Gene Context Sentence

Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of CAT gene in 52 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32201080 We found that most of the selected mammals including pets (dog and cat), pangolin and Circetidae mammals remained the most of key residues for association with S protein from SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. […] The interaction interface between cat/dog/pangolin/Chinese hamster ACE2 and SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 S protein was simulated through homology modeling.
32388138 When mice are infected they demonstrate a fearlessness toward cats, thus increasing their chances of being eaten. […] Recent studies have shown that exposure to toxoplasmosis in humans (e.g., through cat feces) has also been associated with behavioral changes that are predicted to enhance the spread of the pathogen.
32500944 Here, we investigated the putative infection by SARS-CoV-2 in 22 cats and 11 dogs from owners previously infected or suspected of being infected by SARS-CoV-2. […] One cat was tested positive by RT-qPCR on rectal swab. […] This cat showed mild respiratory and digestive signs. […] Genome sequence analysis revealed that the cat SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the phylogenetic clade A2a like most of the French human SARS-CoV-2. […] This study reports for the first time the natural infection of a cat in France (near Paris) probably through their owners. […] There is currently no evidence that cats can spread COVID-19 and owners should not abandon their pets or compromise their welfare.
32513515 Symptoms are examined using the COPD assessment test (CAT) score, and dyspnea grade are examined using a modified MRC from GOLD guidelines. […] When mild, the care includes self-management education, smoking cessation, lifestyle modifications, vaccination, and short-acting bronchodilators. […] Self-management education involves inhaler device training, breathing technique, early recognition of acute exacerbations and writing action plans. […] Other implications of this pandemic for COPD patients include the health risk in case of infection.
32701015 The aim of this study was to capture the experience of such a lockdown in Australians living alone, with and without a dog or a cat. […] For participants who owned a dog or a cat, a measure of dog/cat interactions was also administered as well as two open-ended questions about how being a pet owner affected their experience of COVID-19 and how COVID-19 affected their pet. […] Contrary to expectations, cat owners were found to be less mindful than non-owners and pet interactions did not account for levels of loneliness or levels of mindfulness.
32778178 Recent evidence raised the question about the possibility that cats may be a domestic host for SARS-CoV-2 with unknown implications in disease dissemination. […] Based on the fact that the domestic cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, are abundant ectoparasites infesting humans, companion animals and wildlife and that coronavirus-like agents have been identified in the ectoparasite tick vector, Ixodes uriae of seabirds, herein we considered the presence of coronaviruses in general and SARS-CoV-2 in particular in C. felis. […] Although current evidence suggests that pets are probably dead-end-hosts with small risk of transmission to humans, our results suggested that cat flea may act as biological and/or mechanical vectors of SARS-CoV. […] Although preliminary, these results indicate a possibility of ectoparasites acting as reservoirs and vectors of SARS-CoV and related beta-coronavirus although with little disease risk due to systemic transmission route, low viremia, virus attenuation or other unknown factors.
32788033 In March 2020, a severe respiratory syndrome developed in a cat, 1 week after its owner received positive test results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. […] Viral RNA was detected in the cat’s nasopharyngeal swab samples and vomitus or feces; immunoglobulin against the virus was found in convalescent-phase serum. […] Human-to-cat transmission is suspected.
32805728 Bioinformatics findings indicate that the mechanisms of action of VA against SARS-CoV-2 include enrichment of immunoreaction, inhibition of inflammatory reaction, and biological processes related to reactive oxygen species. […] Furthermore, seven core targets of VA against COVID-19, including MAPK1, IL10, EGFR, ICAM1, MAPK14, CAT, and PRKCB were identified.
32810370 From 23 pets, an asymptomatic cat showed positive RT-qPCRs results from oropharyngeal swab (negative rectal swab). […] This suggests that cats can contract the virus from their infected owners and may act as potential hosts for SARS-CoV-2.
32835326 We systematically investigated the cellular susceptibility, species tropism, replication kinetics, and cell damage of SARS-CoV-2 and compared findings with those for SARS-CoV. […] We compared SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV replication in different cell lines with one-way ANOVA. […] For the area under the curve comparison between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV replication in Calu3 (pulmonary) and Caco2 (intestinal) cells, we used Student’s t test. […] SARS-CoV-2 infected and replicated to comparable levels in human Caco2 cells and Calu3 cells over a period of 120 h (p=0·52). […] By contrast, SARS-CoV infected and replicated more efficiently in Caco2 cells than in Calu3 cells under the same multiplicity of infection (p=0·0098). […] SARS-CoV-2, but not SARS-CoV, replicated modestly in U251 (neuronal) cells (p=0·036). […] For animal species cell tropism, both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 replicated in non-human primate, cat, rabbit, and pig cells. […] SARS-CoV, but not SARS-CoV-2, infected and replicated in Rhinolophus sinicus bat kidney cells. […] As far as we know, our study presents the first quantitative data for tropism, replication kinetics, and cell damage of SARS-CoV-2.
32837934 County officials are tasked with extractive planning decisions that have wide-ranging implications. […] In this Viewpoint article, we analyze proposals for enhanced extraction at the Cat Canyon oilfield in Santa Barbara County.
32837985 Cathepsin (Cat)B/L inhibitor E-64d could significantly block SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection in 293T-ACE2 cells.
32867625 Cat is susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. […] However, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in cats remains largely unknown. […] Here, we investigated the infection of SARS-CoV-2 in cats during COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan by serological detection methods. […] A cohort of serum samples were collected from cats in Wuhan, including 102 sampled after COVID-19 outbreak, and 39 prior to the outbreak. […] In addition, we continuously monitored serum antibody dynamics of two positive cats every 10 days over 130 days. […] Our data demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 has infected cats in Wuhan during the outbreak and described serum antibody dynamics in cats, providing an important reference for clinical treatment and prevention of COVID-19.
32903561 The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of ACE2 in the gastrointestinal tract of domestic (cat) and wild (tiger) felines. […] Samples of the pylorus, duodenum, and distal colon were collected from six cats and one tiger. […] Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 was widely expressed in the gastrointestinal mucosa of the cats and the tiger. […] In the cats, ACE2-IR was also expressed by the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels and the tunica muscularis. […] Although the evidence of ACE2-IR in the feline GIT does not necessarily indicate the possibility of viral replication and SARS-CoV-2 spread with stool, the findings in the present study could serve as an anatomical basis for additional studies considering the risk of the SARS-CoV-2 fecal-oral transmission between cats/felids, and between cats/felids and humans.
32921279 The first ever case of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from a human owner to a domestic cat was confirmed on March 27, 2020. […] One of the most conserved peptides is represented by the peptide "353-KGDFR-357 (H. sapiens ACE2 residue numbering), which is located on the surface of the ACE2 molecule and participates in the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain (RBD). […] ACE2 works as a receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein between humans, dogs, cats, tigers, minks, and other animals, except for snakes. […] The multiple sequence alignments of the ACE2 proteins shows high homology and complete conservation of the five amino acid residues: 353-KGDFR-357 with humans, dogs, cats, tigers, minks, and other animals, except for snakes.
32932800 In this study, a domestic cat with clear clinical signs of pneumonia, confirmed by Rx imaging, was found to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 using quantitative RT-qPCR from a nasal swab. […] An important question remains unanswered: did the cat actually die due to SARS-CoV-2 infection?
32938527 We tested 50 cats from coronavirus disease households or close contacts in Hong Kong, China, for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA in respiratory and fecal samples. […] We found 6 cases of apparent human-to-feline transmission involving healthy cats. […] Virus genomes sequenced from 1 cat and its owner were identical.
32948692 Few reports indicate that pets may be exposed to the virus. […] The present report describes a cat suffering from severe respiratory distress and thrombocytopenia living with a family with several members affected by COVID-19. […] Clinical signs of the cat prompted humanitarian euthanasia and a detailed postmortem investigation to assess whether a COVID-19-like disease was causing the condition. […] The cat seroconverted against SARS-CoV-2, further evidencing a productive infection in this animal.
32957995 In addition to the considerable COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in humans, several cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animal hosts (dog, cat, tiger, lion, and mink) have been reported.
32981508 The severe atypical lung CAT scan images alerted all countries, including the poorest, to purchase lacking sophisticated ventilators. […] COVID-19 signs and symptoms indicate a progressive and irreversible failure in the oxygen transport system, secondary to pneumolysis produced by SARS-Cov-2’s alveolar-capillary membrane “attack”.
32985513 To facilitate the development of medical approaches and novel treatments, we compared the ACE2 receptor, and TMPRSS2 and Furin proteases usage of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein in human and in a panel of animal models, i.e. guinea pig, dog, cat, rat, rabbit, ferret, mouse, hamster and macaque. […] Computational analysis of binding modes and protein contacts indicates that macaque, ferrets and hamster are the most suitable models for the study of inhibitory antibodies and small molecules targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein interaction with ACE2.
33020722 We further resolved the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the cat ACE2 (cACE2) in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 RBD at a resolution of 3 Å, revealing similar binding mode as hACE2 to the SARS-CoV-2 RBD.
33029165 A multilevel computational study was carried out to evaluate the potential antiviral properties of the components of the medicinal herb Uncaria tomentosa (Cat’s claw), focusing on the inhibition of Mpro. […] The in silico approach starts with protein-ligand docking of 26 Cat’s claw key components, followed by ligand pathway calculations, molecular dynamics simulations, and MM-GBSA calculation of the free energy of binding for the best docked candidates. […] The structural bioinformatics approaches led to identification of three bioactive compounds of Uncaria tomentosa (speciophylline, cadambine, and proanthocyanidin B2) with potential therapeutic effects by strong interaction with 3CLpro. […] Our findings suggest the potential effectiveness of Cat’s claw as complementary and/or alternative medicine for COVID-19 treatment.
33034151 Carnivores, including domestic cats, ferrets and minks, appear to be particularly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 in contrast to poultry and other animals reared as livestock such as cattle and swine. […] Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between experimentally infected cats additionally substantiates the possibility of cat-to-human transmission. […] To evaluate the COVID-19 risk represented by domestic and farmed carnivores, experimental assessments should include surveillance and health assessment of domestic and farmed carnivores, characterization of the immune interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and carnivore coronaviruses, determination of the SARS-CoV-2 host range beyond carnivores and identification of human risk groups such as veterinarians and farm workers.
33042151 Furthermore, interspecies comparisons indicate that ACE2 proteins of man and cat are far closer than dog, ferret, mouse, and rat with significant differences in binding-affinity between Spike and ACE2 proteins.
33066867 Forty percent of the news analyzed within the scope of the study were obtained from the newspaper’s own news, reporter or columnist, 56.9 % were informative, 6.3 % were advisory and critical against the CAT methods. 95 % of the news included preventive or protective methods against COVID-19. […] It was reported by previous literature potential interactions between herbal remedies/dietary supplements and prescribed drugs, complications of medical conditions and some adverse effects cause of CAM usage.
33104993 Genomic features of SARS-CoV-2 may attribute inter-species transmission and adaptation to a novel host, and therefore is imperative to explicate the evolutionary dynamics of the viral genome and its propensity for differential host selection. […] We conducted an in silico analysis of all the coding gene sequences of SARS-CoV-2 strains (n = 39) originating from a range of non-human mammalian species, including pangolin, bat, dog, cat, tiger, mink, mouse, and the environmental samples such as wastewater, air and surface samples from the door handle and seafood market. […] A lack of obvious differences as well as a maximum genetic homology among dog-, cat-, tiger-, mink-, mouse-, bat- and pangolin-derived SARS-CoV-2 sequences suggested a likely evolution of these strains from a common ancestor.
33106770 Out of 17 retracted articles, only 4 articles were found to be brief the choice for orthodontic appliances in pandemic times speculating clear aligner therapy (CAT) to be a pragmatic solution. […] Subject to regional demands, CAT can be considered as the relatively safer modality-predictable and effective apposite to fixed orthodontic appliances in these unprecedented times.
33116465 Social distancing and restriction measures during the COVID-19 epidemic may have impacts on medication availability and healthcare utilization for COPD patients, and thereby affect standard disease management. […] Before the epidemic, 81.7% (125/153) had long-term maintenance medication and ICS/LABA (60.8%) and LAMA (57.5%) were most commonly used. […] During the epidemic, 75.2% (115/153) maintained their pharmacological treatment and 6.5% (10/153) had to reduce or stop taking medications, with a slight decrease of patients taking ICS/LABA (53.6%) and LAMA (56.9%). […] Most of the patients [76.5% (117/153)] had a low symptom burden, with a CAT score <10 during the epidemic.
33118480 (cat’s claw). […] Our findings suggest the potential effectiveness of cat’s claw as complementary and/or alternative medicine for COVID-19 treatment. […] Communicated by Ramaswamy H.
33129008 Here, it is proposed that a combination of cool air therapy (CAT) and purified air technology (PAT) in an oxygen species cool air respirator (OSCAR) could be used to reduce viral (SARS-CoV-2) load and severity of illness in COVID-19 patients through the individual dose-response relationship. […] In addition, the proposed therapy (CAT + PAT in OSCAR), which works by a more general physical and chemical mechanism, should work well with other treatments (vaccine, antiviral, plasma) that target specific viral proteins (RNA polymerase, spike proteins) to provide a safe and effective multiple therapy approach for ending the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2.
33137344 The presence of ‘PRRA’ sequence motif in SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins from human, dog, cat, mink, tiger and lion suggests a common viral entry mechanism into host cells.
33148809 This study examined the use of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) for patients recovering from COVID-19. 131 patients who were admitted with COVID-19 were followed up over the phone to assess symptoms. […] The median (IQR) CAT score was 10 (5-16). […] The CAT is a useful tool to assess symptoms of COVID-19 recovery.
33173434 The mechanisms have been implicated as multifactorial, including activation of immunoregulation (Th2, PPAR and IL10), suppression of acute inflammatory responses (IL-6, IL-1α/β, TNF, COX2/1, etc.), enhancement of antioxidative activity (CAT and SOD1), and modulation of apoptosis (inhibited CASP3).
33191578 The newly established ELISA was evaluated using 59 sera of infected or vaccinated animals, including ferrets, raccoon dogs, hamsters, rabbits, chickens, cattle and a cat, and a total of 220 antibody-negative sera of the same animal species.
33191649 Experimental studies and sporadic reports have confirmed susceptibility of dogs and cats to SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] This study reports on a first large-scale serosurvey of SARS-CoV-2 infections in dogs and cats in Europe. […] From 26 February 2020, just one day after the first confirmed human case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Croatia, to 15 June 2020, dog and cat serum samples were collected from animals admitted to three veterinary facilities in Croatia. […] Total of 656 dogs and 131 cat serum samples were tested using an in-house microneutralisation test (MNT). […] Neutralising antibodies were confirmed in 0.76% cats and 0.31% dogs.
33233425 Among affected ACE2-network components connected with the SARS-Cov-2 interactome, we identified AGT (Angiotensinogen), CAT (Catalase), DPP4 (Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4), CCL2 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2), TFRC (Transferrin Receptor) and CAV1 (Caveolin-1), associated with cardiovascular risk factors.
33241028 The objective of this study was to investigate medication adherence and the associated influencing factors in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who were treated in a primary general hospital in Shanghai China during the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. […] Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test (CAT) had an average of 9 [3, 13], and 52.4% of patients used two-drug combination therapy. […] Medication adherence was both good in ordinary times and over the past 2 months of the pandemic, and 88.8% of patients had no acute exacerbation during the pandemic. […] The CAT scores of male patients <70 years old, and patients with general outpatient follow-up and regular gargling were reduced (P<0.05). […] Drug combination and doctor’s supervision were favorable factors affecting medication adherence during the 2 months of the pandemic, while possible depression was an unfavorable factor (P<0.05). […] During the pandemic, medication adherence in patients with COPD was similar to that in regular times, and was significantly related to drug combination, doctor’s supervision, and accompanying mood disorders. […] An effective way to improve patient adherence and disease control could be strengthening follow-up education and diagnosing and treating depression and other complications.
33295324 Bats were the original hosts of the CoV that causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), for example, with masked palm civet cats and dromedaries, respectively, the intermediate hosts of those two viruses. […] Research is ongoing regarding intermediate species for SARS-CoV-2, but one possibility is the large stray cat and dog population around the live animal market in Wuhan, China, where the pandemic is thought to have started.
33312949 Entry of SARS-CoV-2 into human cells is dependent on the SARS-CoV receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, and cathepsin. […] Cathepsin degrades the spike protein (S protein), which results in the entry of viral nucleic acid into the human host cell. […] Cathepsin B (Cat B) and cathepsin (Cat L) were also strongly expressed in various cell clusters within the glioblastoma microenvironment.
33317424 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been detected in domestic and wild cats. […] However, little is known about natural viral infections of domestic cats, although their importance for modelling disease spread, informing strategies for managing positive human-animal relationships and disease prevention. […] Here, we describe the SARS-CoV-2 infection in a household of two human adults and sibling cats (one male and two females) using real-time RT-PCR, an ELISA test, viral sequencing, and virus isolation. […] On May 5th, 2020, the cat-owners tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. […] Two days later, the male cat showed mild respiratory symptoms and tested positive. […] Four days after the male cat, the two female cats became positive, asymptomatically. […] Also, one human and one cat showed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. […] All cats excreted detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA for a shorter duration than humans and viral sequences analysis confirmed human-to-cat transmission. […] We could not determine if cat-to-cat transmission also occurred.
33338078 Although numerous strategies have tried to reduce inadequate antibiotic prescribing, antibiotics are still prescribed in 60% of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) cases in Catalonia (Spain). […] This study aims to explore service users’ experiences of ALRTIs, the quality and access to healthcare services, and health education. […] Three themes were identified: 1) risk perceptions and help-seeking; 2) treatment preferences and antibiotic use; and 3) relationship dynamics and communication with healthcare professionals. […] Trial registration The ISAAC-CAT study has been registered in the NCT registry, ID: NCT03931577.
33347434 Of the 22 different hosts we investigated, ACE2 proteins from dog, cat, and cattle were the most permissive to SARS-CoV-2, while bat and bird ACE2 proteins were the least efficiently used receptors. […] The absence of a significant tropism for any of the 3 genetically distinct bat ACE2 proteins we examined indicates that SARS-CoV-2 receptor usage likely shifted during zoonotic transmission from bats into people, possibly in an intermediate reservoir.
33348613 Therefore, the risk of a trans-species spreading event between domestic cats and humans is ever-present. […] Shortly after the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its rapid spread around the world, the role of domestic cats in the transmission cycle was questioned. […] In the present study, the first large-scale survey of antibody occurrence in the domestic cat population in Germany was conducted, in order to assess the incidence of naturally occurring human to cat transmission of SARS-CoV-2. […] The finding of SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positive serum samples in the domestic cat population of Germany, during a period when the incidence of human infection in the country was still rather low, indicates that human-to-cat transmission of SARS-CoV-2 happens, but there is no indication of SARS-CoV-2 circulation in cats.
33364494 Cattle and pig show 4 identical sites. […] Ferret, cat and dog possess 3 identical sites.
33384909 In the cat, two unique amino acid substitutions were discovered in the N (T247I) and matrix (T175M) proteins. […] Dog and cat SARS-CoV-2 isolates showed one and seven unique amino acid substitutions in ORF1ab, respectively.
33421326 An 11-year-old male mixed-breed cat, with exclusively indoor life, presented 3 cough episodes after the owners tested positive by RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. […] The cat was vaccinated, had no history of any previous disease, and tested negative for feline coronavirus (FCoV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV). […] Rectal sample collected from the cat was positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. […] Viral genome sequences recovered from human and cat samples showed an average 99.4% sequence identity. […] This is the first report of genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 recovered from a cat and its owner in Latin America.
33492566 The network pharmacology analysis suggests saikosaponins interact with the proteins CAT Gene CAT (Catalase) and Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHEK1); both of these enzymes play a major role in cell homeostasis and DNA damage during infection, suggesting a possible improvement in immune response toward COVID-19.
33521335 zoonotic transfer, the virus may have passed through the domestic cat whose very human-like ACE2 receptor and furin may have played some role in optimizing the traits required for zoonotic transfer.
33530620 Particularly in the Western world, many people live in very close contact with their pet cats, and natural infections of cats in COVID-19-positive households have been described in several countries. […] In this review, the European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (ABCD), a scientifically independent board of experts in feline medicine from 11 European Countries, discusses the current status of SARS-CoV infections in cats. […] The review examines the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and human-to-animal transmissions, including infections in domestic and non-domestic felids, as well as mink-to-human/-cat transmission. […] It summarises current data on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in domestic cats and the results of experimental infections of cats and provides expert opinions on the clinical relevance and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats.
33578295 SARS-CoV-2 enters macrophages through its Spike-protein aided by cathepsin (Cat) B and L, which also mediate SASP production. […] Since M-CSF and IL-34 control macrophage differentiation, we investigated the age-dependent effects of the Spike-protein on SASP-related pro-inflammatory-cytokines and nuclear-senescence-regulatory-factors, and CatB, L and K, in mouse M-CSF- and IL-34-differentiated macrophages. […] Furthermore, the S-protein elevated CatB expression in young male M-CSF-macrophages and young female IL-34-macrophages, whereas CatL was overexpressed in young male IL-34- and old male M-CSF-macrophages. […] Surprisingly, the S-protein increased CatK activity in young and aged male M-CSF-macrophages, indicating that CatK may be also involved in the COVID-19 pathology.
33590501 Specificity (reaction rate against expected negative samples) in three different column agglutionation (CAT) platforms against novel C19-kodecytes was >91%, which correlated with published literature. […] Manual tube serology was less sensitive than CAT.