neuropeptide S

Gene Context Sentence

Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of NPS gene in 86 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32226287 Clinical samples from all patients including nasopharyngeal swab (NPS)/sputum, urine, and feces were collected for serial virus RNA testing by standard qRT-PCR assay. […] There were positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA signals in all patients’ NPS and stool specimens but negative in all urine specimens. […] Based on our data on SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in stool and the possibility of a lag in viral detection in NPS specimens, the assessment of both fecal and respiratory specimen is recommended to enhance diagnostic sensitivity, and also to aid discharge decision before the role of viral RNA shedding in stool is clarified.
32308532 Physical examination was unremarkable. Influenza B, human coronavirus 229E, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were detected by PCR on initial nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NPS/OPS) swabs. […] Patient 2, a 44-year-old male, had symptoms of fever, cough, and chills. Influenza B and Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected by PCR on initial NPS/OPS swabs.
32310815 However, efforts to test have been hampered by limited reagents, limitations in the availability of swabs used for the collection of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens, limitations in personal protective equipment (PPE) for health care providers collecting the NPS specimens, and limitations in viral transport media for transporting the specimens.
32341142 This assay is the first rapid multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay including SARS-CoV-2 detection, and is fully compatible with a non-PCR trained laboratory or point-of-care (POC) testing.This evaluation was performed using 69 primary clinical samples (66 NPS, 1 BAL and 1 tracheal aspirate and 1 bronchial aspirate) comparing the SARS-CoV-2 detection with the currently WHO recommended RT-PCR (WHO-PCR) workflow.
32441380 Diagnosis of Severe Acute Respiratory Coranavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is currently based on real-time PCR (RT-PCR) performed on either nasopharyngeal (NPS) or oropharyngeal (OPS) swabs; saliva specimen collection can be used, too. […] The video shows how to properly collect secretions from the upper airways for nonserologic diagnosis of COVID-19 by nasopharyngeal swab (NPS), oropharyngeal swab (OPS), and deep saliva collection after throat-cleaning maneuver, all performed under videoendoscopic view by a trained ENT examiner. […] We recommend to perform NPS after elevation of the tip of the nose in order to reduce the risk of contamination from the nasal vestible, and to let it flow over the floor of the nasal cavity in parallel to the hard palate in order to reach the nasopharynx.
32459137 Archived nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and posterior oropharyngeal saliva specimens of 58 COVID-19 patients were tested with the Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay. […] SARS-CoV-2 was detected in either NPS or saliva specimens of all patients. […] Among them, 84.5% (49/58) tested positive in both NPS and saliva, 10.3% (6/58) tested positive in NPS only, and 5.2% (3/58) tested positive in saliva only. […] No significant difference in detection rate was observed between NPS and saliva (McNemar’s test p=0.5078). […] The detection rate was slightly higher for N2 (NPS 94.8% and Saliva 93.1%) than that of the E gene target (Saliva:89.7% vs 82.8%) on both specimen types. […] Significant earlier median Ct value was observed for NPS comparing to that of saliva on both E (26.8 vs 29.7, p=0.0002) and N2 gene target (29.3 vs 32.3, p=0.0002). […] The median Ct value of E gene target was significantly earlier than that of the N2 gene target for both NPS (26.8 vs 29.3, p<0.0001) and saliva (29.7 vs 32.3, p<0.0001). […] In conclusion, posterior oropharyngeal saliva and NPS were found to have similar detection rates in the point-of-care test for SARS-CoV-2 detection.
32486364 Nanomaterials comprising functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) and quantum dots and nanotechnology-associated innovative detection methods, vaccine design, and nanodrug production have shown immense promise for interfacing with pathogenic viruses and restricting their entrance into cells.
32499169 The preventive screening protocol consisted of nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) for all patients and physicians with symptoms and for unprotected contact infected cases, and serological physician evaluations every 15 days. […] It was necessary to screen 14 (47%) vascular surgeons with NPS after contact with infected colleagues, but none for unprotected contact with patients; all were found to be negative on NPS and serological evaluation.
32519842 First, nanoparticles (NPs) can offer alternative methods to classical disinfection protocols used in healthcare settings, thanks to their intrinsic antipathogenic properties and/or their ability to inactivate viruses, bacteria, fungi, or yeasts either photothermally or via photocatalysis-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.
32568341 The principle of a lateral flow immunoassay strip (LFIAs) consists of fixing SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein to the surface of the strip and coupling anti-human IgG with colloidal gold nanoparticles (Au NPs).
32569635 Consecutive SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection from paired specimens of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and sputum were carried out. […] SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected from NPS in 48 (70.6%) patients, and from sputum specimens in 30 (44.1%) patients. […] The median duration of viral shedding from sputum specimens (34 days, IQR 24-40 days) was significantly longer than from NPS (19 days, IQR 14-25 days; P<0.001). […] It was noteworthy that in 9 patients the viral RNA was detected in sputum after NPS turned negative. […] Chronic lung disease and steroids were associated with virus detection in sputum, and diabetes mellitus was associated with virus detection in both NPS and sputum.
32613877 The first prospective study consisted of 75 patients with COVID-19 who were ready for discharge and who had 2 consecutive negative results per nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) of viral samples retrieved with nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs). […] Because of detection of potential false negatives in that cohort, the NAAT results of paired OS and NPS samples from 50 additional recruits with COVID-19 during their recovery stage were used in a second prospective study to compare the diagnostic values of the 2 viral RNA sampling methods. […] For parallel NAAT of OS and NPS samples in the second study, McNemar’s test indicated that the difference between the frequencies of inconsistent parts of OS and NPS was statistically significant (P = 0.021). […] Cohen’s kappa coefficient for OS and NPS was 0.244, which is indicative of fair consistency. […] The NPS test has a risk of sending home more patients (59%) who still have the infection, while the OS test will make such an error in fewer patients (14%).
32621616 Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) are widely accepted as specimens for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019. […] However, the collection procedures for NPS specimens causes sneezing and coughing in most patients, which generate droplets or aerosol particles that are hazardous to the healthcare workers collecting these specimens. […] In this study, 95 patient-matched paired deep throat saliva (DTS) and NPS specimens from 62 patients were analyzed. […] The rates of detection for DTS (53.7%) and NPS (47.4%) samples were comparable (P = .13). […] In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-PCR was equivalent in DTS and NPS specimens.
32626720 Objective: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 by oropharyngeal swabs (OPS) and nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) is an essential method for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) management. […] Methods: In this prospective study, 120 paired NPS and OPS specimens were collected from 120 inpatients with confirmed COVID-19. […] The SARS-CoV-2 detection rate, sensitivity, and viral load were analyzed with regards NPS and OPS. […] Results: The SARS-CoV-2 detection rate was significantly higher for NPS [46.7% (56/120)] than OPS [10.0% (12/120)] (P < 0.001). […] The sensitivity of NPS was also significantly higher than that of OPS (P < 0.001). […] 20.5 days, respectively) and a longer maximum duration (41 vs. 39 days, respectively) in NPS than OPS. […] The mean cycle threshold (Ct) value of NPS (37.8, 95% CI: 37.0-38.6) was significantly lower than that of OPS (39.4, 95% CI: 38.9-39.8) by 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.2, P < 0.001), indicating that the SARS-CoV-2 load was significantly higher in NPS specimens than OPS. […] During NPS sampling, patients were significantly less likely to have nausea and vomit. […] Conclusions: NPS had significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 detection rate, sensitivity, and viral load than OPS. […] NPS could reduce droplets production during swabs. […] NPS should be recommended for diagnosing COVID-19 and monitoring SARS-CoV-2 load.
32629187 Subgroup analysis showed that PKH had higher detection rate, lower limit of detection and earlier Ct values than the other two groups for both NPS and saliva specimens.
32643529 Herein, in-silico drug discovery approaches have been utilized to identify potential natural products (NPs) as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease (Mpro) inhibitors. […] The MolPort database that contains over 100,000 NPs was screened and filtered using molecular docking techniques. […] Based on calculated docking scores, the top 5,000 NPs/natural-like products (NLPs) were selected and subjected to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations followed by molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) binding energy calculations.
32650305 The aims of this study were to evaluate the association of self-reported symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) test results in nonhospitalized individuals and to estimate the occurrence of symptoms associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in a larger nontested population. […] The associations between symptoms potentially related to SARS-CoV-2 infection and NPS results were calculated as adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% CIs by multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, sex, education, smoking habits, and number of comorbidities. […] Out of the 4785 respondents with known NPS test results, 4392 were not hospitalized. […] Among the 4392 nonhospitalized respondents, those with positive NPS tests (856, 19.5%) most frequently reported myalgia (527, 61.6%), olfactory and taste disorders (507, 59.2%), cough (466, 54.4%), and fever (444, 51.9%), whereas 7.7% were asymptomatic. […] Multiple regression analysis showed that olfactory and taste disorders (aOR 10.3, 95% CI 8.4-12.7), fever (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 2.0-3.1), myalgia (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.8), and cough (aOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6) were associated with NPS positivity. […] The combination of the four symptoms showed an AUC of 0.810 (95% CI 0.795-0.825) in classifying positive NPS test results and then was applied to the nonhospitalized and nontested sample (n=165,782).
32678672 Patient satisfaction with training on the MiniMed 670 G was determined by Net Promotor Score® (NPS®). […] The NPS rose from 78 to 84.
32750665 Saliva is an attractive option as an alternative for nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS), since saliva can be self-collected, is non-invasive, and sample quality is not dependent on the expertise of the collector. […] To compare SARS CoV-2 positivity on paired NPS and saliva samples. […] NPS and paired saliva samples were prospectively collected from symptomatic outpatients suspected of having COVID-19 and were tested by real-time RT-PCR. […] In total, 35/124 (26.6 %) samples were RT-PCR positive, with 33/35 positive by NPS (sensitivity = 94.3 % (95 % CI 81.4%-99.0%)) and 30/35 by pure saliva (sensitivity = 85.7 % (95 % CI 70.6%-93.7%)), for an overall agreement of 117/124 (94.4 %). […] The median cycle threshold value was significantly lower for NPS than for saliva (p = 0.0331). […] Real-time RT-PCR of pure saliva had an overall sensitivity for SARS CoV-2 RNA detection of 85.7 % when compared to simultaneously collected NPS.
32761244 The aim of this study was to compare patient-performed testing based on a morning saliva sample with the current standard testing method, healthcare worker-collected sampling via a nasopharyngeal swab (NPS). […] Paired NPS and saliva specimens were collected and processed within 5 hours of sample collection. […] Overall, 160 of the 217 (74%) participants tested positive for Covid-19 based on saliva, NPS, or both testing methods. […] The detection rate for SARS-CoV-2 was higher in saliva compared to NPS testing (93.1%, 149/160 vs 52.5%, 84/160, p<0.001). […] The concordance between the two tests was 45.6% (virus was detected in both saliva and NPS in 73/160), while 47.5% were discordant (87/160 tested positive for one while negative for the other).
32817233 We prospectively compared health care worker-collected nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) to self-collected anterior nasal swabs (ANS) and straight saliva for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 354 patients. […] The percent positive agreement between NPS and ANS or saliva was 86.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 76.7 to 92.9%) and 93.8% (95% CI, 86.0 to 97.9%), respectively. […] The percent negative agreement was 99.6% (95% CI, 98.0 to 100.0%) for NPS versus ANS and 97.8% (95% CI, 95.3 to 99.2%) for NPS versus saliva. […] More cases were detected by the use of NPS (n = 80) and saliva (n = 81) than by the use of ANS (n = 70), but no single specimen type detected all severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections.
32820725 Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab (NPS and OPS) collection is widely accepted as the preferred method for obtaining respiratory samples. […] Paired swab (NPS and OPS) and gargle samples were taken within 72 h of their diagnosis.
32842505 The present study aims to evaluate whether influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are associated with positive nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) testing to detect SARS-CoV-2. […] The probability of a positive SARS-CoV-2 NPS test result as a function of influenza or anti-pneumococcal vaccination was evaluated using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying analysis by age (<65 years, ≥65 years). […] SARS-CoV-2 NPS testing was reported by 6680 participants. […] Anti-pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations were associated with a decreased probability of a SARS-CoV-2 NPS positive test in the younger participants (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.41-0.91; OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.98; respectively).
32849976 The effect of air-borne nanoparticles (NPs) on human health is an active area of research, with clinical relevance evidenced by the current COVID-19 pandemic. […] To complement ongoing experimental work, we carried out finite-element simulations of the deposition of NPs on the epithelial layer of a well-established LOAC design. […] We solved the Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid flow in a three-dimensional domain and studied the particle transport using Eulerian advection-diffusion for fine NPs and Lagrangian particle tracking for coarse NPs.
32865458 It can be done on different samples: nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) or oropharyngeal swabs (OPS), and self-collected saliva. […] Diagnostic accuracy of NPS and OPS is suboptimal and the risk of contaminated aerosol dispersal is not negligible.
32871219 Encapsulation of antiviral agents into nanoparticles (NPs) has been shown to improve bioavailability, control release, and reduce side effects. […] However, there is little quantitative understanding of how the uptake of NPs into virally infected cells compares to uninfected cells. […] In this work, the uptake of fluorescently labeled polymer NPs was investigated in several models of rhinovirus (RV) infected cells. […] Different multiplicities of RV infections (MOI) and timings of NPs uptake were also investigated. […] In some cases, RV infection resulted in a significant increase of NPs uptake, but this was not universally noted. […] For HeLa cells, RV-A16 and RV-A01 infection elevated NPs uptake upon increasing the incubation time, whereas at later timepoints (6 h) a reduced uptake was noted with RV-A01 infection (owing to decreased cell viability). […] Beas-2B cells exhibited more complex trends: decreases in NPs uptake (cf. uninfected cells) were observed at short incubation times following RV-A01 and RV-A16 infection. […] At later incubation times (4 h), we found a marked decrease of NPs uptake for RV-A01 infected cells but an increase in uptake with RV-A16 infected cells. […] Where increases in NPs uptake were found, they were very modest compared to results previously reported for a hepatitis C/ Huh7.5 cell line model. […] An increase in RV dose (MOI) was not associated with any notable change of NPs uptake. […] These findings suggest that NPs entry into virally infected cells is a complex process, and further work is required to unravel the different factors which govern this.
32883744 The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and viral transport media, necessitating the search for alternate diagnostic specimens, such as saliva. […] We directly compared matched saliva and NPS specimens from symptomatic patients suspected of having COVID-19. […] An enhanced saliva specimen (i.e., strong sniff, elicited cough, and collection of saliva/secretions) was collected without transport medium prior to collection of NPS from 224 patients with symptoms deemed consistent with COVID-19. […] Both specimens were tested with the CDC 2019 nCoV real-time RT-PCR diagnostic panel (4 February 2020 version), with the NPS result used as the reference standard. […] The overall mean difference in cycle threshold (CT) values for the positive NPS and saliva specimens was -3.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], -5.78 to -1.44; P = 0.002). […] An enhanced saliva specimen performed as well as NPS for the qualitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic patients, although the overall mean viral load in saliva was lower.
32888905 Participants presenting with signs/symptoms suggesting SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent a nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and/or oropharyngeal swab (OPS), and saliva collection. […] One hundred fifty-five participants were recruited and samples pairs of NPS/OPS and saliva were collected.
32903195 Patient satisfaction with in-person care was measured using the Net Promoter Score (NPS) survey.
32903503 A total of 27 consecutive samples comprising 13 sputum, 12 nasopharyngeal swab (NPS), 1 urine and 1 stool sample were collected from 2 COVID-19 patients for sensitivity analysis.
32903849 We found 91% (CI 80-99%) sensitivity for saliva tests and 98% (CI 89-100%) sensitivity for nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) tests in previously confirmed COVID-19 patients, with moderate heterogeneity among the studies. […] Conclusion: Saliva tests offer a promising alternative to NPS for COVID-19 diagnosis.
32904707 In particular, virus-mimicking nanoparticles (NPs) such as self-assembled viral proteins, virus-like particles or liposomes, are able to replicate the infection mechanism and can not only be used as delivery system but also to study viral infections and related mechanisms. […] This review will provide a detailed description of the composition and replication strategy of CoVs, an overview of the therapeutics currently evaluated in clinical trials against SARS-CoV-2 and will discuss the potential of NP-based vaccines, targeted delivery of therapeutics using nanocarriers as well as using NPs to further investigate underlying biological processes in greater detail.
32910736 Across the United States, nursing practice acts (NPAs) have been revised to include provisions that promote full practice authority (FPA) for nurse practitioners (NPs). […] Modernized NPAs that facilitate FPA for NPs are imperative, especially now with the unprecedented health care crisis that the world now faces: Coronavirus Disease 2019.
32939576 In the context of an unprecedented shortage of nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) or sample transport media during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis, alternative methods for sample collection are needed. […] To address this need, we validated a cell culture medium as a viral transport medium, and compared the analytical sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in nasal wash (NW), oropharyngeal swab (OPS), and NPS specimens. […] OPS and NW specimens may therefore represent suitable alternatives to NPS for SARS-CoV-2 detection.
32974916 In 21 of 32 cases, no nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) was tested for SARS-CoV-2. […] Three patients tested positive for IgM and negative for IgG antibodies without any confirmation of infection through NPS.
32976596 We conducted a mass-screening study to compare the utility of nucleic acid amplification, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing, using nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and saliva samples from each individual in two cohorts of asymptomatic persons: the contact tracing cohort and the airport quarantine cohort. […] In positive individuals, viral load was highly correlated between NPS and saliva.
33047352 The legislative changes enabled NPs to bolster the national pandemic response by working to the full extent of their education and training. […] NPs now have a unique opportunity to educate others about the merit of their role and advocate for permanent legislative changes.
33053493 Diagnostic tests for SARS-COV-2 infection commonly use nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS). […] NPS and saliva samples pairs were prospectively collected from 891 COVID-19 suspected patients in Kuwait and analyzed using TaqPath™ COVID-19 multiplex RT-PCR. […] Of the 891 patients, 38.61 % (344/891) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 4.83 % (43/891) were equivocal, and 56.56 % (504/891) were negative with NPS by RT-PCR. […] From 344 confirmed cases for SARS-CoV-2 with NPS samples, 287 (83.43 %) (95 % CI, 79.14-86.99) were positive with saliva specimens. […] An analysis of the agreement between the NPS and saliva specimens demonstrated 91.25 % observed agreement (κ coefficient = 0.814, 95 % CI, 0.775-0.854).
33071679 We provide an example of effective nurse practitioner leadership in a drive-through testing site and demonstrate that NPs are ideally suited to provide leadership given their adaptability, ability to function in a variety of settings and extensive experience with care coordination and logistics.
33092065 RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal (NPS)/oropharyngeal swabs is the gold standard for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and viral load monitoring. […] The assay was used to test 337 OF and NPS specimens collected in parallel from 164 hospitalized patients; 50 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from a subgroup of severe COVID-19 cases were also analysed. […] Prolonged viral RNA shedding was observed up to 100 days from symptoms onset (DSO), with 32% and 29% positivity observed in OF and NPS samples, respectively, collected between 60 and 100 DSO. […] Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct assays on OF have high sensitivity and specificity to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA and provide an alternative to NPS for diagnosis and monitoring SARS-CoV-2 shedding.
33092563 Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) tested for SARS-CoV-2 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) repeatedly returned negative. […] This case emphasises the added value of bronchoscopy with BAL in the diagnostic work-up in case of high clinical suspicion and negative serial NPS in patients presenting with severe symptoms.
33097604 False negatives from nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) in SARS-CoV-2 are high. […] We performed EBC RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 genes (E, S, N, ORF1ab) on NPS-positive (n=16) and NPS-negative/clinically positive COVID-19 patients (n=15) using two commercial assays. […] EBC was positive in NPS negative/clinically positive patients in 66.6% (10/15) using the identical E and S (E/S) gene assay used for NPS, 73.3% (11/15) using the N/ORF1ab assay and 14/15 (93.3%) combined.
33109028 Plants are the primary source of diet, dietary supplements, botanical drugs, and natural products (NPs). […] Many plant-based formulations, dietary supplements, and NPs are being investigated in clinical trials in CoV-2 patients, and few have already shown positive results.
33126109 A total of 1639 nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) were analyzed with Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2. […] NPS taken 24 hours after the first collection confirmed the negativity of the 12 samples.
33133395 Following the separation of the antibody fraction using a protein-A column, the final yield of the purified antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 NPs was estimated to be 0.26 ± 0.05 % (absolute amount of 143.4 ± 25.2 ng, n=5) from 1 mL of pig sera. […] Based on the specific binding activity to NPs, a quantitative assay was performed using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. […] The SPR biosensor with the isolated antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 NPs was applied for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, and CoV strain 229E in culture fluid.
33158968 COVID-19 diagnosis is defined as (1) certain if confirmed by reverse transcriptase PCR assay of nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS); (2) suspected in case of new symptoms or CT scan evidence of interstitial pneumonia with negative/not performed NPS; (3) negative in case of neither symptoms nor radiological evidence. […] Prospective patients’ surveillance will continue with NPS and serology testing to provide a more comprehensive epidemiological picture, a biological insight on the impact of cytotoxic treatments on the immune response, and to protect patients and healthcare workers.
33164326 The applicability of protein nanoparticles (NPs) as vaccine scaffolds is promising to prevent infectious diseases, and they have been explored for a number of viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases. […] Many types of protein NPs exist, including self-assembling NPs, bacteriophage-derived NPs, plant virus-derived NPs, and human virus-based vectors, and these particular categories will be covered in this review. […] Furthermore, published clinical trials demonstrate the promise of applying these NP vaccine platforms, which include bacteriophage-derived NPs, in addition to multiple viral vectors that are currently used in the clinic.
33168521 The top three sampling methods for RVs were nasopharyngeal wash (NPW), mid-turbinate swab (MTS) and nasopharyngeal swab (NPS). […] Despite certain differences, the results of virus-specific subanalysis were basically consistent with RVs: MTS, NPW and NPS for influenza; MTS, NPS and NPW for influenza-a and b; saliva, NPW and NPS for rhinovirus and parainfluenza; NPW, MTS and nasopharyngeal aspirate for respiratory syncytial virus; saliva, NPW and MTS for adenovirus and sputum; MTS and NPS for coronavirus. […] This network meta-analysis provides supporting evidences that NPW, MTS and NPS have higher diagnostic value regarding RVs infection, moreover, particular preferred methods should be considered in terms of specific virus pandemic.
33173446 The personal impact of COVID on NPs is as varied as the symptoms of the patients.
33190093 These specimens were collected from the patients who have nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples being used for SARS-CoV-2 detection previously or simultaneously. […] The overall agreement was 96% between the lower respiratory tract (LRT) and NPS samples, suggesting that LRT specimens could be an option for patients who develop a productive cough or those receiving invasive mechanical ventilation.
33212817 Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) are the currently accepted standard for sample collection but are limited by their need for collection devices and sampling by trained healthcare professionals. […] The aim of this study was to compare the performance of saliva to NPS in an outpatient setting. […] This was a prospective study conducted at three centers, which compared the performance of saliva and NPS samples collected at the time of assessment center visit. […] Samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sensitivity and overall agreement determined between saliva and NPS. […] Of the 432 paired samples, 46 were positive for SARS-CoV-2, with seven discordant observed between the two sample types (four individuals testing positive only by NPS and three by saliva only). […] The observed agreement was 98.4% (kappa coefficient 0.91) and a composite reference standard demonstrated sensitivity of 0.91 and 0.93 for saliva and NPS samples, respectively. […] On average, the Ct values obtained from saliva as compared to NPS were higher by 2.76. […] This study demonstrates that saliva performs comparably to NPS for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. […] The use of saliva as an acceptable alternative to NPS could support the use of widespread surveillance testing for SARS-CoV-2.
33214073 Saliva is non-invasive specimen suitable for mass-screening, but data comparing utility of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and saliva in RT-LAMP test are lacking and it remains unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 could be detected by direct processing of samples without the need for prior RNA extraction saliva. […] In this study, we compared utility of saliva and NPS samples for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 by a novel RT-fluorescence LAMP (RT-fLAMP). […] The sensitivity and specificity of the RT-fLAMP with RNA extraction were 97% and 100%, respectively, with equivalent utility of NPS and saliva. […] However, sensitivity was decreased to 71% and 47% in NPS and saliva samples without RNA extraction, respectively, suggesting that RNA extraction process may be critical for the virus detection by RT-fLAMP.
33225995 Once weekly nurse collected nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) regardless of symptoms. […] NPS specimens were collected by the nurse following standard of care procedure.
33239380 The simple and painless process of saliva collection allows for widespread testing, but enthusiasm is hampered by variable performance compared to that of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples. […] We prospectively collected paired NPS and saliva samples from a total of 300 unique adult and pediatric patients. […] Performance of saliva and NPS was compared against the total number of positives regardless of specimen type. […] The overall concordances for saliva and NPS were 91.0% (273/300) and 94.7% (284/300), respectively. […] The values for positive percent agreement (PPA) for saliva and NPS were 81.4% (79/97) and 89.7% (87/97), respectively. […] Saliva yielded detection of 10 positive cases that were negative by NPS. […] For symptomatic and asymptomatic pediatric patients not previously diagnosed with COVID-19, the performances of saliva and NPS were comparable (PPA, 82.4% versus 85.3%). […] The overall values for PPA for adults were 83.3% and 90.7% for saliva and NPS, respectively, with saliva yielding detection of 4 fewer cases than NPS. […] However, saliva performance for symptomatic adults was identical to NPS performance (PPA of 93.8%). […] With lower cost and self-collection capabilities, saliva can be an appropriate sample choice alternative to NPS for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in children and adults.
33254928 It is reviewed that nanomaterials e.g. gold nanostructures, lanthanide-doped polysterene nanoparticles (NPs), graphene and iron oxide NPs can be potentially used to develop advanced techniques offered by colorimetric, amperometric, impedimetric, fluorescence, and optomagnetic based biosensing of SARS-CoV-2.
33269398 A nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and RT-PCR were used to indicate.
33276180 Two hundred and three HCWs were included in the study and tested by nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and rapid serological test (RST).
33281048 This LFIA platform detected only SARS-CoV-2 NP, not NPs from MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, or influenza H1N1.
33295640 ) mean value for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 ORF1 gene (mean, 27.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 25.62 to 28.52) in saliva methods than that of NPS (mean 28.24; 95% CI, 26.62 to 29.85) specimen although the difference is statistically nonsignificant (p > .05).
33303154 In fact, statistical reports of diagnostic tools show that their accuracy, specificity and sensitivity in the detection of COVID hampered by some challenges that can be eliminated by using nanoparticles (NPs).
33305304 Herein, combination molecular docking with dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations is used to theoretically design angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-containing remdesivir-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapy. […] The lisinopril molecules were directly demonstrated to be on the surface of L-PLGA NPs. […] With an increase in concentration, remdesivir loaded L-PLGA formed spherical NPs, and then underwent precipitation. […] Thus, the optimized remdesivir NPs in our study give insights into a rational platform for formulation design against this global pandemic.
33320825 The Phase II questionnaire, which focused on the results of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and serological tests, was mailed to all subjects who previously underwent NPS tests. […] Of 2703 subjects who completed the Phase II questionnaire, 694 (25.7%) were NPS positive. […] Compared to NPS-negative subjects, NPS-positive subjects had a higher incidence of fever (421/694, 60.7% vs 391/2009, 19.5%; P<.001 loss of taste and smell vs p cough for adults aged years the cutoff score was specificity: nps-positive subjects igg-positive subjects.> </.001>
33330376 In many countries, traditional practices, based on natural products (NPs) have been in use to slow down COVID-19 infection. […] In this study, a protocol was applied that combines mixed solvent molecular dynamics simulations (MixMD) with high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) to search NPs to block SARS-CoV-2 entry into the human cell. […] Detected stable sites were used for HTVs of 612093 NPs to identify molecules that could interfere with the S-protein-ACE2 interaction. […] In total, 19 NPs were selected with rescoring model. […] Our results support that NPs may provide tools to fight COVID-19.
33330813 Of the 189 subjects with negative NPS, 175 (92.6%) worked in COVID-free areas, and 14 (7.4%) in COVID+ areas. […] Of the 53 subjects with positive NPS, 44 (83.1%) worked in COVID-free areas and 9 (16.9%) worked in COVID+ areas. […] An apparent cause of infection could not be identified in 21 (39.6%) subjects with positive NPS. […] Among a total of 251 subjects, 80 (41.5%) of the 193 subjects with negative NPS and 16 (27.6%) of the 58 subjects with positive NPS had been vaccinated against the common flu. […] In conclusion, the vast majority of subjects with positive NPS came from COVID-free areas. […] The source of infection could not be identified in a significant portion of subjects with positive NPS. […] Personnel need better protection, more testing with NPS needs to be performed, and workplace layouts need to be re-thought.
33332825 This article addresses the potential causes of liver function abnormalities in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and management approaches for NPs focusing on preventing and alleviating liver injury.
33349561 Retrospective descriptive observational study using the «Net Promoter Score» (NPS), which classifies patients as promoters or detractors. […] During alert, accessibility obtained better results (NPS 70 vs. 
33351018 These results show the applicability of the advanced colorimetric sensor for the highly sensitive detection of airborne respiratory viruses.
33381313 Indeed, the diagnosis is based on the RT-PCR test on a nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and abnormal findings on the chest CT scan. […] However, the sensitivity of the NPS and the specificity of the chest CT scan are low. […] Results of BAL in case of negative NPS testing are underreported, especially in the subgroup of immunocompromised patients. […] The added value of BAL in the management of unstable, but noncritically ill patients, suspected of having SARS-CoV-2 infection despite one previous negative NPS and the side effects of the procedure for the patients and the health-care providers, were assessed during the epidemic peak of the COVID-19 outbreak in Belgium. […] This multicentric study included all consecutive noncritically ill patients hospitalized with a clinical and radiological suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection but with a negative NPS. […] All health-care workers remained negative for SARS-CoV-2 NPS and serology at the end of the study.
33401035 Self-administered buccal swab and saliva collection are convenient, painless, and safe alternatives to the current healthcare worker (HCW)-collected nasopharyngeal swab (NPS). […] A cross-sectional single-centre study was conducted on 42 participants who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 via an NPS within the past 7 days. […] The positive percent agreement (PPA), negative percent agreement (NPA), and overall agreement (OA) were calculated for the saliva samples and buccal swabs, and compared with NPS. […] With reference to NPS, the saliva test had PPA 66.7%, NPA 91.7%, and OA 69.0%; the buccal swab had PPA 56.7%, NPA 100%, and OA 73.8%. […] Self-collected saliva tests and buccal swabs showed only moderate agreement with HCW-collected NPS. […] Primary screening for SARS-CoV-2 may be performed with a saliva test or buccal swab, with a negative test warranting a confirmatory NPS to avoid false-negatives, minimize discomfort, and reduce the risk of spread to the community and HCWs.
33419948 Specimens collected under supervision perform comparably to NPS and can effectively identify individuals with higher risk of transmission in real life conditions.
33458958 Nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the top candidates to mediate successful DNA/mRNA vaccine delivery due to their unique properties, including unlimited possibilities for formulations, protective capacity, simultaneous loading, and delivery potential of multiple DNA/mRNA vaccines.
33467029 Potential antiviral natural products (NPs) have been discovered from plants of the global biodiversity, including extracts, compounds and categories of compounds with activity against several viruses of the respiratory tract such as HCoVs. […] However, the scarcity of natural products (NPs) and small-molecules (SMs) used as antiviral agents, especially for HCoVs, is notable. […] This is a review of 203 publications, which were selected using PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar, evaluates the available literature since the discovery of the first human coronavirus in the 1960s; it summarizes important aspects of structure, function, and therapeutic targeting of HCoVs as well as NPs (19 total plant extracts and 204 isolated or semi-synthesized pure compounds) with anti-HCoV activity targeting viral and non-viral proteins, while focusing on the advances on the discovery of NPs with anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, and providing a critical perspective.
33467982 Pediatric COVID-19 studies exploring the relationships between NPS and saliva viral loads, clinical and immunological profiles are lacking. […] Demographics, immunological profiles, nasopharyngeal swab (NPS), and saliva samples collected on admission, and hospital length of stay (LOS) were assessed in children below 18 years with COVID-19. […] NPS (r=-0.532, p<0.001) and saliva (r=-0.417, p<0.001) viral loads for all patients were inversely correlated with the days from symptom onset with statistical significance. […] Patients with cough, sputum, and headache had significantly higher saliva, but not NPS, viral loads. […] Higher saliva, but not NPS, viral loads were associated with total lymphopenia, CD3 and CD4 lymphopenia (all p<0.05), and were inversely correlated with total lymphocyte (r=-0.43), CD3 (r=-0.55), CD4 (r=-0.60), CD8 (r=-0.41), B (r=-0.482), and NK (r=-0.416) lymphocyte counts (all p<0.05). […] Interpretation: Saliva viral loads on admission in children correlated better with clinical and immunological profiles than NPS.
33475330 NPs can use this approach to promote patient safety and equitable healthcare.
33483539 The effect of size and composition of NPs on the coating with HCQ and CQ were obtained to propose the appropriate candidate for drug delivery.
33497932 The ePlex RP has received FDA clearance for nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens collected in viral transport media. […] In this study, we evaluated the performance of the ePlex RP panel in comparison to the NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel (NxTAG-RPP) from Luminex in use in our laboratory, not only for NPS but also for bronchoalveolar lavage specimens (BAL). […] The newest panel from GenMark Dx, the ePlex Respiratory Pathogen Panel 2 (RP2), which added the SARS-CoV-2 target to the RP was also evaluated for NPS. […] Verification of the performance of the ePlex RP for both NPS and BAL showed 93.3 % and 84.9 % total agreement with the NxTAG-RPP respectively.
33500385 Molecular diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2 infection characteristically involves the sampling of the throat or nasopharyngeal swab (NPS). […] The literature supports that saliva offers a simple sample collection method compared to technique-sensitive NPS and has the advantage of point-of-care testing for initial screening in community or hospital-based set-up.
33527375 Current diagnostic standards involve SARS-CoV-2 detection in nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS), but saliva is an attractive and non-invasive option for diagnosis. […] The objectives were to determine the performance of saliva in comparison to NPS for detecting SARS-CoV-2 and to compare the optimized home brew RT-PCR with a commercial RT-PCR. […] Paired NPS and saliva specimens were prospectively collected and tested by RT-PCR from patients presenting at an emergency room with signs and symptoms compatible with COVID-19. […] Among 174 patients with symptoms, 63 (36%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive in NPS using the optimized home-brew PCR. […] Kappa Cohen’s coefficient agreement between NPS and saliva was 0.96 (95%CI 0.90-0.99). […] Median Ct values in NPS versus saliva were 18.88 (IQR 15.60-23.58; Range: 11.97-38.10) versus 26.10 (IQR 22.75-30.06; Range: 13.78-39.22), respectively (p < 0.0001). […] A high sensitivity (98%) and agreement (kappa 0.96) in saliva samples compared to NPS was demonstrated when using an optimized home-brew PCR even when the viral load in saliva was lower than in NPS.
33536883 The loss of human lives and the implementation of physical distance measures in the pandemic and post-COVID scenarios may have a greater impact on the elderly, mostly in those with dementia, as OCD and other neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are quite prevalent in this population. […] Modeling NPS in animals relies in neuroethological perspectives since the response to new situations and traumatic events, critical for survival and adaptation to the environment, is strongly preserved in the phylogeny. […] This genetic model presents AD-like cognitive dysfunction and NPS-like phenotype, with high mortality rates at this age, mostly in males. […] However, when tested under neophobia conditions, this behavior’s incidence was low (delayed), and the temporal pattern was disrupted, suggesting worsening of this NPS-like profile.
33558826 The aim of this review study was to evaluate saliva specimen in comparison to nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimen in studies selected from various databases. […] However, more in vivo studies are required in order to compare and evaluate saliva and NPS specimens in detecting COVID-19 using various techniques.
33560749 Doctor of nursing practice-prepared NPs need to be equipped to take the lead in post-COVID recovery and the challenges the US health care system faces through an increased emphasis on curricula and clinical experiences focused on health disparities, community health, and health promotion.
33560753 We describe a nurse practitioner (NP) and physician assistant (PA)-led initiative to implement telemonitoring (TM) of noncritical patients with COVID-19 by critical care NPs and PAs (C19TM) for early detection of decompensation and early transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU).
33564223 Multifunctional metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as innovative theranostic agents that enable sustainable treatment and effective diagnosis. […] Here we have reviewed current advances in the use of theranostic metallic NPs to fight against COVID-19, and discussed the application as well as limitations associated with nanotechnology-based theranostic approaches. […] This review verified the potential use of some metal-based NPs as anti-viral nanotheranostic agents. […] Metal-based NPs could act as carriers that enable the sustainable and targeted delivery of active anti-viral molecules, or as diagnostic agents that allow rapid and sensitive diagnosis of viral infections.
33575241 NPS utility in the diagnostic algorithm of COVID-19 should be reconsidered.
33579579 We investigated whether the association between symptoms (or cluster of symptoms) and positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) was different according to patients’ age and presence of multimorbidity. […] The study included 6680 participants in the EPICOVID19 web-based survey, who reported information about symptoms from February to June 2020 and who underwent at least one NPS. […] The associations between symptoms (and clusters of symptoms) and positive NPS were investigated through multivariable binary logistic regression in the sample stratified by age (<65 vs ≥65 years) and number of chronic diseases (0 vs 1 vs ≥2). […] The direct association between taste/smell disorders and positive NPS was weaker in older and multimorbid patients than in their younger and healthier counterparts. […] Having reported no symptoms reduced the chance of positive NPS by 86% in younger (95%CI: 0.11-0.18), and by 46% in older participants (95%CI: 0.37-0.79).
33581365 Investigate the feasibility of saliva sampling as a noninvasive and safer tool to detect SARS-CoV-2 and to compare its reproducibility and sensitivity with nasopharyngeal swab samples (NPS). […] The concordance between NPS and saliva results was 95.2% (Kappa: 0.727, p = 0.0001) and 97.9% without considering inconclusive results (Kappa: 0.852, p = 0.0001). […] Saliva had a lower number of inconclusive results than NPS (0.9% vs 1.9%). […] Furthermore, saliva shows a significantly higher concentration of both total RNA and viral copies than NPS. […] Our results indicate that saliva is as effective as NPS for the identification of SARS-CoV-2-infected asymptomatic patients, sample pooling facilitates the analysis of a larger number of samples with the benefit of cost reduction.