carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase

Gene Context Sentence

Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of CAD gene in 52 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32265088 Computer-aided design (CAD) was used to produce the reusable components of the 3D face mask based on individual facial scans, which were acquired using a new-generation smartphone with two cameras and a face scanning application. […] 3D modelling can easily be done by CAD designers worldwide with free download software.
32337516 The procedure of creating customized face masks initially involved importing and aligning STL files of face scans and mask components in free CAD software. […] Within the limitations of this technical report, the present findings suggest that customized 3D-printed face masks with enhanced adaptation can be digitally designed using face scans and free CAD software.
32422233 Increasing age (analyzed in quartiles), male sex, BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 (reference: BMI 25-34 kg/m2), heart failure, CAD, and CKD or ESRD were found to have a significant univariate association with mortality.
32455058 A computer-assisted design (CAD) software was used to assemble the vertebral models into a simulator unit in anatomical order to produce an easily prototyped simulator.
32489711 We found diabetes was present in 10.0%, coronary artery disease/cardiovascular disease (CAD/CVD) was in 8.0%, and hypertension was in 20.0%, which were much higher than that of chronic pulmonary disease (3.0%). […] Specifically, preexisting chronic conditions are strongly correlated with disease severity [Odds ratio (OR) 3.50, 95% CI 1.78 to 6.90], and being admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.67 to 6.76); in addition, compared to COVID-19 patients with no preexisting chronic diseases, COVID-19 patients who present with either diabetes, hypertension, CAD/CVD, or chronic pulmonary disease have a higher risk of developing severe disease, with an OR of 2.61 (95% CI 1.93 to 3.52), 2.84 (95% CI 2.22 to 3.63), 4.18 (95% CI 2.87 to 6.09) and 3.83 (95% CI 2.15 to 6.80), respectively. […] Taken together, cardio-metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and CAD/CVD were more common than chronic pulmonary disease in COVID-19 patients, however, each comorbid disease was correlated with increased disease severity.
32545566 They had a lower BMI, and both coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertensive nephropathy were more frequent. […] A risk model combining BMI, CAD and hypertensive nephropathy gained a sensitivity of 94.1% and a negative predictive value of 97.8%, rendering it a valuable search test, but with low specificity (51.1%). […] To conclude, potential kidney recipients with a low BMI, CAD and hypertensive nephropathy should only be transplanted in the ESP in times of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic if the local health situation can provide sufficient ICU capacities.
32550223 Patients with diseases like cancer, diabetes, renal failure, CAD and pregnant women need special attention.
32568741 In multivariate analysis, age, coronary artery disease (CAD), elevated CRP levels, and presence of cardiac injury [odds ratio (OR) 10.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.42-46.27; P < 0.001) were found to be independent predictors of mortality. […] In subgroup analysis, including patients free of history of CAD, presence of cardiac injury on admission also predicted mortality (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.17-5.45; P = 0.018). […] Cardiac injury on admission is associated with worse clinical outcome and higher mortality risk in COVID-19 patients including patients free of previous CAD diagnosis.
32586744 Our survey of an experienced team of clinicians yielded concise guidelines to direct the management of CAD and structural heart disease patients during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic.
32602679 Among the confirmed cases, most of patients were young adults in the fifth and sixth decade of age group with mean age of 50.40 years. […] The most prevalent comorbidities were Diabetes mellitus (56%), Hypertension (48.83%), COPD/K-chest (12%), CAD (9.32%) and others (11.62%) like hypothyroidism, anemia, CVA etc. […] Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, COPD/K-Chest and CAD were found as major comorbid conditions.
32645300 Here we report a case of cold agglutinin disease (CAD), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), and pulmonary embolism as a presentation of COVID-19 infection. […] As exemplified in this case report, COVID-19 infection can lead to thromboembolism, CAD, and AIHA and it should be recognized as a potential etiology to such rare diseases.
32692464 Patients with severe/critical illness with COVID-19 infection have increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebrovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as compared to mild cases. […] Comorbidities, including CAD, cerebrovascular disease, and COPD, are more prevalent in hospitalized Chinese patients with severe/critical illness from COVID-19, and these patients are more likely to manifest with abnormal liver chemistries.
32729263 To describe the experience of implementing a deep learning-based computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the interpretation of chest X-ray radiographs (CXR) of suspected coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients and investigate the diagnostic performance of CXR interpretation with CAD assistance. […] A commercialized deep learning-based CAD system that can identify various abnormalities on CXR was implemented for the interpretation of CXR in daily practice. […] The diagnostic performance of radiologists with CAD assistance were evaluated based on two different reference standards: 1) real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) results for COVID-19 and 2) pulmonary abnormality suggesting pneumonia on chest CT. […] Using CXR, radiologists with CAD assistance identified rRT-PCR positive COVID-19 patients with sensitivity and specificity of 68.8% and 66.7%, respectively. […] Among 119 patients (male:female, 75:44; mean age, 69 years) with available chest CTs, radiologists assisted by CAD reported pneumonia on CXR with a sensitivity of 81.5% and a specificity of 72.3%. […] Radiologists with CAD assistance could identify patients with rRT-PCR-positive COVID-19 or pneumonia on CXR with a reasonably acceptable performance.
32732512 Our study aims to evaluate the impact of both cardiac and noncardiac comorbidities on a high-risk population with COVID-19 infection and coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to those without CAD. […] We compared the characteristics and outcomes of patients with and without CAD. […] Our study population had a higher proportion of females, and those with CAD were significantly older. […] The rates of cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, as well as heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were significantly higher in the CAD population. […] Lactate dehydrogenase was the only inflammatory marker significantly lower in the CAD group, while troponin and brain natriuretic peptide were significantly higher in this population. […] Patients with CAD also had significantly higher inpatient mortality (31% vs 20%, P = 0.046) and need for renal replacement therapy (33% vs 11%, P < 0.0001) compared to the non-CAD group. […] However, only age [odds ratio 1.041 (1.017-1.066), P = 0.001] was significantly associated with mortality in the overall population after adjusting for demographics and comorbidities, while the presence of CAD was not independently associated with mortality. […] Patients with CAD and COVID-19 have higher rates of comorbidities, inpatient mortality and need for renal replacement therapy compared to their non-CAD counterparts. […] However, CAD in itself was not associated with mortality after adjusting for other covariates, suggesting that other factors may play a larger role in the increased mortality and poor outcomes in these patients.
32740817 This study proposes a clinical computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system using CT features to automatically discriminate COVID-19 from non-COVID-19 pneumonia patients. […] All significant CT features were fed in five classifiers namely decision tree, K-nearest neighbor, naïve Bayes, support vector machine, and ensemble to evaluate the best performing CAD system in classifying COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cases. […] Our proposed CAD system obtained the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 0.965, 93.54%, 90.32%, and 91.94%, respectively, using ensemble (COVIDiag) classifier. […] • The proposed CAD system, COVIDiag, could diagnose COVID-19 pneumonia cases with an AUC of 0.965 (sensitivity = 93.54%; specificity = 90.32%; and accuracy = 91.94%).
32773400 Therefore, our objective is to develop an automated CAD system for the detection of COVID-19 samples from healthy and pneumonia cases using CXR images.
32788884 46.59% patients had one or more comorbidities, with hypertension being the most common (26.14%), followed by diabetes mellitus (12.50%) and coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CAD) (7.95%).
32794466 Comorbidities were diabetes in 14 (46.6%), hypertension 10 (33.3%) and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) in 10 (33.3%) patients respectively.
32819683 CAD and CKD/end stage renal disease [ESRD] remained independently associated with admission to hospital.
32825068 A meta-analysis was conducted analyzing the impact of (1) sex, (2) age, (3) CVD with coronary artery disease (CAD), (4) CAD alone, (5) CVD without CAD, (6) hypertension, (7) cerebrovascular diseases, and (8) diabetes on mortality. […] CAD increases risk of mortality by 1.90-fold (p < 0.05). […] CVD-CAD were found to increase risk up to 2.03-fold (p < 0.05). […] Sex, age, presence of CAD and/or other types of CVD, hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus increase mortality in patients with COVID-19.
32837721 As Mycoplasma pneumoniae and various viruses can cause cold agglutinin disease (CAD), the presence of CAD in COVID-19 patients should indicate the need of investigations for those pathogens.
32868956 It is an immediate priority to develop and test a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme based on deep learning (DL) to automatically localize and differentiate COVID-19 from community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) on chest X-rays. […] The proposed CAD framework is composed of two steps with DLs: the Discrimination-DL and the Localization-DL. […] This work represents the feasibility of using a novel deep learning-based CAD scheme to efficiently and accurately distinguish COVID-19 from CAP and detect localization with high accuracy and agreement with radiologists.
32896798 The patients who were successfully weaned from the ventilator were more likely to be younger in age, and none of them had heart failure or CAD.
32901451 This important work showed that comorbidities, such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease, are more prevalent in hospitalized Chinese patients with severe/critical COVID-19, and these patients are more likely to manifest with abnormal liver chemistries.
32905551 Patients in the ACE/ARB therapy group were older and had a higher incidence of HTN, coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, DM, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
32921216 Abbreviations: ICU: An intensive care unit; 2019-nCoV: 2019 novel coronavirus; ACEI: ACE inhibitor; ACS: Acute coronary syndrome; ARDS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome; AT1R: Ang II type 1 receptor; ATP: Adenosine triphosphate; ACC: American College of Cardiology; ACE: Angiotensin converting enzyme; Ang II: Angiotensin II; ARB: Angiotensin II receptor blocker; AV block: Atrioventricular block; CAD: Coronary artery disease; CVD: Cardiovascular disease; CT: Computerized tomography; CHF: Congestive heart failure; CHD: Coronary heart disease; CK-MB: Creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB; CRP: C-reactive protein; cTnI: Cardiac troponin I; EAT: Epicardial adipose tissue; ECMO: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; FDA: Food and Drug Administration; G-CSF: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; HFrEF: HF with a reduced ejection fraction; synhACE2: Human isoform of ACE2; IL: Interleukin; IABP: Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation; IP10: Interferon γ-induced protein 10 kDa; LPC: Lysophosphatidylcholine; Mas: Mitochondrial assembly receptor; MCP1: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MERS: Middle East respiratory syndrome; MIP1a: macrophage inflammatory protein 1a: MOF: Multiple organ failure; MI: Myocardial infarction; MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging; MYO: Myohe-moglobin; NT-proBNP: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; PCPS: Percutaneous cardiopulmonary assistance; rhACE2: Recombinant human ACE2; SARS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome; Th: T helper; RAS: Renin-angiotensin system; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-α; WHO: World Health Organization.
32992136 This study aims to develop and test a new computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme of chest X-ray images to detect coronavirus (COVID-19) infected pneumonia. […] CAD scheme first applies two image preprocessing steps to remove the majority of diaphragm regions, process the original image using a histogram equalization algorithm, and a bilateral low-pass filter. […] The CNN-based CAD scheme yields an overall accuracy of 94.5 % (2404/2544) with a 95 % confidence interval of [0.93,0.96] in classifying 3 classes. […] CAD also yields 98.4 % sensitivity (124/126) and 98.0 % specificity (2371/2418) in classifying cases with and without COVID-19 infection. […] However, without using two preprocessing steps, CAD yields a lower classification accuracy of 88.0 % (2239/2544). […] This study demonstrates that adding two image preprocessing steps and generating a pseudo color image plays an important role in developing a deep learning CAD scheme of chest X-ray images to improve accuracy in detecting COVID-19 infected pneumonia.
33015939 We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 2,039 Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 between March 7 to May 23, 2020 at a large suburban academic tertiary-care hospital near New York City. […] Age, shortness of breath, congestive heart failure (CHF), coronary artery disease (CAD), hypoxemia, and presentation from nursing homes were associated with admission. […] Male sex, CHF, CAD, and hypoxemia were associated with mortality.
33025310 In 69.2% of patients, STEMI was the first clinical presentation and symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 developed during the hospital stay; about one third of patients had a non-obstructive CAD, while patients with total occlusion had a high thrombus burden. […] A non-obstructive CAD was found in about one third of patients; on the other hand, in patients who had a total occlusion of their culprit artery, the thrombus burden was high.
33043168 Around 85% reported having any one or more comorbidities; Diabetes (62%), hypertension (49.2%) and CAD (17.5%) were the commonly reported comorbidities.
33062453 In addition, DL techniques that use CT images can deliver an accurate diagnosis faster than the RT-PCR test, which consequently saves time for disease control and provides an efficient computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. […] The shortage of publicly available datasets of CT images, makes the CAD system’s design a challenging task. […] The CAD systems in the literature are based on either individual CNN or two-fused CNNs; one used for segmentation and the other for classification and diagnosis. […] In this article, a novel CAD system is proposed for diagnosing COVID-19 based on the fusion of multiple CNNs.
33067538 The proposed CADx system utilized VGG16 as a pre-trained model and combination of conventional method and mixup as data augmentation methods. […] Splitting of training/validation/test sets was used when building and evaluating the CADx system. […] The three-category accuracy of the CAD system was 83.6% between COVID-19 pneumonia, non-COVID-19 pneumonia, and the healthy. […] In conclusion, this study was able to create an accurate CADx system for the 3-category classification. […] Source code of our CADx system is available as open source for COVID-19 research.
33089040 Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) may be atherosclerotic (A-SCAD) or non-atherosclerotic (NA-SCAD) in origin. […] Contemporary usage of the term ‘SCAD’ is typically synonymous with NA-SCAD. […] COVID-19 could induce a vascular inflammation localized in the coronary adventitia and periadventitial fat and contribute to the development of an A-SCAD of a vulnerable plaque in a susceptible patient. […] In this report we describe a case of a COVID-19 patient with past cardiac history of CAD who was admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). […] Coronary angiography demonstrated the culprit lesion in the proximal LAD that presented with a very complex and unusual morphology, indicative of an A-SCAD. […] The diagnosis of A-SCAD was supported by the presence of a mild stenosis in the same coronary segment in the last angiogram performed 3 years previously. […] A higher index of suspicion of A-SCAD is needed in patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 presenting with ACS. […] The proposed approach with ‘thrombolysis first’ for treating STEMI patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection could be unsafe in the case of underlying A-SCAD.
33106722 This created the need of geo scattered, small, and rapid manufacturing units along with a smart computer aided design (CAD) facility. […] The availability of 3D printing technologies and open source CAD design made it possible to overcome this need. […] We observe that 3D printing together with smart CAD design show promise to overcome the disruption caused by the lockdown of classical manufacturing units specially for medical and testing equipment, and protective gears.
33156390 The nasopharyngeal swab collection simulator was designed through different development steps: segmentation, computer-aided design (CAD), and 3D printing.
33188677 To elucidate the prognostic role of monocytes in the immune response of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) at risk for life-threatening heart and lung injury as major complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] From February to April 2020, we prospectively studied a cohort of 96 participants comprising 47 consecutive patients with CAD and acute SARS-CoV-2 infection (CAD + SARS-CoV-2), 19 CAD patients without infections, and 30 healthy controls. […] The numbers of CD14dimCD16+ non-classical monocytes in peripheral blood were remarkably low in CAD + SARS-CoV-2 compared with CAD patients without infection and healthy controls (P < 0.0001). […] Kaplan-Meier curves illustrate that CAD + SARS-CoV-2 patients with numbers below the median of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes (median 1443 cells/mL) reached EP significantly more often compared to patients with numbers above the median (log-rank 5.03, P = 0.025). […] Decreased numbers of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes are associated with rapidly progressive respiratory failure in CAD + SARS-CoV-2 patients.
33229434 Among patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), coronary artery disease (CAD) has been identified as a high-risk condition. […] We aimed to assess the clinical outcomes and mortality among patients with COVID-19 according to CAD status. […] CAD was defined as a history of prior myocardial infarction (MI), prior percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or CAD that was being medically treated. […] Of 1252 consecutive patients with COVID-19, 124 (9.9%) had concomitant CAD. […] Patients with CAD were older and had a higher prevalence of comorbidities compared with those without CAD. […] Although patients with CAD had a higher risk of all-cause mortality than patients without CAD (HR 3.01, 95% CI 2.27 to 3.99), this difference was no longer significant in the adjusted model (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.63). […] Results were consistent among patients with prior MI (adjusted HR (aHR) 0.87, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.41), prior PCI (aHR 1.10, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.62), prior CABG (aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.82), or CAD medically treated (aHR 0.84, 95% CI 0.29 to 2.44). […] Patients with COVID-19 and CAD have an exceedingly higher risk of mortality, which is mainly attributable to the burden of comorbidities rather than to a direct effect of CAD per se.
33331576 There was no difference between patients with and without COVID-19 in terms of smoking, asthma, diabetes, dementia, coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, chronic renal failure and arrhythmia (p>0.05). […] Older age (Odds ratio (OR), 1.061; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.041-1.082; p< 0.0001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR, 2.775; 95% CI: 1.128-6.829; p=0.026) and CAD (OR, 2.696; 95% CI: 1.216-5.974; p=0.015) were significantly associated with ICU admission. […] Older age (OR; 1.082; 95% CI: 1.056-1.109; p<0.0001), COPD (OR, 3.213; 95% CI: 1.224-8.431; p=0.018), CAD (OR, 6.252; 95% CI: 2.171-18.004; p=0.001) and congestive heart failure (CHF) (OR, 5.917; 95% CI 1.069-32.258; p=0.042), were significantly associated with mortality. […] Smoking, older age, COPD, and CAD were risk factors for ICU admission and mortality in patients with COVID-19.
33336936 To determine whether pre-hospitalization use of aspirin is associated with all-cause mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). […] We recruited 183 adult patients with CAD diagnosed with COVID-19, including 52 taking low-dose aspirin (mean [SD] age, 69.7 [1.1] years; 59.6% men) and 131 without using aspirin (mean [SD] age, 71.8 [0.9] years; 51.9% men), who were admitted in the Tongji hospital in Wuhan, China from January 10, 2020 to March 30, 2020. […] Moreover, the percentage of patients with CAD taking low-dose aspirin did not differ between those survivors and non-survivors (28.7% vs. […] Collectively, our study suggested that the pre-hospitalization use of low-dose aspirin was not associated with the clinical outcome of patients with CAD hospitalized with COVID-19 infections.
33343851 For the last few years, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has been increasing rapidly.
33344471 The proposed CAD aided in detecting and quantifying the extent of pulmonary involvement, helping to phenotype patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
33378410 We investigated whether coronary calcification as a marker for coronary artery disease (CAD) is appropriate for risk prediction in COVID-19.
33398608 Compared to survivors, patients who died were older (79.7 ± 10.8 vs 65.6 ± 14.1, p < 0.001), with a more complex cardiovascular history, including coronary artery disease (CAD, 33.3% vs 13.3%, p = 0.004), atrial fibrillation (23.8 vs 8.8, p = 0.011) and chronic kidney disease (CKD 35.7% vs 7.0%, p < 0.001). 30-day mortality was 20,9% in these patients; atrial fibrillation (OR 12.74, 95% CI 3.65-44.48, p < 0.001), ST-segment depression (OR 5.30, 95% CI 1.50-18.81, p = 0.010) and QTc-interval prolongation (OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.24-8.10, p = 0.016) at ECG admission were associated to an increased mortality risk. […] At multivariate analysis, after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes, CAD, and MCA admission, sinus rhythm (HR 2.7, CI 95% 1.1-7.0, p = 0.038) and LMWH (HR 8.5, 95% CI 2.0-36.6, p = 0.004) were confirmed to be independent predictors of increased survival.
33410867 The direct cost of this initiative was CAD$ 202 537, and displacement-related cost savings to patients totaled CAD$ 3 155 946.
33426474 Angiography revealed normal coronary arteries in patient 1, severe three-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) in patient 2, and insignificant bystander CAD in patient 3.
33487629 CASE REPORT A 48-year-old man was diagnosed with coronary artery disease (CAD) in 3 vessels (3VD) with an ejection fraction (EF) of 61% and chronic kidney disease (CKD) with routine hemodialysis.
33489588 This study intends to show that the current widely used computer-aided detection (CAD) may be helpful, but it is not an adequate replacement for the human input required to interpret mammograms accurately. […] However, this is not to discredit CAD’s ability but to further encourage the adoption of artificial intelligence-based algorithms into the toolset of radiologists. […] This study will use Hologic (Marlborough, MA, USA) and General Electric (Boston, MA, USA) CAD read images provided by patients found to be Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 6 from 2019 to 2020. […] Within our patient population, CAD imaging was shown to be statistically significant in misidentifying breast cancer, while radiologist interpretation still proves to be the most effective tool. […] Despite a low sample size due to COVID-19, this study found that CAD did have significant difficulty in differentiating benign vs. malignant lesions. […] CAD should not be ignored, but it is not specific enough. […] Although CAD often marks cancer, it also marks several areas that are not cancer. […] CAD is currently best used as an additional tool for the radiologist.
33503532 The computed tomography (CT) severity scores proved significantly higher in the patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease (CAD) than in those without these diseases (p = 0.010 and p = 0.042, respectively).
33550068 Artificial intelligence (AI) scientists are developing several intelligent computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tools in multiple imaging modalities, i.e., lung computed tomography (CT), chest X-rays, and lung ultrasounds.
33561622 Multivariable logistic regression (model-2) was used to examine the association between 7 candidate predictors (age, gender, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, smoking, pain-onset time, and coronary artery disease (CAD) history), PI-WSUR C-OCD, and admission month with prehospital delay.
33571758 Herein, we propose that antihistamines (anti-H1) and cationic amphiphilic drugs (CAD), specifically, have the capacity to disrupt virus entry and replication.
33582370 Meta-regression indicates that the difference in TAPSE between the non-survivors and survivors were affected by COPD (-0.183, p < 0.001) and PASP (-0.344, p = 0.039). but not age (p = 0.668), male (p = 0.821), hypertension (p = 0.101), diabetes (p = 0.603), CAD (p = 0.564), smoking (p = 0.140), and LVEF (p = 0.452).