-19 in incubation period, and provide scientific evidence for the timely control of infectious source and curb the spread of the epidemic. Methods: Epidemiological investigation was conducted for a family cluster of COVID-19 (8 cases) with descriptive epidemiological method, and respiratory tract samples of the cases were collected for the nucleic acid detection of 2019-nCoV by RT-PCR. Results: Two primary cases, which occurred on 31 January and 1 February, 2020, respectively, had a common exposure history in Wuhan. 2020-03-05
Unique epidemiological and clinical features of the emerging 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) implicate special control measures. Nosocomial transmission was another severe problem. 2020-03-31
Lack of Vertical Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, China. This case suggests that mother-to-child transmission is unlikely for this virus. 2020-03-05
The outbreak of COVID-19: An overview. Person-to-person transmission may occur through droplet or contact transmission and if there is a lack of stringent infection control or if no proper personal protective equipment available, it may jeopardize the first-line healthcare workers. 2020-03-18
Active Monitoring of Persons Exposed to Patients with Confirmed COVID-19 - United States, January-February 2020. Person-to-person transmission has been widely documented, and a limited number of countries have reported sustained person-to-person spread. […] The aims of these efforts were to ensure rapid evaluation and care of patients, limit further transmission, and better understand risk factors for transmission. 2020-03-09
The 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak - A Global Threat. There are significant knowledge gaps in the epidemiology, transmission dynamics, investigation tools and management. […] The varying transmission patterns, namely, nosocomial transmission and spread through mildly symptomatic cases is an area of concern. 2020-03-10
Emergency management for preventing and controlling nosocomial infection of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for the dermatology department. Due to the current lack of specific treatment and the risk of transmission during the viral incubation period, infection prevention and control of 2019-nCoV are both urgent and critical to global health. 2020-03-11
[Advances on presymptomatic or asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19]. Patients in incubation period and healthy carriers are possible sources for transmission. […] The research evidence is very lacking so far, although there are a few studies suggesting that presymptomatic or asymptomatic carrier may cause COVID-19 transmission. […] There is an urgent need to screen infected carriers in larger close contacts or in the general population, and assess their risk for transmission. 2020-03-06
The transmission and diagnosis of 2019 novel coronavirus infection disease (COVID-19): A Chinese perspective. Our research presents selected available cases of COVID-19 in China to better understand the transmission and diagnosis regarding this infectious disease. 2020-03-12
SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor. Unravelling which cellular factors are used by SARS-CoV-2 for entry might provide insights into viral transmission and reveal therapeutic targets. 2020-04-01
The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China. Extreme quarantine measures, including sealing off large cities, closing borders and confining people to their homes, were instituted in January 2020 to prevent spread of the virus, but by that time much of the damage had been done, as human-human transmission became evident. 2020-04-15
The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Motivated by the rapid spread of COVID-19 in Mainland China, we use a global metapopulation disease transmission model to project the impact of travel limitations on the national and international spread of the epidemic. […] Modeling results also indicate that sustained 90% travel restrictions to and from Mainland China only modestly affect the epidemic trajectory unless combined with a 50% or higher reduction of transmission in the community. 2020-03-07
The Novel Coronavirus - A Snapshot of Current Knowledge. Another animal to human transmission of a coronavirus occurred in December 2019 on a live animal market in the Chinese city of Wuhan causing an epidemic in China, reaching now different continents. 2020-04-08
Middle East respiratory syndrome. Large outbreaks of human-to-human transmission have occurred, the largest in Riyadh and Jeddah in 2014 and in South Korea in 2015. […] This Seminar provides an update on the current knowledge and perspectives on MERS epidemiology, virology, mode of transmission, pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical features, management, infection control, development of new therapeutics and vaccines, and highlights unanswered questions and priorities for research, improved management, and prevention. 2020-04-13
Serial interval of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infections. This suggests that a substantial proportion of secondary transmission may occur prior to illness onset. 2020-04-13
Can we contain the COVID-19 outbreak with the same measures as for SARS? By interrupting all human-to-human transmission, SARS was effectively eradicated. 2020-04-01
Psychological crisis intervention during the outbreak period of new coronavirus pneumonia from experience in Shanghai. Since the middle of December 2019, human-to-human transmission of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) has occurred among close contacts. 2020-04-09
Similarity in Case Fatality Rates (CFR) of COVID-19/SARS-COV-2 in Italy and China. The month of February, however, has been dominated by two large clusters of outbreaks in Northern Italy, south of Milan, with mainly local transmission the source of infections. 2020-03-18
Containing 2019-nCoV (Wuhan) coronavirus. While most of the initial cases were linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, person-to-person transmission has been verified. […] Given that a vaccine cannot be developed and deployed for at least a year, preventing further transmission relies upon standard principles of containment, two of which are the isolation of known cases and the quarantine of persons believed at high risk of exposure. 2020-04-16
Clinical characteristics of 24 asymptomatic infections with COVID-19 screened among close contacts in Nanjing, China. Previous studies have showed clinical characteristics of patients with the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the evidence of person-to-person transmission. […] This study aims to present the clinical characteristics of 24 cases with asymptomatic infection screened from close contacts and to show the transmission potential of asymptomatic COVID-19 virus carriers. […] Through epidemiological investigation, we observed a typical asymptomatic transmission to the cohabiting family members, which even caused severe COVID-19 pneumonia. 2020-03-08
Diagnosis and Management of First Case of COVID-19 in Canada: Lessons applied from SARS. No healthcare-associated transmission occurred. 2020-04-03
Early Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 28 Cases of Coronavirus Disease in South Korea. Of the 28 cases, 16 were index cases imported from abroad, with 10 cases of secondary infection originating in Korea, and the route of transmission still under investigation for 2 patients. […] The 10 patients with secondary infection were infected from contact with family members or acquaintances of primary patients, and the suspected sites of transmission were mostly at home. […] Establishing an early detection strategy for COVID-19 is crucial for managing the transmission of the disease. 2020-03-20
Contact Transmission of COVID-19 in South Korea: Novel Investigation Techniques for Tracing Contacts. In the epidemiological investigation of an infectious disease, investigating, classifying, tracking, and managing contacts by identifying the patient’s route are important for preventing further transmission of the disease. 2020-03-13
[Epidemiological investigation of a family clustering of COVID-19]. Routes of transmission include respiratory droplets (from case 1 transmitted to case 6, from case 1 to her family members) and closecontact (from case 1 to other cases in her family). 2020-03-09
Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy and the intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection. […] Evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission was assessed by testing for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal throat swab samples. […] Findings from this small group of cases suggest that there is currently no evidence for intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission in women who develop COVID-19 pneumonia in late pregnancy. 2020-03-18
Topological dynamics of the 2015 South Korea MERS-CoV spread-on-contact networks. We present several distinct features of MERS transmission by employing a comprehensive approach in network research to examine both the traced relationship matrix of infected individuals and their bipartite transmission routes among healthcare facilities visited for treatment. […] The results indicate that a few super-spreaders were more likely to hold certain structural advantages by linking to an exceptional number of other individuals, causing several ongoing transmission events in neighbourhoods without the aid of any intermediary. […] Thus, the infectious contact network exhibited small-world dynamics characterised by locally clustered contacts exposed to transmission paths via short path lengths. […] In addition, nosocomial infection analysis shows the pattern of a common-source outbreak followed by secondary person-to-person transmission of the disease. 2020-03-19
Clinical analysis of 10 neonates born to mothers with 2019-nCoV pneumonia. However, vertical transmission of 2019-nCoV is yet to be confirmed. 2020-03-13
Chinese expert consensus on the perinatal and neonatal management for the prevention and control of the 2019 novel coronavirus infection (First edition). Due to the immature immune system and the possibility of vertical transmission from mother to infant, neonates have become a high-risk group susceptible to 2019-nCoV, which emphasize a close cooperation from both perinatal and neonatal pediatrics. 2020-03-13
Development of a Laboratory-safe and Low-cost Detection Protocol for SARS-CoV-2 of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our newly developed protocol should be helpful for a first-hand screening of the asymptomatic virus-carriers for further prevention of transmission and early intervention and treatment for the rapidly propagating virus. 2020-03-11
Potential scenarios for the progression of a COVID-19 epidemic in the European Union and the European Economic Area, March 2020. Two months after the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the possibility of established and widespread community transmission in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) is becoming more likely. […] The EU/EEA is moving towards the ‘limited sustained transmission’ phase. 2020-03-18
Positive rate of RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 4880 cases from one hospital in Wuhan, China, from Jan to Feb 2020. Identification, isolation and caring for patients early are essential to limit human-to-human transmission including reducing secondary infections among close contacts and health care workers, preventing transmission amplification events. 2020-04-14
The emergence of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), their biology and therapeutic options. The source of origin, transmission to humans and mechanisms associated with the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 are not clear yet, however, its resemblance with SARS-CoV and several other bat coronaviruses was recently confirmed through genome sequencing related studies. 2020-03-12
A case report of neonatal COVID-19 infection in China. However, whether the case is a vertical transmission from mother to child remains to be confirmed. 2020-04-03
Preparing for a COVID-19 pandemic: a review of operating room outbreak response measures in a large tertiary hospital in Singapore. In addition, infection prevention measures need to be implemented to reduce in-hospital transmission. […] These containment measures are necessary to optimize the quality of care provided to COVID-19 patients and to reduce the risk of viral transmission to other patients or healthcare workers. 2020-04-04
Indirect Virus Transmission in Cluster of COVID-19 Cases, Wenzhou, China, 2020. To determine possible modes of virus transmission, we investigated a cluster of COVID-19 cases associated with a shopping mall in Wenzhou, China. […] Data indicated that indirect transmission of the causative virus occurred, perhaps resulting from virus contamination of common objects, virus aerosolization in a confined space, or spread from asymptomatic infected persons. 2020-03-12
Estimating the reproductive number and the outbreak size of COVID-19 in Korea. A COVID-19 transmission model (SEIHR) was established to suit the Korean outbreak. […] When the transmission period decreases from 4-day to 2-day, the outbreak ends early, but the peak of the epidemic increases, and the total number of patients does not change greatly. […] It was found that, if transmission rate decreases, the outbreak ends early, and the size of the peak and the total number of patients also decreases. […] To end the COVID-19 epidemic, efforts to reduce the spread of the virus, such as social distancing and wearing masks, are absolutely crucial with the participation of the public, along with the policy of reducing the transmission period by finding and isolating patients as quickly as possible through the efforts of the quarantine authorities. 2020-03-13
[Early detection and disease assessment of patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia]. The novel coronavirus has the characteristics of rapid transmission, atypical clinical symptoms, and easy to affect both lungs, leading to missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis, as well as difficult to detection and assessment at early stage. 2020-03-13
[Conventional respiratory support therapy for Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI): Clinical indications and nosocomial infection prevention and control]. Therefore, it is meaningful to established a standardized indication of respiratory support and to prevent related nosocomial transmission in SARI patients. 2020-03-13
[Expert consensus for bronchoscopy during the epidemic of 2019 novel coronavirus infection (Trial version)]. Infection with 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is mainly transmitted by respiratory droplets, airborne transmission and direct contact. 2020-03-13
[Epidemiological characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Tianjin]. Local transmission caused 74.81% of the cases. […] The median of the incubation period of COVID-19 was 6.50 days, the average generation interval was 5 days, and the household secondary transmission rate was 20.46%. 2020-03-13
COVID-19 - the role of mass gatherings. However, the events surrounding the latest threat to global health, the PHEIC COVID-19, may be sufficient to highlight the role of mass gatherings, mass migration, and other forms of dense gatherings of people on the emergence, sustenance, and transmission of novel pathogens. […] As the most systematically studied MG-related respiratory disease data come from KSA, the cancellation of Umrah by the KSA authorities, prior to emergence of cases, provide the best opportunity to develop mathematical models to quantify event cancellations related mitigation of COVID-19 transmission in KSA and to the home countries of pilgrims. 2020-04-01
Coronavirus disease-2019: is fever an adequate screening for the returning travelers? However, the recent report on asymptomatic contact transmission of COVID-19 and travelers who passed the symptoms-based screening and tested positive for COVID-19 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) challenges this approach as body temperature screening may miss travelers incubating the disease or travelers concealing fever during travel. 2020-03-28
China’s local governments are combating COVID-19 with unprecedented responses - from a Wenzhou governance perspective. It is highly communicable through human-to-human transmission. […] China has been making unprecedented efforts in treating the confirmed cases, identifying and isolating their close contacts and suspected cases to control the source of infection and cut the route of transmission. 2020-03-13
Interrupting transmission of COVID-19: lessons from containment efforts in Singapore. Despite multiple importations resulting in local chains of transmission, Singapore has been able to control the COVID-19 outbreak without major disruption to daily living. 2020-04-03
Epidemiology of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease-19 in Gansu Province, China, 2020. As a result of adequate interventions, transmission of the COVID-19 virus in Gansu Province is decreasing. 2020-03-13
The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak - an update on the status. Importantly, increasingly evidence showed sustained human-to-human transmission, along with many exported cases across the globe. 2020-03-19
Early dynamics of transmission and control of COVID-19: a mathematical modelling study. Understanding the early transmission dynamics of the infection and evaluating the effectiveness of control measures is crucial for assessing the potential for sustained transmission to occur in new areas. […] Combining a mathematical model of severe SARS-CoV-2 transmission with four datasets from within and outside Wuhan, we estimated how transmission in Wuhan varied between December, 2019, and February, 2020. […] We used these estimates to assess the potential for sustained human-to-human transmission to occur in locations outside Wuhan if cases were introduced. […] We combined a stochastic transmission model with data on cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan and international cases that originated in Wuhan to estimate how transmission had varied over time during January, 2020, and February, 2020. […] To estimate the early dynamics of transmission in Wuhan, we fitted a stochastic transmission dynamic model to multiple publicly available datasets on cases in Wuhan and internationally exported cases from Wuhan. […] Based on our estimates of Rt, assuming SARS-like variation, we calculated that in locations with similar transmission potential to Wuhan in early January, once there are at least four independently introduced cases, there is a more than 50% chance the infection will establish within that population. […] Our results show that COVID-19 transmission probably declined in Wuhan during late January, 2020, coinciding with the introduction of travel control measures. […] As more cases arrive in international locations with similar transmission potential to Wuhan before these control measures, it is likely many chains of transmission will fail to establish initially, but might lead to new outbreaks eventually. 2020-04-16
[Consideration and prevention of the aerosol transmission of 2019 novel coronavirus]. Based on the clinical observation, the possibility of aerosol transmission of 2019 novel coronavirus has aroused much attention. […] This article focuses on the feature of aerosol transmission and the pathogens involved in. […] We analyze the possibility of aerosol transmission of the novel coronavirus. 2020-03-15
An update on the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Though, major health authorities are still working on understanding the virus and its transmission, here we present a brief report regarding the 2019-nCoV outbreak and what is known so far. 2020-04-01
Asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): Facts and myths. In addition, nosocomial infection of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers, and viral transmission from asymptomatic carriers are possible. 2020-04-09
2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pneumonia with Hemoptysis as the Initial Symptom: CT and Clinical Features. Recently, some global cases of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia have been caused by second- or third-generation transmission of the viral infection, resulting in no traceable epidemiological history. 2020-03-16
[Management strategies for patients with gynecological malignancies during the outbreak of COVID19]. Objective: To explore the management strategies for patients with gynecological malignant tumors during the outbreak and transmission of COVID19. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics, treatment, and disease outcomes of three patients with gynecological malignancies associated with COVID19 in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University in January 2020, and proposed management strategies for patients with gynecological tumors under risk of COVID19. Results: Three patients were treated COVID19 based on the national diagnosis and treatment protocol as well as research progress. 2020-03-16
Potential impact of seasonal forcing on a SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Variation in transmission and migration rates can result in substantial variation in prevalence between regions. […] Seasonal forcing on SARS-CoV-2 should thus be taken into account in the further monitoring of the global transmission. […] The likely aggregated effect of seasonal variation, infection control measures, and transmission rate variation is a prolonged pandemic wave with lower prevalence at any given time, thereby providing a window of opportunity for better preparation of health care systems. 2020-03-19
First known person-to-person transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the USA. Person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurred between two people with prolonged, unprotected exposure while Patient 1 was symptomatic. […] Despite active symptom monitoring and testing of symptomatic and some asymptomatic contacts, no further transmission was detected. 2020-04-09
Composition of human-specific slow codons and slow di-codons in SARS-CoV and 2019-nCoV are lower than other coronaviruses suggesting a faster protein synthesis rate of SARS-CoV and 2019-nCoV. Analysis of host-specific slow codon and di-codon compositions provides links between viral genomic sequences and capability of virus replication in host cells that may be useful for surveillance of the transmission potential of novel viruses. 2020-03-17
Teicoplanin: an alternative drug for the treatment of COVID-19? In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged from China causing pneumonia outbreaks, first in the Wuhan region of China and then spread worldwide because of its probable high transmission efficiency. 2020-04-02
Epidemiology of COVID-19 Among Children in China. To identify the epidemiological characteristics and transmission patterns of pediatric patients with the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China. […] Furthermore, this study provides strong evidence of human-to-human transmission. 2020-04-09
Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2). Per person, the transmission rate of undocumented infections was 55% of documented infections ([46%-62%]), yet, due to their greater numbers, undocumented infections were the infection source for 79% of documented cases. 2020-03-27
Coronavirus in pregnancy and delivery: rapid review. In 25 babies, no cases of vertical transmission were reported; 15 were reported as being tested with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction after delivery. 2020-04-02
An Analysis of 38 Pregnant Women with COVID-19, Their Newborn Infants, and Maternal-Fetal Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Pregnancy Outcomes. Previous epidemics of many emerging viral infections have typically resulted in poor obstetrical outcomes including maternal morbidity and mortality, maternal-fetal transmission of the virus, and perinatal infections and death. […] Importantly, and similar to pregnancies with SARS and MERS, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses. […] At this point in the global pandemic of COVID-19 infection there is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 undergoes intrauterine or transplacental transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. 2020-03-17
Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics of 91 Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang, China: A retrospective, multi-centre case series. In this sample 40 (43.96%) patients had contracted the diseases from local cases, 31 (34.07%) patients had been to Wuhan/Hubei, 8 (8.79%) cases had contacted with people from Wuhan, 11 (12.09%) cases were confirmed aircraft transmission. 2020-03-17
Perinatal Transmission of COVID-19 Associated SARS-CoV-2: Should We Worry? This report provided evidence of low risk of intrauterine infection by vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-03-17
Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Preventive measures such as masks, hand hygiene practices, avoidance of public contact, case detection, contact tracing, and quarantines have been discussed as ways to reduce transmission. 2020-03-19
COVID-19 pneumonia: infection control protocol inside computed tomography suites. Infection control inside the CT suites is also important to prevent hospital-related transmission of COVID-19. 2020-03-18
[Challenges and countermeasures on Chinese malaria elimination programme during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak]. If the diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases as well as the investigation and response of the epidemic foci are not carried out timely, it may endanger patients’lives and cause the possible of secondary transmission, which threatens the achievements of malaria elimination in China. […] Due to the extensive spread and high transmission ability of the COVID-19, there is a possibility of virus infections among malaria cases during the medical care-seeking behaviors and among healthcare professionals during clinical diagnosis and treatment, sample collection and testing and epidemiological surveys. 2020-03-19
Identifying and Interrupting Superspreading Events-Implications for Control of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Although we still have limited information on the epidemiology of this virus, there have been multiple reports of superspreading events (SSEs), which are associated with both explosive growth early in an outbreak and sustained transmission in later stages. […] Better understanding transmission dynamics associated with SSEs, identifying and mitigating high-risk settings, strict adherence to healthcare infection prevention and control measures, and timely implementation of nonpharmaceutical interventions can help prevent and control severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, as well as future infectious disease outbreaks. 2020-03-18
Insight into COVID-2019 for pediatricians. The virus is highly infectious and pathogenic, causing human-to-human transmission. 2020-04-16
[2019-nCoV: new challenges from coronavirus]. According to current observations, 2019-nCoV is weaker than SARS in pathogenesis, but has stronger transmission competence; it’s mechanism of cross-species spread might be related with angiotensin-converting enzyme Ⅱ (ACE2), which is consistent with the receptor SARS-CoV. 2020-03-19
Analysis of COVID-19 infection spread in Japan based on stochastic transition model. To assess the effectiveness of response strategies of avoiding large gatherings or crowded areas and to predict the spread of COVID-19 infections in Japan, we developed a stochastic transmission model by extending the Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) epidemiological model with an additional modeling of the individual action on whether to stay away from the crowded areas. 2020-03-19
SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: The most important research questions. Here we highlight nine most important research questions concerning virus transmission, asymptomatic and presymptomatic virus shedding, diagnosis, treatment, vaccine development, origin of virus and viral pathogenesis. 2020-03-22
Transmission potential of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) onboard the diamond Princess Cruises Ship, 2020. Using mathematical modeling and time-series incidence data describing the trajectory of the outbreak among passengers and crew members, we characterize how the transmission potential varied over the course of the outbreak. […] Our estimate of the mean reproduction number in the confined setting reached values as high as ~11, which is higher than mean estimates reported from community-level transmission dynamics in China and Singapore (approximate range: 1.1-7). 2020-03-22
Serial Interval of COVID-19 among Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases. The mean interval was 3.96 days (95% CI 3.53-4.39 days), SD 4.75 days (95% CI 4.46-5.07 days); 12.6% of case reports indicated presymptomatic transmission. 2020-03-19
Natural small molecules as inhibitors of coronavirus lipid-dependent attachment to host cells: a possible strategy for reducing SARS-COV-2 infectivity? More research into these molecules and methods would be worthwhile as it could provide insights the mechanism of transmission of SARS-COV-2 and, into how they could become a basis for new antiviral strategies. 2020-03-24
[Several suggestions of operation for colorectal cancer under the outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 in China]. However, fecal-oral transmission and aerosol transmission have not been excluded. 2020-03-23
Investigation of three clusters of COVID-19 in Singapore: implications for surveillance and response measures. We gathered epidemiological and clinical data from individuals with confirmed COVID-19, via interviews and inpatient medical records, and we did field investigations to assess interactions and possible modes of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] As of Feb 15, 2020, 36 cases of COVID-19 were linked epidemiologically to the first three clusters of circumscribed local transmission in Singapore. 425 close contacts were quarantined. […] Direct or prolonged close contact was reported among affected individuals, although indirect transmission (eg, via fomites and shared food) could not be excluded. […] The serial interval between transmission pairs ranged between 3 days and 8 days. […] Enhanced surveillance and contact tracing is essential to minimise the risk of widespread transmission in the community. 2020-04-03
Transmission of COVID-19 in the terminal stage of incubation period: a familial cluster. We report a familial cluster of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) to evidence that a potential transmission of the COVID-19 during the incubation period. 2020-03-20
Response of Chinese Anesthesiologists to the COVID-19 Outbreak. Because the main route of transmission is via respiratory droplets and close contact, anesthesia providers are at a high risk when responding to the devastating mass emergency. 2020-04-16
Computed Tomography Manifestations of 5 Cases of the Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pneumonia From Patients Outside Wuhan. The human-to-human transmission of the virus may explain the infection of the disease outside of Wuhan. 2020-03-20
Hypothesis for potential pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection-a review of immune changes in patients with viral pneumonia. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with droplets and contact as the main means of transmission. 2020-04-07
Seasonality of Respiratory Viral Infections. Studies have revealed the effect of temperature and humidity on respiratory virus stability and transmission rates. 2020-03-20
Expert consensus for managing pregnant women and neonates born to mothers with suspected or confirmed novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection. Currently, there is no clear evidence regarding optimal delivery timing, the safety of vaginal delivery, or whether cesarean delivery prevents vertical transmission at the time of delivery; therefore, route of delivery and delivery timing should be individualized based on obstetrical indications and maternal-fetal status. 2020-04-13
Transmission potential and severity of COVID-19 in South Korea. Our results indicate an early sustained transmission of COVID-19 in South Korea and support the implementation of social distancing measures to rapidly control the outbreak. 2020-04-13
Practical laboratory considerations amidst the COVID-19 outbreak: early experience from Singapore. The World Health Organization has classified this pandemic as a global health emergency due to its virulent nature of transmission, which may lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome. 2020-03-21
Profiling Early Humoral Response to Diagnose Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). False negative results can be achieved and failure to quarantine the infected patient would be a major setback in containing the viral transmission. 2020-03-21
2019 novel Coronavirus outbreak: a quiz or final exam? Armed with experience from previous epidemics in the last two decades, clinicians, scientists, officials, and citizens in China are all contributing to the prevention of further 2019-nCoV transmission. 2020-03-21
Predicting the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) utilizing capability as the receptor of SARS-CoV-2. However, direct transmission of the virus from bats to humans is unlikely due to lack of direct contact, implying the existence of unknown intermediate hosts. 2020-04-16
[SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. Information and proposal of management care. CNGOF]. There are no cases of intrauterine maternal-fetal transmission, but cases of newborns infected early suggest that there could be vertical perpartum or neonatal transmission. 2020-04-08
Protein Structure and Sequence Reanalysis of 2019-nCoV Genome Refutes Snakes as Its Intermediate Host and the Unique Similarity between Its Spike Protein Insertions and HIV-1. As the infection of 2019-nCoV coronavirus is quickly developing into a global pneumonia epidemic, the careful analysis of its transmission and cellular mechanisms is sorely needed. […] In particular, the alignments of the spike surface glycoprotein receptor binding domain revealed four times more variations in the bat coronavirus RaTG13 than in the Manis coronavirus compared with 2019-nCoV, suggesting the pangolin as a missing link in the transmission of 2019-nCoV from bats to human. 2020-04-08
Cardiovascular Considerations for Patients, Health Care Workers, and Health Systems During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic. Finally, the provision of cardiovascular care may place health care workers in a position of vulnerability as they become host or vectors of virus transmission. 2020-03-23
Prudent public health intervention strategies to control the coronavirus disease 2019 transmission in India: A mathematical model-based approach. :Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has raised urgent questions about containment and mitigation, particularly in countries where the virus has not yet established human-to-human transmission. […] The objectives of this study were to find out if it was possible to prevent, or delay, the local outbreaks of COVID-19 through restrictions on travel from abroad and if the virus has already established in-country transmission, to what extent would its impact be mitigated through quarantine of symptomatic patients? […] " :These questions were addressed in the context of India, using simple mathematical models of infectious disease transmission. […] Once the virus establishes transmission within the community, quarantine of symptomatics may have a meaningful impact on disease burden. 2020-03-23
Systematic review of COVID-19 in children shows milder cases and a better prognosis than adults. Newborn infants have developed symptomatic COVID-19, but evidence of vertical intrauterine transmission was scarce. 2020-04-14
Risk of COVID-19 importation to the Pacific islands through global air travel. The purpose of our analysis is to show how travellers may introduce COVID-19 into the Pacific islands and discuss the role robust health systems play in protecting health and reducing transmission risk. 2020-04-03
Recommendations by the SEPD and AEG, both in general and on the operation of gastrointestinal endoscopy and gastroenterology units, concerning the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (March, 18). Furthermore, viral transmission may occur in asymptomatic individuals. […] However, as of this moment no information has been reported on the possibility of viral transmission, even to professionals, via this route. 2020-03-23
Planning and provision of ECMO services for severe ARDS during the COVID-19 pandemic and other outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases. ECMO preparedness for the COVID-19 pandemic is important in view of the high transmission rate of the virus and respiratory-related mortality. 2020-04-01
Interrupting COVID-19 transmission by implementing enhanced traffic control bundling: Implications for global prevention and control efforts. We argue that enhanced Traffic Control Bundling (eTCB) can interrupt the community-hospital-community transmission cycle, thereby limiting COVID-19’s impact. […] TCB’s success derived from ensuring that Health Care Workers (HCWs) and patients were protected from fomite, contact and droplet transmission within hospitals. […] Evidencing eTCB effectiveness is Taiwan’s success to date in containing and controlling the community-hospital-community transmission cycle. 2020-04-16
Lianhuaqingwen exerts anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activity against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The effect of LH on virion morphology was visualized under transmission electron microscope. 2020-04-01
Rapid viral diagnosis and ambulatory management of suspected COVID-19 cases presenting at the infectious diseases referral hospital in Marseille, France, - January 31st to March 1st, 2020: A respiratory virus snapshot. Early recognition of COVID-19 is critical to isolate confirmed cases and prevent further transmission. 2020-04-10
Identifying Locations with Possible Undetected Imported Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Cases by Using Importation Predictions. Our model can be adjusted to account for exportation of cases from other locations as the virus spreads and more information on importations and transmission becomes available. […] Early detection and appropriate control measures can reduce the risk for transmission in all locations. 2020-03-24
Novel 2019 coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): An updated overview for emergency clinicians This overview analyzes the best information from the early research, including epidemiologic and demographic features from SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV viruses; lessons learned from the experience of an emergency physician in Northern Italy, where the outbreak has devastated the healthcare system; evidence on transmission and prevention through safe use of PPE; evidence and advice on SARS-CoV-2 testing and co-infection; management options; airway management options; steps for rapid sequence intubation in the ED and managing disaster ventilation; and information on managing pediatric and pregnant patients. 2020-03-26
The different clinical characteristics of corona virus disease cases between children and their families in China - the character of children with COVID-19. COVID-19 in children is mainly caused by family transmission, and their symptoms are mild and prognosis is better than adult. 2020-04-07
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in a paucisymptomatic patient: epidemiological and clinical challenge in settings with limited community transmission, Italy, February 2020. Data concerning the transmission of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in paucisymptomatic patients are lacking. 2020-04-02
Epidemiological data from the COVID-19 outbreak, real-time case information. Epidemiological studies have indicated human-to-human transmission in China and elsewhere. 2020-04-01
COVID-19 in intensive care. Some necessary steps for health care workers. Due to the nature of their profession, health care personnel (HCP) have always been easy targets for transmission of communicable diseases like COVID-19. 2020-04-01
Role of changes in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the interaction with the human ACE2 receptor: An in silico analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the mutation(s) in the sequence of the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 that might be favoring human to human transmission. 2020-03-28
A midpoint perspective on the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite Singapore’s efforts, sustained community transmission of the virus has continued. 2020-03-26
COVID-19 containment: China provides important lessons for global response. Measures taken in China are currently proven to reduce human-to-human transmission successfully. 2020-03-26
Practical considerations for performing regional anesthesia: lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, by minimizing the many aerosol-generating procedures performed during general anesthesia, anesthesiologists can reduce exposure to patients’ respiratory secretions and the risk of perioperative viral transmission to healthcare workers and other patients. […] Regional anesthesia has benefits of preservation of respiratory function, avoidance of aerosolization and hence viral transmission. 2020-04-03
[Analysis on cluster cases of COVID-19 in Tianjin]. To prevent the transmission of COVID-19, the close contacts of the patients should be transferred to an assigned observation place in time for single room isolation. 2020-03-27
[Epidemiological analysis on 1 052 cases of COVID-19 in epidemic clusters]. Close contact in family was one of the main causes for the spread of household transmission of the virus. 2020-03-27
Interventions to mitigate early spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore: a modelling study. We adapted an influenza epidemic simulation model to estimate the likelihood of human-to-human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a simulated Singaporean population. […] Using this model, we estimated the cumulative number of SARS-CoV-2 infections at 80 days, after detection of 100 cases of community transmission, under three infectivity scenarios (basic reproduction number [R0] of 1·5, 2·0, or 2·5) and assuming 7·5% of infections are asymptomatic. […] Implementing the combined intervention of quarantining infected individuals and their family members, workplace distancing, and school closure once community transmission has been detected could substantially reduce the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections. […] We therefore recommend immediate deployment of this strategy if local secondary transmission is confirmed within Singapore. 2020-04-16
The effect of human mobility and control measures on the COVID-19 epidemic in China. We use real-time mobility data from Wuhan and detailed case data including travel history to elucidate the role of case importation on transmission in cities across China and ascertain the impact of control measures. […] Following the implementation of control measures, this correlation dropped and growth rates became negative in most locations, although shifts in the demographics of reported cases were still indicative of local chains of transmission outside Wuhan. 2020-03-27
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Pregnancy: Responding to a Rapidly Evolving Situation. There are also unanswered questions specific to pregnant women, such as whether pregnant women are more severely affected and whether intrauterine transmission occurs. 2020-04-16
Public Health Responses to COVID-19 Outbreaks on Cruise Ships - Worldwide, February-March 2020. Cruise ships bring diverse populations into proximity for many days, facilitating transmission of respiratory illness (2). […] Widespread COVID-19 transmission on cruise ships has been reported as well (3). […] Transmission occurred across multiple voyages of several ships. 2020-03-30
Simulation of the clinical and pathological manifestations of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in golden Syrian hamster model: implications for disease pathogenesis and transmissibility. Virus challenge, contact transmission, and passive immunoprophylaxis were performed. […] Besides satisfying the Koch’s postulates, this readily available hamster model is an important tool for studying transmission, pathogenesis, treatment, and vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. 2020-03-27
Covid-19 and the Digestive System. This has important implications to the disease management, transmission, and infection control. 2020-03-27
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic and Pregnancy. To date, the outcomes of 55 pregnant women infected with COVID-19 and 46 neonates have been reported in the literature, with no definite evidence of vertical transmission. […] Here we present a review of COVID-19 in pregnancy, bringing together the various factors integral to the understanding of pathophysiology and susceptibility, diagnostic challenges with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, therapeutic controversies, intrauterine transmission and maternal-fetal complications. 2020-03-28
Perioperative COVID-19 Defense: An Evidence-Based Approach for Optimization of Infection Control and Operating Room Management. Confirmed modes of viral transmission are primarily but not exclusively contact with contaminated environmental surfaces and aerosolization. […] (5) Provide data feedback by surveillance of ESKAPE transmission. […] These 8 programmatic recommendations stand on a substantial body of empirical evidence characterizing the epidemiology of perioperative transmission and infection development made possible by support from the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation (APSF). 2020-03-29
Identifying SARS-CoV-2 related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins. The discovery of multiple lineages of pangolin coronavirus and their similarity to SARS-CoV-2 suggests that pangolins should be considered as possible hosts in the emergence of novel coronaviruses and should be removed from wet markets to prevent zoonotic transmission. 2020-03-28
Preliminary Recommendations for Surgical Practice of Neurosurgery Department in the Central Epidemic Area of 2019 Coronavirus Infection. In the absence of effective treatments for the virus, it becomes extremely urgent to develop scientific and standardized proposals for prevention and control of virus transmission. 2020-03-28
Experience of Clinical Management for Pregnant Women and Newborns with Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in Tongji Hospital, China. This article focused on the issues of greatest concern of pregnant women including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection diagnostic criteria, inspection precautions, drug treatment options, indications and methods of termination of pregnancy, postpartum fever, breastfeeding considerations, mode of mother-to-child transmission, neonatal isolation and advice on neonatal nursing, to provide valuable experience for better management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women and newborns. 2020-03-28
Application of personal-oriented digital technology in preventing transmission of COVID-19, China. These technologies help reduce the transmission of COVID-19 and maintain normal social order. 2020-03-30
[Expert consensus on the management strategy of patients with hereditary ataxia during prevention and control of novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic]. Patients with central nervous system involvement may show a series of neurological symptoms, which is easy to be misdiagnosed and neglected, thereby increasing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. 2020-04-02
Responding to COVID-19: How to Navigate a Public Health Emergency Legally and Ethically. As of this writing, the epidemic has not yet peaked in the United States, but community transmission is widespread. 2020-03-31
[Epidemiology, Treatment, and Epidemic Prevention and Control of the Coronavirus Disease 2019: a Review]. This review summarizes the ongoing researches regarding etiology, epidemiology, transmission dynamics, treatment, and prevention and control strategies of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with comparison to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and pandemic H1N1 virus. 2020-04-02
[Challenges to prevent and control the outbreak of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (COVID-19)]. We still face great challenges in control of the epidemic: uncertain initial source of infection, infected populations widely scattered, complex routs of transmission, populations generally susceptible, high contagiousness of the virus, and finally vaccines unlikely available in the near future. 2020-03-29
Clinical and epidemiological features of 36 children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Zhejiang, China: an observational cohort study. The route of transmission was by close contact with family members (32 [89%]) or a history of exposure to the epidemic area (12 [33%]); eight (22%) patients had both exposures. 19 (53%) patients had moderate clinical type with pneumonia; 17 (47%) had mild clinical type and either were asymptomatic (ten [28%]) or had acute upper respiratory symptoms (seven [19%]). 2020-04-16
The effect of control strategies to reduce social mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China: a modelling study. We fitted the latest estimates of epidemic parameters from a transmission model to data on local and internationally exported cases from Wuhan in an age-structured epidemic framework and investigated the age distribution of cases. 2020-04-16
Review article: gastrointestinal features in COVID-19 and the possibility of faecal transmission. To report on the gastrointestinal manifestations and pathological findings of patients with COVID-19, and to discuss the possibility of faecal transmission. 2020-04-16
Detectable SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in feces of three children during recovery period of COVID-19 pneumonia. Therefore, it is necessary to be aware of the possibility of fecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially for children cases. 2020-04-15
Phylogenetic analysis of the first four SARS-CoV-2 cases in Chile. Our work contributes to global information about transmission dynamics and the importance to take control measures to stop the spread of the infection. 2020-04-08
Preparing an obstetric unit in the heart of the epidemic strike of COVID-19: quick reorganization tips. Many countries declared a state of emergency and lockdown to contain the exponential transmission of the disease. 2020-04-13
Roadblocks to Infection Prevention Efforts in Healthcare SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Response. Their ability to amplify the spread of disease can rapidly fuel transmission of the disease and often those failures in infection prevention and general hospital practices contribute to such events. 2020-04-16
How to link patients with suspicious COVID-19 to health system from the community pharmacies? A route proposal. On March 16th, 2020, 54 cases have been confirmed (36 imported and 18 associated), therefore, Colombia is at highest alert, and it is now trying to avoid or minimize the last stage of “community transmission”. […] In the route have been considered three possible entrances depending on the needs of the users: anti-flu drugs, symptoms related to COVID-19 infection or the request for items for hygiene and prevention of transmission such as alcohol and face masks. […] Community pharmacies and pharmacy staff play a crucial role in minimizing the stage of “community transmission” of COVID-19, through properly detection and management of possible cases and customer education. 2020-04-16
Clinical characteristics of COVID-19-infected cancer patients: A retrospective case study in three hospitals within Wuhan, China. 8 (28.6%) patients were suspected to be from hospital-associated transmission. 2020-03-31
Human Saliva: Non-Invasive Fluid for Detecting Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV). It has been suggested that this disease can spread through human-to-human transmission or by super spreading. 2020-04-07
Structural basis of receptor recognition by SARS-CoV-2. The differences among SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and RaTG13 in hACE2 recognition shed light on potential animal-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-04-10
SARS-CoV-2: an Emerging Coronavirus that Causes a Global Threat. In this review, we summarize the key events occurred during the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, the basic characteristics of the pathogen, the signs and symptoms of the infected patients as well as the possible transmission pathways of the virus. 2020-04-03
Zoonotic origins of human coronaviruses. In this review, we present an overview of the existing knowledge about the seven HCoVs, with a focus on the history of their discovery as well as their zoonotic origins and interspecies transmission. 2020-04-03
Progression of Mental Health Services during the COVID-19 Outbreak in China. Nevertheless, the rapid transmission of the COVID-19 has emerged to mount a serious challenge to the mental health service in China. 2020-04-03
Covid-19 in Critically Ill Patients in the Seattle Region - Case Series. Community transmission of coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) was detected in the state of Washington in February 2020. 2020-04-16
Policy Decisions and Use of Information Technology to Fight 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease, Taiwan. Taiwan effectively delayed and contained community transmission by leveraging experience from the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak, prevalent public awareness, a robust public health network, support from healthcare industries, cross-departmental collaborations, and advanced information technology capacity. 2020-04-01
Asymptomatic and Human-to-Human Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a 2-Family Cluster, Xuzhou, China. Our study confirms asymptomatic and human-to-human transmission through close contacts in familial and hospital settings. 2020-04-01
How to reduce the likelihood of coronavirus-19 (CoV-19 or SARS-CoV-2) infection and lung inflammation mediated by IL-1. To avoid the aggravation of CoV-19 infection, and the collapse of the health system, individuals should remain at home in quarantine for a period of approximately one month in order to limit viral transmission. 2020-04-01
Practical Strategies Against the Novel Coronavirus and COVID-19-the Imminent Global Threat. In-house isolation or quarantine of suspected cases to keep hospital admissions manageable and prevent in-hospital spread of the virus, and promoting general awareness about transmission routes are the practical strategies used to tackle the spread of COVID-19. 2020-04-01
Interventional radiology and COVID-19: evidence-based measures to limit transmission. This makes it imperative to develop and set guidelines in place to limit transmission and utilize resources in an optimal fashion. 2020-04-01
COVID-19 and chronological aging: senolytics and other anti-aging drugs for the treatment or prevention of corona virus infection? Therefore, we wish to speculate that the fight against COVID-19 disease should involve testing the hypothesis that senolytics and other anti-aging drugs may have a prominent role in preventing the transmission of the virus, as well as aid in its treatment. 2020-04-01
Emerging prophylaxis strategies against COVID-19. The emergency that the world faces today demands that we develop urgent and effective measures to protect people at high risk of transmission. 2020-04-02
Risks of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Pregnancy; a Narrative Review. The outbreak of the new Coronavirus in China in December 2019 and subsequently in various countries around the world has raised concerns about the possibility of vertical transmission of the virus from mother to fetus. […] In this narrative review, were searched for all articles published in various databases including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Science Direct, and Web of Science using MeSH-compliant keywords including COVID-19, Pregnancy, Vertical transmission, Coronavirus 2019, SARS-CoV-2 and 2019-nCoV from December 2019 to March 18, 2020 and reviewed them. […] All type of articles published about COVID-19 and vertical transmission in pregnancy were included. […] There has been no report of vertical transmission in pregnancy, and it has been found that clinical symptoms of COVID-19 in pregnant women are not different from those of non-pregnant women. 2020-04-04
Characteristics of Ocular Findings of Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei Province, China. Understanding ocular manifestations of patients with COVID-19 by ophthalmologists and others may facilitate the diagnosis and prevention of transmission of the disease. 2020-04-04
Clinical and Transmission Characteristics of Covid-19 - A Retrospective Study of 25 Cases from a Single Thoracic Surgery Department. In this study, we analyzed clinical and transmission features of 25 cases of Covid-19 from a single thoracic department, including 13 patients and 12 health care staff. […] A potential “super spreader” may be the source of the transmission before the implementation of quarantine and comprehensive protection. 2020-04-01
COVID-19 Pandemic - Is Virtual Urology Clinic the answer to keeping the cancer pathway moving? Whilst this appears to be a pragmatic approach to reducing risk of transmission, there will be an unmet cost to those patients who are high-risk and are already on the cancer referral pathway. 2020-04-01
Overview of guidance for endoscopy during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Though primarily a respiratory tract infection transmitted by direct contact and droplets, during aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) there is a possibility of airborne transmission. 2020-04-01
Coronavirus pandemic and Colorectal surgery: practical advice based on the Italian experience. Little is known about the transmission of COVID-19, but it has shown a rapid spread. 2020-04-02
A mathematical model for the novel coronavirus epidemic in Wuhan, China. Our model describes the multiple transmission pathways in the infection dynamics, and emphasizes the role of the environmental reservoir in the transmission and spread of this disease. […] Our model also employs non-constant transmission rates which change with the epidemiological status and environmental conditions and which reflect the impact of the on-going disease control measures. 2020-04-09
Effect of delay in diagnosis on transmission of COVID-19. In this study, we investigate the effect of delay in diagnosis on the disease transmission with a new formulated dynamic model. […] Sensitivity analyses and numerical simulations reveal that, improving the proportion of timely diagnosis and shortening the waiting time for diagnosis can not eliminate COVID-19 but can effectively decrease the basic reproduction number, significantly reduce the transmission risk, and effectively prevent the endemic of COVID-19, e.g., shorten the peak time and reduce the peak value of new confirmed cases and new infection, decrease the cumulative number of confirmed cases and total infection. 2020-04-09
Rapid assessment of regional SARS-CoV-2 community transmission through a convenience sample of healthcare workers, the Netherlands, March 2020. To rapidly assess possible community transmission in Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands, healthcare workers (HCW) with mild respiratory complaints and without epidemiological link (contact with confirmed case or visited areas with active circulation) were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). 2020-04-10
Potential short-term outcome of an uncontrolled COVID-19 epidemic in Lombardy, Italy, February to March 2020. Sustained coronavirus disease (COVID-19) transmission is ongoing in Italy, with 7,375 reported cases and 366 deaths by 8 March 2020. 2020-04-10
[Investigation of an epidemic cluster caused by COVID⁃19 cases in incubation period in Shanghai]. Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of a cluster of 5 confirmed COVID⁃19 cases related with the transmission in incubation period of initial case, and find out the infection source and transmission chain.. Methods: According to “The Prevention and Control Protocol for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Third Edition)” issued by the National Health Commission, a field epidemiological survey was conducted for the 5 cases in January 2020. […] Multi prevention and control measures were taken, such as tracking and screening close contacts, medical isolation observation, investigating the epidemiological link, analyzing transmission chain. Results: Case 1, who had common environmental exposure with other COVID⁃19 cases, got sick on 20 January, 2020 and was confirmed on 1 February. […] It is the key point for epidemiological investigation. Conclusion: The epidemiological investigation indicates that the transmission might occur in the incubation period of COVID-19 case, close attention should be paid to it in future COVID-19 prevention and control. 目的: 对上海市一起由新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID⁃19)病例在潜伏期传染的聚集性疫情开展流行病学调查,查明感染来源和病例传播链。 2020-04-02
Spinal anaesthesia for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and possible transmission rates in anaesthetists: retrospective, single-centre, observational cohort study. For anaesthesiologists exposed to patients with COVID-19 by providing spinal anaesthesia, the level of personal protective equipment (PPE) used, clinical outcomes (pulmonary CT scans), and confirmed COVID-19 transmission rates (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) were reviewed. […] Level 3 PPE appears to reduce the risk of transmission to anaesthetists who are exposed to mildly symptomatic surgical patients. 2020-04-02
Monitoring Transmissibility and Mortality of COVID-19 in Europe. As a global pandemic is inevitable, real-time monitoring of transmission is vital for containing the spread of COVID-19. 2020-04-04
COVID-19, SARS and MERS: are they closely related? The gastrointestinal route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, which has been also assumed for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, cannot be ruled out and needs to be further investigated. 2020-04-02
The epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. Human-to-human transmission via droplets, contaminated hands or surfaces has been described, with incubation times of 2-14 days. 2020-04-09
Quantifying SARS-CoV-2 transmission suggests epidemic control with digital contact tracing. Preventing further transmission is a priority. […] We analyzed key parameters of epidemic spread to estimate the contribution of different transmission routes and determine requirements for case isolation and contact-tracing needed to stop the epidemic. 2020-04-11
The novel zoonotic COVID-19 pandemic: An expected global health concern. Recently, however, evidence of inter-human only transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been accumulated and thus, the outbreak seems to be spreading by human-to-human transmission throughout a large part of the world. 2020-04-09
Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019. However, there are reports of COVID-19 cases with mild upper respiratory tract symptoms, suggesting the potential for pre- or oligosymptomatic transmission6-8. 2020-04-02
Epidemiological analysis of COVID-19 and practical experience from China. The epidemic has progressed through the local outbreak stage and community transmission stage due to exposure at Wuhan’s Huanan wholesale seafood market and is now in the stage of large-scale transmission due to the spread of the epidemic. 2020-04-10
Immune-epidemiological parameters of the novel coronavirus - a perspective. The transmission of COVID-19 is influenced by the host-related factors that are known to be associated with immune dysregulation. 2020-04-16
Vertical Transmission of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) from Infected Pregnant Mothers to Neonates: A Review. There are a few published cases of COVID-19 occurring during pregnancy and due the possibility of mother-fetal vertical transmission, there is a concern that the fetuses may be at risk of congenital COVID-19. Methods: We reviewed the risk of vertical transmission of COVID-19 to the fetus of infected mothers by using data of published articles or official websites up to March 4, 2020. Results: A total of 31 infected pregnant mothers with COVID-19 were reported. […] Two mothers died from COVID-19-related respiratory complications after delivery. Conclusions: Currently, based on limited data, there is no evidence for intrauterine transmission of COVID-19 from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. 2020-04-16
Global Telemedicine Implementation and Integration Within Health Systems to Fight the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Call to Action. In this context, telemedicine, particularly video consultations, has been promoted and scaled up to reduce the risk of transmission, especially in the United Kingdom and the United States of America. 2020-04-09
Novel Coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) Infection: Part I - Preparedness and Management in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Resource-limited Settings. Strict adherence to infection control like personal protective equipment and disinfection is the key to contain the disease transmission. 2020-04-16
Novel Coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) Infection: Part II - Respiratory Support in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Resource-limited Settings. Hydrophobic viral filter in the ventilator circuit minimizes chances of transmission of virus. […] At the same time, prevention of transmission of the virus to healthcare workers is extremely important in the intensive care setting dealing with severe cases and requiring procedures generating aerosol. 2020-04-16
Perinatal-Neonatal Management of COVID-19 Infection - Guidelines of the Federation of Obstetric and Gynecological Societies of India (FOGSI), National Neonatology Forum of India (NNF), and Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP). Perinatal period poses unique challenges and care of the mother-baby dyads requires special resources for prevention of transmission, diagnosis of infection and providing clinical care during labor, resuscitation and postnatal period. […] To provide recommendations for prevention of transmission, diagnosis of infection and providing clinical care during labor, resuscitation and postnatal period. 2020-04-02
Mobile field hospitals, an effective way of dealing with COVID-19 in China: sharing our experience. Mobile field hospitals have played a huge role in the centralized management of patients and they have effectively reduced transmission. 2020-04-02
Clinical Features and Short-term Outcomes of 102 Patients with Corona Virus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. A total of 34 patients (33.3%) were exposed to source of transmission in the hospital setting (as health care workers, patients, or visitors) and 10 patients (9.8%) had a familial cluster. […] Our data support those described by others that COVID-19 infection results from human-to-human transmission, including familial clustering of cases, and nosocomial transmission. 2020-04-02
COVID-19 Outbreak Associated with Air Conditioning in Restaurant, Guangzhou, China, 2020. The airflow direction was consistent with droplet transmission. 2020-04-02
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Shedding by Travelers, Vietnam, 2020. Analysis indicated virus transmission from a traveler from China. […] One asymptomatic patient demonstrated virus shedding, indicating potential virus transmission in the absence of clinical signs and symptoms. 2020-04-02
Use of Rapid Online Surveys to Assess People’s Perceptions During Infectious Disease Outbreaks: A Cross-sectional Survey on COVID-19. Participants generally had good knowledge of the main mode of disease transmission and common symptoms of COVID-19. 2020-04-09
Asymptomatic and Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Residents of a Long-Term Care Skilled Nursing Facility - King County, Washington, March 2020. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing cycle threshold (Ct) values indicated large quantities of viral RNA in asymptomatic, presymptomatic, and symptomatic residents, suggesting the potential for transmission regardless of symptoms. 2020-04-06
First Mildly Ill, Non-Hospitalized Case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Without Viral Transmission in the United States - Maricopa County, Arizona, 2020. This report demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause mild illness and result in positive tests for up to 18 days after diagnosis, without evidence of transmission to close contacts. 2020-04-02
Telemedicine in the Time of Coronavirus. Telemedicine has emerged as a critical technology to bring medical care to patients while attempting to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 among patients, families, and clinicians. 2020-04-02
Peer-to-Peer Contact Tracing: Development of a Privacy-Preserving Smartphone App. Contact tracing using smartphone technology is a powerful tool that may be employed to limit disease transmission during an epidemic or pandemic; yet, contact tracing apps present significant privacy concerns regarding the collection of personal data such as location. 2020-04-13
Expert opinion of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the Polish Cardiac Society on performing echocardiographic examinations during COVID-19 pandemic. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiographic examinations may be required in COVID-19 patients, resulting in direct contact with the patient and a risk of infection transmission from patients to personnel. 2020-04-03
How Is COVID-19 Affecting South Korea? What Is Our Current Strategy? To curb the transmission of the virus, health-care professionals, committees, and governments have combined many approaches, such as extensive COVID-19 screening, effective patient triage, the transparent provision of information, and the use of information technology. 2020-04-15
Limited early warnings and public attention to COVID-19 in China, January-February, 2020: a longitudinal cohort of randomly sampled Weibo users. Attention to COVID-19 was limited prior to China openly acknowledging human-to-human transmission on January 20. 2020-04-03
Infectious diseases in children and adolescents in China: analysis of national surveillance data from 2008 to 2017. Sexually transmitted diseases and bloodborne infections increased significantly, particularly from 2011 to 2017, among which HIV/AIDS increased fivefold, particularly in males. 2020-04-08
Practice of endoscopy during COVID-19 pandemic: position statements of the Asian Pacific Society for Digestive Endoscopy (APSDE-COVID statements). Risk of transmission may occur during endoscopy and the goal is to prevent infection among healthcare professionals while providing essential services to patients. 2020-04-03
Gastrointestinal symptoms of 95 cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection. GI tract may be a potential transmission route and target organ of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-04-03
School Opening Delay Effect on Transmission Dynamics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Korea: Based on Mathematical Modeling and Simulation Study. The transmission parameters were estimated from the laboratory confirmed data reported by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from February 16 to March 22. […] The model was extended with estimated parameters and estimated the expected number of confirmed cases as the transmission rate increased after school opening. […] Assuming the transmission rate between children group would be increasing 10 fold after the schools open, approximately additional 60 cases are expected to occur from March 2 to March 9, and approximately additional 100 children cases are expected from March 9 to March 23. […] After March 23, although the possibility of massive transmission in the children’s age group is lower, group transmission is possible to occur. 2020-04-06
Breastfeeding and Coronavirus Disease-2019. Ad interim indications of the Italian Society of Neonatology endorsed by the Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies. We recognize that this guidance might be subject to change in the future when further knowledge will be acquired about the COVID-19 pandemic, the perinatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and clinical characteristics of cases of neonatal COVID-19. 2020-04-03
Gastrointestinal and Liver Manifestations in Patients with COVID-19. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 could be detected in the stool of infected patients, implicating the possibility of fecal-oral transmission. 2020-04-03
The Essential Role of Patient Blood Management in a Pandemic: A Call for Action. Global health care now faces unprecedented challenges with widespread and rapid human-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and high morbidity and mortality with COVID-19 worldwide. 2020-04-13
European Society For Emergency Medicine position paper on emergency medical systems response to COVID-19. Emergency medical systems and specifically the emergency departments as the front line of the health systems are suffering from overload and severe working conditions, the risk of contagion and transmission of the health professionals adds a substantial burden to their daily work. 2020-04-03
The effectiveness of the quarantine of Wuhan city against the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): well-mixed SEIR model analysis. To explore the effectiveness of the quarantine of the Wuhan city against this epidemic, transmission dynamics of COVID-19 have been estimated. 2020-04-03
The Presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in Feces of COVID-19 Patients. However, the transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 has not been fully understood. […] Our results demonstrated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in feces of COVID-19 patients, and suggested the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via the fecal-oral route. 2020-04-03
A Practical Approach to the Management of Cancer Patients During the Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: An International Collaborative Group. The newly identified zoonotic coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is characterized by rapid human-to-human transmission. 2020-04-05
The COVID-19 outbreak in Italy: initial implications for organ transplantation programs. Italy has been one of the first countries dealing with the outbreak of COVID-19 and severe measures have been adopted to limit viral transmission. 2020-04-03
Endonasal instrumentation and aerosolization risk in the era of COVID-19: simulation, literature review, and proposed mitigation strategies. International experience with COVID-19 suggests it poses a significant risk of infectious transmission to skull base surgeons, due to high nasal viral titers and the unknown potential for aerosol generation during endonasal instrumentation. 2020-04-03
A familial cluster, including a kidney transplant recipient, of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. Unlike SARS and MERS, where secondary transmission mostly occurred in hospital settings, COVID-19 transmission occurs in large numbers within families. 2020-04-03
Shell disorder analysis predicts greater resilience of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) outside the body and in body fluids. The coronavirus (CoV) family consists of viruses that infects a variety of animals including humans with various levels of respiratory and fecal-oral transmission levels depending on the behavior of the viruses’ natural hosts and optimal viral fitness. […] A model to classify and predict the levels of respective respiratory and fecal-oral transmission potentials of the various viruses was built before the outbreak of MERS-CoV using AI and empirically-based molecular tools to predict the disorder level of proteins. […] Using the percentages of intrinsic disorder (PID) of the nucleocapsid (N) and membrane (M) proteins of CoV, the model easily clustered the viruses into three groups with the SARS-CoV (M PID = 8%, N PID = 50%) falling into Category B, in which viruses have intermediate levels of both respiratory and fecal-oral transmission potentials. […] Later, MERS-CoV (M PID = 9%, N PID = 44%) was found to be in Category C, which consists of viruses with lower respiratory transmission potential but with higher fecal-oral transmission capabilities. 2020-04-16
SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 and inherited arrhythmia syndromes. In particular, the high transmission rate of the virus has made it a threat to public health globally. 2020-04-16
Why are pregnant women susceptible to COVID-19? An immunological viewpoint. In pregnant women with COVID-19, there is no evidence for vertical transmission of the virus, but an increased prevalence of preterm deliveries has been noticed. 2020-04-16
[Epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in Shaanxi province]. The epidemic pattern in Shaanxi had gradually shifted from imported case pattern to local case pattern, and the transmission of local cases was mainly based on family cluster transmission. […] The confirmed cases from different sources had caused the secondary transmission in Shaanxi. 2020-04-03
Blockchain and Artificial Intelligence Technology for Novel Coronavirus Disease-19 Self-Testing. The novel coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading with a rising death toll and transmission rate reported in high income countries rather than in low income countries. 2020-04-06
Projecting hospital utilization during the COVID-19 outbreaks in the United States. In the wake of community coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission in the United States, there is a growing public health concern regarding the adequacy of resources to treat infected cases. 2020-04-04
Coronavirus occurrence and transmission over 8 years in the HIVE cohort of households in Michigan. They appear, based on serial interval and secondary infection risk, to have similar transmission potential to influenza A(H3N2) in the same population. 2020-04-04
Hospital surge capacity in a tertiary emergency referral centre during the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. The first person-to-person transmission of the 2019-novel coronavirus in Italy on 21 February 2020 led to an infection chain that represents one of the largest known COVID-19 outbreaks outside Asia. 2020-04-04
Personal protective equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic - a narrative review. COVID-19 is predominantly caused by contact or droplet transmission attributed to relatively large respiratory particles which are subject to gravitational forces and travel only approximately one metre from the patient. […] Airborne transmission may occur if patient respiratory activity or medical procedures generate respiratory aerosols. […] Contact, droplet and airborne transmission are each relevant during airway manoeuvres in infected patients, particularly during tracheal intubation. […] Appropriate use significantly reduces risk of viral transmission. […] Personal protective equipment should logically be matched to the potential mode of viral transmission occurring during patient care - contact, droplet, or airborne. 2020-04-04
Evolving epidemiology and transmission dynamics of coronavirus disease 2019 outside Hubei province, China: a descriptive and modelling study. Understanding the evolving epidemiology and transmission dynamics of the outbreak beyond Hubei would provide timely information to guide intervention policy. […] The epidemic dynamics in provinces outside Hubei were highly variable but consistently included a mixture of case importations and local transmission. […] Our estimates of the incubation period and serial interval were similar, suggesting an early peak of infectiousness, with possible transmission before the onset of symptoms. […] Our results also indicate that, as the epidemic progressed, infectious individuals were isolated more quickly, thus shortening the window of transmission in the community. […] Overall, our findings indicate that strict containment measures, movement restrictions, and increased awareness of the population might have contributed to interrupt local transmission of SARS-CoV-2 outside Hubei province. 2020-04-05
Delivery of infection from asymptomatic carriers of COVID-19 in a familial cluster. One previous study reported a family cluster with asymptomatic transmission of COVID-19. […] Here, we report another series of cases and further demonstrate the repeatability of the transmission of COVID-19 by pre-symptomatic carriers. 2020-04-09
Incidence of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection among people under home quarantine in Shenzhen, China. Since the outbreak of 2019-nCoV in December, Chinese government has implemented various measures including travel bans, centralized treatments, and home quarantines to slowing the transmission across the country. […] Home quarantine has been effective in preventing the early transmission of COVID-19, but that more needs to be done to improve early detection of COVID-19 infection. 2020-04-05
Protecting healthcare workers from SARS-CoV-2 infection: practical indications. The infection, that may cause a potentially very severe respiratory disease, now called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has airborne transmission via droplets. […] The rate of transmission is quite high, higher than common influenza. 2020-04-08
The cardiovascular burden of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a focus on congenital heart disease. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is most likely of zoonotic origin, but has been shown to have effective human-to-human transmission. […] Given the novel nature of COVID-19, no established treatment beyond supportive care exists currently, but extensive public-health measures to reduce person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 have been implemented globally to curb the spread of disease, reduce the burden on healthcare systems, and protect vulnerable populations, including the elderly and those with underlying medical comorbidities. 2020-04-09
Lung ultrasound and computed tomographic findings in pregnant woman with COVID-19. The neonatal swabs, cord blood, and placental swab RT-PCR tests were negative for SARS-CoV-2, a finding consistent with the published literature suggesting no vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant women. 2020-04-06
Structural variations in human ACE2 may influence its binding with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Where variations in the viral spike protein, in turn, lead to the cross-species transmission of the virus, genetic variations in the host receptor ACE2 may also contribute to the susceptibility and/or resistance against the viral infection. 2020-04-15
Novel Coronavirus in Cape Town Informal Settlements: Feasibility of Using Informal Dwelling Outlines to Identify High Risk Areas for COVID-19 Transmission From A Social Distancing Perspective. This study measures the distance between dwellings in informal settlements in Cape Town to identify the risk of COVID-19 transmission. 2020-04-14
A Mobile Health Platform to Disseminate Validated Institutional Measurements During the COVID-19 Outbreak: Utilization-Focused Evaluation Study. As part of the response plans for the current outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), authorities are drafting and implementing containment measures across jurisdictions worldwide in the effort to slow down transmission and reduce the infection rate. 2020-04-16
Dentists’ Awareness, Perception, and Attitude Regarding COVID-19 and Infection Control: Cross-Sectional Study Among Jordanian Dentists. The questionnaire was comprised of a series of questions about dentists’ demographic characteristics; their awareness of the incubation period, the symptoms of the disease, mode of transmission of COVID-19 and infection control measures for preventing COVID-19; and their attitude toward treating patients with COVID-19. […] The majority of dentists were aware of COVID-19 symptoms and ways of identifying patients at risk of having COVID-19, were able to correctly report known modes of transmission, and were aware of measures for preventing COVID-19 transmission in dental clinics. […] A total of 275 (74.7%) believed that it was necessary to ask patients to sit far from each other, wear masks while in the waiting room, and wash hands before getting in the dental chair to decrease disease transmission. […] Jordanian dentists were aware of COVID-19 symptoms, mode of transmission, and infection controls and measures in dental clinics. 2020-04-14
COVID-19 Related Misinformation on Social Media: A Qualitative Study from Iran. Disease statistics; treatments, vaccines and medicines; prevention and protection methods; dietary recommendations and disease transmission ways are the main subjective categories of releasing misinformation regarding novel coronavirus outbreak. 2020-04-06
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): From Causes to Preventions in Hong Kong. To prevent further outbreak of COVID-19, this article discusses the current understanding of COVID-19 and compares with the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in 2003 of Hong Kong from the causes, transmission, symptoms, diagnosis, treatments and preventions to study for an applicable measurement to control COVID-19. 2020-04-06
The enlightenment from two cases of asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2: is it safe after 14 days of isolation? After 14 days of isolation, asymptomatic infection may still carry the virus, which means the risk of transmission and present a new challenge to home isolation. 2020-04-09
Clinical characteristics of non-critically ill patients with novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in a Fangcang Hospital. Although with a low incidence, diarrhea was observed in patients with COVID-19, indicating the possibility of faecal-oral transmission. 2020-04-06
Epidemiology, virology, and clinical features of severe acute respiratory syndrome -coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus Disease-19). The purpose of this review is to summarize known-to-date information about SARS-CoV-2, transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and clinical features. 2020-04-17
Surgical Management of Patients With COVID-19 Infection. Recommendations of the Spanish Association of Surgeons. In these situations, special measures need to be adopted in order to minimize the possibility of transmission between patients, exposure of healthcare personnel and the development of postoperative complications. 2020-04-10
Hepatic and gastrointestinal involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): What do we know till now? This involvement may have important implications to the disease management, transmission, and prognosis, especially in patients with pre-existing hepatic or digestive co-morbidities. 2020-04-07
Lockdown contained the spread of 2019 novel coronavirus disease in Huangshi city, China: Early epidemiological findings. Besides, we found confirmed cases in 19 familial clusters and 21 health care workers, supporting inter-human transmission. 2020-04-07
The Role of Chest Imaging in Patient Management during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multinational Consensus Statement from the Fleischner Society. The spread of COVID-19 has been heterogeneous, resulting in some regions having sporadic transmission and relatively few hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and others having community transmission that has led to overwhelming numbers of severe cases. 2020-04-08
COVID-19 And Older Adults: What We Know. In this review, we discuss the transmission, symptomatology, mortality, and possible treatments for this infection, as they relate to older adults. 2020-04-07
COVID-19 and the use of immunomodulatory and biologic agents for severe cutaneous disease: An Australia/New Zealand consensus statement. In all patients, and their immediate close contacts, the importance of preventative measures to minimise human-to-human transmission cannot be over emphasized. 2020-04-07
High Contagiousness and Rapid Spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. We further show that active surveillance, contact tracing, quarantine, and early strong social distancing efforts are needed to stop transmission of the virus. 2020-04-07
An evidence-based framework for priority clinical research questions for COVID-19. From the research objectives for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, ten themes in the literature were identified: Clinical characterisation, prognosis, diagnosis, clinical management, viral pathogenesis, epidemiological characterisation, infection prevention and control/transmission, susceptibility, psychosocial, and aetiology. 2020-04-15
When will the battle against novel coronavirus end in Wuhan: A SEIR modeling analysis. The epidemic situation of 2019-nCoV in Wuhan was effectively controlled after the closure of the city, and the disease transmission index also decreased significantly. 2020-04-15
KCDC Risk Assessments on the Initial Phase of the COVID-19 Outbreak in Korea. To determine the probability of particular public health events, the risk of importation and risk of transmission were taken into consideration. 2020-04-07
Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of COVID-19; a Narrative Review. Accordingly, our narrative review appraised epidemiological and clinical aspects of the disease including genetic diversity of coronavirus genus, mode of transmission, incubation period, infectivity, pathogenicity, virulence, immunogenicity, diagnosis, surveillance, clinical case management and also successful measures for preventing its spread in some communities. 2020-04-09
Covid 19 pandemic and gynaecological laparoscopic surgery: knowns and unknowns. Urgent gynaecological and cancer procedures are continuing, and it is imperative all theatre staff are protected and risks of SARS-CoV-2 viral transmission reduced when operating on asymptomatic, suspected or confirmed COVID 19 patients. […] In particular, there are concerns relating to the transmission of COVID 19 during gynaecological laparoscopic surgery, arising from the potential generation of SARS-CoV-2 contaminated aerosols from CO2 leakage and the creation of smoke from the use of energy devices. 2020-04-09
Locally Informed Simulation to Predict Hospital Capacity Needs During the COVID-19 Pandemic. CHIME does not incorporate more transition states to model infection severity, social networks to model transmission dynamics, or geographic information to account for spatial patterns of human interaction. 2020-04-15
Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes with COVID-19: a systematic review of 108 pregnancies. Data on clinical manifestations, maternal and perinatal outcomes including vertical transmission were extracted and analyzed. […] Vertical transmission of the COVID-19 could not be ruled out. 2020-04-07
Infection and Rapid Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Ferrets. We report a ferret model of SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission that recapitulates aspects of human disease. […] Furthermore, a few naive indirect contact ferrets were positive for viral RNA, suggesting airborne transmission. […] Thus, ferrets represent an infection and transmission animal model of COVID-19 that may facilitate development of SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics and vaccines. 2020-04-10
Risk of nosocomial transmission of coronavirus disease 2019: an experience in a general ward setting in Hong Kong. Hong Kong started to prepare for COVID-19 on 31st December 2019 and infection control measures in public hospitals were tightened to limit nosocomial transmission within healthcare facilities. […] However, the recommendations on the transmission-based precautions required for COVID-19 in hospital settings vary from droplet and contact precautions, to contact and airborne precautions with placement of patients in airborne infection isolation rooms. 2020-04-09
Process-Induced Nanostructures on Anatase Single Crystals via Pulsed-Pressure MOCVD. Nanostructured TiO2 is a promising candidate for the passive reduction of transmission when applied to handles, push-plates and switches in hospitals. 2020-04-08
Fighting against the common enemy of COVID-19: a practice of building a community with a shared future for mankind. Due to biological nature of the novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with faster spreading and unknown transmission pattern, it makes us in a difficulty position to contain the disease transmission globally. 2020-04-09
Only strict quarantine measures can curb the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Italy, 2020. The level of transmission reduction required for physical distancing interventions to mitigate the epidemic is a crucial question. 2020-04-14
2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic: Built Environment Considerations To Reduce Transmission. With the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that results in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), corporate entities, federal, state, county, and city governments, universities, school districts, places of worship, prisons, health care facilities, assisted living organizations, daycares, homeowners, and other building owners and occupants have an opportunity to reduce the potential for transmission through built environment (BE)-mediated pathways. […] Over the last decade, substantial research into the presence, abundance, diversity, function, and transmission of microbes in the BE has taken place and revealed common pathogen exchange pathways and mechanisms. […] In this paper, we synthesize this microbiology of the BE research and the known information about SARS-CoV-2 to provide actionable and achievable guidance to BE decision makers, building operators, and all indoor occupants attempting to minimize infectious disease transmission through environmentally mediated pathways. 2020-04-08
Obstetric Anesthesia During the COVID-19 Pandemic. With increasing numbers of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID 19) cases due to efficient human-to-human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the United States, preparation for the unpredictable setting of labor and delivery is paramount. 2020-04-08
SARS-CoV-2 detection in patients with influenza-like illness. We re-analysed 640 throat swabs collected from patients in Wuhan with influenza-like-illness from 6 October 2019 to 21 January 2020 and found that 9 of the 640 throat swabs were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by quantitative PCR, suggesting community transmission of SARS-CoV2 in Wuhan in early January 2020. 2020-04-08
Special considerations for the management of COVID-19 pediatric patients in the operating room and pediatric intensive care unit in a tertiary hospital in Singapore. The virus is spread through droplet transmission and currently has a mortality rate of over 4% globally. 2020-04-08
Digestive system involvement of novel coronavirus infection: prevention and control infection from a gastroenterology perspective. While the respiratory mode of transmission is well-known and likely the principal mode of transmission of this disease, the possibility of the fecal-oral route of transmission has also emerged in various case series and clinical scenario. […] In this review article, we summarized the published literatures to date concerning four different aspects: (a) gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19 infection; (b) microbiologic and virological investigations; (c) the role of fecal-oral transmission; and (d) prevention/control infection in the digestive endoscopy room. […] A timely understanding of the relationship between the disease and the digestive system and implementing effective preventive measures are of great significance for a favorable outcome of the disease and can help mitigate further transmission by appropriate measures. 2020-04-08
[Coronavirus and COVID-19 : focus on a galopping pandemic]. The starting point of the epidemic is the city of Wuhan (China), where the virus is said to have been transmitted from animals to humans before inter-human transmission. […] The key strategy to SARS-CoV-2 is to limit its transmission. […] Le point de départ de l’épidémie est la ville de Wuhan (Chine), où le virus aurait été transmis de l’animal à l’homme préalablement à la transmission inter-humaine. […] L’élément clé face au SARS-CoV-2 est de limiter sa transmission. 2020-04-09
Health risks and potential remedies during prolonged lockdowns for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues, an increasing number of countries and territories are adopting restrictive measures based on physical (“social”) distancing, aimed at preventing human-to-human transmission and thereby limiting virus propagation. 2020-04-08
Quarantine alone or in combination with other public health measures to control COVID-19: a rapid review. We conducted a rapid review to assess the effects of quarantine (alone or in combination with other measures) of individuals who had contact with confirmed cases of COVID-19, who travelled from countries with a declared outbreak, or who live in regions with high transmission of the disease. […] We rated the certainty of evidence for the four primary outcomes: incidence, onward transmission, mortality, and resource use. […] When the models combined quarantine with other prevention and control measures, including school closures, travel restrictions and social distancing, the models demonstrated a larger effect on the reduction of new cases, transmissions and deaths than individual measures alone (incident cases: 4 modelling studies on COVID-19; onward transmission: 2 modelling studies on COVID-19; mortality: 2 modelling studies on COVID-19; low-certainty evidence). 2020-04-13
COVID-19: A Call for Physical Scientists and Engineers. We hope researchers in the physical sciences and engineering will proactively study these challenges, develop new hypotheses, define new research areas, and work with biological researchers, healthcare, and public health professionals to create user-centered solutions and to inform the general public, so that we can better address the many challenges associated with the transmission and spread of infectious respiratory diseases. 2020-04-10
Battling COVID-19: Critical care and peri-operative healthcare resource management strategies in a tertiary academic medical centre in Singapore. Although most initial cases occurred in China, the disease, termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has become a pandemic and continues to spread rapidly with human-to-human transmission in many countries. 2020-04-08
Infection control in non-clinical areas during COVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is easily transmissible as each person with COVID-19 infects approximately 2.2 close contacts, and asymptomatic transmission has been reported [2,3]. […] Therefore, we believe non-clinical areas are potentially high-risk for transmission between healthcare workers, and often neglected by infection prevention and control protocols. 2020-04-08
[Clinical experience of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in severe corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients]. Finally, patients should wear a surgical mask during HFNC treatment to reduce the risk of virus transmission through droplets or aerosols. 2020-04-10
Epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus in Jiangsu Province, China after wartime control measures: A population-level retrospective study. A novel coronavirus emerged in China in December 2019, and human-to-human transmission was previously identified. 2020-04-10
Neonatal Resuscitation and Postresuscitation Care of Infants Born to Mothers with Suspected or Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Infection. There is some disagreement among expert organizations on an optimal approach based on resource availability, surge volume, and potential risk of transmission. […] More evidence and research are needed to assess the risk of vertical and horizontal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and its impact on fetal and neonatal outcomes. […] · The risk of vertical transmission is unclear; transmission from family members/providers to neonates is possible.. […] · Optimal personal-protective-equipment (airborne vs. droplet/contact precautions) for providers is crucial to prevent transmission.. 2020-04-08
[Technologies and requirements of protection and disinfection in key places during COVID-19 outbreak]. Inappropriate protection and disinfection measures are potential risk factors of transmission and outbreak of COVID-19 in key places. 2020-04-10
[Technical guideline for disinfection of wastewater and wastes of medical organizations during COVID-19 outbreak]. The purpose of the guideline is to eliminate various pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and viruses, effectively block the virus transmission pathways, and guide medical organizations to carry out the prevention and control of COVID-19. 2020-04-10
[The network investigation on knowledge, attitude and practice about COVID-19 of the residents in Anhui Province]. Residents had higher awareness rate of cough (99.5%,n=3 997) and fever (96.0%, n=3 857) symptoms, the transmission by droplets (99.5%, n=3 995), aerosol transmission (81.1%, n=3 258), and contact transmission (92.3%, n=3 708), but lower awareness of symptoms os muscle pain or fatigue (62.7%, n=2 518). 2020-04-10
[Transmission routes of 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)]. At present, reports showed that the main transmission routes are respiratory droplets and indirect contact, other vertical transmission routes have yet to be confirmed. […] This review discusses the possible transmission routes of 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), based on currently research, the main transmission routes are respiratory droplets and indirect contact, fecal-oral might bepossible, while aerosol, tear (conjunctival) and mother-to-fetus still have yet to be confirmed, providing a reference basis for 2019-nCoV prevention and control and public protection. 2020-04-10
Mathematical modelling of COVID-19 transmission and mitigation strategies in the population of Ontario, Canada. We used an age-structured compartmental model of COVID-19 transmission in the population of Ontario, Canada. 2020-04-09
Novel Coronavirus Infection in Newborn Babies Under 28 Days in China. Little is known about features, outcomes and intrauterine transmission potential in newborn babies aged 28 days or less. […] Intrauterine vertical transmission is possible but direct evidence is still lacking. 2020-04-11
Upheaval in cancer care during the COVID-19 outbreak. This letter is an attempt to suggest practicable interventions such as the use of existing digital health platforms to limit patients’ and oncology professionals’ physical interactions as a way of reducing the risk of COVID-19 infection transmission amongst cancer patients and oncologists, as well as outlining effective strategies to ensure that cancer care is not completely disrupted during the outbreak. 2020-04-11
Comparative replication and immune activation profiles of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in human lungs: an ex vivo study with implications for the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Although SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV share a number of common clinical manifestations, SARS-CoV-2 appears to be highly efficient in person-to-person transmission and frequently cause asymptomatic infections. 2020-04-09
Coronavirus: Update Related to the Current Outbreak of COVID-19. The interhuman transmission of coronaviruses mainly occurs through saliva droplets and direct and indirect contact via surfaces. 2020-04-09
Traumatic stress in the age of COVID-19: A call to close critical gaps and adapt to new realities. Given the rapid acceleration of transmission, and the lack of preparedness to prevent and treat this virus, the negative impacts of COVID-19 are rippling through every facet of society. 2020-04-14
Survey of COVID-19 Disease Among Orthopaedic Surgeons in Wuhan, People’s Republic of China. There was transmission from these doctors to others in 25% of cases, including to family members (20.8%), to colleagues (4.2%), to patients (4.2%), and to friends (4.2%). 2020-04-09
Mask crisis during the COVID-19 outbreak. The masks can be used to block respiratory transmission from human to human, and are an effective way to control influenza. […] Although the outbreak originated in China, person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been confirmed, which means that it can be spread to anywhere in the world if prevention measures fail. 2020-04-15
COVID-19: emerging protective measures. In the absence of vaccination, productive masks can be worn to prevent transmission of airborne pathogenic aerosols and control diseases. 2020-04-15
A Model for COVID-19 Prediction in Iran Based on China Parameters. By estimating the three parameters of time-dependent transmission rate, time-dependent recovery rate, and timedependent death rate from Covid-19 outbreak in China, and using the number of Covid-19 infections in Iran, we predicted the number of patients for the next month in Iran. 2020-04-14
Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19. The transmission of COVID-19 is potent and the infection rate is fast. 2020-04-14
Presymptomatic Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 - Singapore, January 23-March 16, 2020. Presymptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), might pose challenges for disease control. […] Clinical and epidemiologic findings of all COVID-19 cases in Singapore through March 16 were reviewed to determine whether presymptomatic transmission might have occurred. […] Presymptomatic transmission was defined as the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from an infected person (source patient) to a secondary patient before the source patient developed symptoms, as ascertained by exposure and symptom onset dates, with no evidence that the secondary patient had been exposed to anyone else with COVID-19. […] Seven COVID-19 epidemiologic clusters in which presymptomatic transmission likely occurred were identified, and 10 such cases within these clusters accounted for 6.4% of the 157 locally acquired cases. […] In the four clusters for which the date of exposure could be determined, presymptomatic transmission occurred 1-3 days before symptom onset in the presymptomatic source patient. […] To account for the possibility of presymptomatic transmission, officials developing contact tracing protocols should strongly consider including a period before symptom onset. […] Evidence of presymptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 underscores the critical role social distancing, including avoidance of congregate settings, plays in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. 2020-04-10
Rapid Sentinel Surveillance for COVID-19 - Santa Clara County, California, March 2020. On February 27, 2020, the Santa Clara County Public Health Department (SCCPHD) identified its first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated with probable community transmission (i.e., infection among persons without a known exposure by travel or close contact with a patient with confirmed COVID-19). […] This sentinel surveillance system helped confirm community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Santa Clara County. […] As a result of these data and an increasing number of cases with no known source of transmission, the county initiated a series of community mitigation strategies. […] Detection of community transmission is critical for informing response activities, including testing criteria, quarantine guidance, investigation protocols, and community mitigation measures (2). 2020-04-10
Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Among Residents and Staff Members of an Independent and Assisted Living Community for Older Adults - Seattle, Washington, 2020. Adherence to CDC guidance to prevent COVID-19 transmission in senior independent and assisted living communities (4) could be instrumental in preventing a facility outbreak. 2020-04-10
Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Children - United States, February 12-April 2, 2020. Social distancing and everyday preventive behaviors remain important for all age groups as patients with less serious illness and those without symptoms likely play an important role in disease transmission (6,7). 2020-04-10
Delivery in pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2: A fast review. To review the available information on mode of delivery, vertical/peripartum transmission, and neonatal outcome in pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2. […] The rate of vertical or peripartum transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is low, if any, for cesarean delivery; no data are available for vaginal delivery. 2020-04-09
Intensive care management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): challenges and recommendations. Streamlining of workflows for rapid diagnosis and isolation, clinical management, and infection prevention will matter not only to patients with COVID-19, but also to health-care workers and other patients who are at risk from nosocomial transmission. 2020-04-09
School closure and management practices during coronavirus outbreaks including COVID-19: a rapid systematic review. However, there are no data on the relative contribution of school closures to transmission control. 2020-04-09
[Rapid review of the use of community-wide surgical masks and acute respiratory infections]. Of six systematic reviews, four found no reduction in the probability of transmission. 2020-04-10
Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19): Implications for Clinical Dental Care. Thus, the aim of this article is to provide a brief overview of the epidemiology, symptoms, and routes of transmission of this novel infection. 2020-04-14
Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Children - What We Know So Far and What We Do Not? Clinical features of COVID-19 in children include fever and cough, but a large proportion of infected children appears to be asymptomatic and may contribute to transmission. 2020-04-10
Vaginal Delivery Report of a Healthy Neonate Born to a Convalescent Mother with COVID-19. Findings from our case indicate that there is no intrauterine transmission in this woman who develops COVID-19 pneumonia in late pregnancy. 2020-04-10
Conjunctiva is not a preferred gateway of entry for SARS-CoV-2 to infect respiratory tract. The conjunctival mucosa is directly exposed to infectious droplets expelled by patients during close contact and fomites when the eye is touched by contaminated hands.2, 3 More over, the mucosa of the conjunctiva and upper respiratory tract is connected by nasolacrimal duct, and share the same entry receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), on host cell membranes.2, 3 Hence, it is reasonable to postulate that the conjunctiva may be easily involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection, and may even act as a route of transmission during SARS-CoV-2 infection. 2020-04-10
Clinical manifestation, diagnosis, prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) during the outbreak period. Radiological and serological methods are the most preferred among the other methods and the radiological method is the most preferred one which can diagnose the infection quickly and accurately with fewer false-negatives, that can be effective in protecting the patient’s life by initiating treatment and preventing the transmission of infection to other people. 2020-04-15
Protection and disinfection policies against SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Human-to-human transmission via respiratory droplets and contact with aerosol infected surfaces are the major ways of transmitting this virus. 2020-04-15
Neurologic Manifestations of Hospitalized Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. During the epidemic period of COVID-19, when seeing patients with neurologic manifestations, clinicians should suspect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection as a differential diagnosis to avoid delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis and lose the chance to treat and prevent further transmission. 2020-04-14
Association of Public Health Interventions With the Epidemiology of the COVID-19 Outbreak in Wuhan, China. The effective reproduction number of SARS-CoV-2 (an indicator of secondary transmission) was also calculated over the periods. 2020-04-14
The Role of Chest Imaging in Patient Management during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multinational Consensus Statement from the Fleischner Society. The spread of COVID-19 has been heterogeneous, resulting in some regions having sporadic transmission and relatively few hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and others having community transmission that has led to overwhelming numbers of severe cases. 2020-04-16
COVID-19 in a patient with long-term use of glucocorticoids: A study of a familial cluster. Studies show clear person-to-person transmission. […] The results suggest that the long-term use of glucocorticoids might cause atypical infections, a long incubation period, and extra transmission of COVID-19. 2020-04-16
Protecting Labor and Delivery Personnel from COVID-19 during the Second Stage of Labor. During that time, labor and delivery personnel is in close contact to patients, who are exerting extreme effort during and frequently blow out their breath, cough, shout, and vomit, all of which put the health care team at risk, considering that COVID-19 transmission occurs through aerosol generated by coughing and sneezing. 2020-04-10
Infection Control against COVID-19 in Departments of Radiology. However, multiple cases of COVID-19 transmission in radiology department have been reported. 2020-04-14
Allocation of scarce resources during the COVID-19 pandemic: a Jewish ethical perspective. The pervasiveness of air travel and high rate of transmission has caused this pandemic to spread swiftly throughout the world. 2020-04-11
Perinatal aspects on the covid-19 pandemic: a practical resource for perinatal-neonatal specialists. From scant data: vertical transmission from maternal infection during the third trimester probably does not occur or likely it occurs very rarely. 2020-04-11
Dentistry and coronavirus (COVID-19) - moral decision-making. The role of dental professionals in preventing the transmission of COVID-19 is critically important. 2020-04-15
Testing for coverage from personal protective equipment: Public Health England’s guidance does not protect healthcare workers from droplet spray. In order to reduce transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, healthcare workers in the UK are advised to wear personal protective equipment (PPE). 2020-04-11
Cluster of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in the French Alps, 2020. We conducted an investigation to identify secondary cases and interrupt transmission. […] The occurrence in this cluster of one asymptomatic case with similar viral load as a symptomatic patient, suggests transmission potential of asymptomatic individuals. […] The fact that an infected child did not transmit the disease despite close interactions within schools suggests potential different transmission dynamics in children. 2020-04-11
Classification system and case definition for SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. The possibility of mother-to-fetus transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is currently a highly debated concept in perinatal medicine. […] At present the evidence for intrauterine transmission from mother to fetus or intrapartum transmission from mother to the neonate is sparse. 2020-04-11
Diarrhea during COVID-19 infection: pathogenesis, epidemiology, prevention and management. Increasing evidence indicates possible fecal oral transmission, indicating the need for a rapid and effective modification of the screening and diagnostic algorithms. 2020-04-13
Mathematical model of infection kinetics and its analysis for COVID-19, SARS and MERS. The parameters of the three coronavirus transmission growth models are obtained by nonlinear fitting. 2020-04-16
Practical insights for paediatric otolaryngology surgical cases and performing microlaryngobronchoscopy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Paediatric otolaryngology practice involves examining and operating in anatomical locations with high levels of aerosol generation and transmission of COVID-19 to treating clinicians, especially from the asymptomatic patient populations including children. 2020-04-16
SARS-Cov-2 in Spanish Intensive Care: Early Experience with 15-day Survival In Vitoria. Community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was detected in Spain in February 2020, with 216% intensive care unit (ICU) capacity expanded in Vitoria by March 18th, 2020. 2020-04-14
Medically-Necessary, Time-Sensitive Procedures: A Scoring System to Ethically and Efficiently Manage Resource Scarcity and Provider Risk During the COVID-19 Pandemic. The decision to proceed with Medically-Necessary, Time-Sensitive (MeNTS) procedures in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic requires incorporation of factors (resource limitations, COVID-19 transmission risk to providers and patients) heretofore not overtly considered by surgeons in the already complicated processes of clinical judgment and shared decision-making. 2020-04-16
A cross-sectional comparison of epidemiological and clinical features of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan and outside Wuhan, China. This study indicates possible diminishing virulence of the virus in the process of transmission. […] Yet persistent positive RNA in feces after negative nasopharyngeal swabs suggests a possible prolonged transmission period that challenges current quarantine practices. 2020-04-12
COVID-19 and diabetes: Knowledge in progress. We searched for articles in PubMed and Google Scholar databases till 02 April 2020, with the following keywords: “SARS-CoV-2”, “COVID-19”, “infection”, “pathogenesis”, “incubation period”, “transmission”, “clinical features”, “diagnosis”, “treatment”, “diabetes”, with interposition of the Boolean operator “AND”. 2020-04-16
Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and the Gastrointestinal System in Children. Prolonged RT PCR positivity in the stool has raised the possibility of feco-oral transmission. 2020-04-12
The role of Mental Health Home Hospitalization Care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Amongst the Spanish public health interventions aimed at reducing the transmission rate, home confinement has been enforced (2). 2020-04-12
Association of chemosensory dysfunction and Covid-19 in patients presenting with influenza-like symptoms. Rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and concern for viral transmission by ambulatory patients with minimal to no symptoms underline the importance of identifying early or subclinical symptoms of Covid-19 infection. 2020-04-12
Organ Donation During the Coronavirus Pandemic: An Evolving Saga in Uncharted Waters. Transmission is affected by epidemiological risk factors, incubation period, degree of viraemia, and viability of SARS-CoV-2 in blood and organ compartments. 2020-04-13
Containing COVID-19 in the emergency room: the role of improved case detection and segregation of suspect cases. Over a 3-month period, our ED aimed to minimise nosocomial transmission by using broader suspect case criteria for better detection and using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) for healthcare workers (HCWs) METHODS: All ED admissions with respiratory syndromes over a 3-month period were tested for COVID-19. […] However, there were no cases of nosocomial transmission from intra-ED exposure, despite extensive surveillance. […] Usage of appropriate PPE is essential in minimising nosocomial transmission. 2020-04-13
War on Terror Cells: Strategies to Eradicate “Novel Coronavirus” Effectively. Due to their ubiquitous distribution in the environment and their status as the trojan horse of the microbial world, amoebae can provide novel coronavirus a means to susceptible hosts and possible transmission to the central nervous system. 2020-04-13
Loopholes in Current Infection Control and Prevention Practices Against COVID-19 in Radiology Department and Improvement Suggestions. Retrospective analysis of 2 cases of health-care-associated COVID-19 transmission in 2 radiology departments and comparing the infection control and prevention practices against COVID-19 with the practices of our department, where no COVID-19 transmission has occurred. 2020-04-13
COVID-19 indirect contact transmission through the oral mucosa must not be ignored. Especially in areas with poor medical care, neglect of indirect transmission can cause more serious consequences. […] Mucosa exposure and inappropriate treatment of medical and non-medical articles used by the patients all could increase the risks of COVID-19 transmission. 2020-04-13
COVID-19 and gastrointestinal endoscopies: current insights and emergent strategies. COVID-19 predominately spread by droplet transmission, although recent evidence showed that shedding in feces and feco-oral transmission could also be possible. […] This can increase the risk of contamination and contribute to virus transmission. […] This article focuses on the risk of COVID-19 transmission by GI shedding, the potential role of endoscopes as a vector of this novel virus including transmission during endoscopies and prevention strategies including deferral of elective non-urgent endoscopy procedures. 2020-04-13
Household Transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Many infected clusters have been found within familial households, but the data about secondary transmission among household contacts is limited. […] The rate of secondary transmission among household contacts of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection was 30%. […] Our data provide insight into the rate of secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in home. 2020-04-16
Rapid asymptomatic transmission of COVID-19 during the incubation period demonstrating strong infectivity in a cluster of youngsters aged 16-23 years outside Wuhan and characteristics of young patients with COVID-19: a prospective contact-tracing study. SARS-CoV-2-infection presented strong infectivity during the incubation-period with rapid transmission in this cluster of youngsters outside Wuhan. 2020-04-13
A cluster of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 caused by incubation period transmission in Wuxi, China. The infectivity and transmission capacity of COVID-2019 cases during the incubation period are not very clear. 2020-04-14
Novel Approach to Reduce Transmission of COVID-19 During Tracheostomy. In this article, we submit a novel approach for better protection and thus reduced transmission for tracheostomy in a COVID-19 positive patient. 2020-04-15
Positive effects of COVID-19 control measures on influenza prevention. At the same time, influenza virus has been active, with influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 sharing the same transmission routes. 2020-04-15
A field indoor air measurement of SARS-CoV-2 in the patient rooms of the largest hospital in Iran. The major route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is in contention, with the airborne route a likely transmission pathway for carrying the virus within indoor environments. 2020-04-16
COVID-19: From bench to bed side. Ample data is available to suggest the differences in etiology, transmission cycle, diagnosis, genetics, hosts, reproductive rates, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis and radiological features between SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. 2020-04-15
scRNA-seq Profiling of Human Testes Reveals the Presence of the ACE2 Receptor, A Target for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Spermatogonia, Leydig and Sertoli Cells. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) indicates that Gene Ontology (GO) categories associated with viral reproduction and transmission are highly enriched in ACE2-positive spermatogonia, while male gamete generation related terms are downregulated. 2020-04-15
[Whether conjunctival congestion in patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus is definitely related the novel coronavirus?] Currently, it is commonly reported that COVID-19 patients are associated with conjunctival congestion and other symptoms, and the transmission route or high-risk diseases of ophthalmology and high-risk working status are speculated. 2020-04-14
The COVID-19 pandemic: implications for the cytology laboratory. The infection has predominantly respiratory transmission and is transmitted through large droplets or aerosols, and less commonly by contact with infected surfaces or fomites. 2020-04-16
Characteristics of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection and potential evidence for persistent fecal viral shedding. Notably, eight children persistently tested positive on rectal swabs even after nasopharyngeal testing was negative, raising the possibility of fecal-oral transmission. 2020-04-16
What Is the Appropriate Use of Laparoscopy over Open Procedures in the Current COVID-19 Climate? Among surgeons worldwide, a concern with the use of minimally invasive techniques has been raised due to a proposed risk of viral transmission of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) with the creation of pneumoperitoneum. […] Due to this proposed concern, we sought to collect the available data and evaluate the use of laparoscopy and the risk of COVID-19 transmission. […] A literature review of viral transmission in surgery and of the available literature regarding the transmission of the COVID-19 virus was performed. […] Few studies have been performed on viral transmission during surgery, but to date there is no study that demonstrates or can suggest the ability for a virus to be transmitted during surgical treatment whether open or laparoscopic. […] There is no societal consensus on limiting or restricting laparoscopic or robotic surgery; however, there is expert consensus on the modification of standard practices to minimize any risk of transmission. […] Despite very little evidence to support viral transmission through laparoscopic or open approaches, we recommend making modifications to surgical practice such as the use of smoke evacuation and minimizing energy device use among other measures to minimize operative staff exposure to aerosolized particles. 2020-04-14
Clinical characteristics of 19 neonates born to mothers with COVID-19. No vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and no perinatal complications in the third trimester were found in our study. 2020-04-14
COVID-19 challenge for modern medicine. The key is a holistic approach to the patient including, primarily, the use of personal protective equipment to reduce the risk of further virus transmission, as well as patient management, which consists in both quarantine and, in the absence of specific pharmacological therapy, symptomatic treatment. 2020-04-14
COVID-19 Pandemic: What Every Otolaryngologist-Head and Neck Surgeon Needs to Know for Safe Airway Management. Against the backdrop of nations struggling to contain the virus’s spread and to manage hospital strain, otolaryngologists must partner with anesthesiologists and front-line health care teams to provide expert services in high-risk situations while reducing transmission. 2020-04-14
Pediatric Otolaryngology Divisional and Institutional Preparatory Response at Seattle Children’s Hospital after COVID-19 Regional Exposure. The role children and adolescents play in COVID-19 transmission is unclear, and it is possible that healthy pediatric patients serve as a reservoir for the virus. 2020-04-14
[Occupationally acquired infections among health care workers: Respiratory diseases]. Currently available data demonstrate that personal protective measures (e.g. appropriate use of hand washing and oronasal mask), as well as vaccinations (if available) reduces the risk for transmission of infectious diseases. 2020-04-15
Demand Analysis and Management Suggestion: Sharing Epidemiological Data Among Medical Institutions in Megacities for Epidemic Prevention and Control. During the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), epidemiological data is essential for controlling the source of infection, cutting off the route of transmission, and protecting vulnerable populations. 2020-04-16
Investigating the cases of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China using dynamic statistical techniques. Due to the complexities of the COVID-19, we investigated the unobserved factors including environmental exposures accounting for the spread of the disease through human-to-human transmission. […] Yet, the role of such a medium that facilitates the transmission of COVID-19 remains unclear. […] We highlight safety precaution and preventive measures to circumvent the human-to-human transmission. 2020-04-16
Emergency Colorectal Surgery in a COVID-19 Pandemic Epicenter. Transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a considerable risk during emergency colorectal surgery in a pandemic epicenter. […] It is well known that the primary route of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is through respiratory droplets. […] Given the significant concern of airborne transmission, the authors recommend conventional, in lieu of laparoscopic, access in emergency colorectal surgery in a COVID-19 pandemic epicenter. 2020-04-14
The Relationship between the Migrant Population’s Migration Network and the Risk of COVID-19 Transmission in China-Empirical Analysis and Prediction in Prefecture-Level Cities. Migration may be the primary reason for the long-distance transmission of the disease. […] If similar scenarios occur in the cities of Wenzhou, Guangzhou, Dongguan, or Shenzhen, the disease transmission will be wider. 2020-04-16
Projecting the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 through the postpandemic period. It is urgent to understand the future of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. […] We used estimates of seasonality, immunity, and cross-immunity for betacoronaviruses OC43 and HKU1 from time series data from the USA to inform a model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. 2020-04-15
[Coronavirus: from common cold to severe pulmonary failure]. The origin of SARS-CoV‑2 lies in the bat coronavirus pool and has now emerged in the human population due to interspecies transmission. 2020-04-15
Recommendations for Surgery During the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Epidemic. When we restart surgical practices across world, we have to bring new protocols and practices in place to combat the transmission. […] This article is based on scientific information about transmission of virus and experiences of some of the authors from China, a country which successfully dealt with and contained the virus outbreak. 2020-04-15
Biological and Epidemiological Trends in the Prevalence and Mortality due to Outbreaks of Novel Coronavirus COVID-19. The results show rising trends in the transmission, prevalence and mortality rate due to coronavirus COVID-19. 2020-04-15
Coronavirus 101. These three strains have caused severe disease in humans and global transmission concerns. 2020-04-15
On a Statistical Transmission Model in Analysis of the Early Phase of COVID-19 Outbreak. We introduced a statistical disease transmission model using case symptom onset data to estimate the transmissibility of the early-phase outbreak in China, and provided sensitivity analyses with various assumptions of disease natural history of the COVID-19. […] We fitted the transmission model to several publicly available sources of the outbreak data until 11, February 2020, and estimated lock down intervention efficacy of Wuhan city. 2020-04-15
Preventing intra-hospital infection and transmission of COVID-19 in healthcare workers. Preventing intra-hospital transmission of the communicable disease is therefore a priority. 2020-04-15
Clinical study of mesenchymal stem cell treating acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by epidemic Influenza A (H7N9) infection, a hint for COVID-19 treatment. H7N9 viruses quickly spread between mammalian hosts, and it carried out the risk of human-to-human transmission after outbreak in 2013. 2020-04-15
Coronavirus: Update Related to the Current Outbreak of COVID-19. The interhuman transmission of coronaviruses mainly occurs through saliva droplets and direct and indirect contact via surfaces. 2020-04-15
Emergence of deadly severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 during 2019-2020. The virus emerged in humans from Wuhan seafood market probably via zoonotic transmission. […] Within a few days the virus spread its tentacles rapidly to neighboring cities in China and to different geographical regions through travelers and to some extent by human to human transmission leading to significant disease burden globally. […] In addition we have also provided information about transmission dynamics, prevention measures and treatment options that are available at the present. 2020-04-15
Propagation analysis and prediction of the COVID-19. Based on the official data modeling, this paper studies the transmission process of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). 2020-04-15
Progress and prospect on imaging diagnosis of COVID-19. COVID-19 has become a public health emergency due to its rapid transmission. 2020-04-15
Facemask shortage and the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak: Reflections on public health measures. Facemask wearing with proper hand hygiene is considered an effective measure to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission, but facemask wearing has become a social concern due to the global facemask shortage. […] The risk of asymptomatic transmission and facemask shortages should be carefully evaluated before introducing a universal facemask wearing policy in high-risk regions. 2020-04-15
Outcome of Coronavirus spectrum infections (SARS, MERS, COVID 1 -19) during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The perinatal outcomes observed were fetal distress, Apgar score < 7 at five minutes, neonatal asphyxia, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, perinatal death, and evidence of vertical transmission. 19 studies including 79 women were eligible for this systematic review: 41 pregnancies (51.9%) affected by COVID-19, 12 (15.2%) by MERS, and 26 (32.9%) by SARS. […] None of the 41 newborns assessed showed clinical signs of vertical transmission. […] There have been no published cases of clinical evidence of vertical transmission. 2020-04-15
The role of afferent pulmonary innervation in poor prognosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome in COVID-19 patients and proposed use of resiniferatoxin (RTX) to improve patient outcomes in advanced disease state: A review. TRPV1 expressing cells are responsible for pain transmission, inflammation and immunomodulation throughout the entire pulmonary system and are modulating the processes associated with localized cytokine release (storm) and overall rapid disease progression. 2020-04-15
COVID-19, Medicine, and Sports. While the numbers of confirmed cases and deaths continue to rise, people around the world are taking brave actions to mitigate transmission and save lives. 2020-04-15
The Economic Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Radiology Practices. Policy measures adopted to slow the transmission of disease are decreasing the demand for imaging independent of COVID-19. 2020-04-15
The Science Underlying COVID-19: Implications for the Cardiovascular System. The continued viral shedding in the asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic individuals enhances its community transmission. 2020-04-15
Viral exanthem in COVID-19, a clinical enigma with biological significance. Current researches emphasize on understanding of transmission patterns, severity, clinical features, and risk factors for infection, but the data remain limited. 2020-04-15
Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2: The world should face the reality. Despite this, no countries or authorities consider airborne spread of COVID-19 in their regulations to prevent infections transmission indoors. 2020-04-15
Safety at the Time of the COVID-19 Pandemic: How to Keep our Oncology Patients and Healthcare Workers Safe. This special feature reviews strategies on how to mitigate transmission of COVID-19 in an effort to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with the disease for patients with cancer without infection, for patients with cancer with COVID-19 infection, and for the healthcare workers caring for them, while continuing to provide the best possible cancer care. 2020-04-15
Translating transmissibility measures into recommendations for coronavirus prevention. Considering this, we drew the function of contact-rate reduction required to control the transmission from both detectable and undetectable sources. […] Understanding the dynamics of transmission is essential to support government decisions and improve the community’s adherence to preventive measures. 2020-04-15
[Expert consensus on preventing nosocomial transmission during respiratory care for critically ill patients infected by 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia]. A lot of respiratory treatments for critically ill patients are deemed as high-risk factors for nosocomial transmission, such as intubation, manual ventilation by resuscitator, noninvasive ventilation, high-flow nasal cannula, bronchoscopy examination, suction and patient transportation, etc, due to its high possibility to cause or worsen the spread of the virus. […] As such, we developed this consensus recommendations on all those high-risk treatments, based on the current evidence as well as the resource limitation in some areas, with the aim to reduce the nosocomial transmission and optimize the treatment for the COVID-19 pneumonia patients. 2020-04-17
[Expert consensus on sleep study and non-invasive positive airway pressure therapy during the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019]. Sleep study and non-invasive positive airway pressure (NIPAP) therapy can increase the risk of exposure and transmission of new coronaviruses to medical staff and patients. 2020-04-16
Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19. We report temporal patterns of viral shedding in 94 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and modeled COVID-19 infectiousness profiles from a separate sample of 77 infector-infectee transmission pairs. […] Disease control measures should be adjusted to account for probable substantial presymptomatic transmission. 2020-05-18
Mesenchymal stem cells and management of COVID-19 pneumonia. The current global picture shows small chains of transmission in many countries and large chains resulting in extensive spread in a few countries, such as Italy, Iran, South Korea, and Japan. 2020-04-18
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Severe Respiratory Failure During Respiratory Epidemics and Pandemics: A Narrative Review. Efforts to improve outcomes should also encompass appropriate infection control measures to reduce co-infections and prevent nosocomial transmission of novel respiratory viruses. 2020-05-18
Nuclear medicine in responding to global pandemic COVID-19-American College of Nuclear Medicine member experience. In the global pandemic COVID-19, it is important for everyone including nuclear medicine personnel to know how to stop transmission and contain and prevent the spread of COVID-19. 2020-05-28
The Role of YouTube and the Entertainment Industry in Saving Lives by Educating and Mobilizing the Public to Adopt Behaviors for Community Mitigation of COVID-19: Successive Sampling Design Study. A successive sampling design was used to compare coverage of behaviors to mitigate community transmission of COVID-19 in the 100 most widely viewed YouTube videos in January 2020 and March 2020. 2020-04-28
COVID-2019: update on epidemiology, disease spread and management. Constant efforts at individual, national, and international level are being made in order to understand the genomics, hosts, modes of transmission and epidemiological link of nCoV-2019. 2020-04-20
There is no routine head and neck exam during the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on experience and evidence from SARS-CoV-1 and early experience with SARS-CoV-2, we provide our perspective and guidance on mitigating transmission risk during head and neck examination, upper airway endoscopy, and head and neck mucosal surgery including tracheostomy. 2020-05-29
How to Guarantee the Best of Care to Patients with Cancer During the COVID-19 Epidemic: The Italian Experience. In this context, in Italy, we reorganized the National Health System and prioritized the clinical cancer care scenario, balancing risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission versus the magnitude of clinical benefit deriving from a specific therapeutic approach. 2020-04-27
Framework for prioritizing head and neck surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. Unique considerations for the head and neck patient are examined including risk to the oncology patient, outcomes following delay in head and neck cancer therapy, and risk of transmission during otolaryngologic surgery. […] Finally, we discuss our preoperative clinical pathway for transmission mitigation including defining low-risk and high-risk surgery for transmission and role of preoperative COVID-19 testing. 2020-05-29
[Replication and transmission mechanisms of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses]. This review discusses the mechanisms of proliferation and transmission of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses based on the results of existing research, providing basis for future study on interrupting the transmission and pathogenicity of human highly pathogenic coronaviruses. 2020-04-20
The Application of Mobile Telehealth System to Facilitate Patient Information Presentation and Case Discussion. Background: Most secondary transmission of COVID-19 is occurring in a hospital setting. 2020-04-16
Community Responses during Early Phase of COVID-19 Epidemic, Hong Kong. Widely adopted individual precautionary measures, coupled with early government actions, might slow transmission early in the outbreak. 2020-04-16
Community Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at Two Family Gatherings - Chicago, Illinois, February-March 2020. Most early reports of person-to-person SARS-CoV-2 transmission have been among household contacts, where the secondary attack rate has been estimated to exceed 10% (1), in health care facilities (2), and in congregate settings (3). […] However, widespread community transmission, as is currently being observed in the United States, requires more expansive transmission events between nonhousehold contacts. […] Patients with confirmed COVID-19 and their close contacts were interviewed to better understand nonhousehold, community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. […] This report describes the cluster of 16 cases of confirmed or probable COVID-19, including three deaths, likely resulting from transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at two family gatherings (a funeral and a birthday party). […] These data support current CDC social distancing recommendations intended to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. 2020-04-17
Transmission of COVID-19 to Health Care Personnel During Exposures to a Hospitalized Patient - Solano County, California, February 2020. Among 121 hospital A health care personnel (HCP) who were exposed to the patient, 43 (35.5%) developed symptoms during the 14 days after exposure and were tested for SARS-CoV-2; three had positive test results and were among the first known cases of probable occupational transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to HCP in the United States. […] Little is known about specific risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission in health care settings. […] Because transmission-based precautions were not in use, no HCP wore personal protective equipment (PPE) recommended for COVID-19 patient care during contact with the index patient. 2020-04-17
Geographic Differences in COVID-19 Cases, Deaths, and Incidence - United States, February 12-April 7, 2020. Community transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected in the United States in February 2020. 2020-04-17
The SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 expression of maternal-fetal interface and fetal organs by single-cell transcriptome study. As of April 3, 2020, more than 1,000,000 human infections have been diagnosed around the world, which exhibited apparent person-to-person transmission characteristics of this virus. […] The capacity of vertical transmission in SARS-CoV-2 remains controversial recently. […] Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is now confirmed as the receptor of SARS-CoV-2 and plays essential roles in human infection and transmission. […] And thus, both the vertical transmission and the placenta dysfunction/abortion caused by SARS-CoV-2 need to be further carefully investigated in clinical practice. 2020-04-22
Operational Strategies to Prevent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Spread in Radiology: Experience From a Singapore Radiology Department After Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection spreads globally, the demand for chest imaging will inevitably rise with an accompanying increase in risk of disease transmission to frontline radiology staff. […] Radiology departments should implement strict infection control measures and robust operational plans to minimize disease transmission and mitigate potential impact of possible staff infection. 2020-04-29
Protective measures for COVID-19 for healthcare providers and laboratory personnel In the COVID-19 pandemic, which affects the whole world, healthcare professionals (HCP) are at high risk of transmission due to their direct contact with patients with COVID-19. 2020-04-22
Epidemiology of COVID-19 It transmitted human to human by droplet and contact routes, but some doubt about airborne, fecal or intrauterine transmission also should be removed. 2020-04-22
Demographic science aids in understanding the spread and fatality rates of COVID-19. Because deaths have been concentrated at older ages, we highlight the important role of demography, particularly, how the age structure of a population may help explain differences in fatality rates across countries and how transmission unfolds. […] This powerful interaction of demography and current age-specific mortality for COVID-19 suggests that social distancing and other policies to slow transmission should consider the age composition of local and national contexts as well as intergenerational interactions. 2020-05-08
Saliva: potential diagnostic value and transmission of 2019-nCoV. Close contact or short-range transmission of infectious saliva droplets is a primary mode for 2019-nCoV to disseminate as claimed by WHO, while long-distance saliva aerosol transmission is highly environment dependent within indoor space with aerosol-generating procedures such as dental practice. […] This review summarizes diagnostic value of saliva for 2019-nCoV, possibly direct invasion into oral tissues, and close contact transmission of 2019-nCoV by saliva droplets, expecting to contribute to 2019-nCoV epidemic control. 2020-04-21
Genomic characterization of a novel SARS-CoV-2. A new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) associated with human to human transmission and extreme human sickness has been as of late announced from the city of Wuhan in China. 2020-04-21
Prevention and control measures in radiology department for COVID-19. Since a novel coronavirus was discovered from a cluster of patients with emerging pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China, it has spread rapidly through droplet and contact transmission. […] KEY POINTS: • The novel coronavirus spreads rapidly through droplet and contact transmission. 2020-05-01
Attenuated SARS-CoV-2 variants with deletions at the S1/S2 junction. The exact origin of SARS-CoV-2 remains elusive, but the presence of a distinct motif in the S1/S2 junction region suggests the possible acquisition of cleavage site(s) in the spike protein that promoted cross-species transmission. 2020-05-06
Airborne or droplet precautions for health workers treating COVID-19? Several studies of SARS-CoV-2 support aerosol transmission and one study documented virus at a distance of 4 meters (≈13 ft) from the patient. […] Moreover, evidence suggests infections cannot neatly be separated into the dichotomy of droplet versus airborne transmission routes. 2020-04-30
Recommendations for the Care of Pediatric Orthopaedic Patients During the COVID-19 Pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated modifications to pediatric orthopaedic practice to protect patients, families, and healthcare workers and to minimize viral transmission. 2020-04-18
Laboratory testing of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV): Current status, challenges, and countermeasures. Rapid and accurate laboratory testing of SARS-CoV-2 is essential for early discovery, early reporting, early quarantine, early treatment, and cutting off epidemic transmission. […] The genome structure, transmission, and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 are basically similar to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, the other two beta-CoVs of medical importance. 2020-05-19
A Guide to Facial Trauma Triage and Precautions in the COVID-19 Pandemic. During this pandemic, essential medical and surgical services must be carried out while minimizing the risk of disease transmission to health care workers. […] There is an elevated risk of COVID-19 viral transmission to health care workers during surgical procedures of the head and neck due to potential aerosolization of viral particles from the oral cavity/naso-oropharynx mucosa. […] The proximity to the oral cavity/naso-oropharyngeal mucosa, and potential for aerosolization of secretions containing viral particles during surgical procedures make most patients undergoing operative interventions for facial fractures high risk for COVID-19 transmission. […] It stratifies facial trauma procedures by urgency and assigns a recommended level of personal protective equipment, extreme or enhanced, incorporating current best practices and existing data on viral transmission. 2020-05-25
COVID-19 Transmission in Dental Practice: Brief Review of Preventive Measures in Italy. The virus has a predominantly respiratory transmission through aerosol and droplets. 2020-04-17
Population movement, city closure in Wuhan and geographical expansion of the 2019-nCoV pneumonia infection in China in January 2020. The unprecedented outbreak of 2019-nCoV pneumonia infection in Wuhan City caused global concern, the outflowing population from Wuhan was believed to be a main reason for the rapid and large-scale spread of the disease, so the government implemented a city closure measure to prevent its transmission considering the large amount of travelling before the Chinese New Year. […] Our findings suggest that population movement might be one important trigger for the transmission of 2019-nCoV infection in China, and the policy of city closure is effective to control the epidemic. 2020-04-30
A COVID-19 Patient Who Underwent Endonasal Endoscopic Pituitary Adenoma Resection: A Case Report. The COVID-19 epidemic among medical staff in our department was deemed as postoperative rather than intraoperative transmission, and attributed to not applying sufficient personal airway protection. 2020-04-30
Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of 10 children with coronavirus disease 2019 in Changsha, China. Our findings indicate that intrafamily transmission may be the main form of transmission of COVID-19 in children, and persistent intestinal excretion of virus is another characteristic among children. 2020-05-27
Considerations for Obstetric Care during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Vertical transmission has not been confirmed. […] · No clear evidence of vertical transmission exists.. […] · Mother/baby separation avoids transmission.. 2020-04-17
Response and Operating Room Preparation for the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Perspective From the National Heart Centre in Singapore. With the advent of local transmission, the authors share their preparation and response planning for the operating room of the National Heart Centre Singapore, the largest cardiothoracic tertiary center in Singapore. 2020-04-24
Approaches to the management of patients in oral and maxillofacial surgery during COVID-19 pandemic. Oral and maxillofacial surgery is correlated with a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. 2020-05-12
Recommendations for protecting against and mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic in long-term care facilities. Much of the research has been focused on minimizing transmission in hospitals and in the general community. […] By effectively adapting eTCB to LTCF conditions, particularly by incorporating compartmentalization within zones plus active surveillance, COVID-19 transmission into and throughout LTCFs can be minimized, thereby saving numerous lives among an especially vulnerable population. 2020-05-05
Case series of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in a military recruit school: clinical, sanitary and logistical implications. This illustrates how asymptomatic patients may be responsible for covert viral transmission. 2020-05-31
[Public health literacy in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic emergency]. This includes not only the strategy of public surveillance, but also sentinel and event-based surveillance, as it is impossible to actually identify all positive cases; b) Mitigating measures against the spread of the epidemic, such as social distancing and hygiene, washing hands, quarantine, restricting movement and using masks, among others; c) Measures to suppress transmission when the number of cases is very high, such as strict measures to stay at home; d) strengthening health services ‘capacity for medical attention and improving health services’ ability to prevent transmission, including the use of diagnostic tests; e) the development of prophylactic vaccines against Covid-19, as well as the development of therapeutic agents. 2020-04-18
Pandemics and Their Impact on Medical Training: Lessons From Singapore. While efforts are underway to contain disease spread and transmission, the authors believe that this is an opportune time to examine and reflect on the impact that medical crises like COVID-19 can have on medical training and education and to evaluate “business continuity plans” to ensure quality medical education even in the face of constant disruptions from pandemic outbreaks. 2020-04-30
Where to buy face masks? Survey of applications using Taiwan’s open data in the time of COVID-19. Personal protective equipment was essential to prevent transmission. 2020-05-19
COVID-19 in children: Current status. Vertical transmission from the mother to her fetus or neonate has not been proven definitively. 2020-05-19
Obstetricians on the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Front Lines and the Confusing World of Personal Protective Equipment. Although use of personal protective equipment is a critical strategy to protect health care personnel from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), other strategies also need to be implemented on labor and delivery units to reduce the risk of health care-associated transmission, including screening of all pregnant women who present for care (case identification), placing a mask on and rapidly isolating ill pregnant women, and minimizing the number of personnel who enter the room of an ill patient (physical distancing). […] Although the mechanism of transmission of COVID-19 is not known with certainty, current evidence suggests that COVID-19 is transmitted primarily through respiratory droplets. […] Therefore, strict adherence to hand hygiene and consistent use of recommended personal protective equipment are cornerstones for reducing transmission. 2020-05-27
Pediatric Endoscopy in the Era of Coronavirus Disease 2019: A North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Position Paper. The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) Endoscopy and Procedures Committee has formulated this statement to offer practical guidance to help standardize endoscopy services for pediatric patients with the aim of minimizing COVID-19 transmission to staff, patients, and caregivers and to conserve personal protective equipment (PPE) during this critical time. […] Appropriate use of PPE is essential to minimize transmission and preserve supply. […] Pediatric endoscopic procedures are considered at high risk for COVID-19 transmission. 2020-04-28
Coronavirus Outbreak: Is Radiology Ready? Mass Casualty Incident Planning. Having an MCI plan in place for a viral outbreak will protect patients and staff and ultimately decrease virus transmission. 2020-05-01
When basic supplies are missing, what to do? Specific demands of the local street population in times of coronavirus - a concern of social psychiatry. The studies were identified using large-sized newspapers with international circulation RESULTS: With more cities suspecting community transmission of the novel coronavirus, people who sleep in shelters or hunker down outside already have a lower life expectancy and often have underlying health conditions that put them at greater risk if they develop COVID-19 (Global News, 2020). 2020-05-19
Impact of meteorological factors on the COVID-19 transmission: A multi-city study in China. In conclusions, meteorological factors play an independent role in the COVID-19 transmission after controlling population migration. […] Local weather condition with low temperature, mild diurnal temperature range and low humidity likely favor the transmission. 2020-05-29
Challenges and solutions for addressing critical shortage of supply chain for personal and protective equipment (PPE) arising from Coronavirus disease (COVID19) pandemic - Case study from the Republic of Ireland. Currently, there is no effective vaccine for tackling this COVID19 pandemic where disease countermeasures rely upon preventing or slowing person-to-person transmission. […] Specifically, there is increasing efforts to prevent or reduce transmission to front-line healthcare workers (HCW). 2020-05-27
Severe COVID-19 during Pregnancy and Possible Vertical Transmission. To our knowledge, this is the earliest reported positive PCR in the neonate, raising the concern for vertical transmission. […] · This is a case of positive RT-PCR in first day of life, suggesting possible vertical transmission.. 2020-04-18
Unlikely SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission from mother to child: A case report. The vertical transmission potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is of great concern to the obstetrics, neonatologists, and public health agencies. […] Though some studies indicated the risk of vertical transmission is low, few cases have been reported with comprehensive serial tests from multiple specimens. […] The most comprehensively tested case reported to date confirmed that the vertical transmission of COVID is unlikely, but still, more evidence is needed. 2020-05-05
COVID-19 in otolaryngologist practice: a review of current knowledge. This study provides a brief and precise review of the current knowledge regarding COVID-19, including disease transmission, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and potential treatment. 2020-04-30
[Management strategy for the resumption of regular diagnosis and treatment in gastrointestinal surgery department during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)]. These main measures include the strict implementation of the appointment system and triage system before admission; the conduction of epidemiological and preliminary screening of viral nucleic acids; the chest CT examination during the perioperative period to re-screen COVID-19; the reduction of the risk of droplets and aerosol transmission; the minimally invasive surgery combined with enhanced recovery program in order to reduce patient’s susceptibility and shorten the length of postoperative hospital stay; the reinforcement of specific infection control training for medical staff; the strict implementation of hierarchical protection; the establishment of gastrointestinal surgery prevention and control system; the rehearsal of emergency exercise; the installation of quarantine wards; the screening and management of family care-givers; the strict disinfection of environment and materials. 2020-04-20
[Strengthening basic and clinical research on ocular infection caused by coronavirus]. Based on the previous studies and our own research, we summarize the potential transmission route and clinical symptoms of COVID-2019 in the eye, as well as the further prevention and research, with the expectation of contributing to the development in the field of infectious eye disease in China. 2020-04-20
[Clinical consideration and management of coronavirus disease 2019]. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan city, Hubei province in December 2019 and the epidemic so rapidly happened within the whole country and abroad, raising serious problems and urgent concerns, such as: how to control most effectively human-to-human transmission? 2020-04-21
Development of a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification as a rapid early-detection method for novel SARS-CoV-2. The previous outbreaks of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV have led researchers to study the role of diagnostics in impediment of further spread and transmission. 2020-05-19
Anaesthesia and COVID-19: infection control. The pathogen is spread by human-to-human transmission via droplets exposure and contact transfer, causing mild symptoms in the majority of cases, but critical illness, bilateral viral pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in a minority. […] The pace of transmission and global scale of SARS-CoV-2 infections has implications for strategic oversight, resource management, and responsiveness in infection control. […] We present suggestions for how personal protective equipment policies relate to the viral pandemic context and how the risk of transmission by and to anaesthetists, intensivists, and other healthcare workers can be minimised. 2020-05-02
Clinical characteristics and diagnostic challenges of pediatric COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Currently, there is no evidence of vertical transmission to neonates born to mothers with COVID-19. 2020-05-13
Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics of 26 Cases of COVID-19 Arising from Patient-to-Patient Transmission in Liaocheng, China. Human-to-human transmission has accounted for most of the infections outside Wuhan. […] Only 2 patients had visited Wuhan since December 2019; the other cases of 2019-nCoV infection arose from patient-to-patient transmission. […] Additionally, 11 patients or their family members worked at the same supermarket, suggesting active viral transmission in a location frequented by a large number of people. 2020-04-23
Anosmia and Dysgeusia in the Absence of Other Respiratory Diseases: Should COVID-19 Infection Be Considered? In the current epidemiological situation, anosmia and dysgeusia in the absence of other respiratory conditions should be carefully evaluated.Special attention should be given to patients with non-classic COVID-19 symptoms in order to reduce transmission and protect health providers. 2020-05-27
COVID-19: Limiting the Risks for Eye Care Professionals. Exposed ocular surface can serve as a gateway in transmission and acquiring respiratory diseases. […] Considering the reported cases on healthcare workers indicating nosocomial transmission and the anatomical and physiological aspects it is perceived that ophthalmic healthcare professionals are at higher risk of contracting the virus by virtue of their job. 2020-04-20
Surgical Infection Society Guidance for Operative and Peri-Operative Care of Adult Patients Infected by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is possible to provide safe surgical care for SARS-CoV-2-positive patients and minimize nosocomial transmission to healthcare workers. Conclusions: This guidance will facilitate appropriate protection of patients and staff, and maintenance of infection control measures to assist surgical personnel and facilities to prepare for COVID-19-infected adult patients requiring urgent or emergent operative intervention and to provide optimal patient care. 2020-05-06
Scarcity in the Covid-19 Pandemic. As we write, U.S. cities and states with extensive community transmission of Covid-19 are in harm’s way-not only because of the disease itself but also because of prior and current failures to act. 2020-04-23
Surgical Considerations for an Awake Tracheotomy During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Care must be taken during aerosol-generating procedures to minimize viral transmission as much as possible. 2020-05-13
Impact assessment of non-pharmaceutical interventions against coronavirus disease 2019 and influenza in Hong Kong: an observational study. A range of public health measures have been implemented to suppress local transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hong Kong. […] We examined the effect of these interventions and behavioural changes of the public on the incidence of COVID-19, as well as on influenza virus infections, which might share some aspects of transmission dynamics with COVID-19. […] Influenza transmission declined substantially after the implementation of social distancing measures and changes in population behaviours in late January, with a 44% (95% CI 34-53%) reduction in transmissibility in the community, from an estimated Rt of 1·28 (95% CI 1·26-1·30) before the start of the school closures to 0·72 (0·70-0·74) during the closure weeks. […] Our study shows that non-pharmaceutical interventions (including border restrictions, quarantine and isolation, distancing, and changes in population behaviour) were associated with reduced transmission of COVID-19 in Hong Kong, and are also likely to have substantially reduced influenza transmission in early February, 2020. 2020-05-13
Coronavirus disease 2019 during pregnancy: a systematic review of reported cases. Although vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection has been excluded thus far and the outcome for mothers and neonates has been generally good, the high rate of preterm delivery by cesarean delivery is a reason for concern. 2020-05-16
Reducing antibiotic prescribing and addressing the global problem of antibiotic resistance by targeted hygiene in the home and everyday life settings: A position paper. It presents evidence that home and community settings are important for infection transmission and also the acquisition and spread of AMR. 2020-05-28
Airborne transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 to healthcare workers: a narrative review. International guidance suggests direct droplet transmission is likely and airborne transmission occurs only with aerosol-generating procedures. […] The evidence defining aerosol-generating procedures comes largely from low-quality case and cohort studies where the exact mode of transmission is unknown as aerosol production was never quantified. […] We propose that transmission is associated with time in proximity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-1 patients with respiratory symptoms, rather than the procedures per se. […] The mechanism for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 transmission is unknown but the evidence suggestive of airborne spread is growing. […] Healthcare workers should appraise the current evidence regarding transmission and apply this to the local infection prevalence. […] Measures to mitigate airborne transmission should be employed at times of risk. […] However, the mechanisms and risk factors for transmission are largely unconfirmed. 2020-05-08
[Thoughts of the COVID-19 outbreak phases changed from emergency response to combination of emergency response and regular prevention and control]. Complicated objective factors such as the long-term existence of source of infection, difficulty in completely blocking the transmission route and a large susceptible population determined that the COVID-19 pandemic might stay with us for long term. 2020-04-21
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Management of Head and Neck Malignancies. Immediate measures to reduce transmission rates and protect patients and providers take priority and necessitate some delays in care, particularly for patients with mild symptoms or less aggressive cancers. 2020-04-21
[Clinical features of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection: an analysis of 13 cases from Changsha, China]. Intra-family contact is the main transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, and there is also a possibility of fecal-oral transmission. 2020-04-22
Elective surgery in the time of COVID-19. In an effort to decrease disease transmission and conserve personal protective equipment (PPE), surgeons have witnessed one of the most dramatic changes in their practices with rapidly decreasing numbers of elective surgeries. 2020-04-23
Smart technologies for fighting pandemics: The techno- and human- driven approaches in controlling the virus transmission. How do governments in China and Western democracies differ in their technological response to control the transmission of the pandemic? […] Based on an analysis of academic papers, World Health Organization reports and newspapers, this research compares two opposing approaches, whereas the Chinese cities and government have adopted a techno-driven approach, Western governments have adopted a human-driven approach to control the transmission of Covid-19. 2020-04-23
A Review of Salivary Diagnostics and Its Potential Implication in Detection of Covid-19. The collection of these specimen types requires close contact between healthcare workers and patients and poses a risk of transmission of the virus, causes discomfort and may cause bleeding, especially in patients with condition such as thrombocytopenia. 2020-04-23
2019 Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) overview. Novel coronaviruses (CoVs) are zoonotic pathogens, but the first human-to-human transmission has been reported. 2020-04-23
Coronavirus threat to Indian population: risk factors, transmission dynamics and preparedness to prevent the spread of the virus. In this short review we have highlighted the risk factors and transmission dynamics of coronaviruses that may pose a serious threat to India. 2020-04-23
What are the Underlying Transmission Patterns of COVID-19 Outbreak? - An Age-specific Social Contact Characterization. In this work, we examine an essential factor that characterizes the disease transmission patterns: the interactions among people. […] By integrating the four contact matrices with the next-generation matrix, we quantitatively characterize the underlying transmission patterns of COVID-19 among different populations. […] The results show that the social contact-based analysis can readily explain the underlying disease transmission patterns as well as the associated risks (including both confirmed and unconfirmed cases). […] This can explain why the transmission of COVID-19 in the early stage mainly took place in public places and families in Wuhan. […] We estimate that Feb. 11, 2020 was the date with the highest transmission risk in Wuhan, which is consistent with the actual peak period of the reported case number (Feb. […] We further estimate the disease transmission risks associated with different work resumption plans in these cities after the outbreak. […] With an in-depth characterization of age-specific social contact-based transmission, the retrospective and prospective situations of the disease outbreak, including the past and future transmission risks, the effectiveness of different interventions, and the disease transmission risks of restoring normal social activities, are computationally analyzed and reasonably explained. […] The conclusions drawn from the study not only provide a comprehensive explanation of the underlying COVID-19 transmission patterns in China, but more importantly, offer the social contact-based risk analysis methods that can readily be applied to guide intervention planning and operational responses in other countries, so that the impact of COVID-19 pandemic can be strategically mitigated. 2020-04-23
Bariatric Surgical Practice During the Initial Phase of COVID-19 Outbreak. Timing of infection after surgery in our series would raise the possibility of hospital transmission of COVID-19: from asymptomatic patients at the time of bariatric surgery to the healthcare workers versus acquiring the COVID-19 infection by non-infected patients in the perioperative period. 2020-04-23
What’s New With the Old Coronaviruses? Coronaviruses contribute to the burden of respiratory diseases in children, frequently manifesting in upper respiratory symptoms considered to be part of the “common cold.” Recent epidemics of novel coronaviruses recognized in the 21st century have highlighted issues of zoonotic origins of transmissible respiratory viruses and potential transmission, disease, and mortality related to these viruses. 2020-05-04
Is COVID-19 the first pandemic that evolves into a panzootic? Transmission from humans to dogs, domestic cats, tigers, and lions has occurred. 2020-04-30
The Technique and Justification for Minimally Invasive Surgery in COVID-19 Pandemic: Laparoscopic Anterior Resection for Near Obstructed Rectal Carcinoma. Here we discuss how we have dealt with this in our colorectal surgery department taking into account current evidence about the danger of viral transmission during laparoscopic surgery. Discussion: We report a case of 28 years old female patient with carcinoma rectum. […] There is no evidence against laparoscopic surgery, which suggest viral transmission. […] Air filtration products like aerosol, HEPA filters will be of great aid in safe evacuation of gases. Conclusion: At present, there is no solid evidence to suggest viral transmission through surgical smoke. […] We advise taking all precautions for operating room staff to lessen the danger of transmission. 2020-05-13
Challenges of managing the asymptomatic carriers of SARS-CoV-2. While our knowledge about carriers and their virus shedding is deficient, some studies modelling the viral transmission have considered the potential contribution of the asymptomatic carriers. […] Presumably now, the asymptomatic subjects potentially contribute to the transmission of COVID-19 without their knowledge, intention, or being diagnosed as carriers. 2020-05-03
The relative transmissibility of asymptomatic COVID-19 infections among close contacts. Asymptomatic transmission of the coronavirus disease 2019 is an important topic. 2020-05-20
COVID-19 Pandemic and the Crisis of Health Systems: The Experience of the Apulia Cancer Network and of the Comprehensive Cancer Center Istituto Tumori “Giovanni Paolo II” of Bari. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization declared a new disease caused by a novel virus characterized by rapid human-to-human transmission and named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronoavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) a pandemic. 2020-04-24
Novel Coronavirus: Current Understanding of Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Pathogenesis, and Treatment Options. Symptoms of COVID-19 include fever (88%), cough (68%), vomiting (5%) and diarrhoea (3.7%), and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is thought to occur from human to human via respiratory secretions released by the infected individuals when coughing and sneezing. 2020-05-29
Coronavirus disease 2019: reassembly attack of coronavirus. There is currently no effective treatment or approved vaccine, so isolating the source of infection and blocking the routes of transmission is important. 2020-04-22
Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography guidance for use of cardiac computed tomography amidst the COVID-19 pandemic Endorsed by the American College of Cardiology. The Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT) offers guidance for cardiac CT (CCT) practitioners to help implement these international recommendations in order to decrease the risk of COVID-19 transmission in their facilities while deciding on the timing of outpatient and inpatient CCT exams. 2020-05-27
All India Ophthalmological Society - Indian Journal of Ophthalmology consensus statement on preferred practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. These guidelines will be applicable to all practice settings including tertiary institutions, corporate and group practices and individual eye clinics and should help Indian ophthalmologists in performing their professional responsibilities without being foci of disease transmission. 2020-04-27
Understanding SARS-CoV-2: Genetic Diversity, Transmission and Cure in Human. Since the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is subject to the extent of human interaction, the insights from the correlation of genetic diversity with epidemiological parameter would give paramount information to tackle this transmission. 2020-04-24
[It’s world war at CoViD-19. The first battle on the front of the viral invasion against the exitus for interstitial pneumonia was decisive.] There is currently no vaccine to prevent CoViD-19, but the international scientific community is intensely focused on finding a vaccine that will prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission. 2020-04-24
Transmission potential of asymptomatic and paucisymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections: a three-family cluster study in China. Data concerning the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic and paucisymptomatic patients are lacking. […] We report a three-family cluster of infections involving asymptomatic and paucisymptomatic transmission. 2020-04-30
Knowledge and Perceptions of COVID-19 Among Health Care Workers: Cross-Sectional Study. A significant proportion of HCWs had poor knowledge of its transmission (n=276, 61.0%) and symptom onset (n=288, 63.6%) and showed positive perceptions of COVID-19. 2020-05-06
Scientific research progress of COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 in the first five months. People affected by SARS-CoV-2 can be asymptomatic, which brings about more difficulties to control the transmission. 2020-05-07
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Transmission Potential, Iran, 2020. To determine the transmission potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in Iran in 2020, we estimated the reproduction number as 4.4 (95% CI 3.9-4.9) by using a generalized growth model and 3.5 (95% CI 1.3-8.1) by using epidemic doubling time. 2020-04-22
Phylogenetic Analysis and Structural Modeling of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Reveals an Evolutionary Distinct and Proteolytically Sensitive Activation Loop. We suggest this loop confers fusion activation and entry properties more in line with betacoronaviruses in lineages A and C, and be a key component in the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 with this structural loop affecting virus stability and transmission. 2020-05-20
Surgical tracheostomies in Covid-19 patients: important considerations and the “5Ts” of safety. Safety and reduction of transmission risk is paramount. 2020-04-25
Dynamic adaptation to COVID-19 in a Singapore paediatric emergency department. Manpower considerations included the reorganisation of medical manpower into modular teams to mitigate the risk of hospital transmission of COVID-19. 2020-05-07
A practice of anesthesia scenario design for emergency cesarean section in patients with COVID-19 infection based on the role of standard patient. Although it is likely that COVID-19 transmission is primarily via droplets and close contact, airborne transmission and fecal-oral route remains a possibility. 2020-04-23
SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Pregnancy - a Review of the Current Literature and Possible Impact on Maternal and Neonatal Outcome. It may also be assumed at the moment that transmission from mother to child in utero is unlikely. 2020-04-26
Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a pandemic (epidemiology, pathogenesis and potential therapeutics). The transmission of COVID-19 infection from one person to another resulted in the isolation of patients who were subsequently given a variety of treatments. […] To monitor the current outbreak, robust steps have been taken around the globe to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 infection particularly banning international and domestic flights, inducting lockdowns in vulnerable areas, social distancing etc. 2020-05-30
The transmissibility of novel Coronavirus in the early stages of the 2019-20 outbreak in Wuhan: Exploring initial point-source exposure sizes and durations using scenario analysis. We evaluated scenarios for the following parameters: the size, and duration of the initial transmission event, the serial interval, and the reproduction number (R0). […] We restricted model simulations based on the number of observed cases on the 25th of January, accepting samples that were within a 5% interval on either side of this estimate. Results: Using a pre-intervention SARS-like serial interval suggested a larger initial transmission event and a higher R0 estimate. 2020-05-05
[Renin-Angiotensin-System (RAS) and COVID-19 - On The Prescription of RAS Blockers]. In this context, it was suspected that therapy with RAS blockers might promote transmission and complications of COVID-19 by upregulation of ACE2 expression. 2020-05-22
[Position Paper for the State of the Art Application of Respiratory Support in Patients with COVID-19 - German Respiratory Society]. In principle, aerosols can cause transmission of infectious viral particles. 2020-04-23
COVID-19 emergency in the cruise’s ship: a case report of conjunctivitis. Little is known about the Covid-19 transmission through ocular tissue, and more research needs to be carried out in order to confirm its ability to infect ocular tissue and its pathogenic mechanisms. 2020-04-24
Coronavirus Disease Outbreak in Call Center, South Korea. Extensive contact tracing, testing all contacts, and early quarantine blocked further transmission and might be effective for containing rapid outbreaks in crowded work settings. 2020-04-23
Cleaning and Disinfectant Chemical Exposures and Temporal Associations with COVID-19 - National Poison Data System, United States, January 1, 2020-March 31, 2020. CDC recommends, with precautions, the proper cleaning and disinfection of high-touch surfaces to help mitigate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (3). 2020-04-24
COVID-19 in cardiac arrest and infection risk to rescuers: A systematic review. There may be a risk of COVID-19 transmission to rescuers delivering treatment for cardiac arrest. […] The aim of this review was to identify the potential risk of transmission associated with key interventions (chest compressions, defibrillation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation) to inform international treatment recommendations. […] We undertook a systematic review comprising three questions: (1) aerosol generation associated with key interventions; (2) risk of airborne infection transmission associated with key interventions; and (3) the effect of different personal protective equipment strategies. […] We did not find any direct evidence that chest compressions or defibrillation either are or are not associated with aerosol generation or transmission of infection. […] It is uncertain whether chest compressions or defibrillation cause aerosol generation or transmission of COVID-19 to rescuers. 2020-05-20
Conversations and Medical News Frames on Twitter: Infodemiological Study on COVID-19 in South Korea. This study investigates information transmission networks and news-sharing behaviors regarding COVID-19 on Twitter in Korea. 2020-05-11
Nipah Virus: Past Outbreaks and Future Containment. This review discusses the recent outbreaks of Nipah virus in Malaysia, Bangladesh and India, the routes of transmission, prevention and control measures employed along with possible reasons behind the outbreaks, and the precautionary measures to be ensured by private-public undertakings to contain and ensure a lower incidence in the future. 2020-05-23
Visiting Policies of Hospice Wards during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Environmental Scan in Taiwan. During an epidemic, almost all healthcare facilities restrict the visiting of patients to prevent disease transmission. 2020-04-29
COVID-19: A Recommendation to Examine the Effect of Mouthrinses with β-Cyclodextrin Combined with Citrox in Preventing Infection and Progression. Some new generations of mouth rinses currently on the market have ingredients that could contribute to lower the SARS-CoV-2 viral load, and thus facilitate the fight against oral transmission. 2020-05-23
From Donor to Patient: Collection, Preparation and Cryopreservation of Fecal Samples for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation. The potential risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus by the use of fecal microbiota for transplantation must be taken urgently into consideration. 2020-04-24
Pharmacological Therapeutics Targeting RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase, Proteinase and Spike Protein: From Mechanistic Studies to Clinical Trials for COVID-19. This constant transmission of a novel coronavirus and its ability to spread from human to human have prompted scientists to develop new approaches for treatment of COVID-19. 2020-05-23
Spread and dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy: Effects of emergency containment measures. The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Italy prompted drastic measures for transmission containment. […] We estimate parameters of a metacommunity Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR)-like transmission model that includes a network of 107 provinces connected by mobility at high resolution, and the critical contribution of presymptomatic and asymptomatic transmission. […] Results suggest that the sequence of restrictions posed to mobility and human-to-human interactions have reduced transmission by 45% (42 to 49%). 2020-05-19
SARS-CoV-2 entry factors are highly expressed in nasal epithelial cells together with innate immune genes. We co-detected these transcripts in specific respiratory, corneal and intestinal epithelial cells, potentially explaining the high efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. 2020-05-28
Anal swab findings in an infant with COVID-19. The transmission pathways of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain not completely clear. […] The possibility of fecal-oral transmission of COVID-19 should be assessed. 2020-04-27
Dental care during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak: operatory considerations and clinical aspects. The epidemiology, clinical signs and symptoms, and modes of transmission of COVID-19 are presented. 2020-04-27
Aerosol Filtration Efficiency of Common Fabrics Used in Respiratory Cloth Masks. Importantly, there is a need to evaluate filtration efficiencies as a function of aerosol particulate sizes in the 10 nm to 10 μm range, which is particularly relevant for respiratory virus transmission. […] Overall, we find that combinations of various commonly available fabrics used in cloth masks can potentially provide significant protection against the transmission of aerosol particles. 2020-05-29
Understanding epidemic data and statistics: A case study of COVID-19. Understanding the transmission dynamics of the infection in each country which got affected on a daily basis and evaluating the effectiveness of control policies are critical for our further actions. 2020-04-25
Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections and Transmission in a Skilled Nursing Facility. After identification of a case of Covid-19 in a skilled nursing facility, we assessed transmission and evaluated the adequacy of symptom-based screening to identify infections in residents. […] Rapid and widespread transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was demonstrated in this skilled nursing facility. […] More than half of residents with positive test results were asymptomatic at the time of testing and most likely contributed to transmission. […] Infection-control strategies focused solely on symptomatic residents were not sufficient to prevent transmission after SARS-CoV-2 introduction into this facility. 2020-05-29
A precision medicine approach to managing 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia. It is reported that both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with 2019-nCoV can play a role in disease transmission via airborne and contact. 2020-04-27
Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected case with viral detection positive in stool but negative in nasopharyngeal samples lasts for 42 days. Currently, the identification of this disease is mainly conducted by using nasopharyngeal swabs[1] , but the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in feces of COVID-19 patients indicates the possibility of transmission via fecal-oral route[2-4] . 2020-04-24
Asymptomatic COVID-19 infection in late pregnancy indicated no vertical transmission. This study is to investigate the clinical characteristics of late pregnancy with asymptomatic 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection, evaluate the outcome of maternal and fetal prognosis, and identify the evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission. […] We reported an asymptomatic COVID-19 pregnant woman with detailed clinical information and our result indicated that for late pregnant women with asymptomatic COVID-19 infection, there might be no intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission. 2020-04-30
SARS-CoV-2 infection in children - Understanding the immune responses and controlling the pandemic. A clear understanding of the immune responses to the virus in children and the transmission potential of asymptomatic children is of paramount importance for the development of specific treatments and vaccine in order to effectively control the ongoing pandemic. 2020-05-07
Connecting clusters of COVID-19: an epidemiological and serological investigation. Elucidation of the chain of disease transmission and identification of the source of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections are crucial for effective disease containment. […] When epidemiological information suggested that people might have been nodes of disease transmission but had recovered from illness, SARS-CoV-2 IgG serology testing was used to establish past infection. 2020-04-27
Effect of changing case definitions for COVID-19 on the epidemic curve and transmission parameters in mainland China: a modelling study. We aimed to assess whether changes in case definitions affected inferences on the transmission dynamics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. 2020-05-13
Managing Urology Consultations During COVID-19 Pandemic: Application of a Structured Care Pathway. This pathway seeks to outline a urology patient care strategy that reduces the transmission risk to both healthcare providers and patients, reduces the healthcare burden, and maintains appropriate patient care. 2020-05-03
COVID-19 social distancing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Bold measures in the face of political, economic, social and religious challenges. Social distancing at its various levels has been a key measure to mitigate the transmission of COVID-19. 2020-04-27
Donning a New Approach to the Practice of Gastroenterology: Perspectives From the COVID-19 Pandemic Epicenter. Priorities such as minimizing viral transmission, preserving personal protective equipment, and freeing hospital beds have driven unconventional approaches to managing gastroenterology (GI) patients. 2020-05-22
Head and neck oncology during the COVID-19 pandemic: Reconsidering traditional treatment paradigms in light of new surgical and other multilevel risks. Additionally, novel, COVID-19-specific multilevel risks to HNC patients, HCWs and institutions, and society include: use of immunosuppressive therapy, nosocomial COVID-19 transmission, institutional COVID-19 outbreaks, and, at some locations, societal resource deficiencies requiring health care rationing. 2020-05-20
The Food Systems in the Era of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Crisis. It provides insights about the properties of bioactive ingredients of foods and herbs for the support of the human immune system against infections before discussing the possibility of COVID-19 transmission through the food chain. 2020-05-23
Can mathematical modelling solve the current Covid-19 crisis? Since COVID-19 transmission started in late January, mathematical modelling has been at the forefront of shaping the decisions around different non-pharmaceutical interventions to confine its’ spread in the UK and worldwide. 2020-04-28
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Kenya: Preparedness, response and transmissibility. Currently it is clear that since first confirmation to current, the transmission of the COVID-19 is exponentially increasing in Kenya. 2020-04-27
Review of Hygiene and Disinfection Recommendations for Outpatient Glaucoma Care: A COVID Era Update. This review focuses on best practices and recommendations for hygiene and disinfection to limit exposure and transmission of infection in outpatient glaucoma clinics during the current COVID-19 pandemic. 2020-05-15
Precaution and Prevention of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection in the Eye. Reports of ophthalmologists and otolaryngologists died of COVID-19 also raised concern on ocular transmission. 2020-05-19
Social and behavioral health responses to COVID-19: lessons learned from four decades of an HIV pandemic. Four decades into the HIV epidemic we have learned a considerable amount of information regarding social and behavioral approaches to addressing disease transmission. 2020-05-26
Transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 to healthcare workers -observational results of a primary care hospital contact tracing. Understanding the transmission risk is particularly important for guiding evidence-based protective measures in the primary healthcare setting. […] We found a low risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a primary care setting. […] These findings are compatible with previous reports of the highest transmission probability in household settings with prolonged close contacts. […] The current protective measures for healthcare workers, including strict adherence to basic standard hygiene and facemasks, offer considerable protection during short periods of contact with symptomatic COVID-19 cases by diminishing the risk of direct and indirect transmission. 2020-04-29
Topical preparations to reduce SARS-CoV-2 aerosolization in head and neck mucosal surgery. The objective of this review was to discuss topical preparations that could be utilized preoperatively to help to decrease viral load and potentially reduce the risks of viral transmission. 2020-05-29
BEDSIDE TRANSCERVICAL-TRANSTRACHEAL POST-INTUBATION INJURY REPAIR IN A COVID-19 PATIENT. The management of COVID-19 patient can be challenging due to the risk of disease transmission to caregivers and epidemic spread. 2020-04-27
Preliminary estimates of the reproduction number of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Republic of Korea and Italy by 5 March 2020. We modelled the transmission process in the Republic of Korea and Italy with a stochastic model, and estimated the basic reproduction number R0 as 2.6 (95% CI: 2.3-2.9) or 3.2 (95% CI: 2.9-3.5) in the Republic of Korea, under the assumption that the exponential growth starting on 31 January or 5 February 2020, and 2.6 (95% CI: 2.3-2.9) or 3.3 (95% CI: 3.0-3.6) in Italy, under the assumption that the exponential growth starting on 5 February or 10 February 2020, respectively. 2020-05-29
Effect of weather on COVID-19 spread in the US: A prediction model for India in 2020. Clarification of such relationships in the worst affected country, the US, can be immensely beneficial to understand the role of weather in transmission of the disease in the highly populated countries, such as India. 2020-05-19
Overview of Covid-19; its prevention and management in the light of Unani medicine. Transmission is through droplet infection or fomites, but other modes such as airborne transmission and oro-fecal transmission are also speculated. 2020-05-19
COVID-19 pandemic and environmental pollution: A blessing in disguise? In late 2019, a novel infectious disease with human to human transmission (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan China, which now has turned into a global pandemic. 2020-05-19
Coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnant women: a report based on 116 cases. To evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes in pregnancy and the vertical transmission potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. […] Evidence of vertical transmission was assessed by testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal pharyngeal swab samples. […] There is no evidence of vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection when the infection manifests during the third trimester of pregnancy. 2020-05-26
The role of community-wide wearing of face mask for control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic due to SARS-CoV-2. Face mask usage by the healthy population in the community to reduce risk of transmission of respiratory viruses remains controversial. 2020-05-04
Clinical and epidemiological features of COVID-19 family clusters in Beijing, China. In Beijing, family clusters are the main mode of human-human transmission accounting for 57.6% of the total confirmed cases. 2020-05-03
Emerging genetic diversity among clinical isolates of SARS-CoV-2: Lessons for today. Our analyses involving molecular phylogenetics is a step toward understanding the transmission clusters that can be correlated to pathophysiology of the disease to gain insight into virulence mechanism. […] We believe that such molecular analyses correlated with clinical characteristics and host predisposition need to be evaluated at the earliest to understand viral adaptability, disease prognosis, and transmission dynamics. 2020-05-29
Clinical analysis of ten pregnant women with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A retrospective study. Pulmonary CT screening on admission may be necessary to reduce the risk of nosocomial transmission of COVID-19 during the outbreak period. 2020-05-29
Potential fecal transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Current evidence and implications for public health. Primary routes of transmission of the causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), are through respiratory droplets and close person-to-person contact. […] While information about other potential modes of transmission are relatively sparse, evidence supporting the possibility of a fecally mediated mode of transmission has been accumulating. […] Here, current knowledge on the potential for fecal transmission is briefly reviewed and the possible implications are discussed from a public health perspective. 2020-05-29
COVID-19 transmission in Mainland China is associated with temperature and humidity: A time-series analysis. The influence of meteorological factors on the transmission and spread of COVID-19 is of interest. 2020-05-19
The sensitivity and specificity analyses of ambient temperature and population size on the transmission rate of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in different provinces of Iran. Numerous factors could influence the transmission rate and survival of coronavirus. […] This study intends to investigate the sensitivity of AT and PS on the transmission rate of the novel coronavirus in different provinces of Iran. 2020-05-19
Environmental perspective of COVID-19. Millions of people have been put on lockdown in order to reduce the transmission of the virus. 2020-05-19
COVID-19 outbreak: Migration, effects on society, global environment and prevention. Almost all the nations are struggling to slow down the transmission of the disease by testing & treating patients, quarantining suspected persons through contact tracing, restricting large gatherings, maintaining complete or partial lock down etc. 2020-05-19
The Coronavirus Pandemic: What Does the Evidence Show? This disease first appeared in Hubei province of China and it follows human-to-human transmission but the path this virus took to set up human infection remains a mystery. 2020-04-28
Clinical Profile of Cases of COVID-19 in Far Western Province of Nepal. Three patients were coming from infected country and one is local transmission. […] Keywords: COVID-19; local transmission; oropharyngeal swab. 2020-04-29
Evaluation of ocular symptoms and tropism of SARS-CoV-2 in patients confirmed with COVID-19. Our data provided the anecdotal evidences of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via ocular surface. 2020-04-26
Medical mask or N95 respirator: When and how to use? Although the main transmission route for COVID-19 is droplets, during aerosol generating procedures airborne transmission may occur. […] Airborne precautions include goggles and respiratory protection with the use of an N95 or an equivalent mask respirator to prevent airborne transmission. 2020-04-27
Urologic Surgery and COVID-19: How the Pandemic Is Changing the Way We Operate. A risk-benefit assessment of each patient undergoing surgery should be performed during the COVID-19 pandemic based on the urgency of the surgery and the risk of viral illness and transmission. […] Although transmission has not yet been shown during laparoscopic and robotic procedures, efforts should be made to minimize the risk of aerosolization. […] Ultra-low particulate air filters are recommended for use during minimally invasive procedures to decrease the risk of viral transmission. 2020-05-25
Anesthesia and COVID-19: What We Should Know and What We Should Do. COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease with continuous human-to-human transmission. 2020-05-14
Pharmacotherapy in COVID-19; A narrative review for emergency providers. With the rapid transmission of disease, even the off-label use of available therapies has been impeded by limited availability. 2020-05-03
COVID-19 outbreak: An elusive enemy. Since containment of the outbreak may have partially failed due to asymptomatic transmission, it is imperative to accelerate the development of rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutics for the COVID-19 epidemic. 2020-04-30
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): Emergence, History, Basic and Clinical Aspects. The potential to cause life-threatening respiratory failure and rapid transmission puts COVID-19 in the list of Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). […] While the SARS-CoV-2 originated in China with over 82,724 confirmed cases and more than 3000 deaths as at the time of writing this review, the rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in exponential increase in the number of cases outside of China to about 10 times the report case and death in mainland China. […] Extreme precautionary measures, such as curfew, shutting of borders and quarantining of individuals suspected to be infected have been instituted with immediate effect; however, due to individuals that are asymptomatic, uncontrolled human-to-human transmission has resulted in exponential infection rate and numerous loss of lives even with this lockdown measures. […] This review article summarizes the developing situation surrounding the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic with respect to its epidemiology, unique genomic structure, possible origins, transmission, pathogenesis, comparison with other deadly species of Coronaviruses (CoV) and emerging treatment strategies built on informed literature. 2020-05-22
Brief Review on COVID-19: The 2020 Pandemic Caused by SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we will provide a brief review of viral origin, identification, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, and potential treatment strategies for the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 strain. 2020-04-30
Focus on Mental Health During the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic: Applying Learnings from the Past Outbreaks. However, the unpreparedness of the nations, even with the advanced medical sciences and resources, has failed to address the mental health aspect amongst the public, as all efforts are focused on understanding the epidemiology, clinical features, transmission patterns, and management of COVID-19 pneumonia. 2020-04-30
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2): An Update. Some preventive strategies of the disease include blocking the routes of transmission of the infections, disinfection of instruments used during medical case handling, using personal protective equipment, proper and early diagnosis of the disease, avoiding contact with the sick patients, and quarantine of the infected/exposed people. 2020-04-30
COVID-19 Tragic Pandemic: Concerns over Unintentional “Directed Accelerated Evolution” of Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and Introducing a Modified Treatment Method for ARDS. Global health authorities are trying to work out the current status of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak and explore methods to reduce the rate of its transmission to healthy individuals. 2020-04-30
Practice considerations for proton beam radiotherapy of uveal melanoma during the COVID-19 pandemic: PTCOG Ocular experience. Practice considerations to limit COVID-19 transmission in the proton ocular treatment setting for UM are necessary. […] Given the unique circumstances for UM patients, along with indications of potential ophthalmologic transmission as a result of healthcare providers working in close proximity to patients and intrinsic infectious risk from eyelashes, tears and hair, practice strategies may be adapted to reduce the risk of viral transmission. 2020-04-30
First reported nosocomial outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a pediatric dialysis unit. Person-to-person transmission was at the heart of a hospital outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 between healthcare workers (HCWs) and patients in the pediatric dialysis unit at the UHM. 2020-05-06
COVID-19 and the digestive system: protection and management during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Digestive endoscopy is a high-risk procedure for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-05-25
COVID-19 in Children: Clinical Approach and Management. Transmission of the infection occurs by inhalation of infected droplets or direct contact with soiled surfaces and fomites. 2020-05-19
INFECTIONS IN PREGNANCY WITH COVID-19 AND OTHER RESPIRATORY RNA VIRUS DISEASES ARE RARELY, IF EVER, TRANSMITTED TO THE FETUS: EXPERIENCES WITH CORONAVIRUSES, HPIV, hMPV RSV, AND INFLUENZA. Because of global concern for potential intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from pregnant women to their infants, this report analyzes the effects on pregnancy of infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory RNA viruses, and examines the frequency of maternal-fetal transmission with SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (HPIV) and metapneumovirus (hMPV). […] There have been no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission reported with COVID-19 or any other coronavirus infections. […] In summary, it appears that the absence thus far of maternal-fetal transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus during the COVID-19 pandemic is similar to other coronaviruses, and is also consistent with the extreme rarity of suggested or confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of other respiratory RNA viruses. […] This observation has important consequences for pregnant women as it appears that if intrauterine transmission of SARSCoV-2 does eventually occur, it will be a rare event. 2020-04-27
Essential Long-Term Care Workers Commonly Hold Second Jobs and Double- or Triple-Duty Caregiving Roles. Transmission-based precautions to protect residents, employees, and families alike must account for potential risks posed by LTC workers’ second jobs and unpaid care work. 2020-05-14
A potential ex vivo infection model of human induced pluripotent stem cell-3D organoids beyond coronavirus disease 2019. Rapid transmission of COVID-19 has caused wide-spread panic. 2020-04-27
Vaginal delivery in SARS-CoV-2-infected pregnant women in Northern Italy: a retrospective analysis. Although postpartum infection cannot be excluded with 100% certainty, these findings suggest that vaginal delivery is associated with a low risk of intrapartum SARS-Cov-2 transmission to the newborn. […] This study suggests that vaginal delivery may be associated with a low risk of intrapartum SARS-Cov-2 transmission to the newborn. 2020-05-29
Aerodynamic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in two Wuhan hospitals. Although it is clear that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted through human respiratory droplets and direct contact, the potential for aerosol transmission is poorly understood1-3. 2020-05-26
[Pathological changes of the spleen in ten patients with new coronavirus infection by minimally invasive autopsies]. In addition, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was detected by in situ hybridization, and coronavirus particles were detected by transmission electron microscopy in 2 cases. Results: There were 7 males and 3 females, with an average age of 68.3 years. 2020-04-28
[Investigation on a cluster epidemic of COVID-19 in a supermarket in Liaocheng, Shandong province]. Objective: To explore clustered epidemic of COVID-19 in Liaocheng city and analyze infection status and chain of transmission of the cases. Methods: A joint investigation team of emergency response for COVID-19 epidemic by CDC professional workers of Liaocheng city and district at two levels on January 30, 2020. […] Prevention and control of cluster epidemic should be focused on chain of community transmission and family cluster cases. […] It must also be an attention for transmission risk of asymptomatic patients. 目的: 调查一起聊城市新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)聚集性疫情,分析其病例感染情况及疫情传播链。 2020-04-28
[Evaluation of the emergency response strategies and measures on the epidemic of COVID-19 in Shenzhen, China]. Hierarchical spot map was drawn to clarify the distribution and transmission risk of infection sources at different time points. […] Although the epidemic curve showed human-to-human transmission, the “trailing” was not obvious. […] More cases and higher transmission risk were observed in areas with higher population density. […] After the effective intervention measures, both infection sources and the risk of transmission decreased. 2020-04-28
[Comparison of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of SARS, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and COVID-19, and consideration on prevention and control strategies of COVID-19]. We compared the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and COVID-19 and found that COVID-19 was more contagious, more concealed in transmission, with greater infectious intensity and more severe clinical manifestations. 2020-04-28
Airborne Transmission Route of COVID-19: Why 2 Meters/6 Feet of Inter-Personal Distance Could Not Be Enough. However, recently published studies support the hypothesis of virus transmission over a distance of 2 m from an infected person. […] Researchers have proved the higher aerosol and surface stability of SARS-COV-2 as compared with SARS-COV-1 (with the virus remaining viable and infectious in aerosol for hours) and that airborne transmission of SARS-CoV can occur besides close-distance contacts. […] Indeed, there is reasonable evidence about the possibility of SARS-COV-2 airborne transmission due to its persistence into aerosol droplets in a viable and infectious form. […] Based on the available knowledge and epidemiological observations, it is plausible that small particles containing the virus may diffuse in indoor environments covering distances up to 10 m from the emission sources, thus representing a kind of aerosol transmission. 2020-04-30
Tracheostomy Management during the COVID-19 Pandemic. The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led to unprecedented demands on the modern health care system, and the highly contagious nature of the virus has led to particular concerns of infection among health care workers and transmission within health care facilities. […] While strong data regarding the transmissibility of the infection are not yet widely available, preliminary information suggests risk of transmission among asymptomatic individuals, including those within health care facilities. 2020-04-28
A Surgical Safety Checklist for Performing Tracheotomy in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 19. Due to viral aerosolization, tracheotomy carries a high risk of transmission of COVID-19 to the health care team performing the procedure. 2020-04-28
Recommendations from the CSO-HNS taskforce on performance of tracheotomy during the COVID-19 pandemic. The tracheotomy procedure is highly aerosol generating and directly exposes the entire surgical team to the viral aerosol plume and secretions, thereby increasing the risk of transmission to healthcare providers. 2020-04-30
Management of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, in the radiology department. The planning of a robust plan to prevent the transmission of the virus to patients and department staff members should be fundamental in each radiology service. 2020-04-30
[What do surgeons need to know about the digestive disorders and paraclinical abnormalities induced by COVID-19?] Fecal-oral transmission of the infection is possible, especially insofar as viral shedding in stools seems frequent and of longer duration than at the ENT level, including in patients with negative throat swab and without digestive symptoms. 2020-04-28
Tracheostomy Considerations during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Indications for surgery must be balanced by risk of disease transmission to health care workers. 2020-04-30
Recommendation to Optimize Safety of Elective Surgical Care While Limiting the Spread of COVID-19: Primum Non Nocere. Orthopedic surgery has not been spared from these effects, with the postponement of elective procedures in an attempt to mitigate disease transmission and preserve hospital resources as the pandemic continues to expand. 2020-04-28
A guide for urogynecologic patient care utilizing telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic: review of existing evidence. The COVID-19 pandemic and the desire to “flatten the curve” of transmission have significantly affected the way providers care for patients. […] Certain situations will require different treatments in the virtual setting while others will require an in-person visit despite the risks of COVID-19 transmission. 2020-05-01
COVID-19 coronavirus: recommended personal protective equipment for the orthopaedic and trauma surgeon. Raising awareness of these issues will help avoid occupational transmission of COVID-19 to the surgical team by aerosolization of blood or other body fluids and hence adequate PPE should be available and used during orthopaedic surgery. 2020-05-29
Emergency Responses to Covid-19 Outbreak: Experiences and Lessons from a General Hospital in Nanjing, China. As the cost of in-hospital transmission is unbearable, our experiences and lessons suggested that prompt actions should be taken immediately to decrease or eliminate potential in-hospital transmission. 2020-05-19
Isolation of infectious SARS-CoV-2 from urine of a COVID-19 patient. Appropriate precautions should be taken to avoid transmission from urine. 2020-05-19
Navigating the challenges of the COVID-19 outbreak: Perspectives from the radiation oncology service in Singapore. The government has taken swift measures to contain and break the chain of transmission. 2020-05-27
Properties of Coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2. Human-to-human transmission is primarily achieved through close contact of respiratory droplets, direct contact with the infected individuals, or by contact with contaminated objects and surfaces. 2020-04-30
Updates on What ACS Reported: Emerging Evidences of COVID-19 with Nervous System Involvement. Almost every aspect of the pathogen remains largely unknown, ranging from mechanisms involved in infection transmission, interplay with the human immune system, and covert mechanisms of end-organ damage. 2020-05-11
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Social Distancing Interventions to Delay or Flatten the Epidemic Curve of Coronavirus Disease. Our models suggest that social distancing can provide crucial time to increase healthcare capacity but must occur in conjunction with testing and contact tracing of all suspected cases to mitigate virus transmission. 2020-04-28
Estimates of the Potential Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Sexual and Reproductive Health In Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Governments around the world have had to quickly adapt and respond to curb transmission of the virus and to provide care for the many who have been infected. 2020-05-01
Pediatric Microlaryngoscopy and Bronchoscopy in the COVID-19 Era. As an aerosol-generating procedure, traditional pediatric microlaryngoscopy and bronchoscopy techniques must be adapted in order to reduce the risk of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. 2020-05-05
The COVID-19 Global Pandemic: Implications for People With Schizophrenia and Related Disorders. Recommendations emphasize rapid implementation of measures to both decrease the risk of COVID-19 transmission and maintain continuity of clinical care and research to preserve safety of both people with schizophrenia and the public. 2020-05-06
Hand cleaning with ash for reducing the spread of viral and bacterial infections: a rapid review. Handwashing is important to reduce the spread and transmission of infectious disease. 2020-04-29
Estimating the burden of United States workers exposed to infection or disease: A key factor in containing risk of COVID-19 infection. Occupational characteristics, such as interfacing with the public and being in close quarters with other workers, not only put workers at high risk for disease, but also make them a nexus of disease transmission to the community. 2020-05-01
COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 12 (Reporting week to 23:59 AEST 19 April 2020). High case ascertainment enables public health response and reduction of disease transmission. 2020-05-01
Performing Bronchoscopy in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Practice Statement from an International Expert Panel. These recommendations for physicians who perform bronchoscopy will help to protect those patients (un)-affected by the current COVID-19 pandemic, minimize the risk of transmission, and maintain clinical care for all patients. 2020-05-29
[The COVID-19 Pandemia and its consequences for plastic surgery and hand surgery]. For both, plastic and hand surgeons it is crucial to act responsible, minimize the transmission of the virus and aid in reasonable and adequate allocation of resources for the treatment of affected patients during this pandemia. 2020-04-28
The COVID-19 Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review of Taxonomy, Genetics, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Control. Human-to-human transmission has been confirmed even from asymptomatic carriers. 2020-05-23
Universal masking in hospitals in the COVID-19 era: Is it time to consider shielding? With concerns for presymptomatic transmission of COVID-19 and increasing burden of contact tracing and employee furloughs, several hospitals have supplemented pre-existing infection prevention measures with universal masking of all personnel in hospitals. 2020-05-15
The Time for Universal Masking of the Public for Coronavirus Disease 2019 Is Now. In this perspective, we recommend universal masking of the US public during coronavirus disease 2019 due to the high contagiousness of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), viral shedding of viable SARS-CoV-2 from asymptomatic individuals, and the likely contribution of masking to core distancing public health strategies for curbing transmission. 2020-04-29
Clinical and imaging features of COVID-19. Highly infectious, COVID-19 has numerous transmission channels and humans are highly susceptible to infection. 2020-05-11
Implementation of a Novel Remote Physician SBRT Coverage Process during the Coronavirus Pandemic. During the COVID-19 pandemic, alternative methods of care are needed to reduce the relative risk of transmission in departments. […] This may help to reduce transmission of COVID-19 in our department and provides a means for SBRT coverage if ROs are reallocated to other areas of the hospital for COVID-19 support. 2020-05-01
A COVID-19 epidemic model with latency period. The first is a model that incorporates infected persons in the exposed class, before transmission is possible. […] The second is a model that incorporates a time delay in infected persons, before transmission is possible. […] We estimate the epidemiological parameters in the models, such as the transmission rate and the basic reproductive number, using data of reported cases. 2020-05-31
[Strategies for vaccine development of COVID-19]. The speed of both the geographical transmission and the sudden increase in numbers of cases is much faster than SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). 2020-05-01
The Effects of the COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic Outbreak on Otolaryngology Activity in Italy. In these cases, given the sites of action typical of the otolaryngology practice, physicians and nurses are exposed to a high risk of contagion through virus aerosol transmission. 2020-04-29
Epidemiological characteristics of the first 53 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 epidemic in Hong Kong, 13 February 2020. Understanding epidemiological factors characterising the transmission dynamics of this disease is of fundamental importance.AimsThis study aimed to describe key epidemiological parameters of COVID-19 in Hong Kong.MethodsWe extracted data of confirmed COVID-19 cases and their close contacts from the publicly available information released by the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection. […] ConclusionWith a considerable containment delay and short serial interval, contact-tracing effectiveness may not be optimised to halt the transmission with rapid generations replacement. […] Our study highlights the transmission risk of social interaction and pivotal role of physical distancing in suppressing the epidemic. 2020-05-01
Which dermatology patients attend to Dermatology Outpatient Clinics during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Turkey and what happened to them? Dermatologic examinations may be a vector for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission since being closed to the patient. 2020-05-22
National Response to COVID-19 in the Republic of Korea and Lessons Learned for Other Countries. Identified strategies included early recognition of the threat and rapid activation of national response protocols led by national leadership; rapid establishment of diagnostic capacity; scale-up of measures for preventing community transmission; and redesigning the triage and treatment systems, mobilizing the necessary resources for clinical care. […] Key recommendations include (1) recognize the problem, (2) establish diagnostic capacity, (3) implement aggressive measures to prevent community transmission, (4) redesign and reallocate clinical resources for the new environment, and (5) work to limit economic impact through and while prioritizing controlling the spread and impact of COVID-19. 2020-05-04
Health workers’ safety during tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients: Homemade protective screen. To preserve the health care system capacity and to limit virus cross-transmission, protecting caregivers against coronavirus infection is of critical importance. 2020-04-29
[Hematology in the time of COVID-19]. No data indicate a risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through blood product transfusion. […] Aucune donnée n’indique de risque d’une transmission du SARS-CoV-2 par transfusion de produits sanguins. 2020-05-01
[Rheumatology and COVID-19]. Current pandemic implies changes in patient care in rheumatology to reduce the risk of coronavirus transmission to patients visiting health-care facilities, by organizing less frequent blood tests, using teleconsultations, and switching from intravenous to subcutaneous drug administration. 2020-05-01
[Pediatric impact of COVID-19]. No vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been described so far. […] Aucun cas de transmission verticale de SARS-CoV-2 n’a été démontré récemment. 2020-05-01
Agile Requirements Engineering and Software Planning for a Digital Health Platform to Engage the Effects of Isolation Caused by Social Distancing: Case Study. Social distancing and shielding measures have been put in place to reduce social interaction and slow the transmission of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). 2020-05-13
How Brazil can hold back COVID-19. Guidance provided to the population has been clear, stressing the importance of coronavirus transmission prevention measures. 2020-05-06
Development of clinical care guidelines for faculty and residents in the era of COVID-19. Surgical volume and clinic visits are curtailed, personal protective equipment for operating room participation is restricted, and the risk of COVID-19 disease transmission during heretofore routine patient care is the new norm. 2020-05-06
Procedural precautions and personal protective equipment during head and neck instrumentation in the COVID-19 era. Otolaryngologists represent a subset of health care workers uniquely vulnerable to COVID-19 transmission. […] Guidelines published by international and US governing bodies were reviewed in conjunction with published literature concerning COVID-19 transmission risk, testing, and PPE, to compile situation-specific recommendations for head and neck providers managing COVID-19 patients. 2020-05-05
Bronchoscopy, laryngoscopy, and esophagoscopy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many otolaryngology procedures, including laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and esophagoscopy, place otolaryngologists at increased risk of coronavirus transmission due to close contact with respiratory droplets and aerosolization from the procedure. […] Summary guidelines based on the literature available at this time are presented in order to decrease transmission of the virus and protect those involved. 2020-05-01
Genomic Analysis and Comparative Multiple Sequence of SARS-CoV2. China announced an outbreak of new coronavirus in the city of Wuhan on December 31, 2019; lash to now, the virus transmission has become pandemic worldwide. 2020-04-29
COVID-19 Pandemic and Cardiac Electrophysiology: Guidance Protocol From a UK Tertiary Cardiac Centre. The pressure to the health services worldwide has been unprecedented.The redeployment of staff and resources to treat more efficiently COVID-19 cases along with the need to reduce disease transmission has affected the field of electrophysiology among many others.Amendments to clinical pathways are obligatory in this perspective to continue to provide the necessary health services to the people who need them while at the same time infection control and prevention are not compromised by inadvertent disease transmission or unnecessary use of resources.We aim to providea guide of the logistic aspects of electrophysiology procedures derived fromour Tertiary Cardiac Centre duringthe current COVID-19 pandemic. 2020-05-01
COVID-19: Special Precautions in Ophthalmic Practice and FAQs on Personal Protection and Mask Selection. We also endeavor to answer the key frequently asked questions in areas of the coronaviruses, COVID-19, disease transmission, personal protection, mask selection, and special measures in ophthalmic practices. 2020-05-01
Population flow drives spatio-temporal distribution of COVID-19 in China. Third, we develop a spatio-temporal ‘risk source’ model that leverages population flow data (which operationalize the risk that emanates from epidemic epicentres) not only to forecast the distribution of confirmed cases, but also to identify regions that have a high risk of transmission at an early stage. […] Fourth, we use this risk source model to statistically derive the geographical spread of COVID-19 and the growth pattern based on the population outflow from Wuhan; the model yields a benchmark trend and an index for assessing the risk of community transmission of COVID-19 over time for different locations. 2020-05-18
Novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in newborns and infants: what we know so far. This review provides an overview of the knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology, transmission, the associated clinical presentation and outcomes in newborns and infants up to 6 months of life. 2020-05-01
Changes in contact patterns shape the dynamics of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Intense non-pharmaceutical interventions were put in place in China to stop transmission of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). […] As transmission intensifies in other countries, the interplay between age, contact patterns, social distancing, susceptibility to infection, and COVID-19 dynamics remains unclear. […] Based on these data, we build a transmission model to study the impact of social distancing and school closure on transmission. […] While proactive school closures cannot interrupt transmission on their own, they can reduce peak incidence by 40-60% and delay the epidemic. 2020-05-07
Gynecological laparoscopic surgery in the shade of COVID-19 pandemic. A global public health problem with a high rate spread and transmission, Coronavirus outbreak has become the most talked-about matter throughout the world. […] Concerns regarding surgical safety and the risk of viral transmission during surgery are of great importance. 2020-04-30
Gastrointestinal Infection Could Be New Focus for Coronavirus Diagnosis. New studies are expanding our understanding of the possible fecal transmission of COVID-19. […] The potential for fecal-oral transmission of COVID-19 needs to be strongly considered. 2020-05-05
Will the antimalarial drug take over to combat COVID-19? This analysis highlights the agent of COVID-19 and the possible transmission. 2020-05-05
The COVID-19 epidemic, its mortality, and the role of non-pharmaceutical interventions. In the early stages of a new infectious disease outbreak, it is crucial to understand the transmission dynamics of the infection. […] Estimation of changes in transmission over time can provide insights into the epidemiological situation and identify whether outbreak control measures are having a measurable effect. […] For R0 > 1, the number infected tends to increase, and for R0 < 1, transmission dies out. 2020-05-29
COVID-19 in pregnancy: risk of adverse neonatal outcomes. We also stress that vertical transmission, which was not tested for by Chen et al., should not be excluded as a potential mechanism for viral spread. 2020-04-30
Strategies for radiology departments in handling the COVID-19 pandemic. Proactive measures, therefore, must be taken to ensure the continuation of diagnostic and interventional support to clinicians, while minimizing the risk of nosocomial transmission among staff and other patients. 2020-04-30
COVID-19 Outbreak Among Three Affiliated Homeless Service Sites - King County, Washington, 2020. COVID-19 can spread quickly in homeless shelters; rapid interventions including testing and isolation to identify cases and minimize transmission are necessary. 2020-05-04
Epidemiology and transmission of COVID-19 in 391 cases and 1286 of their close contacts in Shenzhen, China: a retrospective cohort study. The resulting data provide a rare opportunity to measure key metrics of disease course, transmission, and the impact of control measures. […] We estimated metrics of disease transmission and analysed factors influencing transmission risk. […] Moreover, children are at a similar risk of infection to the general population, although less likely to have severe symptoms; hence they should be considered in analyses of transmission and control. 2020-05-05
Is SARS-CoV-2 Also an Enteric Pathogen with Potential Fecal-Oral Transmission: A COVID-19 Virological and Clinical Review. Here we briefly summarize what is known about this family of viruses and literature basis of the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 is capable of infecting the gastrointestinal tract and shedding in the environment for potential human-to-human transmission. 2020-05-02
Genotyping coronavirus SARS-CoV-2: methods and implications. To understand the evolution and transmission of SARS-CoV-2, genotyping of virus isolates is of great importance. 2020-05-03
Coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy. This study aimed to compare clinical courses and outcomes between pregnant and reproductive-aged non-pregnant women with COVID-19, and to assess the vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 in pregnancy. […] The severity of disease, virus clearance time, and length of hospital stay were measured as the primary objective, while the vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 was also assessed. […] No evidence supported vertical transmission of COVID-19 in the late stage of pregnancy, including vaginal delivery. 2020-05-29
COVID-19 faecal-oral transmission: Are we asking the right questions? Detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in stools and sewage has recently been reported, raising the hypothesis of faecal-oral transmission. […] Then we discuss the current framework of disease transmission through water and excreta and how the transmission of a respiratory disease fits into it. 2020-05-30
Association between climate variables and global transmission oF SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we aimed at analyzing the associations between transmission of and deaths caused by SARS-CoV-2 and meteorological variables, such as average temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation. […] There was a positive correlation between precipitation and SARS-CoV-2 transmission. […] Countries with higher rainfall measurements showed an increase in disease transmission. 2020-05-12
Occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in burns treatment during the COVID-19 epidemic: Specific diagnosis and treatment protocol. COVID-19 has strong infectivity, high transmission speeds, and causes serious infection among healthcare worker. 2020-05-21
The Ocular Surface and the Coronavirus Disease 2019: Does a Dual ‘Ocular Route’ Exist? Although great concern has been expressed about COVID-19 infection acquired through ocular transmission, its underlying mechanism has not currently been clarified. 2020-05-01
Early Transmission Dynamics of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Nigeria. These 45-day estimates suggested that cases of COVID-19 in Nigeria have been remarkably lower than expected and the preparedness to detect needs to be shifted to stop local transmission. 2020-05-06
The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) in Dentistry. Management of Biological Risk in Dental Practice. Considering the virus’ route of transmission, a specific protocol should be applied to reduce the risk of infection in addition to measures that prevent the spread of infection from a patient to another person or medical tools and equipment (cross-infection). 2020-05-08
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pregnancy: a systematic review. There are reports of neonatal infection, but no direct evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission has been found.Conclusions: The clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 are similar to those of non-pregnant adults. […] Further studies are needed to ascertain long-term outcomes and potential intrauterine vertical transmission. 2020-05-01
3D-printed face protective shield in interventional radiology: Evaluation of an immediate solution in the era of COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical evaluation of a 3D-printed protective face shield designed to protect interventional radiologists from droplet transmission of the SARS-Cov-2. 2020-05-03
Examining Inequities Associated With Changes in Obstetric and Gynecologic Care Delivery During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a public health emergency requiring significant changes in obstetric and gynecologic health care delivery to minimize the risk of transmission to healthy patients and health care workers. 2020-05-01
Purpose by design or disaster: Preserving a sense of purpose amid environmental uncertainty. The current moment provides a formidable test of this question, as widespread transmission of Covid-19 and intense efforts to slow it drastically transform our environment. 2020-05-05
Comprehensive update on current outbreak of novel coronavirus infection (2019-nCoV). With an initial suspicion of the animal to the human transmission for earlier cases, now the paradigm has shifted towards human to human transmission via droplets, contacts and/or through fomites. with each passing day, more and more confirmed cases are being reported worldwide which has alarmed the global authorities including World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China to take immediate action in order to reduce the transmission and subsequent mortalities associated with COVID-19 to as minimum as possible. 2020-05-05
SARS-CoV-2 in the ocular surface of COVID-19 patients. The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally, while the routes of transmission of this virus are still controversial. 2020-05-05
To mask or not to mask: Modeling the potential for face mask use by the general public to curtail the COVID-19 pandemic. Model simulations, using data relevant to COVID-19 dynamics in the US states of New York and Washington, suggest that broad adoption of even relatively ineffective face masks may meaningfully reduce community transmission of COVID-19 and decrease peak hospitalizations and deaths. […] Moreover, mask use decreases the effective transmission rate in nearly linear proportion to the product of mask effectiveness (as a fraction of potentially infectious contacts blocked) and coverage rate (as a fraction of the general population), while the impact on epidemiologic outcomes (death, hospitalizations) is highly nonlinear, indicating masks could synergize with other non-pharmaceutical measures. […] Notably, masks are found to be useful with respect to both preventing illness in healthy persons and preventing asymptomatic transmission. […] Even very weak masks (20% effective) can still be useful if the underlying transmission rate is relatively low or decreasing: In Washington, where baseline transmission is much less intense, 80% adoption of such masks could reduce mortality by 24-65% (and peak deaths 15-69%), compared to 2-9% mortality reduction in New York (peak death reduction 9-18%). […] Our results suggest use of face masks by the general public is potentially of high value in curtailing community transmission and the burden of the pandemic. 2020-05-05
Addressing multiple gastroenterological aspects of coronavirus disease 2019. It seems that the proper identification of all people infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) is the best strategy to limit the transmission. 2020-05-29
Contact Tracing Assessment of COVID-19 Transmission Dynamics in Taiwan and Risk at Different Exposure Periods Before and After Symptom Onset. Better understanding of the transmission dynamics is important for the development and evaluation of effective control policies. […] To delineate the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 and evaluate the transmission risk at different exposure window periods before and after symptom onset. 2020-05-06
Consideration of the Aerosol Transmission for COVID-19 and Public Health. This article analyzes the available evidence to address airborne, aerosol transmission of the SARS-CoV-2. […] We review and present three lines of evidence: case reports of transmission for asymptomatic individuals in association with studies that show that normal breathing and talking produce predominantly small droplets of the size that are subject to aerosol transport; limited empirical data that have recorded aerosolized SARS-CoV-2 particles that remain suspended in the air for hours and are subject to transport over distances including outside of rooms and intrabuilding, and the broader literature that further supports the importance of aerosol transmission of infectious diseases. 2020-05-14
Role of respirators in controlling the spread of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) amongst dental healthcare providers: a review. As the most common route of transmission is via aerosols and droplet inhalation, it is critical for healthcare workers to have the correct personal protective equipment (PPE) including gowns, masks and goggles. 2020-05-29
COVID-19 Deaths: Are We Sure It Is Pneumonia? Please, Autopsy, Autopsy, Autopsy! Due to the scientific community’s efforts, there is an increasing body of published studies describing the virus’ biology, its transmission and diagnosis, its clinical features, its radiological findings, and the development of candidate therapeutics and vaccines. 2020-05-04
SARS-CoV-2 productively infects human gut enterocytes. The virus severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an influenza-like disease that is primarily thought to infect the lungs with transmission via the respiratory route. 2020-05-07
Endoscopic skull base and transoral surgery during COVID-19 pandemic: Minimizing droplet spread with negative-pressure otolaryngology viral isolation drape. The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has raised concern of transmission of infectious organisms through aerosols formation in endonasal and transoral surgery. 2020-05-30
Tracheostomy during COVID-19 pandemic-Novel approach. This study describes a novel approach in reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission during tracheostomy. […] Plastic drapes can help reduce viral transmission to health care providers during tracheostomy. 2020-05-06
COVID-19 in Spain: Transplantation in the midst of the pandemic. Since the country entered into an epidemiological scenario of sustained community transmission and saturation of intensive care, developing donation and transplantation procedures has become highly complex. 2020-05-28
COVID-19 and Neonatal Respiratory Care: Current Evidence and Practical Approach. In this manuscript, we comprehensively reviewed the current evidence regarding COVID-19 perinatal transmission, respiratory outcomes of neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 and infants with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the evidence for using different respiratory support modalities and aerosol-generating procedures in this specific population. 2020-05-02
Genomic Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Guangdong Province, China. Our results illustrate how the timing, size, and duration of putative local transmission chains were constrained by national travel restrictions and by the province’s large-scale intensive surveillance and intervention measures. 2020-05-29
COVID-19: Epidemiology, Evolution, and Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives. Originated in bats, 2019-nCoV/ severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 likely experienced adaptive evolution in intermediate hosts before transfer to humans at a concentrated source of transmission. […] Similarities of receptor sequence binding to 2019-nCoV between humans and animals suggest a low species barrier for transmission of the virus to farm animals. 2020-05-05
Managing the COVID-19 Pandemic as a National Radiation Oncology Centre in Singapore. It has impacted the world medically, financially, politically and socially, with countries such as China and Italy adopting a full lockdown of their cities to mitigate the transmission. 2020-05-03
Brief guideline for the prevention of COVID-19 infection in head and neck and otolaryngology surgeons. It is to be expected that instrumentation in or through those areas will entail a higher risk of transmission. 2020-05-06
A cluster of health care workers with COVID-19 pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2. Human-to-human transmission of COVID-19 pneumonia has occurred among HCWs, and most of these infected HCWs with confirmed COVID-19 are mild cases. 2020-05-25
What do surgeons need to know about the digestive disorders and paraclinical abnormalities induced by COVID-19? Fecal-oral transmission of the infection is possible, especially insofar as viral shedding in stools seems frequent and of longer duration than at the ENT level, including in patients with negative throat swab and without digestive symptoms. 2020-05-05
Mobile phones represent a pathway for microbial transmission: A scoping review. As possible breeding grounds for microbial organisms, these constitute a potential global public health risk for microbial transmission. […] While this scoping review of literature regarding microbial identification on mobile phones in HC and community settings did not directly address the issue of SARS-CoV-2 responsible for COVID-19, this work exposes the possible role of mobile phones as a ‘Trojan horse’ contributing to the transmission of microbial infections in epidemics and pandemics. 2020-05-15
Clinical and transmission dynamics characteristics of 406 children with coronavirus disease 2019 in China: A review. It was found that the clustered incidence of children’s families is a dynamic transmission feature; the incidence is low; asymptomatic infections and mild cases account for 44.8%, with only 7 cases of critical illness; laboratory examination of lymphocyte counts is not reduced, as it is for adults; chest CT findings are less severe than those for adults. […] Efforts should be made to prevent children from becoming a hidden source of transmission in kindergartens, schools or families. 2020-05-07
COVID-19-We urgently need to start developing an exit strategy. Reintroduction from countries with ongoing community transmission; 2. 2020-05-31
Liu Shen capsule shows antiviral and anti-inflammatory abilities against novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 via suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway. The number of virions of SARS-CoV-2 was observed under transmission electron microscope after treatment with LS. 2020-05-31
Mathematical assessment of the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on curtailing the 2019 novel Coronavirus. Simulations of the model, using data relevant to COVID-19 transmission dynamics in the US state of New York and the entire US, show that the pandemic burden will peak in mid and late April, respectively. […] Using face-masks in public (including the low efficacy cloth masks) is very useful in minimizing community transmission and burden of COVID-19, provided their coverage level is high. 2020-05-29
Clinical characteristics of asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with mild COVID-19. Social distancing should be strongly implemented to prevent disease transmission from asymptomatic individuals or those with mild and inconspicuous symptoms. 2020-05-29
Environmental contamination of SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare premises. Hospitals are significant epicenters for the human-to-human transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 for HCWs, patients, and visitors. 2020-05-10
Implementation Guide for Rapid Integration of an Outpatient Telemedicine Program During the COVID-19 Pandemic. In the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, social distancing has been necessary to help prevent disease transmission. 2020-05-18
The Use of Bronchoscopy During the COVID-19 Pandemic: CHEST/AABIP Guideline and Expert Panel Report. ▪▪▪ STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A group of approved panelists developed key clinical questions by using the Population, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcome (PICO) format that addressed specific topics on bronchoscopy related to COVID-19 infection and transmission. […] In an area where community transmission of COVID-19 infection is present, bronchoscopy should be deferred for nonurgent indications, and if necessary to perform, HCWs should wear personal protective equipment while performing the procedure even on asymptomatic patients. 2020-05-29
New understanding of the damage of SARS-CoV-2 infection outside the respiratory system. In this paper, we will systematically review the pathogenic features, transmission routes, and infection mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2, as well as any adverse effects on the digestive system, urogenital system, central nervous system, and circulatory system, in order to provide a theoretical and clinical basis for the diagnosis, classification, treatment, and prognosis assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. 2020-05-21
Temperature significantly changes COVID-19 transmission in (sub)tropical cities of Brazil. The novelty of the virus prompts a search for understanding of how ecological factors affect the transmission and survival of the virus. 2020-05-30
Modelling spatial variations of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Africa. Clinical and epidemiological evidence has been advanced for human-to-human transmission of the novel coronavirus rampaging the world since late 2019. […] Outliers in the human-to-human transmission are yet to be explored. 2020-05-12
Effects of temperature and humidity on the daily new cases and new deaths of COVID-19 in 166 countries. However, active measures must be taken to control the source of infection, block transmission and prevent further spread of COVID-19. 2020-05-30
Airborne route and bad use of ventilation systems as non-negligible factors in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Person-to-person transmission is accepted but WHO only considers aerosol transmission when procedures or support treatments that produce aerosol are performed. […] Transmission mechanisms are not fully understood and there is evidence for an airborne route to be considered, as the virus remains viable in aerosols for at least 3 h and that mask usage was the best intervention to prevent infection. […] However, if not correctly used, they may contribute to the transmission/spreading of airborne diseases as proposed in the past for SARS. […] The authors believe that airborne transmission is possible and that HVAC systems when not adequately used may contribute to the transmission of the virus, as suggested by descriptions from Japan, Germany, and the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship. […] Previous SARS outbreaks reported at Amoy Gardens, Emergency Rooms and Hotels, also suggested an airborne transmission. […] Further studies are warranted to confirm our hypotheses but the assumption of such way of transmission would cause a major shift in measures recommended to prevent infection such as the disseminated use of masks and structural changes to hospital and other facilities with HVAC systems. 2020-05-12
Coronavirus in water environments: Occurrence, persistence and concentration methods - A scoping review. SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, is spread by human-to-human transmission via droplets or direct contact. […] However, since SARS-CoV-2 (as well as other coronaviruses) has been found in the fecal samples and anal swabs of some patients, the possibility of fecal-oral (including waterborne) transmission need to be investigated and clarified. […] The data available suggest that: i) CoV seems to have a low stability in the environment and is very sensitive to oxidants, like chlorine; ii) CoV appears to be inactivated significantly faster in water than non-enveloped human enteric viruses with known waterborne transmission; iii) temperature is an important factor influencing viral survival (the titer of infectious virus declines more rapidly at 23°C-25 °C than at 4 °C); iv) there is no current evidence that human coronaviruses are present in surface or ground waters or are transmitted through contaminated drinking-water; v) further research is needed to adapt to enveloped viruses the methods commonly used for sampling and concentration of enteric, non enveloped viruses from water environments. 2020-05-19
A new era for nuclear medicine. In the context of COVID-19, airborne transmission may be possible in specific circumstances and settings in which procedures that generate aerosols are performed. […] Individualized approach of each case is a sine qua non of ensuring low transmission of COVID-19 as well as effective and safe management of patients admitted to nuclear medicine departments. 2020-05-05
Risk Factors Associated with Clinical Outcomes in 323 COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients in Wuhan, China. With evidence of sustained transmission in more than 190 countries, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic. 2020-05-06
SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic and symptomatic patients and risk for transfusion transmission. Oral swabs, sputum, and blood samples from 18 asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were examined using RT-PCR testing in order to assess the risk of transfusion-related transmission. […] As patients with symptoms of infectious disease will not be admitted to blood donation, the risk for transfusion transmission of SARS-CoV-2 seems to be negligible. 2020-05-27
Occupational skin conditions on the frontline: A survey among 484 Chinese healthcare professionals caring for Covid-19 patients. This unprecedented virus has caused global pandemic and over 2,300,000 cases worldwide in total number(2), which has been bringing tremendous pressure and challenges to medical institutions and clinical staff around the world. 2019-nCoV can be transmitted by droplets primarily, while it has been reported that surface contact transmission exists as well(3). 2020-05-03
Management of conjunctivitis during the COVID-19 pandemic 2020. Conjunctivitis may be a feature of COVID-19, with tears containing SARS-CoV-2 virus, and a source of potential transmission via aerosols. 2020-05-04
COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 13 (Reporting week to 23:59 AEST 26 April 2020). High case ascertainment and prompt identification of contacts enables an effective public health response and a reduction of disease transmission. 2020-05-05
Intensive care during the 2019-coronavirus epidemic. SARS-CoV-2 has presented rapid person-to-person transmission and is currently a global pandemic. 2020-05-04
Medical masks and Respirators for the Protection of Healthcare Workers from SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses. A better understanding of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is needed, together with high-quality clinical data on the use of respirators or alternative devices. 2020-05-06
COVID-19 and ENT Surgery. In Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, clinical examination and invasive procedures on the respiratory tract and on airway-connected cavities, such as paranasal sinuses and the middle ear, expose people to direct transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by inhalation or ocular projection of contaminated droplets, and to indirect transmission by contact with contaminated hands, objects or surfaces. 2020-05-22
The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic: A review of the current evidence. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has once again exposed the weaknesses of global health systems preparedness, ability to respond to an infectious threat, the rapidity of transmission of infections across international borders and the ineffectiveness of knee-jerk policy responses to emerging/re-emerging infectious disease threats. 2020-05-06
Prudent public health intervention strategies to control the coronavirus disease 2019 transmission in India: A mathematical model-based approach. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has raised urgent questions about containment and mitigation, particularly in countries where the virus has not yet established human-to-human transmission. […] The objectives of this study were to find out if it was possible to prevent, or delay, the local outbreaks of COVID-19 through restrictions on travel from abroad and if the virus has already established in-country transmission, to what extent would its impact be mitigated through quarantine of symptomatic patients? […] These questions were addressed in the context of India, using simple mathematical models of infectious disease transmission. […] Once the virus establishes transmission within the community, quarantine of symptomatics may have a meaningful impact on disease burden. 2020-05-06
Severe acute respiratory illness surveillance for coronavirus disease 2019, India, 2020. Sentinel surveillance among severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) patients can help identify the spread and extent of transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). 2020-05-06
Peri-operative and critical care concerns in coronavirus pandemic. India has already reached Stage 2 (local transmission) and the Indian Government, in collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), is taking all necessary steps to halt the community transmission(Stage 3). […] All efforts pertaining to adequate staffing, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and strict adherence to hand hygiene measures are being stressed upon to prevent in-hospital transmission. 2020-05-07
COVID-19, Modern Pandemic: A Systematic Review From Front-Line Health Care Providers’ Perspective. Compared to severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome, there is the rapid transmission, long incubation period, and disease containment is becoming extremely difficult. 2020-05-07
Epidemiological features and medical care-seeking process of patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Of the 205 patients with COVID-19 infection, 31% had presumed transmission from a family member. 10% of patients had hospital-related transmission. 2020-05-07
Safe management of surgical smoke in the age of COVID-19. Using existing knowledge of surgical smoke, a theoretical risk of virus transmission exists. […] There is not enough evidence to quantify the risks of COVID-19 transmission in surgical smoke. 2020-05-04
Evidence Supporting Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 While Presymptomatic or Asymptomatic. Recent epidemiologic, virologic, and modeling reports support the possibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission from persons who are presymptomatic (SARS-CoV-2 detected before symptom onset) or asymptomatic (SARS-CoV-2 detected but symptoms never develop). […] SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the absence of symptoms reinforces the value of measures that prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 by infected persons who may not exhibit illness despite being infectious. […] Critical knowledge gaps include the relative incidence of asymptomatic and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, the public health interventions that prevent asymptomatic transmission, and the question of whether asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection confers protective immunity. 2020-05-04
Mathematical Modelling to Assess the Impact of Lockdown on COVID-19 Transmission in India: Model Development and Validation. The objective of this work was to develop and validate a mathematical model and to assess the impact of various lockdown scenarios on COVID-19 transmission in India. […] After validation, the model was applied to predict COVID-19 transmission in India for different intervention scenarios in terms of lockdown for 4, 14, 21, 42, and 60 days. […] Finally, for the scenario of “panic shopping” or situations where there is a sudden increase in the factors leading to higher exposure to infection, the model predicted an exponential transmission, resulting in failure of the considered intervention strategy. […] Implementation of a strict lockdown for a period of at least 21 days is expected to reduce the transmission of COVID-19. […] However, a further extension of up to 42 days is required to significantly reduce the transmission of COVID-19 in India. […] Any relaxation in the lockdown may lead to exponential transmission, resulting in a heavy burden on the health care system in the country. 2020-05-13
High proportion of asymptomatic and presymptomatic COVID-19 infections in travelers and returning residents to Brunei. These have implications for measures to prevent onward local transmission and should prompt reconsideration of current testing protocols and safe de-escalation of social distancing measures. 2020-05-29
Potential influence of COVID-19/ACE2 on the female reproductive system. Therefore, we believe that apart from droplets and contact transmission, the possibility of mother-to-child and sexual transmission also exists. 2020-05-29
COVID-19: Present and Future Challenges for Dental Practice. Realizing the severity of outcomes associated with this disease and its high rate of transmission, dentists were instructed by regulatory authorities, such as the American Dental Association, to stop providing treatment to dental patients except those who have emergency complaints. […] This was mainly for protection of dental healthcare personnel, their families, contacts, and their patients from the transmission of virus, and also to preserve the much-needed supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE). 2020-05-08
Clinical Recommendations for Epistaxis Management During the COVID-19 Pandemic. In the COVID-19 era, procedures involving airway management are a particular risk for health care workers due to the high virulence of the virus, the transmission through aerosol, and the risk of contagion from asymptomatic patients. […] The safety of health care workers is essential not only to safeguard continuous patient care but also to limit virus transmission. 2020-05-05
Anosmia and the Need for COVID-19 Screening during the Pandemic. Since isolated anosmia is not yet considered a prerequisite for screening for COVID-19, we wish to raise awareness on the association of anosmia with COVID-19, urging international and national health authorities to consider this association in their efforts for early detection and isolation of infected individuals and for breaking the chain of transmission. 2020-05-05
Nosocomial Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Complete genomic sequences of 12 different coronavirus strains demonstrated that the viral structure with small, irrelevant mutations was stable in the transmission chains and showed remarkable traits of infectious traceability. 2020-05-05
Saliva is a non-negligible factor in the spread of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in saliva samples, making saliva a potential transmission route for COVID-19. […] Hence, the control of saliva-related transmission in the dental clinic is critical, particularly in the epidemic period of COVID-19. […] Based on our experience of the COVID-19 epidemic, some protective measures that can help reduce the risk of saliva-related transmission are suggested, in order to avoid the potential spread of SARS-CoV-2 among patients, visitors, and dental practitioners. 2020-05-05
Epidemiological characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 in Guizhou province, China. Family-based transmission should not be ignored, as a close contact history was the top reason of exposure. 2020-05-28
Nasopharyngeal wash in preventing and treating upper respiratory tract infections: Could it prevent COVID-19? Rapid transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has led to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. […] The technique of nasopharyngeal wash to prevent the virus from inhabiting and replicating in the nasal and pharyngeal mucosa has been suggested to be useful in reducing symptoms, transmission, and viral shedding in cases of viral acute respiratory tract infections. 2020-05-05
Quantifying the Impact of COVID-19 on Cancer Patients: A Technical Report of Patient Experience During the COVID-19 Pandemic at a High-volume Radiation Oncology Proton Center in New York City. Early action and guidance are therefore critical to minimize transmission events and ensure safe and timely delivery of radiation therapy. 2020-05-08
Prevention program for the COVID-19 in a children’s digestive endoscopy center. The gastrointestinal symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain and the detection of COVID-19 nucleic acid from fecal specimens in a small number of patients suggest the possibility of transmission via the gastrointestinal tract. 2020-05-07
Stability and infectivity of coronaviruses in inanimate environments. Frequent touching of contaminated surfaces in public areas is therefore a potential route of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. […] The risk of transmission via touching contaminated paper is low. 2020-05-07
Pulmonary contusion mimicking COVID-19: A case report. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major public health emergency with obvious characteristics of human-to-human transmission, and there are infective asymptomatic carriers. 2020-05-08
Utilization of deceased donors during a pandemic: An argument against using SARS-CoV-2 positive donors. The factors we consider include: 1) the risk of blood transmission SARS-CoV-2, 2) involvement of donor organs, 3) lack of effective therapies, 4) exposure of healthcare and recovery teams, 5) disease transmission and propagation, and 6) hospital resource utilization. 2020-05-05
Management of COVID-19: the risks associated with treatment are clear, but the benefits remain uncertain. Containment strategies to mitigate viral transmission and emergency measures to increase the capacity of each country to provide intensive care are at the forefront of the public health management of the epidemic, even though the detrimental social and psychological effects of quarantine are evident on a global scale. 2020-05-07
Transmission and clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in 104 outside-Wuhan patients, China. This report focused on the outside-Wuhan patients to assess the transmission and clinical characteristics of this illness. […] Transmission along the chain of 3 “generations” was observed. […] Family but not community transmission occupied the main body of infections in the two centers, suggesting the timely control measures after the Wuhan shutdown wok well. […] Asymptomatic transmission demonstrated here warned us that it may bring more risk to the spread of COVID-19. 2020-05-05
The Prevalence of Olfactory and Gustatory Dysfunction in COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Increased awareness of this fact may encourage earlier diagnosis and treatment, as well as heighten vigilance for viral transmission. 2020-05-05
[Recommendations of the Society of Gastroenterology of Peru to avoid the spread of SARS-CoV-2 through digestive endoscopy procedures]. During digestive endoscopy, transmission by any of these mechanisms could occur. 2020-05-07
Time from Symptom Onset to Hospitalisation of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Cases: Implications for the Proportion of Transmissions from Infectors with Few Symptoms. This should be considered when interpreting estimates of the extent of transmission from hosts with few COVID-19 symptoms. 2020-05-06
Dengue Fever and Severe Dengue in Barbados, 2008-2016. DF cases occurred throughout the year with low level of transmission observed during the dry season (December to June), then increased transmission during rainy season (July to November) peaking in October. 2020-05-06
Preparedness of Frontline Doctors in Jordan Healthcare Facilities to COVID-19 Outbreak. The questionnaire was designed to evaluate preparedness according to knowledge about virus transmission and protective measures, adherence to protection guidelines, and psychological impacts affecting doctors. 2020-05-11
Personal Protective Equipment: Current Best Practices for Orthopedic Teams. This article also explores the concerns of surgeons regarding possible transmission to their own family members as a result of caring for COVID-19 patients. 2020-05-08
Immediate impact of COVID-19 on transplant activity in the Netherlands. Worldwide, the delivery of transplant care is severely challenged by matters concerning - but not limited to - organ procurement, risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, screening strategies of donors and recipients, decisions to postpone or proceed with transplantation, the attributable risk of immunosuppression for COVID-19 and entrenched health care resources and capacity. 2020-05-08
Strategies for daily operating room management of ambulatory surgery centers following resolution of the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Use multimodal perioperative infection control practices (e.g., including patient decontamination) and monitor performance (e.g., S. aureus transmission from patient to the environment). 2020-05-18
Family cluster of three recovered cases of pneumonia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Transmissions among family members are frequently observed, although the route of transmission is partially known. […] Our observations suggest the importance of preventing family transmission and the efficacy of current integrated treatment for mild/moderate pneumonia in COVID-19 cases. 2020-05-07
PAP therapy increases the risk of transmission of COVID-19. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is an open system that can generate contact, droplet, and airborne COVID-19 thereby increasing the risk of transmission of COVID-19 like other procedures such as tracheal intubation, noninvasive ventilation, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. 2020-05-06
Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks. Our results indicate that surgical face masks could prevent transmission of human coronaviruses and influenza viruses from symptomatic individuals. 2020-05-14
Estimating the generation interval for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) based on symptom onset data, March 2020. BackgroundEstimating key infectious disease parameters from the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak is essential for modelling studies and guiding intervention strategies.AimWe estimate the generation interval, serial interval, proportion of pre-symptomatic transmission and effective reproduction number of COVID-19. […] We illustrate that reproduction numbers calculated based on serial interval estimates can be biased.MethodsWe used outbreak data from clusters in Singapore and Tianjin, China to estimate the generation interval from symptom onset data while acknowledging uncertainty about the incubation period distribution and the underlying transmission network. […] From those estimates, we obtained the serial interval, proportions of pre-symptomatic transmission and reproduction numbers.ResultsThe mean generation interval was 5.20 days (95% credible interval (CrI): 3.78-6.78) for Singapore and 3.95 days (95% CrI: 3.01-4.91) for Tianjin. […] The proportion of pre-symptomatic transmission was 48% (95% CrI: 32-67) for Singapore and 62% (95% CrI: 50-76) for Tianjin. […] Sensitivity analyses showed that estimating these quantities from outbreak data requires detailed contact tracing information.ConclusionHigh estimates of the proportion of pre-symptomatic transmission imply that case finding and contact tracing need to be supplemented by physical distancing measures in order to control the COVID-19 outbreak. 2020-05-11
Triage of Acute Ischemic Stroke in Confirmed COVID-19: Large Vessel Occlusion Associated With Coronavirus Infection. However, for acute stroke patients who have a diagnosis of or are under investigation for COVID-19, the concern for nosocomial transmission moderates operational procedures for acute stroke care. […] The outlook for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic necessitates the development of protocols to sustain timely and effective acute stroke care while mitigating healthcare-associated transmission. 2020-05-08
Smoking Cessation as a Public Health Measure to Limit the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic. The effects of cigarette smoking on the transmission of the virus and worsening of COVID-19 have been less addressed. 2020-05-08
Frequent Hand Washing for COVID-19 Prevention Can Cause Hand Dermatitis: Management Tips. A therapeutic vaccine is not yet on the rise, and preventive measures are the current approach to restraint the transmission of cases. […] As the virus is highly contagious via respiratory route (droplets from infected persons, widely spread by coughing or sneezing) and via contact with contaminated surfaces, community transmission and spread can be decreased through the practice of regular and diligent hand hygiene. 2020-05-08
Conjunctivitis can be the only presenting sign and symptom of COVID-19. Ocular involvement and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 should never be overlooked. 2020-05-08
Repurposing and reshaping of hospitals during the COVID-19 outbreak in South Korea. During the extensive outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in South Korea, many strategies in the hospital setting, such as stratified patient care, the assignment of hospitals/beds by a task force team, and the establishment of dedicated COVID-19 hospitals, dedicated COVID-19 emergency centers, COVID-19 community facilities, and respiratory care split hospitals, were adopted to mitigate community transmission and prevent nosocomial infection. 2020-05-31
Clinical display, diagnostics and genetic implication of novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic. As the pandemic continues to evolve, there have been reports about the possibility of asymptomatic transmission of this newly emerged pneumonia virus. 2020-05-08
Estimated Demand for US Hospital Inpatient and Intensive Care Unit Beds for Patients With COVID-19 Based on Comparisons With Wuhan and Guangzhou, China. In Wuhan, strict disease control measures were implemented 6 weeks after sustained local transmission of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-05-12
Practical Considerations When Performing Neurodiagnostic Studies on Patients with COVID-19 and Other Highly Virulent Diseases. A time analysis comparing our standard EEG protocol with our modified COVID-19 protocol revealed a significant decrease in technologist exposure time (99 minutes versus 51 minutes), which theoretically would reduce the chance of virus transmission to our technologist. 2020-05-06
COVID-2019 associated overexpressed Prevotella proteins mediated host-pathogen interactions and their role in coronavirus outbreak. The outbreak of COVID-2019 initiated at Wuhan, China has become a global threat by rapid transmission and severe fatalities. 2020-05-06
Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Guidance on Behalf of the International Fetal Medicine and Surgery Society. There is, to date, minimal, unconfirmed evidence of spontaneous vertical transmission, though it may theoretically be increased with some procedures. 2020-05-06
COVID-19: Ophthalmological Aspects of the SARS-CoV 2 Global Pandemic. These articles could be classified into the topics “Modes and prevention of (ocular) transmission”, “Ophthalmological manifestations of COVID-19”, “Clinical guidance concerning ophthalmological practice during the COVID-19 pandemic”, and “Practical recommendations for clinical infrastructure”. 2020-05-22
Prediction of COVID-19 transmission dynamics using a mathematical model considering behavior changes in Korea. Since the report of the first confirmed case in Daegu on February 18, 2020, local transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea has continued. […] In this study, we aimed to identify the pattern of local transmission of COVID-19 using mathematical modeling and predict the epidemic size and the timing of the end of the spread. […] We modeled the COVID-19 outbreak in Korea by applying a mathematical model of transmission that factors in behavioral changes. […] We used the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention data of daily confirmed cases in the country to estimate the nationwide and Daegu/Gyeongbuk area-specific transmission rates as well as behavioral change parameters using a least-squares method. […] We mathematically demonstrate that the relatively high per-capita rate of transmission and the low rate of changes in behavior have caused a large-scale transmission of COVID-19 in the Daegu/Gyeongbuk area in Korea. 2020-05-08
Clinical evidence based review and recommendations of aerosol generating medical procedures in otolaryngology - head and neck surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. Aerosol generating medical procedures (AGMPs) present risks to health care workers (HCW) due to airborne transmission of pathogens. […] Nasal endoscopy and nasal packing/epistaxis management can result in droplet transmission, but it is unknown if these procedures also carry the risk of airborne transmission. […] Tracheal procedures like tracheostomy and endotracheal suctioning can also result in airborne transmission via small virus containing aerosols. 2020-05-08
Evidence for and against vertical transmission for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). COVID-19 can severely affect pregnant women and the issue of vertical transmission of sars-cov-2 has also emerged. 2020-05-10
Applying principles of behaviour change to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Human behaviour is central to transmission of SARS-Cov-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and changing behaviour is crucial to preventing transmission in the absence of pharmaceutical interventions. […] Isolation and social distancing measures, including edicts to stay at home, have been brought into place across the globe to reduce transmission of the virus, but at a huge cost to individuals and society. 2020-05-26
COVID-19 Awareness Among Healthcare Students and Professionals in Mumbai Metropolitan Region: A Questionnaire-Based Survey. Occupational health and safety are of paramount importance to minimize the risk of transmission to healthcare students and professionals and provide optimal care for patients. 2020-05-09
How Essential Is to Focus on Physician’s Health and Burnout in Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic? Although the chief focus is on minimizing transmission through prevention, combating infection, and saving lives by ramping up the development of treatment and vaccines, very little attention is on the critical issue of physician burnout, resident burnout, and the psychological well-being of HCW. 2020-05-09
COVID-19: Review of Epidemiology and Potential Treatments Against 2019 Novel Coronavirus. An epidemic of extreme respiratory deterrence, pneumonia and shortness of breath, the SARS-CoV-2 viral infection began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December 2019, and rapidly spread across China and beyond, with human to human transmission. 2020-05-09
Animal-to-Human Viral Transitions: Is SARS-CoV-2 an Evolutionarily Successful One? Transmission of viruses from one species to another is not unusual in nature. […] In this perspective article, I recognize eight main types of trans-species viral transmission. 2020-05-30
Biopsychopharmacosocial approach to assess impact of social distancing and isolation on mental health in older adults. The UK Government’s advice for vulnerable people, including older adults, to move towards self-isolation and social distancing is likely to reduce rates of transmission, the risk of severe illness and the impact on the acute health services. 2020-05-08
COVID-19 - Toward a comprehensive understanding of the disease. Herewith, presented is the current state of knowledge on COVID-19: beginning from the virus, its transmission, and mechanisms of entry into the human body, through the pathological effects on the cellular level, up to immunological reaction, systemic and organ presentation. 2020-05-29
Covid 19. The paradox of social distancing. The concept was promoted by the World Health Organisation in 2008 as a public health measure to prevent transmission of influenza, and in various forms it can be identified in reference to epidemics going back hundreds of years. 2020-05-07
COVID-19: Are We Ready for the Second Wave? The countries that have already reported the peak of transmission are easing their preventive measures yet fearing a second wave of infection. 2020-05-23
A Typical Case of Critically Ill Infant of Coronavirus Disease 2019 With Persistent Reduction of T Lymphocytes. The transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from infant (even very critical cases) to adult might be unlikely. 2020-05-08
Emerging evidence for neuropsycho-consequences of COVID-19. Possible viral transmission to the nervous system may occur via circulation, an upper nasal transcribrial route and/or conjunctival route. 2020-05-07
Examining the incubation period distributions of COVID-19 on Chinese patients with different travel histories. We aimed to examine whether patients infected by community transmission had extended incubation periods than the early generation patients who had direct exposures to Wuhan. […] Patients who regularly lived in Wuhan and left to other locations before January 23, 2020 had the shortest posterior median value of 7.57 days for the incubation period, while the incubation periods for persons affected by local community transmission had the largest posterior median of incubation periods, 9.31 days. […] Our findings may imply the decreases of virulence of the COVID-19 virus along with intergenerational transmission. 2020-05-26
COVID-19 Among Workers in Meat and Poultry Processing Facilities - 19 States, April 2020. Congregate work and residential locations are at increased risk for infectious disease transmission including respiratory illness outbreaks. […] Methods to decrease transmission within the facility include worker symptom screening programs, policies to discourage working while experiencing symptoms compatible with COVID-19, and social distancing by workers. […] Mitigation efforts to reduce transmission in the community should also be considered. […] Many of these measures might also reduce asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission (3). 2020-05-08
Public Health Response to the Initiation and Spread of Pandemic COVID-19 in the United States, February 24-April 21, 2020. By mid-March, transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, had accelerated, with rapidly increasing case counts indicating established transmission in the United States. […] Ongoing traveler importation of SARS-CoV-2, attendance at professional and social events, introduction into facilities or settings prone to amplification, and challenges in virus detection all contributed to rapid acceleration of transmission during March. […] Because most of the population remains susceptible to infection, recognition of factors associated with amplified spread during the early acceleration period will help inform future decisions as locations in the United States scale back some components of mitigation and strengthen systems to detect a potential transmission resurgence. 2020-05-08
SARS-CoV-2 possible contamination of genital area: implications for sexual and vertical transmission routes. The virus can be transmitted from person to person, directly or indirectly, via the respiratory, oro-fecal and probably sexual routes.1 The eventual vertical transmission route is still poorly explored. […] However, mother-to-child SARS-CoV-2 transmission through the placenta probably does not occur, or likely occurs very rarely.2 All the studies conducted on COVID-19 pregnant women involved patients undergoing cesarean section, but the indications for such delivery modality were not clearly stated. 2020-05-07
Will environmental changes in temperature affect the course of COVID-19? We analyzed the climate temperature from various regions according to their current ongoing human-to-human transmission status. […] We studied 3 groups; Group 1, 10 provinces from China with majority of COVID-19 cases; Group 2, areas where continuous horizontal transmission outside of China had been reported; and group 3, areas where imported cases had been detected and no horizontal transmission had been documented after at least seven days since the first case was reported. […] The regions without ongoing human-to-human transmission showed significantly higher temperatures when compared to China and countries with ongoing human-to-human transmission, with over an 11-degree difference. […] The average rainfall during the study period was significantly higher in those regions without OHHT when compared to the Chinese provinces with ongoing human-to-human transmission and the regions with active transmission of SARS-CoV-2. […] Our findings show statistically significant differences between regions with ongoing human-to-human transmission of COVID-19 cases compared to those regions without horizontal transmission. 2020-05-10
What dentists need to know about COVID-19. There were many reports related to a live-animal and seafood market, supporting that the pathogens were transferred from animals to humans, rapidly evolving into transmission from human to human. 2020-05-20
A child with household transmitted COVID-19. The present pediatric case of COVID-19 was acquired through household transmission, and the symptoms were mild. 2020-05-12
Respiratory surveillance wards as a strategy to reduce nosocomial transmission of COVID-19 through early detection: The experience of a tertiary-care hospital in Singapore. No patient-HCW transmission was detected despite intensive surveillance. […] Our institution successfully utilized the strategy of an RSW over a 6-week period to contain a cluster of COVID-19 cases and to prevent patient-HCW transmission. 2020-05-28
Tackling the COVID-19 Pandemic. After the initial outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic (now called COVID-19)-in Wuhan, China-and its subsequent fast dispersion throughout the world, many questions regarding its pathogenesis, genetic evolution, prevention, and transmission routes remain unanswered but fast explored. 2020-05-10
[Maternal and neonatal consequences of coronavirus COVID-19 infection during pregnancy: a scoping review]. There did not appear to be vertical transmission from mother to child. 2020-05-11
Modeling shield immunity to reduce COVID-19 epidemic spread. The objective of a shield immunity strategy is to help to sustain the interactions necessary for the functioning of essential goods and services9 while reducing the probability of transmission. 2020-05-08
Recommendations for a safety dental care management during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted mainly through droplets, sneezes and aerosols, there is a high risk of transmission during dental procedures. 2020-05-11
Implementation of Clinical Diagnostic Criteria and Universal Symptom Survey Contributed to Lower Magnitude and Faster Resolution of the COVID-19 Epidemic in Wuhan. We extended the susceptibles-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) transmission dynamics model by considering three quarantined compartments (SEIR+Q). 2020-05-11
Lessons from COVID-19 in children: Key hypotheses to guide preventative and therapeutic strategies. Our review summarizes the current knowledge of pediatric clinical disease, role in transmission, risks for severe disease, protective immunity, as well as novel therapies and vaccine trials for children. […] We then define key hypotheses and areas for future research that can use the pediatric model of disease, transmission, and immunity to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies for people of all age groups. 2020-05-29
Post-exposure prophylaxis or pre-emptive therapy for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): study protocol for a pragmatic randomized-controlled trial. These complementary randomized-controlled trials are innovatively designed and adequately powered to rapidly answer urgent questions regarding the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine to reduce virus transmission and disease severity of COVID-19 during a pandemic. 2020-05-11
Asymptomatic cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We summarized the characteristics of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections and the transmission potential of asymptomatic cases. 2020-05-23
Society of Robotic Surgery Review: Recommendations Regarding the Risk of COVID-19 Transmission During Minimally Invasive Surgery. The recommendations are correctly based on caution given the lack of understanding of how COVID-19 compares to other viruses with regard to transmission and presence in CO2 during MIS. […] In this review we have investigated the available literature on COVID-19 transmission during MIS, address the implications of current and previously published recommendations and discuss steps to mitigate COVID-19 transmission during MIS for staff and patient safety. 2020-05-08
Tracheostomy time-out: New safety tool in the setting of COVID-19. Airway providers have reflected on ways to mitigate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission risks when approaching a surgical airway. […] The aim of the tracheostomy time-out is to reduce preventable errors that may increase the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-05-08
Prolonged Persistence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in Body Fluids. The prolonged persistence of virus RNA in various body fluids may guide the clinical diagnosis and prevention of onward virus transmission. 2020-05-08
Effectiveness of interventions targeting air travellers for delaying local outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated if interventions aimed at air travellers can delay local SARS-CoV-2 community transmission in a previously unaffected country. […] We simulated infected air travellers arriving into countries with no sustained SARS-CoV-2 transmission or other introduction routes from affected regions. 2020-05-29
A pandemic within our borders, but what about the impact for our people in acute inpatients? In order to restrict opportunities for transmission of Covid 19 between patients and the public, wards which previously were unlocked during the day are now locked at all times without use of mental health legislation. 2020-05-08
Demonstration and mitigation of aerosol and particle dispersion during mastoidectomy relevant to the COVID-19 era. Concern for viral transmission necessitates the investigation of otologic procedures that use high-speed drilling instruments, including mastoidectomy, which we hypothesized to be an aerosol generating procedure. […] Mastoidectomy with a high-speed drill is an aerosol generating procedure, a designation that connotes the potential high risk of viral transmission and need for higher levels of personal protective equipment. 2020-05-08
Preparedness and Best Practice in Radiology Department for COVID-19 and Other Future Pandemics of Severe Acute Respiratory Infection. To reduce risks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission in the Radiology Department, this article describes measures to increase the preparedness of Radiology Department, such as careful screening of staff and patients, thorough disinfection of equipments and rooms, appropriate use of personal protection equipment, and early isolation of patients with incidentally detected computed tomography findings suspicious for COVID-19. 2020-05-08
Impact of climate and public health interventions on the COVID-19 pandemic: A prospective cohort study. We aimed to determine whether epidemic growth is globally associated with climate or public health interventions intended to reduce transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] We performed a prospective cohort study of all 144 geopolitical areas worldwide (375 609 cases) with at least 10 COVID-19 cases and local transmission by Mar. 20, 2020, excluding China, South Korea, Iran and Italy. 2020-05-09
Importance of collecting data on socioeconomic determinants from the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak onwards. However, the influence of socioeconomic factors on COVID-19 transmission, severity and outcomes is not yet known and is subject to scrutiny and investigation. 2020-05-09
Global efforts on vaccines for COVID-19: Since, sooner or later, we all will catch the coronavirus. It spreads through droplet transmission of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. 2020-05-12
Current State of Knowledge About SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 Disease in Pregnant Women. Questions arise concerning the continuation of pregnancy, how to terminate the pregnancy, the possibility of virus transmission through the placenta, isolation of the newborn after birth, and breastfeeding. 2020-05-12
COVID-19 not detected in peritoneal fluid: a case of laparoscopic appendicectomy for acute appendicitis in a COVID-19-infected patient. Surgical consensus guidelines are recommending caution in the use of laparoscopy for the theoretical possibility of viral transmission from aerosolization of tissue and peritoneal fluid during surgery. […] This study provides novel preliminary data in the investigation of COVID-19 transmission from laparoscopy-related aerosolization. 2020-05-14
Could CGRP antagonists be helpful in the fight against COVID-19? However, despite our best efforts to mitigate viral transmission, many of our migraine patients may eventually be exposed to SARS-CoV2. 2020-05-09
Urticarial eruption in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection: a case report in Tangerang, Indonesia. 2)(1)(3)(4) This atypical symptom might lead to misdiagnosis, delayed diagnosis, and virus transmission, especially in countries where cutaneous manifestation of COVID-19 has not been reported widely such as in Indonesia. 2020-05-09
Dermatologic Surgery Training during the COVID-19 era. Because of exponential growth, social distancing is a critical strategy to decrease transmission Thus, educational medical communities from many countries have transitioned to online didactics1 . 2020-05-09
Postoperative fever in the time of COVID-19. The transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 make it difficult to adequately gauge and pinpoint risk groups with questionnaires at the time of hospital admission. 2020-05-12
Coast-to-Coast Spread of SARS-CoV-2 during the Early Epidemic in the United States. By coupling our genomic data with domestic and international travel patterns, we show that early SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Connecticut was likely driven by domestic introductions. […] This study provides evidence of widespread sustained transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within the United States and highlights the critical need for local surveillance. 2020-05-31
Geospatial analysis of COVID-19 and otolaryngologists above age 60. Based on our models, New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Michigan represent states where older ENTs may be the most susceptible to developing severe complications from nosocomial transmission of COVID-19 due to a combination of high COVID-19 case volumes and a high proportion of ENTs over 60 years. 2020-05-18
Modeling behavioral change and COVID-19 containment in Mexico: A trade-off between lockdown and compliance. The aim of both measures was to reduce community transmission of COVID-19 in Mexico by lowering the effective contact rate. […] Using a modification of the Kermack-McKendrick SEIR model we explore the effect of behavioral changes required to lower community transmission by introducing a time-varying contact rate, and the consequences of disease spread in a population subject to suspension of non-essential activities. 2020-05-22
Emergence of genomic diversity and recurrent mutations in SARS-CoV-2. Due to extensive transmission, the genetic diversity of the virus in several countries recapitulates a large fraction of its worldwide genetic diversity. 2020-05-26
COVID-19: The first documented coronavirus pandemic in history. SARS-CoV-2 is believed to be a spillover of an animal coronavirus and later adapted the ability of human-to-human transmission. 2020-05-24
SARS - CoV-2: Reasons of epidemiology of severe ill disease cases and therapeutic approach using trivalent vaccine (tetanus, diphtheria and Bordetella pertussis). The novel coronavirus Covid-19 follows transmission route and clinical presentation of all community-acquired coronaviruses. […] Instead, the rate of transmission is significative higher, with a faster spread of the virus responsible of the worldwide outbreak and a significative higher mortality rate due to the development of a severe lung injury. 2020-05-14
Danger in danger: Interpersonal violence during COVID-19 quarantine. Due to the feelings of frustration and agitation, aggression arises with possible transgenerational transmission of trauma and violence. 2020-05-27
Operative team checklist for aerosol generating procedures to minimise exposure of healthcare workers to SARS-CoV-2. There are situations however that still require the undertaking of aerosol generating procedures (AGP) with potentially high exposure of healthcare workers to SARS-CoV-2 transmission through droplet, contact and possibly airborne routes. 2020-05-19
Evidence that high temperatures and intermediate relative humidity might favor the spread of COVID-19 in tropical climate: A case study for the most affected Brazilian cities. Our results showed that higher mean temperatures and average relative humidity favored the COVID-19 transmission, differently from reports from coldest countries or periods of time under cool temperatures. […] Thus, prevention and protection measures should be adopted in these cities aiming to reduce transmission and the possible collapse of the health system. 2020-05-14
Hypothesized behavioral host manipulation by SARS-CoV2/COVID-19 infection. Even the common influenza virus has been shown to selectively increase in-person sociality during the 48-hour incubation period, thus producing an obvious vector for transmission. […] Here we hypothesize that the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV2, which produces the COVID-19 disease may produce similar host manipulations that maximize its transmission between humans. 2020-05-14
On airborne transmission and control of SARS-Cov-2. Despite of their paramount importance, the transmission routes of SARS-Cov-2 still remain debated among various sectors. […] Besides using these environmental implications, social distancing and wearing a mask are strongly encouraged to maximize the fight against the COVID-19 airborne transmission. 2020-05-27
Gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, and pancreatic manifestations of COVID-19. In this article, SARS-CoV-2 and its disease COVID-19 will be reviewed with consideration of the latest literature about gastrointestinal symptomatology, the mechanisms by which the virus may inflict damage, and the possibility of viral replication contributing to a fecal-oral route of transmission. 2020-05-29
Preventing adverse cutaneous reactions from amplified hygiene practices during the COVID-19 pandemic: how dermatologists can help through anticipatory guidance. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), two crucial actions can reduce the risk of person-to-person viral transmission: frequent hand washing and surface decontamination with specific environmental protection agency (EPA)-registered disinfectants. 2020-05-14
BRCA testing in a genomic diagnostics referral center during the COVID-19 pandemic. The first person-to-person transmission of the 2019-novel coronavirus in Italy on 21 February 2020 led to an infection chain that represents one of the largest known COVID-19 outbreaks outside Asia. 2020-05-14
[Contagiousness and secondary attack rate of 2019 novel coronavirus based on cluster epidemics of COVID-19 in Guangzhou]. The average number of contagiousness was 2.18 in shorted incubation period of 1-3 days (The average number of infected cases were 2.18 cases by the index case in a cluster epidemic), the average infection number in family members was 1.86, and the infection ratio of family member transmission was 85.32% (1.86/2.18). […] It is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control to reduce the community transmission of COVID-19. 目的: 基于广州市新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)聚集性疫情,分析新型冠状病毒的传染力和续发率,为COVID-19疫情防控的策略提供参考依据。 2020-05-10
[Scenario-based study of medical resource requirement rapid assessment under the COVID-19 pandemic]. Under the circumstances, preparations for medical resources are in urgently needed. Methods: Based on current understanding of the disease, we set up five scenarios and use the infectious disease transmission dynamic and pandemic theoretical static models to evaluate the demand for medical resources. Results: Different epidemic strength and strategies of disease control and prevention resulted in different levels of medical resource request, and active control strategy and effective measures could significantly decrease the requirement. 2020-05-10
[Analysis of transmission characteristics of COVID-19 in Shaanxi Province]. A total of 245 cases of COVID-19 in Shaanxi Province reported in the China information system for disease control and prevention as of February 24, 2020 were selected as the research objects, the cases are divided into imported cases (116 cases, 47.3%) and local cases (129 cases, 52.7%), their basic characteristics, time distribution, transmission mode, intergenerational interval and latent period transmission are analyzed. […] The age of local cases [(51.74±15.67) years old], female patients (69 cases, 53.5%), housework and retired staff (40 cases, 31.0%), and patients isolated at the time of onset (50 cases, 38.8%) were higher than imported cases, respectively[(40.66±15.41) years old, (45 cases, 38.8%), (21 cases, 18.1%), (17 cases, 14.6%)] (P values were < 0.05); The infection rate was 0.8% (31/3 666) in close contacts with local cases, which was lower than imported cases 2.0% (69/3 435) (P<0.001); The main source of infection in local cases was relatives (70 cases, 54.3%), and the main way of infection was living together and party (90 cases, 69.8%); the proportion of latent period transmission in our province was 15.5% (20 cases), and the interval between the second-generation case and the source of infection was about 4 days, and the interval between generations was about 6 days. […] In summary, the main way of infection of local cases in Shaanxi Province was living together and party, there were a certain proportion of latent period transmission cases at present, it’s suggested that the investigation of close contacts should be started 4 days or earlier before the onset of the case. 2020-05-12
Infection prevention and control compliance in Tanzanian outpatient facilities: a cross-sectional study with implications for the control of COVID-19. As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads, weak health systems must not become a vehicle for transmission through poor infection prevention and control practices. 2020-05-27
An infant with a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection detected only by anal swabs: a case report. Those patients are potential sources of infection via fecal-oral transmission for COVID-19. 2020-05-17
From SARS to COVID-19: What we have learned about children infected with COVID-19. By comparing these two diseases, we found, COVID-19 has quicker and wider transmission, obvious family agglomeration, higher morbidity and mortality. 2020-05-14
Making Waves: Coronavirus detection, presence and persistence in the water environment: State of the art and knowledge needs for public health. The main route of transmission of the human coronaviruses (HCoVs), and presumably also of the new pandemic SARS-CoV-2, is via droplets and close contacts, however their fecal elimination also suggests the possible spread via water. 2020-05-25
Social Distancing and Incarceration: Policy and Management Strategies to Reduce COVID-19 Transmission and Promote Health Equity Through Decarceration. Prisons are epicenters for COVID-19 transmission, including to the community. 2020-05-29
Time Series Forecasting of COVID-19 transmission in Canada Using LSTM Networks. In addition to that, we compared transmission rates of Canada with Italy and USA. 2020-05-31
On a Comprehensive Model of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Under Mittag-Leffler Derivative. Finally, a brief discussion on conclusion about the simulation is given to describe how the transmission dynamics of infection take place in society. 2020-05-31
A multi-region discrete time mathematical modeling of the dynamics of Covid-19 virus propagation using optimal control. We study in this work a discrete mathematical model that describes the dynamics of transmission of the Corona virus between humans on the one hand and animals on the other hand in a region or in different regions. 2020-05-15
Serological Approaches for COVID-19: Epidemiologic Perspective on Surveillance and Control. Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has garnered global attention due to its rapid transmission, which has infected more than two million people worldwide. 2020-05-13
Early Prediction of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak in the Mainland China Based on Simple Mathematical Model. The improvement of medical care can also lead to about one-half transmission decrease and effectively shorten the duration of the 2019-nCoV. 2020-05-15
COVID-19 Trend Estimation in the Elderly Italian Region of Sardinia. Our aim is to investigate the current COVID-19 epidemiological context in Sardinia region (Italy) and to estimate the transmission parameters using a stochastic model to establish the number of infected, recovered, and deceased people expected. 2020-05-15
Role of the Eye in Transmitting Human Coronavirus: What We Know and What We Do Not Know. Currently, more information is needed so as to further understand the transmission and clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV infection and the infection control procedures required. […] The role of the eye in the transmission of 2019-nCoV is discussed in detail. […] Considering that close doctor-patient contact is quite common in ophthalmic practice and is apt to transmit human CoVs by droplets and fomites, strict hand hygiene and proper personal protection are highly recommended for health care workers to avoid hospital-related viral transmission during ophthalmic practice. 2020-05-15
ONLINE FORECASTING OF COVID-19 CASES IN NIGERIA USING LIMITED DATA. The application of mathematical models, artificial intelligence, big data, and similar methodologies are potential tools to predict the extent of the spread and effectiveness of containment strategies to stem the transmission of this disease. 2020-05-29
Detection of SARS-COV-2 in Placental and Fetal Membrane Samples. One recent review reported that in a small number of cases, two PCR swabs of the placenta were sent in additional to neonatal and cord blood testing, and both placental PCR swabs were negative.1 Other studies have demonstrated the finding of SARS-CoV2 IgM in neonates born to mothers diagnosed with COVID-19 during pregnancy,2,3 findings that may indicate vertical transmission of the virus in utero. […] While there were no clinical signs of vertical transmission, our findings raise the possibility of intrapartum viral exposure. […] For those infants who were delivered vaginally, contamination with vaginal secretions is also a possible source, although prior studies on vaginal secretions have failed to demonstrate the presence of COVID-19.5,6Although all of our neonates tested negative in the first 5 days of life, many were born via cesarean deliveries with decreased length of exposure to these tissues, which may be associated with a decreased likelihood of vertical transmission. […] Additionally, nasopharyngeal testing immediately after delivery may not be the ideal approach to evaluate vertical transmission if exposure occurs at the time of delivery, as the virus may require a longer incubation period before these swabs convert to positive. […] In summary, the presence of viral RNA by RT-PCR in placenta/membranes at the time of delivery suggests the need for further research into the possibility of vertical transmission. 2020-05-11
Clinical course of severe and critical COVID-19 in hospitalized pregnancies: a US cohort study. There were no stillbirths or neonatal deaths, or cases of vertical transmission. 2020-05-11
Infection control in dental health care during and after the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. COVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease caused by the widespread transmission of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. […] Others do not show any symptoms, but can still contribute to transmission of the virus. […] Aerosol generating procedures in dental health care can increase the risk of transmission of the virus. 2020-05-25
[Principles and suggestions on biosafety protection of biological specimen preservation during prevalence of COVID-19]. Emphasized to carry out a strict biosafety-risk assessment on biological specimen basing on virus load information, infectivity, and sample type (possible contact transmission, aerosol transmission, and fecal oral transmission). 2020-05-12
[Study on the epidemic development of COVID-19 in Hubei province by a modified SEIR model]. COVID-19 SEIR transmission dynamics model was established, which took transmission ability in latent period and tracking quarantine interventions into consideration. 2020-05-12
[Clinical experience of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in severe COVID-19 patients]. Finally, patients should wear a surgical mask during HFNC treatment to reduce the risk of virus transmission through droplets or aerosols. 2020-05-12
Containment of COVID-19 cases among healthcare workers: The role of surveillance, early detection, and outbreak management. Staff surveillance is crucial during the containment phase of a pandemic to help reduce potential healthcare-associated transmission and sustain good staff morale. […] During an outbreak of SARS-COV-2 with community transmission, our institution used an integrated strategy for early detection and containment of COVID-19 cases among healthcare workers (HCWs). […] Two of the cases were linked epidemiologically and thus constituted a COVID-19 cluster with intrahospital HCW-HCW transmission; we also detected 1 family cluster and 2 clusters among HCWs who shared accommodation. […] No transmission to HCWs or patients was detected after containment measures were instituted. […] With ongoing local transmission, vigilance must be maintained for intrahospital spread in nonclinical areas where social mingling of HCWs occurs. 2020-05-28
From plague to coronavirus: vessel trajectory data from ship automatic identification systems for epidemic modeling1. This data should be included in epidemiological models of disease transmission to complement air traffic data and inform operational responses. 2020-05-29
The role of cardiovascular imaging for myocardial injury in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Recent EACVI recommendations described the importance of limiting cardiovascular imaging during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to reduce virus transmission, protect healthcare professionals from contamination, and reduce consumption of personal protective equipment. 2020-05-29
SARS-CoV-2 Transmission from Presymptomatic Meeting Attendee, Germany. Our findings suggest hand shaking and face-to-face contact as possible modes of transmission. 2020-05-11
Household Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, Zhuhai, China, 2020. To illustrate the extent of transmission, identify affecting risk factors and estimate epidemiological modeling parameters of SARS-CoV-2 in household setting. 2020-05-29
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): What do we know about children? A systematic review. We aimed to understand the infection rate, clinical presentation, clinical outcomes and transmission dynamics for SARS-CoV-2, in order to inform clinical and public health measures. […] Severe cases are not reported in detail and there are little data relating to transmission. 2020-05-29
COVID-19: Generate and apply local modelled Transmission and Morbidity effects to provide an estimate of the variation in overall Relative Healthcare Resource Impact at General Practice Granularity. To analyse case incidence, the latest values for indicators that could be associated with infection transmission rates were collected from the Office of National Statistics (ONS) and Quality Outcome Framework (QOF) sources. 2020-05-11
Time Course of COVID-19 Cases in Austria. The first major outbreak in Europe occurred in Northern Italy where it spread to neighboring countries, notably to Austria, where skiing resorts served as a main transmission hub. 2020-05-18
COVID-19: animals, veterinary and zoonotic links. Identifying the possible zoonotic emergence and the exact mechanism responsible for its initial transmission will help us to design and implement appropriate preventive barriers against the further transmission of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-05-27
Aerosol-generating otolaryngology procedures and the need for enhanced PPE during the COVID-19 pandemic: a literature review. Adequate personal protective equipment is needed to reduce the rate of transmission of COVID-19 to health care workers. […] No other studies provide direct epidemiological evidence of increased aerosolized transmission of viruses during otolaryngology procedures. […] Cough and normal breathing create aerosols which may increase the risk of transmission during outpatient procedures. […] A significant proportion of individuals infected with COVID-19 may not have symptoms, raising the likelihood of transmission of the disease to inadequately protected health care workers from patients who do not have probable or confirmed infection. […] Powered air purifying respirators, if used properly, provide a greater level of filtration than N95 masks and thus may reduce the risk of transmission. 2020-05-14
Perceived infection transmission routes, infection control practices, psychosocial changes, and management of COVID-19 infected healthcare workers in a tertiary acute care hospital in Wuhan: a cross-sectional survey. The main perceived mode of transmission was not maintaining protection when working at a close distance and having intimate contact with infected cases. 2020-05-14
The Covid-19 panic and the global North-South divide - A perspective. The weakening of the interspecies transmission barrier between the animal and human interface has strengthened this fear. 2020-05-14
Managing COVID-19 infection in pediatric patients. Children account for an estimated 1% to 5% of those diagnosed with COVID-19.1 Even so, pre-school-aged children, infants, and children with underlying health conditions may still be at risk for severe disease and complications.2 Unique aspects of COVID-19 presentation and course in children and possible vertical transmission to newborns from COVID-19-positive mothers are discussed. 2020-05-16
The Influence of COVID-19 on Air Quality in India: A Boon or Inutile. Most countries including India have announced some sort of lockdown to reduce the effects of COVID-19 and discontinue the transmission of novel coronavirus. 2020-05-28
Chest CT features of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Prompt diagnosis of COVID-19 is essential to prevent disease transmission and provide close clinical observation of patients with clinically severe disease. 2020-05-12
Impacts of social and economic factors on the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. Stringent quarantines, city lockdowns, and local public health measures imposed in late January significantly decreased the virus transmission rate. 2020-05-15
The Challenges Of Urgent Radical Sigmoid Colorectal Cancer Resection In A COVID-19 Patient; A Case Report. First the unknown efficacy of pre-surgical risk stratification in COVID-19 positive patients, second the risk of aerosolized COVID-19 transmission during intubation for surgery, third the risk of fecal COVID-19 transmission to surgical staff during large bowel resection, and fourth the post-operative challenges of caring for COVID-19 positive patients. 2020-05-31
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): the portrait of a perfect storm. These many paradigmatic aspects include SARS-CoV-2 structure and peculiar biology of infection, high risk of inter-human transmission, long incubation time combined with early and sustained viral load, existence of asymptomatic or mildly-symptomatic carriers, viral shedding for days after symptom relief, unfavorable progression towards respiratory distress and death in up to 5-10% of patients thus causing dramatic healthcare challenges, as well as environmental contamination. […] Last but not least, the combination of the current case fatality rate with the extraordinary number of people that could be potentially infected by SARS-CoV-2 would permit to estimate that the worldwide deaths for COVID-19 may even approximate those recorded during World War II if appropriate restrictive measures for preventing human-to-human transmission are not readily undertaken. 2020-05-15
2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia with onset of dizziness: a case report. The respiratory tract is the main route of transmission of the virus, and the majority of symptoms are respiratory relative. 2020-05-15
Clinical and Radiographic Presentations of COVID-19 among Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Thoracic Malignancies. Given the high proportion of asymptomatic carriers and concerns regarding speed and availability of laboratory testing, novel detection strategies are necessary to supplement traditional screening methods and facilitate mitigation of viral transmission. 2020-05-15
Predicting COVID-19 in China Using Hybrid AI Model. First, as traditional epidemic models treat all individuals with coronavirus as having the same infection rate, an improved susceptible-infected (ISI) model is proposed to estimate the variety of the infection rates for analyzing the transmission laws and development trend. […] The experimental results on the epidemic data of several typical provinces and cities in China show that individuals with coronavirus have a higher infection rate within the third to eighth days after they were infected, which is more in line with the actual transmission laws of the epidemic. 2020-05-16
Elective Tracheostomy During Mechanical Ventilation in Patients Affected by COVID-19: Preliminary Case Series From Lombardy, Italy. Neither procedure-related complications nor viral transmission to health care workers was observed. 2020-05-12
Measures Undertaken in China to Avoid COVID-19 Infection: Internet-Based, Cross-Sectional Survey Study. Public prevention and control measures, along with efforts from all sectors of society, were undertaken to control and eliminate disease transmission. 2020-05-28
Clinical orthodontic management during the COVID-19 pandemic. Relevant to orthodontics, human-to human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurs predominantly through the respiratory tract via droplets, secretions (cough, sneeze), and or direct contact, where the virus enters the mucous membrane of the mouth, nose, and eyes. 2020-05-12
Covid-19 and neurodegeneration. What can we learn from the past? The genome sequencing demonstrated a 79.5% and 96.2% identity to SARS-CoV and a bat CoV genome, respectively, supporting the interspecies transmission and the origin of this new pandemia. 2020-05-12
Breath diagnostics in the era of SARS-CoV-2 - in clinical and research arena. Stringent infection control measures have been taken to minimise the transmission between individuals and healthcare workers, especially those undertaking aerosols generating medical procedures. […] The uncertainties surrounding infection transmission through breath tests in particular, and to some extent faecal testing, will invariably cause concerns among both the patients and the healthcare workers. 2020-05-12
The aerosol box for intubation in COVID-19 patients: an in-situ simulation crossover study. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the manufacturing of novel devices to protect clinicians from the risk of transmission, including the aerosol box for use in intubation. 2020-05-12
Epidemiological, clinical, and virological characteristics of 465 hospitalized cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from Zhejiang province in China. SARS-CoV-2 showed virological mutations and more human transmission in Zhejiang province, indicating considerable epidemiological and clinical changes. 2020-05-19
A Systematic Review Analyzing the Prevalence and Circulation of Influenza Viruses in Swine Population Worldwide. Multiple reports of the avian influenza virus strains documented in the last two decades in swine in China, the United States, Canada, South Korea, Nigeria, and Egypt provided the evidence of interspecies transmission of influenza viruses from birds to swine. […] Inter-species transmission of equine influenza virus H3N8 from horse to swine in China expanded the genetic diversity of swine influenza viruses. 2020-05-13
Saliva-Friend and Foe in the COVID-19 Outbreak. Saliva is a biofluid whose anatomical source and location is of particularly strategic relevance to COVID-19 transmission and monitoring. […] This review focuses on the role of saliva as both a foe (a common mode of viral transmission via salivary droplets and potentially aerosols) and a friend (as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for viral detection and immune status surveillance) in combating COVID-19. 2020-05-13
Analysis of Imported Cases of COVID-19 in Taiwan: A Nationwide Study. In conclusion, proactive border control measures are effective for preventing community transmission of this disease. 2020-05-18
SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19: Viral Genomics, Epidemiology, Vaccines, and Therapeutic Interventions. To address this global crisis, up-to-date information on viral genomics and transcriptomics is crucial for understanding the origins and global dispersion of the virus, providing insights into viral pathogenicity, transmission, and epidemiology, and enabling strategies for therapeutic interventions, drug discovery, and vaccine development. 2020-05-19
[Investigation of transmission chain of a cluster COVID-19 cases]. Objective: To analyze of the transmission characteristics of a cluster of COVID-19 cases in Chongqing and evaluate the infectivity of COVID-19 in the incubation period. Methods: A retrospective survey was conducted by using unified questionnaire through field and telephone interviews among 129 close contacts of COVID-19 cases. […] The relationship of transmission was indicated by transmission chain, and the infectivity was analyzed by the contact history. Results: This cluster of COVID-19 cases occurred after a classmate party involving members in three families and work fellows in a factory (R(0)=3.8). […] The more confined the space is, the higher the risk is,and the longer the single exposure is, the higher the risk of transmission is. […] Indirect contact transmission still exists. 目的: 分析新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)聚集疫情的传播特点,评价新型冠状病毒在潜伏期的传染性。 2020-05-13
[Investigation of a cluster epidemic of COVID-19 in Ningbo]. Objective: To investigate a cluster epidemic of COVID-19 after a mass gathering activity in Ningbo of Zhejiang province and analyze the transmission chain and status of infection cases of different generations. Methods: The tracking of all the close contacts of the first COVID-19 case and epidemiological investigation were conducted on January 29, 2020 after a cluster epidemic of COVID-19 related with a Buddhism rally on January 19 (the 1.19 rally) in Ningbo occurred. […] The main transmission routes included vehicle sharing and family transmission. Conclusion: It was a cluster epidemic of COVID-19 caused by a super spreader in a massive rally. 2020-05-13
[Study on transmission dynamic of 15 clusters of coronavirus disease 2019 cases in Ningbo]. According to the Tg calculated in this paper, the R(0) of COVID-19 in Ningbo was 3.06 (95%CI: 2.64 - 3.51); according to the reported case transmission interval of 7.5 days in the literature, the R(0) was 3.32 (95%CI: 2.51-9.38 ). Conclusion: There is no age and gender specific differences in the Tg of clusters of COVID-19 cases in Ningbo, and COVID-19 has high infectivity and spreading power in early phase. 目的: 描述新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)聚集性疫情病例的基本特征。 2020-05-13
Impact of international travel dynamics on domestic spread of 2019-nCoV in India: origin-based risk assessment in importation of infected travelers. The importation of the cases owing to enormous international travels from the affected countries is the foremost reason for local cycle of transmission. 2020-05-15
COVID-19 vulnerability: the potential impact of genetic susceptibility and airborne transmission. With the number of COVID-19 cases now exceeding 2 million worldwide, it is apparent that (i) transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is very high and (ii) there are large variations in disease severity, one component of which may be genetic variability in the response to the virus. […] In this mini-review, we highlight possible genetic determinants of COVID-19 and the contribution of aerosol exposure as a potentially important transmission route of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-05-14
COVID-19: lessons to date from China. Only a small fraction of neonates born to infected mother would acquire the virus by vertical transmission. […] Because a large proportion of children and adolescents may have asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic infection, children are likely to play an important role in community transmission of this infection. 2020-05-13
COVID-19 in Children, Pregnancy and Neonates: A Review of Epidemiologic and Clinical Features. Four neonates (3 with pneumonia) have been reported to be SARS-CoV-2 positive despite strict infection control and prevention procedures during delivery and separation of mother and neonates, meaning vertical transmission could not be excluded. 2020-05-18
COVID-19 Pandemic and its Impact on Craniofacial Surgery. Factors this impact SARS-CoV-2 transmission include: (1) high viral loads in the mucosa of the oral and nasopharynx, (2) limited and/or imprecise disease screening/confirmation testing, (3) access to and appropriate use of personal protective equipment (PPE). 2020-05-13
COVID-19 and the Efficacy of Different Types of Respiratory Protective Equipment Used by Health Care Providers in a Health Care Setting. With increasing numbers of infected patients presenting daily, health care workers are struggling to take effective measures to protect themselves from transmission against the highly contagious coronavirus. 2020-05-16
Public activities preceding the onset of acute respiratory infection syndromes in adults in England - implications for the use of social distancing to control pandemic respiratory infections. This suggests social distancing measures can have an important impact on slowing transmission of emerging respiratory infections. 2020-05-16
Early transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in a southern hemisphere setting: Lima-Peru: February 29th-March 30th, 2020. We assessed the early COVID-19 transmission dynamics and the effect of social distancing interventions in Lima, Peru. […] We estimated the reproduction number, R, during the early transmission phase in Lima from the daily series of imported and autochthonous cases by the date of symptoms onset as of March 30th, 2020. […] We also assessed the effect of social distancing interventions in Lima by generating short-term forecasts grounded on the early transmission dynamics before interventions were put in place. […] While the interventions appear to have slowed the transmission rate in Lima, the number of new COVID-19 cases continue to accumulate, highlighting the need to strengthen social distancing and active case finding efforts to mitigate disease transmission in the region. 2020-05-29
A case of coronavirus disease 2019-infected liver transplant donor. In this case, the donor-derived transmission to the recipient was not identified, and the liver donor was found to be recovering from a COVID-19 infection. […] The donor-derived transmission was not identified. 2020-05-13
The importance of repeat testing in detecting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a coronary artery bypass grafting patient. While elective cardiac surgeries have been postponed to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission and to reduce resource utilization, patients with urgent indications necessitating surgery may still be at risk of contracting the disease throughout their postoperative recovery. 2020-05-13
Use of SARS-CoV-2 infected deceased organ donors: Should we always “just say no?” In this manuscript, we critically examine the available data on the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through organ transplantation. 2020-05-13
Coordinated responses of academic medical centres to pandemics: Sustaining medical education during COVID-19. Key decisions from the pandemic response teams that help to minimise major disruptions in medical education and to control disease transmissions include: minimising inter-cluster cross contaminations and plans for segregation within and among cohorts; reshuffling academic calendars; postponing or restructuring assessments.Conclusions: While minimising the transmission of the pandemic outbreak within the healthcare establishments is paramount, medical education and research activities cannot come to a standstill each time there is a threat of one. 2020-05-13
Mining the Characteristics of COVID-19 Patients in China: Analysis of Social Media Posts. Identified as the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the number of cases grew rapidly by human-to-human transmission in Wuhan. […] Therefore, we recommend the following: (1) the most stringent centralized medical observation measures should be taken to avoid transmission in family clusters; and (2) social media can help these patients get early attention during Wuhan’s lockdown. 2020-05-28
COVID-19 infection during pregnancy: fetus as a patient deserves more attention. Most of the reported cases focused specifically on the maternal outcomes and possible vertical transmission, but less attention has been paid to fetus as a patient in such pregnancies. 2020-05-13
Are Covid-19-positive mothers dangerous for their term and well newborn babies? Is there an answer? Passing through the birthing canal is a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of vaginal and gut microorganisms for the vertical transmission of microbiota not only from our mothers and grandmothers but also from earlier ancestors. 2020-05-13
Managing haematology and oncology patients during the COVID-19 pandemic: interim consensus guidance. Community transmission of COVID-19 could overwhelm health care services, compromising delivery of cancer care. 2020-05-31
Protecting dental manpower from COVID 19 infection. While the transmission of COVID 19 via human ex-haled droplets and direct contact is clear, the potential for aerosol transmission is a significant risk particularly for dental practices. 2020-05-13
Biological and social aspects of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) related to oral health. Especially in dentistry, there is a growing concern due to it’s high virulence and routes of transmission through saliva aerosols. 2020-05-19
Importation and early local transmission of COVID-19 in Brazil, 2020. Rapid sequencing coupled with phylogenetic analyses in the context of travel history corroborate multiple independent importations from Italy and local spread during the initial stage of COVID-19 transmission in Brazil. 2020-05-19
Possible environmental effects on the spread of COVID-19 in China. Understanding the potential affecting factors involved in COVID-19 transmission will be of great significance in containing the spread of the epidemic. […] The AQI effect on the confirmed cases might be stronger in the temperature range of 10 °C ≤ T < 20 °C than in other temperature ranges, while the RR of COVID-19 transmission associated with AQI was higher in the relative humidity (RH) range of 10% ≤ RH < 20%. 2020-05-31
Vertical Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2: A Systematic Review. The aim of this study is to summarize currently available evidence on vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] However, without positive RT-PCR tests of amniotic fluid, placenta, or cord blood, there is a lack of virologic evidence for intrauterine vertical transmission. […] There is currently no direct evidence to support intrauterine vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. […] Additional RT-PCR tests on amniotic fluid, placenta, and cord blood are needed to ascertain the possibility of intrauterine vertical transmission. […] · No direct virologic evidence of vertical transmission has been reported.. 2020-05-13
Safe performance of diagnostic bronchoscopy/EBUS during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We must also continue to aim for the same standard of care for our non-COVID respiratory patients, while minimizing risks of infection transmission to our colleagues. […] This commentary addresses the key paired issues of minimizing performance of diagnostic/staging bronchoscopy in patients with suspected/known lung cancer while maximizing the safety of the procedure with respect to HCW transmission of COVID-19. 2020-05-13
Hand Sanitizers: A Review on Formulation Aspects, Adverse Effects, and Regulations. Particularly in situations like pandemic outbreak, it is crucial to interrupt the transmission chain of the virus by the practice of proper hand sanitization. 2020-05-14
EAPCI Position Statement on Invasive Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes during the COVID-19 pandemic. The transmission of the disease poses a risk to both patients and healthcare workers. 2020-05-14
The airborne lifetime of small speech droplets and their potential importance in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Speech droplets generated by asymptomatic carriers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are increasingly considered to be a likely mode of disease transmission. […] These observations confirm that there is a substantial probability that normal speaking causes airborne virus transmission in confined environments. 2020-05-14
TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 promote SARS-CoV-2 infection of human small intestinal enterocytes. However, it is unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 replicates in the human intestine and contributes to possible fecal-oral transmission. 2020-05-18
Best Practice Guidelines for the Management of Acute Craniomaxillofacial Trauma During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Surgical procedures involving the nasal, oral, or pharyngeal mucosa carry a high risk of transmission due to aerosolization of the virus which is known to be in high concentration in these areas. […] Intraoperative exposure to high viral loads through aerosolization carries a very high risk of transmission, and the severity of the disease contracted in this manner is worse than that transmitted through regular community transmission. 2020-05-14
Personal Protective Equipment and COVID-19: A Review for Surgeons. : There is a long history of personal protective equipment (PPE) used by the surgeon to minimize the transmission of various pathogens. 2020-05-14
Emerging Attack and Management Strategies for Nuclear Medicine in Responding to COVID-19-ACNM Member Experience and Advice. As the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as “global pandemic,” it is important for everyone, including nuclear medicine personnel, to know how to stop transmission, contain, and prevent the spread of COVID-19. 2020-05-14
Infection of bat and human intestinal organoids by SARS-CoV-2. The robust SARS-CoV-2 replication in human intestinal organoids suggests that the human intestinal tract might be a transmission route of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-05-14
Estimating excess 1-year mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic according to underlying conditions and age: a population-based cohort study. We estimated the excess number of deaths over 1 year under different COVID-19 incidence scenarios based on varying levels of transmission suppression and differing mortality impacts based on different relative risks for the disease. 2020-05-31
The COVID-19 Pandemic and its Impact on Substance Use: Implications for Prevention and Treatment. In addition, this population are potential vectors of transmission. […] Addiction care must be reinforced, instead of postponed, in order to avoid complications of both SUD and COVID-19 and to prevent the transmission of coronavirus. 2020-05-22
Precautions and recommendations for orthodontic settings during the COVID-19 outbreak: A review. The infection is highly contagious with disease transmission reported from asymptomatic carriers, including children. […] This should help increase awareness, reinforce infection control and prevent cross-transmission within the orthodontic facility. […] A comprehensive literature review of English and non-English articles was performed in March, 2020 using (CORD-19 2020) dataset, PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar to search for infection control and disease transmission in orthodontics. […] Although no cases of COVID-19 cross-transmission within a dental facility have been reported, the risk exists and the disease is still emerging. 2020-05-14
2019-nCoV - Towards a 4th generation vaccine. Three weeks later, the World Health Organization declared that 2019-nCoV was capable of direct human-to-human transmission, the virus had spread across several countries in three continents, and had infected close to two thousand people, of whom at least 1 in 5 quite severely. 2020-05-16
Gastrointestinal and Liver Manifestations of COVID-19. Although viral RNA can be detected in stool, it is unclear whether fecal-oral transmission can be achieved by the virus. 2020-05-16
Comparative review of respiratory diseases caused by coronaviruses and influenza A viruses during epidemic season. This is a discussion and comparison of the virus structures, transmission characteristics, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, pathological changes, treatment and prevention of the two kinds of viruses, CoVs and IAVs. 2020-05-23
COVID-19 transmission and blood transfusion: A case report. Although person-to-person transmission of the etiologic agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been confirmed, it is not known whether COVID-19 may be transmitted by blood transfusion. […] Several cases in which specific viral RNA could be detected in the serum from patients with COVID-19 have already been reported; these findings suggest that blood donation may be an unexplored route of transmission. 2020-05-16
EAPCI Position Statement on Invasive Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes during the COVID-19 pandemic. The transmission of the disease poses a risk to both patients and healthcare workers. 2020-05-20
Knowledge and Perception Towards Universal Safety Precautions During Early Phase of the COVID-19 Outbreak in Nepal. Although participants’ overall knowledge score was high, only about half of the participants knew about the concept of quarantine and the ideal distance to be maintained between individuals to prevent the transmission. 2020-05-16
COVID-19 IN THE LONG-TERM CARE SETTING: THE CMS PERSPECTIVE. Goals for these policies and waivers include to increase capacity, enhance workforce and capability, improve oversight and transparency, prevent COVID-19 transmission and reduce provider burden. 2020-05-14
The ocular surface, coronaviruses and COVID-19. Necessary precautions to prevent person-to-person transmission should be employed in clinical practice throughout the pandemic, and patients should be reminded to maintain good hygiene practices. 2020-05-14
What every orthopaedic surgeon should know about COVID-19: A review of the current literature. Herein, we cover the background of COVID-19, presentation, investigations, transmission, infection control and touch upon emerging treatments. 2020-05-29
A model based study on the dynamics of COVID-19: Prediction and control. Motivated by this, in this article, we have formulated a mathematical model introducing a quarantine class and governmental intervention measures to mitigate disease transmission. 2020-05-16
Positive detection of SARS-CoV-2 combined HSV1 and HHV6B virus nucleic acid in tear and conjunctival secretions of a non-conjunctivitis COVID-19 patient with obstruction of common lacrimal duct. Respiratory droplets and contaction with infected patients are the two major transmission routes. 2020-05-14
Awareness and preparedness of Field Epidemiology Training Program graduates in the Eastern Mediterranean Region to respond to COVID-19: A cross-section study. The vast majority were aware of the main symptoms, mode of transmission, high risk groups, and aware of how to use personal protective equipment. 2020-05-14
Identification and Monitoring of International Travelers During the Initial Phase of an Outbreak of COVID-19 - California, February 3-March 17, 2020. The threat of introduction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) into the United States with the potential for community transmission prompted U.S. federal officials in February 2020 to screen travelers from China, and later Iran, and collect and transmit their demographic and contact information to states for follow-up. […] Effectiveness of COVID-19 screening and monitoring in travelers to California was limited by incomplete traveler information received by federal officials and transmitted to states, the number of travelers needing follow-up, and the potential for presymptomatic and asymptomatic transmission. 2020-05-15
Public Health Response to COVID-19 Cases in Correctional and Detention Facilities - Louisiana, March-April 2020. Thus, high rates of COVID-19 in correctional and detention facilities also have the potential to influence broader community transmission. […] Administrators had awareness and overall understanding of CDC guidance for prevention of transmission in these facilities but reported challenges in implementation, related to limited space to quarantine close contacts of COVID-19 patients and inability of incarcerated and detained persons to engage in social distancing, particularly in dormitory-style housing. […] CMAR was a useful tool that helped state and federal public health officials assist multiple correctional and detention facilities to better manage COVID-19 patients and guide control activities to prevent or mitigate transmission. 2020-05-15
High SARS-CoV-2 Attack Rate Following Exposure at a Choir Practice - Skagit County, Washington, March 2020. The 2.5-hour singing practice provided several opportunities for droplet and fomite transmission, including members sitting close to one another, sharing snacks, and stacking chairs at the end of the practice. […] The act of singing, itself, might have contributed to transmission through emission of aerosols, which is affected by loudness of vocalization (1). […] These data demonstrate the high transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 and the possibility of superemitters contributing to broad transmission in certain unique activities and circumstances. […] It is recommended that persons avoid face-to-face contact with others, not gather in groups, avoid crowded places, maintain physical distancing of at least 6 feet to reduce transmission, and wear cloth face coverings in public settings where other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain. 2020-05-15
Preliminary Estimate of Excess Mortality During the COVID-19 Outbreak - New York City, March 11-May 2, 2020. The objective of this report is to provide an estimate of all-cause excess deaths that have occurred in NYC in the setting of widespread community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-05-15
Genomic epidemiology, evolution, and transmission dynamics of porcine deltacoronavirus. Finally, our phylogeographic investigations highlighted notable South-North transmission as well as frequent long-distance dispersal events in China that could implicate human-mediated transmission. […] Coronaviruses (CoVs) exhibit a pronounced propensity for interspecies transmission as illustrated by important emerging viruses in humans such as severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome virus (MERS)-CoV, as well as the recent SARS-CoV-2 that is causing a major human pandemic. […] A better understanding of the evolutionary process leading to viral emergence may help unravel the principles of cross-species transmission and therefore assist in preventing future introductions into new host populations. […] Our study provides a deeper understanding of the geographic dispersal of genetic lineages of PDCoV in China and suggests that southern China acted as a source of transmission. 2020-05-14
Impact of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on surgical practice - Part 1 (Review Article). The impact of COVID-19 on surgical practice is widespread ranging from workforce and staffing issues, procedural prioritisation, viral transmission risk intraoperatively, changes to perioperative practice and ways of working alongside the impact on surgical education and training. 2020-05-16
Environmental contamination by SARS-CoV-2 in a designated hospital for coronavirus disease 2019. COVID-19 is characterized by risk of nosocomial transmission; however, the extent of environmental contamination and its potential contribution of environmental contamination to SARS-CoV-2 transmission are poorly understood. […] This study aimed to investigate whether environmental contamination may play a role in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. […] Most of the touchable surfaces in the designated hospital for COVID-19 were heavily contaminated, suggesting that the environment is a potential medium of disease transmission. 2020-05-31
The epidemiology of reverse transmission of COVID-19 in Gansu Province, China. The transmission of COVID-19 is about to come under control within China, however, an emerging challenge to the Chinese authorities is reverse transmission due to COVID-19 patients/carriers evacuating from overseas to China. […] Blocking the reverse transmission of COVID-19 is critical in preventing a secondary outbreak of COVID-19. 2020-05-17
The dark cloud with a silver lining: Assessing the impact of the SARS COVID-19 pandemic on the global environment. While the majority of the cases were recorded from Western countries, where mortality rates were strongly positively correlated with age, the number of cases in tropical regions was relatively lower than European and North American regions, possibly attributed to faster human-to-human transmission. 2020-05-28
COVID-19 outbreak in Iraqi Kurdistan: The first report characterizing epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings of the disease. All COVID-19 cases were linked to foreign visits with few local transmissions to close contacts without community transmission. 2020-05-27
Infection of dogs with SARS-CoV-2. The evidence suggests that these are instances of human-to-animal transmission of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-05-14
Pathogenesis and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in golden hamsters. Transmission via fomites in soiled cages was less efficient. 2020-05-14
Association between ambient temperature and COVID-19 infection in 122 cities from China. Both epidemiological and laboratory studies have shown that ambient temperature could affect the transmission and survival of coronaviruses. 2020-05-16
View of Pakistani Residents toward Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) during a Rapid Outbreak: A Rapid Online Survey. Public understanding, including knowledge about signs and symptoms, mode of transmission, and hygiene of COVID-19, is vital for designing effective control strategies during a public health crisis. […] Questions were focused on the prevention, transmission, clinical features, and control of COVID-19. 2020-05-16
Korean clinical practice guidelines for preventing transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in hemodialysis facilities. Patients receiving hemodialysis are more vulnerable to viral transmission because their immune functions are impaired and they receive treatment within a narrow space. […] This special article introduces clinical practice guidelines to prevent secondary transmission of COVID-19 within hemodialysis facilities, which were developed to protect patients, healthcare workers, and caregivers from this highly transmissible virus. 2020-05-15
Rhinologic Procedures in the Era of COVID-19: Health-care Provider Protection Protocol. SARS-CoV-2 has human-to-human transmission ability and universally contagious to all populations. […] The main transmission patterns are respiratory droplets transmission and contact transmission. […] A prospective cohort study was conducted to show the efficacy of our protocol to prevent transmission to health-care providers from March 11, 2020 through April 14, 2020. […] According to our proposed protocol, we were able to provide care for all patients in clinic, hospital, emergent, intensive, and surgical settings with no transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by symptomatology and post evaluation testing. 2020-05-16
Improving the quality of care in pregnancy and childbirth with coronavirus (COVID-19): a systematic review. The results of the systematic review of the existing literature are presented in the following nine sections: Symptoms of the COVID-19 in pregnancy, Pregnancy management, Delivery Management, Mode of delivery, Recommendations for health care provider in delivery, Neonatal outcomes, Neonatal care, Vertical Transmission, Breastfeeding. 2020-05-15
Virus transmission during orthopedic surgery on patients with COVID-19 - a brief narrative review. Results - Transmission of infectious viruses from patient to surgeon during surgery is possible, but does not appear to be a considerable problem in clinical practice. […] Due to the lack of studies and reports, the possibility of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from patient to surgeon during droplet- and aerosol-generating procedures is unknown.Interpretation - Surgical masks should be used only in combination with a widely covering visor and when a respirator (N95, FFP2, P3) is not made available. 2020-05-15
Current knowledge of COVID-19 and infection prevention and control strategies in healthcare settings: A global analysis. In the current absence of a vaccine for COVID-19, public health responses aim to break the chain of infection by focusing on the mode of transmission. […] We reviewed the current evidence on the transmission dynamics and on pathogenic and clinical features of COVID-19 to critically identify any gaps in the current infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines. […] We extracted information related to COVID-19 transmission dynamics, clinical presentations, and exposures that may facilitate transmission. […] Nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare settings occurs through droplets, aerosols, and the oral-fecal or fecal-droplet route. […] However, the IPC guidelines fail to cover all transmission modes, and the recommendations also conflict with each other. […] IPC strategies should consider all the possible routes of transmission and should target all patient care activities involving risk of person-to-person transmission. 2020-05-29
Ethical and Logistical Considerations of Caring for Older Adults on Inpatient Psychiatry During the COVID-19 Pandemic. We review measures taken to decrease risk of transmission and improve screening for infection in older adults. 2020-05-18
Recommendations for eye care during the alarm state by the coronavirus disease pandemic COVID-19. Minimize exposure to the SARS-CoV-2, reduce the chances of cross-transmission between patients and healthcare personnel, and prevent the development of postoperative complications from the management of patients with eye diseases during the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19). 2020-05-17
Safe management of bodies of deceased persons with suspected or confirmed COVID-19: a rapid systematic review. The study provided very low-certainty evidence that it reduced the risk of transmission. 2020-05-19
Home monitoring for COVID-19. Cleveland Clinic recognized the importance of mitigating community transmission of COVID-19 by keeping people at home. 2020-05-15
Delivering urgent urological surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom: Outcomes from our initial 52 patients. Transmission of the virus (SARS-CoV-2) is via direct contact or via droplets spread by a cough or sneeze from an infected individual. 2020-05-15
Brachytherapy during the coronavirus disease 2019 - Lessons from Iran. Brachytherapy provides an opportunity for the patients and the physicians during the COVID-19 outbreak; it can retain the patient’s chance for treatment while limiting the chance of exposure and transmission of infection. 2020-05-16
COVID-19 social distancing and sexual activity in a sample of the British Public. On 23rd March 2020 the UK government released self-isolation guidance to reduce the risk of transmission of SARS-Cov-2. 2020-05-18
Acute asthma management during SARS-CoV2-pandemic 2020. Since nosocomial transmission of respiratory pathogens is a major threat in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, use of nebulised therapy is of even greater concern due to the potential increased risk of infection spread to nearby patients and health-care workers. […] Protocols that include strategies to allow flexibility in using MDIs rather than nebulisers in all but the most severe patients should help mitigate this risk of aerosolised infection transmission to patients and health care providers. 2020-05-15
Cardiovascular Clinical Trials in a Pandemic: Immediate Implications of Coronavirus Disease 2019. Despite diverse societal measures to reduce transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, such as implementing social distancing, quarantine, curfews and total lockdowns, its control remains challenging. 2020-05-16
Geographic access to United States SARS-CoV-2 testing sites highlights healthcare disparities and may bias transmission estimates. Differential geographic accessibility to testing can recapitulate healthcare disparities and bias transmission estimates. 2020-05-29
Call to action for a South American network to fight COVID-19 in pregnancy. Local transmission has followed a geometric progression [2]. 2020-05-15
COVID-19 and ophthalmology: an underappreciated occupational hazard. Although SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in the conjunctival secretions or tears of patients with COVID-19 and conjunctivitis, transmission of infection through respiratory droplets to ophthalmologists without eye protection or masks may be the bigger concern. 2020-05-30
A snapshot of SARS-CoV-2 genome availability up to April 2020 and its implications. At the present time, studies assessing within country spread or transmission clusters should be considered preliminary at best, or hypothesis generating. 2020-05-15
Use of a Real-Time Locating System for Contact Tracing of Health Care Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic at an Infectious Disease Center in Singapore: Validation Study. In early 2020, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged and spread by community and nosocomial transmission. 2020-05-29
The new coronavirus that came from the East: analysis of the initial epidemic in Mexico. To analyze data on the first 1,510 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Mexico, and to describe the geographical distribution of the disease and its transmission dynamics. […] Description of the first COVID-19 cases with real-time RT-PCR-positive test, as well as evaluation of epidemiological measures, cumulative incidence, rate of transmission, and mortality and lethality rates during the first month of the epidemic. […] In Mexico, social distancing is being applied, but studies are still required on the dynamics of the epidemic, person-to-person transmission, incidence of subclinical infections, and patient survival. 2020-05-15
COVID-19: A Worldwide, Zoonotic, Pandemic Outbreak. Researchers have been examining human-to-human transmission, the possibility of an intermediate host between bats and humans, and the existence of asymptomatic cases. 2020-05-15
[Protecting Medical Professionals from Infection During the Coronavirus Pandemic: Overnight Implementation of Virtual Medical Boards]. For medical professionals in hospitals, it is nearly impossible to abide by the rules of social distancing to prevent coronavirus transmission. […] Most errors occurred during first-time participation and concerned audio transmission. […] Virtual boards for medical staff can be implemented with minimal effort und standard technical gear to slow down the transmission of coronavirus among medical professionals in the hospital setting. 2020-05-15
Global Transmission, Spatial Segregation, and Recombination Determine the Long-Term Evolution and Epidemiology of Bovine Coronaviruses. Little evidence of genetic mixing between the spatially segregated lineages was found, suggesting that BCoV genetic diversity is a result of a global transmission pathway that occurred during the last century. 2020-05-18
Pearls of experience for safe and efficient hospital practices in otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery in Hong Kong during the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. In Hong Kong, clinicians and other healthcare personnel collaborated closely to combat the outbreak of COVID-19 and minimize the cross-transmission of disease among hospital staff members. 2020-05-20
Airway management considerations in patients with COVID-19. The key to minimizing risk of disease transmission during this aerosol-generating procedure is careful preparation, which includes having necessary equipment and medications on hand as well as an experienced intubation team who can troubleshoot any unforeseen complications. 2020-05-16
Neurosurgery and Neurology Practices during the Novel COVID-19 Pandemic: A Consensus Statement from India. The long incubation period, high infectious rate, varied manifestation, and absence of effective treatment make it difficult to manage the disease transmission. 2020-05-20
Proposal of a timing strategy for cholesteatoma surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 infection is an aggressive viral illness with high risk of transmission during otolaryngology examination and surgery. 2020-05-19
Modeling COVID-19 and Its Impacts on U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Detention Facilities, 2020. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) facilities house thousands of undocumented immigrants in environments discordant with the public health recommendations to reduce the transmission of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). […] Using ICE detainee population data obtained from the ICE Enforcement and Removal Operations (ERO) website as of March 2, 2020, we implemented a simple stochastic susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered model to estimate the rate of COVID-19 transmission within 111 ICE detention facilities and then examined impacts on regional hospital intensive care unit (ICU) capacity. […] Models considered three scenarios of transmission (optimistic, moderate, pessimistic) over 30-, 60-, and 90-day time horizons across a range of facility sizes. 2020-05-19
The Views of Medical Faculty Students in Turkey Concerning the COVID-19 Pandemic. Use can be made of medical students in the transmission of accurate information during the COVID-19 pandemic. […] Measures therefore need to be taken concerning the transmission of up to date and accurate information to medical students. 2020-05-19
The role of environmental factors to transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Human-to-human transmission of the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurs most often when people are in the incubation stage of the disease or are carriers and have no symptoms. […] Therefore, in this study, was discussed the role of environmental factors and conditions such as temperature, humidity, wind speed as well as food, water and sewage, air, insects, inanimate surfaces, and hands in COVID-19 transmission. […] Also, SARS-COV-2 transmission through food, food packages, and food handlers has not been identified as a risk factor for the disease. […] There have been no reports of SARS-COV-2 transmission by blood-feeding arthropods such as mosquitoes. 2020-05-19
Australian and New Zealand consensus statement on the management of lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and myeloma during the COVID-19 pandemic. Specific decisions regarding therapy of haematological malignancies will need to be individualised, based on disease risk, risks of immunosuppression, rates of community transmission of COVID-19 and available local healthcare resources. 2020-05-16
Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms of Health Care Workers during the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 outbreak is unique in its rapid transmission and results in heavy stress for the front-line health care workers (HCWs). 2020-05-16
COVID-19 Pandemic: Consensus Guidelines for Preferred Practices in an Aesthetic Clinic. Procedures were categorized into low-risk, moderate risk, and high-risk based on the likelihood of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus from the patient to the treating physician or therapist. 2020-05-16
Capability, opportunity, and motivation to enact hygienic practices in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in the United Kingdom. This study aimed to explore influences on hygienic practices, a set of key transmission behaviours, in relation to the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B) model of behaviour change (Michie et al., 2011). […] Interventions should focus on increasing and maintaining motivation to act and include elements that promote and maintain social support and knowledge of COVID-19 transmission. 2020-05-16
Assessing the Effects of Metropolitan-Wide Quarantine on the Spread of COVID-19 in Public Space and Households. Hubei province in China has completed cycle of quarantine-resumption in 23rd Janauary and 8th April 2020, providing a unique opportunity as for now to assess its intervention impact and the pattern of SARS-COV-2 transmission during the quarantine period. […] In this study, we evaluate the impact of the metropolitan-wide quarantine on the trend and transmission route of the COVID-19 epidemic in Hubei, China. […] Household transmission is the dominant route of disease spread regardless of quarantine. 2020-05-18
Effects of air pollutants on the transmission and severity of respiratory viral infections. The present literature review was aimed at assessing the potential effects of air pollutants on the transmission and severity of respiratory viral infections. […] Given the undoubted importance and topicality of the subject, we have paid special attention to the association between air pollutants and the transmission and severity of the effects caused by the coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2, which causes the COVID-19. 2020-05-29
Estimation of airborne viral emission: Quanta emission rate of SARS-CoV-2 for infection risk assessment. Airborne transmission is a pathway of contagion that is still not sufficiently investigated despite the evidence in the scientific literature of the role it can play in the context of an epidemic. […] While the medical research area dedicates efforts to find cures and remedies to counteract the effects of a virus, the engineering area is involved in providing risk assessments in indoor environments by simulating the airborne transmission of the virus during an epidemic. 2020-05-22
Impact of building ventilation systems and habitual indoor incense burning on SARS-CoV-2 virus transmissions in Middle Eastern countries. Most importantly, habitual indoor burning of incense which is the major source of coarse (PM10; aerodynamic diameter <10 μm) and fine (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm) particulate matters (PM) could facilitate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus droplets and particles in indoor environments. 2020-05-29
Spillover of SARS-CoV-2 into novel wild hosts in North America: A conceptual model for perpetuation of the pathogen. This proposed model is premised on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from human feces through municipal waste water treatment plants into the natural aquatic environment where potential wildlife hosts become infected. 2020-05-29
Pandemic Recovery Using a Covid-Minimal Cancer Surgery Pathway. The “Covid-minimal surgery pathway” is a predetermined patient flow, that dictates the locations, personnel and materials that come in contact with our cancer surgery population, designed to minimize risk for virus transmission. 2020-05-22
SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed only by cell culture isolation before the local outbreak in an Italian seven-week-old suckling baby. Later a cytopathic effect on the cell monolayers currently used for respiratory viruses was observed and the viral particles were identified as Coronaviridae by transmission electron microscopy. 2020-05-20
Characterisation of COVID-19 Pandemic in Paediatric Age Group: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyse the disease characterisation in paediatric age group including the possibility of vertical transmission to the neonates. […] Vertical transmission and virus shedding in breast milk are yet to be established. 2020-05-29
Guidance for clinical neurophysiology examination throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Latin American chapter of the IFCN task force - COVID-19. The main route of transmission of SARS-CoV2 is through respiratory secretions and direct contact with contaminated surfaces and material. 2020-05-29
Monitoring disease transmissibility of 2019 novel coronavirus disease in Zhejiang, China. Even though Zhejiang was one of the worst-affected provinces, an interruption of disease transmission (i.e. instantaneous reproduction numbers <1) was observed in early/mid-February after a comprehensive set of interventions combating the outbreak. 2020-05-29
Zero tolerance for complacency by government of West African countries in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. At this very moment countries like China, Italy, France, Spain, Iran, UK and many others are witnessing sustained and intensive community transmission of this virus and increasing numbers of severe disease and death particularly among elderly patients with other comorbidities. 2020-05-17
The changing landscape of SARS-CoV-2: Implications for the maternal-infant dyad. The rate of rapid dissemination, magnitude of viral contagiousness, person to person transmission at an asymptomatic phase of illness pose a unique and dangerous challenge for all patients, including neonatal and obstetric patients. […] Although scientific understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, nature of transmission, and efficacy of mitigation strategies grow, neither a cure or vaccine have been developed. […] Case reports of pregnant patients demonstrate a clinical presentation comparable to non-pregnant adults, but evidence of vertical transmission to the fetus is controversial. 2020-05-17
Hazardous Postoperative Outcomes of Unexpected COVID-19 Infected Patients: A Call for Global Consideration of Sampling all Asymptomatic Patients Before Surgical Treatment. Synthesis of these reports, concerning the postoperative outcomes of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 during the perioperative period, suggested a 14/51 (27.5%) postoperative mortality rate and severe mostly pulmonic complications, as well as medical staff exposure and transmission. 2020-05-20
Rapid response in the COVID-19 pandemic: a Delphi study from the European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group. Main themes encompassed testing strategies and results (n = 4), changes in use of current therapeutics (n = 3), preventive measurements of transmission and management of COVID-19 (n = 3), and changes in standard clinical care (n = 3). 2020-05-20
Reproductive health paradigms in times of COVID-19. It is eminently clear that reducing or discontinuing elective procedures and essential ART treatments was crucial not only to enable hospitals and medical facilities to manage (or to treat) the explosive rise in SARS-CoV-2 patients, but also to reduce disease transmission vis-à-vis various mitigating strategies-especially individual isolation and social distancing, strategies utilized effectively in China and Italy. 2020-05-17
Children with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review of Demographic, Clinical, Laboratory and Imaging Features in 2,597 Pediatric Patients. Our analysis may contribute to determine the spectrum of disease in children, as well as to develop strategies to control the disease transmission. 2020-05-17
Persistent viral shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in faeces - a rapid review. In addition to respiratory symptoms, COVID-19 can present with gastrointestinal complaints suggesting possible faeco-oral transmission. […] Data were extracted concerning the type of test, number and timing of positive samples, incidence of positive faecal tests after negative nasopharyngeal swabs and evidence of viable faecal virus or faeco-oral transmission of the virus. […] Further research is needed to confirm if this virus is viable and the degree of transmission through the faeco-oral route. 2020-05-17
Infection control measures in ophthalmology during the COVID-19 outbreak: A narrative review from an early experience in Italy. Public health response includes a rapid reorganization of the Italian National Healthcare System in order to reduce transmission of COVID-19 within hospitals and healthcare facilities, while optimizing the assistance to patients with severe COVID-19 complications. […] Containment measures in the event of pandemic due to infective agents should be well known by healthcare professionals and promptly applied in order to mitigate the risk of nosocomial transmission and outbreak. 2020-05-18
Back-projection of COVID-19 diagnosis counts to assess infection incidence and control measures: analysis of Australian data. Automated data analytics of routinely collected surveillance data are a valuable monitoring tool for the COVID-19 pandemic and may be useful for calibrating transmission dynamics models. 2020-05-29
How to reduce the potential risk of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during vaginal delivery? The risk of vertical transmission during vaginal delivery in COVID-19 pregnant patients is currently a topic of debate. 2020-05-26
A deep dive into testing and management of COVID-19 for Australian high performance and professional sport. The purpose of testing for any communicable disease is to support clinicians in the diagnosis and management of individual patients and to describe transmission dynamics. 2020-05-22
Revised Triage and Surveillance Protocols for Temporary Emergency Department Closures in Tertiary Hospitals as a Response to COVID-19 Crisis in Daegu Metropolitan City. When an emergency-care patient is diagnosed with an emerging infectious disease, hospitals in Korea may temporarily close their emergency departments (EDs) to prevent nosocomial transmission. 2020-05-19
COVID 19 in neonates. The predominant mode of transmission is via droplet spread, when the infected person coughs, sneezes or talks the virus is released in the respiratory secretions. […] As there are only a few cases of COVID 19 in neonates, there is no convincing evidence to support the possibility of vertical transmission. […] Since there is no approved treatment or drug for this disease, prevention of infection and breaking the chain of transmission plays a crucial role. 2020-05-18
Case Report: COVID-19 Presenting as Acute Undifferentiated Febrile Illness-A Tropical World Threat. The preadmission diagnosis of COVID-19 in this patient enabled appropriate management and isolation to prevent nosocomial transmission. 2020-05-18
How to safely and sustainably reorganise a large general radiography service facing the COVID-19 pandemic. More specifically, emphasis on deploying more mobile radiographic units, segregating equipment, developing consistent image acquisition workflows, and strict adherence to infection control protocols are paramount to minimize the possibility of in-hospital transmission and ensure a safe environment for both patients and staff. […] To date, there have been zero incidences of radiographer healthcare worker transmission within our institution during the course of work. 2020-05-18
[Epidemiological Aspects, Clinic And Control Mechanisms Of Sars-Cov-2pandemic: Situation In Spain]. SARS-CoV-2 has a high transmission rate, the route of transmission between humans is through the secretions of infected people, hands or contaminated objects. 2020-05-18
Management of patients with COVID-19 in radiology departments, and indications regarding imaging studies - recommendations of the Polish Medical Society of Radiology. The pandemic involving COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, due to its severe symptoms and high transmission rate, has gone on to pose a control challenge for healthcare systems all around the world. 2020-05-22
Three months of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. In order to be better equipped to anticipate transmission of this virus to new regions, it is imperative to track the progress of the virus over time. 2020-05-18
COVID-19 and animals: What do we know? It is known that transmission from person to person is the most important way to spread. […] Although animal-to-animal transmission has been shown to be possible, there is no evidence of animal-to-human transmission. 2020-05-18
Historical and methodological highlights of quarantine measures: from ancient plague epidemics to current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. With specific reference to the COVID-19 pandemic, therefore, health authorities still adopt “classical” preventive interventions, namely workplace social distancing measures and quarantine, to reduce the transmission of the disease. 2020-05-22
Stopping Covid-19: A pandemic-management service value chain approach. Based on principles of the Theory of Constraints, we propose in this article the “Shutting-down Transmission Of Pandemic” (STOP Covid-19) plan that would reliably contain the pandemic, mitigate its economic consequences, and boost societal confidence. 2020-05-18
Infectious SARS-CoV-2 in Feces of Patient with Severe COVID-19. Confirmation of infectious virus in feces affirms the potential for fecal-oral or fecal-respiratory transmission and warrants further study. 2020-05-18
Practical strategies for a safe and effective delivery of aerosolized medications to patients with COVID-19. It has caused outbreaks of illness due to person-to-person transmission of the virus mainly via close contacts and droplets produced by an infected person’s cough or sneeze. 2020-05-22
Insights into COVID-19: Mining Physicians’ Opinions on Social Media. We identified eight topics, namely, actions and recommendations, fighting misinformation, information and knowledge, healthcare system, symptoms and illness, immunity, testing, and infection and transmission. […] The remaining tweets discussed information about symptoms associated with COVID-19 (8%), immunity (7%), testing (6%), and virus infection and transmission (5%). 2020-05-18
Variation in False-Negative Rate of Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based SARS-CoV-2 Tests by Time Since Exposure. Care must be taken in interpreting RT-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection-particularly early in the course of infection-when using these results as a basis for removing precautions intended to prevent onward transmission. 2020-05-23
Tracheostomy in the COVID-19 era: global and multidisciplinary guidance. COVID-19 provides unique challenges for tracheostomy care: health-care workers need to safely undertake tracheostomy procedures and manage patients afterwards, minimising risks of nosocomial transmission and compromises in the quality of care. 2020-05-22
Investigation of a COVID-19 outbreak in Germany resulting from a single travel-associated primary case: a case series. An outbreak in Bavaria, Germany, starting at the end of January, 2020, provided the opportunity to study transmission events, incubation period, and secondary attack rates. […] Whole genome sequencing was used to confirm epidemiological links and clarify transmission events where contact histories were ambiguous; integration with epidemiological data enabled precise reconstruction of exposure events and incubation periods. […] Patient 0 was a Chinese resident who visited Germany for professional reasons. 16 subsequent cases, often with mild and non-specific symptoms, emerged in four transmission generations. […] Transmission events were likely to have occurred presymptomatically for one case (possibly five more), at the day of symptom onset for four cases (possibly five more), and the remainder after the day of symptom onset or unknown. 2020-05-22
Do superspreaders generate new superspreaders? a hypothesis to explain the propagation pattern of COVID-19. The current global propagation of COVID-19 is heterogeneous, with slow transmission continuing in many countries, and exponential propagation in others, in which the time that took to begin this explosive spread varies greatly. 2020-05-20
Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 and other coronavirus infections: A systematic review. To review the neurological aspects of SARS-cov2 and other coronavirus, including transmission pathways, mechanisms of invasion into the nervous system, and mechanisms of neurological disease. 2020-05-28
Teledermatology for COVID-19 cutaneous lesions: substitute or supplement? In the context of COVID-19 pandemic, teledermatology is being favored over in-person consultation in order to avoid the possibility of virus transmission1 . 2020-05-18
Cadaveric Simulation of Endoscopic Endonasal Procedures: Analysis of Droplet Splatter Patterns During the COVID-19 Pandemic. The primary mode of viral transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is thought to occur through the spread of respiratory droplets. 2020-05-23
Application of a Modified Endoscopy Face Mask for Flexible Laryngoscopy During the COVID-19 Pandemic. In cases where DFL is required, in patients with COVID-19 positivity or unknown COVID-19 status, we describe the use of a modified endoscopy face mask as an adjunct to personal protection equipment to reduce occupational transmission of COVID-19 while performing DFL. […] Our modified endoscopy mask provides an additional barrier against the transmission of airborne pathogens. 2020-05-19
Aerosolized Particle Reduction: A Novel Cadaveric Model and a Negative Airway Pressure Respirator (NAPR) System to Protect Health Care Workers From COVID-19. We present a new and effective method for the study of small-particle aerosols as a step toward better understanding the spread of these particles and the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019. 2020-05-23
Difficulty of downscaling the precautions for coronavirus disease-19 based on negative throat polymerase chain results in the early phase of infection. We here report a case of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Japan in which the initial throat swab polymerase chain reaction result was negative The possibility of false-negative results in the early phase of disease suggest reconsideration of the feasibility of a community or national infection control framework to prevent transmission. […] Further rapid accumulation of knowledge including incubation period, clinical course and types of transmission is warranted to control this outbreak. 2020-05-22
Susceptible supply limits the role of climate in the early SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Preliminary evidence suggests that climate may modulate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-05-19
Coronavirus disease 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) and colonization of ocular tissues and secretions: a systematic review. SARS-CoV-2 may use ocular structure as an additional transmission route, as demonstrated by the COVID-19 patients’ conjunctival secretion and tears positivity to reverse transcriptase-PCR SARS-CoV-2-RNA assay. 2020-05-25
Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 in the tears of patients with Coronavirus disease 2019. Therefore, possibility of ocular transmission should be considered even in the absence of ocular manifestations. 2020-05-25
Possible aerosol transmission of COVID-19 and special precautions in dentistry. The routes of transmission are direct contact, and droplet and possible aerosol transmissions. […] Due to the unique nature of dentistry, most dental procedures generate significant amounts of droplets and aerosols, posing potential risks of infection transmission. […] Understanding the significance of aerosol transmission and its implications in dentistry can facilitate the identification and correction of negligence in daily dental practice. 2020-05-20
Can SARS-CoV-2-infected women breastfeed after viral clearance? Person-to-person transmission and familial clustering have been reported (Chan et al., 2020; Nishiura et al., 2020; Phan et al., 2020). 2020-05-20
Modeling the impact of mass influenza vaccination and public health interventions on COVID-19 epidemics with limited detection capability. Since COVID-19 symptoms are aspecific and may resemble a common cold, if it should come back with a seasonal pattern and coincide with the influenza season, this would be particularly challenging, overwhelming and straining the healthcare systems, particularly in resource-limited contexts, and would increase the likelihood of nosocomial transmission. 2020-05-22
Swine enteric alphacoronavirus (swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus): An update three years after its discovery. This review summarizes the emergence of SeACoV and updates the research progress made from 2017 to early 2020, mainly focusing on the etiology, epidemiology, evolutionary perspective, potential for interspecies transmission, pathogenesis and diagnosis. 2020-05-23
[ELDERLY PEOPLE, DEPENDENCY AND VULNERABILITY IN THE CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC: AN EMERGENCY FOR A SOCIAL AND HEALTH INTEGRATION.] Measures to reduce the transmission of the virus through hygiene and social distancing are necessary, attending to biopsychosocial health of the elderly isolated. 2020-05-19
[Nursing care for controlling coronavirus infections in positive cases: a narrative review.] A bibliographic search was conducted in the Medline, CINAHL, Scopus and WOS main databases, with no date limit and using the keywords “transmission”, “infection”, “contagious”, “spreads”, “coronavirinae”, “coronavirus”, “COVID 19”, “sars cov 2”, “nurses” and “nursing”. […] Patterns of case transmission, contacts and associated factors were identified. 2020-05-19
[RECOMMENDATIONS AND PRACTICAL MANAGEMENT OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH COVID-19: A SCOPING REVIEW]. The recommendations were grouped into 9 subjects: Prevention of infection in pregnant women, Prevention of infection in health care personnel attending pregnant women, Form of presentation and severity in pregnant women, Maternal-fetal transmission (vertical and perinatal), Maternal-fetal control of the pregnant woman infected with COVID-19, Control of the severely pregnant woman with COVID-19, Treatment of the pregnant woman with COVID-19, Management and route of termination of labor, Neonatal outcomes in women with COVID-19 and Breastfeeding. 2020-05-19
[Pandemic COVID-19, the new health emergency of international concern: a review]. The purpose of this review is to study the most relevant and current information on the pathogen, as well as epidemiology, pathology, clinical features, transmission, prevention, and treatment of the disease. 2020-05-19
Changes in implementation of personal protective measures by ordinary Japanese citizens: A longitudinal study from the early phase to the community transmission phase of the COVID-19 outbreak. To clarify changes in the implementation of personal protective measures among ordinary Japanese citizens from the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak to the community transmission phase. […] The prevalence of 3 of the 5 personal protective measures significantly improved in the community transmission phase compared to the early phase. 2020-05-22
Modeling the effects of intervention strategies on COVID-19 transmission dynamics. To model the effects of continuous, intermittent, and stepping-down social distancing (SD) strategies and personal protection measures on COVID-19 transmission dynamics. 2020-05-22
Evidence and possible mechanisms of rare maternal-fetal transmission of SARS-CoV-2. While SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread rapidly worldwide, data remains scarce about the natural history of infection in pregnant women and the risk of mother-to-fetal transmission. […] Published reports to date suggest that perinatal transmission of SARSCoV- 2 can occur but is rare. […] Among 179 newborns tested for SARS-CoV2 at birth from mothers with COVID-19, transmission was suspected in 8 cases, 5 with positive nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and 3 with SARS-CoV-2 IgM. […] Welldesigned prospective cohort studies with rigorous judgement criteria are needed to determine the incidence and risk factors for perinatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-05-27
Minimal Access Gardening: Laparoscopic techniques during COVID-19 lockdown. In addition there has been concerns regarding the safety of laparoscopic surgery and risk of transmission of COVID-19.1,2 As a result laparoscopic surgeons are at risk of skill deterioration and it is uncertain whether this may impact on patient safety when lockdown measures are de-escalated. 2020-05-19
Coronavirus: Older Persons With Cancer in Italy in the COVID-19 Pandemic. In accordance with the measures adopted by the Italian government to limit viral transmission, several associations of Italian oncologists have taken action to update Elderly Cancer Care programs. 2020-05-22
Impact of shelter-in-place order for COVID-19 on trauma activations: Santa Clara County, California, March 2020. Shelter-in-place orders may reduce strain on healthcare systems by diminishing hospital admissions from trauma, in addition to reducing virus transmission. 2020-05-22
Clinical Distancing and Mitigation of Coronavirus Disease 2019. Social distancing as a technique to limit transmission of infectious disease has come into common parlance following the arrival and rapid spread of a novel coronavirus disease around the world in 2019 and 2020. 2020-05-22
Respiratory support for adult patients with COVID-19. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation may be associated with higher risk of nosocomial transmission. 2020-05-22
COVID-19 Super-spreaders: Definitional Quandaries and Implications. Uncertainty around the role ‘super-spreaders’ play in the transmission and escalation of infectious disease is compounded by its broad and vague definition. […] Another is that it can detract from scientific investigation of the heterogeneity of COVID-19 transmission. 2020-05-22
Optimal policies for control of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Understanding the early transmission dynamics of diseases and estimation of the effectiveness of control policies play inevitable roles in the prevention of epidemic diseases. […] A mathematical model of severe SARS-CoV-2 transmission based on Wuhan’s data is considered in this study. 2020-05-23
Influence of wind and relative humidity on the social distancing effectiveness to prevent COVID-19 airborne transmission: A numerical study. The facial covering effect on reducing the airborne transmission of the cough droplets has also been evaluated. […] With the complex environmental wind and RH conditions, the 6-feet social distancing policy may not be sufficient to protect the inter-person aerosol transmission, since the suspending micro-droplets were influenced by convection effects and can be transported from the human coughs/sneezes to the other human in less than 5 s. 2020-05-22
Opportunity of periodic monitoring of COVID-19 patients, asymptomatic virus carriers, and postinfectious individuals with IgM/IgG rapid antibody tests among healthcare workers during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. HCWs could play a critical role in transmission and might jeopardize the health of both their patients and their own family members. 2020-05-21
COVID-19 Return to Work Guidance and Recommendations for Vestibular Clinicians. The following document, requested by the American Balance Society, collates the current information about the virus, including transmission from asymptomatic carriers, decontamination and other safety protocols, and provides a return to work guidance for clinicians caring for this population of patients, promoting provider, patient and staff safety. 2020-05-19
Work-related COVID-19 transmission in six Asian countries/areas: A follow-up study. There is limited evidence of work-related transmission in the emerging coronaviral pandemic. […] We aimed to identify high-risk occupations for early coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) local transmission. […] Possible work-related transmission played a substantial role in early outbreak (47.7% of early cases). […] Work-related transmission is considerable in early COVID-19 outbreaks, and the elevated risk of infection was not limited to HCW. 2020-05-22
Immunocompromised patients and coronavirus disease 2019: a review and recommendations for dental health care. The virus is transmitted by inhalation or direct contact with infected secretions, and therefore the dental office is a highly susceptible environment for such transmission. 2020-05-26
Expert recommendations for the care of newborns of mothers with COVID-19. Despite the lack of scientific evidence regarding the potential for viral transmission to their fetus in pregnant mothers diagnosed with or suspected of COVID-19, it is important to elaborate the lines of care by specialists from hospitals caring for suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases to guide multidisciplinary teams and families diagnosed with the disease or involved in the care of pregnant women and newborns in this context. 2020-05-26
Novel dedicated plastic cube for infection prevention during GI endoscopy and ERCP. Controlling infections during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (GI endoscopy) and ERCP is important to prevent the transmission of infection among and through medical staff. 2020-05-19
Overview of transnational recommendations for COVID-19 transmission control in dental care settings. Until an effective treatment or a vaccine is developed, the current recommendations are to contain the disease, and control its transmission. […] It is now clear that the primary mode of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is aerosol/droplet spread, and by contacting virus contaminated surfaces acting as fomites (inanimate vectors). […] Therefore, several organizations and specialty associations have proposed guidelines and recommendations for limiting the transmission of SARS-COV-2 from carriers to dentists and vice versa. 2020-05-19
Reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the UK: A behavioural science approach to identifying options for increasing adherence to social distancing and shielding vulnerable people. To describe and discuss a systematic method for producing a very rapid response (3 days) to a UK government policy question in the context of reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission. 2020-05-19
De-Escalation by Reversing the Escalation with a Stronger Synergistic Package of Contact Tracing, Quarantine, Isolation and Personal Protection: Feasibility of Preventing a COVID-19 Rebound in Ontario, Canada, as a Case Study. A transmission dynamics model fitted to the cumulative case time series data permits us to estimate the effectiveness of interventions implemented in terms of the contact rate, probability of transmission per contact, proportion of isolated contacts, and detection rate. 2020-05-20
COVID-19 pneumonia and pregnancy; a systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall proportions of vertical transmission, still birth, and neonatal death were zero, 0.002, and, 0.002, respectively (p = 1, p = .86, and p = .89, respectively). […] A natural history of COVID-19 pneumonia in the adult population was presented, as well.Conclusion: Currently, no evidence of vertical transmission has been suggested at least in late pregnancy. 2020-05-20
Dynamic interventions to control COVID-19 pandemic: a multivariate prediction modelling study comparing 16 worldwide countries. We employed a multivariate prediction model, based on up-to-date transmission and clinical parameters, to simulate outbreak trajectories in 16 countries, from diverse regions and economic categories. […] We found that dynamic cycles of 50-day mitigation followed by a 30-day relaxation reduced transmission, however, were unsuccessful in lowering ICU hospitalizations below manageable limits. 2020-05-27
Effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on maternal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review. For the research strategy, combinations of the following keywords and MeSH terms were used: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019, pregnancy, gestation, maternal, mothers, vertical transmission, maternal-fetal transmission, intrauterine transmission, neonates, infant, delivery. […] Despite the increasing number of published studies on COVID-19 in pregnancy, there are insufficient good-quality data to draw unbiased conclusions with regard to the severity of the disease or specific complications of COVID-19 in pregnant women, as well as vertical transmission, perinatal and neonatal complications. 2020-05-20
Children are unlikely to be the main drivers of the COVID-19 pandemic - a systematic review. Many countries have closed schools and kindergartens to minimise COVID-19, but the role that children play in disease transmission is unclear. […] A systematic literature review of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and medRxiv/bioRxiv preprint servers to 11 May 2020 identified published and unpublished papers on COVID-19 transmission by children. […] Data on viral loads were scarce, but indicated that children may have lower levels than adults, partly because they often have fewer symptoms, and this should decrease the transmission risk. […] Household transmission studies showed that children were rarely the index case and case studies suggested that children with COVID-19 seldom caused outbreaks. 2020-05-20
The basic reproduction number of SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan is about to die out, how about the rest of the World? The virologically confirmed cases of a new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the world are rapidly increasing, leading epidemiologists and mathematicians to construct transmission models that aim to predict the future course of the current pandemic. […] Ongoing modelling will inform the transmission rates seen in the new epicentres outside of China, including Italy, Iran and South Korea. 2020-05-20
[CURRENT KNOWLEDGE ON COVID-19 IN CHILDREN - CAUTIOUS OPTIMISM]. Perinatal transmission is infrequent and associated with a relatively mild illness in the newborn. 2020-05-21
Precision Physical Distancing for COVID-19: An Important Tool in Unlocking the Lockdown. While lockdowns may be an important tool to limit transmission, they come at a potentially great cost with regard to economic impact, mental health consequences, and increased morbidity and mortality from non-COVID-19 diseases. […] Governments and health authorities must chart a course on how to “unlock” or control transmission where lockdowns are not feasible. “Precision physical distancing”-distancing tailored and optimized to specific physical, social, cultural, political, and economic contexts and to specific groups and settings-is proposed and discussed here as an important tool in the control of COVID-19. 2020-05-20
Introducing the “Corona Curtain”: an innovative technique to prevent airborne COVID-19 exposure during emergent intubations. A simple and innovative intubation tent was designed with the intent of decreasing the risk of accidental viral transmission from emergent intubations during the COVID-19 pandemic. 2020-05-23
Neonatal Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) Infection: A Case Report and Review of Literature. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing was obtained, given rampant community transmission, which returned positive. […] The family was advised to self-quarantine to prevent the transmission of COVID-19. […] We believe that the mode of transmission was horizontal spread from his caregivers. […] Infants and children may play an important role in the transmission of COVID-19 in the community. […] Hence, with an understanding of the transmission patterns, parents and caregivers would be better equipped to limit the spread of the virus and protect the more vulnerable population. 2020-05-23
SARS-CoV-2 identification in lungs, heart and kidney specimens by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. From two COVID-19-related deaths, samples of lung, heart and kidney were collected and processed for Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy (TEM and SEM) with the aim of identifying the virus. 2020-05-28
Impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) on Blood Services and Blood in Hong Kong in 2003. The infection, like SARS-CoV-2 was highly contagious through droplet transmission. 2020-05-20
SARS-CoV-2: The Path of Prevention and Control. The World Health Organization (WHO), the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have issued instructions and strategies for containing COVID-19 outbreak to the general public, physicians, travelers and injured patients to follow so that the transmission to a healthy population can be prevented. 2020-05-20
The Role of Human Coronavirus Infection in Pediatric Acute Gastroenteritis. It has been necessary to pay more attention on gastrointestinal transmission to identify the infected children early and avoid the children without apparent or mild symptoms becoming the sources of infection. 2020-05-20
Current Evidence for Minimally Invasive Surgery During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Risk Mitigation Strategies: A Narrative Review. Our objective was to review the literature surrounding the risks of viral transmission during laparoscopic surgery and propose mitigation measures to address these risks. […] We conducted a narrative review of the existing literature surrounding the risks of viral transmission during laparoscopic surgery and balance these risks against the benefits of minimally invasive approaches. […] Minimally invasive surgical approaches offer significant advantages with respect to both patient care, and the mitigation of the risk of viral transmission during surgery, provided the appropriate equipment and expertise are present. 2020-05-20
Minimizing the Risk of Aerosol Contamination During Elective Lung Resection Surgery. In the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic, the conduct of elective cancer surgery has become an issue because of the need to balance the requirement to treat patients with the possibility of transmission of the virus by asymptomatic carriers. […] A particular concern is the potential for viral transmission by way of aerosol which may be generated during perioperative care. 2020-05-20
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Management of End-Stage Renal Disease Patients. To avoid COVID-19 transmission among dialysis patients, the major societies of nephrology around the world have provided their guidelines of screening, dialysis facilities adjustment, and health education, respectively. 2020-05-20
COVID-19 and liver cancer clinical trials: not everything is lost. According to the available knowledge, a large but still unknown percentage of the infected patients remains asymptomatic, representing an important and insidious vehicle of transmission2 . 2020-05-20
Large Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease among Wedding Attendees, Jordan. Our study shows high communicability of COVID-19 and the enormous risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 virus transmission during mass gatherings. 2020-05-20
A chronicle of SARS-CoV-2: Part-I - Epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, transmission and treatment. The review explicitly covers the aspects like genome and pedigree of SARS-CoV-2; epidemiology, prognosis, pathogenesis, symptoms and diagnosis of COVID-19 in order to catalog the right information on transmission route, and influence of environmental factors on virus transmissions, for the robust understanding of right strategical steps for proper COVID-19 management. […] We have explicitly highlighted several useful information and facts like: i) No established relationship between progression of SARS-CoV-2 with temperature, humidity and/or both, ii) The underlying mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 is not fully understood, iii) Respiratory droplet size determines drop and airborne-based transmission, iv) Prognosis of COVID-19 can be done by its effects on various body organs, v) Infection can be stopped by restricting the binding of S protein and AE2, vi) Hydroxychloroquine is believed to be better than chloroquine for COVID-19, vii) Ivermectin with Vero-hSLAM cells is able to reduce infection by ~5000 time within 2 days, and viii) Nafamostat mesylate can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 S protein-initiated membrane fusion. 2020-05-29
No Place Like Home: Cross-National Data Analysis of the Efficacy of Social Distancing During the COVID-19 Pandemic. The aim of this paper was to integrate multiple transactional data sets (GPS mobility data from Google and Apple as well as disease statistics from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control) to study the role of social distancing policies in 26 countries and analyze the transmission rate of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic over the course of 5 weeks. […] Relying on the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model and official COVID-19 reports, we first calculated the weekly transmission rate (β) of COVID-19 in 26 countries for 5 consecutive weeks. […] Gradient boosted trees regression analysis showed that changes in mobility patterns resulting from social distancing policies explain approximately 47% of the variation in the disease transmission rates. 2020-05-29
Perioperative considerations for COVID-19 patients: lessons learnt from the pandemic. Our objective was to facilitate surgical management of patients with known or suspected COVID-19 while minimising risk of nosocomial transmission to healthcare workers and other patients. 2020-05-20
A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19. The transmission occurs mainly via respiratory droplets and the incubation period ranges from 2 to 14 days. 2020-05-26
Psychological health during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic outbreak. Currently all efforts are focused on the understanding of epidemiology, clinical features, mode of transmission, counteract the spread of the virus, and challenges of global health, while crucially significant mental health has been overlooked in this endeavor. […] Globally implementing preventive and controlling measures, and cultivating coping and resilience are challenging factors; modified lifestyle (lockdown curfew, self-isolation, social distancing and quarantine); conspiracy theories, misinformation and disinformation about the origin, scale, signs, symptoms, transmission, prevention and treatment; global socioeconomic crisis; travel restrictions; workplace hazard control; postponement and cancellation of religious, sports, cultural and entertainment events; panic buying and hoarding; incidents of racism, xenophobia, discrimination, stigma, psychological pressure of productivity, marginalization and violence; overwhelmed medical centers and health organizations, and general impact on education, politics, socioeconomic, culture, environment and climate - are some of the risk factors to aggravate further problems. 2020-05-21
Assessment and Management of Anorexia Nervosa during COVID-19. However, during the current pandemic, face to face clinical assessments carry the risk of infection and transmission in this vulnerable cohort already compromised by low weight and lowered immunity. 2020-05-21
Replication of SARS-CoV-2 in human respiratory epithelium. In 2012 MERS-CoV was identified as a possible threat to humans, but its pandemic potential so far is minimal, as the human-to-human transmission is ineffective. 2020-05-21
COVID-19 response in northwest Syria: innovation and community engagement in a complex conflict. These efforts need to be scaled up to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 in a region chronically affected by a complex armed conflict. 2020-05-21
Novel 2019-coronavirus on new year’s Eve. Step-wise mutations have led to the gradual spillover of virus and after crossing the inter-species interface, the virus has adapted itself for a stable human-to-human transmission. […] Preventive measures such as social distancing, quarantine, cough etiquettes, proper hand washing, cleaning and decontaminating the surfaces are the mainstay for curbing the transmission of this virus. 2020-05-27
Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of discharged patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 on the Qinghai plateau. The region had no sustained local transmission. […] Of all 18 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 15 patients comprising 4 transmission clusters were identified. […] Our findings confirmed human-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in clusters. 2020-05-21
Pathology and Pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 Associated with Fatal Coronavirus Disease, United States. Characterization of the histopathology and cellular localization of SARS-CoV-2 in the tissues of patients with fatal COVID-19 is critical to further understand its pathogenesis and transmission and for public health prevention measures. 2020-05-21
High COVID-19 Attack Rate Among Attendees at Events at a Church - Arkansas, March 2020. This outbreak highlights the potential for widespread transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, both at group gatherings during church events and within the broader community. […] Government’s Guidelines: Opening Up America Again (2) regarding modification of activities to prevent virus transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic. 2020-05-22
Knowledge, perceptions and preventive practices towards COVID-19 early in the outbreak among Jimma university medical center visitors, Southwest Ethiopia. About 95.1% knew that the COVID-19 virus spreads via respiratory droplets of infected people, while 77 (31.2%) of the respondents knew about the possibility of asymptomatic transmission. 2020-05-28
Molecular and serological assays for SARS-CoV-2: insights from genome and clinical characteristics. In this review, we focus on the genomic, transmission and clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, and comprehensively summarize the principles and related details of assays for SARS-CoV-2. […] SARS-CoV-2 has some unique gene sequences and specific transmission and clinical features that can inform the conduct of molecular and serological assays in many aspects, including the design of primers, the selection of specimens and testing strategies at different disease stages. 2020-05-21
Perinatal depressive and anxiety symptoms of pregnant women along with COVID-19 outbreak in China. On January 20, 2020, a new coronavirus epidemic with “human-to-human” transmission was officially announced by the Chinese government, which caused significant public panic in China. 2020-05-23
The current understanding and potential therapeutic options to combat COVID-19. The virus is highly contagious with potential human-human transmission which was named as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread across six continents and emerged as a global pandemic in short span with alarming levels of spread and severity. 2020-05-23
Knowledge, attitude, practice and perceived barriers among healthcare professionals regarding COVID-19: A Cross-sectional survey from Pakistan. HCPs perceived that limited infection control material (50.7%, n=210) and poor knowledge regarding transmission (40.6%, n=168) are the major barriers in infection control practice. 2020-05-23
COVID-19 outbreak reproduction number estimations and forecasting in Marche, Italy. In this study, we considered the Marche region of Italy to compute different daily transmission rates (Rt) including five provinces in it. […] This study highlights the knowledge of essential insights into the Marche region in particular to virus transmission dynamics, geographical characteristics of positive incidences, and the necessity of implementing mitigation procedures to fight against the COVID-19 outbreak. 2020-05-31
Viral dynamics in asymptomatic patients with COVID-19. The study findings demonstrated that although APs with COVID-19 have a lower viral load, they still have certain period of viral shedding, which suggests the possibility of transmission during their asymptomatic period. 2020-05-31
Obesity as a predictor for a poor prognosis of COVID-19: A systematic review. Due to its rapid transmission and high case-fatality rate, recognition of its risk and prognostic factor is important. 2020-05-27
Dynamics of Population Immunity Due to the Herd Effect in the COVID-19 Pandemic. In this review, we present the basis of herd immunology, the dynamics of infection transmission that induces specific immunity, and how the application of immunoepidemiology and herd immunology could be used to control the actual COVID-19 pandemic, along with a discussion of its effectiveness, limitations, and applications. 2020-05-22
Effectiveness of Common Fabrics to Block Aqueous Aerosols of Virus-like Nanoparticles. The aerosols contain fluorescent virus-like nanoparticles to track transmission through materials that greatly assist the accuracy of detection, thus avoiding artifacts including pore flooding and the loss of aerosol due to evaporation and droplet breakup. 2020-05-23
Global Access to Handwashing: Implications for COVID-19 Control in Low-Income Countries. Handwashing is a key component of guidance to reduce transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. […] Prior systematic reviews have indicated the effectiveness of handwashing to reduce transmission of respiratory viruses. […] In low-income countries, reduction of transmission is of paramount importance, but social distancing is challenged by high population densities and access to handwashing facilities with soap and water is limited. […] Our objective was to estimate global access to handwashing with soap and water to inform use of handwashing in the prevention of COVID-19 transmission. 2020-05-27
ddPCR: a more accurate tool for SARS-CoV-2 detection in low viral load specimens. However, due to the low viral load specimens and the limitations of RT-PCR, significant numbers of false negative reports are inevitable, which results in failure to timely diagnose, early treat, cut off transmission, and assess discharge criteria. 2020-05-22
COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 15 (Reporting week to 23:59 AEST 10 May 2020). These low rates of detection are indicative of low levels of COVID-19 transmission. 2020-05-27
Liver transplantation in the era of COVID-19. Restricting non-transplant elective surgical procedures, managing transplant patients in separate outpatient clinics, and in-patient wards can prevent transmission of infection both to patients and healthcare workers. 2020-05-25
Analysis of Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Neonates Born to Mothers with 2019-nCoV; a Systematic Review. No fetal infection through intrauterine vertical transmission was reported. […] There is also no evidence of intrauterine and transplacental transmission of COVID-19 to the fetus in the third trimester of pregnancies. 2020-05-25
Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic, Meaningful Communication between Family Caregivers and Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities is Imperative. To contain the transmission of the virus in long-term care facilities, federal health officials have issued strict visitation guidelines, restricting most visits between residents and all visitors, including family members. 2020-05-22
Evaluation Of Dermatology Consultations In The Era Of COVID19. It has been reported that dermatology practices may be a vector for SARS-CoV-2 transmission and elective cases should be postponed during the pandemic period. 2020-05-22
Ventilation Techniques and Risk for Transmission of Coronavirus Disease, Including COVID-19. Studies evaluating risk for virus transmission to health care workers from aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) were included. […] Other included studies suggest increased odds of transmission from AGPs. […] Indirect and low-certainty evidence suggests that use of NIV, similar to IMV, probably reduces mortality but may increase the risk for transmission of COVID-19 to health care workers. 2020-05-27
Comparison of Transmissibility of Coronavirus Between Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Patients: Reanalysis of the Ningbo COVID-19 Data. An important study using COVID-19 data from the city of Ningbo, China, was carried out to estimate and compare the transmission rates of the coronavirus by the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. […] We reanalyze the data from the city of Ningbo with more appropriate statistical methods to draw more reliable and sound conclusions on the transmission rates of the coronavirus by the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. […] After excluding the cases related to the super-spreader, the Fisher exact test yields a P value of .84, which indicates stronger evidence of no difference in the transmission rates compared with the original analysis. […] The odds ratio of the coronavirus transmission rates between the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients is 1.2 with a 95% confidence interval 0.5-2.8. […] Through a more in-depth and comprehensive statistical analysis of the Ningbo data, we concluded that there is no difference in the transmission rates of coronavirus between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. 2020-05-29
The hallmarks of COVID-19 disease. Although the route for viral transmission remains a mystery, SARS-CoV-2 may have originated in an animal reservoir, likely that of bat. 2020-05-28
Characterization of an asymptomatic cohort of SARS-COV-2 infected individuals outside of Wuhan, China. We stratified this cohort by normal versus abnormal findings on chest CT, and compared the strata regarding comorbidities, demographics, laboratory findings, viral transmission and other factors. […] Studies of the impact of treatment on asymptomatic RT-PCR+ individuals on disease progression and transmission should be undertaken. 2020-05-22
Estimation of the number of blood donors during the COVID-19 incubation period across China and analysis of prevention and control measures for blood transfusion transmission. In addition, we found that if all RBCs, plasma, and cryoprecipitation were stored in isolation until the 14th day, the potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through blood transfusion was reduced by at least 65.77% after the blood donor safely passed the COVID-19 incubation period. 2020-05-22
ACR Statement on Safe Resumption of Routine Radiology Care During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic. Throughout this time, it will be important to perform safe, comprehensive, and effective care for patients with and patients without COVID-19, recognizing that asymptomatic transmission is common with this disease. 2020-05-24
A review of therapeutic agents and Chinese herbal medicines against SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19). Clarification transmission routes and pathogenic mechanisms, and identification of potential drug treatment targets will promote the development of effective prevention and treatment measures. 2020-05-31
Pediatric Endoscopy in the Era of Coronavirus Disease 2019: A North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Position Paper. The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) Endoscopy and Procedures Committee has formulated this statement to offer practical guidance to help standardize endoscopy services for pediatric patients with the aim of minimizing COVID-19 transmission to staff, patients, and caregivers and to conserve personal protective equipment (PPE) during this critical time. […] Appropriate use of PPE is essential to minimize transmission and preserve supply. […] Pediatric endoscopic procedures are considered at high risk for COVID-19 transmission. 2020-05-27
Risk Stratification and Personal Protective Equipment Use in Pediatric Endoscopy During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak: A Single-center Protocol. Human-to-human transmission has been documented to occur through respiratory secretions, feces, aerosols, and contaminated environmental surfaces. 2020-05-27
Incidence, clinical outcomes, and transmission dynamics of severe coronavirus disease 2019 in California and Washington: prospective cohort study. The effective reproduction number (RE ) describing transmission dynamics was estimated for each region. 2020-05-28
Management of the mother-infant dyad with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in a highly epidemic context. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 cannot be excluded at present, and should be ruled out as soon as possible after birth. 2020-05-23
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via close contact and respiratory droplets among hACE2 mice. We simulated three transmission modes including close contact, respiratory droplets and aerosol routes in labratory. 2020-05-23
COVID-19 Disease and Ophthalmology: An Update. Conjunctivitis is not a common manifestation of the disease, but contact with infected eyes could be one route of transmission. […] However, well-designed trials should be conducted to rule out other ocular manifestations that may result from COVID-19 infection and to understand the transmission of the virus through the eyes. 2020-05-26
Time, distance, shielding and ALARA; drawing similarities between measures for radiation protection and Coronavirus disease pandemic response. In the modern era of viral pandemics, similar principles can also be applied toward prevention of viral transmission and protection of populations at risk. […] Apart from adhering to the laid-down provisions of a lock-down, preventive measures recommended for the general public include maintaining hand-hygiene, social distancing, and using facemasks to break the chain of transmission. 2020-05-29
Conversion of Positive Pressure Cardiac Catheterization and Electrophysiology Laboratories to a Novel 2-Zone Negative Pressure System during COVID-19 Pandemic. However, patients with highly transmissible airborne diseases such as COVID-19 are best cared in negative ventilation rooms to minimize the risk of transmission. […] In this report, we describe a novel, quick, readily implantable and resource friendly approach on how to secure air quality in catheterization and electrophysiology laboratories by converting a positive pressure ventilation room to a 2-zone negative ventilation system to minimize the risk of transmission. 2020-05-23
Individual quarantine versus active monitoring of contacts for the mitigation of COVID-19: a modelling study. Our model highlights the urgent need for more data on the serial interval and the extent of presymptomatic transmission to make data-driven policy decisions regarding the cost-benefit comparisons of individual quarantine versus active monitoring of contacts. 2020-05-27
Ion torrent-based nasopharyngeal swab metatranscriptomics in COVID-19. Herein, we describe the detection of a SARS-CoV-2 genome through metatranscriptome next-generation sequencing directly from the nasopharyngeal swab of a suspected case of local transmission of Covid-19, in Brazil. 2020-05-31
Hyperactive Delirium Requires More Aggressive Management in Patients with COVID-19: Temporarily Rethinking “Low and Slow”. Delirium is a common symptom in patients admitted to our hospital with COVID-19, and in cases of hyperactive delirium we have frequently observed behaviors that pose a significant risk of disease transmission to health care providers. 2020-05-26
The time scale of asymptomatic transmission affects estimates of epidemic potential in the COVID-19 outbreak. The role of asymptomatic carriers in transmission poses challenges for control of the COVID-19 pandemic. […] Study of asymptomatic transmission and implications for surveillance and disease burden are ongoing, but there has been little study of the implications of asymptomatic transmission on dynamics of disease. […] We use a mathematical framework to evaluate expected effects of asymptomatic transmission on the basic reproduction number R0 (i.e., the expected number of secondary cases generated by an average primary case in a fully susceptible population) and the fraction of new secondary cases attributable to asymptomatic individuals. […] If the generation-interval distribution of asymptomatic transmission differs from that of symptomatic transmission, then estimates of the basic reproduction number which do not explicitly account for asymptomatic cases may be systematically biased. […] Estimates of the realized proportion of asymptomatic transmission during the exponential phase also depend on asymptomatic generation intervals. […] Our analysis shows that understanding the temporal course of asymptomatic transmission can be important for assessing the importance of this route of transmission, and for disease dynamics. […] This provides an additional motivation for investigating both the importance and relative duration of asymptomatic transmission. 2020-05-31
A Guide to COVID-19: a global pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Here, we provide an overview of SARS-CoV-2 by analyzing its virology, epidemiology, and modes of transmission while examining the current progress of testing procedures and possible treatments through drugs and vaccines. 2020-05-23
Ongoing Challenges Faced in the Global Control of COVID-19 Pandemic. The most important priorities are supposed to be i) The development of potential vaccine candidates to provide protection and interrupt the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, ii) To ensure enough supplies for hospitals and their homogeneous distribution among the countries with the worst number of severe cases, iii) There is a need for more studies to identify potential treatments that are effective for the control of this viral infection and iv) It is imperative to provide easy access to diagnostic kits for all countries affected by this pandemic. 2020-05-26
The eye as the discrete but defensible portal of coronavirus infection. Respiratory infection transmission via the eye and lacrimal-nasal pathway elucidated during the 1918 influenza pandemic, remains to be explored in this crisis. […] Slit lamp usage places ophthalmologists at particular risk of exposure to high viral loads (and poor prognosis) and as for adenoviral epidemics, this may be a setting for disease transmission. 2020-05-27
Severe air pollution links to higher mortality in COVID-19 patients: the “double-hit” hypothesis. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between air pollutants concentration (PM 2.5 and NO2) and COVID-19 outbreak, in terms of transmission, number of patients, severity of presentation and number of deaths. 2020-05-27
Clinical Insights into the Gastrointestinal Manifestations of COVID-19. Recently, cases of fecal-oral transmission of COVID-19 have been confirmed in the USA and China, indicating that the virus can replicate in both the respiratory and digestive tract. 2020-05-27
SARS-CoV-2 Infection Leads to Neurological Dysfunction. These considerations will facilitate prompt testing, isolation and prevention of viral transmission speeding best clinical outcomes. 2020-05-28
Modifications of emergency dental clinic protocols to combat COVID-19 transmission. These changes have the potential to increase dental-related emergency department visits and subsequently contribute to greater viral transmission. […] Moreover, dentists experience unique challenges with preventing transmission due to frequent aerosol-producing procedures. […] These efforts aid in the reduction of viral transmission, conservation of personal protective equipment, and expand provider availability. 2020-05-29
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): An updated review based on current knowledge and existing literature for dermatologists. Several studies, since then, have tried to study and explain the origin of SARS-CoV-2, its structure and pathogenicity, epidemiology, modes of transmission, spectrum of illness and causes of mortality and morbidity. 2020-05-24
Acetic acid disinfection as a potential adjunctive therapy for non-severe COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 is a new pandemic influenza caused by a coronavirus which main route of transmission is through exhaled droplets that primarily infect the nose and the nasopharynx. 2020-05-28
Gender differences in patients with COVID-19: a narrative review. The main routes of transmission are respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected people, so numerous prevention strategies are employed to mitigate the spread of disease, including social distancing and isolation. 2020-05-26
Recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 in patients recovered from COVID-19. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by asymptomatic carriers had been documented. 2020-05-25
Operating during COVID-19: Is there a risk of viral transmission from surgical smoke during surgery? Some surgical procedures will be inevitable during the pandemic, and proper safety measures must be in place to avoid transmission risks. […] To ensure the safety of operating room personnel, we must consider whether there is any concern of viral transmission from the inhalation of surgical smoke. 2020-05-28
A Statistical Modeling of the Course of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Outbreak: A Comparative Analysis. Other factors such as climacteric factors and genetic differences, which may have an impact on viral spreading and transmission, would also have strengthened the model prediction capacity. 2020-05-29
Evolving Management of COVID-19: A Multi-institutional Otolaryngology Perspective. Most are also incorporating personal protective equipment appropriate to the level of transmission across mucous membranes. 2020-05-26
The Australian Institute of Sport framework for rebooting sport in a COVID-19 environment. The priority at all times must be to preserve public health, minimising the risk of community transmission. 2020-05-28
The potential effects of widespread community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the World Health Organization African Region: a predictive model. Interruption of its transmission to prevent widespread community transmission is critical because its effects go beyond the number of COVID-19 cases and deaths and affect the health system capacity to provide other essential services. […] The effect of avoiding widespread and sustained community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is significant, and most likely outweighs any costs of preventing such a scenario. 2020-05-27
The outlook for diagnostic purposes of the 2019-novel coronavirus disease. SARS-CoV2 is transmitted to individuals by human-to-human transmission leading to severe viral pneumonia and respiratory system injury. […] There is a possibility of virus transmission from asymptomatic cases as active carriers, in addition to symptomatic ones, which is a crucial crisis of COVID-19 that should be considered. 2020-05-26
COVID-19 and pregnancy - where are we now? A review. Vertical transmission of coronavirus from the pregnant woman to the fetus has not been proven. 2020-05-26
COVID-19 under spotlight: A close look at the origin, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of the 2019-nCoV disease. The subsequent less-anticipated propagation of the novel coronavirus disease, formally known as COVID-19, not only made it to headlines by an overwhelmingly high transmission rate and fatality reports, but also raised an alarm for the medical community all around the globe. 2020-05-26
Estimating the serial interval of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) based on the public surveillance data in Shenzhen, China from January 19 to February 22, 2020. We estimated SI of COVID-19 in Shenzhen, China based on 27 records of transmission chains. […] The SI of COVID-19 is relative shorter than that of SARS and MERS, other two beta coronavirus diseases, which suggests the iteration of the transmission was rapid. 2020-05-26
Airborne Aerosol Generation During Endonasal Procedures in the Era of COVID-19: Risks and Recommendations. Intact or VENT-modified N95 respirators mitigated airborne aerosol transmission, while standard surgical masks did not. 2020-05-28
Primary healthcare facility preparedness for outpatient service provision during the COVID-19 pandemic in India. Under these circumstances, the preparedness of PHCs in providing safe patient-centered care for meeting the current health needs of the population and prevent further transmission of the SARS-CoV2 infection is crucial. 2020-05-26
A Snapshot of Elective Oncological Surgery in Italy During COVID-19 Emergency: Pearls, Pitfalls, and Perspectives. The survey portrays the situation 5 weeks after the first case of secondary transmission in Italy. 2020-05-26
Prolonged fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric patients. A quantitative evidence synthesis. Although fecal SARS-CoV-2 presence in feces do not confirm its transmissibility, the high and fast spread of the COVID-19 disease worldwide indicate other transmission routes are also plausible. 2020-05-26
Management of Lung Cancer During the COVID-19 Pandemic. With high rates of transmission and no curative therapies or vaccine yet available, the current cornerstone of management focuses on prevention by social distancing. 2020-05-26
Secondary Transmission of Coronavirus Disease from Presymptomatic Persons, China. Our findings provide population-based evidence for transmission from persons with presymptomatic COVID-19 infections. 2020-05-26
International Guidelines And Recommendations For Surgery During Covid-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review. Several guidelines deal with the role of laparoscopic surgery during the pandemic: a tailored approach is currently suggested, with a case-by-case evaluation provided that appropriate personal protective equipment is available in order to minimize the potential risk of transmission. 2020-05-29
Endocrinology in the time of COVID-19: Diagnosis and Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. In reformulating the care offered to those with GDM, there is a need to balance the sometimes competing requirement of lowering the risk of direct viral transmission against the potential adverse impact of service changes. 2020-05-26
You Need a Plan: A Stepwise Protocol for Operating Room Preparedness During an Infectious Pandemic. The transmission and virulence of this new pathogen has raised concern for how best to protect operating room staff while effectively providing care to the infected patient requiring urgent or emergent surgery. 2020-05-29
Urgent and Emergent Eye Care Strategies to Protect Against COVID-19. Another possible route of viral transmission is entry through aerosolized droplets into the tears, which then pass through the nasolacrimal ducts and into the respiratory tract. […] The close proximity between eye care providers and their patients during slit-lamp examination may require further precautions, such as shields, barriers, and mask use to lower the risk of transmission via droplets or through hand to eye contact. 2020-05-28
Comparing South Korea and Italy’s healthcare systems and initiatives to combat COVID-19. South Korea employed technology and the holistic education of its physician community, despite having a smaller proportion of physicians in society, to its advantage by implementing efficacious drive-through centers that test suspected individuals rapidly and with little to no contact with healthcare staff, decreasing the possibility of transmission of COVID-19. 2020-05-28
COVID-19 and newborn health: systematic review. Given the paucity of studies at this time, vertical transmission cannot be confirmed or denied. 2020-05-29
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Healthcare Workers Regarding the Use of Face Mask to Limit the Spread of the New Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Being highly prevalent, the correct use of these masks is particularly important, as an incorrect use and disposal may actually increase the rate of transmission. 2020-05-28
COVID-19 Disease in Children: What Dentists Should Know and Do to Prevent Viral Spread. The Italian Point of View. This risk is even more serious in pediatric dentistry, since affected children, frequently, present an asymptomatic, mild or moderate clinical viral infection and, therefore, they may play a major role in community-based COVID-19 transmission. […] In the case of a dental emergency, involving a pediatric patient, dentists should be aware of which recommended management protocol can be adopted during the practice to protect patient health, to safeguard their-self and to prevent viral transmission. 2020-05-29
Evaluating Transmission Heterogeneity and Super-Spreading Event of COVID-19 in a Metropolis of China. Understanding its transmission characteristics, including heterogeneity and the emergence of super spreading events (SSEs) where certain individuals infect large numbers of secondary cases, is of vital importance for prediction and intervention of future epidemics. […] Here, we collected information of all infected cases (135 cases) between 21 January and 26 February 2020 from official public sources in Tianjin, a metropolis of China, and grouped them into 43 transmission chains with the largest chain of 45 cases and the longest chain of four generations. […] Utilizing a heterogeneous transmission model based on branching process along with a negative binomial offspring distribution, we estimated the reproductive number R and the dispersion parameter k (lower value indicating higher heterogeneity) to be 0.67 (95% CI: 0.54-0.84) and 0.25 (95% CI: 0.13-0.88), respectively. […] Our results highlighted more efforts are needed to verify the transmission heterogeneity of COVID-19 in other populations and its contributing factors. 2020-05-29
Advanced Digital Health Technologies for COVID-19 and Future Emergencies. It then proposes the National Emergency Tele-Critical Care Network (NETCCN), which would combine digital health technologies to address this and future crises. Methods: Subject matter experts from the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center examined the peer-reviewed literature and science/technology news to see what digital health technologies have already been or could be implemented to (1) support patients while limiting COVID-19 transmission, (2) increase health care providers’ capability and capacity, and (3) predict/prevent future outbreaks. Results: Major technologies identified included telemedicine and mobile care (for COVID-19 as well as routine care), tiered telementoring, telecritical care, robotics, and artificial intelligence for monitoring. 2020-05-27
The Ocular Manifestations and Transmission of COVID-19: Recommendations for Prevention. Research has demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 is spread primarily through close contact via respiratory droplets, but there is the possibility for ocular transmission, with the conjunctiva as a conduit as well as a source of infection. 2020-05-29
The risk of COVID-19 transmission by laparoscopic smoke may be lower than for laparotomy: a narrative review. At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, surgical societies quickly published guidelines recommending avoiding laparoscopy or to consider open surgery because of the fear of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through surgical smoke or aerosol. 2020-05-29
[Management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): experiences from imported malaria control in China]. Currently, the local transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been effectively contained in China; however, the epidemic situation of this highly infectious disease is more and more serious outside of China. […] Nevertheless, the local transmission of this parasitic disease has been interrupted in China since the launch of the national malaria elimination programme in 2010, and great successes have been achieved in the management of appropriately 3 thousand malaria cases imported from other countries and territories annually. 2020-05-28
SARS-CoV-2 in urine. - Should Endourologists be concerned and what PPE measures should be taken to protect the Endourologist when in theatre ? Until it is proven that urine is not a potential source for transmission of the Virus Endourologists should have a clear knowledge of the different types of PPE available and what they should use when performing procedures. 2020-05-27
Concealment of Potential Exposure to COVID-19 and Its Impact on Outbreak Control: Lessons from the HIV Response. This article also illustrates the psychosocial aspect of the disease, and the negative repercussions of concealment of potential exposure on transmission in the community and to front-liners, healthcare resources, and outbreak containment. 2020-05-27
Changing practice patterns in head and neck oncologic surgery in the early COVID-19 era. The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed health care, challenged by resource constraints and fears of transmission. 2020-05-29
Mechanistic inferences from clinical reports of SARS-CoV-2. Given the threat to public health posed by sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the literature surrounding patient presentation in severe and non-severe cases, transmission rates and routes, management strategies, and initial clinical trial results have become available at an unprecedented pace. 2020-05-27
Flattening the Mental Health Curve: COVID-19 Stay-at-Home Orders are Associated with Alterations in Mental Health Search Behavior in the United States. Between March 16-23, eleven states underwent stay-at-home orders to prevent the transmission of COVID-19. 2020-05-27
Perioperative Considerations for Tracheostomies in The Era of COVID-19. The morbidity, mortality and blistering pace of transmission of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to an unprecedented worldwide health crisis. […] As the theoretical risk of disease transmission is increased during aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs), stringent infectious precautions are warranted. 2020-05-27
Estimation of the time-varying reproduction number of COVID-19 outbreak in China. A total of 198 chains of transmission together with dates of symptoms onset and 139 dates of infections were identified among 14,829 confirmed cases outside Hubei Province as reported as of March 31, 2020. 2020-05-29
Fighting COVID-19, a Place for Artificial Intelligence. The emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) heralded a new era in the cross-species transmission of severe respiratory illness leading to rapid spread in mainland China and around the world with a case fatality rate of 2.3% in China and 1.8-7.2% outside China (Wu & McGoogan, 2019; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020; Onder Rezza, & Brusaferro, 2020; World Health Organization, 2020). 2020-05-27
Modelling SARS-COV2 Spread in London: Approaches to Lift the Lockdown. A mathematical model for the transmission of SARS-CoV2 in London. 2020-05-30
Absence of nosocomial transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 in the pre-pandemic phase in Hong Kong. To describe the infection control strategy to achieve zero nosocomial transmission of symptomatic coronavirus disease (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 during the pre-pandemic phase (the first 72 days after announcement of pneumonia cases in Wuhan) in Hong Kong. […] Administrative support with the aim of zero nosocomial transmission by reducing elective clinical services, decanting wards, mobilizing isolation facilities, providing adequate personal protective equipment, coordinating laboratory network for rapid molecular diagnosis under 4-tier active surveillance for hospitalized- and out-patients, and organizing staff forum and training was implemented under the framework of preparedness plan in Hospital Authority. […] Administrative support to infection control could minimize the risk of nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-05-30
COVID-19: in the footsteps of Ernest Shackleton. We conclude that the prevalence of COVID-19 on affected cruise ships is likely to be significantly underestimated, and strategies are needed to assess and monitor all passengers to prevent community transmission after disembarkation. 2020-05-28
COVID-19 pandemic, socioeconomic crisis and human stress in resource-limited settings: A case from Bangladesh. Considering the population density, healthcare capacity, limited resources and existing poverty, environmental factors, social structure, cultural norms, and already more than 18,863 people infected, the community transmission of COVID-19 is happening fast. 2020-05-30
Animal models of mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 pathology. These infection models have already been useful for studies of transmission and immunity, but to date only partially model the mechanisms implicated in human severe COVID-19. 2020-05-28
Clinical features, isolation, and complete genome sequence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from the first two patients in Vietnam. This is genetically suggestive of human-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and indicates Wuhan as the most plausible origin of the early outbreak in Vietnam. 2020-05-28
Asymptomatic transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic and implications for public health strategies. SARS-CoV-2 spread rapidly within months despite global public health strategies to curb transmission by testing symptomatic patients and encouraging social distancing. […] Here, we summarize rapidly emerging evidence highlighting transmission by asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic individuals. […] Asymptomatic transmission was reported in several clusters. […] A Wuhan study showed an alarming rate of intrahospital transmission, and several countries reported higher prevalence among healthcare workers than the general population. 2020-05-28
Infection control practices in children during COVID-19 pandemic: differences from adults. Prevention the transmission of COVID-19 to the HCWs, four primary themes should be taken into consideration; (1) ongoing education and importance of the organization of the healthcare facility, (2) proper clinical triage and isolation of the suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients in the outpatient clinics and in the emergency departments, (3) necessity of the organization of the COVID-19 wards, and (4) utilization of personal protective equipment. […] If sufficient precautions are not taken, healthcare settings may serve as additional source of transmission and spread of COVID-19 in the society. 2020-05-30
The temperature and regional climate effects on communitarian COVID-19 contagion in Mexico throughout phase 1. Due to the close relationship between the incidence of infectious diseases by epidemics and environmental conditions, this research explores the temperature, evaporation, precipitation and regional climate effects on the local transmission of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 inside 31 states and capital of Mexico since February 29 (national onset) to March 31, 2020. […] In this work, the local transmission ratio (LTR) was calculated with the regional LCPC divided by the number of the effective contagion days since regional onset in each state. 2020-05-30
[Implementation of an operational concept in an ENT clinic in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic]. Here, patient safety and employee protection are equally important.In cooperation with the Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene and the occupational medical service, interventions were defined to develop solutions to minimize the COVID-19 transmission risk for examiners and patients despite limited diagnostic and equipment resources. 2020-05-28
A simulation training course for family medicine residents in China managing COVID-19. The simulation scenario improves crisis management skills for family physicians managing the high risk of transmission of respiratory infectious diseases. 2020-05-29
Model for Taking Care of Patients with Early Childhood Caries during the SARS-Cov-2 Pandemic. A narrative review was carried out to support a protocol for treating ECC with efficacious and safe (in terms of SARS-CoV-2 transmission) procedures. […] Protocol involves criteria for patients’ selection remotely (telemedicine), and well-detailed criteria/equipment and hygiene procedures to combat against SARS-CoV-2 transmission. 2020-05-29
Comprehensive analysis of drugs to treat SARS‑CoV‑2 infection: Mechanistic insights into current COVID‑19 therapies (Review). The major impact produced by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) focused many researchers attention to find treatments that can suppress transmission or ameliorate the disease. 2020-05-29
Estimation of reproduction numbers of COVID-19 in typical countries and epidemic trends under different prevention and control scenarios. First, evidence-based prompt responses yield lower transmission rate followed by decreasing Rt. 2020-05-31
Plasma from donors recovered from the new Coronavirus 2019 as therapy for critical patients with COVID-19 (COVID-19 plasma study): a multicentre study protocol. In February 2020, the first case of transmission on Italian soil was reported. 2020-05-29
Providing evidence on the ongoing health care workers’ mask debate. Conversely, we suggest that at least a plain mask should be used during all HCWs’ contacts in healthcare facilities which constitute a highly probable but often overlooked means of SARS-CoV-2 transmission among HCWs. 2020-05-31
Potential RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors as prospective therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2. Following an outbreak of SARS-CoV in 2002, and MERS-CoV about 10 years later, SARS-CoV-2 is the third coronavirus in less than 20 years to cross the species barrier and start spreading by human-to-human transmission. 2020-05-29
Initial psychological impact of COVID-19 and its correlates in Indian Community: An online (FEEL-COVID) survey. When the global focus has mostly been on testing, finding a cure and preventing transmission; people are going through a myriad of psychological problems in adjusting to the current lifestyles and fear of the disease. 2020-05-29
Transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 and protective measures in dental clinics during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper, based on proven effective experience, relevant guidelines, and research, not only presents the fundamental knowledge about the name, etiologic characteristics, epidemiologic characteristics and clinical manifestations of COVID-19, transmission routes and risk points of SARS-CoV-2 in dental clinics but also provides recommended protective measures for dental professionals to interdict the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in dental clinics. […] This paper, based on proven effective experience, relevant guidelines, and research, not only presents the fundamental knowledge about the name, etiologic characteristics, epidemiologic characteristics and clinical manifestations of COVID-19, transmission routes and risk points of SARS-CoV-2 in dental clinics but also provides recommended protective measures for dental professionals to interdict the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in dental clinics. 2020-06-02
Investigation and Serologic Follow-Up of Contacts of Early Confirmed Case-Patient with COVID-19, United States. Among contacts who were tested, no secondary transmission was identified in this investigation, despite unprotected close interactions with the infectious case-patient. 2020-05-29
Modeling the effects of intervention strategies on COVID-19 transmission dynamics. To model the effects of continuous, intermittent, and stepping-down social distancing (SD) strategies and personal protection measures on COVID-19 transmission dynamics. 2020-05-29
It is currently unknown whether SARS-CoV-2 is viable in semen or whether COVID-19 damages spermatozoa. Several studies have examined men recovering from COVID-19, but large-scale community-based testing is needed to ascertain the effects on the male reproductive tract, and the potential for prolonged transmission. 2020-06-19
Proactive COVID-19 Infection Prevention Measures in a Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Center. As SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted through droplets and aerosols, we cannot ignore the risk of transmission during hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). 2020-05-30
Spatial-Temporal Variations in Atmospheric Factors Contribute to SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak. In the early stages of a new pathogen outbreak, it is critical to understand the dynamics of the infection transmission, in order to follow contagion over time and project the epidemiological situation in the near future. 2020-05-30
Novel Immunoglobulin Domain Proteins Provide Insights into Evolution and Pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-Related Viruses. The rapid evolution of the ORF8 Ig domain proteins points to a potential evolutionary arms race between viruses and hosts, likely arising from immune pressure, and suggests a role in transmission between distinct host species.IMPORTANCE The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic strongly emphasizes the need for a more complete understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of its causative agent SARS-CoV-2. 2020-05-30
Introductions and early spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the New York City area. To identify the early transmission events underlying the rapid spread of the virus in the NYC metropolitan area, we sequenced the virus causing COVID-19 in patients seeking care at the Mount Sinai Health System. […] Moreover, we find evidence for community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 as suggested by clusters of related viruses found in patients living in different neighborhoods of the city. 2020-05-30
Detection of air and surface contamination by SARS-CoV-2 in hospital rooms of infected patients. This warrants further study of the airborne transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-05-30
Compliance and Psychological Impact of Quarantine in Children and Adolescents due to Covid-19 Pandemic. The low compliance with quarantine requirements as seen in this study raises a serious concern about the effectiveness of quarantine as a preventive measure of disease transmission. 2020-05-30
COVID-19 Pandemic and Surgical Oncology: Preserving the Academic Mission. The pandemic has lead to massive redirection of health care resources to treat the surge of COVID-19 patients, and enforcement of social distancing to reduce the rate of transmission. 2020-05-30
Surgical mask partition reduces the risk of non-contact transmission in a golden Syrian hamster model for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is believed to be mostly transmitted by medium-to-large sized respiratory droplets although airborne transmission is theoretically possible in healthcare settings involving aerosol-generating procedures. […] Non-contact transmission was found in 66.7% (10/15) of exposed naïve hamsters. […] Surgical mask partition for challenged index or naïve hamsters significantly reduced transmission to 25% (6/24, P=0.018). […] Surgical mask partition for challenged index hamsters significantly reduced transmission to only 16.7% (2/12, P=0.019) of exposed naïve hamsters. […] Such transmission could be reduced by surgical mask usage, especially when masks were worn by infected individuals. 2020-05-30
Ventilated Upper Airway Endoscopic Endonasal Procedure Mask: Surgical Safety in the COVID-19 Era. To reduce the risks of pathogen transmission during endoscopic skull base surgery. 2020-05-30
SARS-CoV-2 and human milk: What is the evidence? One area of active inquiry is understanding the mode(s) of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. […] Although respiratory droplets are a known mechanism of transmission, other mechanisms are likely. […] Of particular importance to global health is the possibility of vertical transmission from infected mothers to infants through breastfeeding or consumption of human milk. […] However, there is limited published literature related to vertical transmission of any human coronaviruses (including SARS-CoV-2) via human milk and/or breastfeeding. […] Results of the literature search reported here (finalized on 17 April 2020) revealed a single study providing some evidence of vertical transmission of human coronavirus 229E; a single study evaluating presence of SARS-CoV in human milk (it was negative); and no published data on MERS-CoV and human milk. […] These reports are evaluated here, and their implications related to the possibility of vertical transmission of coronaviruses (in particular, SARS-CoV-2) during breastfeeding are discussed. 2020-05-30
We Know About COVID-19: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Survey. The main symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, fatigue, dry cough; however, myalgia and dyspnea and the transmission routes include direct transmission by cough, sneeze, droplet inhalation, or contact transmission with the oral, nasal, or eye mucous membranes. […] The dental professionals are the main risk group to COVID-19 due to the transmission routes that are directly related to the dental practice. 2020-05-30
Maximum Daily Temperature, Precipitation, Ultra-Violet Light and Rates of Transmission of SARS-Cov-2 in the United States. Previous reports have suggested that transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is reduced by higher temperatures and higher humidity. […] We analyzed case-data from the United States to investigate effects of temperature, precipitation, and UV Light on community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. […] We performed sensitivity analyses at 3 days, 7 days and 9 days to assess transmission lags. […] However, the association between temperature and transmission is small and transmission is likely to remain high at warmer temperatures. 2020-05-30
Assessing the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Switzerland. Estimates of the impact of these interventions on SARS-CoV-2 transmission are critical for decision making in this and future outbreaks. […] We here aim to assess the impact of these NPIs on disease transmission by estimating changes in the basic reproduction number (R0) at national and cantonal levels in relation to the timing of these NPIs. […] We estimated the time-varying R0 nationally and in eleven cantons by fitting a stochastic transmission model explicitly simulating within-hospital dynamics. […] We inferred that most of the reduction of transmission is attributable to behavioural changes as opposed to natural immunity, the latter accounting for only about 4% of the total reduction in effective transmission. 2020-05-30
COVID-19’s Impact on Private Practice and Academic Dentistry in North America. More specifically, we discuss about measures implemented to minimize risks of disease transmission, challenges in emergency dental care, impact on patients, and on private practice and academic dental team. 2020-05-30
2019 novel coronavirus: what is currently known, cardiovascular implications and management. We summarize what makes SARS-CoV2 different from previous highly pathogenic coronaviruses and why it is so contagious, with focus on its clinical presentation and diagnosis, which is mandatory to start the appropriate management and reduce the transmission. 2020-05-30
Managing burns during COVID-19 outbreak. However, due to the risk of viral transmission, the goal should be to provide safe care to our patients as well as ensure the safety of the whole team providing burn care. […] The burn patients are usually debilitated and require a prolonged hospital stay and multiple operative procedures which puts them and everyone involved in their care at increased risk of coronavirus infections and transmission. 2020-05-30
Estimation of the Serial Interval and Basic Reproduction Number of COVID-19 in Qom, Iran, and Three Other Countries: A Data-Driven Analysis in the Early Phase of the Outbreak. To control the epidemic, the number of reproduction number should be reduced by decreasing the contact rate, decreasing transmission probability and decreasing the duration of the infectious period. 2020-05-30
Long-term surveillance of bat coronaviruses in Korea: Diversity and distribution pattern. Bats harbor diverse coronaviruses (CoVs), some of which are associated with zoonotic infections, as well as interspecies transmission. […] Considering that different bat species are co-roosting in crowded conditions in the same habitat, the diverse coronaviruses in Korean bats are likely to undergo cross-species transmission events due to the richness in host species. 2020-05-30
On the benefits of flattening the curve: A perspective. In view of the extraordinary efforts underway to identify existing medications that are active against SARS-CoV-2 and to develop new antiviral drugs, vaccines and antibody therapies, any of which may have community-level effects, we also describe how pharmaceutical interventions affect transmission. 2020-05-30
SARS-CoV-2: The viral shedding vs infectivity dilemma. The duration of quarantine required after clinical recovery to definitively prevent transmission is therefore uncertain. […] In addition, asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission may occur, and infectivity may be highest early after onset of symptoms, meaning that contact tracing, isolation of exposed individuals and social distancing are essential public health measures to prevent further spread. 2020-06-22
COVID-19: Transmission, prevention, and potential therapeutic opportunities. In this review, current therapeutic options, preventive methods and transmission routes of COVID-19 are discussed. 2020-06-28
Neurosurgery Practice During Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic. In some systems, non-overlapping teams were created to minimize transmission among healthcare workers. 2020-06-02
Mitigating the impact of COVID-19 on oncology: Clinical and operational lessons from a prospective radiation oncology cohort tested for COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic warrants operational initiatives to minimize transmission, particularly among cancer patients who are thought to be at high-risk. 2020-06-26
Oral saliva and COVID-19. Since saliva can host several viruses including SARS-CoV-2, the transmission chance of viruses through saliva, particularly those causing respiratory infections, is unavoidable. 2020-06-26
Potential of Arbidol for Post-exposure Prophylaxis of COVID-19 Transmission-A Preliminary Report of a Retrospective Cohort Study. The efficient transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) from patients to health care workers or family members has been a worrisome and prominent feature of the ongoing outbreak. 2020-06-03
Back to school: Safe for children with underlying medical conditions. As schools reopen as a result of low community transmission rates of COVID-19, parents and teachers will have understandable concerns about the risks to students and staff. 2020-06-01
COVID-19-A Novel Zoonotic Disease: A Review of the Disease, the Virus, and Public Health Measures. However, a number of important properties of the virus are still not well understood, and there is an urgent need to learn more about its transmission dynamics, its spectrum of clinical severity, its wildlife origin, and its genetic stability. 2020-06-01
Epidemic characteristics of COVID-19 in four Chinese cities. Therefore, the initial stage of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in cities outside Wuhan were mainly input. 2020-06-01
The potential transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from patients with negative RT-PCR swab tests to others: two related clusters of COVID-19 outbreak. The transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 in negative nasopharyngeal swabs cases were little addressed previously. 2020-06-01
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Clinical Perspectives and Ongoing Challenges. Using PubMed, Embase and Medline, articles published between January and April 2020 on Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and resources from World Health Organisation were analyzed in order to have an understanding of the clinical characteristics, transmission dynamics, virology, diagnostic possibilities, prevention, management approach, controversies and impact of COVID-19 on the healthcare workforce. […] The mode of transmission via droplet infections makes it unduly contagious and difficult to control. 2020-06-03
COVID-19 and veterinarians for one health, zoonotic- and reverse-zoonotic transmissions. SARS-CoV-2 has crossed the species barrier to infect humans and other animal species, and infected humans can facilitate reverse-zoonotic transmission to animals. 2020-06-02
Virtual screening-driven drug discovery of SARS-CoV2 enzyme inhibitors targeting viral attachment, replication, post-translational modification and host immunity evasion infection mechanisms. The absence of specific drugs and vaccines, the rapid transmission of the virus, and the increasing number of deaths worldwide necessitated the discovery of new substances for anti-COVID-19 drug development. 2020-06-25
Optimal Management of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) in Adult Patients During the Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic. The newly identified zoonotic coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2), is characterized by rapid human-to-human transmission. 2020-06-03
Gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations of COVID-19: A comprehensive review. Viral RNA has also been isolated from stool specimens of COVID-19 patients, which raised the concern for fecal-oral transmission in addition to droplet transmission. […] Although indirect evidence has suggested possible fecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2, more effort is needed to establish the role of the fecal-oral transmission route. 2020-06-08
COVID-19 and Other Pandemics: How Might They Be Prevented? The results of the review lead to two conclusions: first, that eye protection using filtered eye masks be used to prevent ocular transmission; second, that new, pre-filtered, valved respirators be used to even more effectively block viral transmission. 2020-06-05
The COVID-19 Pandemic and Paradigm Change in Global Scientific Research. The transmission dynamics to humans from the original and intermediary hosts remain poorly understood, but it is highly likely that the SARS-CoV-2 virus infected humans after undergoing an inter-species transfer from bats to an intermediate species, and from there to human beings. 2020-06-09
Special report: Prevalence of selected underlying health conditions among active component Army service members with coronavirus disease 2019, 11 February-6 April 2020. The novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is exhibiting widespread community transmission throughout most of the world. 2020-06-05
Characteristics of Hospitalized Pediatric COVID-19 Cases - Chicago, Illinois, March - April 2020. For 15 households with available data to assess transmission, 11 (73%) were adult-to-child, 2 (13%) child-to-child, and 2 (13%) child-to-adult. […] Given frequency of household transmission, healthcare providers should consider alternative dispositional planning for affected families of children living with comorbidities. 2020-06-01
Breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic: Suggestions on behalf of woman study group of AMD. To date no evidence confirmed COVID-19 vertical transmission from infected pregnant mother to their fetus. […] Woman Study Group of AMD, after reviewing current knowledge about COVID-19 vertical transmission and the compatibility of breastfeeding in COVID-19 mother, the available recommendations from Health Care Organizations and main experts opinions, issued the following suggestions on breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic, addressed both to mothers with and without diabetes. 2020-06-28
Considerations for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons in COVID-19 Era: Can We Sustain the Solutions to Keep Our Patients and Healthcare Personnel Safe? New infection control policies should be strictly enforced and monitored in all clinical and nonclinical settings, with an overall goal to decrease the risk of exposure and transmission. 2020-06-15
An update on SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 with particular reference to its clinical pathology, pathogenesis, immunopathology and mitigation strategies. SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women does not lead to fetus mortality, unlike other zoonotic coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and there is, to date, no evidence of intrauterine transmission to neonates. 2020-06-09
COVID-19-Associated Encephalitis Mimicking Glial Tumor. For prompt diagnosis and prevention of transmission, clinicians should consider COVID-19 in patients with similar presentation. 2020-06-27
COVID 19 and laparoscopic surgeons, the Indian scenario - Perspective. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is most transmitted via respiratory droplets, but risk of transmission is hugely increased while doing aerosol generating procedures (AGPs). 2020-06-26
Trend of respiratory pathogens during the COVID-19 epidemic. In Italy, the first SARS-CoV-2 infections were diagnosed in Rome, Lazio region, at the end of January 2020, but sustained transmission occurred later, since the end of February. 2020-06-26
A Guiding Principles Checklist for Otolaryngologic Surgery in the COVID-19 Era. As many otolaryngologic procedures are shown to have higher risk of viral transmission-so-called aerosol-generating procedures-it is imperative that multidisciplinary care teams be provided updated, timely, and consistent information. 2020-06-02
Prior and novel coronaviruses, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and human reproduction: what is known? Postpartum neonatal transmission from mother to child has been reported. 2020-06-10
Provision of Emergency Maxillofacial Service During the COVID-19 Pandemic : A Collaborative Five Centre UK Study. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery is considered particularly at risk of disease transmission due to aerosol generation during surgical interventions, patient proximity and operating environment. 2020-06-14
Swine enteric alphacoronavirus (swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus): An update three years after its discovery. This review summarizes the emergence of SeACoV and updates the research progress made from 2017 to early 2020, mainly focusing on the etiology, epidemiology, evolutionary perspective, potential for interspecies transmission, pathogenesis and diagnosis. 2020-06-27
Hemodialysis with Cohort Isolation to Prevent Secondary Transmission during a COVID-19 Outbreak in Korea. Health care-associated infections during previous coronavirus epidemics involving severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome resulted from human-to-human transmission in hemodialysis (HD) facilities. […] The effect of a strategy of HD with cohort isolation-separate dialysis sessions for close contacts of patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-on the prevention of secondary transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in HD units is unknown. […] The transmission of COVID-19 can be controlled without closure of HD centers by implementing preemptive activities, including early detection with rapid testing, cohort isolation, collaboration between institutions, and continuous monitoring of infection. 2020-06-02
Estimates of the ongoing need for social distancing and control measures post-“lockdown” from trajectories of COVID-19 cases and mortality. Most countries with significant outbreaks have introduced social distancing or “lockdown” measures to reduce viral transmission. 2020-06-11
Refractory Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Secondary to COVID-19 Successfully Extubated to Average Volume-assured Pressure Support Non-invasive Ventilator. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness caused by the highly infectious novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus spread by droplet transmission. 2020-06-05
The Real Impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (covid-19) on the Pregnancy Outcome. There are unanswered questions specific to pregnant women, such as whether pregnant women are more severely affected and whether intrauterine transmission occurs. 2020-06-05
Rhinologic Practice Special Considerations During COVID-19: Visit Planning, Personal Protective Equipment, Testing, and Environmental Controls. Rhinologist manipulation of nasal tissue, proximity, and frequent aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) create high risk for infection transmission. 2020-06-02
A Mouse Model of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Pathogenesis. Overall, this animal model described here provides a useful tool for studying SARS-CoV-2 transmission and pathogenesis and evaluating COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutics. 2020-06-05
A Novel Cohorting and Isolation Strategy for Suspected COVID-19 Cases during a Pandemic. Patients in other groups were cohorted when isolation capacity was limited with additional interventions to reduce transmission. 93 patients were evaluated with 79 (85%) receiving a COVID-19 diagnosis during their admission. […] Application of a clinical triage tool to guide isolation and cohorting decisions may reduce the risk of hospital acquired transmission of COVID-19 especially to individuals at the greatest of risk of severe disease. 2020-06-05
COVID-19 Outbreak Perception in Italian Dentists. It consisted of different investigations about sociodemographic aspects, profession-related characteristics, knowledge about COVID-19 infection transmission modalities, symptoms, and attitude in treating potentially infected patients. […] Italian dentists were informed correctly on the mode of transmission but partially missed COVID-19 symptoms. 2020-06-09
Statistical Explorations and Univariate Timeseries Analysis on COVID-19 Datasets to Understand the Trend of Disease Spreading and Death. A major goal to limit the further exponential spreading is to slow down the transmission rate, which is denoted by a “spread factor (f)”, and we proposed an algorithm in this study for analyzing the same. 2020-06-18
Effect of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions on Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, South Korea, 2020. We analyzed transmission of coronavirus disease outside of the Daegu-Gyeongsangbuk provincial region in South Korea. 2020-06-03
Adolescents’ Motivations to Engage in Social Distancing During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Associations With Mental and Social Health. Understanding adolescents’ motivations to engage in social distancing may inform strategies to increase social distancing engagement, reduce pathogen transmission, and identify individual differences in mental and social health during the COVID-19 pandemic. 2020-06-05
Cost-Effective Filtrating Suction to Evacuate Surgical Smoke in Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery During the COVID-19 Pandemic. To decrease the risk of virus transmission, many recommendations have been implemented including the use of integrated insufflation devices comprising smoke evacuation and filtration mode. 2020-06-03
A Patient with Acute Cervical Cord Injury and COVID-19: A First Case Report. Rehabilitation personnel who take care of acute SCI patients with COVID-19 should consider the effect of SCI on the course of COVID-19, the effect of COVID-19 and its treatments on the course of SCI, and risks of SAR-CoV2 transmission between patients and rehabilitation staff, to continue providing safe and effective rehabilitation programs. 2020-06-19
[Delivery of oral health in andalusian health service on the de-escalation of SARS-CoV-2]. The respiratory transmission virus remains stable on surfaces, being able to spread by air in respiratory droplets or in procedures that generate aerosols. 2020-06-08
Modeling mitigation of influenza epidemics by baloxavir. Hence, early baloxavir treatment may indirectly prevent transmission. […] Here, we estimate impacts of ramping up and accelerating baloxavir treatment on population-level incidence using a new model that links viral load dynamics from clinical trial data to between-host transmission. […] The development of antivirals against the SARS-CoV2 virus that function like baloxavir might similarly curtail transmission and save lives. 2020-06-04
Asymptomatic carriage and transmission of SARS-CoV-2: What do we know? This review examines the evidence for asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic carriage of SARS-CoV-2, the risk of transmission from asymptomatic patients, and the specific risks associated with aerosol-generating procedures. […] The degree of risk of transmission from asymptomatic patients to healthcare providers will depend on the prevalence of disease in the population, which is difficult to assess without widespread population screening. […] Aerosol-generating procedures increase the odds of viral transmission from infected symptomatic patients to healthcare providers, but transmission from asymptomatic patients has not been reported. […] Viral transmission from patients exhibiting no symptoms in the operating room is plausible and efforts to reduce risk to healthcare providers include reducing aerosolization and wearing appropriate personal protective equipment, the feasibility of which will vary based on geographic risk and equipment availability. 2020-06-05
Intergenerational Relationships, Family Caregiving Policy, and COVID-19 in the United States. If one family member is exposed to the virus they could serve as a source of transmission or, if they fall ill, the resources they provide to others could be severed. 2020-06-25
No evidence of secondary transmission of COVID-19 from children attending school in Ireland, 2020. As many countries begin to lift some of the restrictions to contain COVID-19 spread, lack of evidence of transmission in the school setting remains. […] We examined Irish notifications of SARS-CoV2 in the school setting before school closures on 12 March 2020 and identified no paediatric transmission. […] This adds to current evidence that children do not appear to be drivers of transmission, and we argue that reopening schools should be considered safe accompanied by certain measures. 2020-06-11
COVID-19 in India: Are Biological and Environmental Factors Helping to Stem the Incidence and Severity? We analyze the current pattern of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, testing, and mortality in India with an emphasis on the importance of mortality as a marker of the clinical relevance of COVID-19 disease. 2020-06-05
COVID-19: Preliminary Clinical Guidelines for Ophthalmology Practices. There is controversy regarding the transmission of the virus through the tear and conjunctiva; however, there are reports that the ocular surface might be a potential target for COVID-19. […] The ease of transmission of this virus at close proximity presents a risk to eyecare workers. 2020-06-05
Supporting individuals with intellectual and developmental disability during the first 100 days of the COVID-19 outbreak in the USA. Using custom-built software applications enabling us to track patient, client and employee cases and exposures, we leveraged current public health recommendations to identify cases and to suppress transmission, which included the use of personal protective equipment. 2020-06-22
Progression of confirmed COVID-19 cases after the implementation of control measures. To analyse the measures adopted by countries that have shown control over the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and how each curve of accumulated cases behaved after the implementation of those measures. 2020-06-19
COVID-19 and the eye: how much do we really know? A best evidence review. Both the possible presence of viral particles in tears and conjunctiva, and the potential for conjunctival transmission remain controversial. 2020-06-09
Surveillance of the first cases of COVID-19 in Sergipe using a prospective spatiotemporal analysis: the spatial dispersion and its public health implications. This study aimed to identify active high-risk transmission clusters of COVID-19 in Sergipe. 2020-06-19
Sexually Transmitted Infections during the COVID-19 outbreak: comparison of patients referring to the service of sexually transmitted diseases during the sanitary emergency with those referring during the common practice. In 1991 and 2009 the Italian sentinel surveillance system was established, consisting in 25 public centers (12 clinical, 13 laboratories) on the national field for diagnosis, treatment and data transmission to the INIH4 . 2020-06-19
SARS-CoV-2, More than a Respiratory Virus: Its Potential Role in Neuropathogenesis. The review also touches upon our current understanding of placental transmission of SARS-CoV-2, an important aspect of vertical transmission. 2020-06-19
SARS-CoV-2 RNA Detection on Disposable Wooden Chopsticks, Hong Kong. Although we did not assess virus viability, our findings may suggest potential for transmission through shared eating utensils. 2020-06-03
The Importance of Advancing SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines in Children. While the role of children in the chain of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 remains to be fully defined, they likely play an important role based on our knowledge of other respiratory viruses. 2020-06-26
Evidence for mutations in SARS-CoV-2 Italian isolates potentially affecting virus transmission. Italy is the first western country suffering heavy severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission and disease impact after coronavirus disease-2019 pandemia started in China. […] Even though the presence of mutations on spike glycoprotein and nucleocapsid in Italian isolates has been reported, the potential impact of these mutations on viral transmission has not been evaluated. 2020-06-19
Review of the present features and the infection control challenges of COVID-19 pandemic in dialysis facilities. The dialysis population is vulnerable and the dialysis facility is critical in maintaining operations and avoiding disease transmission. 2020-06-25
Comparison of clinical and epidemiological characteristics of asymptomatic and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection: A multi-center study in Sichuan Province, China. One case of possible virus transmission by a patient during the incubation period was highly suspected. 2020-06-08
Fast SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-qPCR in preheated nasopharyngeal swab samples. We evaluated three methods based on direct nasopharyngeal swab viral transmission medium (VTM) heating before the RT-qPCR: a) direct without additives; b) in a formamide-EDTA (FAE) buffer, c) in a RNAsnapTM buffer. 2020-06-28
Does COVID-19 infection impact on the trend of seasonal influenza infection? 11 countries and regions, from 2014 to 2020. In East Asia, the number of seasonal influenza cases in the 2019-20 season was lower after the COVID-19 transmission compared to previous years. 2020-06-28
COVID-19 Pandemic and Role of Human Saliva as a Testing Biofluid in Point-of-Care Technology. It is observed that salivary glands are hosting severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) because of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and the detection of high viral loads in the saliva and is playing a crucial role in virus transmission, especially from individuals showing absolutely no symptoms. 2020-06-03
[SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19): what can we expect?] Virus excretion in asymptomatic people and in the pre-symptomatic phase of an infection is relevant for transmission- An effective antiviral therapy has not yet been established. 2020-06-09
Counteracting Physical Inactivity during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence-Based Recommendations for Home-Based Exercise. To reduce transmission of the coronavirus, from its initial outbreak in 2019 up to now, various safety measures have been enacted worldwide by the authorities that have likely led to reduced physical activity levels in the general population. 2020-06-09
Emerging Challenges and Threats for Dental Health Care Sector Attributable to COVID-19: Tale of a Developing Country. There exist a lack of scientific data about the cross-transmission and its associated risk, especially in the dental health care setting of Pakistan. 2020-06-06
Inequalities in access to water and soap matter for the COVID-19 response in sub-Saharan Africa. Lacking an effective treatment, countries have implemented non-pharmaceutical interventions including social distancing measures and have encouraged maintaining adequate and frequent hand hygiene to slow down the disease transmission. 2020-06-08
Real-time monitoring the transmission potential of COVID-19 in Singapore, March 2020. As of March 31, 2020, the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic that started in China in December 2019 is now generating local transmission around the world. […] The geographic heterogeneity and associated intervention strategies highlight the need to monitor in real time the transmission potential of COVID-19. […] Singapore provides a unique case example for monitoring transmission, as there have been multiple disease clusters, yet transmission remains relatively continued. […] The local incidence curve displays sub-exponential growth dynamics, with the reproduction number following a declining trend and reaching an estimate at 0.7 (95% CI 0.3, 1.0) during the first transmission wave by February 14, 2020, while the overall R based on the cluster size distribution as of March 17, 2020, was estimated at 0.6 (95% CI 0.4, 1.02). […] The trajectory of the reproduction number in Singapore underscores the significant effects of successful containment efforts in Singapore, but it also suggests the need to sustain social distancing and active case finding efforts to stomp out all active chains of transmission. 2020-06-10
Guidance for otolaryngology health care workers performing aerosol generating medical procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic. During the COVID-19 pandemic all elective and non-time sensitive Otolaryngology procedures should be deferred to mitigate the risk of transmission of infection to HCWs. 2020-06-08
Controlled, double-blind, randomized trial to assess the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine chemoprophylaxis in SARS CoV2 infection in healthcare personnel in the hospital setting: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. SARS-CoV-2 infection presents a high transmission in the group of health professionals in Spain (12-15% infected). […] Adult health-care professionals (18-65 years) working in areas of high exposure and high risk of transmission of SARS-COV-2 (COVID areas, Intensive Care Unit -ICUs-, Emergency, Anesthesia and all those performing aerosol-generating procedures) will be included. […] This is a single-center study that will be carried out at the Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital. 450 health professionals working at the Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla in areas of high exposure and high risk of transmission of SARS COV2 (COVID hospital areas, Intensive Care Unit, Emergency, Anesthesia and all those performing aerosol-generating procedures) will be included. 2020-06-10
COVID-19 Outbreak in Malaysia. In this review the SARS-CoV-2 morphology, pathogenic mechanism, similarities and differences between SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome and severe acute respiratory syndrome, transmission mode, diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures were investigated. 2020-06-06
[The War Against the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-2019): Keys to Successfully Defending Taiwan]. Therefore, it is very important to wear masks, take personal precautions, and practice recommended social distancing to achieve source control and stop transmission. 2020-06-08
[Nursing Education Strategies During the COVID-19 Epidemic]. The Taiwan government has taken rapid and decisive actions to reduce the risk of community transmission and campus cluster infection. 2020-06-08
Is visiting Qom spread CoVID-19 epidemic in the Middle East? This report proves that further transmission of CoVID-19 to the Middle East was because of human mobility, besides engaging in different Jewish and Shi’ite religious rites. […] This report suggests avoiding several religious rites, closing the borders of infected countries, and supporting the infected countries to prevent further transmission. 2020-06-10
An update on novel COVID-19 pandemic: a battle between humans and virus. Among these, COVID-19 has greater transmission and mortality rate. 2019 nCoV belongs to a large family of positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses (+ssRNA) that can be isolated in different animal species. […] COVID-19 transmission is occurring from infected humans to close contact with one another through respiratory droplets, coughs, and sneezes of infected person. 2020-06-10
COVID-19: a conundrum to decipher. A broad search of the literature was performed in “PubMed” “Medline” “Web of Science”, “Google Scholar” and “World Health Organization-WHO” using the keywords “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus”, “2019-nCoV”, “COVID-19,”SARS“,”SARS-CoV-2" “Epidemiology” “Transmission” “Pathogenesis” “Clinical Characteristics”. 2020-06-10
Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and nationwide lockdown on trust, attitudes toward government, and well-being. The contagiousness and deadliness of COVID-19 have necessitated drastic social management to halt transmission. 2020-06-04
Air pollution and COVID-19: Is the connect worth its weight? Primary route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among humans is droplets and direct contact. […] Airborne transmission of this virus is not established conclusively and so is the role of airborne particulate matter. […] This commentary examines the existing evidence about the role of particulate matter pollutants in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. […] Empirical evidence has been provided regarding role of air pollution in accelerated transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Italy as well as Wuhan. […] Lockdown-related reduction in PM2.5levels in ambient air may have contributed to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2. […] Post-lockdown increase in PM2.5levels may accelerate covid-19 transmission and can add to the burden of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. 2020-06-17
Impact of nonpharmacological interventions on COVID-19 transmission dynamics in India. We studied the impact of NPI on transmission dynamics of COVID-19 epidemic in India and estimated the minimum level of herd immunity required to halt it. […] Based on early transmission dynamics, R0was 2.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.79-3.07). […] Increased testing, intensive case-based surveillance and containment efforts, modulated movement restrictions while protecting the vulnerable population, and continuous monitoring of transmission dynamics should be a way forward in the absence of effective treatment, vaccine, and undetermined postinfection immunity. 2020-06-17
Genome analysis of SARS-CoV-2 isolates occurring in India: Present scenario. We found that most isolates reported from India have key mutations at 614th position of the S protein and 84th position of the ORF 8, which has been reported to be associated with high virulence and high transmission rate. […] In addition, available sequence data suggest that majority of Indian isolates are capable of high transmission and virulence. 2020-06-17
Insights from COVID-19 cluster containment in Bhilwara District, Rajasthan. The team in Bhilwara needs to remain vigilant to pick up any imported cases early before local transmission establishes. 2020-06-17
Facemasks for prevention of viral respiratory infections in community settings: A systematic review and meta-analysis. We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of facemask use alone or along with hand hygiene in community settings in reducing the transmission of viral respiratory illness. 2020-06-17
Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to COVID-19 pandemic among social media users in J&K, India. A total of 934 (61%) respondents had heard details on COVID-19 from the social media, 1358 (89%) knew all ways of coronavirus transmission, 602 (40%) felt that COVID-19 is a serious disease, 1184 (78%) responded that they totally agree with the lockdown decision, and 1296 (85%) responded that lockdown is helping in reducing the number of cases. 2020-06-17
“Slowing the Spread and Minimizing the Impact of COVID-19: Lessons from the Past and Recommendations for the Plastic Surgeon”. The objective of this paper is to provide a natural history of COVID-19 - including virology, epidemiology and transmission patterns - and a guide for plastic surgeons regarding patient and resource management. 2020-06-04
The Role of Children in the Dynamics of Intra Family Coronavirus 2019 Spread in Densely Populated Area. We examined the dynamics of coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) transmission within families. 2020-06-04
Serodiagnostics for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Related Coronavirus-2: A Narrative Review. At the population level, carefully designed seroepidemiologic studies will aid in the characterization of transmission dynamics and refinement of disease burden estimates and will provide insight into the kinetics of humoral immunity. 2020-06-20
Viral RNA Load in Mildly Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Children with COVID-19, Seoul. If proven infectious, feces and saliva could serve as transmission sources. 2020-06-04
Evidence for Limited Early Spread of COVID-19 Within the United States, January-February 2020. Examination of four lines of evidence provides insight into the timing of introduction and early transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, into the United States before the detection of these two cases. […] These data indicate that sustained, community transmission had begun before detection of the first two nontravel-related U.S. cases, likely resulting from the importation of a single lineage of virus from China in late January or early February, followed by several importations from Europe. 2020-06-05
COVID-19 Monitoring and Response Among U.S. Air Force Basic Military Trainees - Texas, March-April 2020. Based on epidemiologic data showing spread in congregate settings (2-4), national, state, and local governments instituted significant restrictions on large gatherings to prevent transmission of disease in early March 2020. […] Transmission of symptomatic COVID-19 was successfully limited using strategies of quarantine, social distancing, early screening of trainees, rapid isolation of persons with suspected cases, and monitored reentry into training for trainees with positive test results after resolution of symptoms. 2020-06-05
Maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with COVID-19 infection: A systematic review. There was one indeterminate case of potential vertical transmission. 2020-06-10
The natural history and transmission potential of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Little is known about the natural history of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection or its contribution to infection transmission. […] We compared the natural history and transmission potential of asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. 2020-06-26
Influenza and COVID-19 Co-infection: Report of 6 cases and review of the Literature. Both viruses have similar transmission characteristics and common clinical manifestations. 2020-06-04
COVID-19: Implications for the Support of People with Social Care Needs in England. Social isolation introduced to reduce COVID-19 transmission may adversely affect well-being. 2020-06-25
Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. We aimed to investigate the effects of physical distance, face masks, and eye protection on virus transmission in health-care and non-health-care (eg, community) settings. […] We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the optimum distance for avoiding person-to-person virus transmission and to assess the use of face masks and eye protection to prevent transmission of viruses. […] Transmission of viruses was lower with physical distancing of 1 m or more, compared with a distance of less than 1 m (n=10 736, pooled adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0·18, 95% CI 0·09 to 0·38; risk difference [RD] -10·2%, 95% CI -11·5 to -7·5; moderate certainty); protection was increased as distance was lengthened (change in relative risk [RR] 2·02 per m; pinteraction=0·041; moderate certainty). 2020-06-28
A data-driven network model for the emerging COVID-19 epidemics in Wuhan, Toronto and Italy. The transmission network model was respectively fitted to the reported data for the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan (China), Toronto (Canada), and the Italian Republic using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) optimization algorithm. 2020-06-27
Potential therapeutic targets for combating SARS-CoV-2: Drug repurposing, clinical trials and recent advancements. The present review describes the novel SARS-CoV-2 structure, surface proteins, asymptomatic and symptomatic transmission in addition to the genotype and phenotype of SARS-CoV-2 along with genetic strains and similarity between SARS, MERS and SARS-CoV-2. 2020-06-28
Aerosol generating procedures and infective risk to healthcare workers: SARS-CoV-2 - the limits of the evidence. The transmission behaviour of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still being defined. […] It is likely that it is transmitted predominantly by droplets and direct contact and it is possible that there is at least opportunistic airborne transmission. […] In order to protect healthcare staff adequately is necessary that we establish whether aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) increase the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2. […] Currently there is very little evidence detailing the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 associated with any specific procedures. 2020-06-06
Strategy for treating vascular emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. This article lists important measures that may save the lives of patients and medical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic and help to stop the transmission of COVID-19 on hospital grounds. 2020-06-06
Perspectives on how to navigate cancer surgery in the breast, head and neck, skin, and soft tissue tumor in limited-resource countries during COVID-19 pandemic. However, specific considerations to defer cancer surgery in developing countries might need to be carefully adjusted to counterbalance between preventing COVID-19 transmission and preserving patients ’long-term life expectancy and quality of life. 2020-06-26
HUMAN CORONAVIRUS DATA FROM FOUR CLINICAL TRIALS OF MASKS AND RESPIRATORS. The transmission modes of human coronaviruses are similar, thought to be by droplet, contact and sometimes airborne routes. 2020-06-06
Effect of a wet market on coronavirus disease (COVID-19) transmission dynamics in China, 2019-2020. Similarly, the influence of the marketplace on the early transmission dynamics is yet to be investigated. […] Using the daily series of COVID-19 incidence, stratified according to contact history with the market, we have conducted quantitative modeling analyses to estimate the reproduction numbers (R) for market-to-human and human-to-human transmission, the reporting probability, and the early effects of public health interventions. […] We estimated R at 0.24 (95% CrI: 0.01-1.38) for market-to-human transmission and 2.37 (95% CrI: 2.08-2.71) for human-to-human transmission during the early spread in China (2019-2020). […] Moreover, we estimated that the reporting rate for cases stemming from market-to-human transmission was 2-34 fold higher than that for cases stemming from human-to-human transmission, suggesting that contact history with the wet market played a key role in identifying COVID-19 cases. […] Our R estimate tied to market-to-human transmission had substantial uncertainty, but it was significantly lower compared with the reproduction number driving human-to-human transmission. 2020-06-28
Factors determining the diffusion of COVID-19 and suggested strategy to prevent future accelerated viral infectivity similar to COVID. In the second phase of maturity of the transmission dynamics of COVID-19, air pollution reduces intensity (on 7th April 2020 with b’1 = 0.81, p < 0.001) also because of the indirect effect of lockdown, whereas regression coefficient of transmission based on interpersonal contacts has a stable level (b’2 = 0.31, p < 0.01). […] This result reveals that accelerated transmission dynamics of COVID-19 is due to mainly to the mechanism of “air pollution-to-human transmission” (airborne viral infectivity) rather than “human-to-human transmission”. […] Overall, then, transmission dynamics of viral infectivity, such as COVID-19, is due to systemic causes: general factors that are the same for all regions (e.g., biological characteristics of virus, incubation period, etc.) and specific factors which are different for each region and/or city (e.g., complex interaction between air pollution, meteorological conditions and biological characteristics of viral infectivity) and health level of individuals (habits, immune system, age, sex, etc.). […] Lessons learned for COVID-19 in the case study here suggest that a proactive strategy to cope with future epidemics is also to apply especially an environmental and sustainable policy based on reduction of levels of air pollution mainly in hinterland and polluting cities- (having low wind speed, high percentage of moisture and number of fog days) -that seem to have an environment that foster a fast transmission dynamics of viral infectivity in society. […] Hence, in the presence of polluting industrialization in regions that can trigger the mechanism of air pollution-to-human transmission dynamics of viral infectivity, this study must conclude that a comprehensive strategy to prevent future epidemics similar to COVID-19 has to be also designed in environmental and socioeconomic terms, that is also based on sustainability science and environmental science, and not only in terms of biology, medicine, healthcare and health sector. 2020-06-10
[Consideration on improving public health emergency management ability of current medical health system]. The risk factors of COVID-19 epidemic at the early stage incluede the misjudgment of the epidemic, delay in reporting this emerging infectious disease, nosocomial infection-caused transmission of the virus into local communities, and weak public health interventions. 2020-06-05
The role of asymptomatic class, quarantine and isolation in the transmission of COVID-19. We have included asymptomatic, quarantine and isolation compartments in the model, as studies have stressed upon the importance of these population groups on the transmission of the disease. 2020-06-16
Risk estimation of the SARS-CoV-2 acute respiratory disease outbreak outside China. We constructed a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics, estimated the rate of transmission, and calculated the reproductive number in Hubei Province by using case-report data from January 11 to February 6, 2020. […] The possible number of secondary cases outside China was estimated by stochastic simulations in various scenarios of reductions in the duration to quarantine and rate of transmission. […] The rate of transmission was estimated as 0.8238 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8095-0.8382), and the basic reproductive number as 4.1192 (95% CI 4.0473-4.1912). […] Assuming the same rate of transmission as in Hubei Province, the possibility of no local transmission is 54.9% with a 24-h quarantine strategy, and the possibility of more than 20 local transmission cases is 7% outside of China. […] The reproductive number for SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics is significantly higher compared to that of the previous SARS epidemic in China. […] This implies that human-to-human transmission is a significant factor for contagion in Hubei Province. 2020-06-17
The Mental Health Consequences of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic in Dentistry. With the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), strict isolation strategies to limit virus transmission have been applied worldwide. […] Furthermore, the oral mucosa has been accepted as a high-risk route of transmission for COVID-19. 2020-06-19
Role of Pharmacists in COVID-19 Disease: A Jordanian Perspective. The aim of this study was to assess the possible roles of Jordanian pharmacists in minimizing the stage of community transmission. […] Jordanian pharmacists can be used to reduce community transmission of the outbreak. 2020-06-25
Coronavirus Disease 2019: Clinical Review. Transmission occurs essentially through the respiratory tract and the main symptoms are fever, cough and dyspnea. 2020-06-05
Covid-19 Pandemic and Current Medical Interventions. High pathogenicity and transmission rate of the viral strain has become the spotlight of research community throughout the world. 2020-06-08
Disposable Isolation Device to Reduce COVID-19 Contamination During CT Scanning. The use of chest computed tomography (CT) in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic raises concern regarding the transmission risks to patients and staff caused by CT room contamination. 2020-06-14
Barriers to conducting deprescribing in the elderly population amid the COVID-19 pandemic. The mode of transmission of this virus is from person to person through the transfer of respiratory droplets. 2020-06-08
A New System for Surveillance and Digital Contact Tracing for COVID-19: Spatiotemporal Reporting Over Network and GPS. The current pandemic of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has highlighted the importance of rapid control of the transmission of infectious diseases. […] Current systems for controlling transmission rely on patients to report their symptoms to medical professionals and be able to recall and trace all their contacts from the previous few days. 2020-06-17
A Comprehensive Review of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. While there is no consensus on the treatment of the disease yet, understanding the virus and its transmission is a cardinal priority. 2020-06-07
Evidence of initial success for China exiting COVID-19 social distancing policy after achieving containment. These interventions have impacted economic productivity in China, and the ability of the Chinese economy to resume without restarting the epidemic was not clear. Methods: Using daily reported cases from mainland China and Hong Kong SAR, we estimated transmissibility over time and compared it to daily within-city movement, as a proxy for economic activity. Results: Initially, within-city movement and transmission were very strongly correlated in the five mainland provinces most affected by the epidemic and Beijing. […] At the very end of the study period, when China began to experience the re-introduction of a small number of cases from Europe and the United States, there is an apparent up-tick in transmission. Conclusions: Although these results do not preclude future substantial increases in incidence, they suggest that after very intense social distancing (which resulted in containment), China successfully exited its lockdown to some degree. […] The results presented here illustrate how the eventual decorrelation between transmission and movement is likely a key feature of successful COVID-19 exit strategies. 2020-06-05
Leveraging investments in Ebola preparedness for COVID-19 in Sub-Saharan Africa. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in China and transmission to more than 80 territories worldwide, including nine countries in Africa, presents a delicate situation for low-resource settings. 2020-06-07
Endoscopic nasopharyngoscopy and ENT specialist safety in the COVID 19 era: the back endoscopy approach to the patient. The endoscopist, not being positioned in front of the patient, should, therefore, be less exposed to airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus. 2020-06-08
Responsible Return to Essential and Non-Essential Surgery During the COVID-19 Pandemic. The discrete phases undertaken at our quaternary care institution for a responsible return to non-essential surgery are outlined with the goal of ensuring timely care, minimizing community transmission, and preserving personal protective equipment. 2020-06-07
Clinical update on COVID-19 in pregnancy: A review article. This review article presents a comprehensive analysis of the current data in relation to COVID-19 and its effect on pregnant women, including symptoms, disease severity and the risk of vertical transmission. […] Neither vaginal delivery nor cesarean section confers additional risks, and there is minimal risk of vertical transmission to the neonate from either mode of delivery. 2020-06-19
COVID-19 breakthroughs: separating fact from fiction. We further review what is known about the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, including their role in transmission of the disease, and conclude with the science on different mortality rates between different countries and whether this hints at the existence of more pathogenic cohorts of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-06-19
Community-based screening and testing for Coronavirus in Cape Town, South Africa: Short report. Corona Virus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in Cape Town in March 2020 and the transmission was soon observed in local communities. […] The overall aim was to slow down transmission through early identification and isolation of diagnosed cases. 2020-06-09
Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and COVID-19: using antihypertensive medications, pharmacogenetic considerations. Early data on COVID-19 suggest heterogeneity in the severity of symptoms during transmission and infection ranging from no symptoms to death. 2020-06-05
Factors preventing materno-fetal transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Although many pregnant women have been infected by coronavirus, the presence of intrauterine vertical transmission has not been conclusively reported yet. […] Is it only the presence of a strong placental barrier, or is it the natural absence of the some receptor that the viruses use for transmission? […] In this short review, we will try to explain our hypothesis that the lack of caveolin expression in the SCB is one of the most important physiological mechanisms that prevents vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-06-26
A rapid screening method for testing the efficiency of masks in breaking down aerosols. The highest risk of novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 to be spread through human-to-human transmission has boosted the use of personal protective equipment at worldwide level. 2020-06-08
Emerging study on the transmission of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) from urban perspective: Evidence from China. This study presents an in-depth investigation on the transmission of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) from the urban perspective. […] Especially, this study provides insights of the fundamentals of the factors that may affect the spread of the infection in cities, where the marginal effects of some most influential factors to the virus transmission are estimated. […] In addition, subway, wastewater and residential garbage are positively connected with the virus transmission. […] The methodology and main conclusions shown in this paper are of general interest, and they can be applied to other countries to help understand the local transmission of COVID-19 as well. 2020-06-16
Modelling the spread of COVID-19 with new fractal-fractional operators: Can the lockdown save mankind before vaccination? To answer this question, a mathematical model was suggested taking into account the possibility of transmission of COVID-19 from dead bodies to humans and the effect of lock-down. […] The first case suggested that there is transmission from dead to the living (medical staffs as they perform postmortem procedures on corpses, and direct contacts with during burial ceremonies). […] In the second case we removed the transmission rate from dead bodies. 2020-06-16
The role of ecosystems in mitigation and management of Covid-19 and other zoonoses. It also undermines natural resource availability, compromising measures such as washing and sanitation that may be key to managing subsequent human-to-human disease transmission. 2020-06-09
SARS-CoV-2 infection serology: a useful tool to overcome lockdown? Given that sensitivities (around 94% and 84% for IgG and IgM, respectively) implicate false-negative cases and given the lack of effective vaccines or treatments, the only currently available procedure to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission is to identify and isolate persons who are contagious. 2020-06-08
Quantifying the role of social distancing, personal protection and case detection in mitigating COVID-19 outbreak in Ontario, Canada. Our estimates confirm that (1) social distancing measures have helped mitigate transmission by reducing daily infection contact rate, but the disease transmission probability per contact remains as high as 0.145 and case detection rate was so low that the effective reproduction number remained higher than the threshold for disease control until the closure of non-essential business in the Province; (2) improvement in case detection rate and closure of non-essential business had resulted in further reduction of the effective control number to under the threshold. […] We predict the number of confirmed cases according to different control efficacies including a combination of reducing further contact rates and transmission probability per contact. 2020-06-08
Sample sizes for surveillance of S. aureus transmission to monitor effectiveness and provide feedback on intraoperative infection control including for COVID-19. Associated surveillance of S. aureus transmission quantifies the effectiveness of the basic measures to prevent the transmission to patients and clinicians of pathogenic bacteria and viruses, including Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] To measure transmission, the observational units are pairs of successive surgical cases in the same operating room on the same day. […] We evaluated appropriate sample sizes and strategies for measuring transmission. […] Similarly, observing transmission within or between cases of a pair did not increase the probability that the next sampled pair of cases also had observed transmission (all P ≥.23). […] Also, although transmission (yes/no) was associated with surgical site infection (P =.004), among cases with transmission, there was no detected dose response between counts of transmitted isolates and probability of infection (P =.25). […] The first of a fixed series of tests is to use the binomial test to compare the proportion of pairs of cases with S. aureus transmission to an acceptable threshold. […] If significant, more samples are obtained while additional measures are implemented to reduce transmission and infections. […] Because S. aureus transmission is invisible without testing, when choosing what population(s) to screen for surveillance, another endpoint needs to be used (e.g., infections). […] The 10 combinations encompassed ≅17% of cases, showing the value of targeting surveillance of transmission to a few combinations of specialties and rooms. […] In conclusion, we created a sampling protocol and appropriate sample sizes for using S. aureus transmission within and between pairs of successive cases in the same operating room, the purpose being to monitor the quality of prevention of intraoperative spread of pathogenic bacteria and viruses. 2020-06-08
How COVID-19 public interest in the United States fluctuated: A Google Trends Analysis. In the absence of vaccines and established treatments, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are fundamental tools to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission. […] A similar decline was seen in geographical regions that were later found to be experiencing undetected community transmission in February. 2020-06-05
How to Produce Cheap and Easy Custom-Made Sterilizable Filtering Facepiece 2/3 Masks for Healthcare Providers During Pandemic COVID-19 Emergency. On January 8, 2020, a novel coronavirus was officially announced as the causative pathogen of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention.On February 26, COVID-19 has been recognized in 34 countries, with a total of 80,239 laboratory-confirmed patients and 2700 deaths.Protecting healthcare workers from infectious hazards is paramount to ensuring their safety in delivering health care.In addition, being able to protect healthcare workers, constituting the front-line response against high-threat respiratory pathogens, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, is important for reducing secondary transmission in healthcare-associated outbreaks.Authors present a simple, reliable, and cheap protocol to produce a custom-made sterilizable filtering facepiece 2/3 masks for healthcare providers during pandemic COVID-19 emergency. 2020-06-05
Coronavirus disease 2019 in children: Current status. Vertical transmission from the mother to her fetus or neonate has not been proven definitively. 2020-06-16
Airway management in the operating room and interventional suites in known or suspected COVID-19 adult patients: a practical review. The rate of transmission remains high during airway management. 2020-06-16
Estimating COVID-19 outbreak risk through air travel. Substantial limitations have been imposed on passenger air travel to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between regions and countries. 2020-06-26
The Aftermath of COVID-19 in Dermatology Practice: What’s next? The rapidly increasing number of COVID-19 patients and evidence of human-to-human transmission even within the asymptomatic incubation period prompted the attention of the entire world. 2020-06-19
Effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19 cases, deaths, and demand for hospital services in the UK: a modelling study. Non-pharmaceutical interventions have been implemented to reduce transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the UK. […] We used a stochastic age-structured transmission model to explore a range of intervention scenarios, tracking 66·4 million people aggregated to 186 county-level administrative units in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. 2020-06-08
Co-expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry genes in the superficial adult human conjunctival, limbal and corneal epithelium suggests an additional route of entry via the ocular surface. Currently the potential extra-respiratory transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 remain unclear. 2020-06-14
Air Pollution and temperature are associated with increased COVID-19 incidence: a time series study. Although the COVID-19 is known to cause by human-to-human transmission, it remains largely unclear whether ambient air pollutants and meteorological parameters could promote its transmission. […] AQI, PM2.5, NO2, and temperature are four variables that could promote the sustained transmission of COVID-19. 2020-06-08
A Comparison of Infection Venues of COVID-19 Case Clusters in Northeast China. The transmission in public venues served as a hub for transmitting the disease to other families and results in new clusters. […] This field study shows the effect of indoor environments on SARS-CoV-2 transmission and our data may be useful in developing guidance for future disease prevention and control. 2020-06-22
Increased Risk of COVID-19-Related Deaths among General Practitioners in Italy. Especially at the beginning of the epidemic, GPs might have had scant information on the specific safety procedures for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 transmission (e.g., there was limited knowledge on the possibility of contagions deriving from asymptomatic patients) and, moreover, the availability of personal protective equipment was insufficient. 2020-06-08
Specific Considerations for Sonographers When Performing Echocardiography during the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak: Supplement to the American Society of Echocardiography Statement. Sonographers need to be familiar with and prepared to implement strategies for reducing the risk of exposure to and transmission of the COVID-19 virus. 2020-06-22
Ocular Manifestations of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2): A Critical Review of Current Literature. In this study, a systematic review of current literature relevant to COVID-19 was performed with focus on modes of transmission, ocular manifestations related to infection and medications, as well as the control of infection in ophthalmic practice. 2020-06-22
A New Method for Testing Filtration Efficiency of Mask Materials Under Sneeze-like Pressure. Common mask materials can potentially provide protection against respiratory droplet transmission. 2020-06-22
COVID-19 Incidentally Detected on PET/CT During Work-up for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer. This highlights the importance of continued patient surveillance and use of appropriate personal protective equipment to minimize COVID-19 transmission. 2020-06-22
Ocular manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019. However, manifestations in other organs should not be ignored since they can also be a mode of transmission. 2020-06-09
Improved safety of endoscopic vessel harvesting during the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, procedures that have the potential to create aerosolization must be reassessed, given the risk of viral transmission via aerosolization. […] We present the use of a non-sealed endoscopic vessel harvesting(EVH) approach during coronary surgery that does not necessitate the use of CO2 insufflation and utilizes suction through an ultra low particulate filter, thus mitigating the risk of possible viral transmission via aerosolization or surgical smoke production. […] This approach is technically feasible and can minimize the risk of viral transmission during EVH. 2020-06-08
SARS-CoV-2 infection, clinical features and outcome of COVID-19 in United Kingdom nursing homes. To understand SARS-Co-V-2 infection and transmission in UK nursing homes in order to develop preventive strategies for protecting the frail elderly residents. 2020-06-13
Covid-19 and lung cancer: A greater fatality rate? It is important to try to minimize visits to hospitals (without removing their active treatments) in order to decrease nosocomial transmission. 2020-06-26
Active case finding with case management: the key to tackling the COVID-19 pandemic. Although China has contained severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and nearly stopped indigenous transmission, a strong suppression effort must continue to prevent re-establishment of community transmission from importation-related cases. 2020-06-11
Persistent detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in patients and healthcare workers with COVID-19. Current guidelines for returning health care workers (HCW) to service after a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test and ceasing of transmission precautions for patients is based on two general strategies. 2020-06-26
Healthcare Personnel Exposure to a Patient with Asymptomatic SARS-CoV2 Infection during a Prolonged Surgical Intervention. There is ongoing debate regarding the role of aerosols in the transmission of SARS-CoV2 in the healthcare environment. 2020-06-11
Media use and acute psychological outcomes during COVID-19 outbreak in China. We conducted an internet-based survey on January 28, 2020 (one week after the official declaration of person-to-person transmission of the coronavirus). 2020-06-26
Tracheostomy in the intensive care unit: Guidelines during COVID-19 worldwide pandemic. Tracheostomy is one of the procedures associated with an increased production of aerosols and higher risk of transmission of the virus to the health personnel. 2020-06-25
National Clinical Guidance for the Management of Cardiovascular Intervention in the COVID-19 Pandemic: From Bangladesh Society of Cardiovascular Interventions (BSCI). Given its robust capacity for human-to-human transmission and potential of being a nosocomial source of infection, the disease has specific implications on healthcare systems and health care professionals faced with performing essential cardiac procedures in patients with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. […] This document prepared for our nation by the Bangladesh Society of Cardiovascular Interventions (BSCI) is intended to serve as a clinical practice guideline for cardiovascular health care professionals, with a focus on modifying standard practice of care during the COVID-19 pandemic, in order to ensure continuation of adequate and timely treatment of cardiovascular emergencies avoiding hospital-based transmission of SARS-COV-2 among healthcare professionals and the patients. 2020-06-09
SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and lockdown in a Northern Italy hospital. Comparison with Scandinavian no-lockdown country. The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has evolved with cases of local transmission soon after the detection of imported cases in affected countries. 2020-06-19
Clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in ageing male: A retrospective study of 18 cases. As the mode of transmission, 10 (55.5%) of patients were infected in hospital, 5 (27.7%) patients had a relative with COVID-19 and three (16.6%) was unknown. […] It is crucial to take comprehensive preventive measures to control COVID-19 transmission via hospital route. 2020-06-23
Insights into laser safety considerations during COVID 19 pandemic. The infection, that may cause a potentially very severe respiratory disease, now called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has airborne transmission via droplets while less attention focused on aerosol transmission. 2020-06-19
A cluster of tertiary transmissions of 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in the community from infectors with common cold symptoms. As the global impact of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been severe, many countries have intensified containment activities to eliminate virus transmission, through early detection and isolation strategies. […] In this study, we collected detailed information on the circumstances in which human-to-human transmission occurred in the tertiary transmission cases of COVID-19 in the community. […] On January 26, 2020, an imported case of COVID-19 was confirmed, and by February 10, 2020, one secondary transmission and three tertiary transmissions were identified. […] Secondary transmission occurred on the first day of illness of the infector, and his symptoms were suggestive of a common cold. […] The transmission occurred during a 90-minute long meal together in a restaurant. […] The tertiary transmission also occurred on the first-day illness of the other infector, and his only symptom was slight chills. […] The transmission occurred at a church during 2-hour-long worship, and two rows separated them. 2020-06-11
Responding to COVID-19: how an academic infectious diseases division mobilized in Singapore. On January 30, COVID-19 was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern-a week after Singapore’s first imported case and 5 days before local transmission. 2020-06-11
Air and environmental sampling for SARS-CoV-2 around hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The role of severe respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-laden aerosols in the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains uncertain. […] SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detectable by air sampler which suggests that airborne route is not the predominant mode of transmission of COVID-19. 2020-06-08
Self-reported anosmia and dysgeusia as key symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019. To slow down the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is important to identify specific symptoms for effective screening. 2020-06-25
Urologic oncology surgery during COVID-19: a rapid review of current triage guidance documents. Providers and healthcare systems were forced to rapidly create triage schemas in order to preserve resources and reduce potential viral transmission while continuing to provide care for patients. […] As the need to preserve resources and prevent viral transmission grows, prioritizing only high priority surgical cases is paramount. 2020-06-23
Modeling the impact of mass influenza vaccination and public health interventions on COVID-19 epidemics with limited detection capability. Since COVID-19 symptoms are aspecific and may resemble a common cold, if it should come back with a seasonal pattern and coincide with the influenza season, this would be particularly challenging, overwhelming and straining the healthcare systems, particularly in resource-limited contexts, and would increase the likelihood of nosocomial transmission. 2020-06-25
Significance of clinical phenomes of patients with COVID-19 infection: A learning from 3795 patients in 80 reports. A new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has caused outbreaks in multiple countries and the number of cases is rapidly increasing through human-to-human transmission. 2020-06-11
Mathematical modeling of COVID-19 fatality trends: Death kinetics law versus infection-to-death delay rule. Thereby, we consider that the model-governing parameters-namely, the death transmission coefficient for the death kinetics model, as well as the apparent fatality-to-case fraction and the characteristic fatal illness period for the infection-to-death delay rule-are time-invariant. 2020-06-16
Global COVID-19: Warnings and suggestions based on experience of China. COVID-19 is a new infectious disease worldwide, and its infectious source, transmission route, susceptible population, and therapy are not clear. 2020-06-09
Endoprotector: Protective box for safe endoscopy use during COVID-19 outbreak. Although it is primarily transmitted by contact and droplets, aerosol-generating procedures also seem to carry the possibility of airborne viral transmission. […] The feasibility and practicality of the box was also tested with patients during endoscopy. Conclusion The reusable Endoprotector is easily and affordably manufactured and may reduce air droplets and airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and other microorganisms during endoscopy. 2020-06-09
Perceptions of obstetricians and pediatricians about the risk of COVID-19 for pregnant women and newborns. Participants were well informed about the symptoms, diagnosis, modes of transmission, and methods of prevention. […] Participants had variable perceptions about COVID-19 risk during pregnancy, including potential vertical transmission, preferred route of delivery, and safety of breastfeeding. 2020-06-26
SARS-COV-2 and Male Reproductive Health. Some of these challenges are related to the possible adverse effects of SARS-CoV-2 on male reproductive health, and whether other potential modes of transmission may occur, such as sexual transmission. 2020-06-08
The covid-19 pandemic, personal protective equipment, and respirator: a narrative review. Respirators are more effective than masks in preventing aerosol transmission to HCWs. […] Transmission of viruses is multimodal, and in the setting of a novel pathogen with high case fatality with no proven effective interventions, PPE that affords the best protection should be available to HCWs. 2020-06-19
Rapid In-Vitro Inactivation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Using Povidone-Iodine Oral Antiseptic Rinse. To investigate the optimal contact time and concentration for viricidal activity of oral preparation of povidone-iodine (PVP-I) against SARS-CoV-2 (‘corona virus’) to mitigate the risk and transmission of the virus in the dental practice. 2020-06-19
Ensuring safety and sustainability of radiotherapy services during the COVID-19 pandemic in resources constrain country: An Indonesian experience. This article describes the Indonesian experience in ensuring sustainability of radiotherapy services during the pandemic, highlighting various important adjustments which were made to allow radiotherapy centers nationwide to continue operating while protecting staff and patients from the risk of disease transmission. 2020-06-27
Guidelines: Anaesthesia in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. We present suggestions for how the risk of transmission by and to anaesthetists can be minimised and how personal protective equipment policies relate to COVID-19 pandemic context. 2020-06-27
A rapid systematic review of the efficacy of face masks and respirators against coronaviruses and other respiratory transmissible viruses for the community, healthcare workers and sick patients. The study suggests that community mask use by well people could be beneficial, particularly for COVID-19, where transmission may be pre-symptomatic. 2020-06-17
Expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and proteases in COVID-19 patients: A potential role of cellular FURIN in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, it seems that FURIN is implicated in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and potentially in the increased rates of human-to-human transmission. 2020-06-16
Assessing the relationship between surface levels of PM2.5 and PM10 particulate matter impact on COVID-19 in Milan, Italy. Presently is not clear if this protein “spike” of the new coronavirus COVID-19 is involved through attachment mechanisms on indoor or outdoor airborne aerosols in the infectious agent transmission from a reservoir to a susceptible host in some agglomerated urban areas like Milan is. 2020-06-27
Proteolytic Cleavage of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein and the Role of the Novel S1/S2 Site. We discuss these findings in the context of the origin of SARS-CoV-2, viral stability, and transmission. 2020-06-24
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: Review of guidelines for resuming non-urgent imaging and procedures in radiology during Phase II. Now, as states transition to Phase II, restrictions on non-essential activities will ease, and radiology departments must re-establish care while continuing to mitigate the risk of COVID-19 transmission all while accommodating this backlog. 2020-06-23
Estimating the effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19 in Europe. Our model calculates backwards from observed deaths to estimate transmission that occurred several weeks prior, allowing for the time lag between infection and death. […] Our results show that major non-pharmaceutical interventions and lockdown in particular have had a large effect on reducing transmission. […] Continued intervention should be considered to keep transmission of SARS-CoV-2 under control. 2020-06-08
Mental health outcomes of quarantine and isolation for infection prevention: a systematic umbrella review of the global evidence. Transmission of infectious diseases is often prevented by quarantine and isolation of the populations at risk. 2020-06-09
From Wuhan to COVID-19 Pandemic: An Up-to-Date Review of Its Pathogenesis, Potential Therapeutics, and Recent Advances. Furthermore, there is an urgent need to understand the pathogenesis of this novel coronavirus, its transmission routes, surface survival and evolution in the environment. […] So far, the scientific community has indicated a possible transmission of COVID-19 via blood transfusion which is challenging in the case of asymptomatic individuals. 2020-06-09
The SARS-CoV-2 Ivermectin Navarra-ISGlobal Trial (SAINT) to Evaluate the Potential of Ivermectin to Reduce COVID-19 Transmission in low risk, non-severe COVID-19 patients in the first 48 hours after symptoms onset: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized control pilot trial. In the interest of public health and to contain transmission of infection, follow-up visits will be conducted in the participant’s home by a clinical trial team comprising nursing and medical members. 2020-06-11
Evaluation of modelling study shows limits of COVID-19 importing risk simulations in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated situations of virus importation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to assess effectiveness of a modelling study by Haider N et al. titled ‘Passengers’ destinations from China: low risk of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) transmission into Africa and South America’. 2020-06-23
Aerosol-generating procedures in head and neck surgery - can we improve practice after COVID-19? This study sought to interrogate the literature and evaluate whether which additional measures might provide benefit if routinely adopted in minimising viral transmission. 2020-06-12
Altered COVID-19 receptor ACE2 expression in a higher risk group for cerebrovascular disease and ischemic stroke. It has a high transmission rate among humans, and is a threat to global public health. 2020-06-25
Characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women admitted to hospital with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in UK: national population based cohort study. To describe a national cohort of pregnant women admitted to hospital with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the UK, identify factors associated with infection, and describe outcomes, including transmission of infection, for mothers and infants. […] Most had good outcomes, and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to infants was uncommon. 2020-06-23
Procedural sedation in the COVID-19 era. Approaches to procedural sedation can be modified to reduce the risk of droplet or aerosol transmission by decreasing nasal cannula oxygen supplementation flows. 2020-06-11
A Public Health Laboratory Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic. This rapid response was essential to slow down and contain transmission and provide valuable time to the local health authorities to prepare appropriate response strategies. 2020-06-09
Genomic surveillance reveals multiple introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into Northern California. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the cryptic introduction of at least 7 different SARS-CoV-2 lineages into California, including epidemic WA1 strains associated with Washington State, with lack of a predominant lineage and limited transmission between communities. 2020-06-14
Body fluids may contribute to human-to-human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: evidence and practical experience. Although much effort has been spent on clarifying the transmission route of SARS-CoV-2, but, very little evidence is available regarding the relationship between human body fluids and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus. […] Considerable evidence from hospital in Wuhan indicates that strict rules to avoid occupational exposure to patients’ body fluids in healthcare settings, particularly among every medical staff, limited person-to-person transmission of nosocomial infections by direct or indirect contact. […] We tried to provide important information for understanding the possible transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 via body fluids including bronchoalveolar-lavage, saliva, blood, urine, feces, sputum, tears, and semen in order to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurrences. 2020-06-11
COVID-19 and its effects on the digestive system and endoscopy practice. In addition to possible fecal-oral transmission, GI endoscopy procedures, which are considered to be aerosol-generating procedures, contribute to increased risk to GI health-care professionals. 2020-06-11
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Catheterization Laboratory Survey. Most (83%) operators expressed concern when asked to perform cardiac catheterization on a suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patient, primarily due to fear of viral transmission (88%). […] Conclusions Our survey indicates significant reduction in invasive procedure volumes and concern for viral transmission. 2020-06-09
Personal prophylaxis against COVID-19: A compilation of evidence based recommendations. It is an infectious disease (R0: 2.2 to 3.3) with confirmed human-to-human transmission. […] Established preventive methods against infection include dodging the exposure from the virus, which will break the chain of transmission and prevent further human-to-human spread. 2020-06-18
Clinical features, diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients in the outdoor setting. Patients with COVID-19 patients should be identified before they arrive in the facility and should be served expeditiously, in an environment which prevents cross-transmission of infection. 2020-06-18
Cardiovigilance in COVID 19. The risk of transmission of COVID 19 is an occupational hazard which cannot be ignored by cardiologists. 2020-06-18
COVID-19: An otolaryngological perspective. As knowledge about the disease epidemiology and clinical profile is rapidly evolving, we are still not sure about many different aspects of the disease transmission and presentation. […] Otolaryngologists regularly deal with the upper aerodigestive tract, which is the portal of transmission and site of multiplication of the virus. 2020-06-18
Obstetrics and COVID-19. There is a threat of collapse of healthcare system in maternity wards and labour rooms due to risk for transmission to healthy patients, obstetricians, midwives and other staff. […] Many countries including India have declared lockdown to stop the transmission but delivery services have to continue. 2020-06-18
Challenges in providing oral and dental health services in COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the countries of the world are in a lockdown of varying severity to break the chain of transmission. […] Many are not well-versed in the use of transmission-based safeguards, and the dental community, is no different. […] In this article, we identify the challenges faced by the oral and dental care providers, whose procedures generate a significant amount of aerosol, which can be a significant source of disease transmission within the community. 2020-06-18
Clinical nursing care guidance for management of patient with COVID-19. COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease, which has human-to-human transmission through droplet and contact. 2020-06-18
Knowledge and awareness regarding spread and prevention of COVID-19 among the young adults of Karachi. Although a large majority of participants correctly identified sources of transmission, measures and precautions to be taken for coronavirus, their knowledge for symptom identification was deficient. 2020-06-18
Pleural Effusion as a Sign of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pneumonia: A Case Report. Early diagnosis of atypical cases of COVID-19 infection is critical in reducing the transmission and controlling the present pandemic. 2020-06-09
Effects of Proactive Social Distancing on COVID-19 Outbreaks in 58 Cities, China. We estimated the speed with which these measures contained transmission in cities. 2020-06-09
Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients with Severe SARS-CoV-2. Nevertheless, GIB in COVID-19 patients poses unique challenges to patients due to high-risk of concomitant respiratory failure and to endoscopy personnel due to risk of airborne transmission during endoscopic procedures. 2020-06-19
Rates of Maternal and Perinatal Mortality and Vertical Transmission in Pregnancies Complicated by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Co-V-2) Infection: A Systematic Review. Secondary outcomes included rate of preterm birth, cesarean delivery, vertical transmission, and neonatal death. […] The preterm birth rate was 20.1% (57/284, 95% CI 15.8-25.1), the cesarean delivery rate was 84.7% (332/392, 95% CI 80.8-87.9), the vertical transmission rate was 0.0% (0/310, 95% CI 0.0-1.2), and the neonatal death rate was 0.3% (1/313, 95% CI 0.1-1.8). […] With data from early in the pandemic, it is reassuring that there are low rates of maternal and neonatal mortality and vertical transmission with SARS-CoV-2. 2020-06-09
Testing Asymptomatic Emergency Department Patients for Coronavirus of 2019 (COVID-19) in a Low Prevalence Region. Transmission of COVID-19 by asymptomatic carriers has been reported in multiple family units, indicating that this mode of infection is important in understanding disease epidemiology and population risk4,5 . 2020-06-19
Risks to healthcare workers following tracheal intubation of patients with COVID-19: a prospective international multicentre cohort study. This has human resource implications for institutional capacity to deliver essential healthcare services, and wider societal implications for COVID-19 transmission. 2020-06-19
Short-Term Effects of Ambient Ozone, PM2.5, and Meteorological Factors on COVID-19 Confirmed Cases and Deaths in Queens, New York. Person-to-person transmission and travels were implicated in the initial spread of the outbreaks, but factors related to the late phase of rapidly spreading outbreaks in March and April are still uncertain. […] The findings indicate that short-term exposures to ozone and other meteorological factors can influence COVID-19 transmission and initiation of the disease, but disease aggravation and mortality depend on other factors. 2020-06-27
Delayed Recognition of Community Transmission of COVID-19 Resulting in Healthcare Worker Infections. We describe a case of delayed COVID-19 diagnosis due to unrecognized community transmission in Atlanta, Georgia in mid-February 2020. […] This case resulted in transmission of COVID-19 to three of the four healthcare workers present during a diagnostic bronchoscopy procedure where only procedural masks were worn. 2020-06-10
Prediction of CoVid-19 infection, transmission and recovery rates: A new analysis and global societal comparisons. We describe and utilize an original approach based on statistical physics to predict the societal transmission timescale and the universal recovery trajectory resulting from the countermeasures implemented in entire societies. […] We show that methods traditionally considered for the numerical analysis and the control of individual virus transmission (e.g. 2020-06-12
Pay attention to situation of SARS-CoV-2 and TCM advantages in treatment of novel coronavirus infection. Researchers analyzed the epidemiological benefits of different transmission rates for the establishment of effective strategy in prevention and control strategies for epidemic infectious diseases. 2020-06-12
Influence of population mobility on the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic: based on panel data from Hubei, China. The mass population mobility in China during the Spring Festival has been considered a driver to the transmission of COVID-19, but it still needs more empirical discussion. […] Based on the panel data from Hubei, China between January 6th and February 6th, 2020, a random effects model was used to estimate the impact of population mobility on the transmission of COVID-19. […] Population mobility is found to be a driver to the rapid transmission of COVID-19, and the lockdown intervention in local prefecture-level cities of Hubei Province has been an effective strategy to block the COVID-19 epidemic. 2020-06-12
Canada needs to rapidly escalate public health interventions for its COVID-19 mitigation strategies. After the declaration of COVID-19 pandemic on March 11th, 2020, local transmission chains starting in different countries including Canada are forcing governments to take decisions on public health interventions to mitigate the spread of the epidemic. 2020-06-12
The coronavirus (COVID-19) fatality risk perception of US adult residents in March and April 2020. These results are worrying because risk perception, as our study indicates, relates to actual or intended health-protective behaviour that can reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission rates. 2020-06-19
Covid-19: a survey on knowledge, awareness and hygiene practices among dental health professionals in an Indian scenario. Percentage of subjects who answered correctly regarding main symptoms of COVID-19 and primary mode of transmission was 87% and 82.5% respectively. 2020-06-22
Simulating social distancing measures in household and close contact transmission of SARS-CoV-2. We applied an agent-based model to simulate the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 within household or close contacts through a social network of 150 nodes. there is no great difference in total infected people within modifications in number of links per node for networks with average number of links per node greater than three. 2020-06-19
Extrapulmonary and atypical clinical presentations of COVID-19. Lack of awareness of these presentations might lead to misdiagnosis, delayed diagnosis and isolation of suspected patients which increases the risk of transmission of infection between patients and doctors. 2020-06-19
Diagnostic Ultrasound Services During the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic. OBJECTIVE. Nosocomial transmission of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) to frontline health care workers is well known, and health care workers may inadvertently become vectors for onward transmission. […] The bulky US equipment may also facilitate fomite transmission of disease. 2020-06-10
Anesthesiologists’ and intensive care providers’ exposure to COVID-19 infection in a New York City academic center: a prospective cohort study assessing symptoms and COVID-19 antibody testing. Presence of COVID-19 antibodies appeared to be associated with community/environmental transmission rather than secondary to work-related exposures involving high risk procedures. 2020-06-19
Overview of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Treatment Updates and Advances. To control the COVID-19 outbreak, large-scale measures have been applied to reduce human-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2. […] Susceptible populations, including older adults, children, and health care providers, warrant particular attention to avoid transmission and infection. 2020-06-10
Clusters of Coronavirus Disease in Communities, Japan, January-April 2020. We also identified 22 probable primary case-patients for the clusters; most were 20-39 years of age and presymptomatic or asymptomatic at virus transmission. 2020-06-10
How can airborne transmission of COVID-19 indoors be minimised? During the rapid rise in COVID-19 illnesses and deaths globally, and notwithstanding recommended precautions, questions are voiced about routes of transmission for this pandemic disease. […] Inhaling small airborne droplets is probable as a third route of infection, in addition to more widely recognized transmission via larger respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected people or contaminated surfaces. […] While uncertainties remain regarding the relative contributions of the different transmission pathways, we argue that existing evidence is sufficiently strong to warrant engineering controls targeting airborne transmission as part of an overall strategy to limit infection risk indoors. […] We believe that the use of engineering controls in public buildings, including hospitals, shops, offices, schools, kindergartens, libraries, restaurants, cruise ships, elevators, conference rooms or public transport, in parallel with effective application of other controls (including isolation and quarantine, social distancing and hand hygiene), would be an additional important measure globally to reduce the likelihood of transmission and thereby protect healthcare workers, patients and the general public. 2020-06-26
2019-nCoV: Measures Adopted at the Departments of Oral Surgery and Radiology during the Period of an Uncontrolled Transmission Increase. Dental practices are an important person-to-person transmission route. […] A management protocol was applied to prevent the transmission route of 2019-nCoV. 2020-06-11
Studies of Novel Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Global Analysis of Literature. This study aims to explore the current research foci and their country variations regarding levels of income and COVID-19 transmission features. […] There is variation in the research approaches to mitigate COVID-19 problems in countries with different income and transmission levels. 2020-06-27
Autophagy as an emerging target for COVID-19: lessons from an old friend, chloroquine. Due to the rapid outbreak of the transmission (~3.64 million positive cases and high mortality as of 5 May 2020), the world is looking for immediate and better therapeutic options. […] Still, much information is not known, including origin of the disease, complete genomic characterization, mechanism of transmission dynamics, extent of spread, possible genetic predisposition, clinical and biological diagnosis, complete details of disease-induced pathogenicity, and possible therapeutic options. 2020-06-24
COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 16 (Reporting week to 23:59 AEST 17 May 2020). These low rates of detection are indicative of low levels of COVID-19 transmission. 2020-06-11
Preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission in rehabilitation pools and therapeutic water environments. It can be retrieved in faeces but there is no evidence of faecal-oral transmission, which is the main route of contamination in recreational waters. […] In the context of progressive lockdown exit and hospital activities recovery, we assessed the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in rehabilitation pools and therapeutic water environments in order to provide specific recommendations to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 while ensuring essential rehabilitation cares for patients. 2020-06-11
Comparative pathogenesis of bovine and porcine respiratory coronaviruses in the animal host species and SARS-CoV-2 in humans. These aspects, their interspecies transmission and certain factors that impact disease severity in cattle parallel related facets of SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 in humans. 2020-06-11
Rationing social contact during the COVID-19 pandemic: Transmission risk and social benefits of US locations. Using mobility data from a large sample of smartphones, nationally representative consumer preference surveys, and economic statistics, we measure the relative transmission reduction benefit and social cost of closing 26 categories of US locations. […] We rank categories by their trade-off of social benefits and transmission risk via dominance across 13 dimensions of risk and importance and through composite indexes. 2020-06-11
Potential pro-arrhythmic effects of pharmacotherapy against SARS-CoV-2. The pandemic caused by the SARS-COV-2 or COVID-19 virus has been a global challenge given its high rate of transmission and lack of effective therapy or vaccine. 2020-06-23
A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the COVID-19 pandemic model. Mathematical models with computational simulations are effective tools that help global efforts to estimate key transmission parameters and further improvements for controlling this disease. […] Then, we suggest an updated model that includes a system of differential equations with transmission parameters. 2020-06-12
Challenges and strategies in management of osteoporosis and fragility fracture care during COVID-19 pandemic. Osteoporosis and fragility fractures management has been hampered by lock down and infection transmission strategies used to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. 2020-06-12
[Recommendations for communicating bad news by phone during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemicRecomendações para a comunicação de más notícias por telefone durante a pandemia do SARS-CoV-2]. A proposal structured around four “moments” is presented to guide the remote transmission of bad news in order to improve the care of patients, families and caregivers during this exchange and to reduce the negative impact from it on health professionals. 2020-06-12
Transmission and evolutionary dynamics of human coronavirus OC43 strains in coastal Kenya investigated by partial spike sequence analysis, 2015-16. Full-genome sequences that are spatio-temporally representative are required to advance understanding of the transmission pathways of this important human respiratory pathogen. 2020-06-27
Impact of enhanced personal protective equipment on colonoscopy performance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Background and study aims Using personal protective equipment (PPE) can reduce risk of disease transmission. 2020-06-12
Assessing the spreading potential of an undetected case of COVID-19 in orthopaedic surgery. Hygienic measures and contact precautions, aimed at preventing the spread of MRDO, may have helped to prevent a SARS-CoV-2 transmission to HCW-despite high-risk exposure during intubation, surgical treatment and general care. 2020-06-13
If COVID-19 Becomes Endemic will the Current Dental Guidelines Still Remain Valid? In a recent paper, the authors Jamal et al reviewed various guidelines published by dental societies of the world for the prevention of transmission of COVID-19 virus in the dental care setting during the current pandemic(Jamal et al., 2020). 2020-06-23
Early CT Findings of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Asymptomatic Children: A Single-Center Experience. Familial cluster was the main transmission pattern. 2020-06-19
Could Water and Sanitation Shortfalls Exacerbate SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Risks? We believe that feco-oral transmission could occur if community transmission becomes high and sustained in densely populated cities without proper sanitation in Nigeria and many other African and Asian settings. […] Endemic and epidemic transmission of multiple feco-oral pathogens via this route continues to be documented in areas without safely managed sanitation, and, therefore, the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission needs to be evaluated, tracked, and forestalled in such settings. 2020-06-11
Infection prevention guidelines and considerations for paediatric risk groups when reopening primary schools during COVID-19 pandemic, Norway, April 2020. The evidence of effect on disease transmission was limited, while negative consequences were evident. 2020-06-18
Development of a Device to Reduce Oropharyngeal Aerosol Transmission. Issues confronting practicing dentists include possible transmission of disease by droplets/ aerosol or contact with contaminated surfaces. […] More research may be warranted using this or similar approaches to mitigate aerosol transmission. 2020-06-13
Temperature, Humidity, and Latitude Analysis to Estimate Potential Spread and Seasonality of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Substantial community transmission was defined as at least 10 reported deaths in a country as of March 10, 2020. 2020-06-17
Genetic gateways to COVID-19 infection: Implications for risk, severity, and outcomes. The dynamics, such as transmission, spatial epidemiology, and clinical course of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) have emerged as the most intriguing features and remain incompletely understood. […] The variations within Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene might constitute the first genetic gateway, influencing the spatial transmission dynamics of COVID-19. 2020-06-19
Speech-Language Pathology Guidance for Tracheostomy During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An International Multidisciplinary Perspective. Method Data were collated through review of literature, guidelines, and consensus statements relating to COVID-19 and similar high-consequent infections, with a focus on mitigating risk of transmission to health care workers. […] Results Reports of transmission of infection to health care workers in the current COVID-19 pandemic and previous outbreaks substantiate the need for safe practices. […] Careful adherence to best practices can significantly reduce risk of infectious transmission. 2020-06-16
Thoracoscopic Bullectomy for Persistent Air Leak in a 14-Year-Old Child with COVID-19 Bilateral Pulmonary Disease. Extra safety measures are needed in the operating room to limit the chance of transmission. 2020-06-11
Genetic cluster analysis of SARS-CoV-2 and the identification of those responsible for the major outbreaks in various countries. To trace the evolution route and probe the transmission dynamics of this virus, we performed phylodynamic analysis of 247 high quality genomic sequences available in the GISAID platform as of 5 March 2020. […] Identification of these super-spreaders greatly facilitates development of new strategies to control the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-06-17
SARS-CoV-2 Infections and Serologic Responses from a Sample of U.S. Navy Service Members - USS Theodore Roosevelt, April 2020. The outbreak was characterized by widespread transmission with relatively mild symptoms and asymptomatic infection among this sample of mostly young, healthy adults with close, congregate exposures. 2020-06-12
Knowledge and Practices Regarding Safe Household Cleaning and Disinfection for COVID-19 Prevention - United States, May 2020. However, data describing cleaning and disinfection practices within household settings in the United States are limited, particularly concerning those practices intended to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. […] Thirty-nine percent of respondents reported engaging in nonrecommended high-risk practices with the intent of preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission, such as washing food products with bleach, applying household cleaning or disinfectant products to bare skin, and intentionally inhaling or ingesting these products. […] Public messaging should continue to emphasize evidence-based, safe practices such as hand hygiene and recommended cleaning and disinfection of high-touch surfaces to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in household settings (2). 2020-06-12
First Reported Cases of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Companion Animals - New York, March-April 2020. Notification of presumptive positive animal test results triggered a One Health* investigation by state and federal partners, who determined that no further transmission events to other animals or persons had occurred. 2020-06-12
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Emergency Department Visits - United States, January 1, 2019-May 30, 2020. To minimize SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, transmission risk and address public concerns about visiting the ED during the pandemic, CDC recommends continued use of virtual visits and triage help lines and adherence to CDC infection control guidance. 2020-06-12
Airborne SARS-CoV-2 is Rapidly Inactivated by Simulated Sunlight. Aerosols represent a potential route of transmission of COVID-19. […] These results suggest that the potential for aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 may be dependent on environmental conditions, particularly sunlight. […] These data may be useful to inform mitigation strategies to minimize the potential for aerosol transmission. 2020-06-26
The face mask: How a real protection becomes a psychological symbol during Covid-19? Surprisingly, it even undermines all other recommended practices of infection control and breaking the transmission chain of Covid-19, like hand washing, personal hygiene and social distancing. 2020-06-16
A three-generation family cluster with COVID-19 infection: should quarantine be prolonged? Families are a transmission route for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) because of the close contact. 2020-06-23
Analysis of the Hosts and Transmission Paths of SARS-CoV-2 in the COVID-19 Outbreak. By analyzing the genetic distances from the SARS-CoV-2 strain to the coronaviruses residing in animal hosts, we establish that the most possible transmission path originates from bats to pangolins to humans. 2020-06-19
Preparedness and Preventive Behaviors for a Pandemic Disaster Caused by COVID-19 in Serbia. Risk to communities with continued widespread disease transmission depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people; the severity of resulting illness; and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccines or medications that can treat the illness) and the relative success of these. […] The questionnaire examined citizens’ basic socio-economic and demographic characteristics, their knowledge, preparedness, risk perception and preventive measures taken individually and as a community to prevent the death and widespread transmission of novel coronavirus disease 2019 in the Republic of Serbia. 2020-06-16
[Study on the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation inter-hospital transport during coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic: based on the transport experience of 6 cases of severe H1N1 influenza virus pneumonia on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation]. No H1N1 transmission occurred in medical personnel. 2020-06-16
Tracking the Genomic Footprints of SARS-CoV-2 Transmission. Lu et al. recently conducted genomic sequencing and analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in Guangdong, revealing its early transmission out of Hubei and shedding light on the effectiveness of controlling local transmission chains. 2020-06-14
Risk of Virus Contamination Through Surgical Smoke During Minimally Invasive Surgery: A Systematic Review of Literature on a Neglected Issue Revived in the COVID-19 Pandemic Era. Other clinical studies suggested a consistent risk of transmission for human papillomavirus (HPV) in the surgical treatments of HPV-related disease (mainly genital warts, laryngeal papillomas, or cutaneous lesions). […] Preclinical studies showed conflicting results, but HPV was shown to have a high risk of transmission. 2020-06-15
Identifying airborne transmission as the dominant route for the spread of COVID-19. However, assessing the effectiveness of those intervention practices hinges on the understanding of virus transmission, which remains uncertain. […] Here we show that airborne transmission is highly virulent and represents the dominant route to spread the disease. […] We conclude that wearing of face masks in public corresponds to the most effective means to prevent interhuman transmission, and this inexpensive practice, in conjunction with simultaneous social distancing, quarantine, and contact tracing, represents the most likely fighting opportunity to stop the COVID-19 pandemic. 2020-06-12
Bat-borne virus diversity, spillover and emergence. Most viral pathogens in humans have animal origins and arose through cross-species transmission. 2020-06-28
SFED recommendations for IBD endoscopy during COVID-19 pandemic: Italian and French experience. In particular, recommendations regarding the use of personal protective equipment to prevent COVID-19 transmission, both for patients and health-care professionals, are proposed and different scenarios in endoscopic IBD management are evaluated to suggest when endoscopy could be rescheduled and replaced by alternative biomarkers. 2020-06-15
Ten recommendations for supporting open pathogen genomic analysis in public health. As access to whole-genome sequencing has grown, greater amounts of molecular data have helped improve the ability to detect and track outbreaks of diseases such as COVID-19, investigate transmission chains and explore large-scale population dynamics, such as the spread of antibiotic resistance. 2020-06-28
How prepared is Africa to face COVID-19? The establishment of Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention by the Africa Union in 2017 was an unprecedented move toward strengthening national responses, so far enabling all fifty member states with confirmed cases of COVID-19 to adequately respond, break chains of transmission and effectively contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-06-17
COVID-19: a perspective for lifting lockdown in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe has been affected by the pandemic, and in response, the government has set up an array of measures, including a national lockdown, to curb transmission. 2020-06-17
Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Point Mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 Genome. Although the causal relationship among mutations and the features of SARS-CoV-2 such as rapid transmission, pathogenicity, and tropism, remains unclear, our results of genomic mutations in SARS-CoV-2 may help to interpret the interaction between genomic characterization in SARS-CoV-2 and infectivity with the host. […] It has been reported that the rapid infectivity and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 associated with host receptor affinity are derived from several mutations in its genes. 2020-06-13
Detection and Isolation of SARS-CoV-2 in Serum, Urine, and Stool Specimens of COVID-19 Patients from the Republic of Korea. We aimed to determine the rate and likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from COVID-19 patients through non-respiratory routes. […] Since the virus could not be isolated from the SARS-COV-2-positive samples, the risk of viral transmission via stool and urine is expected to be low. 2020-06-13
Detection of Novel Coronavirus on the Surface of Environmental Materials Contaminated by COVID-19 Patients in the Republic of Korea. By inactivating SARS-CoV-2 with disinfection/cleaning the infectivity and transmission of the virus is blocked. 2020-06-13
Early Trend of Imported COVID-19 Cases in South Korea. Streamlined processes of detection, subsequent testing, isolation, and treatment by public health authority, was key in minimizing the risk of secondary transmission. 2020-06-13
Adoption and impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions for COVID-19. These measures have been shown to have large impacts on pandemic influenza transmission. 2020-06-13
Breast cancer care during a pandemic: an opportune time for cryoablation? This editorial critiques current expert opinion recommendations that aim to reduce viral transmission and preserve healthcare resources during the COVID-19 pandemic by advocating delay of elective breast cancer surgery. […] By reducing the number of patient and healthcare provider interactions, cryoablation not only decreases the risk of viral transmission but also the need for personal protective devices during resource-limited times. 2020-06-28
Mechanisms and evidence of vertical transmission of infections in pregnancy including SARS-CoV-2. There remain unanswered questions concerning mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-06-23
The WetNet: What the Oral Polio Vaccine Hypothesis Exposes about Globalized Interspecies Fluid Bonds. Yet these potential transmission routes remain crucial to acknowledge. 2020-06-25
False-positive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction screening for SARS-CoV-2 in the setting of urgent head and neck surgery and otolaryngologic emergencies during the pandemic: Clinical implications. Preoperative patients had one or two nasopharyngeal swabs, depending on low or high risk of viral transmission. 2020-06-24
[Standard procedures in dialysis during the Covid-19 epidemic]. Scope: The aim of this document has been to define standard procedures for dealing with dialysis patients once the first cases of novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV (Covid-19) were confirmed among the Italian population. Applicability: These procedures, that refer exclusively to the hospital’s dialysis rooms, are currently implemented at the ASST Santi Paolo e Carlo in Milan and two smaller centers in the Milan area. Description: We describe the preemptive measures adopted by the staff at our dialysis unit since 24/02/2020, in order to slow down the transmission of Covid-19. 2020-06-17
Lopinavir/ritonavir as a third agent in the antiviral regimen for SARS-CoV-2 infection. New treatment options for patients with severe symptoms and ways of reducing transmission in the community are taken into consideration. 2020-06-19
Prevalence of Covid-19 Infection and Subsequent Cohorting in a Residential Substance Use Treatment Program in Boston, MA. We aimed to determine the point prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in a residential treatment program setting and to understand the unique challenges of Covid-19 transmission in this setting. […] Universal SARS-CoV-2 testing in residential substance use programs can be instituted to reduce the risk of further transmission and continue addiction treatment programming when accompanied by adequate space, supplies, and staffing. 2020-06-12
Cardiac surgery in patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection: Early experience. Almost all elective cardiac surgical operations have been postponed in order to reduce transmission and to allocate resources adequately. 2020-06-24
Maternal transmission of SARS-COV-2 to the neonate, and possible routes for such transmission: A systematic review and critical analysis. For reported infant infection a critical analysis was performed to evaluate the likelihood of vertical transmission. 2020-06-12
COVID-19 Pandemic Repercussions on the Use and Management of Plastics. While not underestimating the importance of plastics in the prevention of COVID-19 transmission, it is imperative not to undermine recent progress made in the sustainable use of plastics. 2020-06-25
Immersion in an emergency department triage center during the Covid-19 outbreak: first report of the Liège University hospital experience. In 82.00% of the cases, no risk factor of virus transmission was found. 2020-06-17
Ocular manifestations and viral shedding in tears of pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019: a preliminary report. Despite the low prevalence and rapid regression of viral presence in the conjunctiva, SARS-CoV-2 transmission through tears may be possible, even in patients without apparent ocular involvement. 2020-06-14
Pediatric COVID-19: Systematic review of the literature. Extra precautions need to be taken with personal protective equipment for these cases, as aerosolizing procedures may be a method of viral transmission. 2020-06-25
Diabetic foot ulceration in COVID-19 lockdown: cause for concern or unexpected benefit? On 23 March 2020 the United Kingdom went into lockdown to reduce transmission of COVID-19. 2020-06-12
SARS-CoV-2-A Tough Opponent for the Immune System. Besides the high potential of the novel coronavirus in compromising the respiratory system, its rapid transmission and ability to engage many hosts in severe forms of infections or immunopathological complications make it a tough opponent for the immune system. 2020-06-15
The impact of COVID-19 and strategies for mitigation and suppression in low- and middle-income countries. Mitigation strategies that slow but do not interrupt transmission will still lead to COVID-19 epidemics rapidly overwhelming health systems, with substantial excess deaths in lower income countries due to the poorer health care available. 2020-06-13
Emerging coronaviruses: first SARS, second MERS and third SARS-CoV-2: epidemiological updates of COVID-19. Although the common transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 is the respiratory tract, it seems that other routes such as the gastrointestinal tract may be effective for the entry of the virus in the body. […] There is a greater need to better understand the mechanisms and risk factors of transmission routes. […] Here, this study provide the current epidemiological status (transmission routes and risk of transmission, possible origins and source, mortality and morbidity risk, and geographical distribution) of the SARS-CoV-2 in the world in 2020. 2020-06-22
COVID-19 and pregnancy: a review of current knowledge. There is no evidence of vertical maternal-fetal transmission in pregnant women with COVID-19. 2020-06-22
Comprehensive review of mask utility and challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pertinent need for masks arises from plausible dissemination of the SARS-CoV-2 through close contacts, as well as the possibility of virus transmission from asymptomatic, pre-symptomatic, and mildly symptomatic individuals. 2020-06-22
Preparing for emerging respiratory pathogens such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. Here, we share some points that are essential to be considered while we prepare our institutions to prevent the transmission of emerging respiratory pathogens such as MERS-CoV and the recently emerging pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. 2020-06-22
MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infections in animals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission. 2020-06-22
Persistent viral RNA shedding after COVID-19 symptom resolution in older convalescent plasma donors. While the medical community understands the mode of viral transmission, less is known about how long viral shedding occurs once viral symptoms have resolved. 2020-06-25
Salivary detection of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) and implications for oral health-care providers. Here, we summarize the general guidelines for oral health-care specialists for prevention of nosocomial transmission of COVID-19, and provide specific recommendations for clinical care management. 2020-06-13
An Illustration of SARS-CoV-2 Dissemination Within a Skilled Nursing Facility Using Heat Maps. To illustrate dissemination and asymptomatic transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during a skilled nursing facility (SNF) outbreak. […] Early, rapid, universal SARS-CoV-2 testing of both SNF residents and staff at the outset of an outbreak and then repeatedly thereafter is critical to mitigate viral transmission. 2020-06-13
SARS-CoV-2 in the semen: where does it come from? This finding re-opened the discussion on possible male genital tract infection, virus shedding in semen, sexual transmission and safety of fertility treatments during the pandemic period [1]. 2020-06-13
The absence of coronavirus in expressed prostatic secretion in COVID-19 patients in Wuhan city. To this end, this study found the negativity of SARS-CoV-2 in EPS and possibly exclude the sexual transmission of COVID-19. 2020-06-27
Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Fecal Samples from Patients with Asymptomatic and Mild COVID-19 in Korea. In an analysis of fecal and respiratory specimens from patients with COVID-19 in quarantine in Korea, we found that the gastrointestinal tract could be a route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 even in patients with asymptomatic or mild disease, with no gastrointestinal symptoms. 2020-06-15
Three novel prevention, diagnostic, and treatment options for COVID-19 urgently necessitating controlled randomized trials. Asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic infection with COVID-19 can result in silent transmission to large numbers of individuals, resulting in expansion of the pandemic with a global increase in morbidity and mortality. […] Global implementation and online tracking of vital signs and scored questionnaires that are statistically validated would help health authorities properly allocate essential health care resources to test and isolate those at highest risk for transmission and poor outcomes. […] A randomized trial of ivermectin, and/or nutraceuticals that have been published to support immune function including glutathione, vitamin C, zinc, and immunomodulatory supplements (3,6 Beta glucan) could be beneficial in preventing transmission or lessening symptomatology but requires statistical validation. 2020-06-16
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus -2 (SARS-CoV-2): A global pandemic and treatments strategies. This review focuses on epidemiology, symptoms, transmission, pathogenesis, ongoing available treatments and future perspectives of SARS-CoV-2. 2020-06-16
The Impact of COVID-19 Infection on Labor and Delivery, Newborn Nursery, and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Prospective Observational Data from a Single Hospital System. Our study suggests that the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to her fetus/newborn seems to be uncommon if appropriate separation measures are performed at birth. […] · Agreement to separation of mothers and infants to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was high.. 2020-06-13
Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in Geneva, Switzerland (SEROCoV-POP): a population-based study. These results will inform countries considering the easing of restrictions aimed at curbing transmission. 2020-06-14
Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia: A national retrospective study. Special attention should be addressed toward asymptomatic carriers and workers in health care facilities as they play a key role in disease transmission. 2020-06-14
Multiple assays in a real-time RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 panel can mitigate the risk of loss of sensitivity by new genomic variants during the COVID-19 outbreak. SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh coronavirus known to infect humans and it appears to have its origin from zoonotic transmission similar to SARS-CoV (2002) and MERS-CoV (2012) (Andersen et al., 2020). 2020-06-28
Pharmacotherapy for reducing saliva and droplet production in airborne procedures may help to decrease the COVID-19 transmission: A hypothesis. Preventing the transmission of this virus during medical and dental procedures producing airborne particles and droplets, could be considered as one of the main venues in prevention of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission in health care facilities. 2020-06-26
How would you like your COVID-19? From a host with mild course disease, or from a severe one? Other possible factors affecting the course of the disease that are mostly speculative or under investigation are genetic factors and the origin of transmission or possible subtype of novel coronavirus. […] Whether the source of transmission is important in the clinical course of the disease is unknown. […] The aim of the study was to analyze whether the source of transmission is influential in the clinical course of the disease. 2020-06-15
A mathematical model of the evolution and spread of pathogenic coronaviruses from natural host to human host. At the same time, the transmission of the infection to the human host is caused by domestic animals that represent in the habitat the intermediate host. 2020-06-15
Analysis of the mitigation strategies for COVID-19: From mathematical modelling perspective. In this article, a mathematical model for the transmission of COVID-19 disease is formulated and analysed. 2020-06-23
Coronavirus pandemic: A predictive analysis of the peak outbreak epidemic in South Africa, Turkey, and Brazil. It is well known that this immunity system can be affected by the age of the individual, so it is wise to consider an age-structured SEIR system to model Coronavirus transmission. 2020-06-15
Utilization of an Orthopedic Hood as Personal Protective Equipment for Intubation of Coronavirus Patients: a Brief Technical Report. In this brief technical report, we describe the integration of an orthopedic hood cover as an item for full barrier protection against COVID-19 transmission. 2020-06-15
A novel IDEA: The impact of serial interval on a modified-Incidence Decay and Exponential Adjustment (m-IDEA) model for projections of daily COVID-19 cases. This, coupled with epidemiological reports, suggests that the serial interval of COVID-19 might increase as the pandemic progresses, which is rather intuitive: Increasing serial intervals can be attributed to gradual increases in public health interventions such as facility closures, public caution and social distancing, thus increasing the time between transmission events. 2020-06-15
Social Distancing and Transmission-reducing Practices during the 2019 Coronavirus Disease and 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Outbreaks in Korea. We measured the levels of preventive behaviors (social distancing [avoiding physical contact with others]), and practicing transmission-reducing behaviors such as wearing face mask and handwashing. […] Practicing transmission-reducing behaviors (wearing face masks and handwashing) at least once during COVID-19 (78.8%, 80.2%) also increased compared to that during MERS-CoV (15.5%, 60.3%). […] The higher affective risk perception groups were more likely to practice transmission-reducing measures (adjusted odds ratio, 3.24-4.81; 95 confidence interval, 1.76-6.96) during both COVID-19 and MERS-CoV. 2020-06-18
Molecular simulation of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding to pangolin ACE2 or human ACE2 natural variants reveals altered susceptibility to infection. We constructed complex models of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding to pangolin or human ACE2, the receptor for virus transmission, and estimated the binding free energy changes using molecular dynamics simulation. 2020-06-15
[Robotic and laparosocpic urological surgery during COVID-19 pandemia.] METHODS: Pubmed and web search was conducted with following terms: “SARS-CoV-2”, “COVID19”, “COVID19 Urology”, COVID19 Surgery“,”COVID19 transmission“,”SARS-CoV-2 transmission“,”COVID19 nd minimally invasive surgery“,”SARS-CoV-2 and CO 2insuflation“. […] SARS-CoV-2screening 72 hours prior to surgery by clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and nasopharyngeal PCRis recommended, in order to prevent nosocomial transmission, professional infections and to minimize postoperative complications. […] MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó una búsqueda web y en PubMed con los términos: “SARS-CoV-2”, “COVID19”, “COVID19 Urology”, “COVID19 Surgery”, “COVID19 transmission”, “SARS-CoV-2 transmission”, “COVID19 and minimally invasive surgery”, “SARSCoV-2 and CO2 insuflation”. 2020-06-18
COVID 19 and Nepal: Identification of Critical Public Health Measures. The national public health emergency management mechanisms need further strengthening with the proactive engagement of relevant ministries; we need a strong, real-time national surveillance system and capacity building of a critical mass of health care workers; there is a need to further assess infection prevention and control capacity; expand the network of virus diagnostic laboratories in the private sector with adequate surge capacity;implement participatory community engagement interventions and plan for a phased lockdown exit strategy enabling sustainable suppression of transmission at low-level and enabling in resuming some parts of economic and social life. 2020-06-24
The new coronavirus that came from the East: analysis of the initial epidemic in Mexico. To analyze data on the first 1,510 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Mexico, and to describe the geographical distribution of the disease and its transmission dynamics. […] Description of the first COVID-19 cases with real-time RT-PCR-positive test, as well as evaluation of epidemiological measures, cumulative incidence, rate of transmission, and mortality and lethality rates during the first month of the epidemic. […] In Mexico, social distancing is being applied, but studies are still required on the dynamics of the epidemic, person-to-person transmission, incidence of subclinical infections, and patient survival. 2020-06-22
Intraoperative Diagnosis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in an Asymptomatic Patient: A Case Report. The latter group poses the greatest risk of transmission. 2020-06-18
An Innovative Way to Achieve Safe Lung Deflation During One-Lung Ventilation in a Potential Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patient: A Case Report. To minimize the production of airborne droplets, including pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), from the endotracheal tube during procedures requiring lung deflation, we devised a technique to mitigate the risk of infection transmission to health care personnel. 2020-06-18
Widespread severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) laboratory surveillance program to minimize asymptomatic transmission in high-risk inpatient and congregate living settings. We identified 22 asymptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 and implemented infection control measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission in congregate settings. 2020-06-25
Review of practical recommendations for otolaryngologists and head and neck surgeons during the COVID-19 pandemic. It summarizes data concerning COVID-19 transmission, diagnosis, and clinical presentation highlighting the information significant for otolaryngologists. 2020-06-19
Epidemic characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak in Tianjin, a well-developed city in China. Local transmission of COVID-19 mainly occurred within families and a poorly ventilated public place in Tianjin. […] Besides the imported cases, the pattern of local transmission of COVID-19 was a mixture of the propagated epidemic and the common-source outbreak in Tianjin. 2020-06-19
The effects of border control and quarantine measures on the spread of COVID-19. We have developed an “easy-to-use” mathematical framework extending from a meta-population model embedding city-to-city connections to stratify the dynamics of transmission waves caused by imported, secondary, and others from an outbreak source region when control measures are considered. 2020-06-27
Redefining diabetic foot disease management service during COVID-19 pandemic. Public health guidelines and the risk of virus transmission have resulted in reconfiguration of methods to support and manage diabetic foot patients including remote consultations. 2020-06-26
Recreational waters - A potential transmission route for SARS-CoV-2 to humans? Following identification of novel pathogens, questions in relation to dissemination of the pathogen and transmission routes begin to emerge. […] This rapidly spreading SARS-CoV-2 virus has been detected in both faecal and wastewater samples across the globe, highlighting the potential for faecal-oral transmission of the virus. […] As a result, concerns regarding the transmission of the virus in the environment and the risk associated with contracting the virus in recreational waters, particularly where inadequately treated wastewater is discharged, have been emerging in recent weeks. 2020-06-23
Short-term effects of specific humidity and temperature on COVID-19 morbidity in select US cities. The case-crossover examines each COVID case as its own control at different time periods (before and after transmission occurred). […] We modeled the effect of temperature and humidity on COVID-19 transmission using a lag period of 7 days. […] Short-term exposure to humidity was positively associated with COVID-19 transmission in 4 cities. […] The associations were small with 3 out of 4 cities exhibiting higher COVID19 transmission with specific humidity that ranged from 6 to 9 g/kg. 2020-06-23
The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on substance use: Implications for prevention and treatment. In addition, this population are potential vectors of transmission. […] Addiction care must be reinforced, instead of postponed, in order to avoid complications of both SUD and COVID-19 and to prevent the transmission of coronavirus. 2020-06-27
Upper and Lower Airways Functional Examination in Asthma and Respiratory Allergic Deseases. Considerations in the SARS-CoV-2 Post-Pandemic Situation. Being already in the early stages after the peak of the pandemic, we still do not know for sure what its consequences will be in the short or long term, since there are important gaps in the knowledge of aspects as fundamental as the transmission mechanisms of the virus, its pathophysiology and immune response or its diagnosis. 2020-06-16
Health Belief Model-based Deep Learning Classifiers for Classifying COVID-19 Social Media Content to Examine Public Behaviors towards Physical Distancing. Public health authorities (PHAs) have been recommending interventions such as physical distancing and face masks, to curtail the transmission of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) within the community. 2020-06-16
Design and development of COVID-19 risk assessment decision support system for general practitioners. All mobile terminal devices are wirelessly connected to the back-end data center to implement request sending and data transmission. 2020-06-16
Outcomes after Tracheostomy in COVID-19 Patients. However, in the context of COVID-19, tracheostomy placement pathways have been altered due to the poor prognosis of intubated patients as well as the risk of transmission to providers through this highly aerosolizing procedure. 2020-06-16
Electrocautery, Diathermy, and Surgical Energy Devices: Are Surgical Teams at Risk During the COVID-19 Pandemic? Measures to reduce potential transmission include appropriate personal protective equipment, evacuation and filtration of surgical plume, limiting energy device use if appropriate, and adjusting endoscopic and laparoscopic practice (low CO2 pressures, evacuation through ultrafiltration systems). […] The risk of transmission of SARS-CoV2 through aerosolized surgical smoke associated with energy device use is not fully understood, however transmission is biologically plausible. 2020-06-16
Saliva as a Potential Diagnostic Specimen for COVID-19 Testing. There is global lockdown for containment of the virus transmission. 2020-06-16
Paved With Good Intentions: Hospital Visitation Restrictions in the Age of Coronavirus Disease 2019. Hospital visitation restrictions have been widely implemented during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic as a means of decreasing the transmission of coronavirus. […] While decreasing transmission is an important goal, it is not the only goal that quality healthcare must aim to achieve. 2020-06-26
Geographic risk assessment of COVID-19 transmission using recent data: An observational study. The geographic risk of transmission of the COVID-19 epidemic was thus determined using both magnitudes (i.e., Rasch scores and CFRs) for each country. […] We created an online algorithm that used the CFRs to display the geographic risks to understand COVID-19 transmission. 2020-06-22
Extrapulmonary Gastrointestinal Presentation of Coronavirus (COVID-19): A Case Report and Review of Literature. During this global health crisis, an improved understanding of the various presentations of COVID-19 is paramount in an effort to initiate immediate treatment and prevent further transmission. 2020-06-17
Rapid Detection of IgM Antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 Virus via Colloidal Gold Nanoparticle-Based Lateral-Flow Assay. COVID-19 exhibits a strong human-to-human transmission infectivity and could cause acute respiratory diseases. 2020-06-17
Three months of informational trends in COVID-19 across New York City. In the midst of widespread community transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in New York, residents have sought information about COVID-19. 2020-06-16
High-flow nasal cannula for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19: systematic reviews of effectiveness and its risks of aerosolization, dispersion, and infection transmission. We synthesized the evidence regarding efficacy and safety (review 1), as well as risks of droplet dispersion, aerosol generation, and associated transmission (review 2) of viral products. […] Review 2: we narratively summarized findings from studies evaluating droplet dispersion, aerosol generation, or infection transmission associated with HFNC. […] This benefit must be balanced against the unknown risk of airborne transmission. 2020-06-19
Cross-Sectional Study on Awareness and Knowledge of COVID-19 Among Senior pharmacy Students. An online questionnaire was created and it consisted of 12 questions testing their knowledge about COVID-19 clinical characteristics, transmission routes and prevention and control steps. 2020-06-19
Infection Risk Assessment of COVID-19 through Aerosol Transmission: a Case Study of South China Seafood Market. Aerosol is a potential transmission route. […] We conducted the quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to evaluate the aerosol transmission risk by using the South China Seafood Market as an example. 2020-06-26
COVID-19 and the Ocular Surface: A Review of Transmission and Manifestations. In this article, the current evidence related to ocular transmission and ocular manifestations is reviewed. […] Several mechanisms for the ocular transmission of the virus are proposed with highlight on the nasolacrimal system as a conduit between the eye and the respiratory tract, and the role of the lacrimal gland in hematogenous spread. […] The exact pathophysiology of ocular transmission of the virus remains incompletely understood, although there is preliminary evidence of SARS-CoV-2 being detected in ocular secretions. 2020-06-16
SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance in Taiwan revealed novel ORF8-deletion mutant and clade possibly associated with infections in Middle East. Patients in the first wave also included several sporadic, local transmission cases. […] Genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in Taiwan revealed a new ORF8-deletion mutant and a virus clade that may be associated with infections in the Middle East, which contributed to a better understanding of the global SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics. 2020-06-16
A cross-sectional community-based observational study of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in the greater Indianapolis area. Importantly, these findings underscore that more research is needed to understand the viral transmission and the role asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic individuals play in this global pandemic. 2020-06-16
Coughs and Sneezes: Their Role in Transmission of Respiratory Viral Infections, Including SARS-CoV-2. Prevention of respiratory viral infections depends upon whether they are carried in respiratory droplets or as fine droplet nuclei (airborne or aerosol transmission). […] Airborne transmission of this virus has not been established, but is possible under special circumstances. […] Appropriate protective measures are necessary to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus in various settings. 2020-06-16
Computational investigation on Andrographis paniculata phytochemicals to evaluate their potency against SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to known antiviral compounds in drug trials. Due to the rapid human to human transmission of Covid-19, we are in need to find a potent drug at the earliest by ruling-out the traditional time-consuming approach of drug development. 2020-06-25
Seroepidemiologic Study Designs for Determining SARS-COV-2 Transmission and Immunity. We highlight key questions that serologic studies can help answer at different times, review strengths and limitations of different assay types and study designs, and discuss methods for rapid sharing and analysis of serologic data to determine global transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. 2020-06-16
Severe Coronavirus Infections in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review. Severe morbidity and mortality among women with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, or SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss, preterm delivery, and laboratory evidence of vertical transmission, were reported. 2020-06-16
The potential impact of COVID-19 in refugee camps in Bangladesh and beyond:  A modeling study. To explore the potential impact of the introduction of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the Kutupalong-Balukhali Expansion Site, we used a stochastic Susceptible Exposed Infectious Recovered (SEIR) transmission model with parameters derived from emerging literature and age as the primary determinant of infection severity. […] We considered three scenarios with different assumptions about the transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2. […] On average, in the first 30 days of the outbreak, we expect 18 (95% prediction interval [PI], 2-65), 54 (95% PI, 3-223), and 370 (95% PI, 4-1,850) people infected in the low, moderate, and high transmission scenarios, respectively. […] Hospitalization needs exceeded the existing hospitalization capacity of 340 beds after 55-136 days, between the low and high transmission scenarios. […] We estimate 2,040 (95% PI, 1,660-2,500), 2,650 (95% PI, 2,030-3,380), and 2,880 (95% PI, 2,090-3,830) deaths in the low, moderate, and high transmission scenarios, respectively. 2020-06-25
Appropriate care for neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 disease. The global COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with high rates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, morbidity and mortality in the general population. […] There is currently insufficient evidence to suggest vertical transmission between mothers and their newborn infants. […] However, transmission can happen after birth from mothers or other carers. 2020-06-16
Social isolation and the mitigation of coronavirus anxiety: The mediating role of meaning. This study examined core belief violation and meaning making as mechanisms mediating the relationship between adherence to social isolation policies for mitigating coronavirus transmission and reduced coronavirus anxiety (CA). 2020-06-16
ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed on the human ocular surface, suggesting susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Together, these results suggest that ocular surface cells including conjunctiva are susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV-2, and could therefore serve as a portal of entry as well as a reservoir for person-to-person transmission of this virus. 2020-06-25
Development of child immunity in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. We discuss here what are the main features and components of children’s immune system, the role of maternal transmission of immunity, and what are the possible explanations for the seemingly lower infection rate and severity of COVI-19 in children. 2020-06-27
The assessment of transmission efficiency and latent infection period on asymptomatic carriers of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Few studies aimed on the transmission efficiency of asymptomatic carriers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. […] Furthermore, the transmission efficiency of asymptomatic carriers was lower than that of confirmed cases. 2020-06-19
Understanding COVID-19 diffusion requires an interdisciplinary, multi-dimensional approach. After COVID-19 initial diffusion in Europe in March 2020, research has suggested a direct correlation between environmental pollution and contagion dynamics (i.e., environment-to-human pollution), thereby indicating that mechanisms other than human-to-human transmission can explain COVID-19 diffusion. […] This communication aims to focus on certain limitations of current research about environmental-to-human COVID-19 transmission and shows the benefit of an interdisciplinary, multi-dimensional approach to understand the geographical diversity of contagion diffusion patterns. 2020-06-26
Association of COVID-19 pandemic with meteorological parameters over Singapore. Meteorological parameters are the critical factors affecting the transmission of infectious diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), and influenza. […] This study investigates the role of Singapore’s hot tropical weather in COVID-19 transmission by exploring the association between meteorological parameters and the COVID-19 pandemic cases in Singapore. 2020-06-23
Preventing COVID-19 Transmission on Labor and Delivery: A Decision Analysis. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of two strategies on transmission of COVID-19 to health care workers (HCW) on labor and delivery (L&D). […] In the base case using a COVID-19 prevalence of 0.36% (the rate in the United States at the time), universal screening is the preferred strategy because while universal PPE is more effective at preventing COVID-19 transmission, it is also more costly, costing $4,175,229 and $3,413,251 to prevent one infection in the setting of spontaneous and induced labor, respectively. 2020-06-16
Modelling the Evolution of COVID-19 in High-Incidence European Countries and Regions: Estimated Number of Infections and Impact of Past and Future Intervention Measures. A previously developed mechanistic model of COVID-19 transmission has been adapted and applied here to study the evolution of the disease and the effect of intervention measures in some European countries and territories where the disease has had a major impact. 2020-06-17
Potential of Flavonoid-Inspired Phytomedicines against COVID-19. Meanwhile, in vitro studies show potential of caflanone to inhibit virus entry factors including, ABL-2, cathepsin L, cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, Mip-1α, TNF-α), and PI4Kiiiβ as well as AXL-2, which facilitates mother-to-fetus transmission of coronavirus. 2020-06-24
Effects of COVID-19 Infection during Pregnancy and Neonatal Prognosis: What Is the Evidence? This study’s aims are to assess the current evidence presented in the literature regarding the potential risks of COVID-19 infection among pregnant women and consequent fetal transmission. a systematic literature review assessing papers published in the most comprehensive databases in the field of health intended to answer the question, "What are the effects of COVID-19 infection during pregnancy, and what is the neonatal prognosis? […] There is, however, no evidence of vertical transmission based on what has been assessed so far, considering there are knowledge gaps concerning the care provided during and after delivery, as well as a lack of suitable biological samples for testing SARS-CoV-2. 2020-06-25
COVID-19 Infection Diagnosis: Potential Impact of Isothermal Amplification Technology to Reduce Community Transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is largely driven by community transmission, after 2019 novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2) crosses the borders. 2020-06-17
Recommendations for Dental Care during COVID-19 Pandemic. Dental clinics were suspected to be a hotspot for nosocomial transmission of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), yet there has been no clear recommendation about emergency dental care and appropriate personal protective equipment during pandemics. […] In this paper, we aim to summarize recommendations for (i) patient risk assessment, (ii) patient triage, and (iii) measures to prevent infection of health professionals and nosocomial transmission in dental clinics. […] Measures to prevent disease transmission based on current evidence were grouped for dental health professionals, dental clinics, and patients. 2020-06-17
Examining Social Determinants of Health, Stigma, and COVID-19 Disparities. Consideration is given to how understanding COVID-19 in the context of social determinants and stigma may be included in interventions to mitigate its transmission within vulnerable populations. 2020-06-19
SOCRATES: an online tool leveraging a social contact data sharing initiative to assess mitigation strategies for COVID-19. We incorporated location-specific physical distancing measures (e.g. school closure or at work) and capture their effect on transmission dynamics. […] Using our online tool with the available social contact data, we illustrate that physical distancing could have a considerable impact on reducing transmission for COVID-19. 2020-06-22
Does the maternal-fetal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occur during pregnancy? One of the unknowns to be solved is whether there is a vertical transmission of the infection during pregnancy. 2020-06-19
Large-scale public venues as medical emergency sites in disasters: lessons from COVID-19 and the use of Fangcang shelter hospitals in Wuhan, China. It has been proven that converting large-scale public venues such as stadiums and exhibition centres into Fangcang shelter hospitals, which serve as hospitals for isolation, treatment and disease monitoring of patients with mild symptoms, is the most effective way to control virus transmission and reduce mortality. 2020-06-25
Disease and healthcare burden of COVID-19 in the United States. We identified counties that will probably be consistently, heavily affected relative to the rest of the country across a range of assumptions about transmission patterns, such as the basic reproductive rate, contact patterns and the efficacy of quarantine. 2020-06-17
Age-dependent effects in the transmission and control of COVID-19 epidemics. Accordingly, we find that interventions aimed at children might have a relatively small impact on reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission, particularly if the transmissibility of subclinical infections is low. 2020-06-17
Optimization of primer sets and detection protocols for SARS-CoV-2 of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using PCR and real-time PCR. Due to various symptomatic and asymptomatic cases and the possibility of asymptomatic transmission, there is a pressing need for a fast and sensitive detection protocol to diagnose asymptomatic people. […] Our newly optimized protocol should be helpful for the large-scale, high-fidelity screening of asymptomatic people, even without any high-specification equipment, for the further prevention of transmission, and to achieve early intervention and treatment for the rapidly propagating virus. 2020-06-19
Influence of COVID-19 on Cerebrovascular Disease and its Possible Mechanism. Currently, the most reasonable and effective way to prevent COVID-19 is to control the source of infection, terminate routes of transmission, and protect susceptible populations. 2020-06-19
Effect of COVID-19 Epidemic on Delay of Diagnosis and Treatment Path for Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. To prevent further spread of the disease, restrictions of population flow from the government and measures to reduce virus transmission from hospitals may lead to the delay of diagnosis and treatment in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). 2020-06-19
Children and adolescents in the CoVid-19 pandemic: Schools and daycare centers are to be opened again without restrictions. The protection of teachers, educators, carers and parents and the general hygiene rules do not conflict with this. In the opinion of the medical societies of hygiene and pediatrics undersigning the present statement, the analyses published to date regarding transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and the course of CoVid-19 show that children play a much less significant role in the spread of the virus than do adults. […] Even the first analyses from China demonstrated that children and adolescents play a subordinate role in the transmission of the virus - not only to other children and adolescents, but also to adults. 2020-06-19
Case of COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms. Given genetic homology between 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 2 and SARS-CoV, our case underscores the urgent need for further studies to understand the role of the gastrointestinal system in 2019 SARS-CoV-2 transmission and COVID-19 pathogenesis. 2020-06-19
Serial computed tomographic findings and specific clinical features of pediatric COVID-19 pneumonia: A case report. The clinical symptoms and prognosis of COVID-19 in pediatric patients may be different from those in adult patients, and the fecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2 should be considered. 2020-06-19
Using Telemedicine and Infographics for Physician-Guided Home Drain Removal. Physician-guided home drain removal presents a potential opportunity for mitigating viral spread and transmission. […] During a time like the COVID-19 pandemic, innovative measures are necessary to curb transmission and infection rates. 2020-06-19
Ventilation in the Dental Clinic: An Effective Measure to Control Droplets and Aerosols during the Coronavirus Pandemic and Beyond. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that human-to-human transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) most frequently occurs through virus-laden respiratory droplets discharged from infected individuals while coughing and sneezing. […] Aerosols can act as another potential transmission route. […] In order to prevent airborne transmission, dental offices should be sufficiently ventilated, with great emphasis placed upon removing bioaerosols. 2020-06-18
[The outbreak of COVID-19 in China]. The transmission dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan and Hubei Province differ considerably from those in the rest of China. 2020-06-19
The SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus and the COVID-19 Outbreak. The predominant route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is from human to human. 2020-06-17
Bladder Cancer at the time of COVID-19 Outbreak. The COVID-19 outbreak has led to the deferral of a great number of surgeries in an attempt to reduce transmission of infection, free up hospital beds, intensive care and anaesthetists, and limit aerosol-generating procedures. 2020-06-17
Laparoscopic and Robotic Urology Surgery during Global Pandemic COVID19. A concern with the use of minimally invasive techniques arose due to a proposed risk of viral transmission of the coronavirus disease with the creation of pneumoperitoneum. […] A literature review of viral transmission in surgery and of the available literature regarding the transmission of the COVID19 virus was performed up to April 30, 2020. […] Few studies have been performed on viral transmission during surgery. […] However, there is expert consensus on modification of standard practices to minimize any risk of transmission. 2020-06-17
Systematic Review of Clinical Insights into Novel Coronavirus (CoVID-19) Pandemic: Persisting Challenges in U.S. Rural Population. Therefore, this review aims to provide insight on the pathogenesis and the transmission dynamics of CoVID-19 along with pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention strategies to mitigate the clinical manifestation of this virus. […] The causative virus, with its likely zoonotic origin, has demonstrated high pathogenicity in humans through increasing human-to-human transmission leading to extensive mitigation strategies, including patient quarantine and mass “social distancing” measures. 2020-06-25
Demographic and Health Indicators in Correlation to Interstate Variability of Incidence, Confirmation, Hospitalization, and Lethality in Mexico: Preliminary Analysis from Imported and Community Acquired Cases during COVID-19 Outbreak. Sentinel surveillance for COVID-19 cases in Mexico began after the confirmation of the first patient with community transmission. 2020-06-25
COVID-19 Pandemic: Knowledge and Perceptions of the Public and Healthcare Professionals. The questions assessed awareness, attitude, and possible practices towards ensuring safety for themselves as well as breaking the chain of transmission. 2020-06-19
A comprehensive hospital agile preparedness (CHAPs) tool for pandemic preparedness, based on the COVID-19 experience. Although this tool has been developed from COVID-19 experiences, it has potential to be modified for a variety of pandemic scenarios according to transmission modes, rates and critical care resource requirements. 2020-06-19
COVID-19 outbreak and endoscopy: Considerations in patients encountered in a foregut surgery practice. With upper endoscopy, manipulation of the upper aerodigestive tract can turn the droplets to an aerosolized form and increase the likelihood of transmission and therefore is considered a high-risk procedure. […] The emphasis of this communication is on the mode of transmission, previous experiences during other coronavirus outbreaks and society guidelines. 2020-06-20
Proposal for a EN 149 acceptable reprocessing method for FFP2 respirators in times of severe shortage. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to health care workers (HCW) poses a major burden in the current COVID-19 pandemic. […] Transmission mainly occurs by droplet transmission, or by aerosol generating procedures. […] Respirators such as filtering face piece masks (FFP2), also called respirators, are required to prevent transmission during aerosol generating procedures, as part of the personal protective equipment (PPE) for HCWs. 2020-06-27
Perioperative planning for cardiovascular operations in the COVID-19 pandemic. First, it is a necessity to postpone many elective procedures/surgeries to reduce the burden of the healthcare system which may be confronted with strain by the increased speed of transmission. 2020-06-20
Protection for Otolaryngologic Surgery in the COVID-19 Pandemic. It is transmitted through droplets, contact, the fecal-oral route, and airborne transmission under certain conditions that allow droplets to combine with air particles to form an aerosol. 2020-06-20
Staying Ahead of the Curve: Modified Approach to Emergency Caesarean Section Under General Anaesthesia in COVID-19 Pandemic. The need to perform an emergency operative delivery in a timely manner while ensuring clinicians are suitably equipped and protected represents a uniquely challenging scenario, given the higher risk of viral transmission with aerosol generating procedures. 2020-06-20
Perioperative Anaesthetic Management of Confirmed or Suspected COVID-19 Patients. Although various measures have been taken to stop human-to-human transmission in many countries, health care workers are in the high-risk zone for transmission as they deliver patient care. 2020-06-20
Management of an Organ Donation Process in COVID-19 Pandemic: First Case of Turkey. The exclusion of the disease is vital not only for recipients but also for the medical staff, transplantation teams, and intensive care professionals to reduce the transmission risk. 2020-06-20
Back to Normal: An Old Physics Route to Reduce SARS-CoV-2 Transmission in Indoor Spaces. Simple measures like frequent handwashing, facial masks, and other physical barriers are being commonly adopted to prevent virus transmission. […] However, their efficacy may be limited, particularly in shared indoor spaces, where, in addition to airborne transmission, elements with small surface areas such as elevator buttons, door handles, and handrails are frequently used and can also mediate transmission. […] We argue that additional measures are necessary to reduce virus transmission when people resume attending schools and jobs that require proximity or some degree of physical contact. 2020-06-24
Is sweat a possible route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2? Because SARS-CoV-2 is new, much is unknown regarding mechanisms of transmission, and such information is urgently needed. […] Here, based on previous findings from related human betacoronaviruses, it is suggested that one possible route of transmission may be via infectious sweat. 2020-06-19
Feasibility, Utility, and Limitations of a Rapid Community Behavioral Diagnosis for Social Distancing During the 2020 Coronavirus Pandemic. To evaluate the feasibility, utility, and limitations of a rapid community behavioral diagnosis (RCBD) for social distancing behaviors to prevent coronavirus transmission during a global coronavirus pandemic. […] In a situation where local community action is paramount for reducing coronavirus transmission, this RCBD process is feasible and useful for informing local health promotion. 2020-06-19
Nonrelocatable Occupations at Increased Risk During Pandemics: United States, 2018. The stress experienced by lower-income groups, coupled with job insecurity, could result in a large burden of mental health disorders in the United States in addition to increased cases of COVID-19 from workplace transmission. (Am J Public Health. 2020-06-19
No Detectable Surge in SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Attributable to the April 7, 2020 Wisconsin Election. The April 7, 2020, Wisconsin election produced a large natural experiment to help understand the transmission risks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). 2020-06-19
Personal protective equipment (PPE) during the COVID-19 pandemic for oculofacial plastic and orbital surgery. To review the current literature on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) virology and transmission; to present a decision tree for risk stratifying oculofacial plastic and orbital surgeries; and to generate personal protective equipment (PPE) recommendations by risk category. […] We summarize COVID-19 virology and transmission, as well as practice considerations for oculofacial plastic and orbital surgeons. […] Although SARS-CoV-2 is known to be transmitted predominantly by droplet mechanisms, some studies suggest that transmission is possible through aerosols. […] Risk of transmission increases when manipulating structures known to harbor high viral loads. 2020-06-19
Breathing Is Enough: For the Spread of Influenza Virus and SARS-CoV-2 by Breathing Only. Background: The transmission of respiratory viruses such as influenza and corona viruses from one person to another is still not fully understood. Methods: A literature search showed that there is a strong scientific rationale and evidence that viruses are very efficiently spread through aerosols by the patient’s breathing only. 2020-06-19
Facts and myths: Efficacies of repurposing chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19. The 2019-nCoV first broke out in Wuhan and subsequently spreads worldwide owing to its extreme transmission efficiency. 2020-06-19
Proposal for a EN 149 acceptable reprocessing method for FFP2 respirators in times of severe shortage. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to health care workers (HCW) poses a major burden in the current COVID-19 pandemic. […] Transmission mainly occurs by droplet transmission, or by aerosol generating procedures. […] Respirators such as filtering face piece masks (FFP2), also called respirators, are required to prevent transmission during aerosol generating procedures, as part of the personal protective equipment (PPE) for HCWs. 2020-06-27
Emergence of Undetectable Malaria Parasites: A Threat under the Radar amid the COVID-19 Pandemic? Surveillance of such parasites is dependent on identifying false-negative RDT results among suspected malaria cases, a task made more challenging during the current pandemic because of the overlap of symptoms between malaria and COVID-19, particularly in areas of low malaria transmission. 2020-06-19
SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed minks, the Netherlands, April and May 2020. Variations in mink-derived viral genomes showed between-mink transmission and no infection link between the farms. 2020-06-26
Quality Improvement Tool to Rapidly Identify Risk Factors for SARS-CoV-2 Infection among Healthcare Workers. The rapid growth of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, limited availability of personal protective equipment, and uncertainties regarding transmission modes of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have heightened concerns for safety of healthcare workers (HCWs). 2020-06-22
Sampling and detection of corona viruses in air: A mini review. This result warrants its airborne transmission potential. 2020-06-23
A super-spreader of COVID-19 in Ningbo city in China. Identifying and isolated super-spreaders, understanding the reasons behind the efficient transmission ability are important for the control and management of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. 2020-06-21
Treatment strategies of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-19. No hospital-related transmission was observed. 2020-06-19
Current global vaccine and drug efforts against COVID-19: Pros and cons of bypassing animal trials. Since animal models are critical for vaccine development and SARS-CoV-2 has different transmission dynamics, in this review we compare different animal models of SARS-CoV-2 with humans for their pathogenic, immune response and transmission dynamics that make them ideal models for vaccine testing for COVID-19. 2020-06-25
Coronavirus Disease 2019 Case Surveillance - United States, January 22-May 30, 2020. These data are used to monitor trends in COVID-19 illness, identify and respond to localized incidence increase, and inform policies and practices designed to reduce transmission in the United States. 2020-06-22
Public Attitudes, Behaviors, and Beliefs Related to COVID-19, Stay-at-Home Orders, Nonessential Business Closures, and Public Health Guidance - United States, New York City, and Los Angeles, May 5-12, 2020. Implementation of nationwide public health orders to limit person-to-person interaction and of guidance on personal protective practices can slow transmission (2,3). 2020-06-22
Cryo-EM structures of HKU2 and SADS-CoV spike glycoproteins provide insights into coronavirus evolution. These results structurally demonstrate a close evolutionary relationship between HKU2/SADS-CoV and β-coronavirus spikes and provide insights into the evolution and cross-species transmission of coronaviruses. 2020-06-28
Approach to Endoscopic Procedures: A Routine Protocol from a Quaternary University Referral Center Exclusively for Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients. Endoscopy units, endoscopists, and other HCP may be at a significant risk for transmission of the virus. […] We also detailed hospital protocols for reprocessing endoscopes and cleaning rooms and also provided recommendations to minimize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission. 2020-06-22
Elective surgeries in the “new normal” post-COVID-19 pandemic: to test or do not test? Given the risks of transmission between patients and healthcare providers, there is a great challenge for healthcare institutions who must balance resources to assure safe care to patients and professionals while they take care of other disease patients, and perform surgical procedures that need to be carried out. […] Under such circumstances, as COVID-19 can also present pre- or asymptomatic transmission, it can be challenging to identify patients who are carrying and spreading the virus. 2020-06-23
Diabetic Ketoacidosis in COVID-19: unique concerns and considerations. As discussed, some tenets of DKA management may require flexibility in the setting of COVID-19 due to important public health goals such as preventing transmission to highest risk individuals, reducing health care worker exposure to infected patients and preserving personal protective equipment (PPE). 2020-06-19
Reconstruction of Transmission Pairs for novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in mainland China: Estimation of Super-spreading Events, Serial Interval, and Hazard of Infection. Knowledge on the epidemiological features and transmission patterns of COVID-19 is accumulating. […] Detailed line-list data with household settings can advance the understanding of COVID-19 transmission dynamics. […] A unique database with detailed demographic characteristics, travel history, social relationships, and epidemiological timelines for 1,407 transmission pairs that formed 643 transmission clusters in mainland China was reconstructed from 9,120 COVID-19 confirmed cases reported during January 15 - February 29, 2020. 2020-06-19
Can the Elastic of Surgical Face Masks Stimulate Ear Protrusion in Children? In this period of the Covid-19 pandemic, a protective mask has become a common object of use to contain virus transmission. 2020-06-22
Tracheostomy care and decannulation during the COVID-19 pandemic. A multidisciplinary clinical practice guideline. Tracheostomy care involves many potentially aerosol generating procedures which may pose a risk of viral transmission to staff and patients. 2020-06-22
Pituitary society guidance: pituitary disease management and patient care recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic-an international perspective. In locations with significant rates of viral transmission, social distancing measures and enforced ‘lockdowns’ are the new ‘norm’ as governments try to prevent healthcare services from being overwhelmed. 2020-06-26
An adaptive model of health system organization and responses helped Vietnam to successfully halt the Covid-19 pandemic: What lessons can be learned from a resource-constrained country. This commentary shares with the international community how an adaptive model of health system organization and responses helped Vietnam to break transmission of coronavirus. 2020-06-19
Implication of COVID-19 in oral oncology practices in Brazil, Canada and the United States. Droplet transmission and person-person transmission appear to be the main route of transmission of COVID-19, however asymptomatic patients are also carriers of the virus (Rothe et al. 2020-06-19
[Covid-19 disease. Report of the first confirmed case in Córdoba (Argentina) and literatura review]. Its main means of transmission is from person to person through respiratory droplets. […] Outpatient management using telemedicine turned out to be optimal, avoiding the use of beds and the transmission of the virus within the hospital through management at home. […] Outpatient management of selected patients avoids virus transmission within the hospital and saturation of beds. 2020-06-24
Effective control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission between healthcare workers during a period of diminished community prevalence of COVID-19. These data demonstrate how infection prevention and control measures including staff testing may help prevent hospitals from becoming independent ‘hubs’ of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and illustrate how, with appropriate precautions, organisations in other sectors may be able to resume on-site work safely. 2020-06-19
Oral mucosa lesions in COVID-19. The main path of COVID-19 transmission is through droplets (The Chinese Preventive Medicine Association, 2020) from the oral cavity. 2020-06-19
Effectiveness of isolation, testing, contact tracing, and physical distancing on reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in different settings: a mathematical modelling study. To maintain control of infection while also reducing disruption to populations, there is a need to understand what combination of measures-including novel digital tracing approaches and less intensive physical distancing-might be required to reduce transmission. […] We aimed to estimate the reduction in transmission under different control measures across settings and how many contacts would be quarantined per day in different strategies for a given level of symptomatic case incidence. […] For this mathematical modelling study, we used a model of individual-level transmission stratified by setting (household, work, school, or other) based on BBC Pandemic data from 40 162 UK participants. […] We estimated that combined isolation and tracing strategies would reduce transmission more than mass testing or self-isolation alone: mean transmission reduction of 2% for mass random testing of 5% of the population each week, 29% for self-isolation alone of symptomatic cases within the household, 35% for self-isolation alone outside the household, 37% for self-isolation plus household quarantine, 64% for self-isolation and household quarantine with the addition of manual contact tracing of all contacts, 57% with the addition of manual tracing of acquaintances only, and 47% with the addition of app-based tracing only. […] If limits were placed on gatherings outside of home, school, or work, then manual contact tracing of acquaintances alone could have an effect on transmission reduction similar to that of detailed contact tracing. […] If combined with moderate physical distancing measures, self-isolation and contact tracing would be more likely to achieve control of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission. 2020-06-19
Assessing the relationship between ground levels of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with coronavirus (COVID-19) in Milan, Italy. This paper investigates the correlation between the high level of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection accelerated transmission and lethality, and surface air pollution in Milan metropolitan area, Lombardy region in Italy. […] At this moment it is not clear if through airborne diffusion, in the presence of outdoor and indoor aerosols, this protein “spike” of the new COVID-19 is involved in the infectious agent transmission from a reservoir to a susceptible host during the highest nosocomial outbreak in some agglomerated industrialized urban areas like Milan is. 2020-06-23
Performance Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 PCR Assays Developed by WHO Referral Laboratories. A reliable diagnostic assay is crucial to early detect new COVID-19 cases and limit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. 2020-06-22
COVID-19 Diagnostics, Tools, and Prevention. The pathogenic particles that are generated by coughing and sneezing remain suspended in the air or attach to a surface to facilitate transmission in an aerosol form. […] COVID-19 diagnosis and the prediction of virus transmission are analyzed by machine learning algorithms, simulations, and digital monitoring. […] Therefore, technological developments, biomedical research, and policy development are needed to decipher the coronavirus mechanism and epidemiological characteristics, prevent transmission, and develop therapeutic drugs. 2020-06-22
Critical medical ecology and SARS-COV-2 in the urban environment: a pragmatic, dynamic approach to explaining and planning for research and practice. Rampant spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cities clearly signals that urban areas contain conditions favorable for rapid transmission of the virus. […] Viewing COVID-19 with a Critical Medical Ecological lens suggests three important interpretations: 1) COVID-19 is equally - if not more - a socially-driven disease as much as a biomedical disease, 2) the present interventions available for primary prevention of transmission are social and behavioral interventions, and 3) wide variation in COVID-19 hospitalization/death rates is not expected to significantly be attributable to a more virulent and rapidly-evolving virus, but rather to differences in social and behavioral factors - and power dynamics - rather than (solely) biological and clinical factors. 2020-06-23
Epidemiology of COVID-19 in Mexico: from the 27th of February to the 30th of April 2020. Our results indicate an early transmission of COVID-19 in Mexico. 2020-06-23
The close relationship between sudden loss of smell and COVID-19. The identification of sudden loss of the sense of smell during COVID-19 pandemic may serve as a sentinel symptom and may be a warning to establish measures to prevent the transmission of the disease. 2020-06-23
Epidemiology of COVID-19 in an Urban Dialysis Center. A predictive epidemic model estimated a reproduction number of 2.2; cumulative cases deviated favorably from the model from the fourth week, suggesting that the implemented measures controlled transmission. 2020-06-20
Air contamination with SARS-CoV-2 in the operating room. Knowledge of aerosol generation and distribution in the OR will aid the design of strategies to reduce transmission risk. 2020-06-23
Are urologists in trouble by SARS-CoV-2? Reflexions and recommendations for specific interventions. Several possible pathways for viral transmission appear in the literature. […] During surgery, viral particles are released, aerosole-borne and present a certain risk for transmission and infection. […] Local separation of anesthesia/intubation and operation theatre can reduce the danger of viral transmission. 2020-06-20
Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and the Gastrointestinal System in Children. Prolonged RT PCR positivity in the stool has raised the possibility of feco-oral transmission. 2020-06-28
Nosocomial transmission of COVID-19: a retrospective study of 66 hospital-acquired cases in a London teaching hospital. In a major London teaching hospital, 66/435 (15%) of COVID-19 inpatient cases between 2 March and 12 April 2020 were definitely or probably hospital-acquired, through varied transmission routes. 2020-06-20
Liability of clinical oncologists and the COVID-19 emergency: Between hopes and concerns. Moreover, personal umbrella policies also often exclude liability arising out of the transmission of a communicable disease, especially a pandemic state, is declared. 2020-06-23
Household secondary attack rate of COVID-19 and associated determinants in Guangzhou, China: a retrospective cohort study. We aimed to estimate the secondary attack rate of SARS-CoV-2 among household and non-household close contacts in Guangzhou, China, using a statistical transmission model. […] In this retrospective cohort study, we used a comprehensive contact tracing dataset from the Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention to estimate the secondary attack rate of COVID-19 (defined as the probability that an infected individual will transmit the disease to a susceptible individual) among household and non-household contacts, using a statistical transmission model. […] Older individuals (aged ≥60 years) are the most susceptible to household transmission of SARS-CoV-2. […] In addition to case finding and isolation, timely tracing and quarantine of close contacts should be implemented to prevent onward transmission during the viral incubation period. 2020-06-20
Therapeutic potential of resveratrol against emerging respiratory viral infections. Herein, we present an overview of the antiviral activity and potential mechanisms of resveratrol against the respiratory tract viruses considered as a public threat for their rapid transmission and high morbidity and mortality in the general population. 2020-06-20
Pilot study using telemedicine video-consultation for vascular patients’ care during the COVID-19 period. Telemedicine offers support to vulnerable vascular patients without the need for travel and face-to-face hospital consultation, and so avoided transmission and infection. 2020-06-20
Asymptomatic patients as a source of COVID-19 infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Asymptomatic patients may be contagious and thus a potential source of transmission of COVID-19. 2020-06-20
A new pharmacological approach based on remdesivir aerosolized administration on SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary inflammation: A possible and rational therapeutic application. SARS-CoV-2 transmission is mainly airborne from one person to another via droplets. 2020-06-26
Commercial exchanges instead of air pollution as possible origin of COVID-19 initial diffusion phase in Italy: More efforts are necessary to address interdisciplinary research. In this frame it is suggested that parameters other than environmental pollution (accounting for pollution-to-human transmission mechanisms), as for example parameters involving commercial exchanges (accounting for human-to-human transmission mechanisms), should be considered to better justify the difference in the initial diffusion of virus in Italy. 2020-06-26
The otolaryngologist’s and anesthesiologist’s collaborative role in a pandemic: A large quaternary pediatric center’s experience with COVID-19 preparation and simulation. A serious threat of nosocomial spread exists and as such, there is a critical necessity for well-planned and rehearsed processes during the care of the COVID-19 positive and suspected patient to minimize transmission and risk to healthcare providers and other patients. 2020-06-26
Impact of Covid-19 lockdown on characteristics of autopsy cases in Greece. Comparison between 2019 and 2020. In order to reduce transmission of COVID-19, social distancing measures were proposed, including spatial distancing (2m distance), or even generalized lockdown. 2020-06-23
Responding to the Challenge of the Dual COVID-19 and Ebola Epidemics in the Democratic Republic of Congo-Priorities for Achieving Control. Although the epidemiology and transmission of EVD and COVID-19 differ, leveraging the public health infrastructures and experiences from coordinating the EVD response to guide the public health response to COVID-19 is critical. 2020-06-26
An analytical study on the awareness, attitude and practice during the COVID-19 pandemic in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Ministry of Health (MOH) has made the public aware of the virus transmission patterns and the importance of quarantine and curfew. 2020-06-21
Pathological Findings in the Testes of COVID-19 Patients: Clinical Implications. Transmission EM did not identify viral particles in three cases. 2020-06-24
Analyzing barriers for implementation of public health and social measures to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 disease using DEMATEL method. Keeping this in view, an attempt has been made in the present work to identify the barriers which hinder the implementation of these public health and social measures METHODS: The barriers to implement public health and social measures for preventing transmission of COVID-19 are identified using systematic literature review and these barriers are then categorized using Decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method. […] Results reveal that among ten identified barriers, Lack of resources for implementing public health and social measures is found to be the most influential barrier to implement public health and social measures for preventing transmission of COVID-19. […] The outcome of this research work will benefit and motivate the higher authorities to consider and overcome various challenges to prevent the transmission of COVID-19. 2020-06-26
Origin, transmission, diagnosis and management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This article reviews the current state of knowledge concerning the origin, transmission, diagnosis and management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] The virus is believed to be acquired from zoonotic source and spreads through direct and contact transmission. 2020-06-21
Position Paper for the State-of-the-Art Application of Respiratory Support in Patients with COVID-19. Aerosols can cause transmission of infectious, virus-laden particles. 2020-06-21
Implementation of Obstetric Telehealth During COVID-19 and Beyond. To decrease the rate of transmission of the COVID-19 and limit exposure to patients, providers in Hillsborough County, Florida (and nationwide) are rapidly transitioning to telehealth. 2020-06-24
Regenerative Medicine in COVID-19 Treatment: Real Opportunities and Range of Promises. Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has attracted much attention around the world due to its rapid transmission among humans and relatively high mortality rate. 2020-06-24
Is 0.5% Hydrogen Peroxide Effective against SARS-CoV-2? SARS-CoV-2 is mostly transmitted through respiratory droplets and contact routes, but the WHO also states that “airborne transmission may be possible in specific circumstances and settings in which procedures or support treatments that generate aerosols are performed” (WHO, 2020). 2020-06-21
Hand Sanitizers: A Review of Ingredients, Mechanisms of Action, Modes of Delivery, and Efficacy Against Coronaviruses. Currently, strategies to deal with COVID-19 are purely supportive and preventative, aimed at reducing transmission. […] An effective and simple method for reducing transmission of infections in the public or healthcare settings is hand hygiene. 2020-06-25
All Hands on Deck: A Synchronized Whole-of-World Approach for COVID-19 Mitigation. The list is drawn from pandemic mitigation tools developed in response to past outbreaks including influenza, coronaviruses, and Ebola and includes tools to minimize transmission in various settings including person-to-person, crowd, funerals, travel, workplace, and events and gatherings including business, social and religious venues. […] While individuals and communities have significant responsibilities to prevent person-to-person transmission, other entities can play a significant role to enable individuals and communities to make use of the tools. 2020-06-24
COVID-19 pandemic: A review based on current evidence. As the transmission rate is quite alarming, we require an effective therapeutic strategy to treat symptomatic patients and adopt the preventive measures in order to contain the infection and prevent community transmission. 2020-06-23
A nonlinear epidemiological model considering asymptotic and quarantine classes for SARS CoV-2 virus. Elasticity and sensitivity analysis indicates that model is more sensitive towards the transmission rate from exposed to infected classes rather than transmission rate from susceptible to exposed class. 2020-06-23
COVID-19: Changing Trends and Its Impact on Future of Dentistry. Transmission occurs primarily through droplet spread or contact routes. […] This article provides a brief overview of the structure of the virus, modes of transmission, and clinical features of COVID-19 disease. 2020-06-23
Zambia’s National Cancer Centre response to the COVID-19 pandemic-an opportunity for improved care. This article reports the response of a comprehensive cancer centre in a lower-middle income country to prevent COVID-19 transmission and how the implementation of pragmatic strategies have served as a springboard to improve cancer services beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. 2020-06-23
Knowledge, attitudes and practices of COVID-19 among income-poor households in the Philippines: A cross-sectional study. Coughing and sneezing were identified as a transmission route by 89.5% of respondents, while indirect hand contact was the least commonly identified transmission route, recognized by 72.6% of respondents. […] A greater number of preventive measures were taken by those with more knowledge of potential transmission routes. 2020-06-23
Phyloevolutionary analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in Nigeria. Knowledge on the outbreak and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Nigeria would assist in provision of preventive measures to reduce transmission among populations at risk. 2020-06-23
Breastfeeding of infants born to mothers with COVID-19: a rapid review. We aimed to conduct a rapid review of mother-to-child transmission of COVID-19 during breastfeeding. […] We included studies relevant to transmission through milk and respiratory droplets during breastfeeding of mothers with COVID-19, SARS, MERS and influenza. […] Mothers with COVID-19 should take appropriate precautions to reduce the risk of transmission via droplets and close contact during breastfeeding. 2020-06-23
Application of telemedicine during the coronavirus disease epidemics: a rapid review and meta-analysis. Telemedicine, which includes medical advice given over telephone, Internet, mobile phone applications or other similar ways, may be an efficient way to reduce transmission and pressure on medical institutions. 2020-06-23
The epidemiologic and clinical features of suspected and confirmed cases of imported 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in north Shanghai, China. A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan (China) is known to be caused by a novel beta-coronavirus named the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and can be spread through human-to-human transmission. 2020-06-23
Risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to medical staff and patients from an exposure to a COVID-19-positive ophthalmologist. To evaluate the risk of transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after exposure to a COVID-19+ physician in a retina clinic. […] Low risk for SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the ophthalmic setting was observed when universal safety measures such as social distancing, meticulous hand hygiene, enlarged breath shields, and mask wear during procedures were taken. 2020-06-25
Establishing prison-led contact tracing to prevent outbreaks of COVID-19 in prisons in Ireland. Preventing transmission of COVID-19 within prisons is both important and challenging. 2020-06-22
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic’s impact on mental health. As all efforts are focused on understanding the epidemiology, clinical features, transmission patterns, and management of the COVID-19 outbreak, there has been very little concern expressed over the effects on one’s mental health and on strategies to prevent stigmatization. […] People’s behavior may greatly affect the pandemic’s dynamic by altering the severity, transmission, disease flow, and repercussions. 2020-06-22
Planning for a pandemic: Mitigating risk to radiation therapy service delivery in the COVID-19 era. Government guidelines and restrictions implemented to mitigate the risk of COVID-19 community transmission have forced radiation therapy departments to promptly adjust to the significant impact on our ability to deliver best clinical care. 2020-06-22
Beyond the lung involvement in COVID-19 patients. A review. Since viral transmission occurs through the droplets emitted during coughing or sneezing, the lungs are primarily affected. 2020-06-22
COVID-19 and Paediatric Dentistry after the lockdown. We know that the route of transmission of the disease is through saliva droplets produced by speaking, coughing and sneezing. […] Pending further clinical studies able to clarify the infection and transmission dynamics, it is therefore important to apply also in children all preventive and hygiene measures recommended by the health authorities during dental treatment. […] During procedures that generate aerosols, the use of proper PPE is crucial to minimise the risk of transmission. 2020-06-24
[Respiratory and Facial Protection: Current Perspectives in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic]. This equipment must be appropriate to the pathogen transmission route that, in the case of SARS-CoV-2, occurs through droplet and contact routes. […] Airborne transmission may occur when aerosol-generating procedures are performed. […] The use of different, or higher than necessary, level of personal protective equipment, for the transmission route of the agent, is a form of misuse and can affect its supply for situations when it is clearly indicated. 2020-06-22
Evidence for transmission of COVID-19 prior to symptom onset. We collated contact tracing data from COVID-19 clusters in Singapore and Tianjin, China and estimated the extent of pre-symptomatic transmission by estimating incubation periods and serial intervals. […] The serial intervals are shorter than incubation periods, suggesting that pre-symptomatic transmission may occur in a large proportion of transmission events (0.4-0.5 in Singapore and 0.6-0.8 in Tianjin, in our analysis with intermediate cases, and more without intermediates). […] Given the evidence for pre-symptomatic transmission it is vital that even individuals who appear healthy abide by public health measures to control COVID-19. 2020-06-22
Assessment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Community Containment Strategies in Shenzhen, China. These findings suggest that cooperation among the authorities of multiple sectors allowed for the implementation of preventive measures that were associated with limited community transmission. 2020-06-25
Operating Protocols of a Community Treatment Center for Isolation of Patients with Coronavirus Disease, South Korea. During the COVID-19 pandemic, communities need efficient methods to monitor asymptomatic patients to reduce transmission. […] CTCs could be an alternative to hospital admission for isolating patients and preventing community transmission. 2020-06-22
An agent-based model to evaluate the COVID-19 transmission risks in facilities. Under such circumstances, the use of mathematical models to evaluate the transmission risk of COVID-19 in various facilities represents an important tool in assisting authorities to make informed decisions. […] In this paper, an agent-based model to evaluate the COVID-19 transmission risks in facilities is presented. […] The proposed scheme has been designed to simulate the spatiotemporal transmission process. […] Such rules correspond to spatial patterns and infection conditions under which agents interact to characterize the transmission process. […] Experimental results have demonstrated that the simulations provide useful information to produce strategies for reducing the transmission risks of COVID-19 within the facilities. 2020-06-25
The Role of Health Technology and Informatics in Global Public Health Emergency: Practices and Implications from the COVID-19 Pandemic. As the coronavirus has the characteristics of strong transmission and weak lethality, and since the large-scale increase of infected people may drag down the healthcare systems, efforts are needed to treat critical patients, track and manage the health status of residents, and isolate suspected patients. 2020-06-22
Hand Hygiene Among Health Care Workers During COVID-19 Pandemic: Challenges and Recommendations. In-hospital transmission is one of the main routes of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) spreading among health care workers (HCWs) who are the frontline fighters. 2020-06-22
The trajectory of COVID-19 scenario in Malaysia: facing the unprecedented. Modelling also assists in understanding the link between the biological processes that underpin transmission events and the population-level dynamics of the disease. Conclusion: There is no one-size-fits-all approach in managing disease outbreak. 2020-06-22
Persistent Value of the Stethoscope in the Age of COVID-19. These advancements include sound visualization, ambient noise reduction/cancellation, Bluetooth™ transmission, and computer algorithm diagnostic support. 2020-06-25
Differences of SARS-CoV-2 Shedding Duration in Sputum and Nasopharyngeal Swab Specimens among Adult Inpatients with COVID-19. These findings may impact a test based clearance discharge criteria given patients with COVID-19 may shed virus longer in their lower respiratory tracts, with potential implication for prolonged transmission risk. 2020-06-24
Estimating a breakpoint in the spread pattern of COVID-19 in South Korea. We evaluated the spread pattern of COVID-19 in South Korea considering the potential impact of policy interventions on transmission rates. […] The SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Removed) model with a breakpoint that allows a change in transmission rate at an unknown point was proposed. […] The estimated breakpoint was March 7th and the transmission rate dropped by 0.23 after the breakpoint. […] It is critical to consider a change in the transmission rate to evaluate the spread trajectory of COVID-19 in South Korea. 2020-06-25
Transmission of COVID-19 virus by droplets and aerosols: A critical review on the unresolved dichotomy. Undeniably, although such practices help control the COVID-19 pandemic to a greater extent, the complete control of virus-laden droplet and aerosol transmission by such practices is poorly understood. […] This review paper intends to outline the literature concerning the transmission of virus-laden droplets and aerosols in different environmental settings and demonstrates the behavior of droplets and aerosols resulted from a cough-jet of an infected person in various confined spaces. […] The case studies that have come out in different countries have, with prima facie evidence, manifested that the airborne transmission plays a profound role in contracting susceptible hosts. […] The infection propensities in confined spaces (airplane, passenger car, and healthcare center) by the transmission of droplets and aerosols under varying ventilation conditions were discussed. […] Interestingly, the nosocomial transmission by airborne SARS-CoV-2 virus-laden aerosols in healthcare facilities may be plausible. 2020-06-26
A mechanism-based parameterisation scheme to investigate the association between transmission rate of COVID-19 and meteorological factors on plains in China. However, data regarding the effects of meteorological factors on its transmission are limited and inconsistent. […] A mechanism-based parameterisation scheme was developed to investigate the association between the scaled transmission rate (STR) of COVID-19 and the meteorological parameters in 20 provinces/municipalities located on the plains in China. […] A negative and exponential relationship was identified between the transmission rate and the temperature (correlation coefficient, -0.56; 99% confidence level). […] Therefore, a higher population density was linearly whereas a lower temperature (<0 °C) was exponentially associated with an increased transmission rate of COVID-19. 2020-06-25
Persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment and COVID-19 transmission risk from environmental matrices and surfaces. We concluded that, besides the high infectuousness of the novel Coronavirus, the transmission of the pathogen may be efficiently contained applying the adequate preventive measures (e.g., personal protection equipments, and disinfecting agents), indicated by national and international health authories. 2020-06-26
Heat warning and public and workers’ health at the time of COVID-19 pandemic. The novelty this year concerns that the world population will have to deal with a new situation that foresees the application of specific measures, including adjunctive personal protective equipment (i.e. facemasks and gloves), in order to reduce the potential transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. […] These measures should help to decrease the risk of the infection transmission but will also represent an aggravating factor to counteract the heat effects on the population health both at occupational and environmental level. 2020-06-26
COVID-19 in Pregnant Women and Neonates: A Systematic Review of the Literature with Quality Assessment of the Studies. Further studies are needed to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. 2020-06-23
The Difficult Airway and Aerosol-Generating Procedures in COVID-19: Timeless Principles for Uncertain Times. Considerations of preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission, conserving personal protective equipment, and prioritizing care delivery based on acuity have dictated clinical decision making in the acute phase of the pandemic. 2020-06-23
Research methodology and characteristics of journal articles with original data, preprint articles and registered clinical trial protocols about COVID-19. Less than half reported study design; the majority were modeling studies (62%), and analyzed transmission/risk/prevalence (43%). 2020-06-25
[Clinical features of asymptomatic or subclinical COVID-19 in children]. The transmission risk of asymptomatic or subclinical COVID-19 should be taken seriously. 2020-06-25
Factors related to SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare professionals in Spain. The SANICOVI project. To describe the factors related to the situation of SARS-CoV-2 transmission identified by health professionals in Spain and to propose prevention strategies. […] Healthcare professionals infected by SARS-CoV-2 identified the management of the chain of infection transmission, the use and adequacy of protective equipment, as well as the effectiveness of handwashing as factors related to the transmission of the virus among professionals. 2020-06-25
Using influenza surveillance networks to estimate state-specific prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the United States. Combining excess ILI counts with the date of onset of community transmission in the US, we also show that the early epidemic in the US was unlikely to have been doubling slower than every 4 days. 2020-06-23