CD4


CD4 molecule


Gene Context Sentence


Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of CD4 gene in 95 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32118639 The effects of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)+ T lymphocytes, inflammatory indicators, and glucocorticoid treatment on viral nucleic acid clearance were analyzed. […] Using a multiple linear regression model (F = 2.669, P = 0.044, and adjusted R = 0.122), the analysis showed that the CD4+ T lymphocyte count may help predict the duration of viral RNA detection in patients’ stools (t = -2.699, P = 0.010).
32171869 In multivariate logistical analysis, age (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.06) and CD4 T cell count (OR = 0.55 per 100 cells/ul increase) were independently associated with ICU admission.
32172546 Most of infiltrated lymphocytes were CD4-positive T cells. […] 淋巴细胞主要为CD4阳性T细胞。
32193831 Other findings included decreased CD16 + CD56 (4/8) and Th/Ts*(1/8), increased CD3 (2/8), CD4 (4/8) and CD8 (1/8), IL-6 (2/8), IL-10 (5/8) and IFN-γ (2/8).
32217834 Increased cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α), lymphopenia (in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells), and decreased IFN-γ expression in CD4+ T cells are associated with severe COVID-19.
32217835 Absolute numbers of T lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells decreased in nearly all the patients, and were markedly lower in severe cases (294.0, 177.5, and 89.0 × 106/L, respectively) than moderate cases (640.5, 381.5, and 254.0 × 106/L, respectively). […] The expression of IFN-γ by CD4+ T cells tended to be lower in severe cases (14.1%) than in moderate cases (22.8%). […] CONCLUSIONThe SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect primarily T lymphocytes, particularly CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, resulting in a decrease in numbers as well as IFN-γ production by CD4+ T cells.
32227123 Total lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells decreased in COVID-19 patients, and severe cases had a lower level than mild cases. […] The subsets showed a significant association with the inflammatory status in COVID-19, especially CD8+ T cells and CD4+/CD8+ ratio. […] In multivariate analysis, post-treatment decrease of CD8+ T cells and B cells and increase of CD4+/CD8+ ratio were indicated as independent predictors for poor efficacy.
32233642 Further analysis showed that the CD4+ T cell count but not the CD8+ T cell count of the aggravation group was significantly lower than that of the non-aggravation group. […] Correlation analysis indicated total lymphocyte count was positively correlated with CD4+ T cell count, and no significant differences were found between the 2 groups in other laboratory measurements, including those of white blood cell (WBC) count, C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and D-dimer.
32253888 The immune regulatory genes encoded by X chromosome in female gender causes lower viral load levels, and less inflammation than in man, while CD4+ T cells are higher with better immune response. […] The X chromosome influences the immune system by acting on many other proteins, including TLR8, CD40L and CXCR3 which can be over-expressed in women, and influence the response to viral infections and vaccinations.
32257537 After treatment, the peripheral lymphocytes were increased, the C-reactive protein decreased, and the overactivated cytokine-secreting immune cells CXCR3+CD4+ T cells, CXCR3+CD8+ T cells, and CXCR3+ NK cells disappeared in 3-6 days.
32293910 Lymphopenia occurs early and is prognostic, potentially associated with reduction of the CD4+ and some CD8+ T cells.
32297671 There were significant differences in cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4+ T), cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8+ T), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and PII between the two groups. […] There were significant positive correlations between CD4+ T and CD8+ T, IL-6 and IL-10 in the mild group (r2 = 0·694, r 2 = 0·633, respectively; P < 0·01). […] CD4+ T, CD8+ T, IL-6, IL-10 and PII can be used as indicators of disease evolution, and the PII can be used as an independent indicator for disease progression of COVID-19.
32297828 The lymphocyte, CD4+ T lymphocyte, and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts all differed significantly between the two groups (p < 0.001), as did differences in interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, and IL-8 levels (p = 0.022, 0.026, and 0.012, respectively). […] SARS-CoV-2 RNA load and lymphocyte count, CD4+ T lymphocyte count, and CD8+ T lymphocyte count were linearly negatively correlated (p < 0.001).
32302954 We compared critically ill and noncritically ill patients: p-values for age, C-reactive protein, high-sensitivity troponin T, prothrombin time, fibrin degradation products, D-Dimer, and CD4+ count were p < 0.001; and p-values for hospital days, white blood cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte, creatine kinase isoenzyme, myoglobin, N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide, and CD8+ count were p < 0.05. […] Higher C-reactive protein levels, higher levels of myocardial damage, and higher brain natriuretic peptide levels; lower white blood cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes; and lower CD4 and CD8 counts could be used for early detection and identification of critically ill patients, and dynamic Data observation was more important than at a single moment.
32305025 CD4+ lymphocyte counts were 61, 180, and 348 cells/uL in severe-type patients, respectively. […] Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was also higher in severe-type patients CONCLUSIONS: Initial examination results of lower CD4+ lymphocyte counts and RT-PCR-CT values coupled with higher NLR may indicate the severity of COVID-19 infection for these family clusters.
32307550 The decreased T cell proportions were observed in COVID-19 patients especially in severe cases, and all elevated to normal in mild patiens after initial treatment but only CD4+T cells return to normal in severe cases.
32308263 In brief, notable T cytopoenia was recorded by flow cytometry in the CD4+ and the CD8+ populations, which were significantly yet inversely correlated with remarkably increased serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-a.
32312364 All 13 children had normal levels of peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, immunoglobulins, CD4, CD8, and interleukin-6.
32315725 As the severity of COVID-19 getting worse, the counts of T lymphocyte drop lower.28 patients died in hospital, the median lymphocyte, CD3+ T-cell, CD4+ T-cell, CD8+ T-cell and B-cell were significantly lower than other patients. […] Lower counts (/uL) of T lymphocyte subsets lymphocyte (<500), CD3+T-cell (<200), CD4+ T-cell (<100), CD8+ T-cell (<100) and B-cell (<50) were associated with higher risks of in-hospital death of CIVID-19. […] The warning values to predict in-hospital death of lymphocyte, CD3+ T-cell, CD4+ T-cell, CD8+ T-cell, and B-cell were 559, 235, 104, 85 and 82, respectively.
32320677 All patients with SRF displayed either macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) or very low human leukocyte antigen D related (HLA-DR) expression accompanied by profound depletion of CD4 lymphocytes, CD19 lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells.
32324595 The absolute numbers of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and B cells were gradually decreased with increased severity of illness. […] The activation markers such as HLA-DR and CD45RO expressed on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were increased in severe and extremely severe patients compared with mild patients. […] The percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells was increased in extremely severe patients. […] The hyperfunction of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is associated with the pathogenesis of extremely severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.FUNDINGThis work was funded by the National Mega Project on Major Infectious Disease Prevention (2017ZX10103005-007) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2019kfyRCPY098).
32325421 Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the ratio and expression of CD4 and CD8 markers in COVID-19 patients to clarify the immune characterizations of CD4 and CD8 T-cells in COVID-19 patients. […] White blood cells, platelets, and lymphocytes were counted and CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. […] The difference in CD4:CD8 ratio, CD4 T-cell frequency, CD8 T-cell frequency, and CD4 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) was not significant between COVID-19 patients and healthy individuals (P > 0.05); however, the CD8 MFI increased significantly in COVID-19 infected patients (P < 0.05). […] Although, there is no significant difference in the ratio of CD4 to CD8 between two groups, the expression level of CD8 in COVID-19 patients was significantly higher than the normal individuals.
32339157 The expression of ACE2 was positively correlated with the level of immune infiltration of macrophage in KIRP, B cell, CD4+T cell, neutrophil and dendritic cell immune infiltration levels in UCEC.
32340089 CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were decreased. […] CD3(+)、CD4(+)及CD8(+)T细胞均减少。
32344320 Lymphocyte subsets count, including CD3+ T cell, CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, B cell (CD19+) and NK cell (CD16+ 56+), were significantly lower in severe group (P<0.001). […] The cut-off value of the counts of CD3+ (576), CD4+ (391) and CD8+ (214) T cell were calculated and indicated significantly high sensitivity and specificity for severity of COVID-19. […] Our results shown that the decrease of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte correlated with the course of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in severe cases.
32359396 Parallel analyses of CD4 and CD8 expression suggested that the pro-inflammatory response may be intertwined with T cell activation that could exacerbate disease or prolong the infection.
32364527 Subsequent investigation of 463 patients with COVID-19 disease revealed the decreased amount of total lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the severe type patients which indicated COVID-19 can impose hard blows on human lymphocyte resulting in lethal pneumonia.
32372051 Through a comprehensive bioinformatic screening of potential epitopes derived from the SARS-CoV-2 sequences for HLAs commonly present in the Japanese population, we identified 2013 and 1399 possible peptide epitopes that are likely to have the high affinity (<0.5%- and 2%-rank, respectively) to HLA class I and II molecules, respectively, that may induce CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses.
32374419 Immunohistochemical staining results showed that an abnormal accumulation of CD4+ helper T lymphocytes and CD163+ M2 macrophages in the lung tissue.
32377375 CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells decreased significantly and expressed high levels of inflammatory genes in the ERS.
32379199 The infant had life-threatening clinical features including high fever, septic shock, recurrent apnea, petechiae and acute kidney injury and persistent declined CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. […] The CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was partially recovered 68 days post onset of the disease. […] Accumulating of effector memory CD4+ T cells (CD4+TEM) was observed among T-cell compartment. […] The persistent reduction of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was the typical feature of critically ill infant with COVID-19. […] CD4+ and CD8+ T cells might play a key role in aggravating COVID-19 and predicts a more critical course in children.
32379887 Our results revealed that CD3+T, CD4+T, CD8+T cells and NK cells were significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients. […] COVID-19 patients had a relatively slight decrease in CD4+T cells but a severe decrease of CD8+T cells. […] The significantly elevated CD4/CD8 ratio was observed in COVID-19 patients. […] The counts of CD8+T and CD4+T cells can be used as diagnostic markers of COVID-19 and predictors of disease severity.
32380908 Laboratory values revealed significant improvements in absolute neutrophil count [mean reduction 32% (P value <0.001)] and lymphopenia with average CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ lymphocyte counts increasing by 46% (P < 0.05), 45% (P < 0.05), and 46% (P < 0.001), respectively.
32387756 The immunological support to the hypothesis derives from recent studies about immunotherapy for malignancies, which propose the use of oncolytic vaccines combined with toxoids in order to exploit CD4 + memory T cell recall in supporting the ongoing anti-tumour response. […] The CD4 + memory exploiting could help immune system to recall immunity of already know antigens against coronaviruses, avoiding or limiting “lung crash” until virus specific immunity develops and making it faster and prolonged.
32389849 The laboratory test data showed, the percentage of neutrophils and the level of LDH is higher, otherwise the number of CD4+ and CD8+T cells is decreased in children’s COVID-19 cases.
32391668 The peripheral lymphocyte subsets (CD3+T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, NK cells, B cells), as well as serum levels of lymphocyte factors (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ) were dynamically monitored. […] On D1 of admission, the numbers of peripheral blood CD3+ T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cells were significantly lower than the normal range. […] With the improvement of the disease, the numbers of CD3+ T, CD8+ T and CD4 + T cells gradually recovered and showed a linear growth trend (linear fitting equation: Y=18.59X+109.4, P<0.05).
32399213 Initially, low levels of CD4+ T cells (from 120 to 528 μL-1) and CD8+ T cells (from 68 to 362 μL-1) gradually increased to normal levels. […] CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, cytokines and HLA-G+ immune cells are associated with the natural history of the critical COVID-19 patient; however, future studies are necessary.
32404786 In the 25 cases, on admission, 21 cases (84%) had normal white blood cell counts, while only 2 cases (8%) more than 10 × 10/L and 2 cases (8%) less than 4 × 10/L, respectively; 22 cases(88%) had normal CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, while in the remaining 3 cases(8%) this increased mildly; 23 cases had normal CD8+ T lymphocyte counts, while in the remaining 2 cases (8%) CD8+ T lymphocyte counts were mildly increased as well.
32405080 We observe changes of the main lymphocyte subsets (CD16+CD56、CD19、CD3、CD4、and CD8) in COVID-19-infected patients and explore whether the changes are associated with disease severity. […] CD3+, CD4+ and CD8 + T lymphocyte subsets were decreased in COVID-19-infected patients. […] Compared with the moderate group and the sever group, CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the critical group decreased greatly (P < 0.001, P = 0.005 or P = 0.001). […] Reduced CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocyte counts may reflect the severity of the COVID-19.
32417210 Compared with patients in discharged group, the patients in un-discharged/died group suffered from decreased counts of total T lymphocytes, CD4 + T lymphocytes, CD8 + T lymphocytes, as well as NK cells at 2 weeks after treatment.
32419646 In the present study, a novel multi-epitope vaccine is designed using in silica tools that potentially trigger both CD4 and CD8 T-cell immune responses against the novel Coronavirus.
32425950 In addition, the expression of T cell exhaustion markers were measured in 14 COVID-19 cases. Results: The number of total T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were dramatically reduced in COVID-19 patients, especially in patients requiring Intensive Care Unit (ICU) care. […] Counts of total T cells, CD8+ T cells or CD4+ T cells lower than 800, 300, or 400/μL, respectively, were negatively correlated with patient survival.
32427361 These HIV infected patients were compliant with their HIV medication regimen and had robust CD4 T cell counts.
32427393 The common thread linking these patients is lymphopenia, which largely reflects a decline in the numbers of CD4/CD8 T cells but not B cells.
32427582 In severe cases, lymphopenia, neutrophilia, depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, and massive macrophage and neutrophil infiltrates were observed in both blood and lung tissues.
32434211 Lymphocytopenia, especially the reduced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts upon admission, was predictive of disease progression.
32437000 Her CD4 count was 965 cells/mm3 , the HIV viral load was undetectable (<1,000 cells/mm3 ) and other laboratory work up was normal.
32437740 Except for the low level of CD16-CD56 cells, the count and proportion of lymphocytes, CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD19 were all in the normal range.
32437830 The liver enzyme abnormality was associated with disease severity, as well as a series of laboratory tests including higher A-aDO2, higher GGT, lower albumin, decreased CD4+ T cells and B lymphocytes. […] Immunohistochemical results showed scanty CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes.
32439209 Peripheral CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes were significantly decreased in severe and critically ill patients, but there was only a non-statistically significant downward trend in NK cell numbers with severity.
32440918 The multivariable analysis identified age (OR = 1.061, p = 0.028), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (OR = 1.006, p = 0.037), and CD4 count (OR = 0.993, p = 0.006) as the independent predictors of COVID-19 progression. […] Consequently, the age-LDH-CD4 algorithm was derived as (age × LDH)/CD4 count. […] In the training set, the area under the ROC curve (AUROC) of age-LDH-CD4 model was significantly higher than that of single CD4 count, LDH, or age (0.92, 0.85, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively). […] In the prospective validation set, the AUROC of age-LDH-CD4 model was also significantly higher than that of single CD4 count, LDH, or age (0.92, 0.75, 0.81, and 0.82, respectively). […] The age-LDH-CD4 ≥ 82 has high sensitive (81%) and specific (93%) for the early identification of COVID-19 patients with severe progression tendency. […] The age-LDH-CD4 model is a simple algorithm for early identifying patients with severe progression tendency following SARS-CoV-2 infection, and warrants further validation.
32442287 Tα1 timely enhances blood T cell numbers in COVID-19 patients with severe lymphocytopenia (the counts of CD8+ T cells or CD4+ T cells in circulation lower than 400/μL or 650/μL, respectively). […] Under such conditions, Tα1 also successfully restores CD8+ and CD4+ T cell numbers in aged patients. […] COVID-19 patients with the counts of CD8+ T cells or CD4+ T cells in circulation lower than 400/μL or 650/μL, respectively, gain more benefits from Tα1.
32460357 Our data indicate that patients with severe COVID-19 exhibited an overall decline of lymphocytes including CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells.
32460839 After treatment, the percentage and counts of lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cell) were increased, and the level of IL-6, TNF-α, and C-reactive protein is significantly decreased after hWJC treatment.
32463803 In agreement, T CD4+, T CD8+ but also NK cells displayed reduced anti-viral cytokine production capability.
32469614 All were taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) with CD4 count >200 cells/mm3 and suppressed HIV viral loads at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis.
32470153 Analysis of lymphocyte subsets showed that CD4+ and particularly CD8+ T lymphocytes increased significantly after treatment.
32470186 Age, heart rate, chlorine, ALT, AST, procalcitonin, creatine kinase, pH, CD3 counts, and CD4 counts showed moderate distinguishing power (each AUC between 0.7-0.8).
32473127 Using HLA class I and II predicted peptide “megapools,” circulating SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were identified in ∼70% and 100% of COVID-19 convalescent patients, respectively. […] CD4+ T cell responses to spike, the main target of most vaccine efforts, were robust and correlated with the magnitude of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA titers. […] The M, spike, and N proteins each accounted for 11%-27% of the total CD4+ response, with additional responses commonly targeting nsp3, nsp4, ORF3a, and ORF8, among others. […] Importantly, we detected SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells in ∼40%-60% of unexposed individuals, suggesting cross-reactive T cell recognition between circulating “common cold” coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2.
32473657 Age and CD4 cell counts in 51 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were similar to those in 1288 HIV-infected individuals without; however, 32 (63%) with COVID-19 had at least one comorbidity (mostly hypertension and diabetes) compared with 495 (38%) without COVID-19 (p=0·00059). 37 (73%) patients had received tenofovir before COVID-19 diagnosis compared with 487 (38%) of those without COVID-19 (p=0·0036); 11 (22%) in the COVID-19 group had previous protease inhibitor use (mostly darunavir) compared with 175 (14%; p=0·578). […] Six (12%) individuals were critically ill, two of whom had CD4 counts of less than 200 cells per μL, and two (4%) died. […] SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR remained positive after a median of 40 days from symptoms onset in six (32%) individuals, four of whom had severe disease or low nadir CD4 cell counts.
32479790 We also identified advanced tumour stage (OR 2·60, 95% CI 1·05-6·43; p=0·039), elevated tumour necrosis factor α (1·22, 1·01-1·47; p=0·037), elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (1·65, 1·03-2·78; p=0·032), reduced CD4+ T cells (0·84, 0·71-0·98; p=0·031), and reduced albumin-globulin ratio (0·12, 0·02-0·77; p=0·024) as risk factors of COVID-19 severity in patients with cancer.
32479985 There was no difference between the two groups of patients for CD4 T-lymphocytes, neither in percentage of lymphocyte nor in absolute number, however for CD8 T-cells the differences were significant for both parameters which were in decline in ICU patients. […] This effect was not seen with CD4 cells.
32489022 Reyanning Mixture could reduce the lung index(P<0.01) of coronavirus pneumonia mice with pestilence attacking the lung; it could significantly increase the percentage of CD8~+ T lymphocytes and CD4~+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood of model mice(P<0.05, P<0.01).
32489023 Compared with the model control group, the high and low doses of Compound Qinlan Oral Liquid significantly reduced lung tissue viral load(P<0.01), increased cross blood CD4~+ T lymphocytes, CD8~+ T lymphocytes and total B lymphocyte percentage(P<0.01), reduced serum motilin content(P<0.01), reduced IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in lungs(P<0.01) and reduced lung tissue inflammation.
32489708 706.78 /μL), CD4+ T cells (114.67 vs.
32490931 Further, the proportions of CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes were strongly reduced in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Estradiol is connected with CD4+ T cell numbers and increases T-reg cell populations, affecting immune responses to infection.
32491949 The immune system differences may include a relative preponderance of CD4+ T cells, decreased neutrophil infiltration, decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines, and increased production of immunomodulatory cytokines in children compared with adults.
32492165 Immunoglobin G and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio were negatively associated with biochemical indices related to liver and myocardial injury (immunoglobulin G, ALT: r, -0.3579; AST: r, -0.5280; CK-MB activity: r, -0.4786; LDH: r, -0.4984; and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, ALT: r, -0.1893; AST: r, -0.3912; CK-MB activity: r, -0.3428; LDH: r, -0.3234), while counts of lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, and interleukin 10 showed positive associations (lymphocytes, ALT: r, 0.2055; AST: r, 0.3615; CK-MB activity: r, 0.338; LDH: r, 0.3309; CD4+ T cells, AST: r, 0.4701; CK-MB activity: r, 0.4151; LDH: r, 0.4418; interleukin 10, ALT: r, 0.2595; AST: r, 0.3386; CK-MB activity: r, 0.3948; LDH: r, 0.3794). […] Gaining a deeper understanding of the role of neutrophils, CD4+ T cells, and B cells in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection could be important for the clinical management of COVID-19.
32492530 However, total numbers of CD4+ and CD8 + T cells tended to be lower in the severe group at the third week of illness. […] Expressions of Ki-67, PD-1, perforin, and granzyme B in CD4+ or CD8+ T cells were significantly higher in the severe group than in the mild group at the third week.
32495027 A significant decrease was observed in peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes.
32496587 We performed RNA sequencing and explored available RNA-Seq databases to study gene expression and co-expression of ACE2, CD147 (BSG), CD26 (DPP4) and their direct and indirect molecular partners in primary human bronchial epithelial cells, bronchial and skin biopsies, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), monocytes, neutrophils, DCs, NK cells, ILC1, ILC2, ILC3, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells and plasmablasts.
32502585 CBLL showed many features with those reported in idiopathic (IC) and auto-immune related chilblains (AC), including epidermal necrotic keratinocytes, dermal edema, perivascular and perieccrine sweat gland lymphocytic (predominantly CD3/CD4+) inflammation and frequent vascular changes (endothelialitis, microthromboses, fibrin deposition, immunoreactant deposits on vessels).
32504360 CD3 (20.69%), CD4 (68.97%), CD19 (31.03%) and Th/Ts (44.83%) were elevated; CD8 (6.9%) and CD16+CD56 (48.28%) was reduced. […] In the cohort, we discovered that lymphocytosis, elevated CD4 and IL-10, and co-infections were common in infants with COVID-19, which were different from adults with COVID-19.
32505908 However, CD4+ and CD8+ cells were oligoclonally expanded and prone to apoptosis when stimulated in vitro.
32507102 Numerous reports have shown that infection with SARS-CoV-2 causes depletion of B- and T-lymphocytes, including CD4 and CD8 T-cells, and is associated with severe illness and death and that patients with higher lymphocyte levels may have better outcomes.
32511971 Lymphocyte subsets and series of inflammatory cytokines were also different in severe cases with the non-severe ones, including lower levels of CD4 T cells (2.10-fold) and CD8 T cells (2.00-fold), higher levels of IL-1β (1.02-fold), IL-6 (1.93-fold) and IL-10 (1.55-fold). […] Some certain laboratory inspections could predict the progress of the COVID-19 changes, especially lymphocytes, CRP, PCT, ALT, AST, LDH, D-dimer, CD4 T cells and IL6, which provide valuable signals for preventing the deterioration of the disease.
32513514 SARS-CoV-2-SPL possesses a receptor-binding region (RBD) and important B (Ser438-Gln506, Thr553-Glu583, Gly404-Aps427, Thr345-Ala352, and Lys529-Lys535) and T (9 CD4 and 11 CD8 T cell antigenic determinants) cell epitopes.
32520888 In the 25 cases, on admission, 21 cases (84%) had normal white blood cell counts, while only 2 cases (8%) more than 10 × 10/L and 2 cases (8%) less than 4 × 10/L, respectively; 22 cases(88%) had normal CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, while in the remaining 3 cases(8%) this increased mildly; 23 cases had normal CD8+ T lymphocyte counts, while in the remaining 2 cases (8%) CD8+ T lymphocyte counts were mildly increased as well.
32527341
  1. Compared with normal group, patients in severe group were older, and with higher proportion of basic diseases, higher body mass index (BMI), higher incidence of tachypnea, persistent high fever, peripheral blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) < 0.95, while the white blood cell count (WBC), CD4+T lymphocyte, CD8+T lymphocyte, lymphocyte count (LYM) were decreased obviously, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid a protein (SAA), and CT showed higher incidence of multi-pulmonary lobe lesions. […] There were no significant differences of gender, travel history from Wuhan, smoking history, shock index (SI) and CD4+/CD8+ ratio between the two groups.
32531713 Our study aimed to evaluate the robustness of neutrophil to CD4+ lymphocyte ratio (NCD4LR) in predicting the negative conversion time (NCT) of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients. […] Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted to evaluate the independency of NCD4LR in predicting NCT. […] Compared with low NCD4LR patients, patients with high NCD4LR had an older age; higher incidence of fever, fatigue, chest distress/breath shortness, severer disease assessment on admission; higher levels of inflammatory indicators; low levels of lymphocyte subsets, and a longer NCT. […] Multivariate analysis also identified NCD4LR as an independent risk factor for delayed NCT. […] ROC analysis showed that NCD4LR had a better performance than neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in predicting the virus negative conversion within 2 weeks (AUC = 0.772), 3 weeks (AUC = 0.710), 4 weeks (AUC = 0.728), or 5 weeks (AUC = 0.815). […] This study suggests that NCD4LR is a potential and useful biomarker for predicting the virus negative conversion time in COVID-19 patients.
32533391 LYM, LYM (%), CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ decreased, while NEU (%), CRP, and CT scores increased in all patients, WBC in group A increased. […] In group A, on day 10-12 after disease onset, CT scores and CRP reached the highest point, and day 13-15 LYM, LYM (%) reached the lowest but NEU (%) and WBC reached the highest, CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ were at the lowest on day 10-15. […] In group B, on day 7-9, CT scores, NEU (%) and CRP reached the peak, but LYM, LYM (%), CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ reached the lowest. […] In all patients, CT scores had a significantly negative correlation with CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, LYM (%), and LYM (p = 0.001, r = - 0.797; p = 0.008, r = - 0.698; p = 0.002, r = - 0.775; p < 0.001, r = - 0.785; p = 0.021, r = - 0.571, respectively), and a significantly positive correlation with WBC and NEU (%) (p < 0.001, r = 0.785; p = 0.003, r = 0.691, respectively).
32541245 CD4 and CD8 T cells frequencies decreased because of prednisolone, followed by a plateauing increase whereas CD19CD20 B cell increased strongly and was unaffected by COVID-19 infection. […] Total regulatory T cells (Tregs: CD4CD25CD127FOXP3) remained stable. […] Although activated Tregs (CD4CD45RAFOXP3) strongly increased upon prednisolone, it decreased afterwards.
32542842 CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, B cell, NK cell and total lymphocyte cell counts all showed statistically significant reduction in patients with severe/critical COVID-19 disease compared to mild/moderate disease. […] In some studies, multivariate analysis has shown that CD4 and/or CD8 T cells counts are independently predictive of patient outcomes.
32543740 On admission, compared to patients with poor prognoses, those with good prognoses had significantly higher counts of monocytes (p < 0.05), macrophages (p < 0.05), higher frequency of CD3+ CD4+ CD45RO+ CXCR3+ subsets (p < 0.05), higher frequency of CD14+ CD11C+ HLA-DR+ subset of dendritic cells (DCs) (p < 0.05), and a lower count of neutrophils (p < 0.05). […] At the time point of exacerbation, the proportions of naïve CD4+ T cells (p < 0.05), Tregs, and Th2 cells in the poor prognosis group were relatively higher than those in the good prognosis group, and CD4+ memory T cells were relatively lower (p < 0.05).
32543756 These patients had decreased levels of globulin (odds ratio [OR] 3.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-6.93, P=0.005), IgA (OR 4.00, 95% CI 1.13-14.18, P=0.032), and increased levels of hs-CRP (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.34-7.36, P=0.008), procalcitonin (OR 3.83, 95% CI 2.03-7.24, P<0.001), IL-10 (OR 7.0, 95% CI 1.59-30.80, P=0.010), and CD4+CD25+ T lymphocyte < 5.0 % (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.04-3.61, P=0.038). […] Decreased IgA and CD4+CD25+ T lymphocyte percentage, and increased hs-CRP, procalcitonin and IL-10 were associated with pneumonia, suggesting that the immune-related factors may participate in the pathogenesis of pneumonia in children with COVID-19.
32547309 The positive rate of ESR, CRP, PT, IL6, lymphocyte count, GGT, Prealbumin and CD4 was more than 50%. […] Although there is no statistical difference in GGT, 100% of the 7 patients tested decreased. Conclusion: Our data recommended that the ESR, CRP, PT, IL6, lymphocyte count, GGT, prealbumin and CD4 have important value in the diagnosis of COVID-19, and the decrease of GGT may be an important indicator for judging the intestinal dysfunction of patients.
32547323 In the course, persistently lower lymphocyte with higher levels of CRP, PCT, IL-6, neutrophil, LDH, D-dimer, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and increased CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocyte ratio and were observed in death events group, while these parameters stayed stable or improved in discharge group. Conclusions: On admission, the levels of SpO2, lymphocyte, CRP, PCT, and LDH could predict the prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients.
32574284 In the two cases of severe COVID-19, the levels of CRP, PCT, serum ferritin, IL-6, and IL-10 were significantly increased, whereas the numbers of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes, and CD16 + CD56 natural killer cells were decreased.
32574309 Differences between the mild and severe groups was observed in neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, CD4 expression, and levels of C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and albumin (P < 0.05). […] Between the mild and critical groups, differences were observed in neutrophils, platelets, and CD4 expression (P < 0.05).
32574334 Regarding the immune dysregulation, patients exhibited significantly decreased T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, including CD3+T, CD3+CD4+Th, and CD3+CD8+Tc cells.
32574694 In critically ill patients, the decrease of absolute value of CD4 + T cells and increase of IL-6 level are significantly correlated with the volume of lung lesions. […] The absolute values of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8 + T cells are lower in patients with COVID-19, the levels of IL-6 and IL-10 are increased.
32576315 Patients who develop more robust immune responses with formation of memory CD8+ T-cells and helper CD4+ T-cells will be the most equipped if exposed to the virus, but unfortunately the serology test will not help us in distinguishing those individuals.
32579268 Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells may be instrumental in resolution of and protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32582743 The results demonstrated that severe patients tend to present with increased white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), procalcitonin (PCT), C-reaction protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and a decreased number of total lymphocyte and lymphocyte subtypes, such as CD4+ T lymphocyte and CD8+ T lymphocyte, compared to the non-severe patients.
32591408 Here, we studied 10 COVID-19 patients who required admission to an intensive care unit and detected SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in 10 out of 10 and 8 out of 10 patients, respectively.