Gene Context Sentence

Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of SI gene in 22 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32007643 We present estimates of the basic reproduction number, R0, of 2019-nCoV in the early phase of the outbreak. […] With the estimated intrinsic growth rate (γ), we estimated R0 by using the serial intervals (SI) of two other well-known coronavirus diseases, MERS and SARS, as approximations for the true unknown SI. […] The mean estimate of R0 for the 2019-nCoV ranges from 2.24 to 3.58, and is significantly larger than 1.
32024089 The 2019-nCoV cases might have been under-reported roughly from 1 to 15 January 2020, and thus we estimated the number of unreported cases and the basic reproduction number, R0, of 2019-nCoV. […] We used the serial intervals (SI) of infection caused by two other well-known coronaviruses (CoV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) CoVs, as approximations of the unknown SI for 2019-nCoV to estimate R0. […] The reporting rate after 17 January 2020 was likely to have increased 21-fold (95% CI: 18-25) in comparison to the situation from 1 to 17 January 2020 on average. […] The under-reporting was likely to have occurred during the first half of January 2020 and should be considered in future investigation.
32348050 Consultations with patients with chronic diseases should ideally be done via telemedicine and treatments administered at home if possible. […] Les consultations avec les patients atteints de maladies chroniques devraient se faire idéalement par télémédecine et les traitements administrés à domicile si possible. […] En cas d’infection avérée, on aura tendance à diminuer voire interrompre les traitements immunomodulateurs ou biologiques sauf si la maladie est en phase sévèrement active.
32348052 The safety of NSAIDs, corticosteroids and renin-angiotensin inhibitors in COVID-19 is challenged. […] ACE inhibitors and sartans upregulate the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the pulmonary receptor for SARS-CoV-2. […] Any possible clinical impact of these treatments on COVID-19 infection remains to be clarified; in the meantime, they should be continued. […] La sécurité des AINS, corticoïdes et antihypertenseurs agissant sur le système rénine-angiotensine lors d’infection à COVID-19 est mise en question. […] Les corticoïdes systémiques n’ont pas montré de bénéfice lors d’infections virales, y compris à d’autres coronavirus ; ils sont à éviter, sauf si prescrits pour une autre indication. […] Les IEC et les sartans modulent l’expression de l’enzyme de conversion de l’angiotensine 2 (ACE2), récepteur pulmonaire du SARS-CoV-2.
32348056 The rapid progression of COVID-19 is an organizational challenge for all hospitals. […] To secure the patient overflow, the Department internal medicine of the University Hospital of Lausanne increased nurse and medical workforces as well as bed capacity by 65 %, with extraordinary help from other departments. […] The implemented crisis management stood upon three pillars : a crisis management team, steering documents and internal communication. […] In this new form, the Department had already taken care of 442 COVID-19 admissions by April 16, 2020. […] Alongside organizational challenges, clinical issues such as rapid respiratory distress, clinical suspicions with negative PCR and treatment uncertainties in the absence of sufficient evidence were overcome. […] La progression rapide du COVID-19 constitue un défi organisationnel pour tous les hôpitaux. […] Pour anticiper un afflux important de patients, le service de médecine interne du CHUV a ainsi augmenté ses forces de travail médico-soignantes et son nombre de lits de 65 % avec un soutien extraordinaire de toute l’institution. […] Si les enjeux organisationnels ont été majeurs, la gestion des situations complexes, comme les manifestations respiratoires et les multiples incertitudes cliniques diagnostiques et thérapeutiques, ont été également une gageure.
32399517 In this paper, we propose a SI(R) model in order to forecast the evolution of the epidemic under the hypothesis of not permanent immunity. […] This model offers an analytical solution to the problem of finding possible steady states, providing the following equilibrium values: Susceptible about 17%, Recovered (including deceased and healed) ranging from 79 to 81%, and Infected ranging from 2 to 4%. […] However, it is crucial to consider that the results concerning the recovered, which at first glance are particularly impressive, include the huge proportion of asymptomatic subjects. […] On the basis of these considerations, we analyse the situation in the province of Pesaro-Urbino, one of the main outbreaks of the epidemic in Italy.
32432461 Since the outbreak of the severe respiratory disease caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), the use of face masks has become ubiquitous worldwide to control the rapid spread of this pandemic. […] Although the surgical grade N95 mask provides the highest level of protection currently available, its filtration efficiency for sub-300 nm particles is around 85% due to its wider pore size (∼300 nm). […] We first developed a flexible nanoporous Si-based template on a silicon-on-insulator wafer using KOH etching and then used the template as a hard mask during a reactive ion etching process to transfer the patterns onto a flexible and lightweight (<0.12 g) polymeric membrane. […] Pores with sizes down to 5 nm were achieved with a narrow distribution. […] Theoretical calculations show that airflow rates above 85 L/min are possible through the mask, which confirms its breathability over a wide range of pore sizes, densities, membrane thicknesses, and pressure drops. […] Finally, the membrane is intrinsically hydrophobic, which contributes to antifouling and self-cleaning as a result of droplets rolling and sliding on the inclined mask area.
32442941 We found an anti-inflammatory effect with reduction of longterm cardiovascular events, a very infrequent heart disease due to a lysosomal effect of the drug, and at the hemodynamic level hypotension, tachycardia, and QT interval prolongation, exacerbated when combined with azithromycin. […] Se realizó una revisión no sistemática en la literatura médica orientada a la búsqueda de información acerca de su seguridad y eficacia como antimaláricos y antivirales, así como en el tratamiento prolongado de enfermedades reumatológicas. […] Se halló un efecto antiinflamatorio con reducción de eventos cardiovasculares a largo plazo, una cardiopatía muy infrecuente por un efecto lisosomal del fármaco, y a nivel hemodinámico hipotensión, taquicardia, y prolongación del intervalo QT, exacerbado si se combina con azitromicina. […] Sin embargo, la tasa de eventos adversos cardíacos de la hidroxicloroquina y la cloroquina fue baja.
32452648 Serial interval (SI), time between the symptom onsets of a primary case and a second case, is a key epidemiological parameter. […] We estimated SI of COVID-19 in Shenzhen, China based on 27 records of transmission chains. […] The three models were compared using the corrected Akaike information criterion (AICc). […] Using a Weibull distribution, we estimated mean SI at 5.9 days (95%CI: 3.9-9.6) and a standard deviation (SD) at 4.8 days (95%CI: 3.1-10.1). […] Using a logistic growth model, we estimated the basic reproduction number in Shenzhen at 2.6 (95%CI: 2.4-2.8). […] The SI of COVID-19 is relative shorter than that of SARS and MERS, other two beta coronavirus diseases, which suggests the iteration of the transmission was rapid.
32458823 The new coronavirus disease is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-Cov-2 virus, considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) an international public health emergency that may have negative consequences during breastfeeding. […] The methodological quality of the articles has been assessed using the “Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation” (GRADE). […] When direct breastfeeding is favoured, the appropriate respiratory hygiene measures always have to be considered. […] El nuevo coronavirus es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por el virus SARS-Cov-2, considerada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) una emergencia de salud pública de interés internacional (ESPII), la cual podría tener consecuencias negativas durante la lactancia materna. […] Los estudios analizados afirmaron que lo mejor para el recién nacido es ser alimentado con la leche materna, ya que se analizaron muestras de leche de madres infectadas por coronavirus detectándose la presencia de anticuerpos del virus en las mismas, siendo un factor protector contra la infección del virus. […] La lactancia materna en recién paridas con SARS-CoV-2 es muy recomendable para el recién nacido, si el estado de salud de la madre y del neonato lo permiten, favoreciéndose el amamantamiento de forma directa y teniendo siempre las medidas adecuadas de higiene respiratoria. […] En el caso de que el estado de salud de la madre no permita el amamantamiento directo se debería alimentar con leche materna extraída previamente de su madre y sin pasteurizar, o procedente de un banco de leche.
32519993 Revisione della letteratura e nuove prospettive nell’era SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). […] In ambito medico legale, durante alcune procedure non particolarmente complesse, possono verificarsi errori che potrebbero non essere necessariamente ricondotti a colpa medica. […] È stata fatta una revisione della legislazione greca, riguardante casi di colpa medica in otorinolaringoiatria, allo scopo di identificare i casi giuridici riguardanti errori medici durante tali procedure. […] L’analisi dei casi ha evidenziato che alcuni errori medici possono causare complicanze serie, anche in caso di errori minimi che deviano di poco dallo standard di trattamento. […] Per questo motivo, in alcuni casi può essere difficile distinguere tra complicanze prevedibili e non prevedibili. […] Alcuni errori, che si verificano durante procedure mediche di routine, potrebbero essere considerati non prevedibili e per questo classificati come errori “quasi” senza colpa. […] Viene infine fornito un breve commento sulle opportunità di migliorare ulteriormente il sistema di responsabilità medica dopo l’emergenza SARS-CoV-2. […] In medical practice, during certain procedures that usually are not regarded highly demanding, some skill-based errors, that might not be considered as medical malpractice, may occur. […] In fact, such errors can be caused by factors beyond the physician’s control.A review of Greek case law regarding medical malpractice in otorhinolaryngology was performed to identify cases of lawsuits that concerned medical errors during routine procedures. […] The analysis of the cases showed that some medical errors may cause serious complications, even if deviation from the standard of medical care is minimal. […] Certain medical errors from routine medical procedures might be considered unpreventable and, therefore, classified as almost no-fault errors.
32523142 Despite the large amount of information that has been developed in recent weeks, it has been estimated that this disease can have up to 72% underdiagnosis, which requires clinical tools that are simple, easily accessible, and increase the detection of cases in a feasible way and that yield information with prognostic value. […] It is worth mentioning that the USP has proven to be an efficient and easily reproducible technique for diagnosing heart failure and pleuro-pulmonary pathologies, especially in critically ill patients. […] Evidence of the usefulness of USP in COVID-19 is still scarce, although preliminary, it seems to be a sensitive technique whose findings have a high gold standard. […] In this brief review we will emphasize its technical aspects, the advantages and disadvantages, and finally a proposal for the approach in this type of patient. […] Si bien el conocimiento de la naturaleza de la enfermedad es dinámico, publicándose cada día decenas de artículos científicos sobre nuevas características de COVID-19, la presentación típica es la de neumonía intersticial. […] A pesar de la gran cantidad de información que se ha desarrollado en las últimas semanas, se ha estimado que esta enfermedad puede llegar a tener hasta un 72% de infradiagnóstico, por lo que se requieren herramientas clínicas que sean simples, de fácil acceso, que incrementen la detección de casos de forma factible y que arrojen información con valor pronóstico. […] Ante esta necesidad, han surgido algunas propuestas para poder realizar el diagnóstico, seguimiento y respuesta al tratamiento de los pacientes con COVID-19, tales como el ultrasonido pulmonar (USP). […] La evidencia de la utilidad de USP en COVID-19 es aún escasa, aunque de forma preliminar, parece ser una técnica sensible cuyos hallazgos tienen una elevada gold-standard. […] En esta breve revisión haremos énfasis en sus aspectos técnicos, las ventajas y desventajas, y por último una propuesta para el abordaje en este tipo de pacientes.
32523150 The pandemic caused by the SARS-COV-2 or COVID-19 virus has been a global challenge given its high rate of transmission and lack of effective therapy or vaccine. […] La pandemia por el virus SARS-COV-2 causante de la enfermedad COVID-19 representa un reto mundial dada su alta tasa de transmisión y ausencia de una terapia efectiva o vacuna. […] Sin embargo, el tiempo no ha sido suficiente para evaluar su efectividad clínica con el adecuado rigor científico que precede a la prescripción de medicamentos. […] El uso de cloroquina/hidroxicloroquina, azitromicina y esquemas antivirales ha sido propuesto por diversos grupos, apoyado por series de pacientes limitada en número. […] Si bien puede representar la única esperanza para muchos enfermos, es importante conocer los principales efectos adversos asociados al uso de estas drogas y seleccionar mejor a los pacientes que puedan beneficiarse de ellas.
32523608 The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly stressed public health systems around the world and exposed the gaps in health care for underserved and vulnerable populations. […] In the context of the social determinants of health, focusing on health system preparedness is paramount for protecting the health of all of society. […] Faced with old threats (e.g., re-emergence of measles), disruptive new technologies (e.g., electronic cigarettes), increased challenges (e.g. drug-resistant organisms), and new threats (e.g., the current pandemic, climate change, politicized misinformation), our health systems must be robust and resilient. […] Ensuring health equity in a pandemic requires robust and resilient public health infrastructure during normal times. […] La pandemia de COVID-19 ha sometido a una gran exigencia a los sistemas de salud pública de todo el mundo y ha puesto de manifiesto las deficiencias de la atención de la salud de las poblaciones desatendidas y vulnerables. […] En el contexto de los determinantes sociales de la salud, es fundamental centrarse en la preparación del sistema de salud para proteger la salud de toda la sociedad. […] Frente a las viejas amenazas (p. ej., la reaparición del sarampión), las nuevas tecnologías perturbadoras (p. ej., los cigarrillos electrónicos), los mayores desafíos (p. ej., los microorganismos resistentes a los medicamentos) y las nuevas amenazas —la pandemia actual, el cambio climático, la politización de la información y la desinformación sobre la salud— nuestros sistemas de salud deben ser sólidos y resilientes. […] Si se fortalecen los sistemas de salud reforzando sus competencias básicas y siguiendo las recomendaciones formuladas en materia de liderazgo, participación de los interesados, acreditación, recolección de datos y recursos de financiación la infraestructura de atención de la salud estará mejor preparada y será más equitativa. […] Para garantizar la equidad en la salud en una pandemia se requiere una infraestructura de salud pública sólida y resiliente en épocas normales. […] Em todo o mundo, a pandemia da COVID-19 tem colocado ênfase significativa nos sistemas públicos de saúde e exposto as lacunas nos cuidados em saúde para populações carentes e vulneráveis. […] No contexto dos determinantes sociais da saúde, o foco na prontidão dos sistemas de saúde é fundamental para a proteção de toda a sociedade. […] Diante de antigas ameaças (por exemplo, o ressurgimento do sarampo), novas tecnologias disruptivas (por exemplo, cigarros eletrônicos), maiores desafios (por exemplo, organismos resistentes a drogas) e novas ameaças - a atual pandemia, as mudanças climáticas, a politização da informação/informação sobre saúde - os sistemas de saúde devem ser robustos e resilientes. […] A resposta desses sistemas deve incluir grupos que agora sofrem de forma desproporcional, os pobres e os vulneráveis. […] A infraestrutura de saúde estará mais bem preparada e será mais equitativa se os sistemas forem fortalecidos com base em competências essenciais e seguirem recomendações com foco em liderança, envolvimento das partes interessadas, acreditação, coleta de dados e recursos de financiamento. […] Garantir a equidade na saúde em uma pandemia requer uma infraestrutura pública de saúde robusta e resiliente, mesmo em tempos normais.
32527341 The clinical data of COVID-19 patients treated in the Second People’ Hospital of Fuyang City from January 20th to February 18th in 2020 were retrospective analyzed, including the demographic and epidemiological date, vital signs and hematology indexes, etc. on admission. […] Patients were divided into the normal type (set as normal group) and severe/critical type (set as severe group) according to the COVID-19 treatment plan classification standard published by National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China. […] The differences between two groups were compared, and the variables with statistical significance were incorporated in the multivariate binary unconditional Logistic regression analysis to screen the risk factors of severe/critical type. […] Risk factors were summarized to establish an early warning model, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was carried out to evaluate the significance of the early warning model in the screening of critically COVID-19. […] (1) Compared with normal group, patients in severe group were older, and with higher proportion of basic diseases, higher body mass index (BMI), higher incidence of tachypnea, persistent high fever, peripheral blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) < 0.95, while the white blood cell count (WBC), CD4+T lymphocyte, CD8+T lymphocyte, lymphocyte count (LYM) were decreased obviously, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid a protein (SAA), and CT showed higher incidence of multi-pulmonary lobe lesions. […] There were no significant differences of gender, travel history from Wuhan, smoking history, shock index (SI) and CD4+/CD8+ ratio between the two groups. […] (2) Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that age ≥ 60 years old [odds ratio (OR) = 1.620, P = 0.031], combined with underlying diseases (OR = 1.521, P = 0.044), persistent high fever (OR = 2.469, P = 0.014), WBC < 2.0×109/L and/or LYM < 0.4×109/L (OR = 3.079, P = 0.006), pulmonary multilobar lesions (OR = 1.367, P = 0.047), and IL-6 ≥ 30 ng/L (OR = 2.426, P = 0.010) were the risk factors of severe/critical COVID-19. […] Two points were scored for age ≥ 60 years old, with underlying diseases, persistent high fever and IL-6 ≥ 30 ng/L, 3 points for WBC < 2.0×109/L and/or LYM < 0.4×109/L, 1 point for pulmonary multilobar lesions, and totally calculated as early warning model scores. […] The early warning model score of the severe group was significantly higher than that of the normal group (9.33±2.79 vs. […] (4) The ROC curve analysis showed the area under ROC curve (AUC) of early warning model on the early screening of severe/critical patients in COVID-19 was 0.944, and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 0.903-0.985; and the sensitivity and specificity were 93.3% and 72.0% respectively while the cut-off was 6.5. […] The establishment of early warning model could help to screen severe/critical patients at an early stage, with certain significance for guiding treatment.
32538806 The document is based on the scarce evidence on SARS/Cov-2 and the experience of the authors in handling COVID-19 in their institutions, including specialists from Andalusia, Cantabria, Catalonia, Madrid and the Valencian Community. […] The authors defined different priorities for the different clinical situations in PC. […] Emergency/urgency (life-threatening or urgent even in normal situation), highpriority/elective urgency (potentially dangerous if postponed for more than 1 month), intermediate/electivepriority (it is recommended not to delay more than 6 months), low priority/delayed (can be postponed more than 6 months). […] According to this classification, the working panel agreed on the distribution of the different diagnostic, therapeutic and follow-up scenarios for PC. […] The risk of severe morbidity as a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection may out weigh the risk of PC morbidity/mortalityin many men; therefore, in the short term it is unlikely that delays in diagnosis or treatment can led to worse cancer outcomes. […] The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a challenge for our health system, which raises several considerations in the treatment of patients with PC. […] The redistribution of surgical procedures according to the degrees of priority is essential during the period of the pandemic and the transition to the new normality. […] Emergencia/urgencia (riesgo vital o urgencia aún en situación de normalidad), alta prioridad/urgencia electiva (potencialmente peligrosa si se pospone más de 1mes), prioridad intermedia/electiva (se recomienda no retrasar más de 6 meses), baja prioridad/demorable (se puede posponer más de 6 meses). […] Acorde a esta clasificación, el grupo de trabajo consensuó la distribución de los diferentes escenarios diagnósticos, terapéuticos y de seguimiento del CP. […] La pandemia COVID-19 ha resultado en un desafío para nuestro sistema de salud, lo que plantea varias consideraciones en el tratamiento de pacientes con CP. […] La planificación de los procedimientos quirúrgicos en función de los grados de prioridades imprescindible durante el periodo de pandemia y transición a la nueva normalidad. […] La reorganización de las consultas incluyendo la adaptación a las medidas de seguridad para profesionales y pacientes y el desarrollo de un programa de telemedicina es altamente recomendable.
32538809 Reducing the usage of chemotherapy with respiratory toxicity and increasing the usage ofgrowth factors during chemotherapy treatment are the main stakeholders of treatment. […] Besides, providing active surveillance on non-risk factor clinical stage I is alsoa priority. […] In case of positive COVID-19, it is important to high light that the vast majority of patients are tentatively cured. […] Establecer la prioridad de los distintos procedimientos diagnósticos, terapéuticos y de seguimiento sobre el cáncer de testículo para adaptarse adecuadamente a la situación asistencial de cada centro. […] Valorar precauciones y adaptaciones durante la situación actual de desescalada en el curso de la pandemia COVID-19. […] Valoración del paciente con cáncer de testículo en presencia de pandemia infectiva.MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Revisión de la literatura relevante publicada hasta la fecha, elaboración de un borrador corregido por técnica de grupo nominal modificada, hasta obtener un documento de consenso entre los autores. […] En ausencia de evidencia científica relevante la mayor parte de las publicaciones, y la conclusiónde los autores, abogan por priorizar los procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos de los pacientes. […] Una vez priorizados será menos complejo adaptar los recursos limitados a las necesidades más perentorias de los pacientes. […] En el cáncer de testículo los procedimientos iniciales que incluyen ecografía escrotal, orquiectomía, estudio de extensión, y tratamiento complementario si necesario, son de máxima necesidad. […] Se propone disminuir el uso de fármacos con potencial toxicidad respiratoria, y aumentar la utilización de los estimulantes de colonias hematopoyéticas, asi como promover seguimiento activo en estadio clínico I sin factores de riesgo. […] Las revisiones de pacientes con remisiones estables pueden retrasarse razonablemente sin excesivo riesgo de progresion en estadios bajos.
32538812 Offer some recommendations or guidelines during the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of diagnosis, treatment and follow-upin the field of Reconstructive Urology. […] MATERIAL AND METHOD: The document is based on the evidence on SARS/Cov-2 and the authors’ experience in managing COVID-19 in their institutions, including specialists from Andalusia, Madrid, Cantabria,the Valencian Community and Catalonia. […] A web and PubMed search was performed using “SARS-CoV-2”, “COVID-19”, “COVID-19 Urology”, “COVID19 urology complications”, “COVID-19 reconstructive surgery”. […] Finally, a definitive version was made, agreed by all the authors (5/22/2020). […] RESULTS: The authors defined the following surgical priorities for Urological Reconstructive Surgery: Emergency/Urgency (life-threatening or emergencies still in anormal situation), Elective Urgency/High priority (potentially dangerous pathology if postponed for more than 1month), Elective Surgery/Intermediate priority (pathology with little probability of being dangerous but it is recommended not to delay more than 6 months), Delayed surgery/Low priority (non-dangerous pathology if it is postponed for more than 6 months). […] According to this classification, the Working Group agreed on the distribution of the different surgical scenarios of Reconstructive Urology. […] In addition, consensus was reached on recommendations regarding the diagnosis and follow-up of pathology in the field of Reconstructive Urology. […] CONCLUSIONS: Tools should be implemented to facilitate the gathering of the medical visit and diagnostic tests. […] Redistribution of surgical procedures based on priority degrees is necessary during the pandemic and transition period. […] Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura (17/5/2020) y tras la técnica de grupo nominal modificada debido a las restricciones extraordinarias, se realizó un primer borrador para unificar criterios y llegar a un rápido consenso. […] Finalmente, se realizó una versión definitiva, consensuada por todos los autores el 22/5/2020. […] RESULTADOS: Los autores definieron para la Cirugía Urológica Reconstructiva las siguientes prioridades quirúrgicas: Emergencia/Urgencia (Riesgo vital o urgencias aún en situación de normalidad), Urgencia Electiva/Alta prioridad (Patología potencialmente peligros asi se pospone más de 1 mes), Cirugía Electiva/Prioridad intermedia (Patología con poca probabilidad de ser peligrosa pero se recomienda no retrasar más de 6 meses), Cirugía demorable/Baja prioridad (Patología no peligrosa si se pospone más de 6 meses). […] Acorde a esta clasificación, el Grupo de Trabajo consensuó la distribución de los diferentes escenarios quirúrgicos de la Urología Reconstructiva. […] CONCLUSIONES: Deben implementarse mecanismos que faciliten la agrupación de la visita médica y pruebas diagnósticas. […] La redistribución de los procedimientos quirúrgicos en función de los grados de prioridad es imprescindible durante el periodo de pandemia y de transición.
32538819 It has also affected urology residents, depriving them of training at their usual workplaces and forcing them to support COVID units. […] This has implied not only the loss of daily activities, but also the uncertainty of job opportunities for the final year residents. […] A review of the current literature on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the de-escalation process, on resident training has been carried out using web search and PubMed. […] The situation of the residents has been analyzed, both through the information generated by recent literature and by the personal experience of the authors, from different areas: evaluation systems, educational and surgical aspects, as well as healthcare work. […] As a result of this review, the negative impact of the crisison urology resident training can be observed, especially in the surgical field, but new learning opportunities or new forms of communication with the patient can also be observed. […] These educational and healthcare resources invite the urology resident in particular, and the medical society in general, to reinvent themselves. […] The aim of this article is to analyse the training of the urology resident in the de-escalation phase. […] Similarly, the emerging educational resources during the pandemic are synthesized, inviting the reader, and especially the urology resident, to continue their training and learningin these times of uncertainty. […] Del mismo modo ha afectado a los residentes de urología, privándoles a los mismos de seguir la formación en sus puestos de trabajo habituales y viéndose obligados a dar apoyo a las unidades COVID. […] Esto ha implicado, no solamente la pérdida de las actividades diarias, si no también la incertidumbre en oportunidades laborales de los residentes de último año. […] Se ha realizado una revisión de la literatura actual sobre el impacto de la pandemia por COVID-19, así como el proceso de desescalada, en la formación de los residentes mediante búsqueda web y en PubMed. […] Se ha analizado la situación de los residentes, tanto através de la información generada por la reciente literatura, como por la experiencia personal de los autores, desde distintos ámbitos: sistemas de evaluación, aspectos docentes y quirúrgicos, así como labor asistencial. […] Como resultado de esta revisión, se observa el impacto negativo de la crisis en la formación del residente en urología, especialmente, en el ámbito quirúrgico, pero también se observan nuevas oportunidades de aprendizaje o formas de comunicación con el paciente. […] Estos recursos educativos y asistenciales invitan al residente de urología en concreto, y a la sociedad médica en general, a reinventarse. […] El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar la formación del residente en urología en la fase de desescalada. […] Del mismo modo, se sintetizan los recursos educativos emergentes durante la pandemia, invitando al lector y, de manera especial al residente de urología, a continuar su formación y aprendizaje ante estos tiempos de incertidumbre.
32558518 If anything is certain, one manifestation of this pandemic is the large amount of information available in the scientific field, many of these without the same methodological rigor as before the pandemic, accentuating the responsibility of the reader to critically analyze all the information. […] Estimado Director: Leyendo su artículo “La pandemia por el nuevo coronavirus covid-19”, me gustaría profundizar los aportes de la sintomatología de esta enfermedad. […] La literatura es rica en cuanto a cefaleas, convulsiones e ictus en los pacientes graves, si bien la primera y última de estas pueden deberse a complicaciones sistémicas de este novel coronavirus, se ha reportado una mayor incidencia de eventos en pacientes con antecedentes de manifestaciones neurológicas(3,4). […] Guidon et al. critican la falta de rigurosidad en los reportes sobre manifestaciones neuromusculares(4). […] Si algo es seguro, una manifestación de esta pandemia es la gran cantidad de información disponible en el ámbito científico, muchas veces de estas sin la misma rigurosidad metodológica anterior a la pandemia, acentuando la responsabilidad del lector de analizar críticamente toda la información.
32566233 There is no report on the serial interval (SI) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Iran, the present report aims to estimate the SI and time-varying R of COVID-19 in western Iran. […] The close contacts of the confirmed cases were identified using telephone follow up of patients and their contacts. […] The SI distribution was used as an alternative. […] We fitted different models using the clinical onset dates of patients with their close contact (infector-infectee). […] Also, we applied a ‘serial interval from sample’ approach as a Bayesian methodology for estimating reproduction number. […] The mean and standard deviation of the SI were estimated as 5.71 and 3.89 days. […] Also, the R varied from 0.83 to 1.84 for 7-day time-lapse and from 0.95 to 1.54 for a 14-day time-lapse using moving average data, respectively.
32578805 The authors performed a series of simulations to estimate the demand for hospital beds (health micro-regions) as well as to ICU beds, and mechanical ventilators (health macro-regions) under different scenarios of intensity (infection rates equivalent to 0.01, 0.1, and 1 case por 100 inhabitants) and time horizons (1, 3, and 6 months). […] The results reveal a critical situation in the system for meeting this potential demand, with numerous health micro-regions and macro-regions operating beyond their capacity, compromising the care for patients, especially those with more severe symptoms. […] Second, the expansion of the number of available beds will be the key. […] The third message involves the regionalized organization of health services, whose design may be adequate in situations of routine demand, but which suffer additional challenges during pandemics, especially if patients have to travel long distances to receive care. […] O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a pressão sobre o sistema de saúde no Brasil decorrente da demanda adicional gerada pela COVID-19. […] Para tanto, foi realizado um conjunto de simulações para estimar a demanda de leitos gerais (microrregiões de saúde), leitos de UTI e equipamentos de ventilação assistida (macrorregiões de saúde) em diferentes cenários, para intensidade (taxas de infecção equivalentes a 0,01, 0,1 e 1 caso por 100 habitantes) e horizontes temporais (1, 3 e 6 meses). […] Os resultados evidenciam uma situação crítica do sistema para atender essa demanda potencial, uma vez que diversas microrregiões e macrorregiões de saúde operariam além de sua capacidade, comprometendo o atendimento a pacientes principalmente aqueles com sintomas mais severos. […] Em primeiro lugar, é necessário reduzir a velocidade de propagação da COVID-19 na população brasileira, permitindo um tempo maior para a reorganização da oferta e aliviando a pressão sobre o sistema de saúde. […] A construção de hospitais de campanha é importante, tanto em locais onde historicamente há vazios assistenciais como também naqueles onde já se observa uma pressão do lado da demanda. […] A terceira mensagem diz respeito à organização regionalizada dos serviços de saúde que, apesar de adequada em situações de demanda usual, em momentos de pandemia este desenho implica desafios adicionais, especialmente se a distância que o paciente tiver de percorrer for muito grande. […] El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la presión sobre el sistema de salud brasileño, ocasionada por la demanda adicional de camas hospitalarias y equipos de ventilación mecánica, generada por el COVID-19. […] Para tal fin, se realizó un conjunto de simulaciones, con el fin de estimar la demanda de camas generales (microrregiones de salud), camas de UTI y equipamientos de ventilación asistida (macrorregiones de salud) en diferentes escenarios, según la intensidad (tasas de infección equivalentes a 0,01, 0,1 y 1 caso por 100 habitantes) y horizontes temporales (1, 3 y 6 meses). […] Los resultados evidencian una situación crítica del sistema para atender esa demanda potencial, ya que diversas microrregiones y macrorregiones de salud operarían más allá de su capacidad, comprometiendo la atención a pacientes principalmente aquellos con los síntomas más graves. […] En primer lugar, es necesario reducir la velocidad de propagación del COVID-19 en la población brasileña, permitiendo un tiempo mayor para la reorganización de la oferta y aliviando la presión sobre el sistema de salud. […] La construcción de hospitales de campaña es importante, tanto en lugares donde históricamente existen lagunas asistenciales, como también en aquellos donde ya se observa una presión por parte de la demanda. […] El tercer mensaje se refiere a la organización por regiones de los servicios de salud que, a pesar de ser adecuada en situaciones de demanda habitual, en momentos de pandemia, este diseño implica desafíos adicionales, especialmente si la distancia que el paciente tuviera que recorrer fuera muy lejana.