ACE2


angiotensin I converting enzyme 2


Gene Context Sentence


Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of ACE2 gene in 498 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
31996437 Since the SARS-CoV outbreak in 2002, extensive structural analyses have revealed key atomic-level interactions between the SARS-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV. […] First, the sequence of 2019-nCoV RBD, including its receptor-binding motif (RBM) that directly contacts ACE2, is similar to that of SARS-CoV, strongly suggesting that 2019-nCoV uses ACE2 as its receptor. […] Second, several critical residues in 2019-nCoV RBM (particularly Gln493) provide favorable interactions with human ACE2, consistent with 2019-nCoV’s capacity for human cell infection. […] Third, several other critical residues in 2019-nCoV RBM (particularly Asn501) are compatible with, but not ideal for, binding human ACE2, suggesting that 2019-nCoV has acquired some capacity for human-to-human transmission. […] Last, while phylogenetic analysis indicates a bat origin of 2019-nCoV, 2019-nCoV also potentially recognizes ACE2 from a diversity of animal species (except mice and rats), implicating these animal species as possible intermediate hosts or animal models for 2019-nCoV infections. […] Our decade-long structural studies on the receptor recognition by SARS-CoV have identified key interactions between SARS-CoV spike protein and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV.
32015507 Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor-angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)-as SARS-CoV.
32022370 Herein, we suggest four potential drug candidates (an ACE2-based peptide, remdesivir, 3CLpro-1 and a novel vinylsulfone protease inhibitor) that could be used to treat patients suffering with the 2019-nCoV.
32023682 According to current observations, 2019-nCoV is weaker than SARS in pathogenesis, but has stronger transmission competence; it’s mechanism of cross-species spread might be related with angiotensin-converting enzyme Ⅱ (ACE2), which is consistent with the receptor SARS-CoV. […] 目前数据表明:2019-nCoV比SARS-CoV毒力弱,但传播力强;造成其能够跨种传播的受体可能与SARS-CoV一致,都是血管紧张素转化酶Ⅱ(ACE2)。
32061198 The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infected patients by binding human ACE2, leading to severe pneumonia and highly mortality rate in patients. […] ACE2 plays an important role in the RAS, and the imbalance between ACE/Ang II/AT1R pathway and ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas receptor pathway in the RAS system will lead to multi-system inflammation. […] The binding of COVID-19 and ACE2 resulted in the exhaustion of ACE2, and then ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas receptor pathway was inhibited. […] 新型冠状病毒通过与人体血管紧张素转化酶2(ACE2)结合感染产生重症肺炎,传染性强,病死率高,目前无确切有效的治疗方式。 […] ACE2是肾素-血管紧张素系统(RAS)的重要组成部分,RAS系统中ACE/Ang II/AT1R通路与ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas受体通路失衡将导致多系统炎症。 […] 新型冠状病毒与ACE2的结合导致ACE2耗竭,ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas受体通路受到抑制,RAS系统失衡,使新型冠状病毒肺炎患者病死率升高。
32065055 The epitope of CR3022 does not overlap with the ACE2 binding site within 2019-nCoV RBD. […] Interestingly, some of the most potent SARS-CoV-specific neutralizing antibodies (e.g. m396, CR3014) that target the ACE2 binding site of SARS-CoV failed to bind 2019-nCoV spike protein, implying that the difference in the RBD of SARS-CoV and 2019-nCoV has a critical impact for the cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies, and that it is still necessary to develop novel monoclonal antibodies that could bind specifically to 2019-nCoV RBD.
32075877 We also provide biophysical and structural evidence that the 2019-nCoV S protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with higher affinity than does severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV S.
32077659 ACE2 expression in liver tissue for novel coronavirus was analyzed based on single cell sequencing (GSE115469) data. […] RNA-Seq method was used to analyze Ace2 expression and transcription factors related to its expression in liver tissues at various time-points after hepatectomy in mouse model of acute liver injury with partial hepatectomy. t-test or Spearman rank correlation analysis was used for statistical analysis. Results: ALT and AST were abnormally elevated in some patients with novel coronavirus infection, and the rate and extent of ALT and AST elevation in severe NCP patients were higher than those in non-severe patients. […] Liver tissue results of single cell sequencing and immunohistochemistry showed that ACE2 was only expressed in bile duct epithelial cells of normal liver tissues, and very low in hepatocytes. […] In a mouse model of acute liver injury with partial hepatectomy, Ace2 expression was down-regulated on the first day, but it was elevated up to twice of the normal level on the third day, and returned to normal level on seventh day when the liver recovered and hepatocyte proliferation stopped. […] Whether this phenomenon suggests that the bile duct epithelial cells with positive expression of Ace2 participate in the process of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy deserves further study. […] In RNA-Seq data, 77 transcription factors were positively correlated with the expression of ACE2 (r > 0.2, FDR < 0.05), which were mainly enriched in the development, differentiation, morphogenesis and cell proliferation of glandular epithelial cells. Conclusion: We assumed that in addition to the over activated inflammatory response in patients with NCP, the up-regulation of ACE2 expression in liver tissue caused by compensatory proliferation of hepatocytes derived from bile duct epithelial cells may also be the possible mechanism of liver tissue injury caused by 2019 novel coronavirus infection. 目的: 探索和分析新型冠状病毒感染肺炎(NCP)患者发生肝损伤的可能机制。 […] 方法: 综合分析已报道文献中NCP患者的丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)、天冬氨酸转氨酶(AST)等肝酶变化情况与疾病状态的相关性;基于肝组织单细胞测序数据(GSE115469)分析新冠病毒受体血管紧张素转换酶2(ACE2)在肝组织中的表达;采用RNA-seq方法分析半肝切除急性肝损伤小鼠模型肝切除后不同时间点残肝组织中Ace2的表达及与其表达相关的转录因子。 […] 肝组织单细胞测序和免疫组织化学检测结果显示,ACE2在正常肝组织中只在胆管上皮细胞表达,而在肝细胞中表达极低。 […] 在小鼠半肝切除急性肝损伤模型中,Ace2在术后第1天的急性损伤期表达下调,但在术后第3天的肝细胞增殖高峰期表达升高至正常水平的2倍以上,并在肝脏恢复、肝细胞增殖停止的第7天恢复到正常水平。 […] 这一现象是否提示ACE2表达阳性的胆管上皮细胞参与了部分肝切除后的肝再生过程,值得进一步的研究。 […] RNA-seq数据中有77个转录因子与Ace2表达呈正相关(r > 0.2,FDR < 0.05),主要富集在腺体腔管表皮细胞的发育、分化、形态生成以及细胞增殖等功能。 […] 结论: 除了NCP患者过度激活的炎症反应可导致肝损伤外,胆管上皮细胞来源肝实质细胞的代偿性增生所致病毒受体ACE2在肝组织中的表达上调,可能是新型冠状病毒感染肝细胞造成肝组织损伤的可能机制。.
32081428 Molecular modeling revealed that 2019-nCoV RBD has a stronger interaction with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] A unique phenylalanine F486 in the flexible loop likely plays a major role because its penetration into a deep hydrophobic pocket in ACE2. […] ACE2 is widely expressed with conserved primary structures throughout the animal kingdom from fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, to mammals. […] Structural analysis suggests that ACE2 from these animals can potentially bind RBD of 2019-nCoV, making them all possible natural hosts for the virus. 2019-nCoV is thought to be transmitted through respiratory droplets. […] However, since ACE2 is predominantly expressed in intestines, testis, and kidney, fecal-oral and other routes of transmission are also possible. […] Finally, antibodies and small molecular inhibitors that can block the interaction of ACE2 with RBD should be developed to combat the virus.
32094336 It has been reported that ACE2 is the main host cell receptor of 2019-nCoV and plays a crucial role in the entry of virus into the cell to cause the final infection. […] RNA-seq profiling data of 13 organ types with para-carcinoma normal tissues from TCGA and 14 organ types with normal tissues from FANTOM5 CAGE were analyzed in order to explore and validate the expression of ACE2 on the mucosa of oral cavity. […] Further, single-cell transcriptomes from an independent data generated in-house were used to identify and confirm the ACE2-expressing cell composition and proportion in oral cavity. […] The results demonstrated that the ACE2 expressed on the mucosa of oral cavity.
32094589 We also demonstrate how different lineage B viruses can recombine to gain entry into human cells, and confirm that human ACE2 is the receptor for the recently emerging SARS-CoV-2.
32100877 In this study, we used systematic comparison and analysis to predict the interaction between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of coronavirus spike protein and the host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] The interaction between the key amino acids of S protein RBD and ACE2 indicated that, other than pangolins and snakes, as previously suggested, turtles (Chrysemys picta bellii, Chelonia mydas, and Pelodiscus sinensis) may act as the potential intermediate hosts transmitting SARS-CoV-2 to humans.
32117569 The proposal is a biologic that blocks 2019-nCoV entry using a soluble version of the viral receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), fused to an immunoglobulin Fc domain, providing a neutralizing antibody with maximal breath to avoid any viral escape, while also helping to recruit the immune system to build lasting immunity. […] The sequence of the ACE2-Fc protein is provided to investigators, allowing its possible use in recombinant protein expression systems to start producing drug today to treat patients under compassionate use, while formal clinical trials are later undertaken.
32127517 The 2019-nCoV was different from SARS-CoV, but shared the same host receptor the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32129518 This idea is based on observations that the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) very likely serves as the binding site for SARS-CoV-2, the strain implicated in the current COVID-19 epidemic, similarly to strain SARS-CoV implicated in the 2002-2003 SARS epidemic.
32132184 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cellular receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that is causing the serious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. […] Here, we present cryo-electron microscopy structures of full-length human ACE2 in the presence of the neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 with or without the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the surface spike glycoprotein (S protein) of SARS-CoV-2, both at an overall resolution of 2.9 angstroms, with a local resolution of 3.5 angstroms at the ACE2-RBD interface. […] The ACE2-B0AT1 complex is assembled as a dimer of heterodimers, with the collectrin-like domain of ACE2 mediating homodimerization. […] The RBD is recognized by the extracellular peptidase domain of ACE2 mainly through polar residues.
32138266 Both viruses utilize the same receptor-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-for invading human bodies.
32141569 Studies suggest that the human receptor for COVID-19 may be angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor similar to that of SARS-CoV.
32142651 Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming.
32149769 Whether GX_P2X uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the cell receptor was investigated by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) -mediated silencing of ACE2. […] The spike protein of coronavirus GX_P2V shares 92.2% amino acid identity with that of 2019-nCoV isolate Wuhan-hu-1, and uses ACE2 as the receptor for infection just like 2019-nCoV.
32155444 We show that SARS-CoV-2 S uses ACE2 to enter cells and that the receptor-binding domains of SARS-CoV-2 S and SARS-CoV S bind with similar affinities to human ACE2, correlating with the efficient spread of SARS-CoV-2 among humans.
32159318 与严重急性呼吸系统综合征冠状病毒(SARS-CoV)一样,2019新型冠状病毒(2019-nCoV)亦是以血管紧张素转化酶2(ACE2)为受体感染细胞。 […] ACE2作为肾素-血管紧张素系统(RAS)的重要成员,与ACE互为拮抗,二者的平衡与失衡在维护心血管系统生理功能、机体炎症反应、肺损伤等过程中均发挥着重要作用,而其在冠状病毒感染与致病机制中亦发挥着非常重要的作用。 […] 目前为止,在7种人畜共患的冠状病毒中有3种以ACE2为受体感染细胞,即SARS-CoV、人类冠状病毒NL63(HCoV-NL63)和2019-nCoV,了解这些病毒与ACE2的相互作用对于冠状病毒感染的预防和治疗意义重大。 […] 本文对相关文献进行了梳理,总结了ACE2及RAS系统在冠状病毒感染、致病过程中发挥的作用,对于2019-nCoV防治过程中存在的争议进行了归纳,针对ACE2和RAS系统中可能存在的2019-nCoV的治疗靶点进行了展望。.
32166940 血管紧张素转化酶2(ACE2)作为受体介导2019-nCoV进入细胞,是目前最有可能防治COVID-19的靶点之一。 […] ACE2是肾素-血管紧张素系统重要的组成部分,以此系统为靶点的ACE抑制剂和血管紧张素受体阻断剂等药物,是目前临床治疗高血压、心肌重构和心力衰竭等心血管疾病的最主要的药物之一。
32167153 It has been known since the 2003 SARS epidemic that the receptor critical for SARS-CoV entry into host cells is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] The S1 domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV attaches the virus to its cellular receptor ACE2 on the host cells. […] We thought that it is timely to explain the connection between the SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 and the rationale for soluble ACE2 as a potential therapy.
32167747 In a short time following the outbreak, it has been shown that, similar to SARS-CoV, COVID-19 virus exploits the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to gain entry inside the cells. […] This finding raises the curiosity of investigating the expression of ACE2 in neurological tissue and determining the possible contribution of neurological tissue damage to the morbidity and mortality caused by COIVD-19. […] Here, we investigate the density of the expression levels of ACE2 in the CNS, the host-virus interaction and relate it to the pathogenesis and complications seen in the recent cases resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak.
32169119 The novel coronavirus uses the same receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that for SARS-CoV, and mainly spreads through the respiratory tract.
32170560 It has been known that, the novel Coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, which is considered similar to SARS-CoV and originated from Wuhan (China), invades human cells via the receptor angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). […] Moreover, lung cells that have ACE2 expression may be the main target cells during 2019-nCoV infection.
32174094 SARS-CoV通过结合血管紧张素转换酶2(ACE2)进入细胞,病变与病程相关,DAD渗出期一般见于病程10~14 d死亡患者。
32186711 Intravenous infusions of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in experimental animals increase the numbers of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in the cardiopulmonary circulation. […] ACE2 receptors serve as binding sites for SARS-CoV-2 virions in the lungs.
32189428 We predict that these individuals are ‘primed’ to be at higher risk because nicotine can directly impact the putative receptor for the virus (ACE2) and lead to deleterious signaling in lung epithelial cells.
32189489 由于2019-nCoV通过棘突糖蛋白与宿主呼吸道上皮细胞的血管紧张素转换酶2(ACE2)结合感染人体,ACE2已被确认为2019-nCoV的受体。 […] 另一方面,ACE2对于多种动脉粥样硬化性心血管疾病(ASCVD)和包括SARS在内的急性肺损伤具有积极的治疗作用。 […] 因此,在2019-nCoV感染背景下的ACE2究竟是人类的敌人还是朋友已成为一个激烈争论的问题。 […] 该文基于ACE2的相关研究成果,对此问题进行深入分析并提出研究展望,希望对2019-nCoV感染的认识和防治有所裨益。.
32197085 Five key amino acid residues involved in the interaction with human ACE2 are completely consistent between Pangolin-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, but four amino acid mutations are present in RaTG13.
32198163 The tissue receptor for COVID-19 is ACE2, and higher levels of ACE2 can protect against ARDS. […] Angiotensin receptor blockers and statins upregulate ACE2.
32199615 Angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is the host receptor by SARS-CoV-2 to infect human cells. […] Although ACE2 is reported to be expressed in lung, liver, stomach, ileum, kidney and colon, its expressing levels are rather low, especially in the lung. […] SARS-CoV-2 may use co-receptors/auxiliary proteins as ACE2 partner to facilitate the virus entry. […] Consistent with other recent reports, we confirmed that ACE2 was mainly expressed in lung AT2, liver cholangiocyte, colon colonocytes, esophagus keratinocytes, ileum ECs, rectum ECs, stomach epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubules. […] Intriguingly, we found that the candidate co-receptors, manifesting the most similar expression patterns with ACE2 across 13 human tissues, are all peptidases, including ANPEP, DPP4 and ENPEP.
32199943 Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor of SARS-CoV-2, but only ACE2s of certain species can be utilized by SARS-CoV-2. […] Here, we evaluated and ranked the receptor-utilizing capability of ACE2s from various species by phylogenetic clustering and sequence alignment with the currently known ACE2s utilized by SARS-CoV-2. […] As a result, we predicted that SARS-CoV-2 tends to utilize ACE2s of various mammals, except murines, and some birds, such as pigeon.
32201080 ACE2 is the receptor for both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. […] To predict the potential host range of SARS-CoV-2, we analyzed the key residues of ACE2 for recognizing S protein. […] The interaction interface between cat/dog/pangolin/Chinese hamster ACE2 and SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 S protein was simulated through homology modeling. […] We identified that N82 in ACE2 showed a closer contact with SARS-CoV-2 S protein than M82 in human ACE2. […] Our finding will provide important insights into the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and a new strategy to design an optimized ACE2 for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32203189 Here, we identified the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in SARS-CoV-2 S protein and found that the RBD protein bound strongly to human and bat angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. […] SARS-CoV-2 RBD exhibited significantly higher binding affinity to ACE2 receptor than SARS-CoV RBD and could block the binding and, hence, attachment of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and SARS-CoV RBD to ACE2-expressing cells, thus inhibiting their infection to host cells.
32205090 These manifestations include asymptomatic infection, a hyper-affinity to ACE2 receptors resulting in high transmissibility, false negatives, and an incubation period of up to 22 days.
32208987 Because the ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) protein is the receptor that facilitates coronavirus entry into cells, the notion has been popularized that treatment with renin-angiotensin system blockers might increase the risk of developing a severe and fatal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection. […] ACE2 in its full-length form is a membrane-bound enzyme, whereas its shorter (soluble) form circulates in blood at very low levels. […] As a mono-carboxypeptidase, ACE2 contributes to the degradation of several substrates including angiotensins I and II. […] ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors do not inhibit ACE2 because ACE and ACE2 are different enzymes. […] Although angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers have been shown to upregulate ACE2 in experimental animals, the evidence is not always consistent and differs among the diverse angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers and differing organs. […] Moreover, there are no data to support the notion that ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker administration facilitates coronavirus entry by increasing ACE2 expression in either animals or humans. […] Indeed, animal data support elevated ACE2 expression as conferring potential protective pulmonary and cardiovascular effects.
32210742 The observed changes have significant effect on SARS-CoV-2 spike/ACE2 interaction and produce a reduction in the binding energy, compared to the one of the Bat-CoV to this receptor. […] The data presented in this study suggest a higher affinity of the SARS-Cov-2 spike protein to the human ACE2 receptor, compared to the one of Bat-CoV spike and ACE2.
32213556 Bioinformatics showed sequence mutation of SARS-CoV-2 with m6A methylation and changed binding capacity with ACE2.
32215613 In particular, activity of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is dysregulated in cardiovascular disease, and this enzyme is used by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to initiate the infection. […] Cardiovascular disease and pharmacologic RAS inhibition both increase ACE2 levels, which may increase the virulence of SARS-CoV-2 within the lung and heart. […] Conversely, mechanistic evidence from related coronaviruses suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection may downregulate ACE2, leading to toxic overaccumulation of Angiotensin II that induces acute respiratory distress syndrome and fulminant myocarditis.
32215622 Molecular docking on the binding between angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) of common laboratory mammals and the receptor-binding domain of the surface spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 suggested that the golden Syrian hamster is an option.
32215956 Studies have identified the SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool specimens of infected patients, and its viral receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was found to be highly expressed in gastrointestinal epithelial cells.
32219057 Both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 exhibit a high degree of genetic similarity and bind to the same host cell ACE2 receptor.
32221983 This article reviews the correlation between angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and severe risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the possible mechanisms. […] ACE2 is a crucial component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). […] The classical RAS ACE-Ang II-AT1R regulatory axis and the ACE2-Ang 1-7-MasR counter-regulatory axis play an essential role in maintaining homeostasis in humans. […] ACE2 is widely distributed in the heart, kidneys, lungs, and testes. […] ACE2 antagonizes the activation of the classical RAS system and protects against organ damage, protecting against hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. […] Similar to SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 also uses the ACE2 receptor to invade human alveolar epithelial cells. […] Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical high-mortality disease, and ACE2 has a protective effect on this type of acute lung injury. […] Because of these protective effects of ACE2 on chronic underlying diseases and ARDS, the development of spike protein-based vaccine and drugs enhancing ACE2 activity may become one of the most promising approaches for the treatment of COVID-19 in the future.
32225175 SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV recognize the same receptor - human ACE2 (hACE2)3,4. […] Here we determined the crystal structure of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) (engineered to facilitate crystallization) in complex with hACE2. […] Compared with the SARS-CoV RBD, a hACE2-binding ridge in SARS-CoV-2 RBD takes a more compact conformation; moreover, several residue changes in SARS-CoV-2 RBD stabilize two virus-binding hotspots at the RBD/hACE2 interface. […] These structural features of SARS-CoV-2 RBD enhance its hACE2-binding affinity. […] Additionally, we show that RaTG13, a bat coronavirus closely related to SARS-CoV-2, also uses hACE2 as its receptor. […] The differences among SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and RaTG13 in hACE2 recognition shed light on potential animal-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
32225176 To better understand the initial step of infection at an atomic level, we determined the crystal structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) bound to the cell receptor ACE2 at 2.45 Å resolution. […] The overall ACE2-binding mode of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD is nearly identical to that of the SARS-CoV RBD, which also utilizes ACE2 as the cell receptor4. […] Structural analysis identified residues in the SARS-CoV-2 RBD that are critical for ACE2 binding, the majority of which either are highly conserved or share similar side chain properties with those in the SARS-CoV RBD. […] Such similarity in structure and sequence strongly argue for convergent evolution between the SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV RBDs for improved binding to ACE2, although SARS-CoV-2 does not cluster within SARS and SARS-related coronaviruses1-3,5.
32227090 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the key host cellular receptor of SARS-CoV-2, has been identified in multiple organs, but its cellular distribution in human heart is not illuminated clearly. […] This study performed the first state-of-art single cell atlas of adult human heart, and revealed that pericytes with high expression of ACE2 might act as the target cardiac cell of SARS-CoV-2. […] And patients with basic heart failure disease showed increased ACE2 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, meaning that if infected by the virus these patients may have higher risk of heart attack and critically ill condition.
32228252 The mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 infection is the requisite binding of the virus to the membrane-bound form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and internalization of the complex by the host cell. […] Recognition that ACE2 is the coreceptor for the coronavirus has prompted new therapeutic approaches to block the enzyme or reduce its expression to prevent the cellular entry and SARS-CoV-2 infection in tissues that express ACE2 including lung, heart, kidney, brain, and gut. […] ACE2, however, is a key enzymatic component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS); ACE2 degrades ANG II, a peptide with multiple actions that promote CVD, and generates Ang-(1-7), which antagonizes the effects of ANG II. […] Moreover, experimental evidence suggests that RAAS blockade by ACE inhibitors, ANG II type 1 receptor antagonists, and mineralocorticoid antagonists, as well as statins, enhance ACE2 which, in part, contributes to the benefit of these regimens. […] The current perspective critically examines the evidence for ACE2 regulation by RAAS blockade and statins, the cardiovascular benefits of ACE2, and whether ACE2 blockade is a viable approach to attenuate COVID-19.
32232976 ACE2 is a metalloproteinase and a homolog of carboxypeptidase ACE. […] It hydrolyzes a variety of angiotensin peptides and is the main active peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS).[3] ACE2, which is made of 805 amino acids, is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein with a single extracellular catalytic domain.
32238232 Due to the shared receptor ACE2 and the pathological similarities of the SARS-CoV and 2019-nCoV diseases. […] 分析表明,由于2019-nCoV和SARS冠状病变在人体细胞上有相同的受体(ACE2),因而它们可能有相同的靶器官,如肺、心血管系统和免疫系统。
32238438 Both viruses have evolved an ability to enter host cells through direct interaction with the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein at the surface of many cells. […] Here we consider the ability of SARS-CoV2 to enter and infect the human nervous system based on the strong expression of the ACE2 target throughout the brain. […] Moreover, we predict that nicotine exposure through various kinds of smoking (cigarettes, e-cigarettes, or vape) can increase the risk for COVID19 neuroinfection based on known functional interactions between the nicotinic receptor and ACE2.
32239522 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, which determines the potential host range for SARS-CoV-2. […] On the basis of structural information of the complex of human ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD), we analyzed the affinity to S protein of the 20 key residues in ACE2 from mammal, bird, turtle, and snake. […] Several ACE2 proteins from Primates, Bovidae, Cricetidae, and Cetacea maintained the majority of key residues in ACE2 for associating with SARS-CoV-2 RBD. […] The simulated structures indicated that ACE2 proteins from Bovidae and Cricetidae were able to associate with SARS-CoV-2 RBD. […] The simulated structures showed several key contacts with SARS-CoV-2 RBD in turtle and snake ACE2 were abolished.
32244779 We detected, amongst others, affected apoptotic and mitochondrial mechanisms, and a downregulation of the ACE2 protein receptor, notions that can be used to develop specific therapies against this new virus.
32244852 Smoking can upregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor, the known receptor for both the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the human respiratory coronavirus NL638. […] ACE2 could be a novel adhesion molecule for SARS-CoV-2 causing Covid-19 and a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of fatal microbial infections, and therefore it should be fast tracked and prioritized for research and investigation.
32246845 SARS-CoV-2 was reported to enter cells via binding to ACE2, followed by its priming by TMPRSS2. […] Here, we investigate ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels and their distribution across cell types in lung tissue (twelve donors, 39,778 cells) and in cells derived from subsegmental bronchial branches (four donors, 17,521 cells) by single nuclei and single cell RNA sequencing, respectively. […] While TMPRSS2 is expressed in both tissues, in the subsegmental bronchial branches ACE2 is predominantly expressed in a transient secretory cell type.
32249956 Human ACE2 is now established as a receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. […] Where variations in the viral spike protein, in turn, lead to the cross-species transmission of the virus, genetic variations in the host receptor ACE2 may also contribute to the susceptibility and/or resistance against the viral infection. […] This study aims to explore the binding of the proteins encoded by different human ACE2 allelic variants with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. […] Briefly, coding variants of ACE2 corresponding to the reported binding sites for its attachment with coronavirus spike protein were selected and molecular models of these variants were constructed by homology modeling. […] The models were then superimposed over the native ACE2 and ACE2-spike protein complex, to observe structural changes in the ACE2 variants and their intermolecular interactions with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, respectively. […] Despite strong overall structural similarities, the spatial orientation of the key interacting residues varies in the ACE2 variants compared with the wild-type molecule. […] Most ACE2 variants showed a similar binding affinity for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as observed in the complex structure of wild-type ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. […] However, ACE2 alleles, rs73635825 (S19P) and rs143936283 (E329G) showed noticeable variations in their intermolecular interactions with the viral spike protein. […] In summary, our data provide a structural basis of potential resistance against SARS-CoV-2 infection driven by ACE2 allelic variants.
32255491 Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the major enzyme responsible for conversion of Ang II into Ang-(1-7). […] In recognition of the importance of ACE2 and to celebrate 20 years since its discovery, the journal will publish a focused issue on the basic science and (patho)physiological role of this multifunctional protein.
32257537 Furthermore, the gene expression profile showed MSCs were ACE2- and TMPRSS2- which indicated MSCs are free from COVID-19 infection.
32264791 Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) has a multiplicity of physiological roles that revolve around its trivalent function: a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), facilitator of amino acid transport, and the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 receptor. […] ACE2 is widely expressed, including, in the lungs, cardiovascular system, gut, kidneys, central nervous system, and adipose tissue. […] ACE2 has recently been identified as the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, the infective agent responsible for COVID-19, providing a critical link between immunity, inflammation, ACE2, and cardiovascular disease. […] Although sharing a close evolutionary relationship with SARS-CoV, the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 differs in several key amino acid residues, allowing for stronger binding affinity with the human ACE2 receptor, which may account for the greater pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2. […] The loss of ACE2 function following binding by SARS-CoV-2 is driven by endocytosis and activation of proteolytic cleavage and processing. […] The ACE2 system is a critical protective pathway against heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction including, myocardial infarction and hypertension, and against lung disease and diabetes. […] The control of gut dysbiosis and vascular permeability by ACE2 has emerged as an essential mechanism of pulmonary hypertension and diabetic cardiovascular complications. […] Recombinant ACE2, gene-delivery of Ace2, Ang 1-7 analogs, and Mas receptor agonists enhance ACE2 action and serve as potential therapies for disease conditions associated with an activated RAS. […] Recombinant human ACE2 has completed clinical trials and efficiently lowered or increased plasma angiotensin II and angiotensin 1-7 levels, respectively. […] Our review summarizes the progress over the past 20 years, highlighting the critical role of ACE2 as the novel SARS-CoV-2 receptor and as the negative regulator of the RAS, together with implications for the COVID-19 pandemic and associated cardiovascular diseases.
32266994 The authors mentioned that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is protective against novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] We would like to explain how cytosolic pH increases the COVID-19 infection by affecting the ACE2.
32267499 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has emerged as a key regulator of the renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular (CV) disease and plays a pivotal role in infections by coronaviruses and influenza viruses. […] The present review is primarily focused on the findings to indicate the role of ACE2 in the relationship of coronaviruses and influenza viruses to CV disease. […] It is postulated that the risk of coronavirus or influenza virus infection is high, at least partly due to high ACE2 expression in populations with a high CV risk.
32268515 Previous studies reported that Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the main cell receptor of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. […] In the present study we investigated in silico the basic mechanism of ACE2 in the lung and provided evidences for new potentially effective drugs for Covid-19. […] Specifically, we used the gene expression profiles from public datasets including The Cancer Genome Atlas, Gene Expression Omnibus and Genotype-Tissue Expression, Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analysis to investigate the main functions of ACE2-correlated genes. […] We constructed a protein-protein interaction network containing the genes co-expressed with ACE2. […] Our results demonstrate that the genes correlated with ACE2 are mainly enriched in the sterol biosynthetic process, Aryldialkylphosphatase activity, adenosylhomocysteinase activity, trialkylsulfonium hydrolase activity, acetate-CoA and CoA ligase activity.
32270559 Cardiac manifestations etiology seems to be multifactorial, comprising direct viral myocardial damage, hypoxia, hypotension, enhanced inflammatory status, ACE2-receptors downregulation, drug toxicity, endogenous catecholamine adrenergic status, among others.
32273490 It remains unclear why children and young adults are less severely affected than older individuals, but this might involve differences in immune system function in the elderly and/or differences in the expression/function of the cellular receptor for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) - Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32275082 The conjunctival mucosa is directly exposed to infectious droplets expelled by patients during close contact and fomites when the eye is touched by contaminated hands.2, 3 More over, the mucosa of the conjunctiva and upper respiratory tract is connected by nasolacrimal duct, and share the same entry receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), on host cell membranes.2, 3 Hence, it is reasonable to postulate that the conjunctiva may be easily involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection, and may even act as a route of transmission during SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32275855 Recently, ACE2 was reported as an entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2. […] In this study, we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2-CTD) spike (S) protein in complex with human ACE2 (hACE2), which reveals a hACE2-binding mode similar overall to that observed for SARS-CoV.
32276140 Specially, we provide evidence in lupus to suggest hypomethylation and overexpression of ACE2, which is located on the X chromosome and encodes a functional receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. […] Oxidative stress induced by viral infections exacerbates the DNA methylation defect in lupus, possibly resulting in further ACE2 hypomethylation and enhanced viremia. […] Epigenetic control of the ACE2 gene might be a target for prevention and therapy in COVID-19.
32277367 Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) appears important for viral entry into pneumocytes; dysbalance in ACE2 as caused by ACE inhibitors or ibuprofen may predispose to severe disease.
32278065 SARS-CoV uses the the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. […] ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are not only expressed in lung, but also in the small intestinal epithelia. […] ACE2 is expressed furthermore in the upper esophagus, liver, and colon. […] SARS-CoV-2 binding affinity to ACE2 is significantly higher (10-20 times) compared with SARS-CoV.
32279908 This observation has been related to the use of drugs that can increase the cellular expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) that has been recognized as target to which the virus bind to cells.
32281327 The results showed that the research team screened out 46 active ingredients from candidate TCMs that could act on the novel coronavirus S-protein-binding site of human ACE2 protein, which were mainly attributed to 7 herbs such as Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Mori Folium.
32281328 By combining the diagnosis and treatment scheme of Hunan province’s and angiotensin converting enzyme 2(ACE2) inhibitors screening from literature, present study also discussed the rational application of candidate herbs to this epidemic situation. […] Trichosanthis Fructus obtained by PLP inhibitors screening and Fritillaria verticillata obtained by ACE2 inhibitors screening were parts of the Sangbei Zhisou Powder and Xiaoxianxiong Decoction, which might be applicable to the syndromes of cough and dyspnea. […] Mori Folium, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Forsythiae Fructus obtained by ACE2 inhibitors screening were included in the Sangju Decoction and Yinqiaosan, which might be applicable to the syndromes of warm pathogen attacking lung and cough and dyspnea.
32283006 Multiple non-neuronal cell types present in the olfactory epithelium express two host receptors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 proteases, that facilitate SARS-CoV-2 binding, replication, and accumulation.
32283711 SARS-CoV-2 shares both high sequence similarity and the use of the same cell entry receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). […] Here, we investigate the expression pattern of ACE2 in adult human testes at the level of single-cell transcriptomes. […] The results indicate that ACE2 is predominantly enriched in spermatogonia and Leydig and Sertoli cells. […] Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) indicates that Gene Ontology (GO) categories associated with viral reproduction and transmission are highly enriched in ACE2-positive spermatogonia, while male gamete generation related terms are downregulated. […] Cell-cell junction and immunity-related GO terms are increased in ACE2-positive Leydig and Sertoli cells, but mitochondria and reproduction-related GO terms are decreased.
32285293 Both COVID-19 and SARS-CoV belong to the coronavirus family and both invade target cells through ACE2. […] An in-depth understanding of ACE2 and a series of physiological and physiological changes caused by the virus invading the human body may help to discover and explain the corresponding clinical phenomena and then deal with them timely. […] In addition, ACE2 is a potential therapeutic target. […] This article will summarize the role of ACE2 in multiple organ damage caused by COVID-19 and SARS-CoV, targeted blocking drugs against ACE2, and drugs that inhibit inflammation in order to provide the basis for subsequent related research, diagnosis and treatment, and drug development.
32285974 SARS-CoV-2 was reported to enter cells via binding to ACE2, followed by its priming by TMPRSS2. […] Here, we investigate ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels and their distribution across cell types in lung tissue (twelve donors, 39,778 cells) and in cells derived from subsegmental bronchial branches (four donors, 17,521 cells) by single nuclei and single cell RNA sequencing, respectively. […] While TMPRSS2 is strongly expressed in both tissues, in the subsegmental bronchial branches ACE2 is predominantly expressed in a transient secretory cell type.
32286790 The inhibitors are mostly formed by two sequential self-supporting α-helices (bundle) extracted from the protease domain (PD) of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which bind to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domains.
32290077 Previous studies showed that SARS-CoV-2 is highly homologous to SARS-CoV and infects humans through the binding of the spike protein to ACE2. […] It was found that SARS-CoV-2 binds ACE2 with a higher affinity than SARS-CoV, which may partly explain that SARS-CoV-2 is much more infectious than SARS-CoV. […] Our computation also suggested that the RBD-ACE2 binding for SARS-CoV-2 is much more temperature-sensitive than that for SARS-CoV.
32291076 SARS-CoV-2 enters into and infects host cells through its spike glycoprotein recognizing the cell receptor Angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2). […] Here, we noticed that ACE2 was further enhanced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Human germ cells and early embryos express high level of ACE2. […] Notably, RNA-seq result showed that reduction of H3K27me3, but not H3K4/9/36me3, led to upregulation of Ace2 expression in mouse germ cell line GC-2. […] In agreement with this result, we found in human embryonic stem cells that ACE2 expression was significantly increased in absence of EZH2, the major enzyme catalyzing H3K27me3. […] ChIP-seq analysis further confirmed decrease of H3K27me3 signal and increase of H3K27ac signal at ACE2 promoter upon EZH2 knockout. […] Therefore, we propose that EZH2-mediated H3K27me3 at ACE2 promoter region inhibits ACE2 expression in mammalian cells. […] Our discovery provides clues for pathogenesis and targeted drug therapy towards ACE2 expression for prevention and adjuvant therapy of COVID-19.
32291526 Worse outcomes appear to be more prevalent in patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM), possibly due to overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in airway alveolar epithelial cells. […] Investigators suspect that SARS-CoV-2 uses the ACE2 receptor to enter the lungs in a mechanism similar to SARS-CoV. […] Positive effects include ACE2 receptor blockade, disabling viral entry into the heart and lungs, and an overall decrease in inflammation secondary to ACEI/ARB. […] Negative effects include a possible retrograde feedback mechanism, by which ACE2 receptors are upregulated.
32292884 The SARS-CoV-2 virus uses the ACE2 receptor as the entry point to the host cells. […] ARBs/ACEIs which are widely used in elderly patients, have been found to be associated with overexpression of ACE2. […] To decrease the severity of COVID-19 infection, ARB/ACEI should be switched to another class drug not known to cause a rise in ACE2 until the COVID-19 infection subsides.
32293003 This is related to the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells, and expression of ACE2 in the lung, cardiovascular system, kidney, and other tissues.
32293710 COVID-19 infection and its severity can be explained by the concentration of glycosylated SARS- CoV-2 viral particles in the lung epithelium, the concentration of glycosylated angiotensin converting enzyme receptor 2 (ACE2) in the lung epithelium, and the degree and control of the pulmonary immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at approximately day 8-10 after symptom onset, which may be related to both. […] Binding of ACE2 by SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 also suggests that prolonged uncontrolled hyperglycemia, and not just a history of diabetes mellitus, may be important in the pathogenesis of the disease.
32293910 The virus uses the ACE2 receptor for internalization, aided by TMPRSS2 protease. […] Virus-induced ACE2 down regulation may attenuate its function, diminish its anti-inflammatory role, and heightened angiotensin II effects in the predisposed patients.
32294179 Two coronavirus receptor proteins, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP4) are also established transducers of metabolic signals and pathways regulating inflammation, renal and cardiovascular physiology, and glucose homeostasis. […] Here we review the basic and clinical science spanning the intersections of diabetes, coronavirus infections, ACE2, and DPP4 biology, highlighting clinical relevance and evolving areas of uncertainty underlying the pathophysiology and treatment of T2D in the context of coronavirus infection.
32298273 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is now confirmed as the receptor of SARS-CoV-2 and plays essential roles in human infection and transmission. […] In present study, we collected the online available single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data to evaluate the cell specific expression of ACE2 in maternal-fetal interface as well as in multiple fetal organs. […] Our results revealed that ACE2 was highly expressed in maternal-fetal interface cells including stromal cells and perivascular cells of decidua, and cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast in placenta. […] Meanwhile, ACE2 was also expressed in specific cell types of human fetal heart, liver and lung, but not in kidney. […] And in a study containing series fetal and post-natal mouse lung, we observed ACE2 was dynamically changed over the time, and ACE2 was extremely high in neonatal mice at post-natal day 1~3.
32300101 Besides lungs, salivary glands and tongue are possibly another hosts of 2019-nCoV due to expression of ACE2.
32301766 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2019 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative virus of COVID-19, infects host cells through angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] Pre-clinical models suggest that ACE2 upregulation confers protective effects in acute lung injury. […] Additionally, renin-angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors reduce adverse atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure and chronic kidney disease outcomes, but may increase ACE2 levels. […] We review current knowledge of the role of ACE2 in cardiovascular physiology and SARS-CoV-2 virology as well as clinical data to inform the management of patients with or at risk for COVID-19 who require renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor therapy.
32302706 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) maintains the homeostasis of RAS as a negative regulator. […] Recently, ACE2 was identified as the receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the coronavirus that is causing the pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Since SARS-CoV-2 must bind with ACE2 before entering the host cells in humans, the distribution and expression of ACE2 may be critical for the target organ of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Moreover, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the implication of ACE2 in the pathological progression in tissue injury and several chronic diseases, ACE2 may also be essential in the progression and clinical outcomes of COVID-19. […] Therefore, we summarized the expression and activity of ACE2 in various physiological and pathological conditions, and discussed its potential implication in the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the progression and prognosis of COVID-19 patients in the current review.
32303424 It has been reported that SARS-CoV-2 may use ACE2 as a receptor to gain entry into human cells, in a way similar to that of SARS-CoV. […] Analyzing the distribution and expression level of ACE2 may therefore help reveal underlying mechanisms of viral susceptibility and post-infection modulation. […] In this study, we utilized previously uploaded information on ACE2 expression in various conditions including SARS-CoA to evaluate the role of ACE2 in SARS-CoV and extrapolate that to COVID-19. […] We found that the expression of ACE2 in healthy populations and patients with underlying diseases was not significantly different. […] However, based on the elevated expression of ACE2 in cigarette smokers, we speculate that long-term smoking may be a risk factor for COVID-19. […] Analysis of ACE2 in SARS-CoV infected cells suggests that ACE2 is not only a receptor but is also involved in post-infection regulation, including immune response, cytokine secretion, and viral genome replication.
32303609 For instance, it is an important question to understand whether patients with IBD (eg, due to intestinal ACE2 expression) might be particularly susceptible to covid-19 and the cytokine release syndrome associated with lung injury and fatal outcomes.
32304747 The protective effect of ACE2 is enhanced by ARB administration.
32305401 SARS-CoV2 host cell infection is mediated by the binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] Systemic dysregulation observed in SARS-CoV was previously postulated to be due to ACE2/Ang1-7/Mas axis downregulation, increased ACE2 activity was shown to mediate disease protection. […] Since angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), ACE inhibitors, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) increase ACE2 receptor expression, it has been tacitly believed that the use of these agents may facilitate viral disease, thus they should not be used in high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease. […] Based on the anti-inflammatory benefits of the upregulation of the ACE2/Ang1-7/Mas axis and previously demonstrated benefits of lung function improvement in SARS-CoV infections, we hypothesize that the benefits of treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in SARS-COV2 may outweigh the risks and at the very least should not be withheld.
32305506 Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a component of the renin-angiotensin system, whose expression dominates on lung alveolar epithelial cells, is the human cell receptor of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. […] We decided to use the analogy of a play and speculate about the possible impact in this tragedy of 1) air pollution via the interference of nitrogen dioxide on ACE2 expression; 2) the dual role of nicotine; 3) the hypothetical involvement of ACE2 polymorphisms, the relationships of which with ethnic factors and susceptibility to cardiovascular disease seems intriguing; 4) the impact on the severity of infection of hypertension and related medications acting on the renin/angiotensin system, and, finally, 5) the possible helpful role of chloroquine, thanks to its capacity of modifying ACE2 affinity to the viral spike protein by altering glycosylation.
32306452 Human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) facilitates cellular entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2 as their common receptor. […] During infection, ACE2-expressing tissues become direct targets, resulting in serious pathological changes and progressive multiple organ failure or even death in severe cases. […] However, as an essential component of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), ACE2 confers protective effects in physiological circumstance, including maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis, fluid, and electrolyte balance. […] The absence of protective role of ACE2 leads to dysregulated RAS and thus acute changes under multiple pathological scenarios including SARS. […] We reasonably speculate several potential directions of clinical management including host-directed therapies aiming to restore dysregulated RAS caused by ACE2 deficiency. […] Enriched knowledge of ACE2 learned from SARS and COVID-19 outbreaks can provide, despite their inherent tragedy, informative clues for emerging pandemic preparedness.
32307653 This process, and the possible direct viral invasion of progenitor/stem cells via CD147 or ACE2, could result in the decline of these cellular stocks and failing lung repair.
32307955 COVID-19 enters the human cell using the ACE2, an enzyme abundant in renal tubular epithelial cells. […] Moreover, medications based on RAAS inhibition, such and ACE inhibitors and ARBs, upregulate the enzyme ACE2 and could therefore hypothetically explain the high prevalence of hypertension and diabetes reported as previous diagnoses in severe cases.
32310688 The angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) cellular receptor is responsible for the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), thus impacting the entrance and clearance of the virus. […] Studies demonstrate that upregulation of ACE2 has a protective effect on SARS-CoV-2 illness severity. […] Moreover, animal studies demonstrate that dietary intake can modulate ACE2 gene expression and function. […] A high intake of resveratrol may have a protective role, upregulating ACE2, whereas a high intake of dietary fat may have a detrimental role, downregulating ACE2. […] As such, we postulate on the biological plausibility of interactions between dietary fat and/or resveratrol and ACE2 gene variations in the modulation of SARS-CoV-2 illness severity.
32310915 ACE-inhibitors and ARBs may increase the expression of ACE2 receptors, which are the sites of viral entry into the human organism. […] ACE2 receptors are ubiquitous, although they are extremely abundant on the cell surface of type 2 pneumocytes. […] The increased expression of ACE2 for effect of ACE-inhibitors and ARBs can be detected by increased production of angiotensin1-7 and mRNA related to ACE2. […] There is the fear that the increased expression of ACE2 induced by ACE-inhibitors and ARBs may ultimately facilitate the entry and diffusion of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. […] Indeed, studies conducted in different laboratories demonstrated that ACE2 receptors show a down-regulation (i.e. the opposite of what would happen with ACE-inhibitors and ARBs) for effect of their interaction with the virus. […] In animal studies, down-regulation of ACE2 has been found as prevalent in the pulmonary areas infected by virus, but not in the surrounding areas. […] In these studies, virus-induced ACE2 down-regulation would lead to a reduced formation of angiotensin1-7 (because ACE2 degrades angiotensin II into angiotensin1-7) with consequent accumulation of angiotensin II.
32311451 ACE2, as the major known functional receptor of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) attracted our attention. […] Furthermore, we used online datasets to analyze ACE2 expression in different human organs, especially in the small intestine, to explore the relationship between ACE2 expression patterns and clinical symptoms. […] The results reveal that ACE2 mRNA and protein are highly expressed in the small intestinal enterocytes but not in the goblet cells or intestinal immune cells. […] High expression of ACE2 on the surface cells in the digestive tract may lead to gastrointestinal symptoms and inflammation susceptibility. […] ACE2 expression on surface cells of the small intestine may mediate the invasion and amplification of the virus and activation of gastrointestinal inflammation.
32311651 The virus attaches to the ACE2 enzyme at low cytosolic pH values and enters into the cell and causes infection. […] Especially in the presence of diabetes mellitus and accompanying comorbid conditions such as hypertension, obesity, old age, and smoking, cytosolic pH is low, thus the virus easily may enter the cell by attaching to ACE2. […] ACEIs and ARBs lead to a reduction in angiotensin II level by increasing the ACE2 level, thus they cause a low cytosolic pH. […] Increased cardiac ACE2 levels due to ACEIs and ARBs can trigger cardiac arrhythmias and myocarditis by causing the virus to easily enter the heart tissue. […] There is ACE2 activity in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in the brain stem.
32314329 The new SARS-CoV-2 virus enters cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] ACE2 counteracts ACE and angiotensin II in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and has critical functions in the lung and cardiovascular system. […] SARS-CoV was found to down-regulate ACE2, leaving angiotensin II unbalanced in affected organs.
32316118 In this sense, molecular and genetic variations associated with malaria (e.g., in ACE2) might play a protective role against coronavirus infection.
32316719 Objective: Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) are the key proteins for 2019-nCoV entry into host cells. […] To evaluate the potential infection risk of 2019-nCoV on ocular surface, we compared ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression among different eye tissues. Methods: Experimental article. […] Real-time PCR was performed to quantify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene expression in conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, iris, lens, retina, lung, heart, kidney, and liver from male mice. […] Published transcriptome datasets were extracted to generate the expression comparasion of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 between human conjunctival and corneal tissues, and results were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test. […] Female mice, aging mice, STZ-induced diabetic mice, diabetic group control mice were also subjected to ACE2 expression analysis. […] Results were analyzed using Student’s t-test. Results: The expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes were the highest in conjunctiva among all the six mice eye tissues explored. […] ACE2 and TMPRSS2 shared similar expression pattern with the staining concentrated in corneal epithelium, conjunctival epithelium and lacrimal gland serous cells. […] The expression levels of ACE2 showed sex-difference. […] Female mice had lower ACE2 in conjunctiva and cornea than male mice, with the expression levels taking only 43% (t=3.269, P=0.031) and 63% (t=4.080, P=0.015) of that in the male conjunctiva and cornea, respectively. […] Diabetic mice expressed more ACE2 in conjunctiva (1.21-fold, P>0.05) and lacrimal gland (1.10-fold, P>0.05) compared with the control group. […] No significant difference on ACE2 expression was found between the aging and young adult mice. […] The expression level of human conjunctiva ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were significantly higher than that in the cornea (P=0.007), with 5.74-fold and 12.84-fold higher in the conjunctiva than in the corneal epithelium cells, which resembled the situation in mice. Conclusion: The observation of high-level ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in conjunctiva among the 6 eye tissues examined suggests that conjunctiva serves as an infection target tissue of 2019-nCoV. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2020, 56:). 目的: 分析眼部组织新型冠状病毒侵染和激活关键蛋白人血管紧张素转换酶2(ACE2)和跨膜丝氨酸蛋白酶2(TMPRSS2)的表达情况,探讨新型冠状病毒在眼部的侵染基础。 […] 使用荧光定量PCR分析小鼠结膜、角膜、泪腺、虹膜、晶状体、视网膜ACE2基因和TMPRSS2基因表达情况,并与肺脏、心脏、肾脏、肝脏中两个基因的表达量进行比较。 […] 使用免疫组化染色分析了小鼠各组织中ACE2和TMPRSS2蛋白的分布和表达情况。 […] 另取山东省眼科研究所红十字眼库接收的符合捐献条件的志愿者角膜及结膜组织切片,与小鼠眼部ACE2蛋白和TMPRSS2蛋白表达进行验证比较。 […] 同时通过分析已发表的人眼部组织转录组数据库,比较人角膜和结膜中ACE2和TMPRSS2基因的表达情况。 […] 对不同性别、年龄、及糖尿病条件下小鼠眼表组织的ACE2基因表达变化进行分析,采用独立样本t检验对数据进行统计学分析。 […] 结果: 在小鼠6种眼部组织中,结膜ACE2基因和TMPRSS2基因表达量最高,但均低于肾脏和肺脏;ACE2和TMPRSS2蛋白阳性染色集中于结膜上皮、角膜上皮和泪腺腺泡。 […] ACE2基因的表达具有性别的区别,在雌性小鼠结膜和角膜的表达显著低于雄性小鼠,分别为雄性相应组织的43% (t=3.269,P=0.031)和63% (t=4.080,P=0.015);糖尿病小鼠结膜和泪腺中的ACE2基因表达略高于非糖尿病小鼠,分别为1.21倍和1.10倍 (P>0.05);在年龄上ACE2基因表达的差异无统计学意义。 […] 与小鼠相似,人结膜ACE2和TMPRSS2基因表达量显著高于角膜(P=0.007),分别约为角膜上皮基因表达量的5.74倍和12.84倍。 […] 结论: 结膜中ACE2基因和TMPRSS2的表达在6种检测的眼部组织中最高,提示结膜是新型冠状病毒眼部感染的主要靶组织。
32317203 The virus binds and enters through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32318865 While limited data exist, potential mechanisms of cardiac injury include direct viral entry through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and toxicity in host cells, hypoxia-related myocyte injury, and immune-mediated cytokine release syndrome.
32320478 Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients with coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), based on the hypothesis that such medications may raise expression of ACE2, the receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] We conducted a literature review of studies (n = 12) in experimental animals and human subjects (n = 12) and evaluated the evidence regarding the impact of administration of ACEIs and ARBs on ACE2 expression. […] We prioritized studies that assessed ACE2 protein expression data, measured directly or inferred from ACE2 activity assays. […] The findings in animals are inconsistent with respect to an increase in ACE2 expression in response to treatment with ACEIs or ARBs. […] Those studies that report increases in ACE2 expression tend to involve acute injury models and/or higher doses of ACEIs or ARBs than are typically administered to patients. […] Data from human studies overwhelmingly imply that administration of ACEIs/ARBs does not increase ACE2 expression. […] Available evidence, in particular, data from human studies, does not support the hypothesis that ACEI/ARB use increases ACE2 expression and the risk of complications from COVID-19.
32323279 Twenty years ago, an enzyme homologous to the previously known angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was identified, and subsequently named ACE2. […] In the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), ACE2 has counter-regulatory functions against the classical effector peptide angiotensin II, for example in blood pressure regulation and cardiovascular remodeling. […] However, ACE2 provides an initially unexpected interesting link between virology and cardiovascular medicine. […] That is, ACE2 represents the binding receptor for the cellular uptake of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 viruses. […] Thus, ACE2 is relevant for COVID-19. […] In this context, it was suspected that therapy with RAS blockers might promote transmission and complications of COVID-19 by upregulation of ACE2 expression. […] The aim of this short review is, to describe the link between the RAS, particularly ACE2, and COVID-19.
32323565 Colocalization of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and TMPRSS2 enables severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV 2) to enter the cells.
32325025 (Cell) identify ACE2 as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor, and the latter show its entry mechanism depends on cellular serine protease TMPRSS2.
32326602 Finally, determining the structural-functional relationships of the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 will provide new insights into inhibition of interactions between S protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and enable us to develop novel therapeutic approaches for novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.
32327202 Furthermore, the receptor of SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 was found to be upregulated in patients with COVID-19, and immunostaining with SARS-CoV nucleoprotein antibody was positive in tubules.
32330302 I would like to talk about the role of ACE2 in endothelial cell function.
32331255 The interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with the human ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) receptor, and its subsequent cleavage by serine protease and fusion, are the main events in the pathophysiology. […] The serine protease inhibitors, spike protein-based vaccines, or ACE2 blockers may have therapeutic potential in the near future.
32331343 An enzymatic system involved in this different predisposition could be represented by angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] ACE2 is activated and down-regulated by the spike protein of the virus and allows the penetration of SARS-CoV-2 into epithelial cells and myocardium. […] Data on the experimental animal have shown that 17ß-estradiol increases the expression and activity of ACE2 in both adipose tissue and kidney. […] Spontaneously hypertensive male mice have a higher myocardial ACE2 expression than females and its levels decrease after orchiectomy. […] Evidence that sex hormones are able to modulate the expression of ACE2 could help in interpreting epidemiological results and in designing more appropriate intervention strategies.
32332765 SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to use the same cell entry receptor as SARS-CoV, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] In this report, we generate a recombinant protein by connecting the extracellular domain of human ACE2 to the Fc region of the human immunoglobulin IgG1. […] A fusion protein containing an ACE2 mutant with low catalytic activity is also used in this study.
32333222 Phylogenetic analysis of full-length genome sequences obtained from infected patients showed that SARS-CoV-2 is similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and uses the same cell entry receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as SARS-CoV.
32333398 We propose that an imbalance in the action of ACE1- and ACE2-derived peptides, thereby enhancing angiotensin II (Ang II) signalling is primary driver of COVID-19 pathobiology. […] ACE1/ACE2 imbalance occurs due to the binding of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2, reducing ACE2-mediated conversion of Ang II to Ang peptides that counteract pathophysiological effects of ACE1-generated ANG II. […] This hypothesis suggests several approaches to treat COVID-19 by restoring ACE1/ACE2 balance: (a) AT receptor antagonists; (b) ACE1 inhibitors (ACEIs); (iii) agonists of receptors activated by ACE2-derived peptides (e.g. […] Ang (1-7), which activates MAS1); (d) recombinant human ACE2 or ACE2 peptides as decoys for the virus. […] Reducing ACE1/ACE2 imbalance is predicted to blunt COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality, especially in vulnerable patients.
32333601 We hypothesized that the viral entry molecules angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) are expressed in the intestine. […] We examined the expression of Ace2 and Tmprss2 by quantitative polymerase chain reacion in animal models of IBD. […] Publicly available data from organoids and mucosal biopsies from patients with IBD were examined for expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. […] ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were abundantly expressed in the ileum and colon and had high expression in intestinal epithelial cells. […] In animal models, inflammation led to downregulation of epithelial Ace2. […] Expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was not increased in samples from patients with compared with those of control patients. […] In CD11b-enriched cells but not T-cells, the level of expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the mucosa was comparable to other functional mucosal genes and was not affected by inflammation. […] Anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs, vedolizumab, ustekinumab, and steroids were linked to significantly lower expression of ACE2 in CD11b-enriched cells. […] The viral entry molecules ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed in the ileum and colon. […] Patients with IBD do not have higher expression during inflammation; medical therapy is associated with lower levels of ACE2.
32333836 We have previously provided the first genetic evidence that angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the critical receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and ACE2 protects the lung from injury, providing a molecular explanation for the severe lung failure and death due to SARS-CoV infections. […] ACE2 has now also been identified as a key receptor for SARS-CoV-2 infections, and it has been proposed that inhibiting this interaction might be used in treating patients with COVID-19. […] However, it is not known whether human recombinant soluble ACE2 (hrsACE2) blocks growth of SARS-CoV-2. […] Here, we show that clinical grade hrsACE2 reduced SARS-CoV-2 recovery from Vero cells by a factor of 1,000-5,000. […] An equivalent mouse rsACE2 had no effect. […] We also show that SARS-CoV-2 can directly infect engineered human blood vessel organoids and human kidney organoids, which can be inhibited by hrsACE2. […] These data demonstrate that hrsACE2 can significantly block early stages of SARS-CoV-2 infections.
32333993 Potential underlying mechanisms such as: (i) a compromised half-live of the virus caused by the high-altitude environment, and (ii) a hypoxia mediated down regulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the main binding target of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the pulmonary epithelium are discussed.
32334082 In this study, we explored the expression and distribution of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor of SARS-CoV-2, in the pancreas.
32335281 This brief article discusses the therapeutic potential of glycyrrhizin for the treatment of COVID-19 from the perspective of its pharmacological action, including binding angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), downregulating proinflammatory cytokines, inhibiting the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting thrombin, inhibiting the hyperproduction of airway exudates, and inducing endogenous interferon.
32335334 We could identify mutational hotspots which appear to be major drivers of diversity among strains, with RBD of spike protein emerging as the key region involved in interaction with ACE2 and consequently a major determinant of infection outcome.
32335337 Furthermore, animal studies have shown that the ACE2 receptor is a potential pathway for host infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19.
32335456 The pathogenic infectivity of the virus requires the S1 subunit of the spike (S) protein to bind the host cell receptor, angiontensin converting enzyme (ACE2).
32336612 Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptors mediate the entry into the cell of three strains of coronavirus: SARS-CoV, NL63 and SARS-CoV-2. […] ACE2 receptors are ubiquitous and widely expressed in the heart, vessels, gut, lung (particularly in type 2 pneumocytes and macrophages), kidney, testis and brain. […] ACE2 is mostly bound to cell membranes and only scarcely present in the circulation in a soluble form. […] An important salutary function of membrane-bound and soluble ACE2 is the degradation of angiotensin II to angiotensin1-7. […] Consequently, ACE2 receptors limit several detrimental effects resulting from binding of angiotensin II to AT1 receptors, which include vasoconstriction, enhanced inflammation and thrombosis. […] Unfortunately, the entry of SARS-CoV2 into the cells through membrane fusion markedly down-regulates ACE2 receptors, with loss of the catalytic effect of these receptors at the external site of the membrane. […] Clinical reports of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 show that several features associated with infection and severity of the disease (i.e., older age, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease) share a variable degree of ACE2 deficiency. […] We suggest that ACE2 down-regulation induced by viral invasion may be especially detrimental in people with baseline ACE2 deficiency associated with the above conditions. […] The additional ACE2 deficiency after viral invasion might amplify the dysregulation between the ‘adverse’ ACE→Angiotensin II→AT1 receptor axis and the ‘protective’ ACE2→Angiotensin1-7→Mas receptor axis. […] In this setting, recombinant ACE2, angiotensin1-7 and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers could be promising therapeutic approaches in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32337769 Inactivation of ACE2 during virus fusion into the host cell may be one of the underlying reasons for intense immunological reaction seen in the lung tissue.
32338224 Evidence has been provided that SARSCoV proteins are cleaved into two subunits, S1 and S2, respectively, and the amino acids 318-510 of the S1 represent the receptor-binding domain (RBD) which binds to ACE2 [10, 11]. […] Quite importantly, in the context of RBD there is the receptor-binding motif (RBM) (amino acids 424- 494), which accounts for complete binding to ACE2 [11]. […] In this respect, the sequence of COVID-19 RBM is similar to that of SARSCoV, thus, implicating that ACE2 may represent the binding receptors for COVID-19. […] Furthermore, gln493 residue of COVID-19 RBM seems to allow interaction with human ACE2, thus, suggesting the ability of this virus to infect human cells. […] According, to Wan and associates structural analysis [14], COVID-19 binds to human ACE2 with a lesser efficiency than human SARS-CoV (2002) but with higher affinity than human SARS-CoV (2003). […] Furthermore, same authors predicted that a single mutation at the 501 position may enhance the COVID-19 RBD binding capacity to human ACE2 and this evolution should be monitored in infected patients [14]. […] From a pathogenic point of view, evidence has been provided that binding of S2 to ACE2 receptor leads to its down-regulation with subsequent lung damage in the course of SARS-CoV infection [17]. […] Down-regulation of ACE2 causes excessive production of angiotensin (ANG) II by the related enzyme ACE with stimulation of ANG type 1a receptor (AT1R) and enhanced lung vascular permeability [18]. […] In particular, same authors have reported that recombinant ACE2 could attenuate severe acute lung injury in mice [18]. […] Moreover, Battle and associates [19] also proposed to use already available recombinant ACE2 for intercepting COVID-19 and attenuating infection. […] In the previous paragraphs, the presence of ACE2 on immune cells has been pointed out and, by analogy to epithelial cells, this receptor may also be down-regulated following viral entry. […] Therefore, in CoV-infected animal models and in infected humans further investigations are required to clarify a possible reduced expression of ACE2 on immune cells. […] There is evidence that ACE2 protects from severe acute lung failure and operates as a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) [18, 37]. […] ACE2 counterbalances the noxious effects exhibited by ANG II and AT1R via activation of AT2R which arrests cell growth, inflammation and fibrosis [39]. […] In fact, losartan as well as olmesartan, used for treating hypertension in patients, were able to increase ACE2 expression after 28 days treatment of rats with myocardial infarction [41]. […] Taken together, these evidences suggest that CoV-induced down-regulation of ACE2 activates RAS with collateral damage to organs, such as lungs, in the course of SARS-related pneumonia. […] Then, putative therapeutic measures aimed at increasing ACE2 levels on respiratory epithelial cells should be taken into serious consideration. […] In all these experimental models, RES led to an increase of ACE2 with reduction of organ damage, such as liver steatosis and aorta media thickness and decrease of adipose tissue mass, respectively. […] In turn, Sirt1 down-regulates AT1R expression via ACE2 up-regulation [43, 48]. […] The data above discussed strongly suggest, that RES, as an activators of ACE2, should be investigated in animal models of CoV-induced severe pneumonia, also taking into account the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects exerted by polyphenols [49]. […] From a pharmacologic point of view, RAS inhibition leads to upregulation of ACE2, thus, attenuating acute respiratory syndrome and myocarditis in COVID-19-infected patients. […] Conversely, increase in ACE2 expression may facilitate the access into the host of COVID-19, thus, aggravating the clinical picture. […] In fact, there are no available data which support that ACE inhibitors or ANG II type I receptor blockers increase COVID-19 infection via its binding to ACE2. […] Finally, Kuster and associates [52] write that there are no data on the strict relationship between ACE2 activity and SARS-CoV2 mortality. […] Moreover, in the SARSCoV2, cells expressing ACE2 were not attacked by the virus, while cells lacking ACE2 were bound by the SARS-CoV2 virus [53]. […] These findings suggest that also in the case of RES effects on COVID-19 infection, the dual role of ACE2 should be taken into serious consideration.
32338605 SARS-CoV-2 enters the cell via ACE2 that next to its role in RAAS is needed to inactivate des-Arg9 bradykinin, the potent ligand of the B1R. […] Without ACE2 acting as a guardian to inactivate the ligands of B1R, the lung environment is prone for local vascular leakage leading to angioedema. […] The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, enters the lining of the lungs via an enzyme called the ACE2 receptor, which is present on the outer surface of the lungs’ cells. […] The related coronavirus that was responsible for the SARS outbreak in the early 2000s also needs the ACE2 receptor to enter the cells of the lungs. […] In SARS, the levels of ACE2 in the lung decline during the infection. […] Studies with mice have previously revealed that a shortage of ACE2 leads to increased levels of a hormone called angiotensin II, which regulates blood pressure. […] However, other mouse studies have shown that ACE2 protects against a build-up of fluid in the lungs caused by a different molecule made by the body. […] It belongs to a family of molecules known as kinins, and ACE2 is known to inactivate certain kinins. […] This led van de Veerdonk et al. to propose that the excess of fluid in the lungs seen in COVID-19 patients may be because kinins are not being neutralized due to the shortage of the ACE2 receptor.
32339157 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a member of the renin-angiotension system, however, the correlation between ACE2 and prognosis in UCEC (Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma) and KIRP (Kidney Renal Papillary Cell Carcinoma) is not clear. […] We analyzed the expression levels of ACE2 in the Oncomine and TIMER databases, the correlation between ACE2 and overall survival in the PrognoScan, GEPIA and Kaplan-Meier plotter databases. […] The correlation between ACE2 and immune infiltration level and the type markers of immune cells was investigated in TIMER database. […] A prognosis analysis based on the expression levels of ACE2 was further performed in related immune cells subgroup. […] The ACE2 promoter methylation profile was tested in the UALCAN database. […] In addition, we used GSE30589 and GSE52920 databases to elucidate the changes of ACE2 expression in vivo and in vitro after SARS-CoV infection. […] ACE2 was elevated in UCEC and KIRP, and high ACE2 had a favorable prognosis. […] The expression of ACE2 was positively correlated with the level of immune infiltration of macrophage in KIRP, B cell, CD4+T cell, neutrophil and dendritic cell immune infiltration levels in UCEC. […] ACE2 was significantly positively correlated with the type markers of B cells and neutrophils, macrophages in UCEC, while ACE2 in KIRP was positively correlated with the type markers of macrophages. […] High ACE2 expression level had a favorable prognosis in different enriched immune cells subgroups in UCEC and KIRP. […] And the promoter methylation levels of ACE2 in UCEC and KIRP were significantly reduced. […] What’s more, we found that the expression of ACE2 decreased in vivo and in vitro after SARS-CoV infection. […] In conclusion, ACE2 expression increased significantly in UCEC and KIRP, elevated ACE2 was positively correlated with immune infiltration and prognosis.
32339344 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a cellular receptor for COVID-19.
32339391 Expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2 - the functional receptor for SARS-CoV) - is upregulated in adipocytes of obese and diabetic patients, which turns adipose tissue into a potential target and viral reservoir.
32341442 Recently, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been shown to be a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2 to enter host target cells. […] Given that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) upregulated ACE2 expression in animal studies, the concern might arise regarding whether ARBs and ACEIs would increase the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19.
32343658 Because the virus enters human cells by way of the membrane-associated angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), keeping the virus from docking to this receptor is a conceivable treatment approach.
32344305 In the literature, SARS-CoV has been known to cause de novo diabetes by ACE2-dependent uptake on pancreatic isle cells, and furthermore dysregulate lipid autophagy in favor of the viral lifecycle.
32345124 From the binding energy and interaction studies, the Saikosaponins U and V showed the best affinity towards both the proteins suggesting them to be future research molecule as they mark the desire interaction with NSP15, which is responsible for replication of RNA and also with 2019-nCoV spike glycoprotein which manage the connection with ACE2.
32345140 The current study aimed to repurpose stilbenoid analogs, reported for some other biological activities, against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and human ACE2 receptor complex for their affinity and stability using molecular dynamics simulation and binding free energy analysis based on molecular docking. […] However, fifty nanoseconds molecular dynamic simulation in aqueous solution revealed highly stable bound conformation of resveratrol to the viral protein: ACE2 receptor complex. […] SarmaHighlightsStilbenoid analogs could be potential disruptors of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and human ACE2 receptor complex.In particular, resveratrol revealed highly stable conformation to the viral protein: ACE2 receptor complex.The strong interaction of resveratrol is affirmed by molecular dynamic simulation studies and better net free energies.
32345328 In this study, we investigated the gene expression of angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) with prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC).
32345362 SARS-CoV-2, which is the virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), uses the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a cell receptor to invade human cells. […] Thus, ACE2 is the key to understanding the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] This study is to investigate the ACE2 expression in various human tissues in order to provide insights into the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] We compared ACE2 expression levels across 31 normal human tissues between males and females and between younger (ages ≤ 49 years) and older (ages > 49 years) persons using two-sided Student’s t test. […] We also investigated the correlations between ACE2 expression and immune signatures in various tissues using Pearson’s correlation test. […] ACE2 expression levels were the highest in the small intestine, testis, kidneys, heart, thyroid, and adipose tissue, and were the lowest in the blood, spleen, bone marrow, brain, blood vessels, and muscle. […] ACE2 showed medium expression levels in the lungs, colon, liver, bladder, and adrenal gland. […] ACE2 was not differentially expressed between males and females or between younger and older persons in any tissue. […] In the skin, digestive system, brain, and blood vessels, ACE2 expression levels were positively associated with immune signatures in both males and females. […] In the thyroid and lungs, ACE2 expression levels were positively and negatively associated with immune signatures in males and females, respectively, and in the lungs they had a positive and a negative correlation in the older and younger groups, respectively. […] This study provides new insights into the role of ACE2 in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
32348052 ACE inhibitors and sartans upregulate the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the pulmonary receptor for SARS-CoV-2. […] Les IEC et les sartans modulent l’expression de l’enzyme de conversion de l’angiotensine 2 (ACE2), récepteur pulmonaire du SARS-CoV-2.
32348166 With the capability of inducing elevated expression of ACE2, the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ARBs/ACEIs) treatment may have a controversial role in both facilitating virus infection and reducing pathogenic inflammation.
32348692 Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) mediate viral infection of host cells. […] We reasoned that differences in ACE2 or TMPRSS2 gene expression in sputum cells among asthma patients may identify subgroups at risk for COVID19 morbidity. […] We analyzed gene expression for ACE2 and TMPRSS2, and for intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)(rhinovirus receptor as a comparator), in sputum cells from 330 participants in the Severe Asthma Research Program-3 and 79 healthy controls. […] Gene expression of ACE2 was lower than TMPRSS2, and expression levels of both genes was similar in asthma and health. […] Among asthma patients, male gender, African Americans race, and history of diabetes mellitus, was associated with higher expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. […] Use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) was associated with lower expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, but treatment with triamcinolone acetonide (TA) did not decrease expression of either gene. […] Higher expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in males, African Americans, and patients with diabetes mellitus provides rationale for monitoring these asthma subgroups for poor COVID19 outcomes. […] The lower expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with ICS use warrants prospective study of ICS use as a predictor of decreased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and decreased COVID19 morbidity.
32349031 It’s reported that the entry receptor of SARS-CoV-2 has been confirmed to be angiotensin converting enzymes 2 (ACE2). […] Notably, whether the ACE-related inhibitors or drugs modulated ACE2 activity in affecting with viral activity and disease severity of SARS-CoV-2 is still an open question.
32350632 SARS-CoV2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, enters the cell via ACE2 expressed in select organs.
32351121 Extensive research ensuing the outbreak of coronavirus-related severe acute respiratory syndrome in the year 2003, and COVID-19 recently revealed a role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components in the entry of coronavirus wherein angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) had garnered the significant attention. […] In this brief review, we will elaborate on the role of RAS and ACE2 in pathogenesis of COVID-19.
32352535 Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2, following proteolytic cleavage of its S protein by a serine protease, binds to the transmembrane angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) -a homologue of ACE-to enter type 2 pneumocytes, macrophages, perivascular pericytes, and cardiomyocytes. […] While ACE2 is essential for viral invasion, there is no evidence that ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) worsen prognosis. […] Cardiovascular considerations of therapies currently used, including remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, ribavirin, interferons, and lopinavir/ritonavir, as well as experimental therapies, such as human recombinant ACE2 (rhACE2), are discussed.
32353982 They are represented by the dynamism of the ocular surface system (e.g., the tear film turnover) and the distribution of ACE2 receptors and TMPRSS2 protein.
32354022 SARS-CoV-2 exploits ACE2 for host cell entry. […] ACE2 plays an essential role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which regulates blood pressure and fluid balance. […] ACE2 also protects organs from inflammatory injuries and regulates intestinal functions. […] ACE2 can be shed by two proteases, ADAM17 and TMPRSS2. […] TMPRSS2-cleaved ACE2 allows SARS-CoV-2 cell entry, whereas ADAM17-cleaved ACE2 offers protection to organs. […] SARS-CoV-2 infection-caused ACE2 dysfunction worsens COVID-19 and could initiate multi-organ failure. […] Here, we will explain the role of ACE2 in the pathogenesis of severe and critical conditions of COVID-19 and discuss auspicious strategies for controlling the disease.
32356628 There is concern about the potential of an increased risk related to medications that act on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in patients exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), because the viral receptor is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32356926 The SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the airway and binds, by means of the S protein on its surface to the membrane protein ACE2 in type 2 alveolar cells. […] The S protein-ACE2 complex is internalized by endocytosis leading to a partial decrease or total loss of the enzymatic function ACE2 in the alveolar cells and in turn increasing the tissue concentration of pro-inflammatory angiotensin II by decreasing its degradation and reducing the concentration of its physiological antagonist angiotensin 1-7.
32358202 Indeed, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is highly expressed on differentiated enterocytes.
32360480 Such drugs comprise inhibitors of TMPRSS2 serine protease and inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] Blockade of ACE2, the host cell receptor for the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and inhibition of TMPRSS2, which is required for S protein priming may prevent cell entry of SARS-CoV-2.
32360608 The purpose of this article is to review and investigate further the molecular mechanism by which the SARS-CoV2 virus infection proceeds via the formation of a hetero-trimer between its protein S, the ACE2 receptor and the B0AT1 protein, which is the “entry receptor” for the infection process involving membrane fusion (Li et al., 2003).
32360703 The wide range of affected organs is presumably based on the common expression of the major SARS-CoV-2 entry-receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] Physiologically, ACE2 degrades angiotensin II, the master regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), thereby converting it into vasodilatory molecules, which have well-documented cardio-protective effects. […] Thus, RAAS inhibitors, which may increase the expression levels of ACE2, are commonly used for the treatment of hypertension and CVD. […] This, and the fact that SARS-CoV-2 hijacks ACE2 for cell-entry, have spurred controversial discussions on the role of ACE2 in COVID-19 patients. […] In this review, we highlight the state-of-the-art knowledge on SARS-CoV-2-dependent mechanisms and the potential interaction with ACE2 expression and cell surface localization.
32361098 The target of 2019-nCoV and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) positive cells. […] ACE2 is present in the salivary gland duct epithelium, and thus it could be the target of 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV. […] SARS-CoV-related animal model experiments show that it can infect the epithelial cells on the salivary gland duct in Chinese rhesus macaques by targeting ACE2.
32361911 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), reported as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor, is also expressed in human male testes. […] However, the characteristics of ACE2-positive cells and the expression of other SARS-CoV-2 process-related genes are still worthy of further investigation. […] We found that ACE2 expressing cells existed in almost all testis cell types and Sertoli cells had highest expression level and positive cells ratio. […] Moreover, ACE2 was also expressed in human male PGCs. […] In adulthood, the level of ACE2 expression decreased with the increase of age. […] We also found that ACE2 positive cells had high expressions of stress response and immune activation-related genes. […] Furthermore, ACE2 expression level in NOA donors’ Sertoli cells was significantly decreased.
32362217 The objective of this present study is to focus on the in silico study to screen for an alternative drug that can block the activity of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor for SARS-CoV-2, potential therapeutic target of the COVID-19 virus using natural compounds (Isothymol, Thymol, Limonene, P-cymene and γ-terpinene) derived from the essential oil of the antiviral and antimicrobial plant Ammoides verticillata (Desf.) […] This study reveals that Isothymol, a major component of this plant, gives the best docking scores, compared to, the co-crystallized inhibitor β-D-mannose of the enzyme ACE2, to Captropil drug as good ACE2 inhibitor and to Chloroquine antiviral drug also involved in other mechanisms as inhibition of ACE2 cellular receptor. In silico (ADME), drug-likeness, PASS & P450 site of metabolism prediction, pharmacophore Mapper showed that the compound Isothymol has given a good tests results compared to the β-D-mannose co-crystallized inhibitor, to Captopril and Chloroquine drugs. […] The Molecular Dynamics Simulation study showed good result for the Isotymol- ACE2 docked complex. […] This study revealed for the first time that Isothymol is a functional inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity and the components of essential oils Ammoides verticillata can be used as potential inhibitors to the ACE2 receptor of SARS-CoV-2.
32363137 •There is no enough evidence to indicate that ACEIs and ARBs result in ACE2 upregulation. […] •The level of ACE2 expression is not completely related with the risk of COVID-19 infection.
32363255 For the first time, using the molecular docking technique, we report the inhibitory effect of the considered compounds on the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein in the human body that leads to a crucial foundation about coronavirus resistance of individual compounds on the main protease (PDB6LU7) protein of SARS-CoV-2. […] The results show that the 17 organosulfur compounds, accounting for 99.4% contents of the garlic essential oil, have strong interactions with the amino acids of the ACE2 protein and the main protease PDB6LU7 of SARS-CoV-2. […] Interestingly, docking results indicate the synergistic interactions of the 17 substances, which exhibit good inhibition of the ACE2 and PDB6LU7 proteins.
32364961 To enter airway and lung epithelia, SARS-CoV-2 attaches to ACE2 receptors by spike (S) glycoproteins. […] Molecular mechanisms that promote interaction between SARS-CoV-2 virus and host with particular focus on virus cell entry receptor ACE2 are described.
32365180 The virus invades the target cell by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 and modulates the expression of ACE2 in host cells. […] ACE2, a pivotal component of the renin-angiotensin system, exerts its physiological functions by modulating the levels of angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang-(1-7). […] We reviewed the literature that reported the distribution and function of ACE2 in the female reproductive system, hoping to clarify the potential harm of 2019-nCoV to female fertility. […] The available evidence suggests that ACE2 is widely expressed in the ovary, uterus, vagina and placenta. […] Ang II, ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) regulate follicle development and ovulation, modulate luteal angiogenesis and degeneration, and also influence the regular changes in endometrial tissue and embryo development. […] Taking these functions into account, 2019-nCoV may disturb the female reproductive functions through regulating ACE2.
32365214 There is a pool of coronavirus among bats which have the potential to infect humans through the ACE2 receptor, and new human epidemics can be expected.
32365751 To gain insight into the high infection rate of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, we compare the interaction between the human ACE2 receptor and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with that of other pathogenic coronaviruses using molecular dynamics simulations. […] SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and HCoV-NL63 recognize ACE2 as the natural receptor but present a distinct binding interface to ACE2 and a different network of residue-residue contacts. […] The SARS-CoV-2-ACE2 complex contains a higher number of contacts, a larger interface area, and decreased interface residue fluctuations relative to the SARS-CoV-ACE2 complex.
32366279 In addition, the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor of COVID-19, were aberrantly expressed in many tumors. […] However, a systematic analysis of ACE2 aberration remained to be elucidated in human cancers. […] Here, we analyzed genetic alteration, RNA expression, and DNA methylation of ACE2 across over 30 tumors. […] Notably, overexpression of ACE2 have been observed in including colon adenocarcinoma (COAD), kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD), rectum adenocarcinoma (READ), stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD), and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). […] In addition, hypo DNA methylation of ACE2 has also been identified in most of these ACE2 highly expressed tumors. […] Conclusively, our study for the first time curated both genetic and epigenetic variations of ACE2 in human malignancies.
32366740 A concern was raised regarding the safety of ibuprofen use because of its role in increasing ACE2 levels within the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system. […] ACE2 is the coreceptor for the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells, and so, a potential increased risk of contracting COVID-19 disease and/or worsening of COVID-19 infection was feared with ibuprofen use. […] However, available data from limited studies show administration of recombinant ACE2 improves lung damage caused by respiratory viruses, suggesting ibuprofen use may be beneficial in COVID-19 disease.
32368531 To penetrate the body, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 uses ACE2 receptors, which are present not only in respiratory epithelium but also in gastrointestinal mucosa and liver cholangiocytes.
32369211 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) removes a single residue from Ang I to yield Ang (1-9) and cleaves a single residue from Ang II to generate Ang (1-7). […] Thus ACE2 counterbalances ACE function decreasing Ang II levels1 .
32370986 Since the ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) enzyme is the receptor that allows SARS COV2 entry into cells, the fear was that pre-existing treatment with ACEi or ARB might increase the risk of developing severe or fatal severe acute respiratory syndrome in case of COVID-19 infection. […] ACE2 is a membrane-bound enzyme (carboxypeptidase) that contributes to the inactivation of angiotensin II and therefore physiologically counters angiotensin II effects. […] ACEis do not inhibit ACE2. […] Although ARBs have been shown to up-regulate ACE2 tissue expression in experimental animals, evidence was not always consistent in human studies. […] Moreover, to date there is no evidence that ACEi or ARB administration facilitates SARS-COV2 cell entry by increasing ACE2 tissue expression in either animal or human studies. […] Finally, some studies support the hypothesis that elevated ACE2 membrane expression and tissue activity by administration of ARB and/or infusion of soluble ACE2 could confer protective properties against inflammatory tissue damage in COVID-19 infection.
32373991 The phytochemical library was subjected to virtual screening against molecular targets; Main protease (Mpro) and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32374416 The relationship between Renin-Angiotensin system (RAS) and COVID-19 pandemic and, in particular, RAS as part of the CoV-2 infection process via Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), the entry point of SARS-CoV-2, has resulted in conflicting suggestions regarding how RAS and its role(s) should inform treating COVID-19. […] ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II (Ang)-type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), in fact, have been suggested to be avoided as they potentially upregulate ACE2 1 and, conversely, there are suggestions that ARBs might be beneficial 2 as SARS-CoV-2 causing ACE2 downregulation slows the Ang II conversion to the vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiatherosclerotic Ang 1-7 3-5 , and the use of ARBs by blocking the excessive Ang II type-1 receptors activation, would be beneficial upregulating ACE2 activity and increasing Ang 1-7 levels.
32374427 SARS-CoV-2 is assumed to use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and other auxiliary proteins for cell entry. […] However, it is currently unclear whether conjunctival epithelial cells express ACE2 and its cofactors. […] In this study, a total of 38 conjunctival samples from 38 patients, including 12 healthy conjunctiva, 12 melanoma, 7 squamous cell carcinoma and 7 papilloma samples, were analyzed using high-throughput RNA sequencing to assess mRNA expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 and its cofactors including TMPRSS2, ANPEP, DPP4, and ENPEP. […] ACE2 protein expression was assessed in eight healthy conjunctival samples using immunohistochemistry. […] Our results show that the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 is not substantially expressed in conjunctival samples on the mRNA (median 0.0 transcripts per million (TPM), min 0.0 TPM, max 1.7 TPM) and protein levels. […] In conclusion, this study finds no evidence for a significant expression of ACE2 and its auxiliary mediators for cell entry in conjunctival samples, making conjunctival infection with SARS-CoV-2 via these mediators unlikely.
32374430 The current pandemic and its pleotropic effects can be explained in part by interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S, the ACE2/L-SIGN/CD209 receptor on the type II alveolar cell of the lung, and the DC-SIGN receptor on the respiratory dendritic cell (DC) and associated endothelial cells.
32375085 Acting as the receptor for SARS-CoV entering mammalian cells, angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiovascular cell function.
32376368 Additionally, the key targets of SARS-COV-2, namely 3CL hydrolase (Mpro) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2), were used to dock the main ingredients from the 40 kinds by the LigandFitDock method.
32376627 In this study, we firstly verified that SARS-CoV-2 uses human ACE2 as a cell receptor and its spike (S) protein mediates high membrane fusion activity.
32376634 To fulfill its function, SARS-CoV-2 spike binds to its receptor human ACE2 (hACE2) through its receptor-binding domain (RBD) and is proteolytically activated by human proteases. […] First, SARS-CoV-2 RBD has higher hACE2 binding affinity than SARS-CoV RBD, supporting efficient cell entry. […] Second, paradoxically, the hACE2 binding affinity of the entire SARS-CoV-2 spike is comparable to or lower than that of SARS-CoV spike, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 RBD, albeit more potent, is less exposed than SARS-CoV RBD. […] The high hACE2 binding affinity of the RBD, furin preactivation of the spike, and hidden RBD in the spike potentially allow SARS-CoV-2 to maintain efficient cell entry while evading immune surveillance.
32376714 The RBD of spike protein S binds to Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) to initiate cellular entry. […] The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 shows more than 90% amino acid similarity to the pangolin and bat CoVs and these also use ACE2 as a receptor. […] Binding of the spike protein to ACE2 exposes the cleavage sites to cellular proteases.
32378030 The SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) present on brain endothelial and smooth muscle cells. […] ACE2 is a key part of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and a counterbalance to angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE1) and angiotensin II. […] Depletion of ACE2 by SARS-CoV-2 may tip the balance in favor of the “harmful” ACE1/angiotensin II axis and promote tissue injury including stroke.
32378705 Spike (S) protein, one of the structural proteins of this virus plays key role in receptor (ACE2) binding and thus virus entry.
32379346 The paper of Cheng H. et al., describes an interesting hypothesis regarding the organ protective effects of ACE2 activation against the malignant effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans, and describes interesting previous results reporting ACE2 higher levels in children, young people and women that is coincident with a lower morbidity and health problems associated to COVID19. […] In the present comment the treatment of COVID19 patients with ACE2 activators, such as diminazene aceturate (DIZE), which are currently used as antiparasitic drugs, is proposed.
32379417 We show that the cell surface protein ACE2 and the protease TMPRSS2 are expressed in sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium but not, or much less, in most olfactory receptor neurons.
32380511 Because angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cell entry receptor of SARS-CoV5, we used transgenic mice bearing human ACE2 and infected with SARS-CoV-2 to study the pathogenicity of the virus. […] Weight loss and virus replication in lung were observed in hACE2 mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. […] Notably, we have confirmed the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in hACE2 mice.
32380565 · Immature angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2) interferes with coronavirus entry into the cells..
32380903 Despite initial findings indicating that SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are genetically related belonging to the same virus species and that the two viruses used the same entry receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), our data demonstrated that there is no detectable cross-neutralization by SARS patient sera against SARS-CoV-2.
32382146 To determine the expressions of SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) genes in human and mouse ocular cells and comparison to other tissue cells. […] The expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes was determined in human primary conjunctival and pterygium cells, human ocular and other tissue cell lines, mesenchymal stem cells as well as mouse ocular and other tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and SYBR green PCR. […] RT-PCR analysis showed consistent expression by 2 ACE2 gene primers in 2 out of 3 human conjunctival cells and pterygium cell lines. […] In addition, mouse cornea had comparable expression of Tmprss2 gene and lower but prominent Ace2 gene expression compared with the lung tissue. […] Considering the necessity of both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 for SARS-CoV-2 infection, our results suggest that conjunctiva would be less likely to be infected by SARS-CoV-2, whereas pterygium possesses some possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] With high and consistent expression of Ace2 and Tmprss2 in cornea, cornea rather than conjunctiva has higher potential to be infected by SARS-CoV-2.
32383269 In this connection, the present in silico study aims to understand the sequence divergence of spike protein (the major infective protein of SARS-CoV-2), its mode of interaction with the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor (ACE2) receptor of human and related animal hosts/reservoir. […] Our data indicated that the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 is phylogenetically close to bat coronavirus and strongly binds with ACE2 receptor protein from both human and bat origin. […] Finally, this study is expected to improve our understanding on the immunobiology of SARS-CoV-2 and could be useful in adopting spike protein, ACE2, or TLR-guided intervention strategy against COVID-19 shortly.
32383624 This might be due to the fact that ACE2 is the receptor for the virus to enter human cells, but, on the contrary, that ACE2 expression is downregulated following SARS-1 infection, resulting in disproportionate activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and exacerbated pneumonia progression.
32384820 Here, we detailed how to effectively pseudotype lentiviral particles with SARS-CoV-2 Spike and infect 293T cells engineered to express the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, ACE2.
32387456 Cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to ACE2 and on S protein priming by TMPRSS2.
32388330 The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) receptor for host cell entry.
32388331 Compromised innate immunity, pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu, reduced expression of ACE2 and use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists in people with diabetes mellitus contribute to poor prognosis in COVID-19.
32388451 Recent reports suggest that ACE2, which is the target protein to invade the host, has a ubiquitous presence in human organs, including lung parenchyma, gastrointestinal tract, nasal mucosa, renal and urinary tract, airway epithelia, lymphoid tissues, reproductive organs, vascular endothelium and neurons.
32388565 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a functional receptor for coronaviruses. […] Higher ACE2 concentrations might lead to increased vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 in patients on RAAS inhibitors. […] We measured ACE2 concentrations in 1485 men and 537 women with heart failure (index cohort). […] The strongest predictor of elevated concentrations of ACE2 in both cohorts was male sex (estimate = 0.26, P < 0.001; and 0.19, P < 0.001, respectively). […] In the index cohort, use of ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) was not an independent predictor of plasma ACE2. […] In the validation cohort, ACE inhibitor (estimate = -0.17, P = 0.002) and ARB use (estimate = -0.15, P = 0.03) were independent predictors of lower plasma ACE2, while use of an MRA (estimate = 0.11, P = 0.04) was an independent predictor of higher plasma ACE2 concentrations. […] In two independent cohorts of patients with heart failure, plasma concentrations of ACE2 were higher in men than in women, but use of neither an ACE inhibitor nor an ARB was associated with higher plasma ACE2 concentrations. […] These data might explain the higher incidence and fatality rate of COVID-19 in men, but do not support previous reports suggesting that ACE inhibitors or ARBs increase the vulnerability for COVID-19 through increased plasma ACE2 concentrations.
32389499 Here, we advance the hypothesis that four well-recognized features of aging contribute to the disproportionate SARS-CoV-2 mortality suffered by elderly men: i. the presence of subclinical systemic inflammation without overt disease, ii. a blunted acquired immune system and type I interferon response due to the chronic inflammation; iii. the downregulation of ACE2 (i.e. the SARS-CoV-2 receptor); and iv. accelerated biological aging.
32389847 ACE2 is a receptor of entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the host cells, and its upregulation has been implicated in increasing susceptibility of individuals to this infection. […] The clinical picture of COVID-19 suggests a role of ACE2 blockade, rather than its overexpression, in causing the pathogenesis. […] ACE2 blockade results in increased angiotensin II activity with simultaneous hampering of functions of angiotensin-(1-7)/MasR axis.
32390091 Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expressions of ACE2 in tissues. […] The ACE2 expression levels were up-regulated in patients of severe type and critically ill type. […] ACE2 may be the receptor of COVID-19.
32391169 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-1 and 2 viral surface protein is known to attach angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on the cell membrane to facilitate viral entry into the cytoplasm. […] Despite the theoretical concerns of increased ACE2 expression by Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system (RAS) blockade, there is no evidence that RAS inhibitors are harmful during COVID-19 infection and have in fact been shown to be beneficial in animal studies.
32391242 Viral genomic sequencing has shown that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein utilizes angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) found on ciliated epithelial cells of the human lungs as its specific receptor.
32391742 Background Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a target of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), demonstrates its highest surface expression in the lung, small bowel, and vasculature, suggesting abdominal viscera may be susceptible to injury.
32392562 In this review, we provide the latest insights into the roles of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) and Ang II receptor-1 (AT1-R) in this disease. […] Novel therapeutic strategies, including recombinant ACE2, ACE inhibitors, AT1-R blockers, and Ang 1-7 peptides, may prevent or reduce viruses-induced pulmonary, cardiac, and renal injuries. […] In addition to antiviral therapy, potential ACE2- and AT1-R-inhibiting strategies, and other supportive care, we suggest other potential JAKinibs and novel anti-inflammatory combination therapies that affect the JAK-STAT pathway in patients with COVID-19.
32392945 SARS-CoV通过结合血管紧张素转换酶2(ACE2)进入细胞,病变与病程相关,DAD渗出期一般见于病程10~14 d死亡患者。
32393136 SARS-CoV-2 possesses high-affinity for angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, which is highly concentrated in the lungs and cardiovascular tissue, thereby provoking concern for cardiovascular involvement in COVID-19 cases.
32394467 Angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 (ACE2) in soluble form as a recombinant protein can prevent the spread of coronavirus by restricting binding and entry. […] Favipiravir increases clinical recovery and reduces respiratory problems and has a stronger antiviral effect than LPV/r. currently, appropriate treatment for patients with COVID-19 is an ACE2 inhibitor and a clinical problem reducing agent such as favipiravir in addition to hydroxychloroquine and corticosteroids.
32394639 Cell binding and entry of betacoronaviruses is via their surface spike glycoprotein; SARS-CoV binds to the metalloprotease angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), MERS-CoV utilizes dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), and recent modeling of the structure of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein predicts that it can interact with human DPP4 in addition to ACE2.
32395474 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was recently identified to functional receptor of SARS-CoV-2. […] Previous experimental data revealed ACE2 level was increased following treatment with ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs).
32395525 The novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) infected individuals by binding human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2) receptor. […] ACE2 is widely expressed in multiple organs including respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive and urinary systems in healthy individuals. […] These tissues with high expression level of ACE2 seemed to be more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] The tissue atlas database and the blood atlas were used to analyze the distribution of ACE2 in human tissues or organs of cancers and normal samples. […] Starbase dataset was applied to predict the prognosis of cancers according to expression level of ACE2. […] In this study, we demonstrated a landscape profiling analysis on expression level of ACE2 in pan-cancers and showed the risky of different type of cancers to SARS-CoV-2 according to the expression level of ACE2. […] In addition, we found that ACE2 was both differential expression and related to the prognosis only in liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC). […] Relative high expression of ACE2 indicated a favorable prognosis in LIHC, but they might be more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. […] We indeed emphasized that LIHC patients with high expression level of ACE2 should be more cautious of the virus infection.
32396773 Spike (S) glycoprotein is the structural protein of SARS-CoV-2 located on the envelope surface, involve in interaction with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a cell surface receptor, followed by entry into the host cell. […] Thereby, blocking the S glycoprotein through potential inhibitor may interfere its interaction with ACE2 and impede its entry into the host cell. […] Here, we present a truncated version of human ACE2 (tACE2), comprising the N terminus region of the intact ACE2 from amino acid position 21-119, involved in binding with receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. […] We analyzed the in-silico potential of tACE2 to compete with intact ACE2 for binding with RBD. […] The protein-protein docking and molecular dynamic simulation showed that tACE2 has higher binding affinity for RBD and form more stabilized complex with RBD than the intact ACE2. […] Furthermore, prediction of tACE2 soluble expression in E. coli makes it a suitable candidate to be targeted for Covid-19 therapeutics.
32397951 The surface of host cells is covered by some receptors, known as ACE2, which mediates the binding and entry of CoV. […] A major step in exploring SARS-COV-2 pathogenesis is to determine the distribution of ACE2 proteins on tissue surface. […] In this review, the structure and origin of CoV, the role of ACE2 as a receptor of SARS-COV-2 on the surface of host cells, and the ACE2 distribution in different tissues with a focus on lung and cardiovascular system has been discussed.
32401442 ACE2 is not only an enzyme that counters the effects of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) but is also the entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, the virus of the Covid-19 pandemic. […] Some experimental data suggest that ACE inhibitors and ARBs increase ACE2 levels, thus raising concerns on their security in Covid-19 positive patients. […] L’enzyme de conversion de l’angiotensine ACE2 est le récepteur membranaire du virus SARS-CoV-2, permettant son entrée dans les cellules cibles. […] ACE2 est également une enzyme qui contrebalance les effets de l’axe classique angiotensine II et récepteur AT1 du système rénine-angiotensine.
32401844 In addition, the virus uses angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) receptors, more precisely ACE2, to penetrate the cell; therefore, the use of ACE inhibitor drugs and angiotensin receptor blockers could cause an increase in these receptors, thus facilitating the entry of the virus into the cell.
32402766 During the infection of alveolar epithelial cells of the lung, the ACE2 receptor has a central function. […] The antimalarial drugs chloroquine phosphate (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) impair in vitro the terminal glycosylation of ACE2 without significant change of cell-surface ACE2 and, therefore, might be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 infections.
32403995 The SARS-CoV-2 infection relies on trimeric spike (S) proteins to facilitate virus entry into host cells by binding to ACE2 receptor on host cell membranes. […] From two llama VHH libraries, unique humanized VHHs that bind to S protein and block the S/ACE2 interaction were identified. […] Multi-specific antibodies with enhanced affinity and avidity, and improved S/ACE2 blocking are currently being developed using an in-silico approach that also fuses VHHs to Fc domains. […] Importantly, our current bi-specific antibody shows potent S/ACE2 blocking (KD - 0.25 nM, IC100 ∼ 36.7 nM, IC95 ∼ 12.2 nM, IC50 ∼ 1 nM) which is significantly better than individual monoclonal VHH-Fcs.
32404436 Here, we report productive infection of SARS-CoV-2 in ACE2+ mature enterocytes in human small intestinal enteroids.
32404477 B38 and H4 block the binding between virus S-protein RBD and cellular receptor ACE2. […] The RBD-B38 complex structure revealed that most residues on the epitope overlap with the RBD-ACE2 binding interface, explaining the blocking effect and neutralizing capacity.
32404529 Here, we used X-ray structures of human ACE2 bound to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein (S) from SARS-CoV-2 to predict its binding to ACE2 proteins from different animals, including pets, farm animals, and putative intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2. […] Comparing the interaction sites of ACE2 proteins known to serve or not serve as receptor allows to define residues important for binding. […] From the 20 amino acids in ACE2 that contact S up to seven can be replaced and ACE2 can still function as the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. […] Some ACE2 proteins even tolerate the loss or the acquisition of N-glycosylation sites located near the S-interface. […] Of note, Pigs and dogs, which are not or not effectively infected and have only a few changes in the binding site, exhibit relatively low levels of ACE2 in the respiratory tract. […] However, ACE2 of pangolin exhibit seven changes relative to human ACE2, a similar number of substitutions is present in ACE2 of bats, raccoon, and civet suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may not especially adapted to ACE2 of any of its putative intermediate hosts. […] Effective binding to the host receptor ACE2 is the first prerequisite for infection of cells and determines the host range. […] We found that ACE2 from species known to support SARS-CoV-2 infection tolerate many amino acid changes indicating that the species barrier might be low. […] An exception are dogs and especially pigs, which, however, revealed relatively low ACE2 expression levels in the respiratory tract.
32404898 Similarly, despite the recognition of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2), and the role of ACE2 in lung injury; there are conflicting results with the use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) in these patients.
32405071 Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) may increase due to upregulation in patients using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). […] Because renin-angiotensin system blockers increase levels of ACE2, a protein that facilitates coronavirus entry into cells, there is concern that these drugs could increase the risk of developing a severe and fatal form of COVID-19.
32405117 SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV recognize angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor via the receptor-binding domain (RBD). […] The 18F3-recognizing epitopes on RBD did not overlap with the ACE2-binding sites, whereas those recognized by 7B11 were close to the ACE2-binding sites, explaining why 7B11 could, but 18F3 could not, block SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 RBD binding to ACE2 receptor.
32405877 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a co-receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and studies thus far have not concluded a benefit or risk associated with the use of either ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists.
32406140 SARS-CoV-2 binds to angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) to facilitate infection in humans. […] There is preliminary evidence for ACE2 expression on corneal and conjunctival cells, but most of the other receptors to which coronaviruses bind appear to be found under epithelia of the ocular surface.
32406522 We address the role of ACE2, as a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2, which also was found in the gastrointestinal tract.
32407491 Two use-case studies were demonstrated, one being on ACE2 protein which is SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein receptor. […] ACE2 binding compounds and 7 antiviral drugs were closely embedded in which two of them have been under clinical trial for COVID-19. iBioProVis and its carefully filtered dataset are available at https://ibpv.kansil.org/ for public use.
32408547 This enzyme facilitates viral particle entry into host cells, and its inhibition blocks virus fusion with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32409434 Concerns have been raised about the potential for renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors to upregulate expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and thus increase susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry. […] Currently, there is no evidence that even if RAS inhibitors increase expression and activity of ACE2, that they would increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by facilitating greater viral entry or worsen outcomes in patients with COVID-19.
32410141 The ACE2 gene is a receptor of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) for COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). […] ACE2 was highly conserved in different species. […] In normal tissues, ACE2 expression distributions were organ-specific, mainly in the kidney, male testis and female breast, and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. […] On the other side, high expression of ACE2 was correlated with increased survival rate in renal and liver cancer, indicating that ACE2 is a prognostic marker in both renal cancer and liver cancers. […] Thus, the ACE2 is a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and has a potential anti-tumor role in cancer. […] Taken together, this study may not only provide potential clues for further medical pathogenesis of COVID-19 and male fertility, but also indicate the clinical significance of the role of the ACE2 gene in cancer.
32410735 Protein-protein binding assays have confirmed that Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is more likely to be the cell receptor through which the virus invades the host cell. […] In the present work, we provide an insight into the interaction of the viral spike Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) from different coronavirus isolates with host ACE2 protein. […] By calculating the binding energy score between RBD and ACE2, we highlighted the putative jump in the affinity from a progenitor form of SARS-CoV-2 to the current virus responsible for COVID-19 outbreak. […] We also highlighted the relevance of Q493 and P499 amino acid residues of SARS-CoV-2 RBD for binding to human ACE2 and maintaining the stability of the interface. […] Finally, we studied the impact of eight different variants located at the interaction surface of ACE2, on the complex formation with SARS-CoV-2 RBD.
32412918 We used the following search terms: “Coronavirus” or “2019-nCoV” or “COVID-19” or “SARS-CoV” or “MERS-CoV” or “Bat SARS-CoV” or “ACE2 receptor”. […] Researchers are presuming the existence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor binding in nCoV-2019, as in SARS-CoV.
32412919 It has been reported that women from the Chinese Han population are associated with essential hypertension due to their relation with the 5 SNPs, namely, rs1514283, rs4646155, rs4646176, rs2285666, and rs879922, which belong to the ACE2 gene. […] The level of ACE2 activity was very low in normal healthy younger persons, and was reported to be increased in patients with cardiovascular diseases.
32413300 Viral entry is mediated through viral spike protein and host ACE2 enzyme interaction.
32413319 SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry. […] The cell subsets targeted by SARS-CoV-2 in host tissues and the factors that regulate ACE2 expression remain unknown. […] We identify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within lung type II pneumocytes, ileal absorptive enterocytes, and nasal goblet secretory cells. […] Strikingly, we discovered that ACE2 is a human interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) in vitro using airway epithelial cells and extend our findings to in vivo viral infections. […] Our data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 could exploit species-specific interferon-driven upregulation of ACE2, a tissue-protective mediator during lung injury, to enhance infection.
32414646 Recently it was shown that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, binds to the human angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] Humans are not equal with respect to the expression levels of the cellular ACE2. […] Moreover, ACE2 polymorphisms were recently described in human populations. […] Here we review the most recent evidence that ACE2 expression and/or polymorphism could influence both the susceptibility of people to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the outcome of the COVID-19 disease. […] Further exploration of the relationship between the virus, the peptidase function of ACE2 and the levels of angiotensin II in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients should help to better understand the pathophysiology of the disease and the multi-organ failures observed in severe COVID-19 cases, particularly heart failure.
32414711 The SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the cell via ACE2. […] ACE2 is a component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which has an important counterregulatory effect on the classical ACE-dependent pathway. […] Several antihypertensives increase ACE2 expression or activity, leading to concern that this may facilitate SARS-CoV-2 entry and worsen COVID-19 disease. […] However, ACE2 is protective against lung injury while ANG II (which is catabolised by ACE2) is associated with lung injury both in mice and humans.
32415260 The viral spike protein binds the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) via the receptor-binding domain (RBD), and thus is believed to be a major target to block viral entry. […] Here we functionally analyzed the key amino acid residues located within receptor binding motif of RBD that may interact with human ACE2 and available neutralizing antibodies.
32415419 Here, we discuss different modes of action (anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, inhibition of endosomal acidification, suppression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 or ACE2 glycosylation, etc.) of HCQ that might be responsible for its possible anti-COVID-19 effect.
32415481 Given the SARS-CoV-2 likely uses the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptors as its host receptor, ACE2-related signaling pathways may play a key role in mediating myocardial injury.
32415494 Scientists hypothesized that drugs such as ibuprofen or renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers could exacerbate the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 by upregulating the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which serves as an entry receptor for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.
32416074 In contrast, RmYN02 showed low sequence identity (61.3%) to SARS-CoV-2 in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and might not bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32416259 By constant-pH Monte Carlo simulations and the PROCEEDpKa method, we have mapped the electrostatic epitopes for four monoclonal antibodies and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on both SARS-CoV-1 and the new SARS-CoV-2 S receptor binding domain (RBD) proteins. […] We also calculated free energy of interactions and shown that the S RBD proteins from both SARS viruses binds to ACE2 with similar affinities. […] However, the affinity between the S RBD protein from the new SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 is higher than for any studied antibody previously found complexed with SARS-CoV-1.
32416679 Such machinery encompasses SARS-CoV-2 envelope spike (S) glycoprotein required for host cell entry by binding to the ACE2 receptor, viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and 3-chymotrypsin-like main protease (3Clpro/Mpro).
32417709 Hypertensive individuals, usually grouped with other conditions, are treated with drugs to reduce blood pressure mostly through ACEi and ARB, that leads to increased ACE2 expression, used by SARS-CoV-2 for human’s cell entry.
32418199 Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) has been established as the functional host receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the current devastating worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] ACE2 is abundantly expressed in a variety of cells residing in many different human organs. […] In human physiology, ACE2 is a pivotal counter-regulatory enzyme to ACE by the breakdown of angiotensin II, the central player in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and the main substrate of ACE2. […] Many factors have been associated with both altered ACE2 expression and COVID-19 severity and progression, including age, sex, ethnicity, medication and several co-morbidities, such as cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. […] Although ACE2 is widely distributed in various human tissues and many of its determinants have been well recognised, ACE2-expressing organs do not equally participate in COVID-19 pathophysiology, implying that other mechanisms are involved in orchestrating cellular infection resulting in tissue damage. […] Reports of pathologic findings in tissue specimens of COVID-19 patients are rapidly emerging and confirm the established role of ACE2 expression and activity in disease pathogenesis. […] In this review, we describe the role of ACE2 in COVID-19 pathophysiology, including factors influencing ACE2 expression and activity in relation to COVID-19 severity.
32418532 Recently, SARS-CoV-2 [8, 9], the causative agent of COVID-19, has been described to interfere with the RAS [2] by interacting -via its spike (S) glycoprotein- with the metallopeptidase Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor [9, 10] that is expressed at the surface of epithelial cells from blood vessels, lung, kidney (renal tubules), intestine, and heart, as well as on cerebral neurons and immune monocytes/macrophages [11-13]. […] The latter is cleaved by the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) to produce Angiotensin II (i.e. peptide DRVYIHPF), which is the substrate of ACE2 (SARS-CoV-2 receptor) and key player of the RAS. […] When cleaved by ACE2, Angiotensin II gives Angiotensin 1-7 (i.e. peptide DRVYIHP), targeting the vasodilatator proto-oncogene Mas receptor (MasR). […] Angiotensin II can produce Angiotensin A (i.e. peptide ARVYIHPF) via an aspartate decarboxylase, and Alamandine via an additional ACE2 cleavage. […] ACE2 can also cleave Angiotensin I to form Angiotensin 1-9 (i.e. peptide DRVYIHPFH), which targets AT2R. […] Interestingly, it appears that a ‘counter-regulatory’ RAS does exist to modulate system homeostasis; it relies on Angiotensin 1-7, Angiotensin 1-9, Alamandine, Angiotensin A, and Angiotensin IV, which are targeting the MasR, AT2R, MRGD, ACE2 and AT4R vasodilatator receptors, respectively. […] It appears that COVID-19 disorders of SARS-CoV-2-infected humans depend on the RAS over-reacted by the (ACE2-dependent) viral infection and vitamin D deficiency. […] Recombinant ACE2 (under clinical trials) is also considered as a decoy for the recognition and competitive binding to the spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 [9, 10]. […] The targeted receptors would thus be MasR, AT2R, MRGD, ACE2 and AT4R.
32418550 SARS-CoV-2 and mustard gas inducing oxidative stress, immune system dysregulation, cytokine storm, and overexpression of ACE2 receptor in lungs that act as functional entry receptors for SARS-CoV-2.
32419720 We speculate that male 2D:4D is a negative correlate for expression of the SARS-CoV2 receptor (ACE2).
32419926 Moreover, the well-known SARS-CoV receptor (ACE2) might be a putative receptor for the novel virus as well.
32420049 The virus mainly targets the pulmonary epithelial cells as it’s initial site of infection by letting its surface spike protein interact and bind to the host ACE2 receptor.
32420934 Tobacco smoking seems to cause a dose-dependent upregulation of the angiotensin-converting- enzyme-2 (ACE2), the virus cellular entry receptor, which could explain the higher risk of severe COVID-19 in smokers.
32421102 The ZDOCK protein docking software was applied to dock the S-protein with the human angiotensin ACE2 protein to find out the key amino acids of the binding site. […] Taking ACE2 as the receptor, the molecular docking between the active ingredients and the target protein was studied by AutoDock molecular docking software. […] Through the protein docking between S-protein and ACE2, it is found that Glu329/Gln325 and Gln42/Asp38 in ACE2 play an important role in the binding process of the two. […] The results of molecular docking virtual calculation showed that phillyrin and chlorogenic acid could stably combine with Gln325 and Gln42/Asp38 in ACE2, respectively, which hindered the combination between S- protein and ACE2. […] Phillyrin and chlorogenic acid can effectively prevent the combination of SARS-CoV-2 S-protein and ACE2 at the molecular level.
32421367 The main host receptor of the SARS-CoV-2 is angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a major component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). […] The ACE2 is also involved in testicular male regulation of steroidogenesis, and spermatogenesis. […] As the SARS-CoV-2 may have the potential to infect the testis via ACE2, and adversely affect male reproductive system, it is essential to commence with targeted studies to learn from current pandemic, with the possibility of preemptive intervention depending on findings and the time course of the continued pandemic.
32422146 To extend our work in interleukin (IL)-13 biology to determine if airway epithelial cell expression of two key mediators critical for SARS-CoV-2 infection, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) are modulated by IL-13. […] We determined effects of IL-13 treatment on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression ex vivo in primary airway epithelial cells from participants with and without type 2 asthma obtained by bronchoscopy. […] We also examined expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in two datasets containing gene expression data from nasal and airway epithelial cells from children and adults with asthma and allergic rhinitis. […] IL-13 significantly reduced ACE2 and increased TMPRSS2 expression ex vivo in airway epithelial cells. […] In two independent datasets, ACE2 expression was significantly reduced and TMPRSS2 was significantly increased in the nasal and airway epithelial cells in type 2 asthma and allergic rhinitis. […] ACE2 expression was significantly negatively associated with type 2 cytokines while TMPRSS2 expression was significantly positively associated with type 2 cytokines. […] IL-13 modulates ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in airway epithelial cells in asthma.
32422280 Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), is the human cell receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19. […] ACE2 expression increases on lung alveolar epithelial cells and adipose tissue due to obesity, smoking and air pollution. […] A significant relationship exists between air pollution and SARS-CoV-2 infection, as more severe COVID-19 symptoms occur in smokers; comorbid conditions due to obesity or excess ectopic fat accumulation as underlying risk factors for severe COVID-19 strongly encourage the virus/ACE2 receptor-ligand interaction concept.
32422320 First, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity is lost during SARS-CoV-2 viral entry. […] ACE2 is highly expressed in the lungs and heart and converts Angiotensin II into Angiotensin 1-7. […] Loss of ACE2 upon viral entry may tip the balance towards destructive p38 signaling through Angiotensin II.
32422996 An important stage in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) life cycle is the binding of the spike (S) protein to the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) host cell receptor. […] In addition, the trimer cavity may function as a “bouncing spring” that may facilitate the homotrimer spike protein interactions with the ACE2 receptor.
32423094 Firstly, SARS-CoV-2 has a strong interaction with the human ACE2 receptor, which plays an essential role in cell entry together with transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2); it is interesting to note that the ACE2 gene lays on the X-chromosome, thus allowing females to be potentially heterozygous and differently assorted compared to men who are definitely hemizygous. […] Secondly, the higher ACE2 expression rate in females, though controversial, might ascribe them the worst prognosis, in contrast with worldwide epidemiological data. […] Other genes, out from the RAS-pathway, might directly or indirectly impact on the ACE1/ACE2 balance by influencing its main actors (e.g., ABO locus, SRY, SOX3, ADAM17). […] Unexpectedly, the higher levels of ACE2 or ACE1/ACE2 rebalancing might improve the outcome of COVID-19 in both sexes by reducing inflammation, thrombosis, and death.
32423095 The four human population groups of Europeans, Africans, Asians, and Americans had specific and also a common pool of rare variants for the X-linked locus of ACE2 receptor. […] Several specific and common ACE2 variants including S19P, I21T/V, E23K, A25T, K26R, T27A, E35D/K, E37K, Y50F, N51D/S, M62V, N64K, K68E, F72V, E75G, M82I, T92I, Q102P, G220S, H239Q, G326E, E329G, G352V, D355N, H378R, Q388L, P389H, E467K, H505R, R514G/*, and Y515C were of the utmost importance to the viral entry and infection. […] Most interestingly, the analyses revealed that more than half of the variants can exist in males, i.e., as hemizygous. (4) Conclusions: The rare variants of human ACE2 seem to be one of the determinant factors associated with fitness in the battle against SARS viruses. […] The hemizygous viral-entry booster variants of ACE2 describe the higher SARS-CoV-2 mortality rate in males.
32423553 Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and its homologue, ACE2, have been mostly associated with hypertensive disorder. […] However, recent pandemia of SARS-CoV-2 has put these proteins at the center of attention, as this virus has been shown to exploit ACE2 protein to enter cells.
32425270 BD-368-2 also displayed strong therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy in SARS-CoV-2-infected hACE2-transgenic mice. […] Additionally, the 3.8Å Cryo-EM structure of a neutralizing antibody in complex with the spike-ectodomain trimer revealed the antibody’s epitope overlaps with the ACE2 binding site.
32425701 Here, we show that cigarette smoke causes a dose-dependent upregulation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, in rodent and human lungs. […] Using single-cell sequencing data, we demonstrate that ACE2 is expressed in a subset of secretory cells in the respiratory tract. […] Chronic smoke exposure triggers the expansion of this cell population and a concomitant increase in ACE2 expression. […] In contrast, quitting smoking decreases the abundance of these secretory cells and reduces ACE2 levels. […] Finally, we demonstrate that ACE2 expression is responsive to inflammatory signaling and can be upregulated by viral infections or interferon treatment. […] Furthermore, our work identifies ACE2 as an interferon-stimulated gene in lung cells, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infections could create positive-feedback loops that increase ACE2 levels and facilitate viral dissemination.
32428380 SARS-CoV-2 utilises angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to gain cellular entry. […] We have investigated whether ACE2 bronchial epithelial expression is increased in COPD patients who are overweight compared to those who are not by RNA sequencing. […] We observed increased ACE2 expression in COPD patients who are overweight (mean BMI 29 kg/m2 ) compared to those notoverweight (mean BMI 21 kg/m2 ) (p=0.004). […] Increased ACE2 expression may cause increased SARS-CoV-2 infection of the respiratory tract.
32428864 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is not only an entry receptor of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the virus that causes COVID-19, but also can protect from lung injury. […] In this view, we highlighted potential approaches to address ACE2-mediated SARS-CoV-2 virus, including 1) delivering an excessive soluble form of ACE2 (recombinant human ACE2: rhACE2) and 2) inhibition of the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 virus and ACE2 by some compounds with competitive effects (morphine and codeine).
32430279 Although, SARS-Cov-2 primarily causes lung infection through binding of ACE2 receptors present on the alveolar epithelial cells, yet it was recently reported that SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in the faeces of infected patients. […] Interestingly, the intestinal epithelial cells particularly the enterocytes of the small intestine also express ACE2 receptors.
32430459 There is good evidence that ACE2 is a receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and high expression of ACE2 may increase susceptibility to infection. […] We aimed to explore risk factors affecting susceptibility to infection and prioritize drug repositioning candidates, based on Mendelian randomization (MR) studies on ACE2 lung expression. […] We conducted a phenome-wide MR study to prioritize diseases/traits and blood proteins causally linked to ACE2 lung expression in GTEx. […] We also explored drug candidates whose targets overlapped with the top-ranked proteins in MR, as these drugs may alter ACE2 expression and may be clinically relevant. […] The most consistent finding was tentative evidence of an association between diabetes-related traits and increased ACE2 expression. […] Based on one of the largest genome-wide association studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to date (N = 898,130), T2DM was causally linked to raised ACE2 expression (P = 2.91E-03; MR-IVW). […] Significant associations (at nominal level; P < 0.05) with ACE2 expression were observed across multiple diabetes data sets and analytic methods for T1DM, T2DM, and related traits including early start of insulin. […] Our analysis suggested that diabetes and related traits may increase ACE2 expression, which may influence susceptibility to infection (or more severe infection). […] Proteome-wide MR analyses might help uncover mechanisms underlying ACE2 expression and guide drug repositioning.
32430627 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects host cells following binding with the cell surface ACE2 receptors, thereby leading to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32432483 The first step in SARS-CoV-2 infection is binding of the virus to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on the airway epithelium. […] The objective was to gain insight into the expression of ACE2 in the human airway epithelium. […] Airway epithelium sampled by fiberoptic bronchoscopy of trachea, large airway epi-thelium (LAE) and small airway epithelium (SAE) of nonsmokers and smokers was analyzed for expression of ACE2 and other coronavirus infection-related genes using microarray, RNA-seq and 10x single cell transcriptome analysis, with associated examination of ACE2-related miRNA. […] (1) ACE2 is expressed similarly in the trachea and LAE with lower expression in the SAE; (2) in the SAE, ACE2 is expressed in basal, intermediate, club, mu-cus and ciliated cells; (3) ACE2 is up-regulated in the SAE by smoking, significantly in males; (4) levels of miR-1246 expression could play a role in ACE2 up-regulation in the SAE of smokers; and (5) ACE2 is expressed in airway epithelium differentiated in vitro on air-liquid interface cultures from primary airway basal stem/progenitor cells; this can be replicated using LAE and SAE immortalized basal cell lines derived from healthy nonsmokers. […] ACE2, the gene encoding the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, is expressed in the human airway epithelium, with variations in expression relevant to the biology of initial steps in SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32432519 We discuss the possible excess risk for COVID-19 infection in the context of the common conditions among shiftworkers, including nurses, doctors, and first responders, among others of high exposure to the contagion, of sleep imbalance and circadian disruption.Abbreviations: ACE2: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; APC: Antigen-presenting cells; CCL: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand; CD+: Adhesion molecule expression; COVID-19: 2019 coronavirus disease; DCs: Dendritic cells; GH: Growth hormone; HPA: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal; HSF: Heat shock factor; HSP70: Heat shock protein 70; HSP90: Heat shock protein 90; IL: Interleukin; INFγ: Interferon-gamma; LT/LB: T/B lymphocytes; MHC: Major histocompatibility complex; NK: Natural killer; RAAS: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; SARS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome; SCN: Suprachiasmatic nucleus;SD: Sleep deprivation; SNS: Sympathetic nervous system; Th1/Th2: T helper lymphocytes 1/2; TLR2/TLR4: Toll-like receptor 2/4; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor alpha; VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor.
32432918 Here we report that estrogen can regulate the expression of ACE2, a key component for SARS-CoV-2 cell entry, in differentiated airway epithelial cells.
32433344 The benefits are associated with the significant increase of intrarenal angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) expression and blood volume contraction. […] However, the increased ACE2 may be detrimental to patients infected with the coronavirus infection 2019 (COVID-19), which is found to invades cells via the entry receptor of ACE2.
32433465 Following immunization of mice and guinea pigs with INO-4800 we measure antigen-specific T cell responses, functional antibodies which neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 infection and block Spike protein binding to the ACE2 receptor, and biodistribution of SARS-CoV-2 targeting antibodies to the lungs.
32435607 We aim to explore the potential role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in this regard through this literature review. […] As a crucial enzyme of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), ACE2 not only mediates the virus entry but also affects the pathophysiological process of virus-induced acute lung injury (ALI), as well as other organs’ damage. […] As interaction of COVID-19 virus spike and ACE2 is essential for virus infection, COVID-19-specific vaccine based on spike protein, small molecule compound interrupting their interaction, human monoclonal antibody based on receptor-binding domain, and recombinant human ACE2 protein (rhuACE2) have aroused the interests of researchers. […] Meanwhile, ACE2 could catalyze angiotensin II (Ang II) to form angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7), thus alleviates the harmful effect of Ang II and amplifies the protection effect of Ang1-7. […] ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) have been shown to increase the level of expression of ACE2 and could be potential strategies in protecting lungs, heart, and kidneys. […] ACE2 plays a very important role in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection. […] Strategies targeting ACE2 and its ligand, COVID-19 virus spike protein, may provide novel method in the prevention and management of novel coronavirus pneumonia.
32436229 As well as SARS-CoV, SARS CoV-2 uses the ‘Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2’ (ACE2) as a receptor to enter human cells. […] It was found that ACE2, Angiotensin (1-7) and its MAS receptors are present, over in the lung, also in the testicles, in particular in Leydig and Sertoli cells. […] A second hypothesis is that the binding of the virus to the ACE2 receptor, could cause an excess of ACE2 and give rise to a typical inflammatory response.
32436995 SARS-CoV-2 appears to have neurotropic aspects with neurotoxicity through interaction with ACE2 in the medullary brainstem, causing glutamate toxicity in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), increased sympathetic tone, hypertension and pulmonary capillary leakage of fluid into the alveoli, resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
32437004 SARS-CoV-2 can cause liver injury through systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), cytokine storms, ischemia-reperfusion injury, side effects of treatment drugs, and underlying liver disease and can attack liver cells directly via ACE2.
32437244 Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) acts as the receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which causes COVID-19. […] The expression of ACE2 is influenced by sex hormones; therefore, we discuss in this article that this could be one of the reasons why COVID-19 is more prevalent in men than in women.
32437926 Since SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV have high similarity of their genomic sequences and share the same cellular receptor (ACE2), it is essential to learn the lessons and experiences from the development of SARS-CoV vaccines for the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.
32438383 The virus gains access to the respiratory epithelium through cell surface angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] Inhaled modified recombinant human ACE2, may bind SARS-CoV-2 and mitigate lung damage.
32441816 Therefore, this study aimed to assess the presence of ACE2/TMPRSS2 expression in salivary glands using publicly available databases. […] The distribution of ACE2 and TMPRSSs family in salivary gland tissue and other tissues was analyzed. […] The GTEx dataset was employed to explore the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in various body organs and salivary glands in a healthy population. […] Transcriptome data analysis showed that ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were expressed in salivary glands. […] The expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were marginal without significant differences in different age groups or between men and women.
32442315 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays an essential role in maintaining the balance of the renin-angiotensin system and also serves as a receptor for the SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and HCoV-NL63. […] ACE2 is a potential target for many treatment approaches for the SARS-CoV-2. […] With the help of bioinformatics, we have predicted several novel exons of the human ACE2 gene. […] The inclusion of novel exons located in the 5’UTR/intronic region in the mature transcript may remove the critical ACE2 residues responsible for the interaction with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, thus preventing their binding and entry into the cell. […] Additionally, inclusion of a novel predicted exons located in the 3’UTR by alternative splicing may remove the C-terminal transmembrane domain of ACE2 and generate soluble ACE2 isoforms. […] Alternative splicing of the ACE2 gene could similarly be modulated using SSOs to exclude critical domains required for the entry of SARS-CoV-2.
32442562 Over the course of hospitalization, Bacteroides dorei, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides massiliensis, and Bacteroides ovatus, which downregulate expression of ACE2 in murine gut, correlated inversely with SARS-CoV-2 load in fecal samples from patients.
32445872 The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor (ACE2) is expressed in epithelial cells of many tissues including the kidney, and has been identified to interact with human pathogenic coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. […] Interestingly, studies in rats have demonstrated that high dietary sodium intake results in down-regulation of the ACE2 expression in kidney tissue. […] We hypothesize that low sodium status makes kidney involvement during the course of COVID-19 infection more likely due to upregulation of membrane bound ACE2 in the kidneys.
32446267 As the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) facilitates the entry of coronaviruses into target cells, there have been hypotheses that preexisting use of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) inhibitors may increase the risk of developing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. […] Given the common use of RAAS inhibitors among solid organ transplant recipients, we sought to review the RAAS cascade, the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 entry, and pertinent data related to the effect of RAAS inhibitors on ACE2 to guide management of solid organ transplant recipients during the COVID-19 pandemic.
32446866 The virus may bind to corneal and conjunctival angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors and potentially to the lipophilic periocular skin and superficial tear film with downstream carriage into the nasopharynx and subsequent access to the lungs and gut. […] A combination such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and zinc, all of which have previously been used topically in the eye and which work at least in part by blocking ACE2 receptors, may offer a safe, cost-effective and resource-sparing intervention.
32448098 The present study was designed to elucidate the structural changes, hot spot binding residues and their interactions between the nCoV S-protein RBD and ACE2 receptor through computational approaches. […] The nCoV RBD was found binding to ACE2 receptor with 11 hydrogen bonds and 1 salt bridge. […] The major hot spot amino acids involved in the binding identified by interaction analysis after simulations includes Glu 35, Tyr 83, Asp 38, Lys 31, Glu 37, His 34 amino acid residues of ACE2 receptor and Gln 493, Gln 498, Asn 487, Tyr 505 and Lys 417 residues in nCoV S-protein RBD.
32448590 Notably, in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the transcript for angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a negative regulator of the angiotensin system, was the single most up-regulated gene in HCM (fold-change, 3.53; q-value =1.30×10-23), which was confirmed by qRT-PCR in triplicate (fold change, 3.78; P=5.22×10-4), and Western blot confirmed greater than 5-fold overexpression of ACE2 protein (fold change, 5.34; P=1.66×10-6). […] Importantly, ACE2 was the most up-regulated gene in HCM, indicating perhaps the heart’s compensatory effort to mount an antihypertrophic, antifibrotic response. […] However, given that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses ACE2 for viral entry, this 5-fold increase in ACE2 protein may confer increased risk for COVID-19 manifestations and outcomes in patients with increased ACE2 transcript expression and protein levels in the heart.
32450087 We have therefore explored ACE2 receptor mRNA expression, and co-factors for Sars-CoV-2 infectivity (TMPRSS2 and furin) in bronchial brushes and biopsies from people with asthma and healthy controls, and looked for relationships between asthma severity, Th2- and IL-17 dependent gene signatures, and clinical demographics (age, sex). […] The only significant association was a positive correlation between ACE2 and IL-17-dependent gene expression, and an inverse correlation between ACE2 and Th2-cytokine-dependent gene expression. […] These data suggest that differences in ACE2, TMPRSS2 and furin epithelial and airway gene expression are unlikely to confer enhanced COVID-19 pneumonia risk in patients with asthma across all treatment intensities and severity.
32450165 It is associated with the other organ damage such as cardiovascular risk via an increased level of hypertension through ACE2, gastrointestinal dysfunction, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, liver dysfunction, lung injury, CNS risk, ocular risks such as chemosis, conjunctivitis, and conjunctival hyperemia, cancer risk, venous thromboembolism, tuberculosis, aging, and cardiovascular dysfunction and reproductive risk.
32452644 The key steps of virus life cycle have been recently clarified, highlighting the role of host type 2 angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2) and TMPRSS2 serine protease in virus-cell binding and entry, respectively. […] Importantly, major concerns derive from the androgen-dependent tissue-expression of both TMPRSS2 and ACE2, suggesting a differential clinical course of the infection between genders.
32452762 Single cell RNA-seq from 65 studies shows significant overlap between expression of ENaC-α and the viral receptor ACE2 in cell types linked to the cardiovascular-renal-pulmonary pathophysiology of COVID-19.
32453494 The expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the testis and in the male genital tract allows speculations about a possible testicular involvement during the infection, possibly mediated by local and/or systemic inflammation that might allow a high viral load to overcome the haemato-testicular barrier.
32454512 Further structural studies revealed that CB6 recognizes an epitope that overlaps with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-binding sites in SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD), thereby interfering with the virus/receptor interactions by both steric hindrance and direct interface-residue competition.
32454513 SARS-CoV-2 entry into the target cells depends on binding between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral Spike protein and the ACE2 cell receptor2,4-6. […] We identified antibodies with potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralization activity that correlates with their competitive capacity with ACE2 for RBD binding. […] Crystal structure analysis of RBD-bound antibody revealed steric hindrance that inhibits viral engagement with ACE2 and thereby blocks viral entry.
32455539 We found that the receptor and transmembrane protease necessary for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, respectively, were upregulated in smoking samples from both lung and oral epithelial tissue. […] We then explored the mechanistic hypothesis that smoking may upregulate ACE2 expression through the upregulation of the androgen pathway. […] ACE2 and TMPRSS2 upregulation were both correlated to androgen pathway enrichment and the specific upregulation of central pathway regulatory genes. […] These data provide a potential model for the increased susceptibility of smoking patients to COVID-19 and encourage further exploration into the androgen and tobacco upregulation of ACE2 to understand the potential clinical ramifications.
32455629 Genes required for SARS-CoV-2 entry into human cells, ACE2 and FURIN, were employed as baits to build genomic-guided molecular maps of upstream regulatory elements, their expression and functions in the human body, and pathophysiologically relevant cell types. […] Repressors and activators of the ACE2 and FURIN genes were identified based on the analyses of gene silencing and overexpression experiments as well as relevant transgenic mouse models. […] Of major concern is the ACE2 and FURIN expression in many human cells and tissues, including immune cells, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may infect a broad range of cellular targets in the human body.
32456846 COVID-19 may enhance complications in individuals with diabetes through an imbalance in angiotension-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activation pathways leading to an inflammatory response. […] ACE2 imbalance in the pancreas causes acute β-cell dysfunction and a resultant hyperglycemic state.
32457038 SARS-CoV-2 shares extensive structural and functional conservation with SARS-CoV-1 including engagement of the same host cell receptor (ACE2) localized in cholesterol-rich microdomains.
32458193 In addition, SARS-CoV-2 is structurally similar to SARS-CoV, and both bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to enter human cells. […] Thus, cells expressing ACE2, such as neurons and glial cells may act as targets and are thus vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32458206 An effective prophylactic medication to prevent viral entry has to contain, at least, either a protease inhibitor or a competitive virus ACE2-binding inhibitor.
32459372 These drugs are known to induce an increased expression of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] ACE2 acts as receptor for the novel SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) which raising the important issue of possible detrimental effects that RAS blockers could exert on the natural history and pathogenesis of the COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) and associated excessive inflammation, myocarditis, and cardiac arrhythmias.
32462267 As angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is regarded as the viral receptor for cell entry and as the Coronavirus is downregulating this enzyme, which provides cardiovascular and pulmonary protection, there is ongoing discussions on whether treatment with cardiovascular drugs, which upregulate the viral receptor ACE2 should be modified.
32462701 At the time of writing, in vivo studies of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been described using macaques, cats, ferrets, hamsters, and transgenic mice expressing human angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32462996 Among the studied compounds, we found that dithymoquinone (DTQ), with binding affinity of -8.6 kcal/mol compared to a positive control (chloroquine, -7.2 kcal/mol) , has the high potential of binding at SARS-CoV-2:ACE2 interface and thus could be predicted a plausible inhibitor to disrupt viral-host interactions.
32463239 In spite of the high sequence identity of SARS-CoV-2 with its closely related SARS-CoV emerged in 2002, the atomic-level determinants underlining the molecular recognition of SARS-CoV-2 to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and, thus, the rapid virus spread into human body, remain unresolved. […] Here, multi-µs-long molecular dynamics simulations enabled us to unprecedentedly dissect the key molecular traits liable of the higher affinity/specificity of SARS-CoV-2 towards ACE2, as compared to SARS-CoV, supplying a minute per-residue contact map underlining its stunningly high infectivity.
32463365 A hypothesis-free profiling of ACE2 suggests tongue keratinocytes, olfactory epithelial cells, airway club cells and respiratory ciliated cells as potential reservoirs of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. […] We find the gut as the putative hotspot of COVID-19, where a maturation correlated transcriptional signature is shared in small intestine enterocytes among coronavirus receptors(ACE2, DPP4, ANPEP).
32464367 Cerebrovascular disease, in particular large-vessel ischemic strokes, and less frequently cerebral venous thrombosis, intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, usually occur as part of a thrombotic state induced by viral attachment to ACE2 receptors in endothelium causing widespread endotheliitis, coagulopathy, arterial and venous thromboses.
32464637 Because SARS-CoV-2 enters the cell by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), targeting ACE2 to prevent such binding seems an obvious strategy to combat infection. […] However, ACE2 performs its functions outside the cell and was found to enter the cell only by angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-induced endocytosis, after which ACE2 is destroyed. […] This means that preventing uptake of ACE2 into the cell by blocking AT1R would be a more logical approach to limit entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the cell. […] Since ACE2 plays an important protective role in maintaining key biological processes, treatments should not disrupt the functional capacity of ACE2, to counterbalance the negative effects of the infection. […] AT1R antagonists counterbalance the negative consequences of angiotesnin II and, in addition, they might even be involved in preventing the cellular uptake of the virus without interfering with ACE2 function.
32469114 ACE-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2), a monocarboxypeptidase that had been discovered 20 years ago, is one of the catalytically most potent enzymes known to degrade Ang II to Ang-(1-7), a peptide that is increasingly accepted to have organ -protective properties that oppose and counterbalance those of Ang II. […] In addition to its role as a RAS enzyme ACE2 is the main receptor for SARS-CoV-2. […] In this review, we discuss various strategies that have been used to achieve amplification of ACE2 activity including the potential therapeutic potential of soluble recombinant ACE2 protein and novel shorter ACE2 variants.
32470767 We speculate that male 2D:4D is a negative correlate for expression of the SARS-CoV2 receptor (ACE2).
32471115 The RAS is a complicated network of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) (i.e., AT1R, AT2R, MASR, and MRGD) orchestrating the effects of several hormones (i.e., angiotensin II, angiotensin (1-7), and alamandine) produced by protease-based transmembrane receptors (ACE1 and ACE2).
32471251 Vitamin D in particular may perturb viral cellular infection via interacting with cell entry receptors (angiotensin converting enzyme 2), ACE2.
32472991 Furthermore, we highlight the relationship between the virus, enzyme ACE2 and ACE inhibitors.
32469255 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), belonging to the RAS family, has received much attention during this COVID-19 pandemic, owing to the fact that SARS-CoV-2 uses ACE2 as a receptor for cellular entry.
32475223 The virus exerts its pathogenic activity through by mechanism and gains the entry via spike proteins (S) and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor proteins on host cells. […] The present work is an effort for a computational target to block the residual binding protein (RBP) on spike proteins (S), Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor proteins by probiotics namely Plantaricin BN, Plantaricin JLA-9, Plantaricin W, Plantaricin D along with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). […] The binding energies for Plantaricin W were -14.64, -11.1 and -12.68 for polymerase, RBD and ACE2 respectively comparatively very high with other compounds. […] Molecular dynamics studies further strengthen stability of the complexes of plantaricin w and SARS-CoV-2 RdRp enzyme, RBD of spike protein, and human ACE2 receptor. […] The present study present multi-way options either by blocking RBD on S proteins or interaction of S protein with ACE2 receptor proteins or inhibiting RdRp to counter any effect of COVID-19 by Plantaricin molecules paving a way that can be useful in the treatment of COVID-19 until some better option will be available.Communicated by Ramaswamy H.
32476472 SARS-CoV-2 binds to ACE2 receptors and entries into the cell through the fusion of its membrane with that of the cell. […] The loss of ACE2 receptor activity from the external site of the membrane will lead to less angiotensin II inactivation and less generation of antiotensin1-7. […] According to this line of thinking, some therapeutic approaches including recombinant ACE2, exogenous angiotensin1-7 and angiotensin receptor blockers appear particularly promising and are being actively tested.
32478523 Some of these studies showed that the mutations in the SARS-CoV spike (S) protein might be responsible for its higher affinity to the ACE2 human cell receptor. […] In this work, we used molecular dynamics simulations and Monte Carlo sampling to compare the binding affinities of the S proteins of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 to the ACE2. […] Our results show that the protein surface of the ACE2 at the receptor binding domain (RBD) exhibits negative electrostatic potential, while a positive potential is observed for the S proteins of SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2. […] The major contributions to the electrostatic binding energies result from the salt bridges forming between R426 and ACE-2-E329 in the case of SARS-CoV and K417 and ACE2-D30 in the SARS-CoV-2.
32482249 To describe detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) in seminal fluid of patients recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to describe the expression profile of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) within the testicle. […] Expression patterns of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the human testis are explored through previously published single-cell transcriptome datasets. […] Single-cell transcriptome analysis demonstrates sparse expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, with almost no overlapping gene expression. […] Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-mediated viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 into target host cells is unlikely to occur within the human testicle based on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression.
32482250 Coronavirus binding to cells involves the S1 domain of the spike protein to receptors present in reproductive tissues, including angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), CD26, Ezrin, and cyclophilins. […] Gonadotropin-dependent expression of ACE2 was found in human ovaries, but it is unclear whether SARS-Coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) adversely affects female gametogenesis.
32485101 Also, Ang II is considered as the products of SARS-CoV-2-attacking target, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32485164 Human angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) has been identified as a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2. […] In this study, we generated a mouse model expressing human ACE2 (hACE2) by using CRISPR/Cas9 knockin technology. […] In comparison with wild-type C57BL/6 mice, both young and aged hACE2 mice sustained high viral loads in lung, trachea, and brain upon intranasal infection. […] Although fatalities were not observed, interstitial pneumonia and elevated cytokines were seen in SARS-CoV-2 infected-aged hACE2 mice. […] Interestingly, intragastric inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 was seen to cause productive infection and lead to pulmonary pathological changes in hACE2 mice.
32486188 SARS-CoV-2 enters cells via ACE2 receptors which are abundant throughout the respiratory tract.
32486196 Although the pathophysiology of the SARS-CoV-2 virus affecting the cerebrovascular system has not been elucidated yet, researchers have identified several pathogenic mechanisms, including a role for the ACE2 receptor.
32487714 Like its predecessors, SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), COVID-19 binds to angiotension converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors to facilitate tissue invasion, and potentially gain entry into the nervous system.1 This single-stranded RNA virus shares 75-80% identical genome sequence with MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, but has increased virulence, persistence, and lethality.2 Amid catastrophic human suffering, severe neurological complications of COVID-19 have been identified; yet, subtle neurological manifestations have likely been under-reported.
32491073 COVID-19 acts through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor.
32491829 It infects epithelial cells expressing angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, which is crucial for viral entry.
32491949 Specifically, decreased expression of proteins, including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in the airway epithelium in children may prevent viral entry.
32492193 Human organs known for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression including the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, heart, adrenals, brain, and testicles are examples of extra-pulmonary tissues with confirmed invasion by SARS-CoV-2.
32492195 Hussain et al.1 identified 17 natural coding variants for human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) that were found at important positions for binding of ACE2 with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein1 . […] They suggested that positive prognosis of COVID-19 may be due to the existence of ACE2 variants like rs73635825 and rs143936283 in some individuals, and to screen frequencies of candidate alleles in different populations to predict the prognosis of COVID-191 . […] We contributed with further data for these 17 ACE2 variants using other function prediction tools. […] Moreover, we searched for the minor allele frequency (MAF) for these ACE2 variants as reported in different populations and debated regarding their use in population genetic studies.
32492203 Genetic confirmation of the hypotheses regarding gene expression and mutation pattern of target genes, including angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), basigin (CD147/BSG) and paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme (FURIN/PCSK3), as well as correlation analysis, was done in relation to lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC) using in silico analysis. […] Not only were gene expression and mutation patterns detected, but also there were correlation and survival analysis between ACE2 and other target genes expression levels. […] The total genetic anomaly carrying rate of target genes, including ACE2, TMPRSS2, CD147/BSG, and FURIN/PCSK3, was determined as 8.1% and 21 mutations were detected, with 7 of these mutations having pathogenic features. p.H34N on the RBD binding residues for SARS-CoV-2 was determined in our LUAD patient group. […] According to gene expression analysis results, though the TMPRSS2 level was statistically significantly decreased in the LUSC patient group compared to healthy control, the ACE2 level was determined to be high in LUAD and LUSC groups.
32492292 The spike glycoprotein on the virion surface docking onto the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 dimer is an essential step in the process of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in human cells-involves downregulation of ACE2 expression with systemic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) imbalance and promotion of multi-organ damage. […] In general, the RAS induces vasoconstriction, hypertension, inflammation, fibrosis, and proliferation via the ACE/Ang II/Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis and induces the opposite effects via the ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas axis. […] SARS-CoV-2 induces the ACE2 internalization and shedding, leading to the inactivation of the ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas axis. […] In brief, the first hit originates from chronic inflammation activating the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis, and the second originates from the COVID-19 infection inactivating the ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas axis.
32493030 The devastating third phase is in the gas exchange units of the lung, where ACE2 expressing alveolar type II cells and perhaps type I cells are infected.
32493627 The S1 subunit of S protein facilitates ACE2 mediated virus attachment while S2 subunit promotes membrane fusion. […] The presence of glutamine, asparagine, leucine, phenylalanine and serine amino acids in SARS-CoV-2 enhances ACE2 binding.
32495299 SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a ubiquitous trans-membrane carboxypeptidase, to enter the cells. […] Preclinical studies have reported that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and ACE inhibitors might increase ACE2 expression in several cell types. […] Other pharmacological agents are thought to increase ACE2 expression, including statins and proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists. […] Besides ACE2, other unknown co-factors might be involved in cell infection. […] It has been recently observed that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), the receptor for MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus) and ACE2 have similar expression profiles in the lung.
32496364 Animal data and human studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) increase the expression of ACE2. […] ACE2 is an enzyme found in the heart, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and lung and is a coreceptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2), the virus responsible for COVID-19. […] Therefore, one can speculate that discontinuing ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy may lead to decreased ACE2 expression, thereby attenuating the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, and mitigating the disease progression of COVID-19. […] However, several studies have also shown that ACE2 exhibits reno- and cardioprotection and preserves lung function in acute respiratory distress syndrome, which would favor ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy.
32496587 We performed RNA sequencing and explored available RNA-Seq databases to study gene expression and co-expression of ACE2, CD147 (BSG), CD26 (DPP4) and their direct and indirect molecular partners in primary human bronchial epithelial cells, bronchial and skin biopsies, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), monocytes, neutrophils, DCs, NK cells, ILC1, ILC2, ILC3, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells and plasmablasts. […] ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were coexpressed at the epithelial sites of the lung and skin, whereas CD147 (BSG), cyclophilins (PPIA and PPIB), CD26 (DPP4) and related molecules were expressed in both, epithelium and in immune cells. […] Asthma, COPD, hypertension, smoking, obesity, and male gender status generally led to the higher expression of ACE2- and CD147-related genes in the bronchial biopsy, BAL or blood. […] Interestingly, we also observed higher expression of ACE2- and CD147-related genes in the lesional skin of patients with atopic dermatitis.
32497257 In the attempt to understand how the virus spreads and how to pharmacologically abolish it, it was highlighted that SARS-CoV-2 infects human cells by means of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro ). […] Once bound to its receptor ACE2, the other two proteases, in concert with the receptor-mediated signaling, allow virus replication and spread throughout the body. […] Our attention has been focused on the role of ACE2 in that its blockade by the virus increases Bradykinin and its metabolites, well known to facilitate inflammation in the lung (responsible for cough and fever), facilitate both the coagulation and complement system, three mechanisms that are typical of angioedema, cardiovascular dysfunction and sepsis, pathologies which symptoms occur in COVID-19 patients.
32497323 The spike (S) proteins of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 may use the same host cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), for entering into host cells. […] The affinity between ACE2 and the SARS-CoV-2 S protein is much higher than that of ACE2 binding to the SARS-CoV S protein, explaining why SARS-CoV-2 seems to be more readily transmitted from the human to human. […] Here, we report that ACE2 can be significantly upregulated after infection of various viruses, including SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, or by the stimulation with inflammatory cytokines such as interferons. […] We propose that SARS-CoV-2 may positively induce its cellular entry receptor, ACE2, to accelerate its replication and spread; high inflammatory cytokine levels increase ACE2 expression and act as high-risk factors for developing COVID-19, and the infection of other viruses may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Therefore, drugs targeting ACE2 may be developed for the future emerging infectious diseases caused by this cluster of coronaviruses.
32498696 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen of COVID-19, infects the human body using angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor identical to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic that occurred in 2002-2003. […] SARS-CoV-2 has a higher binding affinity to human ACE2 than to that of other species. […] Here, we review transgenic mice that express human ACE2 in the airway and other epithelia and have shown to develop a rapidly lethal infection after intranasal inoculation with SARS-CoV, the pathogen of SARS. […] This literature review aims to present the importance of utilizing the human ACE2 transgenic mouse model to better understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and develop both therapeutics and vaccines.
32499236 The initial mechanism for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is the binding of the virus to the membrane-bound form of ACE2, which is mainly expressed in the lung. […] Since the heart and the vessels also express ACE2, they both could become targets of the virus.
32499909 Among the many possible areas of research, it might be important to understand diet and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) levels in populations with different COVID-19 death rates since dietary interventions may be of great benefit.
32499983 Upon inoculation, the surface enzyme angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) acts as a receptor protein for viral entry.
32500793 One of the human membrane proteins known to be docked by the virus is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), proposed to be responsible for viral entry in target cells. […] Recently, the 3D structure of ACE2 has been obtained, showing its physical interaction with B0AT1 (SLC6A19), a plasma membrane transporter involved in the trafficking of amino acids in cells. […] The receptor targeted by SARS-CoV-2 is a supercomplex formed by a dimer of ACE2-B0AT1, in which ACE2 binds the viral protein and B0AT1 stabilizes the heterodimer.
32501190 COVID-19 utilizes the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) pathway as a means of infection. […] Demographic and clinical comorbidities associated with the severity of infection suggest that possible variants known to influence the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system pathway (particularly those that influence ACE2) may contribute to the heterogenous infection response. […] ACE2 and angiotensin(1-7) (the product of ACE2) seem to have a protective effect on the pulmonary and cardiac systems. […] Hypertension medication modulation, may alter ACE2 and angiotensin(1-7), particularly in variants that have been shown to influence renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system function, which could be clinically useful in patients with COVID-19.
32501810 Hence, we searched for possible genetic components of COVID-19 severity among Italians by looking at expression levels and variants in ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes, crucial for viral infection.Exome and SNP-array data from a large Italian cohort were used to compare the rare-variants burden and polymorphisms frequency with Europeans and East Asians. […] Moreover, we looked into gene expression databases to check for sex-unbalanced expression.While we found no significant evidence that ACE2 is associated with disease severity/sex bias, TMPRSS2 levels and genetic variants proved to be possible candidate disease modulators, prompting for rapid experimental validations on large patient cohorts.
32501876 This coronavirus mainly spreads through the respiratory tract and enters cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32502616 The co-expression of ACE2 receptor and entry protease TMPRSS2 was detected in the human adult conjunctival, limbal and corneal epithelium, but not in the embryonic and fetal ocular surface up to 21 post conception weeks. […] These expression patterns were corroborated by the single cell ATAC-Seq data, which revealed a permissive chromatin in ACE2 and TMPRSS2 loci in the adult conjunctival, limbal and corneal epithelium. […] Co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was strongly detected in the superficial limbal, corneal and conjunctival epithelium, implicating these as target entry cells for SARS-CoV-2 in the ocular surface. […] Strikingly, we also identified the key pro-inflammatory signals TNF, NFKβ and IFNG as upstream regulators of the transcriptional profile of ACE2+TMPRSS2+ cells in the superficial conjunctival epithelium, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may utilise inflammatory driven upregulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression to enhance infection in ocular surface. […] Together our data indicate that the human ocular surface epithelium provides an additional entry portal for SARS-CoV-2, which may exploit inflammatory driven upregulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 entry factors to enhance infection.
32502733 Among the 26 variations detected in S, 12 variations were located at the N-terminal domain (NTD) and 6 variations at the receptor-binding domain (RBD) which might alter the interaction of S protein with the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32502882 Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) expression may increase due to upregulation in patients using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). […] Because renin-angiotensin system blockers increase levels of ACE2, a protein that facilitates coronavirus entry into cells, there is concern that these drugs could increase the risk of developing a severe and fatal form of COVID-19.
32503822 The mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 infection is the binding of the virus spike protein to the membrane-bound form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and internalization of the complex by the host cell.
32503918 Molecular dynamics and free energy simulations have been carried out to elucidate the structural origin of differential protein-protein interactions between the common receptor protein angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the receptor binding domains of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [A.
32504450 Human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) widely expressing in arterial and venous endothelial cells and arterial smooth muscle cells has been identified as a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2. […] Dysfunction of ACE2 leads to abnormal activation of the renin-angiotensin system and a systemic endotheliitis that may relate to abnormal coagulation and sepsis.
32504757 ACE2 plays an important physiological role, practically in all the organs and systems. […] Also, ACE2 exerts protective functions in various models of pathologies with acute and chronic inflammation. […] While ACE2 downregulation by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein leads to an overactivation of Angiotensin (Ang) II/AT1R axis and the deleterious effects of Ang II may explain the multiorgan dysfunction seen in patients.
32504925 SARS-CoV-2 enter into the host cells using the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as receptor, like its ancestor SARS-CoV. […] ACE2 is then downregulated in lung tissues with augmented serum levels of ACE2 in SARS-CoV-2 patients. […] Interestingly, ACE2+ organs reveal the symptomatic repercussions, which are signals of the infection such as dry cough, shortness of breath, heart failure, liver and kidney damage, anosmia or hyposmia, and diarrhea. […] ACE2 exerts a chief role in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by converting angiotensin II to angiotensin-(1-7) that activates Mas receptor, inhibits ACE1, and modulates bradykinin (BK) receptor sensitivity, especially the BK type 2 receptor (BKB2R). […] ACE2 also hydrolizes des-Arg9-bradykinin (DABK), an active BK metabolite, agonist at BK type 1 receptors (BKB1R), which is upregulated by inflammation. […] In this opinion article, we conjecture a dialogue by the figure of Sérgio Ferreira which brought together basic science of classical pharmacology and clinical repercussions in COVID-19, then we propose that in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection: i) downregulation of ACE2 impairs the angiotensin II and DABK inactivation; ii) BK and its metabolite DABK seems to be in elevated levels in tissues by interferences in kallikrein/kinin system; iii) BK1 receptor contributes to the outbreak and maintenance of the inflammatory response; iv) kallikrein/kinin system crosstalks to RAS and coagulation system, linking inflammation to thrombosis and organ injury.
32505821 PDL might prevent the entrance of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells by blocking the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32506195 Virus binds to the cell surface receptor ACE2; indeed, recent evidences suggested that SARS-CoV-2 may be using as co-receptor, when entering the cells, the same one used by MERS-Co-V, namely the DPP4/CD26 receptor. […] The aforementioned observation underlined that mechanism of cell entry is supposedly similar among different coronavirus, that the co-expression of ACE2 and DPP4/CD26 could identify those cells targeted by different human coronaviruses and that clinical complications may be similar.
32506743 SARS-CoV-2 is a novel RNA virus that infects cells expressing the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) receptor and is associated with an acute respiratory disease named COVID-19. […] It has been hypothesized that ACE2 expression can be increased by Ibuprofen leading to a higher risk for severe COVID-19 (1).
32507883 After transmembrane angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been found to be SARS-CoV-2 receptor, we hypothesized an immune-hematological mechanism for Covid-19 based on renin-angiotensin system (RAS) imbalance to explain clinical, laboratory and imaging findings on disease course. […] We believe that exaggerated activation of ACE/Angiotensin II (Ang II)/Angiotensin Type 1 (AT1) receptor RAS axis in line with reduction of ACE2/Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor may exert a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Covid-19.
32508311 Early reports have confirmed that transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are critical targets of SARS-CoV-2 that facilitate viral entry into host cells. […] TMPRSS2 and ACE2 are expressed in multiple human tissues beyond the lung including the testes where predisposition to SARS-CoV-2 infection may exist. […] In this review, we highlight the growing evidence in support of androgen regulation of TMPRSS2 and ACE2 and the potential clinical implications of using androgen suppression to downregulate TMPRSS2 to target SARS-CoV-2. […] We also discuss the future directions and controversies that need to be addressed in order to establish the viability of targeting TMPRSS2 and/or ACE2 through androgen signaling regulation for COVID-19 treatment, particularly its relevance in the context of prostate cancer management.
32510598 Recent studies have found that the pathogen of COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), shares the same cell receptor angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2) as SARS-CoV. […] Here, we performed an unbiased evaluation of cell-type-specific expression of ACE2 in healthy and fibrotic lungs, as well as in normal and failed adult human hearts, using published single-cell RNA-seq data. […] We found that ACE2 expression in fibrotic lungs mainly locates in arterial vascular cells, which might provide a route for bloodstream spreading of SARS-CoV-2. […] Failed human hearts have a higher percentage of ACE2-expressing cardiomyocytes, and SARS-CoV-2 might attack cardiomyocytes through the bloodstream in patients with heart failure. […] Moreover, ACE2 was highly expressed in cells infected by respiratory syncytial virus or Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and in mice treated by lipopolysaccharide.
32510973 SARS-CoV-2 may manipulate mitochondrial function indirectly, first by ACE2 regulation of mitochondrial function, and once it enters the host cell, ORFS such as ORF-9b can directly manipulate mitochondrial function to evade host cell immunity and facilitate virus replication and COVID-19 disease. […] We argue that a decline in ACE2 function in aged individuals, coupled with the age-associated decline in mitochondrial functions resulting in chronic metabolic disorders like diabetes or cancer, may make the host more vulnerable to infection and health complications to mortality.
32510978 Notably, the disease course is worse in individuals with preexisting comorbidities that involve endothelial dysfunction and may be linked to elevated ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) expression, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease.
32512122 The plausible mechanisms of myocardial injury include, 1) hyperinflammation and cytokine storm mediated through pathologic T-cells and monocytes leading to myocarditis, 2) respiratory failure and hypoxemia resulting in damage to cardiac myocytes, 3) down regulation of ACE2 expression and subsequent protective signaling pathways in cardiac myocytes, 4) hypercoagulability and development of coronary microvascular thrombosis, 5) diffuse endothelial injury and ‘endotheliitis’ in several organs including heart, and, 6) inflammation and/or stress causing coronary plaque rupture or supply-demand mismatch leading to myocardial ischemia/infarction.
32512673 The pathogenesis of COVID-19 starts with the bonding of the virus to ACE2 receptors expressed in many tissues, and the triggered excessive immune response plays a critical role in the course of the disease.
32513532 Recent studies have reported that COVID-19 has angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a functional receptor, which may lead to the development of severe cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), including strokes, in patients with risk factors for CVD such as diabetes and smoking. […] Here, we observed ACE2 expression in the brain of rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and evaluated the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and diabetes on ACE2 expression in vessels. […] We showed that the levels of ACE2 expression was increased in the cortex penumbra after ischemic injuries. […] CSE treatment significantly elevated ACE2 expression in human brain vessels. […] We found that ACE2 expression was upregulated in primary cultured human blood vessels with diabetes compared to healthy controls. […] This study demonstrates that ACE2 expression is increased in ischemic brains and vessels exposed to diabetes or smoking, makes them vulnerable to COVID-19 infection.
32514935 A number of studies, mainly in animals and not involving the lungs, have indicated that these drugs can increase expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] ACE2 is the cell entry receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that is currently battering the globe.
32515982 The cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 depends on two host proteins angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and TMPRSS2. […] It is suggested that H2S may block SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells by interfering with ACE2 and TMPRSS2, inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication by attenuating virus assembly/release, and protect SARS-CoV-2-induced lung damage by suppressing immune response and inflammation development.
32519842 In this case, nanomaterials could be used to deliver drugs to the pulmonary system to inhibit interaction between angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors and viral S protein.
32520981 The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the current pandemic of COVID-19, which uses the human membrane protein ACE2 as a gateway to host-cell infection. […] We performed a comparative genomic analysis of 70 ACE2 placental mammal orthologues to identify variations and contribute to the understanding of evolutionary dynamics behind this successful adaptation to infect humans. […] Our results reveal that 4% of the ACE2 sites are under positive selection, all located in the catalytic domain, suggesting possibly taxon-specific adaptations related to the ACE2 function, such as cardiovascular physiology. […] Considering all variable sites, we selected 30 of them located at the critical ACE2 binding sites to the SARS-CoV-like viruses for analysis in more detail. […] Our results reveal a relatively high diversity of ACE2 between placental mammal species, while showing no polymorphism within human populations, at least considering the 30 inter-species variable sites.
32522067 In this short perspective, we discuss the roles of CQ/HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19 patients and propose new ways of possible treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection based on the molecules that selectivity target autophagy.Abbreviation: ACE2: angiotensin I converting enzyme 2; CoV: coronavirus; CQ: chloroquine; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; HCQ: hydroxychloroquine; MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
32522207 Although the amino acid sequences of the S-glycoprotein were found to be different between the various HCoV, the structures showed high similarity, but the best 3D structural overlap shared by SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, consistent with the shared ACE2 predicted receptor.
32522617 Like SARS-CoV, ACE2 as a functional receptor for SARS-CoV2 is essential for virus to entry to the cell. […] ACE2 is a part of RAS which is expressed in several organs that opposes the AngII functions by converting Ang II to Ang (1-7), the one with vasodilation effects. […] In addition, cardiovascular involvement by SARS-CoV2 could be direct through either ACE2 receptors which are expressed tremendously in heart, or by the surge of different cytokines or by ARDS-induced hypoxia.
32522846 This article reviews the correlation between ACE2 and COVID-19 and the resulting acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). […] ACE2 is a crucial component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). […] The classical ACE-angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang II)-angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis and the ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas counter-regulatory axis play an essential role in RAS system. […] ACE2 antagonises the activation of the classical RAS ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis and protects against lung injury. […] Similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) also uses ACE2 for cell entry. […] ARDS is a clinical high-mortality disease which is probably due to the excessive activation of RAS caused by 2019-nCoV infection, and ACE2 has a protective effect on ARDS caused by COVID-19. […] Because of these protective effects of ACE2 on ARDS, the development of drugs enhancing ACE2 activity may become one of the most promising approaches for the treatment of COVID-19 in the near future.
32523925 Pancreatic exocrine tissue and endocrine islets both express angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the proven receptor for SARS-CoV-2 cell internalization.
32525600 The variations within Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene might constitute the first genetic gateway, influencing the spatial transmission dynamics of COVID-19.
32526012 Although angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is crucial for SARS-CoV2 to bind and enter host cells, no study has systematically assessed the ACE2 expression in the lungs of patients with these diseases. […] Here, we analyzed over 700 lung transcriptome samples of patients with comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19 and found that ACE2 was highly expressed in these patients, compared to control individuals. […] Correlation and network analyses revealed many potential regulators of ACE2 in the human lung, including genes related to histone modifications, such as HAT1, HDAC2, and KDM5B.
32526206 High-sensitivity RNA in situ mapping revealed the highest angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in the nose with decreasing expression throughout the lower respiratory tract, paralleled by a striking gradient of SARS-CoV-2 infection in proximal (high) versus distal (low) pulmonary epithelial cultures.
32528233 Evidences suggest that the S1 domain of the SARS-CoV-2 (causative agent of COVID-19) membrane spike has a high affinity towards the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor found on the host’s lung epithelium.
32528815 In the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S gene, 11 non-synonymous mutations were observed in the region adjacent to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding site.
32529477 A systematic search in the literature was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, as well as Google Scholar pre-print database using all available MeSH terms for COVID-19, Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, senescent cell, cytokine storm, inflame-aging, ACE2 receptor, autophagy, and Vitamin D.
32531235 Given the severity and the wide and rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is very likely that the virus recognizes other receptors/co-receptors besides the ACE2.
32531372 Participants from 2 large asthma cohorts were stratified using clinically relevant parameters to identify factors related to ACE2 expression within bronchial epithelium. […] Stratifying by Type 2 inflammatory biomarkers, we identified subjects who demonstrated low peripheral blood eosinophils accompanied by increased expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 in bronchial epithelium. […] Genes highly correlated with ACE2 overlapped with Type 1 and 2 interferon signatures, normally induced by viral infections. […] T cell recruitment and activation within bronchoalveolar lavage cells of ACE2-high subjects was reciprocally increased. […] ACE2 expression is linked to upregulation of viral response genes in a subset of Type-2 low asthmatics with characteristics resembling known risk factors for severe COVID-19.
32531538 Hesperidin can block coronavirus from entering host cells through ACE2 receptors which can prevent the infection.
32532094 Here we established a quantitative fusion assay dependent on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) S protein, angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and TMPRSS2, and found that nafamostat mesylate potently inhibited the fusion while camostat mesylate was about 10-fold less active.
32532805 The high rate of thrombotic complications associated with COVID-19 seems likely to reflect viral infection of vascular endothelial cells, which express the ACE2 protein that enables SARS-CoV-2 to invade cells.
32533197 The pathophysiology of COVID-19 associated AKI could be related to unspecific mechanisms but also to COVID-specific mechanisms such as direct cellular injury resulting from viral entry through the receptor (ACE2) which is highly expressed in the kidney, an imbalanced renin-angotensin-aldosteron system, pro-inflammatory cytokines elicited by the viral infection and thrombotic events.
32533988 Polymorphisms in ACE2 gene, ACE gene and in genes for some of the host cell proteases could affect the viral entry and replication.
32534021 Due to the cellular entry of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) modulated by angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the ACE2 bearing prostate is therefore hypothesized as a susceptible organ to COVID-19.
32534337 SARS-CoV-2 binds its host cell receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), through the viral spike (S) protein. […] Importantly, rhein inhibits the interaction between the SARS-CoV S protein and ACE2 in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting rhein as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of SARS-CoV infection.
32534506 The biologic studies show that the target receptor for the virus might be angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] It is emphasized that the direct target of the virus is ACE2 underlining the obvious difference with ACE.
32535705 Levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a protein that facilitates entry of coronavirus into cells, may increase in patients using RAS inhibitors. […] In this review, we provide a critical review to the following questions: (1) Does hypertension influence immunity or ACE2 expression favoring viral infections? […] From the therapeutic perspective, recombinant ACE2 may serve as a potential therapy, but relevant studies in humans are lacking.
32535979 The virus enters cells, likely including those lining blood vessels, by binding to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on the cell surface.
32536978 Possible mechanisms of myocardial injury in COVID-19 include ischaemia due to circulatory and respiratory failure, epicardial or intramyocardial small coronary artery thrombotic obstruction due to increased coagulability, and myocarditis caused by systemic inflammation or direct binding of the virus to its receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), which is abundantly expressed in the heart.
32537478 It has been reported that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) are the main cell entry proteins for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and play a critical role in causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] We have found a differential expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in nasal and bronchial airways relative to age and diseases status. […] Moreover, the lung airway expression of both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was found to be significantly upregulated in smokers compared with non-smokers, and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with healthy subjects. […] No difference was observed in the blood expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 between children and adults, or in COPD or diabetic patients. […] However, a significant increase in blood expression levels of these genes was observed in patients with essential hypertension, whereas only ACE2 was upregulated in the blood of asthmatics. […] These results suggest that the observed difference in COVID-19 severity between children and adults could, in part, be attributed to the difference in ACE2 and TMPRSS2 airways tissue expression levels.
32538276 These studies reported Cefuroxime as a potential inhibitor of 3 key SARS-CoV-2 proteins; main protease, RNA dependent RNA polymerase, and ACE2-Spike complex.
32538738 We constructed complex models of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding to pangolin or human ACE2, the receptor for virus transmission, and estimated the binding free energy changes using molecular dynamics simulation. […] SARS-CoV-2 can bind to both pangolin and human ACE2, but has a significantly lower binding affinity for pangolin ACE2 due to the increased binding free energy (9.5 kcal mol-1). […] Human ACE2 is among the most polymorphous genes, for which we identified 317 missense single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) from the dbSNP database. […] Three SNVs, E329G (rs143936283), M82I (rs267606406) and K26R (rs4646116), had a significant reduction in binding free energy, which indicated higher binding affinity than wild-type ACE2 and greater susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection for people with them.
32538775 It can be misleading to think that the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) which has a very strong mutation and adaptation capabilities, uses only the angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) pathway to reach target cells. […] The main reason why the ACE2 pathway comes to the fore in all scientific studies is that this receptor is located at the entry point of basic mechanisms that provide alveolo-capillary homeostasis. […] SARS-CoV-2 has to use nuclear factor-κB (NF-kB), caveloae, clathrin, lipoxin, serine protease and proteasome pathways in addition to ACE2 to enter the target cell and initiate damage.
32540268 As the viral infection is driven by increased angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) expression, with the kidney exhibiting the highest expression, it is crucial to gain insights into the mechanisms underlying renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32540428 The transmembrane spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 directly binds to the host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and mediates viral entrance, which is therefore considered as a promising drug target. […] Through in vitro molecular interaction experiments, eltrombopag was further verified to possess a high binding affinity to S protein plus human ACE2 and could potentially affect the stability of the ACE2-S protein complex.
32540737 Medications, including pioglitazone, that upregulate tissue expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), might have a dual role in COVID-19; on the one hand they might increase risk of infection as SARS-CoV2 uses ACE2 as a coreceptor to enter alveolar cells, but on the other hand, by reducing angiotensin II levels, they can protect against acute lung injury. […] There is no evidence to date that pioglitazone upregulates ACE2 in the alveolar cells; rather, there is evidence from animal studies of upregulation of ACE2 in insulin sensitive tissues, which might have a protective effect on lung injury.
32542337 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) share their target receptor site with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, that may cause ACE2 receptor up-regulation which raised concerns regarding ACEI and ARB use in COVID-19 patients. […] Additionally, the individual patient factors such as ACE2 polymorphisms which might confer higher risk of adverse outcomes need to be evaluated further.
32542396 As for SARS-CoV that caused the SARS 2003 epidemic, the receptor on host cells that promotes uptake, through attachment of the spike (S) protein of the virus, is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] (Lond.) (2020) 134, 543-545) it was suggested that soluble recombinant ACE2 could be used as a novel biological therapeutic to intercept the virus, limiting the progression of infection and reducing lung injury. […] Another way, discussed here, to capture SARS-CoV-2, as an adjunct or alternative, would be to use ACE2+-small extracellular vesicles (sEVs). […] A competitive inhibition therapy could therefore be developed, using sEVs from engineered mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs), overexpressing ACE2.
32543296 It has been shown that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein shares a high similarity with SARS-CoV spike protein with a strong binding affinity to human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor.
32543348 Single-cell sequencing and ACE2-Furin co-expression results confirmed that the Furin expression was higher in the whole body, especially in glands, liver, kidneys, and colon.
32544372 Ab6 and m397 competed with ACE2 for binding to RBD, suggesting a competitive mechanism of virus neutralization.
32544563 The attachment of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as its cellular receptor, triggers complex molecular events that leads to hyperinflammation. […] The virus-mediated down-regulation of ACE2 causes a burst of inflammatory cytokine release through dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (ACE/angiotensin II/AT1R axis), attenuation of Mas receptor (ACE2/MasR axis), increased activation of [des-Arg9]-bradykinin (ACE2/bradykinin B1R/DABK axis), and activation of the complement system including C5a and C5b-9 components.
32544566 We analyzed human post-mortem eyes as well as surgical specimens for the expression of ACE2 (the receptor for SARS-CoV-2) and TMPRSS2, a cell surface-associated protease that facilitates viral entry following binding of the viral spike protein to ACE2. […] Across all eye specimens, immunohistochemical analysis revealed expression of ACE2 in the conjunctiva, limbus, and cornea, with especially prominent staining in the superficial conjunctival and corneal epithelial surface. […] Surgical conjunctival specimens also showed expression of ACE2 in the conjunctival epithelium, especially prominent in the superficial epithelium, as well as the substantia propria. […] Finally, Western blot analysis of protein lysates from human corneal epithelium obtained during refractive surgery confirmed expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2.
32544615 Extracellular vesicles may contribute to spread this virus as they transfer such receptors as CD9 and ACE2, which make recipient cells susceptible to virus docking.
32545268 Our in silico studies show that these flavonoid-based molecules can bind with high affinity to the spike protein, helicase, and protease sites on the ACE2 receptor used by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 to infect cells and cause COVID-19.
32545271 We surveyed the co-expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry genes ACE2 and TMPRSS2 throughout the GI tract to assess potential sites of infection. […] Enterocytes from the small intestine and colonocytes showed the highest proportions of cells co-expressing ACE2 and TMPRSS2.
32545518 We found that the potent Nrf2-activating composition PB125® downregulates ACE2 and TMPRSS2 mRNA expression in human liver-derived HepG2 cells. ACE2 is a surface receptor and TMPRSS2 activates the spike protein for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells.
32546047 While the potential therapeutic utility of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is well established, the clinical development of ACE2 drugs has been limited, likely due in part to the short half-life of the protein. […] In contrast, Ig-like ACE2 fusion proteins have exhibited greatly extended plasma half-life in vivo, and they have been shown to have a potent neutralization effect against SARS-CoV-2. […] Clinical investigation of Ig-like ACE2 fusion proteins as COVID-19 interventions is thus warranted.
32546188 Ongoing trials directly and indirectly target COVID-19-related endothelial dysfunctions: i.e., a virus-cell entry using recombinant angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS-2) blockade, coagulation activation, and immunomodulatory therapies, such as anti-IL-6 strategies.
32547717 The ACE2 receptor plays a central role in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 host cell entry and propagation. […] It has therefore been postulated that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers may upregulate ACE2 expression and thus increase susceptibility to infection.
32549071 The SARS-CoV-2 uses the same host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), used by SARS-CoV to infect humans.
32549125 In this opinion paper, we describe how sex-specific immunobiological factors and differences in angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression may explain the increased severity and mortality of COVID-19 in males.
32549297 In this review, we have analyzed some lesser known aspects of the relationship between neoplasms and SARS-CoV-2 infection, starting from the different expression of the ACE2 receptor of the virus in the various neoplastic pathologies, and the roles that different cytokine patterns could have in vulnerability to infection and the appearance of complications.
32550040 Though its pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been recently identified as a receptor for the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into the cell. […] Here, we aimed to clarify the potential role of ACE2 in SARS-CoV-2-induced acute lung injury and its underlying mechanism. […] As a receptor for coronavirus, ACE2 mediates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells in a similar way as for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). […] The high binding affinity of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2 correlates with its efficient spread among humans. […] On the other hand, ACE2 negatively regulates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) primarily by converting angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, which exerts a beneficial effect on coronavirus-induced acute lung injury. […] Human recombinant ACE2 has been considered as a potential therapy for SARS-CoV-2 by blocking virus entry and redressing the imbalance of RAAS in SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] The level of ACE2 expression can be upregulated by treatment with an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor blocker (ARB).
32550056 It acts by attaching to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) with the help of glycoprotein spikes, which it uses as a receptor.
32550259 The mechanism of cardiac involvement in COVID-19 patients involves direct injury to myocardial cells mediated by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors as suggested by some studies, while the other studies suggest that systemic inflammation causing indirect myocyte injury may also play a role.
32551560 In this study, we identified high-binding-affinity aptamers targeting SARS-CoV-2 RBD, using an ACE2 competition-based aptamer selection strategy and a machine learning screening algorithm. […] Simulated interaction modeling, along with competitive with experiments, suggests that two aptamers may have partially identical binding sites at ACE2 on SARS-CoV-2 RBD.
32551648 The viral entry and thus infectivity is based on the formation of the complex of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] The detection of putative allosteric sites on the viral spike protein can trace the path to develop allosteric drugs to weaken spike-ACE2 interaction and, thus, to reduce the viral infectivity. […] In this work we present results of the application of the Protein Contact Network (PCN) paradigm together with SEPAS (affinity by flexibility) and Perturbation Response Scanning (PRS) based on Elastic Network modes to the complex SARS-CoV spike - ACE2 relative to both 2003 SARS and the recent SARS-CoV-2. […] All the adopted analysis paradigms converge toward a specific region, present in both structures, that is predicted to act as allosteric site modulating the binding of the spike protein with ACE2.
32551652 In this work we used a coarse grained model to calculate the binding free energy of SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV to their human receptor ACE2. […] Such evolution may facilitate the conformational change and the infection process that occurs after the virus is bound to ACE2.
32552811 Sub-chronic e-cig exposure with nicotine increased inflammatory cellular influx of macrophages and T-lymphocytes including increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in BALF and increased SARS-Cov-2 Covid-19 ACE2 receptor, whereas nAChRα7 KO mice show reduced inflammatory responses associated with decreased ACE2 receptor.
32553273 Commercially available laboratory strains of mice are not readily infected by SARS-CoV-2 because of species-specific differences in their angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. […] Here, we transduced replication-defective adenoviruses encoding human ACE2 via intranasal administration into BALB/c mice and established receptor expression in lung tissues. hACE2-transduced mice were productively infected with SARS-CoV-2, and this resulted in high viral titers in the lung, lung pathology, and weight loss.
32553503 These very legitimate questions are directly the consequence of the recent recognition of the fundamental role of ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) in COVID-19 infection. […] Indeed, SARS COV2 utilizes ACE2 as a membrane receptor to enter target cells. […] As a membrane-bound enzyme (carboxypeptidase), ACE2 inactivates angiotensin II and therefore physiologically counters its effects. […] Due to a different structure compared with ACE1, ACE2 is insensitive to ACEIs. […] In vitro, both ARBs and ACEi appear able to upregulate ACE2 tissue expression and activity but these results were not confirmed in Humans. […] Due to the crucial role of ACE2, some groups support the hypothesis that a modulation of ACE2 expression could represent a valuable therapeutic target could confer protective properties against inflammatory tissue damage in COVID-19 infection. […] So, studies are currently ongoing to test the impact of elevated ACE2 membrane expression, administration of ARB and infusion of soluble ACE2.
32553666 The postulated mechanism of viral entry is through the host ACE2 receptors that are abundantly present in type 2 alveolar cells. […] Interestingly, the expression of ACE2 receptors were identified in the gastrointestinal tract, vascular endothelium and cholangiocytes of the liver.
32553928 In this study was to develop a search for new pharmacological compounds against the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), to inhibit the interaction with SARS-CoV-2. […] Docking, virtual screening using almost 500,000 compounds directed to interact in the region between the residues (Gln24, Asp30, His34, Tyr41, Gln42, Met82, Lys353, and Arg357) in ACE2. […] The average of ΔGbinding, the standard deviation value and the theoretical toxicity from compounds were analyzed. 20 best compounds directed to interact in ACE2 with a high probability to be safe in humans, validated by web servers of prediction of ADME and toxicity (ProTox-II and PreADMET), to difficult the interaction between ACE2 and region binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. […] In this study, 20 compounds were determined by docking focused on the region of interaction between ACE2 and RBD of SARS-CoV-2 was carried out.
32554251 QFPD contained 257 specific targets in addition to HCoV, pneumonia and ACE2 co-expression proteins.
32556552 The risk to infect transplant recipients with SARS-CoV‑2 still appears very unlikely due to the experience with severe acute respiratory syndrome -coronavirus(‑1) (SARS-CoV(‑1)) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV); however, due to the occurrence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in the cornea an infection of this tissue with SARS-CoV‑2 cannot be completely excluded.
32558150 Its pathogen, SARS-CoV-2, has been shown to use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its host cell receptor, same as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003. […] Here by analyzing GTEx and other public data in 30 tissues across thousands of individuals, we found a significantly higher level in Asian females, an age-dependent decrease in all ethnic groups, and a highly significant decrease in type II diabetic patients of ACE2 expression. […] Consistently, the most significant expression quantitative loci (eQTLs) contributing to high ACE2 expression are close to 100% in East Asians, >30% higher than other ethnic groups. […] A shockingly common enrichment of viral infection pathways was found among ACE2 anti-expressed genes, and multiple binding sites of virus infection related transcription factors and sex hormone receptors locate at ACE2 regulatory regions. […] Human and mice data analysis further revealed ACE2 expression is reduced in T2D patients and with inflammatory cytokine treatment and upregulated by estrogen and androgen (both decrease with age). […] Our findings revealed a negative correlation between ACE2 expression and COVID-19 fatality at both population and molecular levels. […] These results will be instrumental when designing potential prevention and treatment strategies for ACE2 binding coronaviruses in general.
32558308 We examined genetic differences in the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) gene, as its receptor serves as a cellular entry for SARS-CoV-2. […] At present, there is a paucity of data regarding the differences for ACE2 polymorphisms and expression levels between ethnicities. […] The binding free energies were calculated between S protein and hACE2. […] We also examined hACE2 gene expression in eight global populations from HapMap3. […] Molecular dynamic demonstrated that two of these variants (K26R and I468V) may affect binding characteristics between S protein of the virus and hACE2 receptor. […] Our studies reveal subtle changes in the genetics of hACE2 between human populations, but the magnitude of the difference was small and the significance is not clear in the absence of further in vitro and functional studies.
32558946 Investigation of this viral infection in the human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE) suggests that SARS-CoV-2 can enter these cells through interaction between its membrane-localized S protein with the ACE2 molecule on the host cell membrane.
32561270 The most potent antibody bound the RBD and prevented binding to the ACE2 receptor, while the other bound outside the RBD. […] Antibodies that disrupt the SARS-CoV-2 S-ACE2 interaction can potently neutralize the virus without undergoing extensive maturation.
32561291 SARS-CoV-2 entry starts with the binding of the spike glycoprotein expressed on the viral envelope to ACE2 on the alveolar surface followed by clathrin-dependent endocytosis of the SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 complex.
32561317 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are considered first-line agents in patients with diabetes because of their nephroprotective effects, but administration of these drugs leads to upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is responsible for the viral entry of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
32562137 Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a target cell receptor for internalization and proliferation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] When ACE2-highly expressed tissues are manipulated, SARS-CoV-2 containing aerosols may be generated.
32562276 Briefly, statins could act modulating virus entry, acting on the SARS-CoV-2 receptors, ACE2 and CD147, and/or lipid rafts engagement.
32562701 Apelin or its receptor agonists are of great potential treatment for COVID-19 through suppressing angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II (Ang-II) production, as well as, down-regulating angiotensin receptor 1 (AT1R) and ACE2 up-regulation.
32562913 As it is evident from the recent studies that SARS-CoV-2 requires host enzyme Furin to activate receptor binding domain of its S protein and host Angiotensin Convertase Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is required as binding receptor, facilitating the entry of virus into the host cell. […] Evidence from literature shows that oral cancer tissues as well as paracarcinoma tissue exhibit higher expression of both Furin and ACE2, giving rise to the hypothesis that patients with oral cancer have higher chances of SARS CoV2 infection.
32562915 The virus attacks type II pneumocytes in the lower bronchi through the binding of the Spike protein (S protein) to viral receptors, of which the angiotensin 2 conversion enzyme (ACE2) receptor is the most important. […] ACE2 receptor is widely expressed in numerous tissues, including the oropharynx and conjunctiva, but mostly distributed in ciliated bronchial epithelial cells and type II pneumocytes in the lower bronchi.
32563970 In which, pros and cons were discussed and inferred the possible alternatives. (a) Specificity: Implicit to express the ACE2 receptors in conveyor cells to deceive SARS-CoV-2 frompreponetargets. (b) Remedy: As depletion of pulmonary surfactants causes strong acute respiratory distress syndrome, we propose an entity of a cost-effective artificialsurfactantsystem as a remedy to pulmonary complications. (c) Conveyor: We propose red blood cells (RBCs) as a conveyor with embedded artificial surfactant and protruding ACE2 receptors for the target-specific delivery.
32564046 It is known from experimental studies that SARS-Cov-2 enters the cells by interacting with the ACE2 enzyme, while it is not known whether ACE2 is the only factor that allows the virus to enter the cell. […] It has been shown that the use of recombinant ACE2 can be potentially beneficial in COVID-19 therapy by limiting the entry of the virus into the cell.
32564694 To further investigate this sex difference, we examined the role of ACE2 in Ang-[1-8] (angiotensin [1-8])-induced hypertension and regulation of the renin-angiotensin system in the kidney of WT (wild type) and Ace2 KO (knockout) mice. […] This sex difference was attenuated in ACE2 KO mice. […] Ang-[1-8] infusion reduced glomerular AT1R (angiotensin type 1 receptor) binding in WT female mice by 30%, and deletion of Ace2 abolished this effect. […] In contrast, Ang-[1-8] infusion increased glomerular AT1R binding in WT male mice by 1.2-fold, and this effect of Ang-[1-8] persisted in Ace2 KO male mice (1.3-fold). […] ACE2 also had an effect on renal protein expression of the neutral endopeptidase NEP (neprilysin), the enzyme that catabolizes Ang-[1-10] (angiotensin [1-10]), the precursor of Ang-[1-8]. […] Deletion of Ace2 resulted in lowered NEP expression after Ang-[1-8] infusion in both sexes. […] These findings suggest sex-specific ACE2 regulation of the renin-angiotensin system contributes to female protection from Ang-[1-8]-induced hypertension. […] These findings have ramifications for the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, especially in hypertension since ACE2 is the SARS-CoV-2 receptor and hypertension is a major risk factor for poor outcomes.
32565362 SARS-CoV-2 employs the host cell receptor ACE2 for cellular entry. […] Nonetheless, the differences in ACE2 expression pattern in lung versus other normal and solid tumor tissues remain incompletely characterized. […] Here, we analyze a large data set comprising ACE2 mRNA expression for 7592 tissue samples across 22 types of primary solid tumor and 4461 samples across matched 18 non-diseased tissues.
32566425 COVID-19, like other coronaviruses, presents with S glycoproteins on the membrane that plays an integral role in the virus binding with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. […] The ACE2 receptor is an intramembrane receptor on the type II pneumocytes, where the virus is able to replicate after getting endocytosed within the cytoplasm.
32566896 SARS-CoV-2 gains entry to human cells through its spike (S) protein binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32567171 Whilst research all over the world is still struggling to provide a detailed characterization of the biology of SARS-CoV2 and its associated disease profile, it has become evident that SARS-CoV2 uses the membrane-bound form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor for cell internalization. […] ACE2 is a protective component of the RAAS axis and is downregulated after SARS-CoV2 infection.
32567823 However, SARS-CoV-2 can affect several human organs due to high expressions of ACE2 receptor which is the main viral target and the virus may affect not only higher and lower respiratory tracts, but also heart, kidney, gastro enteric tract, liver, pancreas, nervous system and skin.
32567938 The virus binds to the cellular receptor ACE2, which in children has a structural and functional immaturity thus offering lower affinity to the pathogen; this could explain the lower incidence of infection from SARS-CoV-2 in this segment of the population.The common clinical observation is that COVID-19 is less severe in children, and in this group the disease is often asymptomatic.
32568687 Preliminary conformational analysis of the receptor (ACE2) binding site of the spike protein is carried out suggesting that while it is somewhat conserved, it appears to be more variable than KRSFIEDLLFNKV. […] However compounds like emodin that inhibit SARS entry, apparently by binding ACE2, might also have functions at several different human protein binding sites.
32569293 We seek to raise awareness about the male-biased severe outcomes from COVID-19, highlighting the mechanistic differences including in the expression and activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as well as in antiviral immunity.
32570174 The resemblance with SARS-CoV in spike protein suggests that SARS-CoV-2 employs spike-driven entry into angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-expressing cells. […] From a stem cell perspective, this review focuses on the possible involvement of ACE2+ stem/progenitor cells from both the upper and lower respiratory tracts in coronavirus infection.
32570882 It has been shown that high cholesterol levels are associated with more lipid rafts, subdomains of the plasma membrane that can harbour angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors for the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2.
32572334 In this study, we combined system biology and bioinformatic approaches to define the role of coexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), neprilysin or membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME), and carbonic anhydrases (CAs) and their association in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. […] The results revealed that ACE2 as the cellular attachment site of SARS-CoV-2, neprilysin, and CAs have a great contribution together in the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and consequently in pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 in the vital organs such as respiratory, renal, and blood circulation systems. […] Any disorder in neprilysin, ACE2, and CAs can lead to increase of CO2 concentration in blood and respiratory acidosis, induction of pulmonary edema and heart and renal failures. […] Due to the presence of ACE2-Neprilysin-CA complex in most of vital organs and as a receptor of COVID-19, it is expected that most organs are affected by SARS-CoV-2 such as inflammation and fibrosis of lungs, which may conversely affect their vital functions, temporary or permanently, sometimes leading to death. […] Therefore, ACE2-Neprilysin-CA complex could be the key factor of pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and may provide us useful information to find better provocative and therapeutic strategies against COVID-19.
32572383 The inhibitory capability of active compounds in the TA from Thua Thien Hue, Vietnam over the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein in human body - the host receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and the main protease (PDB6LU7) of the SARS-CoV-2 using docking simulation has been studied herein. […] The results indicate that the ACE2 and PDB6LU7 proteins were strongly inhibited by 10 out of 24 compounds accounting for 70.9% in the TA. […] Interestingly, the synergistic interactions of these 10 substances of the TA exhibit excellent inhibition into the ACE2 and PDB6LU7 proteins.
32572552 The current body of evidence indicates that SARS-CoV‑2 requires the membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the membrane-bound serine protease TMPRSS2 to enter cells. […] Recent studies suggest that COVID-19 patients rarely exhibit viral RNA in tear film and conjunctival smears and that, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are only expressed in very small amounts in the conjunctiva, making conjunctival infection with SARS-CoV‑2 via these mediators unlikely.
32573351 Totally 47 bioactives identified from the medicinal plants were investigated against the structural targets of SARS-CoV-2 (Mpro and spike protein) and human ACE2 receptor.
32573711 The receptor for SARS-CoV-2 binding, ACE2, was not detected by mRNA or protein in platelets. […] Surprisingly, mRNA from the SARS-CoV-2 N1 gene was detected in platelets from 2/25 COVID-19 patients, suggesting platelets may take-up SARS-COV-2 mRNA independent of ACE2.
32573788 The SARS-CoV-2 uses the host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to gain entry inside the human cells where it replicates by using the cell protein synthesis mechanisms. […] The knowledge of the tissue distribution of ACE2 in human organs is therefore important to predict the clinical course of the COVID-19. […] We performed an exhaustive search of human protein databases to establish the tissues that express ACE2 and performed an in-depth analysis like sequence alignments and homology modeling of the spike protein (S) of the SARS-CoV-2 to identify antigenic regions in the RBD that can be exploited to synthesize vaccine and mAbs. […] Our results show that ACE2 is widely expressed in human organs that may explain the pulmonary, systemic, and neurological deficits seen in COVID-19 patients.
32574107 SARS-CoV2 binding to ACE2 can lead to excessive angiotensin II signaling, which activates the STING pathway in mice.
32574196 Both ACE2 (an entry receptor) and TMPRSS2 (used by the virus for spike protein priming) are key proteins to SARS-CoV-2 cell entry, enabling progression to COVID-19 in humans. […] Comparative genomic research into critical ACE2 binding sites, associated with the spike receptor binding domain, has suggested that African and Asian primates may also be susceptible to disease from SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] To characterize potential functional variation in savanna monkey ACE2 and TMPRSS2, we inspected recently published genomic data from 245 savanna monkeys, including 163 wild monkeys from Africa and the Caribbean and 82 captive monkeys from the Vervet Research Colony (VRC). […] One missense variant in ACE2 (X:14,077,550; Asp30Gly), common in Ch. sabaeus, causes a change in amino acid residue that has been inferred to reduce binding efficiency of SARS-CoV-2, suggesting potentially reduced susceptibility. […] All missense variants observed in wild Ch. sabaeus populations are also present in the VRC, along with two splice acceptor variants (at X:14,065,076) not observed in the wild sample that are potentially disruptive to ACE2 function.
32574268 IP is caused by the viral glycoprotein spike (S) binding to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expressed on the surface of alveolar pneumocytes.
32574271 Of importance are Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans (HSPGs) and the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as based on other activities lactoferrin might prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from attaching to the host cells.
32574272 Virus protein ligands (e.g., haemagglutinin or trimeric spike glycoprotein for Influenza and CoV, respectively) interact with cellular receptors, such as (depending on the virus) either sialic acids, Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32574273 The role of the ACE2 enzyme in the COVID-19 infection is 2-fold, with opposing implications for the disease development. […] The membrane bound angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) serves as the entry point of COVID-19 2. […] ACE2 is part of the wider renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and is upregulated via compounds, which inhibits the classical ACE, thereby plasma aldosterone and aldosterone receptor (MR) activation. […] MR activation may therefore protect organs from binding the COVID-19 by reducing ACE2 expression. […] Does this affect the protective effect of ACE2? […] Importantly, GL has anti-inflammatory properties by itself via toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonism and therefore compensates for the reduced protection of the downregulated ACE2. […] To block the number of entry points and 2. provide an ACE2 independent anti-inflammatory mechanism.
32574336 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor for COVID-19 (SARs-CoV-2). […] ACE2 protects the lung and heart from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute myocarditis and arrhythmias, because it breaks down Angiotensin II, which has inflammatory effects in the lung and heart as well as in the kidney. […] When SARS-CoV-2 binds to ACE2, it suppresses it, so this protective action of ACE2 is lost.
32574379 These findings are applicable to a parallel strategy for the generation of polysaccharides similar to those present in the receptor-binding domain of CoViD-19, which might inhibit viral adhesion to its receptor, the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) protein, thereby impairing cellular uptake of the virus itself.
32574956 Flow cytometry analyses were performed to detect the direct binding of S protein and the expression of ACE2 on the cell surface of macrophages. […] S protein of SARS-CoV-2 directly bound to the macrophage via the S-protein-ACE2 interaction.
32575476 The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, a host cell receptor, has been found to play a crucial role in virus cell entry; therefore, ACE2 blockers can be a potential target for anti-viral intervention. […] In this study, we evaluated the ACE2 inhibitory effects of 10 essential oils. […] Among them, geranium and lemon oils displayed significant ACE2 inhibitory effects in epithelial cells. […] In addition, immunoblotting and qPCR analysis also confirmed that geranium and lemon oils possess potent ACE2 inhibitory effects. […] Next, we found that treatment with citronellol and limonene significantly downregulated ACE2 expression in epithelial cells.
32576357 2019 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) destroys angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and breaks the balance of renin-angiotension system (RAS) by interacting with ACE2.
32577056 The ACE2 receptors were widely disturbed among body tissues such as lung, kidney, small intestine, heart, and others in different percent and considered a target for the nCOVID-19 virus. […] S-protein of the virus was binding to ACE2 receptors caused downregulation of endogenous anti-viral mediators, upregulation of NF-κB pathway, ROS and pro-apoptotic protein. […] We used method of analysis of the published papers with described studies about COVID-19 connected with pharmacological issues and aspects which are included in global fighting against COVID-19 infection, and how using DMF (Nrf2 activator) in clinical trial for nCOVID-19 produce positive effects in patients for reduce lung alveolar cells damage. we are found that Nrf2 activators an important medication that’s have a role in reduce viral pathogenesis via inhibit virus entry through induce SPLI gene expression as well as inhibit TRMPSS2, upregulation of ACE2 that’s make a competition with the virus on binding site, induce gene expression of anti-viral mediators such as RIG-1 and INFs, induce anti-oxidant enzymes, also they have a role in inhibit NF-κB pathway, inhibit both apoptosis proteins and gene expression of TLRs.
32577830 Similarly, a decrease in the oral viral load would diminish the amount of virus expelled and reduce the risk of transmission, since (i) during the first 10 days, the virus mainly accumulates at the nasal, oral, and pharyngeal area; (ii) the number of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) receptor is greater in the salivary glands as compared with the lungs; and (iii) salivary droplets represent the most relevant transmission route.
32578263 SARS-CoV-2 enters the cells with the help of ACE2; therefore, testicular expression of ACE2 was analysed from transcriptome sequencing studies and our unpublished data. […] We also found ACE2 expression in transcriptome sequencing data for human spermatozoa, corroborating its presence in the testicular germ cells. […] Transcriptome sequencing data from literature search revealed ACE2 expression in the germ, Sertoli and Leydig cells. […] The presence of ACE2 on almost all testicular cells and the report of a significant impact of previous SARS coronavirus on testes suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is highly likely to affect testicular tissue, semen parameters and male fertility.
32579957 Up-to-date, a number of mechanisms have been postulated for COVID-19-associated cardiovascular damage including SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activation, cytokine storm, hypoxemia, stress and cardiotoxicity of antiviral drugs.
32580257 SARS-CoV-2 infects host cells by targeting the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, which is present on endothelial cells in the lung, heart, kidney, and gastrointestinal tissue. […] These high-risk populations are often on angiotensin-modulating therapies, which are theorized to increase ACE2 expressivity, but current evidence for or against discontinuation is equivocal.
32580440 Furthermore, we analyze the positive correlation between the virus spread, PM, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor involved in the entry of the virus into pulmonary cells and inflammation.
32582134 SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 have 79.5% nucleotide sequence identity and use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors to enter host cells. […] The distribution of ACE2 may determine how SARS-CoV-2 infects the respiratory and digestive tract. […] ACE2 regulates the gut microbiota by indirectly controlling the secretion of antimicrobial peptides.
32582222 A common denominator of all affected organs is the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a protease responsible for the conversion of Angiotensin 1-8 (Ang II) to Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7). […] Unfortunately, ACE2 also serves as the binding receptor of SARS viral spike glycoprotein, enabling its attachment to host cells, with subsequent viral internalization and replication. […] Although numerous reports have linked the devastating organ injuries to viral homing and attachment to organ-specific cells widely expressing ACE2, little attention has been given to ACE-2 expressed by the immune system. […] Herein we outline potential adverse effects of SARS-CoV2 on macrophages and dendritic cells, key cells of the immune system expressing ACE2. […] It is tempting to assume that diverse expression of ACE2 in macrophages among individuals might govern the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32582302 The SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for the infection depends on two human genes: the human receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for cell invasion, and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. […] We examined 178 quantitative phenotypes including cytokines and cardio-metabolic biomarkers, as well as usage of 58 medications in 36,339 volunteers from the Lifelines population cohort, in relation to 1,273 genetic variants located in or near ACE2 and TMPRSS2. […] SNPs within the ACE2 gene were associated with (1) the use of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) combination therapies (p = 5.7 × 10-4), an association that is significantly stronger in females (p dif f = 0.01), and (2) with the use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products (p = 5.5 × 10-4).
32582574 We review the physiological functions of ACE2 in the cardiovascular system and the lungs, and how the activation of ACE2/MAS/G protein coupled receptor contributes in reducing acute injury and inhibiting fibrogenesis of the lungs and protecting the cardiovascular system. […] In this perspective, we predominantly focus on the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on ACE2 and dysregulation of the protective effect of ACE2/MAS/G protein pathway vs. the deleterious effect of Renin/Angiotensin/Aldosterone. […] We discuss the potential effect of invasion of SARS-CoV-2 on the function of ACE2 and the loss of the protective effect of the ACE2/MAS pathway in alveolar epithelial cells and how this may amplify systemic deleterious effect of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAS) in the host. […] Furthermore, we speculate the potential of exploiting the modulation of ACE2/MAS pathway as a natural protection of lung injury by modulation of ACE2/MAS axis or by developing targeted drugs to inhibit proteases required for viral entry.
32582576 SARS-CoV-2 enters the lungs through the ACE2 enzyme, a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). […] However, there are no data on sex-specific differences in ACE2 expression. […] If there is a sex difference in the expression of ACE2 in the lung, this could theoretically explain the gender disparity in COVID-19 disease. […] More importantly, although modulation of ACE2 will certainly not provide a cure for the COVID-19 disease, modulation of ACE2 by sex hormone modulators, if they affect the expression of ACE2, could potentially be developed into a supportive therapy for COVID-19 patients.
32583042 At the time of the research, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was clearly identified as the receptor and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) as the necessary protease to enable the infection of human cells with SARS-CoV‑2. […] In the eye both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed, although sometimes very weakly and with varying degrees in different tissues. […] According to current state of knowledge the eye is not considered to be a high-risk tissue due to the low ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression.
32584474 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), serves as the major entry point into cells for SARS-CoV-2 which attaches to human ACE2, thereby reducing the expression of ACE2 and causing lung injury and pneumonia. […] It can induce ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis activity and inhibits renin and the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis, thereby increasing expression and concentration of ACE2, MasR and Ang-(1-7) and having a potential protective role against acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). […] Therefore, targeting the unbalanced RAS and ACE2 down-regulation with vitamin D in SARS-CoV-2 infection is a potential therapeutic approach to combat COVID-19 and induced ARDS.
32586214 The evidence to date supports the concept that the thrombotic manifestations of severe COVID-19 is due to the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to invade endo¬thelial cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is expressed on the endothelial cell surface.
32586380 First, we sought to identify existing FDA approved drugs that could block coronaviruses from entering cells by binding to ACE2 or TMPRSS2 using a high-throughput AI-based binding affinity prediction platform. […] Top results for ACE2 binding iincluded several ACE inhibitors, a beta-lactam antibiotic, two antiviral agents (Fosamprenavir and Emricasan) and glutathione. […] The platform also assessed specificity for ACE2 over ACE1, important for avoiding counterregulatory effects. […] Further studies are needed to weigh the benefit of blocking virus entry against potential counterregulatory effects and possible protective effects of ACE2.
32587077 These are based on the fact that ACE2 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 cell invasion via binding of a viral spike protein to ACE2. […] However, the effect of ACE inhibitors, ARBs and other drugs on ACE2 is unclear and all theories are based on conflicting evidence mainly from animal studies.
32587094 In characterizing viral S protein, we developed a quantitative dynamics cross-correlation matrix to gain insights into its interactions with the angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-solute carrier family 6 member 19 (SLC6A19) dimer. […] Using this quantitative matrix, we elucidated 47 potential functional missense variants from genomic databases within ACE2/SLC6A19/transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), warranting genomic enrichment analyses in SARS-CoV-2 patients. […] These variants had ultralow frequency but existed in males hemizygous for ACE2. […] Two ACE2 noncoding variants (rs4646118 and rs143185769) present in ~9% of individuals of African descent may regulate ACE2 expression and may be associated with increased susceptibility of African Americans to SARS-CoV-2.
32587651 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, direct viral damage, and immune-mediated damage play important roles in the pathogenesis.
32589459 The spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 interact with ACE2 or basigin/CD147 receptors, regulating human-to-human transmissions of COVID-19 together with serine protease TMPRSS2. […] ACE2 is expressed in conjunctival samples at a low level, while BSG and TMPRSS2 are expressed at intermediate levels in both conjunctiva and cornea.
32590326 The SARS virus binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) receptor and causes pneumonia. […] In the lung, the ACE2 receptor sits on the top of lung cells known as alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells. […] On the contrary, new SARS-CoV-2 can suppress the production of surfactant that binds to the ACE2 of AE2 cells.
32591346 To facilitate proteomic research on SARS-CoV-2, this report presents deep-scale proteomes (10,000 proteins; >130,000 peptides) of common cell line models, notably Vero E6, Calu-3, Caco-2, and ACE2-A549 that characterize their protein expression profiles including viral entry factors such as ACE2 or TMPRSS2.
32591666 Another aspect of the included studies was the susceptibility of oral tissues to 2019-nCoV due to the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) as a receptor for the 2019-nCoV. […] Regarding the possibility of direct virus invasion into the oral tissues, the results suggested that ACE2+ cells in salivary glands could possibly be the target cells of 2019-nCoV and theoretically could generate infectious saliva in a sustained way.
32591762 In patients with COVID-19, epithelial cells showed an average three-fold increase in expression of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2, which correlated with interferon signals by immune cells.
32591839 Reports that the ACE2 receptor - critical for virus entry into lung cells - is found in different neurons supports this expectation. […] We detected the expression of the ACE2 receptor but not TMPRSS2 in the model.
32591908 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key counter-regulatory component of the renin-angiotensin system. […] Here, we briefly review the mechanistic and target organ effects related to ACE2 activity, and the importance of ACE2 in SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] ACE2 converts angiotensin (Ang) II to Ang-(1-7), which directly opposes the vasoconstrictive, proinflammatory, and prothrombotic effects of Ang II. […] ACE2 also facilitates SARS-CoV-2 viral entry into host cells. […] Drugs that interact with the renin-angiotensin system may impact ACE2 expression and COVID-19 pathogenesis; however, the magnitude and direction of these effects are unknown at this time. […] High quality research is needed to improve our understanding of how agents that act on the renin-angiotensin system impact ACE2 and COVID-19-related disease outcomes.
32592038 Entrance of SARS-CoV-2 depends on the surface (S) protein interaction with host ACE2 protein and cleavage by TMPRSS2. […] ACE2 could be a species-specific barrier that interferes with bat-to-human coronavirus cross-species transmission. […] To investigate bats and pangolin as hosts in SARS-CoV-2 cross-species transmission, we perform an evolutionary analysis combining viral and host phylogenies and divergence of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 amino acid sequences between CoV hosts. […] In contrast to TMPRSS2, pangolin ACE2 amino acid sequence has low evolutionary divergence compared with humans and is more divergent from bats. […] Comparing SARS-CoV with SARS-CoV-2 origins, pangolin has yet lower ACE2 evolutionary divergence with humans than civet-the main intermediary host of SARS-CoV.
32592145 A critical step in the crosstalk between the virus and the host cell is the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor present on the surface of the host cells. […] We have designed a novel peptide that could inhibit SARS-CoV-2 spike protein interaction with ACE2, thereby blocking the cellular entry of the virus.
32592657 However, statins may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry by inducing ACE2 expression.