CD4 molecule

Gene Context Sentence

Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of CD4 gene in 328 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32118639 The effects of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)+ T lymphocytes, inflammatory indicators, and glucocorticoid treatment on viral nucleic acid clearance were analyzed. […] Using a multiple linear regression model (F = 2.669, P = 0.044, and adjusted R = 0.122), the analysis showed that the CD4+ T lymphocyte count may help predict the duration of viral RNA detection in patients’ stools (t = -2.699, P = 0.010).
32171869 In multivariate logistical analysis, age (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.06) and CD4 T cell count (OR = 0.55 per 100 cells/ul increase) were independently associated with ICU admission.
32172546 Most of infiltrated lymphocytes were CD4-positive T cells. […] 淋巴细胞主要为CD4阳性T细胞。
32193831 Other findings included decreased CD16 + CD56 (4/8) and Th/Ts*(1/8), increased CD3 (2/8), CD4 (4/8) and CD8 (1/8), IL-6 (2/8), IL-10 (5/8) and IFN-γ (2/8).
32217834 Increased cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α), lymphopenia (in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells), and decreased IFN-γ expression in CD4+ T cells are associated with severe COVID-19.
32217835 Absolute numbers of T lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells decreased in nearly all the patients, and were markedly lower in severe cases (294.0, 177.5, and 89.0 × 106/L, respectively) than moderate cases (640.5, 381.5, and 254.0 × 106/L, respectively). […] The expression of IFN-γ by CD4+ T cells tended to be lower in severe cases (14.1%) than in moderate cases (22.8%). […] CONCLUSIONThe SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect primarily T lymphocytes, particularly CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, resulting in a decrease in numbers as well as IFN-γ production by CD4+ T cells.
32227123 Total lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells decreased in COVID-19 patients, and severe cases had a lower level than mild cases. […] The subsets showed a significant association with the inflammatory status in COVID-19, especially CD8+ T cells and CD4+/CD8+ ratio. […] In multivariate analysis, post-treatment decrease of CD8+ T cells and B cells and increase of CD4+/CD8+ ratio were indicated as independent predictors for poor efficacy.
32233642 Further analysis showed that the CD4+ T cell count but not the CD8+ T cell count of the aggravation group was significantly lower than that of the non-aggravation group. […] Correlation analysis indicated total lymphocyte count was positively correlated with CD4+ T cell count, and no significant differences were found between the 2 groups in other laboratory measurements, including those of white blood cell (WBC) count, C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and D-dimer.
32253888 The immune regulatory genes encoded by X chromosome in female gender causes lower viral load levels, and less inflammation than in man, while CD4+ T cells are higher with better immune response. […] The X chromosome influences the immune system by acting on many other proteins, including TLR8, CD40L and CXCR3 which can be over-expressed in women, and influence the response to viral infections and vaccinations.
32257537 After treatment, the peripheral lymphocytes were increased, the C-reactive protein decreased, and the overactivated cytokine-secreting immune cells CXCR3+CD4+ T cells, CXCR3+CD8+ T cells, and CXCR3+ NK cells disappeared in 3-6 days.
32293910 Lymphopenia occurs early and is prognostic, potentially associated with reduction of the CD4+ and some CD8+ T cells.
32297671 There were significant differences in cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4+ T), cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8+ T), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and PII between the two groups. […] There were significant positive correlations between CD4+ T and CD8+ T, IL-6 and IL-10 in the mild group (r2 = 0·694, r 2 = 0·633, respectively; P < 0·01). […] CD4+ T, CD8+ T, IL-6, IL-10 and PII can be used as indicators of disease evolution, and the PII can be used as an independent indicator for disease progression of COVID-19.
32297828 The lymphocyte, CD4+ T lymphocyte, and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts all differed significantly between the two groups (p < 0.001), as did differences in interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, and IL-8 levels (p = 0.022, 0.026, and 0.012, respectively). […] SARS-CoV-2 RNA load and lymphocyte count, CD4+ T lymphocyte count, and CD8+ T lymphocyte count were linearly negatively correlated (p < 0.001).
32302954 We compared critically ill and noncritically ill patients: p-values for age, C-reactive protein, high-sensitivity troponin T, prothrombin time, fibrin degradation products, D-Dimer, and CD4+ count were p < 0.001; and p-values for hospital days, white blood cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte, creatine kinase isoenzyme, myoglobin, N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide, and CD8+ count were p < 0.05. […] Higher C-reactive protein levels, higher levels of myocardial damage, and higher brain natriuretic peptide levels; lower white blood cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes; and lower CD4 and CD8 counts could be used for early detection and identification of critically ill patients, and dynamic Data observation was more important than at a single moment.
32305025 CD4+ lymphocyte counts were 61, 180, and 348 cells/uL in severe-type patients, respectively. […] Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was also higher in severe-type patients CONCLUSIONS: Initial examination results of lower CD4+ lymphocyte counts and RT-PCR-CT values coupled with higher NLR may indicate the severity of COVID-19 infection for these family clusters.
32307550 The decreased T cell proportions were observed in COVID-19 patients especially in severe cases, and all elevated to normal in mild patiens after initial treatment but only CD4+T cells return to normal in severe cases.
32308263 In brief, notable T cytopoenia was recorded by flow cytometry in the CD4+ and the CD8+ populations, which were significantly yet inversely correlated with remarkably increased serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-a.
32312364 All 13 children had normal levels of peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, immunoglobulins, CD4, CD8, and interleukin-6.
32315725 As the severity of COVID-19 getting worse, the counts of T lymphocyte drop lower.28 patients died in hospital, the median lymphocyte, CD3+ T-cell, CD4+ T-cell, CD8+ T-cell and B-cell were significantly lower than other patients. […] Lower counts (/uL) of T lymphocyte subsets lymphocyte (<500), CD3+T-cell (<200), CD4+ T-cell (<100), CD8+ T-cell (<100) and B-cell (<50) were associated with higher risks of in-hospital death of CIVID-19. […] The warning values to predict in-hospital death of lymphocyte, CD3+ T-cell, CD4+ T-cell, CD8+ T-cell, and B-cell were 559, 235, 104, 85 and 82, respectively.
32320677 All patients with SRF displayed either macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) or very low human leukocyte antigen D related (HLA-DR) expression accompanied by profound depletion of CD4 lymphocytes, CD19 lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells.
32324595 The absolute numbers of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and B cells were gradually decreased with increased severity of illness. […] The activation markers such as HLA-DR and CD45RO expressed on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were increased in severe and extremely severe patients compared with mild patients. […] The percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells was increased in extremely severe patients. […] The hyperfunction of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is associated with the pathogenesis of extremely severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.FUNDINGThis work was funded by the National Mega Project on Major Infectious Disease Prevention (2017ZX10103005-007) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2019kfyRCPY098).
32325421 Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the ratio and expression of CD4 and CD8 markers in COVID-19 patients to clarify the immune characterizations of CD4 and CD8 T-cells in COVID-19 patients. […] White blood cells, platelets, and lymphocytes were counted and CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. […] The difference in CD4:CD8 ratio, CD4 T-cell frequency, CD8 T-cell frequency, and CD4 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) was not significant between COVID-19 patients and healthy individuals (P > 0.05); however, the CD8 MFI increased significantly in COVID-19 infected patients (P < 0.05). […] Although, there is no significant difference in the ratio of CD4 to CD8 between two groups, the expression level of CD8 in COVID-19 patients was significantly higher than the normal individuals.
32339157 The expression of ACE2 was positively correlated with the level of immune infiltration of macrophage in KIRP, B cell, CD4+T cell, neutrophil and dendritic cell immune infiltration levels in UCEC.
32340089 CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were decreased. […] CD3(+)、CD4(+)及CD8(+)T细胞均减少。
32344320 Lymphocyte subsets count, including CD3+ T cell, CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, B cell (CD19+) and NK cell (CD16+ 56+), were significantly lower in severe group (P<0.001). […] The cut-off value of the counts of CD3+ (576), CD4+ (391) and CD8+ (214) T cell were calculated and indicated significantly high sensitivity and specificity for severity of COVID-19. […] Our results shown that the decrease of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte correlated with the course of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in severe cases.
32359396 Parallel analyses of CD4 and CD8 expression suggested that the pro-inflammatory response may be intertwined with T cell activation that could exacerbate disease or prolong the infection.
32364527 Subsequent investigation of 463 patients with COVID-19 disease revealed the decreased amount of total lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the severe type patients which indicated COVID-19 can impose hard blows on human lymphocyte resulting in lethal pneumonia.
32372051 Through a comprehensive bioinformatic screening of potential epitopes derived from the SARS-CoV-2 sequences for HLAs commonly present in the Japanese population, we identified 2013 and 1399 possible peptide epitopes that are likely to have the high affinity (<0.5%- and 2%-rank, respectively) to HLA class I and II molecules, respectively, that may induce CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses.
32374419 Immunohistochemical staining results showed that an abnormal accumulation of CD4+ helper T lymphocytes and CD163+ M2 macrophages in the lung tissue.
32377375 CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells decreased significantly and expressed high levels of inflammatory genes in the ERS.
32379199 The infant had life-threatening clinical features including high fever, septic shock, recurrent apnea, petechiae and acute kidney injury and persistent declined CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. […] The CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was partially recovered 68 days post onset of the disease. […] Accumulating of effector memory CD4+ T cells (CD4+TEM) was observed among T-cell compartment. […] The persistent reduction of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was the typical feature of critically ill infant with COVID-19. […] CD4+ and CD8+ T cells might play a key role in aggravating COVID-19 and predicts a more critical course in children.
32379887 Our results revealed that CD3+T, CD4+T, CD8+T cells and NK cells were significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients. […] COVID-19 patients had a relatively slight decrease in CD4+T cells but a severe decrease of CD8+T cells. […] The significantly elevated CD4/CD8 ratio was observed in COVID-19 patients. […] The counts of CD8+T and CD4+T cells can be used as diagnostic markers of COVID-19 and predictors of disease severity.
32380908 Laboratory values revealed significant improvements in absolute neutrophil count [mean reduction 32% (P value <0.001)] and lymphopenia with average CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ lymphocyte counts increasing by 46% (P < 0.05), 45% (P < 0.05), and 46% (P < 0.001), respectively.
32387756 The immunological support to the hypothesis derives from recent studies about immunotherapy for malignancies, which propose the use of oncolytic vaccines combined with toxoids in order to exploit CD4 + memory T cell recall in supporting the ongoing anti-tumour response. […] The CD4 + memory exploiting could help immune system to recall immunity of already know antigens against coronaviruses, avoiding or limiting “lung crash” until virus specific immunity develops and making it faster and prolonged.
32389849 The laboratory test data showed, the percentage of neutrophils and the level of LDH is higher, otherwise the number of CD4+ and CD8+T cells is decreased in children’s COVID-19 cases.
32391668 The peripheral lymphocyte subsets (CD3+T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, NK cells, B cells), as well as serum levels of lymphocyte factors (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ) were dynamically monitored. […] On D1 of admission, the numbers of peripheral blood CD3+ T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cells were significantly lower than the normal range. […] With the improvement of the disease, the numbers of CD3+ T, CD8+ T and CD4 + T cells gradually recovered and showed a linear growth trend (linear fitting equation: Y=18.59X+109.4, P<0.05).
32399213 Initially, low levels of CD4+ T cells (from 120 to 528 μL-1) and CD8+ T cells (from 68 to 362 μL-1) gradually increased to normal levels. […] CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, cytokines and HLA-G+ immune cells are associated with the natural history of the critical COVID-19 patient; however, future studies are necessary.
32404786 In the 25 cases, on admission, 21 cases (84%) had normal white blood cell counts, while only 2 cases (8%) more than 10 × 10/L and 2 cases (8%) less than 4 × 10/L, respectively; 22 cases(88%) had normal CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, while in the remaining 3 cases(8%) this increased mildly; 23 cases had normal CD8+ T lymphocyte counts, while in the remaining 2 cases (8%) CD8+ T lymphocyte counts were mildly increased as well.
32405080 We observe changes of the main lymphocyte subsets (CD16+CD56、CD19、CD3、CD4、and CD8) in COVID-19-infected patients and explore whether the changes are associated with disease severity. […] CD3+, CD4+ and CD8 + T lymphocyte subsets were decreased in COVID-19-infected patients. […] Compared with the moderate group and the sever group, CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the critical group decreased greatly (P < 0.001, P = 0.005 or P = 0.001). […] Reduced CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocyte counts may reflect the severity of the COVID-19.
32417210 Compared with patients in discharged group, the patients in un-discharged/died group suffered from decreased counts of total T lymphocytes, CD4 + T lymphocytes, CD8 + T lymphocytes, as well as NK cells at 2 weeks after treatment.
32419646 In the present study, a novel multi-epitope vaccine is designed using in silica tools that potentially trigger both CD4 and CD8 T-cell immune responses against the novel Coronavirus.
32425950 In addition, the expression of T cell exhaustion markers were measured in 14 COVID-19 cases. Results: The number of total T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were dramatically reduced in COVID-19 patients, especially in patients requiring Intensive Care Unit (ICU) care. […] Counts of total T cells, CD8+ T cells or CD4+ T cells lower than 800, 300, or 400/μL, respectively, were negatively correlated with patient survival.
32427361 These HIV infected patients were compliant with their HIV medication regimen and had robust CD4 T cell counts.
32427393 The common thread linking these patients is lymphopenia, which largely reflects a decline in the numbers of CD4/CD8 T cells but not B cells.
32427582 In severe cases, lymphopenia, neutrophilia, depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, and massive macrophage and neutrophil infiltrates were observed in both blood and lung tissues.
32434211 Lymphocytopenia, especially the reduced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts upon admission, was predictive of disease progression.
32437000 Her CD4 count was 965 cells/mm3 , the HIV viral load was undetectable (<1,000 cells/mm3 ) and other laboratory work up was normal.
32437740 Except for the low level of CD16-CD56 cells, the count and proportion of lymphocytes, CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD19 were all in the normal range.
32437830 The liver enzyme abnormality was associated with disease severity, as well as a series of laboratory tests including higher A-aDO2, higher GGT, lower albumin, decreased CD4+ T cells and B lymphocytes. […] Immunohistochemical results showed scanty CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes.
32439209 Peripheral CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes were significantly decreased in severe and critically ill patients, but there was only a non-statistically significant downward trend in NK cell numbers with severity.
32440918 The multivariable analysis identified age (OR = 1.061, p = 0.028), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (OR = 1.006, p = 0.037), and CD4 count (OR = 0.993, p = 0.006) as the independent predictors of COVID-19 progression. […] Consequently, the age-LDH-CD4 algorithm was derived as (age × LDH)/CD4 count. […] In the training set, the area under the ROC curve (AUROC) of age-LDH-CD4 model was significantly higher than that of single CD4 count, LDH, or age (0.92, 0.85, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively). […] In the prospective validation set, the AUROC of age-LDH-CD4 model was also significantly higher than that of single CD4 count, LDH, or age (0.92, 0.75, 0.81, and 0.82, respectively). […] The age-LDH-CD4 ≥ 82 has high sensitive (81%) and specific (93%) for the early identification of COVID-19 patients with severe progression tendency. […] The age-LDH-CD4 model is a simple algorithm for early identifying patients with severe progression tendency following SARS-CoV-2 infection, and warrants further validation.
32442287 Tα1 timely enhances blood T cell numbers in COVID-19 patients with severe lymphocytopenia (the counts of CD8+ T cells or CD4+ T cells in circulation lower than 400/μL or 650/μL, respectively). […] Under such conditions, Tα1 also successfully restores CD8+ and CD4+ T cell numbers in aged patients. […] COVID-19 patients with the counts of CD8+ T cells or CD4+ T cells in circulation lower than 400/μL or 650/μL, respectively, gain more benefits from Tα1.
32460357 Our data indicate that patients with severe COVID-19 exhibited an overall decline of lymphocytes including CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells.
32460839 After treatment, the percentage and counts of lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cell) were increased, and the level of IL-6, TNF-α, and C-reactive protein is significantly decreased after hWJC treatment.
32463803 In agreement, T CD4+, T CD8+ but also NK cells displayed reduced anti-viral cytokine production capability.
32469614 All were taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) with CD4 count >200 cells/mm3 and suppressed HIV viral loads at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis.
32470153 Analysis of lymphocyte subsets showed that CD4+ and particularly CD8+ T lymphocytes increased significantly after treatment.
32470186 Age, heart rate, chlorine, ALT, AST, procalcitonin, creatine kinase, pH, CD3 counts, and CD4 counts showed moderate distinguishing power (each AUC between 0.7-0.8).
32473127 Using HLA class I and II predicted peptide “megapools,” circulating SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were identified in ∼70% and 100% of COVID-19 convalescent patients, respectively. […] CD4+ T cell responses to spike, the main target of most vaccine efforts, were robust and correlated with the magnitude of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA titers. […] The M, spike, and N proteins each accounted for 11%-27% of the total CD4+ response, with additional responses commonly targeting nsp3, nsp4, ORF3a, and ORF8, among others. […] Importantly, we detected SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells in ∼40%-60% of unexposed individuals, suggesting cross-reactive T cell recognition between circulating “common cold” coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2.
32473657 Age and CD4 cell counts in 51 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were similar to those in 1288 HIV-infected individuals without; however, 32 (63%) with COVID-19 had at least one comorbidity (mostly hypertension and diabetes) compared with 495 (38%) without COVID-19 (p=0·00059). 37 (73%) patients had received tenofovir before COVID-19 diagnosis compared with 487 (38%) of those without COVID-19 (p=0·0036); 11 (22%) in the COVID-19 group had previous protease inhibitor use (mostly darunavir) compared with 175 (14%; p=0·578). […] Six (12%) individuals were critically ill, two of whom had CD4 counts of less than 200 cells per μL, and two (4%) died. […] SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR remained positive after a median of 40 days from symptoms onset in six (32%) individuals, four of whom had severe disease or low nadir CD4 cell counts.
32479790 We also identified advanced tumour stage (OR 2·60, 95% CI 1·05-6·43; p=0·039), elevated tumour necrosis factor α (1·22, 1·01-1·47; p=0·037), elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (1·65, 1·03-2·78; p=0·032), reduced CD4+ T cells (0·84, 0·71-0·98; p=0·031), and reduced albumin-globulin ratio (0·12, 0·02-0·77; p=0·024) as risk factors of COVID-19 severity in patients with cancer.
32479985 There was no difference between the two groups of patients for CD4 T-lymphocytes, neither in percentage of lymphocyte nor in absolute number, however for CD8 T-cells the differences were significant for both parameters which were in decline in ICU patients. […] This effect was not seen with CD4 cells.
32489022 Reyanning Mixture could reduce the lung index(P<0.01) of coronavirus pneumonia mice with pestilence attacking the lung; it could significantly increase the percentage of CD8~+ T lymphocytes and CD4~+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood of model mice(P<0.05, P<0.01).
32489023 Compared with the model control group, the high and low doses of Compound Qinlan Oral Liquid significantly reduced lung tissue viral load(P<0.01), increased cross blood CD4~+ T lymphocytes, CD8~+ T lymphocytes and total B lymphocyte percentage(P<0.01), reduced serum motilin content(P<0.01), reduced IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in lungs(P<0.01) and reduced lung tissue inflammation.
32489708 706.78 /μL), CD4+ T cells (114.67 vs. 
32490931 Further, the proportions of CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes were strongly reduced in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Estradiol is connected with CD4+ T cell numbers and increases T-reg cell populations, affecting immune responses to infection.
32491949 The immune system differences may include a relative preponderance of CD4+ T cells, decreased neutrophil infiltration, decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines, and increased production of immunomodulatory cytokines in children compared with adults.
32492165 Immunoglobin G and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio were negatively associated with biochemical indices related to liver and myocardial injury (immunoglobulin G, ALT: r, -0.3579; AST: r, -0.5280; CK-MB activity: r, -0.4786; LDH: r, -0.4984; and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, ALT: r, -0.1893; AST: r, -0.3912; CK-MB activity: r, -0.3428; LDH: r, -0.3234), while counts of lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, and interleukin 10 showed positive associations (lymphocytes, ALT: r, 0.2055; AST: r, 0.3615; CK-MB activity: r, 0.338; LDH: r, 0.3309; CD4+ T cells, AST: r, 0.4701; CK-MB activity: r, 0.4151; LDH: r, 0.4418; interleukin 10, ALT: r, 0.2595; AST: r, 0.3386; CK-MB activity: r, 0.3948; LDH: r, 0.3794). […] Gaining a deeper understanding of the role of neutrophils, CD4+ T cells, and B cells in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection could be important for the clinical management of COVID-19.
32492530 However, total numbers of CD4+ and CD8 + T cells tended to be lower in the severe group at the third week of illness. […] Expressions of Ki-67, PD-1, perforin, and granzyme B in CD4+ or CD8+ T cells were significantly higher in the severe group than in the mild group at the third week.
32495027 A significant decrease was observed in peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes.
32496587 We performed RNA sequencing and explored available RNA-Seq databases to study gene expression and co-expression of ACE2, CD147 (BSG), CD26 (DPP4) and their direct and indirect molecular partners in primary human bronchial epithelial cells, bronchial and skin biopsies, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), monocytes, neutrophils, DCs, NK cells, ILC1, ILC2, ILC3, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells and plasmablasts.
32502585 CBLL showed many features with those reported in idiopathic (IC) and auto-immune related chilblains (AC), including epidermal necrotic keratinocytes, dermal edema, perivascular and perieccrine sweat gland lymphocytic (predominantly CD3/CD4+) inflammation and frequent vascular changes (endothelialitis, microthromboses, fibrin deposition, immunoreactant deposits on vessels).
32504360 CD3 (20.69%), CD4 (68.97%), CD19 (31.03%) and Th/Ts (44.83%) were elevated; CD8 (6.9%) and CD16+CD56 (48.28%) was reduced. […] In the cohort, we discovered that lymphocytosis, elevated CD4 and IL-10, and co-infections were common in infants with COVID-19, which were different from adults with COVID-19.
32505908 However, CD4+ and CD8+ cells were oligoclonally expanded and prone to apoptosis when stimulated in vitro.
32507102 Numerous reports have shown that infection with SARS-CoV-2 causes depletion of B- and T-lymphocytes, including CD4 and CD8 T-cells, and is associated with severe illness and death and that patients with higher lymphocyte levels may have better outcomes.
32511971 Lymphocyte subsets and series of inflammatory cytokines were also different in severe cases with the non-severe ones, including lower levels of CD4 T cells (2.10-fold) and CD8 T cells (2.00-fold), higher levels of IL-1β (1.02-fold), IL-6 (1.93-fold) and IL-10 (1.55-fold). […] Some certain laboratory inspections could predict the progress of the COVID-19 changes, especially lymphocytes, CRP, PCT, ALT, AST, LDH, D-dimer, CD4 T cells and IL6, which provide valuable signals for preventing the deterioration of the disease.
32513514 SARS-CoV-2-SPL possesses a receptor-binding region (RBD) and important B (Ser438-Gln506, Thr553-Glu583, Gly404-Aps427, Thr345-Ala352, and Lys529-Lys535) and T (9 CD4 and 11 CD8 T cell antigenic determinants) cell epitopes.
32520888 In the 25 cases, on admission, 21 cases (84%) had normal white blood cell counts, while only 2 cases (8%) more than 10 × 10/L and 2 cases (8%) less than 4 × 10/L, respectively; 22 cases(88%) had normal CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, while in the remaining 3 cases(8%) this increased mildly; 23 cases had normal CD8+ T lymphocyte counts, while in the remaining 2 cases (8%) CD8+ T lymphocyte counts were mildly increased as well.
  1. Compared with normal group, patients in severe group were older, and with higher proportion of basic diseases, higher body mass index (BMI), higher incidence of tachypnea, persistent high fever, peripheral blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) < 0.95, while the white blood cell count (WBC), CD4+T lymphocyte, CD8+T lymphocyte, lymphocyte count (LYM) were decreased obviously, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid a protein (SAA), and CT showed higher incidence of multi-pulmonary lobe lesions. […] There were no significant differences of gender, travel history from Wuhan, smoking history, shock index (SI) and CD4+/CD8+ ratio between the two groups.
32531713 Our study aimed to evaluate the robustness of neutrophil to CD4+ lymphocyte ratio (NCD4LR) in predicting the negative conversion time (NCT) of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients. […] Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted to evaluate the independency of NCD4LR in predicting NCT. […] Compared with low NCD4LR patients, patients with high NCD4LR had an older age; higher incidence of fever, fatigue, chest distress/breath shortness, severer disease assessment on admission; higher levels of inflammatory indicators; low levels of lymphocyte subsets, and a longer NCT. […] Multivariate analysis also identified NCD4LR as an independent risk factor for delayed NCT. […] ROC analysis showed that NCD4LR had a better performance than neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in predicting the virus negative conversion within 2 weeks (AUC = 0.772), 3 weeks (AUC = 0.710), 4 weeks (AUC = 0.728), or 5 weeks (AUC = 0.815). […] This study suggests that NCD4LR is a potential and useful biomarker for predicting the virus negative conversion time in COVID-19 patients.
32533391 LYM, LYM (%), CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ decreased, while NEU (%), CRP, and CT scores increased in all patients, WBC in group A increased. […] In group A, on day 10-12 after disease onset, CT scores and CRP reached the highest point, and day 13-15 LYM, LYM (%) reached the lowest but NEU (%) and WBC reached the highest, CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ were at the lowest on day 10-15. […] In group B, on day 7-9, CT scores, NEU (%) and CRP reached the peak, but LYM, LYM (%), CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ reached the lowest. […] In all patients, CT scores had a significantly negative correlation with CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, LYM (%), and LYM (p = 0.001, r = - 0.797; p = 0.008, r = - 0.698; p = 0.002, r = - 0.775; p < 0.001, r = - 0.785; p = 0.021, r = - 0.571, respectively), and a significantly positive correlation with WBC and NEU (%) (p < 0.001, r = 0.785; p = 0.003, r = 0.691, respectively).
32541245 CD4 and CD8 T cells frequencies decreased because of prednisolone, followed by a plateauing increase whereas CD19CD20 B cell increased strongly and was unaffected by COVID-19 infection. […] Total regulatory T cells (Tregs: CD4CD25CD127FOXP3) remained stable. […] Although activated Tregs (CD4CD45RAFOXP3) strongly increased upon prednisolone, it decreased afterwards.
32542842 CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, B cell, NK cell and total lymphocyte cell counts all showed statistically significant reduction in patients with severe/critical COVID-19 disease compared to mild/moderate disease. […] In some studies, multivariate analysis has shown that CD4 and/or CD8 T cells counts are independently predictive of patient outcomes.
32543740 On admission, compared to patients with poor prognoses, those with good prognoses had significantly higher counts of monocytes (p < 0.05), macrophages (p < 0.05), higher frequency of CD3+ CD4+ CD45RO+ CXCR3+ subsets (p < 0.05), higher frequency of CD14+ CD11C+ HLA-DR+ subset of dendritic cells (DCs) (p < 0.05), and a lower count of neutrophils (p < 0.05). […] At the time point of exacerbation, the proportions of naïve CD4+ T cells (p < 0.05), Tregs, and Th2 cells in the poor prognosis group were relatively higher than those in the good prognosis group, and CD4+ memory T cells were relatively lower (p < 0.05).
32543756 These patients had decreased levels of globulin (odds ratio [OR] 3.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-6.93, P=0.005), IgA (OR 4.00, 95% CI 1.13-14.18, P=0.032), and increased levels of hs-CRP (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.34-7.36, P=0.008), procalcitonin (OR 3.83, 95% CI 2.03-7.24, P<0.001), IL-10 (OR 7.0, 95% CI 1.59-30.80, P=0.010), and CD4+CD25+ T lymphocyte < 5.0 % (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.04-3.61, P=0.038). […] Decreased IgA and CD4+CD25+ T lymphocyte percentage, and increased hs-CRP, procalcitonin and IL-10 were associated with pneumonia, suggesting that the immune-related factors may participate in the pathogenesis of pneumonia in children with COVID-19.
32547309 The positive rate of ESR, CRP, PT, IL6, lymphocyte count, GGT, Prealbumin and CD4 was more than 50%. […] Although there is no statistical difference in GGT, 100% of the 7 patients tested decreased. Conclusion: Our data recommended that the ESR, CRP, PT, IL6, lymphocyte count, GGT, prealbumin and CD4 have important value in the diagnosis of COVID-19, and the decrease of GGT may be an important indicator for judging the intestinal dysfunction of patients.
32547323 In the course, persistently lower lymphocyte with higher levels of CRP, PCT, IL-6, neutrophil, LDH, D-dimer, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and increased CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocyte ratio and were observed in death events group, while these parameters stayed stable or improved in discharge group. Conclusions: On admission, the levels of SpO2, lymphocyte, CRP, PCT, and LDH could predict the prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients.
32574284 In the two cases of severe COVID-19, the levels of CRP, PCT, serum ferritin, IL-6, and IL-10 were significantly increased, whereas the numbers of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes, and CD16 + CD56 natural killer cells were decreased.
32574309 Differences between the mild and severe groups was observed in neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, CD4 expression, and levels of C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and albumin (P < 0.05). […] Between the mild and critical groups, differences were observed in neutrophils, platelets, and CD4 expression (P < 0.05).
32574334 Regarding the immune dysregulation, patients exhibited significantly decreased T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, including CD3+T, CD3+CD4+Th, and CD3+CD8+Tc cells.
32574694 In critically ill patients, the decrease of absolute value of CD4 + T cells and increase of IL-6 level are significantly correlated with the volume of lung lesions. […] The absolute values of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8 + T cells are lower in patients with COVID-19, the levels of IL-6 and IL-10 are increased.
32576315 Patients who develop more robust immune responses with formation of memory CD8+ T-cells and helper CD4+ T-cells will be the most equipped if exposed to the virus, but unfortunately the serology test will not help us in distinguishing those individuals.
32579268 Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells may be instrumental in resolution of and protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32582743 The results demonstrated that severe patients tend to present with increased white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), procalcitonin (PCT), C-reaction protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and a decreased number of total lymphocyte and lymphocyte subtypes, such as CD4+ T lymphocyte and CD8+ T lymphocyte, compared to the non-severe patients.
32591408 Here, we studied 10 COVID-19 patients who required admission to an intensive care unit and detected SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in 10 out of 10 and 8 out of 10 patients, respectively.
32598880 Through this meta-analysis, we could draw a conclusion that less expression of blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells count might reflect the severity of infection and often accompanied by a poor prognosis. […] Hence, we inferred blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells count could be a promising biomarker for disease assessment and monitor of patients with COVID-19.
32601704 PWH with Covid-19 demonstrated severe lymphopenia and decreased CD4+ T cell counts.
32605582 We performed an observational study during the peak of pandemic in our intensive care unit, dosing D-dimer, C-reactive protein, troponin T, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, serum iron, transferrin, transferrin saturation, transferrin soluble receptor, lymphocyte count and NK, CD3, CD4, CD8 and B subgroups of 31 patients during the first 2 weeks of their ICU stay. […] Lymphopenia is severe and constant, with a nadir on day 2 of ICU stay (median 0.555 109/L; interquartile range (IQR) 0.450 109/L); all lymphocytic subgroups are dramatically reduced in critically ill patients, while CD4/CD8 ratio remains normal.
32611485 Alterations in genes involved in hyaluronan, glycosaminoglycan and mucopolysaccharides metabolism were over-represented in bronchoalveolar cells infected by SARS-CoV-2, as well as potential lung infiltration with neutrophils, T CD4+ cell and macrophages.
32615987 Immunohistochemistry demonstrates an endothelial overexpression of medium-size vessels (anti-CD31), while not in micro-vessels, with a remarkable activity of macrophages (anti-CD68) and T helper lymphocytes (anti-CD4) against gallbladder vessels.
32632085 Terminally differentiated T cells from patients proliferate less than those from healthy controls, whereas their mitochondria functionality is similar in CD4+ T cells from both groups.
32634585 The various lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, and CD16/56+) were below the normal ranges at 1 week after the onset of illness, reaching a nadir during the second week. […] The CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ counts were significantly lower in patients with severe disease compared to those with non-severe disease, and in patients who died compared to those who recovered. […] This research indicates that the levels of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) are associated with disease progression and severity, and with the prognosis in patients with COVID-19.
32636061 Levels of albumin, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, small and dense low density lipoprotein and CD4+T lymphocyte counts in severe patients were lower than those in non-severe patients (P<0.05). […] Logistic regression analysis identified decreased CD4+T lymphocyte counts (odds ratio [OR]=0.988, 95%Confidence interval [95%CI] 0.979-0.997) and increased SAA levels (OR=1.029, 95%CI 1.002-1.058) as risk factors for severity of COVID-19 with diabetes (P<0.05). […] Aggressive treatment should be suggested, especially when these patients had low CD4+T lymphocyte counts and high SAA levels.
32639848 Indeed, after cells in the lungs become infected by SARS-CoV-2, effector CD4+ T cells reach the small intestine through the gut-lung axis, causing intestinal immune damage and diarrhea; early extensive use of antibacterial and antiviral drugs can also lead to diarrhea in patients.
32641700 Here we show lymphopenia, selective loss of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells, excessive T-cell activation and high expression of T-cell inhibitory molecules are more prominent in severe cases than in those with mild disease.
32643158 Further, a construct comprising 11 CD4, 12 CD8, 3 B cell, and 3 interferon-γ epitopes, along with an adjuvant β-defensin, was designed in silico, resulting in the formation of a multiepitope vaccine.
32644266 The result shows that the proportions of CD3+ CD8+ CD38+ HLA-DR+ CD27- effector T killer cells generally declined, whereas that of CD3+ CD4+ CD8+ double-positive T cells (DPTs) increased in the persistently PCR-positive patients. […] In summary, considering the imbalance between effector T killer cells/CD3+CD4+CD8+ DPTs was a possible key factor for PCR-negative conversion in patients with COVID-19.
32654555 In addition, hypertensive patients with a history of RAAS inhibitor treatment had lower levels of C-reactive protein and higher levels of CD4+ cells.
32657527 All had HIV viral load <200 copies/mL and were on antiretroviral therapy with CD4 count range 87 to 1441 cells/µL.
32659373 Neutrophils, Monocytes, NK cells, and CD4+ T cells significantly increased, while total lymphocytes and CD8+ T cells decreased from non-critical hospitalized patients after longer-term infection. […] Further analysis of the cytokines showed that IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 from the hospitalized patients were significantly higher, indicating a potential of the increased CD4+ T cell differentiation.
32661797 The fatal patients exhibited a significant lower number of lymphocytes including B cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and NK cells and remarkably higher concentrations of cytokines including interleukin-2 receptor, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α on admission compared with the survived subjects. […] A model based on the combination of interleukin-8 and the numbers of CD4+ T cells and NK cells showed a good performance in predicting the death of patients with COVID-19.
32662111 Based on the recognized harmful effects of these CD4+ T-cell subset imbalances in pregnancy, we speculated that SARS-CoV-2 infection might lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes through the deregulation of otherwise tightly regulated Treg/Th17 ratios, and to subsequent uncontrolled systemic inflammation.
32668194 Clonality and skewing of TCR repertoires were associated with interferon type I and III responses, early CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation, and counterregulation by the co-receptors BTLA, Tim-3, PD-1, TIGIT, and CD73.
32668444 In all of these individuals, we found CD4 and CD8 T cells that recognized multiple regions of the N protein.
32669467 We also found that CD3+ CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD3+ CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD19+ B lymphocytes, and CD16+ CD56+ NK cells in the peripheral blood of all patients were decreased.
32671831 Although most autoimmune diseases are considered to be CD4 T cell- or antibody-mediated, many respond to CD20-depleting antibodies that have limited influence on CD4 and plasma cells.
32675581 Median CD4 cell count prior to admission was 425 (Q1-Q3, 262-815) cells/μl and 90% of patients had HIV-1 RNA less than 200 copies/ml. […] All three patients who died had CD4 cell count more than 200, HIV suppression and each had a total of five comorbidities.
32679621 A low count of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes is a hallmark laboratory finding in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Using flow cytometry, we observed significantly higher CD95 (Fas) and PD-1 expression on both CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells in 42 COVID-19 patients when compared to controls. […] Higher CD95 expression in CD4+ cells correlated with lower CD4+ counts. […] A higher expression of CD95 in CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes correlated with a lower percentage of naive events.
32680954 Defining CD4 and CD8 effector functions in protection is important considering that antibody responses appear short-lived and T cell memory is potentially more durable.
32684101 Number of T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and total lymphocytes declined remarkably upon admission and elevated when the patients were discharged. […] At admission, counts of total lymphocytes, T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and levels of C3 and C4 in the severe group were lower than those in the non-severe group, whereas the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was higher in the severe group. […] Counts of T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and total lymphocytes were negatively correlated with lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein.
32688146 At the infection time point, no differences in the percentages of immune activation and immunesenescence of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were observed compared to the pre-infection time point.
32690307 The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid CD4/CD8 ratio was 3.68.
32695683 Analysis of the reported results from clinical trials clearly show an involvement of specific cellular immunity (predominantly leucopenia, decreased counts of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocytes, changes of T cell compartment) and the so-called cytokine storm, which is associated with worsening of symptoms and the promotion of lung damage.
32699972 Children with COVID-19 displayed an immunophenotype that is less inflammatory than adults, including unremarkable cytokine elevation, moderate CD4+ T cell response and inactive CD8+ T cell response, but their humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 were as strong as adults.
32703286 The patient was infected with HIV 8 years ago through sexual transmission and had the normal CD4+T cell count.
32706090 The ssGSEA results of CXCL10 showed that CD4 and CD8 immune-related signature were significantly enriched in high CXCL10 expression, and the samples with low CXCL10 expression were significantly enriched with monocytes and DC immune-related signature.
32706409 There was no significant difference between SARS-CoV-2 positive or negative patients for age distribution, gender, time with HIV infection, nadir CD4-cell counts, type and number of co-morbidities, current CD4 and CD8 counts and type of anti-HIV therapy. […] Factors significantly (P < .05) associated with death included age and number of co-morbidities, while time from HIV infection and lower current CD4 counts were significant only in univariate analysis. […] Indeed, those with low CD4 cell counts might have worse outcomes.
32708112 Bioinformatics may allow characterization of specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses; thus, CoV2 T cells’ frequency can be correlated with the disease severity and outcome.
32716553 COPD patients, particularly those with severe COVID-19, had lower counts of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells and B cells and higher levels of TNF-α, IL-2 receptor, IL-10, IL-8, and IL-6 than asthmatics.
32719810 Furthermore, severe patients with NLRhiIgGhi, NLRhiIgGlo had higher inflammatory cytokines levels including IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10, and decreased CD4+ T cell count compared to those with NLRloIgGlo phenotype (p < 0.05).
32722908 Vaccination induced type 1 helper T-cell (Th1)-biased CD4 T-cell responses and low or undetectable Th2 or CD8 T-cell responses.
32726007 Compared with the model control group, high and low-dose Chaiyin Particles significantly increased cross blood CD4~+ T lymphocytes, CD8~+T lymphocytes and total B lymphocyte percentage(P<0.05, P<0.01), and reduced IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in lungs(P<0.01).
32726801 Here we investigated CD4+ T cells that are reactive against the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 in the peripheral blood of patients with COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2-unexposed healthy donors. […] We detected spike-reactive CD4+ T cells not only in 83% of patients with COVID-19 but also in 35% of healthy donors. […] Spike-reactive CD4+ T cells in healthy donors were primarily active against C-terminal epitopes in the spike protein, which show a higher homology to spike glycoproteins of human endemic coronaviruses, compared with N-terminal epitopes.
32726802 We show that several immune pathways and CD4 T lymphocytes are involved in the induction of the vaccine antibody response.
32732634 Among PWH, the median (interquartile range) CD4 T-cell count was 624 (475, 811) cells/μl; 98.7% were on antiretroviral therapy.
32735885 Our meta-analyses with random-effect models showed a significant decrease in lymphocytes, monocyte, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD3 cells, CD19 cells, and natural killer (NK) cells and an increase in the white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP)/hs-CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), ferritin, procalcitonin (PCT), and serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-2R, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interferon-gamma (INF-γ) in the severe group compared to the non-severe group. […] However, no significant differences were found in IL-1β, IL-17, and CD4/CD8 T cell ratio between the two groups.
32746940 This was accompanied with significantly decreased levels of CD3+ T cells (277 vs 814 cells/μl), CD4+ T cells (172 vs 473 cells/μl), CD8+ T cells (84 vs 262.5 cells/μl, P < 0.001), CD19+ T cells (88 vs 141 cells/μl) and CD16+ 56+ T cells (79 vs 128.5 cells/μl) (P < 0.001). […] Old age, comorbidity of malignant tumor, neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, low CD4+ T cells, decreased C3, and low oximetry saturation were the risk factors of death in patients with confirmed COVID-19. […] The frequency of CD4+ T cells positively correlated with the numbers of lymphocytes (r = 0.787) and the level of oximetry saturation (r = 0.295), Whereas CD4+ T cells were negatively correlated with age (r =-0.323) and the numbers of neutrophils (r = - 0.244) (all P < 0.001). […] Neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, low CD4+ T cells, and decreased C3 were immunity-related risk factors predicting mortality of patients with COVID-19.
32753554 SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells have been reported in unexposed individuals, suggesting preexisting cross-reactive T cell memory in 20 to 50% of people. […] Using human blood samples derived before the SARS-CoV-2 virus was discovered in 2019, we mapped 142 T cell epitopes across the SARS-CoV-2 genome to facilitate precise interrogation of the SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cell repertoire. […] We demonstrate a range of preexisting memory CD4+ T cells that are cross-reactive with comparable affinity to SARS-CoV-2 and the common cold coronaviruses human coronavirus (HCoV)-OC43, HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1.
32758688 The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed significant differences in COVID-19 patients, classified by the levels of total, CD8+, and CD4+ T cells at admission. […] Our study showed that total, CD8+, and CD4+ T cell counts in patients with COVID-19 were significantly reduced, especially in patients with severe disease.
32760752 Compared with nonpregnant patients (n = 80), pregnant patients (n = 31) were less likely to have dyspnea (16.1% vs 37.5%), asthenia (3.2% vs 33.8%), and ≥3 symptoms (22.6% vs 45.0%); had a significantly higher neutrophil count (5.2 vs 2.5 ×109/L) and a higher percentage of CD3+ cells (76.7% vs 73.7%) and CD8+ cells (32.3% vs 28.4%); and had a dramatically lower percentage of lymphocytes (18.2% vs 31.8%), a lower CD4+/CD8+ ratio (1.2 vs 1.4), and a lower level of IgG (9.8 vs 11.9 g/L).
32761491 MSC transplantation increases the immune indicators (including CD4 and lymphocytes) and decreases the inflammation indicators (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein).
32763657 Lastly, influx of CD4+ T-cells in cardiac vasculature results in an increased production of cytokines that stimulate smooth muscle cells to migrate into the intima and generate collagen and other fibrous products leading to advancement of fatty streaks to advanced atherosclerotic lesions.
32766268 Survival curve analysis showed that age, procalcitonin, D-dimer, serum C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, lymphocytes, neutrophils, CD4%, and CD4/CD8 ratio were significant predictors of progression to severe disease.
32768938 Flow cytometry was used to determine the peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (the levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and the ratios of CD4+/CD8+). […] The analysis showed that there was no statistical difference in the values of CD4 and CD8 between the two groups.
32773471 Median age was 44 years, CD4 T cells were 618/μl and CD4/CD8 was 0.90.
32773476 Prior CD4 T cell counts did not differ between groups.
32783919 We demonstrate that a single dose of these vaccines induces strong type 1 CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, as well as long-lived plasma and memory B cell responses.
32786152 We observed significantly fewer total lymphocytes and fewer circulating memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the COVID-19 subjects. […] We also showed fewer anergic and senescent CD8+ T cells in COVID-19 individuals, but no differences in exhausted CD8+ T cells, nor in any of these CD4+ T cell subsets between groups.
32788748 Moreover, intensive expansion of highly cytotoxic effector T cell subsets, such as CD4+ effector-GNLY (granulysin), CD8+ effector-GNLY and NKT CD160, was associated with convalescence in moderate patients.
32791036 Moreover, acute RBD- and NP-specific T cell responses included relatively more CD4 T cells than CD8 T cells.
32791978 Using our bioinformatics platform, we identify multiple putative epitopes that are potential targets for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, whose HLA binding properties cover nearly the entire population.
32792492 In lymphocyte subgroup analysis, decreases in total, T, CD4, and CD8 lymphocytes were more common as the disease worsened (All P < 0.05).
32796214 Patients’ characteristics and median days between symptoms and diagnosis were similar by hospital admission, whereas admitted patients had lower nadir CD4 cells and current lymphocytes count.
32802142 On the other hand, CD8 lymphocyte count was significantly lower as severity grew and subpopulations CD4, CD8, CD19, and NK showed concordant lowering trends. […] A significant severity-related decrease of CD4 lymphocytes was found in males.
32812012 High CD64 expression on neutrophils and monocytes, and high HLA-DR expression on γδ and CD4+CCR7+ T cells in the acute phase, suggested that these immune cell populations were activated.
32818235 Significantly elevated WBC count, marked lymphopenia, decreased CD3, CD4 or CD8 T-lymphocyte counts, high neutrophil count, thrombocytopenia, and markedly elevated inflammatory biomarkers were associated with severe disease and the risk of developing sepsis with rapid progression.
32828069 Furthermore, we predicted CD4+ T-cell epitopes and B-cell epitopes.
32829051 Lymphocytes were low in nine patients (45%); CD4 cell count and CD4/CD8 were low in all patients.
32833687 We demonstrate that the CoV-2 specific CD4+ T-helper cell response is directed against all three proteins with comparable magnitude, ex vivo proliferation and portions of responding patients. […] Higher patient age and comorbidity index correlated with increased frequencies of CoV-2 specific CD4+ T-cells, harboring higher portions of IL-2-, but lower portions of IFNγ secreting cells.
32838294 Higher CRP, NT-proBNP, lower immune CD3, CD4 and CD8 cell account and more involved lobes detected by CT scan in the lung were observed in increased TnI group.
32839763 Using 38-parameter CyTOF, we phenotyped longitudinal specimens of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from nine individuals who recovered from mild COVID-19. […] SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells were exclusively Th1 cells and predominantly Tcm cells with phenotypic features of robust helper function.
32841212 However, CD4+ T cell population that is critical for antibody response in COVID-19 is poorly understood. […] In this study, we provided a comprehensive analysis of peripheral CD4+ T cells of 13 COVID-19 convalescent patients, as defined as confirmed free of SARS-CoV-2 for 2-4 weeks, using flow cytometry, magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme antibody immunoassay and correlated the data with clinical characteristics. […] We observed that relative to healthy individuals, convalescent patients displayed an altered peripheral CD4+ T cell spectrum. […] These observations might constitute residual effects by which COVID-19 can impact the homeostasis of CD4+ T cells in the long-term and explain the highest ratio of class-switched virus-specific antibody producing individuals found in our severe COVID-19 cohort. […] Together, our study demonstrated close connection between CD4+ T cells and antibody production in COVID-19 convalescents.
32842269 Results: There was statistical significance in age, respiratory frequency, systolic blood pressure, symptoms of dyspnea, previous chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease history, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, C-reactive protein, platelet counting, aspartate transaminase, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, urea, estimated glomerular filtration rate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, D-dimer, CD3+, CD4+, partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure of CO2, blood oxygen saturation, other organ injury, clinical outcome and prognosis between patients with myocardial injury and without myocardial injury (all P<0.05).
32849449 Under the umbrella of epitopes, sub-divisions, namely cross-protective epitopes, B-cell (linear/discontinuous), T-cell (CD4+/CD8+), CTL, and MHC binders, are presented. […] Our study provided a set of shortlisted B-cell and T-cell (CD4+ and CD8+) epitopes that can be experimentally tested for their incorporation in vaccine formulations.
32861838 Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only the CD4+ cell counts were significantly lower in the infection group and slightly higher in the control group. […] These findings imply the importance of CD4+ T cells (but not CD8+ and CD3+ T cells) in SARS-CoV-2 infection associated pneumonia and indicate that CD4+ T cells might be important for the control of SARS-CoV-2.
32864865 Interestingly, the CD4 expression was upregulated in γδ T cells reflecting the occurrence of a specific effector cell population, which may serve as a biomarker for the assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32866033 COVID-19 patients showed profound and sustained T CD4+ (p=0.002), CD8+ (p<0.0001) and B (p<0.0001) lymphopenia, higher HLA-DR expression on monocytes (p<0.001) and higher serum concentrations of EGF, GM-CSF, IL-10, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1a, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL5/RANTES, and CCL20/MIP-3a.
32866109 The six independent risk factors revealed by multivariate Cox regression were age (OR 1.035, 95% CI 1.017-1.054; P<.001 ck level ci p=“.02),” cd4 count cd8 and c3> </.001>
32875281 Newly initiating patients are generally healthier than in the past, with higher CD4 counts, and antiretroviral medications are better tolerated, with fewer side effects and substitutions, making extra clinic visits unnecessary.
32875286 Progress in laboratory markers for SARS-CoV2 has been made with identification of epitopes on CD4 and CD8 T-cells in convalescent blood.
32877576 The Matrix-M1 adjuvant induced CD4+ T-cell responses that were biased toward a Th1 phenotype.
32879027 The median CD4 prior to admission was 439 (IQR 239-651), and 10/16 (63%) had a CD4 nadir below 200 cells/mm3. […] Many had low nadir CD4 counts and potentially impaired functional immune restoration.
32879082 There were 38 (53.5%) and 31 (43.7%) patients with the decreased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts, respectively. […] The onset age, gender, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negative time, lymphocyte count, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, calcium ion, CD4+ T cell count, CD8+ T cell count, calcitonin, procalcitonin, and troponin were significantly different between the severe group and the non-severe group (all P<0.05).
32887977 We identified 41 peptides containing CD4+ and/or CD8+ epitopes, including six immunodominant regions.
32896291 Cell-mediated responses were detected in all participants at day 28, with median cell proliferation of 2·5% CD4+ and 1·3% CD8+ with the frozen formulation, and a median cell proliferation of 1·3% CD4+ and 1·1% CD8+ with the lyophilised formulation.
32896310 A hyperinflammatory state referred to as cytokine storm in its severest form has been marked by elevation of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and other cytokines and severe CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell lymphopenia and coagulopathy.
32897537 We showed immunohistochemically that macrophages and CD4-positive T cells predominated in the villous tissue, although elevated numbers of CD8-positive cells were also present.
32899009 Analysis of IFNα/β mRNA levels and CD4 and CD8 T cell (CD38, human leukocyte antigen-DR [HLA-DR], CD38 HLA-DR) frequencies were performed by RT/real-time PCR assays and flow cytometry, respectively. […] MRD values for IFNα/β and CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing CD38 and/or HLA-DR found in SARS-CoV-2-/HIV-1-coinfected woman were approximatively equal to 0 when refereed respectively to HIV-1-positive female patients [MRDs IFNα/β: median -0.2545 (range: -0.5/0.1); T cells: median -0.11 (range: -0.8/1.3)] and ≥ 6 when referred to healthy individuals [MRDs IFNα/β: median 28.45 (range: 15/41.9); T cells: median 10 (range 6/22)].
32903644 On admission, cases usually show elevated levels of neutrophils (27.3%), D-dimer (72.6%), Interleukin-6 (35.2%), Interleukin-10 (64.4%), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (82.6%), and lactate dehydrogenase (62.0%), and decreased levels of lymphocytes (66.9%), CD3 cells (67.2%), and CD4 cells (63.0%). […] Meanwhile, lymphopenia and wake immune responses [e.g., lower CD3, CD4, or CD19 counts (all HR < 1)] were associated with disease deterioration and death.
32904468 Overlapping peptide pools of all three proteins induce SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cell response with dominance of CD4+ over CD8+ T cells and demonstrate interindividual immunity against the three proteins. […] M-protein induces the highest frequencies of CD4+ T cells, suggesting its relevance for diagnosis and vaccination.
32905581 A lower CD4 count (<200 cells/mm³) was associated with the primary and secondary endpoints. […] The risk for poor outcomes was higher in those with comorbidities and lower CD4 cell counts, despite HIV viral suppression.
32910458 The frequency of lymphocyte subsets, including T-CD4+ , T-CD8+ , NK, B cells, and monocytes, was measured in all patients and 31 controls by flow cytometry. […] Our findings demonstrated that the percentage of lymphocytes, CD4+ , and CD8+ T cells were decreased in COVID-19 patients compared with the control group. […] Regarding the clinical severity, the number of lymphocytes, CD4+ , CD8+ T cells, and NK cells were also decreased in severe cases when compared with mild cases.
32910461 During different stages of COVID-19, the total T cell, CD4+ T cell, and CD8+ T cell counts were gradually recovered to the normal levels in severe and critical groups but the changing trend was relatively stable in the moderate group.
32913053 Stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells from COVID-19 convalescent patients with overlapping peptides from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to the clonal expansion of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in vitro, with CD4+ T cells being robust.
32916812 The study also presents the quantity and frequency of T cell responses, particularly CD4+ and CD8+; the profile of cytokine production and secretion; and its relation to T cell type, disease severity, and utility in prognostics of the course of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 outbreaks.
32921249 In the recurrent group, white blood cell, Neutrophils, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, CD3, CD4, CD8, ratio of CD4/CD8, IgG and C4 complement were of significant difference among the baseline, negative and turn-positive time points. […] Odds from CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, IgM, C3 complement, C4 complement and CT scan results validated associations with clinical outcomes of COVID-19. […] Levels of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, IgM, C3 complement, C4 complement and CT results were significantly correlated with the outcome of COVID-19.
32930458 The frequencies of regulatory CD8+ CD25+ T cells correlated with CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratios positively, while the frequencies of regulatory CD4+ CD25+ CD127- T cells correlated negatively with CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratios. […] Ratios of CD4+ /CD8+ T cells increased significantly in patients beyond age of 45 years. […] Collectively, the results suggest that regulatory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells may play distinct roles in the pathogenesis of COVID-19.
32937615 SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells dominated over CD8+ T cells and closely correlated with the number of plasmablasts and SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgG levels. […] Unlike in convalescent patients, SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in patients with severe disease showed marked alterations in phenotypical and functional properties, which also extended to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in general.CONCLUSIONGiven the strong induction of specific immunity to control viral replication in patients with severe disease, the functionally altered characteristics may result from the need for contraction of specific and general immunity to counteract excessive immunopathology in the lung.FUNDINGThe study was supported by institutional funds to MS and in part by grants of Saarland University, the State of Saarland, and the Rolf M.
32942955 However, vaccines that produce a CD4 and CD8 response to a wider range of SARS-Co-V-2 viral proteins, may be more effective.
32946131 Our results also show the elimination of COVID-19 required the activation of B cells by CD4+ T cells. […] CD4+ T cells play an important role in elimination of COVID-19 in primary effection.
32948688 SARS-CoV-2 infection induced a cytotoxic response of CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ T cells, characterized by the simultaneous production of granzyme A and B as well as perforin within different effector CD8+ T cell subsets.
32948868 After a FNAP we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 is found in lymph nodes (LNs) even in mild disease along with a strong expansion of terminally differentiated effector memory CD4+T-cells , a cell population that is practically absent in LN.
32950268 We found that T cells, including CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, were significantly decreased in severe COVID-19 symptoms but not in mild symptoms, in comparison with healthy people. […] CD4+CD25+CD127low Treg-enriched cells were significantly increased in either mild or severe COVID-19 patients, regardless of recovery or not. […] Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that CD4+ T cells, B cells, IL-6, and IL-10 were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity.
32954492 Moreover, both the levels of CD4+ T lymphocyte counts (646 vs 463/µL, P = .007) and IL-6 (241.9 vs 82.8 pg/mL, P = .025) were higher among patients with severe COVID-19 aged < 65 years, compared with those patients ≥ 65 years old.
32958614 Adults mounted a more robust T cell response to the viral spike protein compared to pediatric patients as evidenced by increased expression of CD25+ on CD4+ T cells and the frequency of IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells.
32959998 Predominantly, T-cell lymphocytes with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.7 infiltrated the interstitial myocardium, reflecting true myocarditis.
32960167 The role of antibody and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses have been studied and the development of an adaptive immunity seems to correlate with convalescence.
32964056 Two CD8+ and Three CD4+ T cell epitopes were also selected considering their safe immunogenic profiling such as allergenicity, antigen level conservancy, antigenicity, peptide toxicity, and putative restrictions to a number of MHC-I and MHC-II alleles.
32968776 In two of these cases, the T lymphocytes were CD4 predominant and in one case the T lymphocytes were CD8 predominant.
32975374 We observed that the lymphocyte percentage moderately decreased, CD4 and CD8 T cell percentage among lymphocytes were similar, and B cell percentage was increased in COVID-19 patients in comparison to that in HDs.
32975842 Overall, five patients were included: all were virologically-suppressed on antiretroviral therapy and CD4+ count was greater than 350 cell/mm3 in all but two patients.
32976117 In this issue of the JCI, Sattler et al. sampled blood from subjects with COVID-19 and analyzed the activation and function of virus antigen-specific CD4+ T cells.
32976531 To investigate the clinical value of changes in the subtypes of peripheral blood lymphocytes and levels of inflammatory cytokines in patients with COVID-19, the total numbers of lymphocytes and CD4+ lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ lymphocytes were calculated and observed in different groups of patients with COVID-19. […] The results show that the lymphocytopenia in patients with COVID-19 was mainly manifested by decreases in the CD4+ T lymphocyte number and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio. […] The decreased number of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the elevated levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were correlated with the severity of COVID-19 disease.
32977223 By phenotypic analysis, COVID-19-positive patients presented CD3 lymphopenia, with inversion of the CD4/CD8 ratio and modification of monocyte activation, with accumulation of mMDSC (monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells) -like cells and a decrease in activated monocytes. […] SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients is associated with CD4 T-cell lymphopenia with induction of an inflammatory T-cell response, accumulation of IFNγ+ TNFα+ CD8 T and Th17 cells, and a concomitant modification of monocyte activation status.
32979342 Immature neutrophils dominated in both blood and lungs, while CD4 and CD8 T cell lymphopenia were observed in the two compartments. […] Lung CD4 and CD8 T cells and macrophages expressed an even higher upregulation of activation markers than in blood. […] COVID-19 ARDS exhibits a distinct immunologic profile in the lungs with a depleted and exhausted CD4 and CD8 T cell population that resides within a heavily hyperinflammatory milieu.
32983097 Examining CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses after primary Yellow Fever vaccination in a cohort of 210 volunteers, we have identified and tetramer-validated 92 CD8+ and 50 CD4+ T cell epitopes, many inducing strong and prevalent (i.e., immunodominant) T cell responses. […] Also, double-staining of CD4+ T cells with tetramers representing the same HLA-binding core, albeit with different flanking regions, demonstrated an extensive diversification of the specificities of many CD4+ T cell responses. […] We suggest that this could reduce the risk of pathogen escape, and that multi-tetramer staining is required to reveal the true magnitude and diversity of CD4+ T cell responses. […] Our T cell epitope discovery approach uses a combination of (1) overlapping peptides representing the entire Yellow Fever virus proteome to search for peptides containing CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cell epitopes, (2) predictors of peptide-HLA binding to suggest epitopes and their restricting HLA allotypes, (3) generation of peptide-HLA tetramers to identify T cell epitopes, and (4) analysis of ex vivo T cell responses to validate the same. […] It is all-inclusive in the sense that it includes all protein antigens and peptide epitopes, and encompasses both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes.
32983106 Following the hypothesis that T cells in COVID-19 might have a similar, dual function, we comprehensively characterized the differentiation (CCR7, CD45RO) and activation status (HLA-DR, CD38, CD69, CD226), the co-expression of co-inhibitory molecules (PD1, TIM-3, LAG-3, BTLA, TIGIT), as well as the expression pattern of the transcription factors T-bet and eomes of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells of PBMC of n = 20 SARS-CoV-2 patients compared to n = 10 P. falciparum infected patients and n = 13 healthy controls. […] Overall, acute COVID-19 and malaria infection resulted in a comparably elevated activation and altered differentiation status of the CD8+ and CD4+ T cell populations. […] In summary, comparing the expression of different co-inhibitory molecules in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in COVID-19 vs. malaria, there is a transient increase of the expression of certain inhibitory receptors like LAG-3 and TIM-3 in COVID-19 in the overall context of acute immune activation.
32983157 In the late stage of COVID-19, severe cases had extremely low CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, but unusually high neutrophils [6.5 × 109/L (IQR, 4.8-9.6)], procalcitonin [0.27 ng/mL (IQR, 0.14-1.94)], C-reactive protein [66 mg/L (IQR, 25-114)] and an extremely high level of interleukin-6.
32984856 Using a combination adjuvant strategy that elicits potent CD8 and CD4 T cell responses, we define the tenets of vaccine-induced pulmonary T cell immunity. […] Combination of ADJ with GLA, but not CpG, dampens T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, mitigates terminal differentiation of effectors, and enhances the development of CD4 and CD8 TRM cells that protect against H1N1 and H5N1 influenza viruses. […] Mechanistically, vaccine-elicited CD4 T cells play a vital role in optimal programming of CD8 TRM and viral control.
32985562 Moreover, lymphocyte, CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, NK cell, and B cell counts were lower in the severe group. […] Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that CD4+ cell count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and D-dimer were risk factors for severe cases.
32987182 Twenty-seven (90%) patients were virologically suppressed.CD4 count was >500cell/mm 3 in 23/30 (76,6%) patients. […] Most of the patients were virologically suppressed with CD4>500 mm3.
32991794 The vaccine elicited a strong CD4 cytokine response involving type 1 helper T cells.
32998157 Two doses of 1-50 μg of BNT162b1 elicited robust CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and strong antibody responses, with RBD-binding IgG concentrations clearly above those seen in serum from a cohort of individuals who had recovered from COVID-19. […] Most participants had T helper type 1 (TH1)-skewed T cell immune responses with RBD-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell expansion. […] Interferon-γ was produced by a large fraction of RBD-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells.
33002041 Compared to non-severe COVID-19 cases, severe or critical COVID-19 was characterised by higher neutrophil count (MMD: 1.23 [95% CI: 0.58 to 1.88] ×109 cells/L), and lower lymphocyte, CD4 and CD8 T cell counts with MMD (95% CI) of -0.39 (-0.47, -0.31) ×109 cells/L, -204.9 (-302.6, -107.1) cells/μl and -123.6 (-170.6, -76.6) cells/μl, respectively.
33010815 We completed a combined examination of all three branches of adaptive immunity at the level of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell and neutralizing antibody responses in acute and convalescent subjects. […] SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were each associated with milder disease. […] Coordinated SARS-CoV-2-specific adaptive immune responses were associated with milder disease, suggesting roles for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in protective immunity in COVID-19. […] A parsimonious explanation is that coordinated CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, and antibody responses are protective, but uncoordinated responses frequently fail to control disease, with a connection between aging and impaired adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2.
33015160 A total of 33 mild COVID-19 cases were divided into two treatment groups (with and without glucocorticoids, methylprednisolone, were used in this setting), and the absolute value of peripheral blood lymphocyte count; CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cell counts; and the time to achieve negative transformation of a nucleic acid pharyngeal swab were recorded. […] When the nucleic acid turned negative in half of the patients, the absolute value of peripheral blood lymphocyte count and CD4+ T cells of the glucocorticoid group and the nonglucocorticoid group was not significantly different; the CD3+ and CD8+ T cells in the glucocorticoid group were lower than those in the nonglucocorticoid group. […] The absolute peripheral blood lymphocyte count, CD3+ T cells, and CD4+ T cells in the glucocorticoid group were lower than those of the healthy group during the whole disease period, and CD8+ T cells returned to normal at 19-21 days of the disease period. […] There was no significant difference between the nonglucocorticoid group and the healthy group for absolute peripheral blood lymphocyte and CD8+ T cells; moreover, CD3+ T cells and CD4+ T cells were lower in the nonglucocorticoid group than those in the healthy group from the day of admission to the 18th day and returned to normal at the period of 19-21 days. […] The absolute peripheral lymphocyte count (P = 0.048, effect size d = 0.727) and T cell subset count (CD3: P = 0.042, effect size d = 0.655; CD4: P < 0.01, effect size d = 0.599; and CD8: P = 0.034, effect size d = 0.550) in the nonglucocorticoid group were higher than those in the glucocorticoid group, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant.
33017040 Furthermore, in 10 blood samples from cases at 6-7 months post-infection used for memory T-cell tests, we found that interferon γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ cells were increased upon SARS-CoV-2 antigen stimulation.
33024281 We propose four immunological scenarios for the impact of cross-reactive CD4+ memory T cells on COVID-19 severity and viral transmission.
33033851 Naïve CD8+ T-cells were maintained at high levels, whereas naïve CD4+ and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells started high but declined over 2 years.
33035306 Whole blood IGRA accurately distinguished between convalescents and uninfected healthy blood donors with a predominantly CD4+ T cell response.
33035474 None of the participants from Nigeria or Guangdong were MERS-CoV seropositive. 18 (30%) of 61 abattoir workers with exposure to dromedaries, but none of 20 abattoir workers without exposure (p=0·0042), ten non-abattoir workers or 24 controls from Guangzhou (p=0·0002) had evidence of MERS-CoV-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cells in PBMC.
33039966 CD3+ T and DN (CD3+CD4-CD8-) cells appeared sustained decline, leucocytes, neutrophils and IL-10 showed sustained increase in severe group compared to mild group. […] Compared with the non-infection group, we observed a depletion of eosinophils, CD3+ T and CD4+ T cells, but leucocytes, neutrophils, IL-6 and IL-10 on the contrary in the infection group. […] Besides, in severe group of COVID-19 patients, DN cells were negatively correlated with IL-10, and DP (CD3+CD4+CD8+) cells were negatively correlated with IL-6. […] Lymphocytes, eosinophils, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, IL-6 and IL-10 all had great diagnostic efficacy (AUC, 0.905-0.975) for COVID-19.
33041191 Critically ill COVID-19 patients have higher pro-inflammatory (IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, tumor necrosis alpha) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokine levels, less CD4 interferon-gamma expression, and fewer CD4 and CD8 cells.
33045775 The 29-year-old Korean man had been taking Genvoya® regularly for seven years and HIV was well suppressed with CD4 counts of 555/mm³.
33049115 The RP group had a higher percentage and count of CD8+ T lymphocytes and lower CD4+/CD8+ ratio at 2 weeks, while a lower percentage and count of CD4+ T lymphocytes and lower CD4+/CD8+ ratio at 2 months. […] The dynamic changes in number and ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes may be involved in prolonged SARS-CoV-2 clearance.
33058143 Based on 23 studies, mean cytokine levels were significantly higher (IL-6: MD, 19.55 pg/mL; CI, 14.80, 24.30; IL-8: MD, 19.18 pg/mL; CI, 2.94, 35.43; IL-10: MD, 3.66 pg/mL; CI, 2.41, 4.92; IL-2R: MD, 521.36 U/mL; CI, 87.15, 955.57; and TNF-alpha: MD, 1.11 pg/mL; CI, 0.07, 2.15) and T-lymphocyte levels were significantly lower (CD4+ T cells: MD, -165.28 cells/µL; CI, -207.58, -122.97; CD8+ T cells: MD, -106.51 cells/µL; CI, -128.59, -84.43) among severe cases as compared to nonsevere ones.
33062712 The CD4+ cell counts in the diabetes group were lower than those in the other two groups, while the levels of LDH and hs-CRP were higher. […] Compared with the euglycemia group, the CD3+ cell counts and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were decreased, whereas the levels of IL-6 were increased in the secondary hyperglycemia group and diabetes group, with the diversities in the diabetes group being especially more significant. […] The Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the presence of diabetes was positively correlated with age, hs-CRP, LDH, IL-6, CD8+ cells, and severity of COVID-19 and negatively correlated with CD3+ cell counts, CD4+ cell counts, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio.
33068863 CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD19 cell counts between the antibody producing and non-producing groups showed no significant differences (all P > 0.05).
33069626 The clinical efficacy indicators, such as the negative conversion time of pharyngeal swab nucleic acid, the negative conversion time of fecal nucleic acid, the duration of negative conversion of pharyngeal-fecal nucleic acid, and the improvement in the level of immune indicators such as T-cell subsets (CD3, CD4 and CD45) were monitored.
33079905 The severe and nonsevere group had no differences in demographics, HIV baseline status, the intervals between last tests and follow-up tests for CD4+ cell count and HIV-1 viral load (all P > 0.05). […] Limited change of CD4+ cell count was found (all P > 0.05). […] The coinfection of SARS-CoV-2 may put PLHIV at greater risk for HIV-1 viral rebound especially for severe/critical COVID-19, whereas it had limited impacts on CD4+ cell count. […] Whether continuous antiretroviral therapy against HIV infection would have significant impacts on CD4+ cell count among PLHIV coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 needs further research.
33082015 Also, a CD4 + T-helper epitope, PADRE, was used at the C-terminal of the vaccine by GPGPG and A(EAAAK)2A linkers to form the final vaccine construct. […] The final vaccine construct was an immunogenic, non-allergen and unfunctional protein which contained multiple CD8 + and CD4 + overlapping epitopes, IFN-γ inducing epitopes, linear and conformational B cell epitopes.
33088807 For those with a better prognosis, there were significant positive correlations between ACE2 expression and immune infiltrates, including B cells, CD8 + T cells, CD4 + T cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
33096290 The CD4/CD8 ratio on admission was significantly higher in severe/critical cases than in mild/moderate cases (1.84 vs. […] Detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA in anal swabs and/or blood samples, as well as higher CD4/CD8 ratio were independent risk factors of respiratory failure and ICU admission. […] Most of COVID-19 patients in Guangzhou are mild/moderate, and presence of extrapulmonary virus and higher CD4/CD8 ratio are associated with higher risk of worse outcomes.
33098952 The total T- and B-lymphocyte counts and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts were significantly lower in those with cardiac injury. […] The total T and B cells and CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts decreased and the IL-6 level increased in COVID-19 patients with cardiac injury.
33102499 In COVID-19 progression, lymphocyte levels showed a significant negative correlation (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.51-0.89), but it was not significant in the subsets of CD3+ T cells (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.93-1.02), CD4+ T cells (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.80-1.08), CD8+ T cells (OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.92-1.00), B cells (OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.92-1.04), or NK cells (OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.61-1.04). […] In COVID-19 mortality, lymphocyte levels showed a significant negative correlation (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.20-0.85), but it was not significant in the subsets of CD3+ T cells (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.86-1.05), CD4+ T cells (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.86-1.31), CD8+ T cells (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.01), B cells (OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.92-1.04), or NK cells (OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.61-1.04). […] In conclusion, current evidence suggests a significant negative association of peripheral lymphocyte levels with COVID-19 progression and mortality, but it was not significant in the subsets of CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells.
33104167 We identified multiple polyfunctional CD4-restricted T-cell epitopes within a highly conserved region of membrane protein, which induced polyfunctional T cell responses, which may be critical for the development of effective vaccine and T cell therapies.
33108255 There were more patients with fever in I group than in L group(P = 0.003), and counts of all the total lymphocytes, total T lymphocytes, CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes were significantly different between the two groups(all P < 0.01).
33125396 The baseline leukocyte count, neutrophil count and hemoglobin was significantly higher in non-survivors compared with survivors, while the reverse was true of lymphocyte count, platelet, PaO2/FiO2, CD3+ count and CD4+ count. […] Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the following at baseline could significantly predict mortality: leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, CD3+ and CD4+ counts. […] For hospitalized patients with COVID-19, lymphocyte, CD3+ and CD4+ counts that marked decrease suggest a poor outcome. […] At admission, leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, CD3+ and CD4+ counts should receive added attention.
33165008 CD4 T cell loss is the hallmark of uncontrolled HIV-1 infection. […] Strikingly, CD4 T cell depletion is a strong indicator for disease severity in the recently emerged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. […] HIV-1-specific CD4 T cells are dysfunctional, while SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 T cells exhibit robust Th1 function and correlate with protective antibody responses.
33165238 Median CD4 pre-COVID-19 was 298 cells/μL, declining to <200 cells/μl in 6/7 with measurements on admission.
33168413 Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to assess changes in the values of IgG and IgM, the number of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio during the 3-month follow-up. […] CD4+ T cells increased from (median (IQR), 484 (384-635)) cells/ul to 543 (414-657) cells/ul (P = 0.01). […] Antibiotic use was negatively associated with IgG change (mean change [95%CI], 8.08 [0.80-15.37] U, P = 0.03), and glucocorticoid use was positively related to increased CD4+ T cells (100.85 [16.56-185.15] cells/ul, P = 0.02). […] This study demonstrated that the positive rates and values of IgG and IgM decreased in COVID-19 patients over a 3-month follow-up, while CD4+ T cells significantly increased. […] Moreover, we found that antibiotic use during hospitalization was associated with IgG decrease, and glucocorticoid use was associated with increases in CD4+ T cells.
33178220 DTP cross-reactive epitopes with SARS-CoV-2 include numerous CD8 and CD4 T cell epitopes with broad population protection coverage and potentially neutralizing B cell epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein.
33182268 Patients with critical COVID-19 showed a decrease in CD3+CD4+ T cells count compared to non-critical (278 (485 IQR) vs. […] 545 (322 IQR)), a decrease in median CD4+/CD8+ ratio (1.7, (1.7 IQR) vs. […] 3.1 (2.4 IQR)), and a decrease in median CD4+MFI (21,820 (4491 IQR) vs. […] ROC curves for predictive value showed lymphocyte subsets achieving the best performances, specifically CD3+CD4+ T cells (AUC = 0.756), CD4+/CD8+ ratio (AUC = 0.767), and CD4+MFI (AUC = 0.848). […] A predictive value and treatment considerations for lymphocyte subsets are suggested, especially for CD3CD4+ T cells.
33186704 Compared with the baseline, we observed a concomitant statistically significant reduction in plasma IL-6, restoration of the CD4/CD8 ratio, and resolution of SARS-CoV2 plasma viremia (pVL).
33190302 In patients with severe COVID-19, eosinopenia and lymphopenia with a severe reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells are a common feature.
33193384 -expressing CD4+, while no difference according to disease severity was observed.
33193964 They act via several mechanisms of action to reduce the severity of infection and rate of infectivity of the virus by decreasing the viral load while increasing CD4 counts.
33195212 We found that the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in LUAD patients was significantly increased, which may explain why LUAD patients are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, and the patients with high-expression genes presented increased infiltration of immune cells such as B cells and CD4 T cells.
33195415 We found that ACE2 expression was significantly correlated with the infiltrating levels of macrophages and dendritic cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and B cells in multiple tumors. […] However, elevated ACE2 is significantly correlated with immune infiltrating levels, including those of CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and DCs in multiple cancers, especially in lung and breast cancer patients.
33204079 Multivariable regression analysis showed that CD4 cells and D-dimer were independent risk factors. […] D-dimer, CD4 cells, and CD cells/D-dimer ratio with cut-off values of 0.65 (mg/L), 268 (cell/µL) and 431 were in the prediction of severe or critical illness of older adults with COVID-19. […] The AUC value of D-dimer, CD4 cells, CD4 cells/D-dimer ratio, the tandem combination and the parallel combination to predict severe or critical illness of the older adults with COVID-19 were 0.703, 0.804, 0.794, 0.812 and 0.694, respectively. […] D-dimer and CD4 cells either by themselves or in combination have demonstrated predictive value in risk stratification as well as established the prognosis of severe or critical illness in older adults with COVID-19.
33204385 We observed an increase in activated T lymphocytes (CD3+HLA-DR+ and CD3+CD8+HLA-DR+) in the early stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection with a concomitant decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio in haematological patients compared to non-haematological patients affected by COVID-19.
33214937 The COVID-19 pandemic has shown many similarities to the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic in 1981, from the fear of treating patients for a virus we have little knowledge of, to analyzing how the levels of CD4+ are affected in both diseases. […] Declining numbers of CD4+ levels are classically seen with HIV patients, however, given the immune response of our bodies, these levels have also been seen to decrease during an active COVID-19 infection.
33219091 Flow cytometry data from 11 patients showed significant decreases in activated CD4 cells and effector memory CD8 cells.
33222462 Lymphocyte and CD4+ T cell counts in severe patients reached to normal level since day 3.
33232277 These were accompanied by lymphopenia, hypokalemia, hypoalbuminemia, a decrease in either CD4+ T cells or lymphocyte count, and coagulation disorders, which were closely related to poor prognosis.
33240994 The absolute peripheral blood lymphocytes counts and subsets, including CD45+, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+, in the acute phase, and flow cytometry measured the recovery phase for all patients. […] The percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes showed no visible change in the improved group; however, the percentage of CD8+ T cells dropped in the unimproved group, resulting in higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio.
33252008 Immune simulation studies showed the induction of primary, secondary and tertiary immune responses marked by the increased levels of antibodies, INF-γ, IL-2, TGF-β, B- cells, CD4+ and CD8+ cells.
33252620 Compared with all NYC COVID-19 cases, a higher proportion of PWH with COVID-19 experienced hospitalization, intensive care unit admission and/or death; most PWH who experienced poor COVID-19-related outcomes had CD4 <500 cells/µL.
33253295 In contrast, infected Ifit2-/- mice revealed significantly impaired microglial activation as well as reduced recruitment of NK1.1 T cells and CD4 T cells to the brain, possibly contributing to the lack of viral clearance.
33253854 On admission, lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, eosinophils, and albumin and pre-albumin were dramatically lower, whereas neutrophils, and interleukin (IL)-10, C-reactive protein (CRP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were significantly higher in severe cases.
33256876 Compared with the patients with short-term negative conversion, those with long-term conversion had an older age, higher incidence of comorbidities, chief complaints of cough and chest distress/breath shortness and severer illness on admission, higher level of leucocytes, neutrophils, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), lower level of CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes and albumin and more likely to receive mechanical ventilation. […] In multivariate analysis, cough, leucocytes, neutrophils and ESR were positively correlated with delayed virus negative conversion, and CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes were negatively correlated. […] The integrated indicator of leucocytes, neutrophils and CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes showed a good performance in predicting the negative conversion within 2 weeks (area under ROC curve (AUC) = 0.815), 3 weeks (AUC = 0.804), 4 weeks (AUC = 0.812) and 5 weeks (AUC = 0.786). […] In conclusion, longer quarantine periods might be more justified for COVID-19 patients with cough, higher levels of leucocytes, neutrophils and ESR and lower levels of CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes.
33261541 The disease severity was mild in two patients with normal CD4+ T count. […] However, one patient with a low CD4+T count died and the other developed retinal detachment one month after discharge.
33262652 The proportion of CD3-positive lymphocyte cells and CD4-positive lymphocytes was correlated with short-term outcomes. […] Peripheral lymphocyte subset (CD3-positive and CD4-positive) on admission as a novel biomarker had a potential association with early efficacy.
33262993 In this study, we determined the kinetics of viral loads, antibody responses (IgM, IgG, neutralization) and SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 T cells by quantifying these parameters in 435 serial respiratory and blood samples collected from a cohort of 29 COVID-19 patients with either moderate or severe disease during the whole period of hospitalization or until death. […] In contrast, the dynamics of specific CD4 T cell responses differed considerably, but all patients with moderate or severe disease developed robust SARS-CoV-2-specific responses. […] Of note, none of the patients had detectable cross-reactive CD4 T cells in the first week after symptom onset, which have been described in 20-50% of unexposed individuals. […] Our data thus provide novel insights into the kinetics of antibody and CD4 T cell responses as well as viral loads that are key to understanding the role of adaptive immunity in combating the virus during acute infection and provide leads for the timing of immune therapies for COVID-19.
33264073 Decreased CD4 expression level was observed in the monocytes of patients with severe COVID-19. […] The total lymphocytes, B and T lymphocytes, CD4+ cells and CD8+ cells, and natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells were found to be decreased in patients with severe COVID-19. […] The CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not significantly different between patients with COVID-19 and healthy controls. […] Age and CD4- monocytes were independent predictors of disease severity. […] Decreased CD4 expression level by monocytes was significantly correlated with disease severity.
33285567 The population coverage analysis has found that cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4+) T-cell peptides showed higher cumulative population coverage over cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8+) peptides in the 16 different geographical regions of the world.
33288414 Firstly, compared with the nondiabetic group, the COVID-19 with T2DM group had a higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and procalcitonin (PCT) but lower lymphocyte counts and T lymphocyte subsets, including CD3+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD16 + CD56 cells, and CD19+ cells. […] Secondly, compared with group A, group C had higher levels of Fasting blood glucose (FBG), IL-6, TNF-α, and neutrophils but lower lymphocyte, CD3+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, and CD4+ T cell counts. […] Similarly, group D had higher FBG, IL-6 and TNF-α levels and lower lymphocyte, CD3+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, and CD4+ T cell counts than group B.
33291439 We observed a significantly higher percentage of plasmablasts and lower CD4+ lymphocytes in COVID-19 X-ray (+) patients than in COVID-19 X-ray (-) and control. […] In the COVID-19 X-ray (+) patients, there was a lower proportion of effector CD4+ T cells, naïve CD8+ T cells and higher central memory CD4+ cells and effector CD8+ T cells than control.
33306976 This work focuses on small molecular CF dyes to conjugate with antibodies, such as CD4 and CD19, for their application in flow cytometry.
33310786 Immunophenotypic analysis revealed COVID-19 RL are mostly activated effector memory CD4 and CD8 T cells. , thus explaining the better outcome of patients showing these cells circulating in blood.
33316234 Cluster 2 had a “hyperinflammatory” phenotype, with high cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF⍺]) associated with CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte defects.
33324414 We performed immune profiling of the T helper (Th) CD4+ and T CD8+ cell compartments in peripheral blood of 144 COVID-19 patients using multiparametric flow cytometry analysis. […] On the one hand, there was a consistent lymphopenia with an overrepresentation of non-functional T cells, with an increased percentage of naive Th cells (CD45RA+, CXCR3-, CCR4-, CCR6-, CCR10-) and persistently low frequency of markers associated with Th1, Th17, and Th1/Th17 memory-effector T cells compared to healthy donors. […] Finally, the decrease in Th1 cells may also explain the low frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that express the HLA-DR and CD38 activation markers observed in numerous patients who showed minimal or no lymphocyte activation response. […] We also identified the percentage of HLA-DR+CD4+ T cells, PD-1+CD+4/CD8+ T cells in blood, and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as useful factors for predicting critical illness and fatal outcome in patients with confirmed COVID-19.
33326500 Importantly, using this system, we functionally identified the CD4+ and CD8+ structural peptide epitopes targeted during SARS-CoV-2 infection in H2b restricted mice and confirmed their existence in an established model of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. […] We demonstrated that, identical to what has been seen in humans, the antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in mice primarily target peptides of the spike and membrane proteins, while the antigen-specific CD4+ T cells target peptides of the nucleocapsid, membrane, and spike proteins.
33329592 The results of blood routine (neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts), infection biomarkers (C-reactive protein, ferritin, and procalcitonin levels), lymphocyte subset counts (total T lymphocyte, CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, B cell, and NK cell counts), and lymphocyte subset functions (the proportions of PMA/ionomycin-stimulated IFN-γ positive cells in CD4+, CD8+ T cells, and NK cells) were similar in bacterial sepsis patients and SARS-CoV-2 sepsis patients.
33331574 Lymphocyte subsets, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, memory CD4+ T cells, memory CD8+ T cells, naive CD4+ T cells, effector memory CD4+ T cells, central memory CD4+ T cells, and CD3+CD4+ CD25+ T cells were significantly lower in severe patients. […] The naive T cell/CD4 + EM T cell ratio, which is an indicator of the differentiation from naive T cells to memory cells, was relatively reduced in severe disease. […] Peripheral CD4+CD8+ double-positive T cells were notably lower in severe presentations of the disease (median DP T cells 11.12 µL vs 1.95 µL; p< 0.001). […] Peripheral CD4+CD8+ double-positive T cells were significantly reduced in severe disease presentations and may be a useful marker to predict disease severity.
33331927 We identified multiple polyfunctional CD4-restricted T-cell epitopes within a highly conserved region of membrane protein, which induced polyfunctional T-cell responses, which may be critical for the development of effective vaccine and T-cell therapies.
33335532 In early stages, Th2 differentiation are noticed in both severe COVID-19 and SAVI syndromes; then, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells functional exhaustion/senescent patterns due to TCR hyper-responsiveness are observed. […] Last, STING over-activation induces progressive CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphopenia in SAVI syndromes, which parallels what is observed in severe COVID-19. […] However, STING, expressed in humans T cells, might be triggered following excessive transfer of cGAMP from infected antigen presenting cells into activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells lymphocytes.
33336038 Three factors were observed to be independently associated with progression to severe COVID-19 during 14 days after admission: (a) age 65 years or older (hazard ratio [HR] = 8.456; 95% CI: 2.706-26.426); (b) creatine kinase (CK) ≥ 180 U/L (HR = 3.667; 95% CI: 1.253-10.733); and (c) CD4+ T-cell counts <300 cells/µL (HR = 4.695; 95% CI: 1.483-14.856). […] The difference in rates of severe COVID-19 development was found to be statistically significant between patients aged 65 years or older (46.2%) and those younger than 65 years (90.2%), between patients with CK ≥ 180 U/L (55.6%) and those with CK < 180 U/L (91.5%), and between patients with CD4+ T-cell counts <300 cells/µL (53.8%) and those with CD4+ cell counts ≥300 cells/µL (83.2%). […] Age ≥ 65 years, CK ≥ 180 U/L, and CD4+ T-cell counts <300 cells/µL at admission were risk factors independently associated with disease progression to severe COVID-19 during 14 days after admission and are therefore potential markers for disease progression in patients with milder COVID-19.
33336774 The absolute counts of CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD45+ T cells were lower in both survival group and death group patients from hospital admission to 3 days after admission, and gradually recovered in 4 to 35 days in the survival group, but continually stayed at low levels in the death group during the follow-up.
33339864 Other highly-ranked genes included proposed prognostic factors (CXCL10, CD4, CD3E) and investigational therapeutic targets (IL1A) for COVID-19.
33342328 Patients were less likely to be reached if virally unsuppressed (odds ratio (OR) 0.11, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.03-0.48), CD4 < 200 (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.85), or were homeless (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.87).
33350432 The lower CD4+ T cell proportions and higher CD8+ T cell proportions were observed in male and severe COVID-19 patients and the differences were independent of estrogen level. […] The CD4+ T cell proportion was negatively associated with the CD8+ T cell proportion in male COVID-19 patients; this correlation was non-significant in females. […] Our work demonstrates differences between sexes in circulating monocyte counts and CD4+ T cell and CD8+ T cell proportions in COVID-19 patients, independent of estrogen levels, are associated with the clinical manifestations in COVID-19 patients with high specificity.
33361110 Intubation and death were coupled with selected natural killer cell KIR receptor usage and IgM+ B cells and associated with profound CD4 and CD8 T-cell exhaustion.
33361525 We used flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure the absolute levels of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, respectively. […] We found that CRP, LDH, HBDH, CD4/CD8 and IgE levels were increased in 6/9 patients, while PA and the absolute numbers of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes decreased in 7/9 patients. […] Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may elicit allergic immune responses in patients and that the levels of CRP, PA, LDH, and HBDH, as well as the absolute numbers of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes could be used as early diagnostic markers of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33362757 Patients who died in the 28 days from admission (N=10, 15.9%), when compared to those who did not, displayed lower mean values of CD3+ (337.4 cells/µl vs 585.9 cells/µl; p=0.028) and CD4+ cells (232.2 cells/µl vs 381.1 cells/µl; p=0.042) and an higher percentage of CD8+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ lymphocytes (13.5% vs 7.6%; p=0.026).
33368966 In the univariate analysis, an age 50 years or older, a CD4+ T cell nadir of < 200/µl, current CD4+ T cells < 350/µl and the presence of at least one comorbidity were significantly associated with severity of COVID-19. […] In a multivariate analysis, the only factor associated with risk for severe COVID-19 was a current CD4+ T cell count of < 350/µl (adjusted odds ratio 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.26-6.44, p=0.01). […] The only factor associated with mortality was a low CD4 T cell nadir.
33371275 These candidates would ideally result in robust CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses as well as high-affinity neutralizing antibody.
33378057 The mainly increased immunological biomarkers included leukocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, IL-6, CD16-56, CD16, CD4, CD3, CD8, and CD19.
33384690 Like for HIV, lymphopenia and drastic reduction of CD4+ T cell counts in COVID-19 patients have been linked with poor clinical outcome. […] As CD4+ T cells play a critical role in orchestrating responses against viral infections, important lessons can be drawn by comparing T cell response in COVID-19 and in HIV infection and by studying HIV-infected patients who became infected by SARS-CoV-2.
33386773 Meanwhile CD4 T cell responses were observed in the spleen, which was associated with robust antibody production.
33389440 The high specificity of aptamers with small-molecule targets (metal ions, dyes and theophylline; ATP) is within 1 pM and 1 μM range, whereas with the proteins (thrombin, CD4 and antibodies) it is in the nanomolar range (which is equivalent to monoclonal antibodies).
33390569 This has been attributed to COVID-19 associated lymphopenia (resulting in lower CD4 count), higher prevalence of comorbidities (established risk factors for severity in COVID-19) and pre-existing lung damage.
33390830 Besides, ACE2 expression was significantly positively and negatively correlated with CD4 Naïve infiltration and CD4 Memory infiltration, respectively. […] Moreover, higher CD4 Naïve and lower CD4 Memory infiltration levels were associated with better pathological features and longer OS and RFS. […] Furthermore, high ACE2 expression group in decreased CD4 Naïve, enriched CD4 Naïve and enriched CD4 memory cohort had favorable prognosis.
33392109 Besides specialized research labs, however, there is limited ability to measure HCoV CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, which currently impedes interpretation of any potential correlation between COVID-19 disease pathogenesis and the calibration of pandemic control measures.
33392658 Microscopic examination of the heart revealed the existence of an intense multifocal inflammatory infiltration, in both ventricles and septum, composed in its majority of macrophages and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD4/CD8 ratio: 0.11).
33395783 Higher counts of CD4 and CD8 were seen in patients with good prognosis compared to patients with poor prognosis, with Lower levels of TNF-a, IL2R, IL6, IL8, were observed in patients with good prognosis compared to patients with poor prognosis.
33400157 Patients in group 3 had a lower mean CD4 count after 3 days of treatment.
33408715 Its investigation requires experimental interrogation of the linked differentiation and death pathway by agents known to uncouple T cell proliferation and differentiation in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.
33419040 In the COVID-19(+) there was a lower proportion of CD4+ CD38+ cells than in the other groups (significant differences between COVID-19(+) and COVID-19(-) virus groups). […] RE-LYMP correlated with activated T lymphocytes CD38+ and HLA-DR+ in the COVID-19(-) virus group, however in the COVID-19(+) group correlations with T lymphocytes CD25+ and CD45RO+ were observed.
33422520 T cell/CD4+ regulatory T cell ratios but also linked with downregulation of immune-markers including CD8A, KLRC1, GZMA, GZMB, NKG7, CCL4, and IFNG.
33422990 All anatomical regions were immunohistochemically tested for ACE2, TMPRSS2, CD147, CD45, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68 and IL-6. […] The lymphocytic-monocytic infiltrate strongly expressed CD4, CD45, CD68.
33422991 Spike-specific CD4 T helper responses were also elicited, comprising mainly of IFN-γ and IL-17 producing cells in the cationic liposome adjuvanted group, and more IL-5- and IL-10-secreting cells in the AH group. […] These results demonstrate that adjuvanted spike protein subunit vaccine is a viable strategy for rapidly eliciting SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies and CD4 T cell responses of various qualities depending on the adjuvant used, which can be explored in further vaccine development against COVID-19.
33424856 SARS-CoV-2 spike-reactive CD4+ T cells were detected in 7 of 11 unexposed CVID patients, albeit with fewer multifunctional (IFNγ/TNFα/IL-2) cells than unexposed HC. […] CVID patients had no SARS-CoV-2 NCAP reactive CD4+ T cells and less reactive CD8+ cells compared to unexposed HC. […] T cell responses in post COVID-19 HC could be distinguished from unexposed HC by higher frequencies of triple-positive NCAP reactive CD4+ T cells. […] Frequencies of triple-functional reactive CD4+ cells might provide a marker to distinguish HCoV cross-reactive from SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses.
33430234 CD4+ T cells orchestrate adaptive immune responses through their capacity to recruit and provide help to multiple immune effectors, in addition to exerting direct effector functions. […] CD4+ T cells are increasingly recognized as playing an essential role in the control of chronic viral infections. […] In this review, we present recent advances in understanding the nature of CD4+ T cell help provided to antiviral effectors. […] Drawing from our studies of natural human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) control, we then focus on the role of high-affinity T cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes in mediating antiviral CD4+ T cell responses. […] Last, we discuss the role of TCR affinity in determining CD4+ T cell differentiation, reviewing the at times divergent studies associating TCR signal strength to the choice of a T helper 1 (Th1) or a T follicular helper (Tfh) cell fate.
33433966 We examined in-hospital intubation, acute kidney injury (AKI), hospitalization length, and in-hospital mortality by HIV serostatus, and by HIV-viral suppression and CD4 counts among people living with HIV (PLWH) using adjusted competing risks regression. […] Among PLWH, higher CD4 T-cell counts were associated with increased intubation rates.
33440088 On day 14, CD4+ T-cell responses were detected in 76 to 83% of the participants in cohort 1 and in 60 to 67% of those in cohort 3, with a clear skewing toward type 1 helper T cells.
33457304 In lymphocyte subgroup examination, lymphocyte count increased in 2 cases (18%) and decreased in 1 case (9%); T%, cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8)+ T%, and natural killer (NK) cell% were normal in 11 cases; CD4+ T% was increased in 2 cases (18%), and CD4+ T%/CD8+ T% was decreased in 1 case (9%); B% was increased in 1 case (9%).
33464307 Here, using mice sensitized for infection with SARS-CoV-2 by transduction with an adenovirus expressing the human receptor (Ad5-hACE2), we identified SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell epitopes recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice.
33467982 Higher saliva, but not NPS, viral loads were associated with total lymphopenia, CD3 and CD4 lymphopenia (all p<0.05), and were inversely correlated with total lymphocyte (r=-0.43), CD3 (r=-0.55), CD4 (r=-0.60), CD8 (r=-0.41), B (r=-0.482), and NK (r=-0.416) lymphocyte counts (all p<0.05).
33486489 We report perhaps the most comprehensive study of subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ and subsets of B cells in a mild symptomatic SARS-CoV-2+ immunocompetent patient and a common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID) patient who had normal absolute lymphocyte counts and remained negative for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. […] Naïve (TN), central memory (TCM), effector memory (TEM), and terminally differentiated effector memory (TEMRA) subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, subsets of T follicular helper cells (cTFH, TFH1, TFH2, TFH17, TFH1/TFH17, and TFR), CD4 Treg, CD8 Treg, mature B cells, transitional B cells, marginal zone B cells, germinal center (GC) B cells, CD21low B cells, antibody-secreting cells (plasmablasts), and Breg cells were examined in patients and age-matched controls with appropriate monoclonal antibodies and isotype controls using multicolor flow cytometry. […] Different patterns of abnormalities (often contrasting) were observed in the subsets of CD4+ T, CD8+ T, B-cell subsets, and regulatory lymphocytes among the immunocompetent patient and CVID patient as compared to corresponding healthy controls.
33488630 CD4+ T cell responses and neutralizing antibody responses developed as expected in this individual.
33491346 The total number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was dramatically reduced in COVID-19 patients with levels lower than the normal range delimited by 400/μL and 800/μL, respectively, and were negatively correlated with blood inflammatory responses.
33498051 In this prospective study, the levels of peripheral lymphocyte subsets including CD4+, CD8+, CD4+CD25+FOXP3+, CD38+, CD3+HLA-DR+, CD19+, CD20+, and CD16+CD56+ cells were measured by flow cytometry in 52 confirmed hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at the day of admission and after 7 days of care. […] Total counts of white blood cell, T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD38+ lymphocytes, and CD3+HLA-DR+ lymphocytes were significantly increased in both early and late responders. […] No statistically significant difference was observed in CD4+/CD8+ ratio, B cells, FOXP3+Treg lymphocytes, and FOXP3 median fluorescence intensity among studied groups. […] According to the multivariate analysis, an increase in CD4+ T cells (p = 0.019), CD8+ T cells (p = 0.001), and administration of interferon (p < 0.001) were independent predictors of clinical response.
33504359 Higher counts of total T cells, CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, and NK cells in peripheral blood showed a significant correlation with the shorter time taken to obtain the first negative viral RNA test and first positive IgM/ IgG antibody test.
33506741 The results show that axon guidance, membrane trafficking, vesicle-mediated transport, apoptosis, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, Vpu mediated degradation of CD4 T cell, and interferon-gamma signaling are key events associated in SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. […] Further, degree centrality analysis reveals that IRF1/9/7, TP53, and CASP3, UBA52, and UBC are vital proteins for IFN-γ-mediated signaling, apoptosis, and proteasomal degradation of CD4, respectively.
33514016 We introduce here universal CD8+ T cell positive controls without any racial bias, as well as positive controls for the CD4+ T cell and APC compartments.
33521616 It has been shown that in patients with severe COVID-19 treatment with leronlimab reduces elevated plasma IL-6 and chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), and normalized CD4/CD8 ratios. […] This corresponds to restoration of the immune function as measured by CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio.
33524886 No significant change was observed in Th1 cell numbers between the recovered and dead patients while Th2, Th17 cell, and Treg percentages in death cases were significantly lower than healthy control and those recovered, unlike exhausted CD4 + and CD8 + T cells and activated CD4 + T cells (P < 0.0001-0.05).
33527487 Total lymphocytes, T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells were decreased in COVID-19 patients and statistical differences were found among different severity of illness and survival states (P ˂ 0.01).
33533266 The interactions were further related to immune cell subtypes, with older patients predicted to have less CD8+ and CD4+ resting T cells but increased neutrophil proportions.
33533915 Recovered individuals also show enduring alterations in relative overall numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells, including expression of activation/exhaustion markers, and cell division.
33533933 Adjusted rate ratios (aRRs) for outcomes specific to persons living with diagnosed HIV were assessed by age, sex, region, race/ethnicity, transmission risk, and CD4+ T-cell count-defined HIV disease stage, using Poisson regression models.
33534923 Finally, we explore data on real-time assessments of adaptive immune responses which include CD4+/CD8+ T-cells, NKT-cells, memory B-cells, and T-follicular cells with specificities for COVID-19 peptides in infected individuals and normals.
33556959 Here, we evaluate circulating human CD4 T cells collected prior to 2020 for reactivity towards hCoV spike proteins, probing for the ability to produce IFN-γ, IL-2 or granzyme B. […] The functional potential of these cross-reactive CD4 T cells was highly variable, with nucleocapsid-specific CD4 T cells, but not spike-reactive cells showing exceptionally high levels of granzyme production upon stimulation.
33559128 Drawing on studies in other human and murine infections, including emerging data from COVID-19, we consider the influence of antigen quantity and structure on the quality of the B cell response, the role of differential CD4 help, the importance of germinal center vs extrafollicular responses and the emerging concept that responses residing in non-lymphoid organs can participate in B cell memory.
33584668 Moreover, we confirmed that gp96-Ig, secreted from allogeneic cells expressing full-length protein S, generates powerful, protein S polyepitope-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in both lung interstitium and airways.
33585111 Background and objective Neutrophils are primarily responsible for activating the immune system, and systemic inflammation destroys CD4+ T lymphocytes and increases suppressor CD8+ T lymphocytes, thereby leading to an increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR).
33587448 Eight other studies assessed the association between HIV and COVID-19 outcomes, but provided inconclusive, lower-quality evidence due to potential confounding and selection bias.There were insufficient data on the effect of CD4+ T cell count and HIV viral load on COVID-19 outcomes. […] Further investigation into the relationship between COVID-19 outcomes and CD4+ T cell count, HIV viral load, ART and the use of TDF is warranted.