HR lysine demethylase and nuclear receptor corepressor

Gene Context Sentence

Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of HR gene in 515 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32167524 In bivariate Cox regression analysis, risk factors associated with the development of ARDS and progression from ARDS to death included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 3.26; 95% CI 2.08-5.11; and HR, 6.17; 95% CI, 3.26-11.67, respectively), neutrophilia (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.09-1.19; and HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17, respectively), and organ and coagulation dysfunction (eg, higher lactate dehydrogenase [HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.44-1.79; and HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.11-1.52, respectively] and D-dimer [HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; and HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04, respectively]). […] High fever (≥39 °C) was associated with higher likelihood of ARDS development (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.11-2.84) and lower likelihood of death (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.21-0.82). […] Among patients with ARDS, treatment with methylprednisolone decreased the risk of death (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.20-0.72).
32217650 After adjusting for age and smoking status, COPD [hazards ratio (HR) 2.681, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.424-5.048], diabetes (HR 1.59, 95%CI 1.03-2.45), hypertension (HR 1.58, 95%CI 1.07-2.32) and malignancy (HR 3.50, 95%CI 1.60-7.64) were risk factors of reaching to the composite endpoints. […] The HR was 1.79 (95%CI 1.16-2.77) among patients with at least one comorbidity and 2.59 (95%CI 1.61-4.17) among patients with two or more comorbidities.
32224151 In this retrospective cohort study, we included cancer patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 from three designated hospitals in Wuhan, China. […] If the last anti-tumour treatment was within 14 days, it significantly increased the risk of developing severe events (HR=4.079, 95%CI 1.086-15.322, P=0.037). […] Furthermore, patchy consolidation on CT on admission was associated with a higher risk for developing severe events (HR=5.438, 95%CI 1.498-19.748, P=0.010).
32236856 To review the chest computed tomography (CT) findings on the ultra-high-resolution CT (U-HRCT) in patients with the Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] In February 2020, six consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (median age, 69 years) underwent U-HR CT imaging. […] U-HR-CT has a larger matrix size of 1024 × 1024 thinner slice thickness of 0.25 mm and can demonstrate terminal bronchioles in the normal lungs; as a result, Reid’s secondary lobules and their abnormalities can be identified. […] The distribution and hallmarks (ground-glass opacity, consolidation with or without architectural distortion, linear opacity, crazy paving) of the lung opacities on U-HRCT were visually evaluated on a 1 K monitor by two experienced reviewers. […] All cases showed crazy paving pattern in U-HRCT. […] U-HRCT can evaluate not only the distribution and hallmarks of COVID-19 pneumonia but also visualize local lung volume loss.
32240670 Symptoms of dyspnea (HR 2.35, P = 0.001), comorbidities including cardiovascular disease (HR 1.86, P = 0.031) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 2.24, P = 0.023), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (HR 29.33, P < 0.001) were strong predictors of death. […] And a high level of lymphocytes was predictive of better outcome (HR 0.10, P < 0.001). […] Dyspnea, lymphocytopenia, comorbidities including cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute respiratory distress syndrome were predictive of poor outcome.
32266987 Cox proportional hazards regression analysis indicated no association between corticosteroid treatment and virus clearance time (hazard ratio [HR], 1.26; 95% CI, 0.58-2.74), hospital length of stay (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.33-1.78), or duration of symptoms (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.40-1.83). […] Univariate analysis indicated that virus clearance was slower in two patients with chronic hepatitis B infections (mean difference, 10.6 days; 95% CI, 6.2-15.1 days).
32269086 Patients in Hubei [severe event rate 23.0% versus 11.1%, death rate 7.3% versus 0.3%, hazards ratio (HR) for critical illness 1.59, 95%CI 1.05-2.41] have a poorer prognosis compared with patients outside of Hubei after adjusting for age and comorbidity. […] However, among patients outside of Hubei, the duration from symptom onset to hospitalisation (mean: 4.4 versus 4.7 days) and prognosis (HR 0.84, 95%CI 0.40-1.80) were similar between patients with or without Wuhan-related exposure. […] In the overall population, the waiting time, but neither treated in Hubei nor Wuhan-related exposure, remained an independent prognostic factor (HR 1.05, 1.01-1.08).
32283185 Secondary endpoints included acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease GVHD, non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse/progression and disease-free survival (DFS). […] In matched pair regression analysis, graft cryopreservation was not associated with a significantly higher risk of mortality (Hazard Ratio for cryopreserved versus fresh [HR] =1.05, 95% confidence interval, 0.86-1.29, p=0.60). […] Similarly, rates neutrophil recovery (HR=0.91, 0.80-1.02, p=0.12), platelet recovery (HR=0.88, 0.78-1.00, p=0.05), grade 3-4 acute GVHD (HR=0.78, 0.50-1.22, p=0.27), NRM (HR=1.16, 0.86-1.55, p=0.32) and relapse/progression (HR=1.21, 0.97-1.50, p=0.09) were similar with cryopreserved versus fresh grafts. […] There were somewhat lower rates chronic GVHD (HR=0.78, 0.61-0.99, p=0.04) and DFS (HR for treatment failure=1.19, 95%CI=1.01-1.29, p=0.04) with graft cryopreservation that were of marginal statistical significance after adjusting for multiple comparisons.
32283877 Myocardial injury was an important prognostic factor of COVID-19 (HR=5.382, 95%CI 2.404-12.05, P<0.001). […] 多因素Cox回归分析显示,心肌损伤是COVID-19患者临床预后的重要预测因子(HR=5.382,95%CI 2.404~12.05, P<0.001)。
32302265 In mixed-effect Cox model treating site as a random effect, after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, and in-hospital medications, the detected risk for all-cause mortality was lower in the ACEI/ARB group versus the non-ACEI/ARB group (adjusted HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.19-0.92; P =0.03). […] In a propensity score-matched analysis followed by adjusting imbalanced variables in mixed-effect Cox model, the results consistently demonstrated lower risk of COVID-19 mortality in patients who received ACEI/ARB versus those who did not receive ACEI/ARB (adjusted HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.15-0.89; P = 0.03). […] Further subgroup propensity score-matched analysis indicated that, compared to use of other antihypertensive drugs, ACEI/ARB was also associated with decreased mortality (adjusted HR, 0.30; 95%CI, 0.12-0.70; P = 0.01) in COVID-19 patients with hypertension. Conclusions: Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with hypertension, inpatient use of ACEI/ARB was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality compared with ACEI/ARB non-users.
32304772 The goal of the current study was to investigate the potential risk factors associated with fatal outcomes from COVID-19 through a multivariate Cox regression analysis and a nomogram model. […] A retrospective cohort of 1,590 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 throughout China was established. […] In this nationwide cohort, nonsurvivors included a higher incidence of elderly people and subjects with coexisting chronic illness, dyspnea, and laboratory abnormalities on admission compared with survivors. […] Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age ≥ 75 years (hazard ratio [HR], 7.86; 95% CI, 2.44-25.35), age between 65 and 74 years (HR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.24-9.5), coronary heart disease (HR, 4.28; 95% CI, 1.14-16.13), cerebrovascular disease (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.07-8.94), dyspnea (HR, 3.96; 95% CI, 1.42-11), procalcitonin level > 0.5 ng/mL (HR, 8.72; 95% CI, 3.42-22.28), and aspartate aminotransferase level > 40 U/L (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-6.73) were independent risk factors associated with fatal outcome.
32304994 To accumulate evidence that indicated the key role played by virus-triggered inflammation in the 2019-novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) which emerged in Wuhan City and rapidly spread throughout China. […] The receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to determine the thresholds for five bio-markers, and their prognostic values were assessed via the Kaplan-Meier curve and multivariate COX regression models. […] The binary logistic analysis identified elevated NLR (hazard risk [HR] 2.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.98-4.57) and age (HR 2.52, 95% CI 1.65-4.83) as independent factors for poor clinical outcome of COVID-19.
32306492 Patients with D-dimer levels≥2.0 µg/ml had a higher incidence of mortality when comparing to those who with D-dimer levels < 2.0 µg/ml (12/67 vs 1/267, P<0.001, HR:51.5, 95%CI:12.9-206.7).
32327003 Vitals on scene were HR 110, BP 135/90, SpO2 88% on room air.
32335406 Age older than 45 years (hazard ratio, HR: 0.378; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.205-0.698) and chest tightness (HR: 0.290; 95%CI: 0.091-0.919) were factors indecently affecting negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA.
32337591 Cox regression results showed a significantly shorter viral positivity duration was related to younger [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.658, p = 0.017], not severe patient (HR = 0.653, p = 0.076), higher count of lymphocytes (HR = 1.464, p = 0.033), eosinophils (HR = 1.514, p = 0.020) and CD8+ T cells (HR=1.745, p=0.033), and lower IL-6 (HR = 0.664, p = 0.036) and IL-10 (HR = 0.631, p = 0.021). […] Multivariate analysis with covariables adjusted results showed that the count of CD8+ T cells (HR=2.376, p=0.114) was a predominant risk factor for the SARS-CoV-2 viral positivity duration.
32340095 The influencing factors for severe illness or worse included male (aHR=1.87, 95%CI: 1.43-2.46), older age (aHR=1.67, 95%CI: 1.51-1.85), seeking medical care on day 2-3 after onset (aHR=1.73, 95%CI: 1.20-2.50) pre-existing diabetes (aHR=1.75, 95%CI: 1.12-2.73) and hypertension (aHR=1.49, 95%CI: 1.06-2.09). Conclusions: The course of illness and length of hospitalization of COVID-19 cases were generally long and associated with severity of disease clinical outcomes. […] 病例出现重症的影响因素包括男性(aHR=1.87, 95%CI:1.43~2.46)、年龄较大(aHR=1.67,95%CI:1.51~1.85)、发病至首诊第2~3天就诊(aHR=1.73,95%CI:1.20~2.50)、合并糖尿病(aHR=1.75,95%CI:1.12 ~2.73)、合并高血压(aHR=1.49,95%CI:1.06~2.09)。
32345579 The HR was 1.53 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.30; p=0.041) after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease by Cox regression.
32352397 Objectives In December 2019, there was an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, and since then, the disease has been increasingly spread throughout the world. […] Multivariate Cox analysis showed that the neutrophil count (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.441, 95% CI = 1.954-10.090, p = 0.000), lymphocyte count (HR = 0.255, 95% CI = 0.097-0.669, p = 0.006) and platelet count (HR = 0.244, 95% CI = 0.111-0.537, p = 0.000) were independent risk factors for disease progression.
32352633 Reperfusion was achieved with rescue coronary angioplasty, but the patient experienced two episodes of acute stent thrombosis at 2- and 36-hr following admission and despite optimal medical therapy. […] This raises concerns about a possible increase in platelet aggregability associated with COVID-19 leading to an increased risk of stent thrombosis, particularly in the context of STEMI. […] In addition, the use of GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors may be considered in every STEMI patient with COVID-19 to prevent the risk of acute stent thrombosis.
32353549 Univariate regression indicated no association between pregnancy and severity of disease (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.08-5.15; p=0.76), virus clearance time (HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.65-2.01; p=0.62), and length of hospital stay (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.66-1.84; p=0.71).
32359035 TCZ administration within 6 days from admission in the hospital was associated with an increased likelihood of survival (HR 2.2 95%CI 1.3-6.7, p<0.05).
32369666 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to systemic coagulation activation and thrombotic complications. […] We investigated the incidence of objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism (VTE) in 198 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in a single-center cohort study. […] During a median follow-up of 7 days (IQR, 3-13), 39 patients (20%) were diagnosed with VTE of whom 25 (13%) had symptomatic VTE, despite routine thrombosis prophylaxis. […] VTE appeared to be associated with death (adjusted HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.02-5.5). […] The observed risk for VTE in COVID-19 is high, particularly in ICU patients, which should lead to a high level of clinical suspicion and low threshold for diagnostic imaging for DVT or PE.
32369736 We found that subjects with T2D required more medical interventions and had a significantly higher mortality (7.8% versus 2.7%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49) and multiple organ injury than the non-diabetic individuals. […] Further, we found that well-controlled BG (glycemic variability within 3.9 to 10.0 mmol/L) was associated with markedly lower mortality compared to individuals with poorly controlled BG (upper limit of glycemic variability exceeding 10.0 mmol/L) (adjusted HR, 0.14) during hospitalization.
32379729 In an adjusted time-to-event analysis, black patients were not more likely than were nonblack patients to receive invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or to die during hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-1.13).
32381264 We recently reported a high cumulative incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of three Dutch hospitals. […] We re-evaluated the incidence of the composite outcome of symptomatic acute pulmonary embolism (PE), deep-vein thrombosis, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction and/or systemic arterial embolism in all COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICUs of 2 Dutch university hospitals and 1 Dutch teaching hospital from ICU admission to death, ICU discharge or April 22nd 2020, whichever came first. […] All patients received pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. […] The majority of thrombotic events were PE (65/75; 87%). […] In the competing risk model, chronic anticoagulation therapy at admission was associated with a lower risk of the composite outcome (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.29, 95%CI 0.091-0.92). […] Patients diagnosed with thrombotic complications were at higher risk of all-cause death (HR 5.4; 95%CI 2.4-12). […] Use of therapeutic anticoagulation was not associated with all-cause death (HR 0.79, 95%CI 0.35-1.8). […] In this updated analysis, we confirm the very high cumulative incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
32383530 After 96 hr, all the suggestions that had been shared by 22 clinicians were collated to provide timely advice for other clinicians. […] Through interaction and sharing of ideas, clinicians across the world produced a substantial number of recommendations about how to use telehealth to work with people with eating disorders while remaining on track with evidence-based practice.
32389803 We recorded higher 1-year rates of graft failure (hazard ratio [HR], 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.17 to 4.35; P = .01) and of 1-year overall mortality (HR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.60 to 6.11; P = .0008) after transplantation of cryopreserved compared with noncryopreserved grafts, with adjustment for sex, performance score, comorbidity, cytomegalovirus serostatus, and ABO blood group match. […] The incidence of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease did not differ between the 2 groups.
32391877 The single cut-off point and high level of cTnI predicted risk of in-hospital death, hazard ratio (HR) was 4.56 (95% CI, 1.28-16.28; P = 0.019) and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.07-1.46; P = 0.004), respectively. […] In multivariable logistic regression, senior age, comorbidities (e.g. hypertension, coronary heart disease, chronic renal failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and high level of C-reactive protein were predictors of myocardial injury.
32392282 Hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, has been considered as a possible therapeutic agent for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] To describe the association between use of hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, and clinical outcomes among hospital inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19. […] Receipt of both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, or neither. […] Among 1438 hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 (858 [59.7%] male, median age, 63 years), those receiving hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both were more likely than those not receiving either drug to have diabetes, respiratory rate >22/min, abnormal chest imaging findings, O2 saturation lower than 90%, and aspartate aminotransferase greater than 40 U/L. […] The probability of death for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin was 189/735 (25.7% [95% CI, 22.3%-28.9%]), hydroxychloroquine alone, 54/271 (19.9% [95% CI, 15.2%-24.7%]), azithromycin alone, 21/211 (10.0% [95% CI, 5.9%-14.0%]), and neither drug, 28/221 (12.7% [95% CI, 8.3%-17.1%]). […] In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, compared with patients receiving neither drug, there were no significant differences in mortality for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin (HR, 1.35 [95% CI, 0.76-2.40]), hydroxychloroquine alone (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.63-1.85]), or azithromycin alone (HR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.26-1.21]). […] In logistic models, compared with patients receiving neither drug cardiac arrest was significantly more likely in patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin (adjusted OR, 2.13 [95% CI, 1.12-4.05]), but not hydroxychloroquine alone (adjusted OR, 1.91 [95% CI, 0.96-3.81]) or azithromycin alone (adjusted OR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.27-1.56]), . […] Among patients hospitalized in metropolitan New York with COVID-19, treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both, compared with neither treatment, was not significantly associated with differences in in-hospital mortality.
32398183 Her vital signs include T 38.3° C, HR 108, BP 118/70 mm Hg, RR 26 breaths per minute, and oxygen saturation 67% on room air.
32409150 Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine (chloroquine) plus azithromycin is considered as therapy for COVID-19. […] We compared risk of cardiac adverse events between combinations of chloroquine and azithromycin and chloroquine and amoxicillin. […] We included autoimmune disease patients aged ≥18 years initiating azithromycin or amoxicillin for ≥5 days during chloroquine treatment. […] We followed patients for up to 5 days to estimate hazard ratios (HR). […] The adjusted incidence of cardiac symptoms among azithromycin and amoxicillin users was 276 vs 254 per 10,000 person-years with an adjusted HR of 1.10 (95%CI, 0.62-1.95). […] Combination use of chloroquine and azithromycin at routine doses did not show pronounced increases in arrhythmias in this real-world population, though small sample size and outcome rates limit conclusions.
32409504 Multivariable Cox regression analyses of these 306 patients showed that hypertension (hazard ratio [HR] 2.50, 95% CI 1.30-4.78), cardiovascular disease (HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.19-4.23), and chronic pulmonary disease (HR 2.51, 95% CI 1.07-5.90) were independently associated with in-hospital death. […] Diabetes (HR 1.58, 95% CI 0.84-2.99) was not statistically significantly associated with in-hospital death after adjustment. […] Age ≥70 years (HR 2.39, 95% CI 1.03-5.56) and hypertension (HR 3.10, 95% CI 1.14-8.44) were independent risk factors for in-hospital death of patients with diabetes.
32409522 In patients with severe COVID-19 but without ARDS, direct evidence from 2 observational studies provided very low-quality evidence of an increase in mortality with corticosteroids (hazard ratio [HR] 2.30, 95% CI 1.00 to 5.29, mean difference 11.9% more), as did observational data from influenza studies.
32410412 Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was used to explore the association between initial CT, clinical or laboratory findings, and discharge with recovery, whereby hazard ratio (HR) values < 1 indicated a lower rate of discharge at four weeks and longer time until discharge. […] After controlling for age, onset time, lesion characteristics, number of lung lobes affected, and bilateral involvement, the lung severity score on baseline CT (> 4 vs. ≤ 4 [reference]: adjusted HR = 0.41 [95% confidence interval, CI = 0.18-0.92], p = 0.031) and initial lymphocyte count (reduced vs. normal or elevated [reference]: adjusted HR = 0.14 [95% CI = 0.03-0.60], p = 0.008) were two significant independent factors that influenced recovery and discharge.
32425268 In a weighted model (median follow-up, 4.6 years), women in the long wait-time group had DFS (4.5-year rates, 91.2% versus 90.7%, hazard ratio [HR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-2.59, P = 0.818) and OS (95.0% versus 97.4%, HR 1.47, 95%CI 0.50-4.31, P = 0.487) similar to those in the short wait-time group. […] Three studies were examined for meta-analysis (median, n = 217), and a pooled HR for surgery wait-time of ≥8 weeks on DFS was 0.96 (95%CI 0.59-1.55).
32434874 Pooled adjusted HR (adjusted to cardiac injury/elevated biomarkers of cardiac injury) showed that elevated NT-proBNP was independently associated with mortality (HR 1.37 (1.19, 1.57), p<0.001; I2: 0%, p=0.77).
32468196 In one trial, the benefit of time to clinical improvement was not statistically significant (21 vs 23 days, HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.87-1.75), although the study was underpowered.
32469137 An outbreak of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) began in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and quickly spread throughout the country and world. […] We found that an increased level of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, D-dimer, fibrinogen (FIB), IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), serum amyloid A (SAA) and a decreased level of lymphocytes were important risk factors associated with severity. […] Furthermore, three variables were used to formulate a clinical risk scoring system named COVID-19 index = 3 × D-dimer (µg/L) + 2 × lgESR (mm/hr) - 4 × lymphocyte (×109 /L) + 8.
32470515 The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV2 that interfaces with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2). […] Eleven patients (10.8%) have been diagnosed with COVID-19 (6 in control group and 5 receiving Ramipril, HR=1.150 [95%CI: 0.351-3.768]).
32474860 The Cox regression based on the data of the family members and health care workers with Arbidol or not showed that Arbidol PEP was a protective factor against the development of COVID-19 (HR 0.025, 95% CI 0.003-0.209, P=0.0006 for family members and HR 0.056, 95% CI 0.005-0.662, P=0.0221 for health care workers).
32478961 Among post-COVID-19 patients, those with >12-hr delay in presentation 31(%) had a longer average D2B time (88 vs. 53 min, p = .033) and higher peak troponin (58 vs. 
32483458 Multivariable regression analysis showed risk factors associated with in-hospital death included ≥ 2 comorbidities (hazard ratio [HR], 6.734; 95% CI; 3.239-14.003, p < 0.001), leukocytosis (HR, 9.639; 95% CI, 4.572-20.321, p < 0.001), lymphopenia (HR, 4.579; 95% CI, 1.334-15.715, p = 0.016) and CT severity score > 14 (HR, 2.915; 95% CI, 1.376-6.177, p = 0.005) on admission, while older age (HR, 2.231; 95% CI, 1.124-4.427, p = 0.022), ≥ 2 comorbidities (HR, 4.778; 95% CI; 2.451-9.315, p < 0.001), leukocytosis (HR, 6.349; 95% CI; 3.330-12.108, p < 0.001), lymphopenia (HR, 3.014; 95% CI; 1.356-6.697, p = 0.007) and CT severity score > 14 (HR, 1.946; 95% CI; 1.095-3.459, p = 0.023) were associated with increased odds of composite adverse outcomes. Conclusion: The risk factors of older age, multiple comorbidities, leukocytosis, lymphopenia and higher CT severity score could help clinicians identify patients with potential adverse events.
32492084 The trial included 103 participants with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 that was severe (respiratory distress and/or hypoxemia) or life-threatening (shock, organ failure, or requiring mechanical ventilation). […] Clinical improvement occurred within 28 days in 51.9% (27/52) of the convalescent plasma group vs 43.1% (22/51) in the control group (difference, 8.8% [95% CI, -10.4% to 28.0%]; hazard ratio [HR], 1.40 [95% CI, 0.79-2.49]; P = .26). […] Among those with severe disease, the primary outcome occurred in 91.3% (21/23) of the convalescent plasma group vs 68.2% (15/22) of the control group (HR, 2.15 [95% CI, 1.07-4.32]; P = .03); among those with life-threatening disease the primary outcome occurred in 20.7% (6/29) of the convalescent plasma group vs 24.1% (7/29) of the control group (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.30-2.63]; P = .83) (P for interaction = .17). […] There was no significant difference in 28-day mortality (15.7% vs 24.0%; OR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.29-1.46]; P = .30) or time from randomization to discharge (51.0% vs 36.0% discharged by day 28; HR, 1.61 [95% CI, 0.88-2.93]; P = .12). […] Among patients with severe or life-threatening COVID-19, convalescent plasma therapy added to standard treatment, compared with standard treatment alone, did not result in a statistically significant improvement in time to clinical improvement within 28 days.
32492211 Prolonged viral shedding may pose a threat to the control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and data on the duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding are still limited, with the associated factors being unknown. […] Delayed antiviral treatment (HR 0.976 [95% CI, 0.962-0.990]) and lopinavir/ritonavir + IFN-α combination therapy as the initial antiviral treatment (HR 1.649 [95% CI, 1.162-2.339]) were independent factors associated with prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding.
32492533 Of the 204 patients, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were the most common coexisting conditions. 76 patients died in the hospital. […] Multivariate analysis showed that dyspnea (hazards ratio (HR) 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.414 to 3.517;p < 0.001), older age (HR 1.1, 95% CI 1.070 to 1.123; p < 0.001), neutrophilia (HR 4.4, 95% CI 1.310 to 15.061; p = 0.017) and elevated ultrasensitive cardiac troponin I (HR 3.9, 95% CI 1.471 to 10.433; p = 0.006) were independently associated with death.
32498076 1.1%, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.82, P = 0.013]. […] 3.2%, adjusted HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.03-4.57, P = 0.041). […] 3.6%, adjusted HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.28-2.58, P = 0.774).
32503180 After adjusting for potential confounding factors, stage 3 AKI was associated with higher mortality than either non-AKI or stage 1 AKI (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.62 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.75-7.48), p = 0.001; HR = 15.65 (95% CI = 2.43-100.64), p = 0.004).
32503812 We performed multivariable Cox regression to calculate HRs of blood glucose-associated indexes for the risk of progression to critical cases/mortality among non-critical cases, as well as in-hospital mortality in critical cases. […] Elevation of admission blood glucose level was an independent risk factor for progression to critical cases/death among non-critical cases (HR=1.30, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.63, p=0.026). […] Elevation of initial blood glucose level of critical diagnosis was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality in critical cases (HR=1.84, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.98, p=0.013).
32517963 Demographics, medical history, admission labs, and outcomes were captured from the hospitals’ EHR. […] After adjusting for disease severity and relevant clinical factors, even small amounts of myocardial injury (e.g. troponin I 0.03-0.09ng/mL, n=455, 16.6%) were significantly associated with death (adjusted HR: 1.75, 95% CI 1.37-2.24; P<0.001) while greater amounts (e.g. troponin I>0.09 ng/dL, n=530, 19.4%) were significantly associated with higher risk (adjusted HR 3.03, 95% CI 2.42-3.80; P<0.001).
32524832 Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors had more prevalence of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, elevated levels of D-dimer, high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and troponins, and lower values of albumin. […] At the Cox regression analysis, albumin (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23-0.63, p < 0.001) and age (HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06, p = 0.001) were independently associated with mortality, irrespective of adjustment for gender, ICU admission, heart failure, COPD, and hs-CRP levels.
32526275 We conducted a cohort study that included 1007 individuals with mild to moderate COVID-19 from three hospitals in Wuhan. […] Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models identified that increased age (hazard ratio (HR) 2.56, 95% CI 1.97-3.33), male sex (HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.41-2.28), presence of hypertension (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.11-1.88), diabetes (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.35-2.44), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.38-2.93) and coronary artery disease (HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.26-2.66) were risk factors for disease progression. […] History of smoking was protective against disease progression (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.91). […] Elevated procalcitonin (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.02-2.90), urea nitrogen (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.21-2.43), α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HR 3.02, 95% CI 1.26-7.21) and D-dimer (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.12-3.58) at baseline were also associated with risk for disease progression.
32527342 Cox analysis also showed that AKI increased the odds of patients with COVID-19 mortality by 3.2-fold [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.208, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 1.076-9.566, P = 0.037].
32527576 This retrospective observational study was conducted in three ICUs which had been specially established and equipped for COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. […] Additionally, use of a multivariate Cox analysis showed that patients with high nutritional risk had a higher probability of death at ICU 28-day than those with low nutritional risk (adjusted HR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22-3.32, P = 0.006).
32535142 The PR interval on the electrocardiogram (ECG) normally shortens with increasing heart rate (HR). […] We reviewed pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 ECGs to characterize AV conduction by calculating the PR interval to HR (PR:HR) slope. […] ECGs from 75 patients (246 pre-COVID-19 ECGs and 246 COVID-19 ECGs) were analyzed for PR:HR slope. […] Of these, 38 patients (50.7%) showed the expected PR interval shortening with increasing HR (negative PR:HR slopes), whereas 37 patients (49.3%) showed either no change (8 with PR:HR slopes=0) or paradoxical PR interval prolongation (29 with positive PR:HR slopes) with increasing HR. […] Half of COVID-19 patients showed abnormal PR interval behavior (paradoxical prolongation or lack of shortening) with increasing HR.
32543710 After adjusting for age and gender status, the risk of reaching the composite endpoint was higher in the group with comorbidity than in that without comorbidity (hazard ratio [HR] 3.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.40-6.60). […] HR values for patients with one, two, and three or more comorbidities were 1.61 (95% CI: 0.44-5.91), 3.44 (95% CI: 1.31-9.08), and 6.90 (95% CI: 2.69-17.69), respectively.
32546725 In multi-variable Cox regression analyses increased hazards of in-hospital death were associated with several admission covariates: (1) older age (HR = 1.04; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.03, 1.06 per year increase; P < 0.001); (2) smoking (HR = 1.84 [1.17, 2.92]; P = 0.009); (3) admission temperature per °C increase (HR = 1.32 [1.07, 1.64]; P = 0.009); (4) Log10 neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR; HR = 3.30 [2.10, 5.19]; P < 0.001); (5) platelets per 10 E + 9/L decrease (HR = 0.996 [0.994, 0.998]; P = 0.001); (6) activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT) per second increase (HR = 1.04 [1.02, 1.05]; P < 0.001); (7) Log10 D-dimer per mg/l increase (HR = 3.00 [2.17, 4.16]; P < 0.001); and (8) Log10 serum creatinine per μmol/L increase (HR = 4.55 [2.72, 7.62]; P < 0.001).
32556143 After propensity score weighting, treatment with hydroxycholoroquine was not associated with a significantly reduced risk of unfavorable outcome (HR 0.90 [0.38; 2.1], p = 0.81). […] Overall survival was not significantly different between the two groups (HR 0.89 [0.23; 3.47], p = 1).
32558877 It has been hypothesized that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may make patients more susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to worse outcomes through upregulation of the functional receptor of the virus, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. […] In the ACEI/ARB group, 18.1% died within 30 days vs 7.3% in the nonuser group, but this association was not significant after adjustment for age, sex, and medical history (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.83 [95% CI, 0.67-1.03]). […] Death or severe COVID-19 occurred in 31.9% of ACEI/ARB users vs 14.2% of nonusers by 30 days (adjusted HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.89-1.23]). […] Among those with COVID-19, 86.5% used ACEI/ARBs vs 85.4% of controls; ACEI/ARB use compared with other antihypertensive drugs was not significantly associated with higher incidence of COVID-19 (adjusted HR, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.80-1.36]).
32566556 We searched Cochrane library, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, CBM, Wanfang Data and CNKI from their inception to March 31, 2020. […] In addition, we searched related studies on COVID-19 published before March 31, 2020 through Google Scholar. […] One cohort study on MERS indicated that macrolide therapy was not associated with a significant reduction in 90-day mortality (adjusted OR 0.84, 95% CI: 0.47-1.51, P=0.56) and improvement in MERS-CoV RNA clearance (adjusted HR 0.88, 95% CI: 0.47-1.64, P=0.68).
32569635 Elderly age was an independent factor associated with prolonged virus shedding time of SARS-CoV-2 (HR 1.71, 1.01-2.93). […] Chronic lung disease and steroids were associated with virus detection in sputum, and diabetes mellitus was associated with virus detection in both NPS and sputum.
32571831 In-hospital mortality was lower in patients treated with steroids than in controls (13.9% [55/396] versus 23.9% [16/67], HR 0.51 [0.27-0.96], p= 0.044).
32572128 Being discharged from hospital in time was inversely and independently associated with BMI (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.63-0.90, P for trend = 0.002) and ALT (HR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.99, P for trend = 0.007).
32572707 Oxygen saturation and X-ray grade were both significantly associated with the length of stay in hospital, the hazard ratio (HR) of discharge was 1.05 (95% CI [1.01, 1.09], p = 0.017) and 0.61 (95% CI [0.51, 0.73], p < 0.001), respectively.
32584868 Associations between mortality and baseline characteristics were estimated as hazard ratios (HR) calculated with Cox regression models. […] The variables most clearly associated with a greater hazard of death were age (3% HR increase per 1-year increase in age; 95%CI 1-6), diabetes mellitus (HR 2.42, 95%CI 1.43-4.09), SatO2/FiO2 ratio (43% HR reduction per 1-point increase; 95%CI 23-57), SOFA score (19% HR increase per 1-point increase, 95%CI 5-34) and CURB-65 score (76% HR increase per 1-point increase, 95%CI 23-143).
32586839 We determined that initial cTnI (per 10-fold increase, hazard ratio [HR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.66) and peak cTnI level during illness (per 10-fold increase, HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.38-2.10) were associated with poor survival. […] We determined that patients who received QT-prolonging drugs had longer QTc intervals than those who did not receive them (difference in medians, 45 ms, p = 0.01), but such treatment was not independently associated with mortality (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.69-1.57).
32588837 Cox regression analysis calculating Hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted by age, sex and comorbidities was used to estimate risk for Covid-19. […] By comorbidities, maximum incidence emerged among persons with neurological disease (2,723), atrial fibrillation (1,348), chronic renal failure (1,050), cardiac disease (856), respiratory disease (798) and diabetes (706). […] In multivariable analysis focused on community-dwelling individuals (N=77,671), only cardiac disease (HR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.01-2.15; p=0.045) and respiratory disease (HR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.00-3.02; p=0.051) were associated with an increased risk, whereas smoking (HR:0.43; 95% CI: 0.25-0.74; p=0.002) and influenza vaccinated (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43-0.92; p=0.015) appeared associated with a decreased risk. […] Apart of increasing age and nursing-home residence, chronic respiratory and cardiac disease appear at increased risk for suffering covid19. […] Para la estimación de riesgos se realizó regresión de Cox, con cálculo de Hazard ratios (HRs) ajustados por edad, sexo y comorbilidad. […] En personas no institucionalizadas (N=77.671), solo la enfermedad cardiaca (HR: 1,47; IC95%: 1,01-2,15; p=0,045) y respiratoria (HR: 1,75; IC95%: 1,00-3,02; p=0,051) se asociaron con incremento del riesgo, mientras que ser fumador (HR: 0,43; IC95%: 0,25-0,74; p=0,002) y vacunación antigripal en otoño previo (HR: 0,63; IC95%: 0,43-0,92; p=0,015) se asociaron con menor riesgo.
32589146 Recently, three randomized clinical trials on COVID-19 treatments were completed, one for lopinavir-ritonavir and two for remdesivir. […] From statistical perspectives, we identify several key issues in the design and analysis of three COVID-19 trials and reanalyze the data from the cumulative incidence curves in the three trials using more appropriate statistical methods. […] The conditional prediction shows that the HR estimates would reach statistical significance if the target sample size had been maintained. […] Based on the statistical issues and lessons learned from the recent three clinical trials on COVID-19 treatments, we suggest more appropriate approaches for the design and analysis for ongoing and future COVID-19 trials.
32593867 Hospitalization and early treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (HCQ-AZ) was proposed for the positive cases. […] We retrospectively report the clinical management of 3,737 screened patients, including 3,119 (83.5%) treated with HCQ-AZ (200 mg of oral HCQ, three times daily for ten days and 500 mg of oral AZ on day 1 followed by 250 mg daily for the next four days, respectively) for at least three days and 618 (16.5%) patients treated with other regimen (“others”). […] Treatment with HCQ-AZ was associated with a decreased risk of transfer to ICU or death (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.18 0.11-0.27), decreased risk of hospitalization ≥10 days (odds ratios 95% CI 0.38 0.27-0.54) and shorter duration of viral shedding (time to negative PCR: HR 1.29 1.17-1.42).
32596936 Lockdown at home is mandatory, forcing many families, each member with their own sleep-wake habits, to spend 24 hr a day together, continuously.
32599499 A systematic literature search was conducted for articles published between January 1, 2010 and April 1, 2020 on MEDLINE and Cochrane CENTRAL. […] In early stage OSCC, definitive radiotherapy, with or without concurrent chemotherapy, was associated with a significantly increased hazard of death compared to definitive surgery (HR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.56-3.67, I2: 63%). […] The hazard of death was non-significantly increased with definitive chemoradiotherapy in studies excluding early disease (HR: 1.98, 95% CI: 0.85-4.64, I2: 84%).
32600078 BACKGROUND The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 threatens human health, and the mortality rate is higher in patients who develop myocardial damage. […] Multivariate analysis showed that age >70 years old (hazard ratio [HR], 2.44; 95% CI, 1.01-5.40), CRP (C-reactive protein) >100 mg/L (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 0.94-3.92), lactate dehydrogenase >300 U/L (HR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.03-6.90), and lactic acid >3 mmol/L (HR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.57-6.75) were independent risk factors for myocardial damage in patients with COVID-19.
32603535 Several independent predictors of ICU transfer in COVID-19 patients were identified including older age (≥65 years) (hazard ratio [HR]=4.02), hypertension (HR=2.65), neutrophil count (HR=1.11), procalcitonin level (HR=3.67), prothrombin time (HR=1.28), and d-dimer level (HR=1.25). […] Lymphocyte count and albumin level were negatively associated with mortality (HR=0.08 and 0.86, respectively).
32605149 Further chiral high-performance liquid chromatography resolution gave enantiomers (+)- and (-)-4, respectively. […] The structures and absolute configurations of compounds 1-6 were determined by the comprehensive analyses of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS), and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation.
32605788 The eACS service comprised 5 independent teams covering a rolling 1:5 24-hr call.
32607928 Cox proportional hazard regression modeling showed an increased risk of in-hospital mortality associated with age older than 50 years (hazard ratio [HR] 2.34, CI 1.47-3.71), systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg (HR 1.38, CI 1.06-1.80), a respiratory rate greater than 24 per min (HR 1.43, CI 1.13-1.83), peripheral oxygen saturation less than 92% (HR 2.12, CI 1.56-2.88), estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73m2 (HR 1.80, CI 1.60-2.02), IL-6 greater than 100 pg/mL (HR 1.50, CI 1.12-2.03), D-dimer greater than 2 mcg/mL (HR 1.19, CI 1.02-1.39), and troponin greater than 0.03 ng/mL (HR 1.40, CI 1.23-1.62). […] Decreased risk of in-hospital mortality was associated with female sex (HR 0.84, CI 0.77-0.90), African American race (HR 0.78 CI 0.65-0.95), and hydroxychloroquine use (HR 0.53, CI 0.41-0.67).
32614392 Male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .35-.98]), immunoglobulin use (HR, 0.42 [95% CI, .24-.76]), APACHE II score (HR, 0.89 [95% CI, .84-.96]), and lymphocyte count (HR, 1.81 [95% CI, 1.05-3.1]) were independent factors associated with a prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding.
32619760 Older age (hazard ratio (HR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98-1.00; p = 0.04), time lag from illness onset to hospital admission (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.88-0.94; p < 0.001), diarrhea (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.96; p = 0.036), corticosteroid treatment (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39-0.94; p = 0.024), and lopinavir/ritonavir use (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.52-0.94; p = 0.014) were significantly and independently associated with prolonged viral RNA shedding.
32620118 Three hundred forty-nine participants were enrolled in this study and the mortality rate of the patients with laboratory diagnosed COVID-19 was 14.9%. […] The multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that age (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.07, P = 0.01), the peak D-Dimer (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.04, P < 0.001) were prognostic factors for COVID-19 patients’ death.
32622400 Compared with White Brazilians, Pardo and Black Brazilians with COVID-19 who were admitted to hospital had significantly higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1·45, 95% CI 1·33-1·58 for Pardo Brazilians; 1·32, 1·15-1·52 for Black Brazilians). […] States in the north had higher HRs compared with those of the central-south, except for Rio de Janeiro, which had a much higher HR than that of the other central-south states.
32623082 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of hydroxychloroquine therapy alone and in combination with azithromycin in hospitalized patients positive for COVID-19. […] Receipt of hydroxychloroquine alone, hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin, azithromycin alone, or neither. […] Overall in-hospital mortality was 18.1% (95% CI:16.6%-19.7%); by treatment: hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin, 157/783 (20.1% [95% CI: 17.3%-23.0%]), hydroxychloroquine alone, 162/1202 (13.5% [95% CI: 11.6%-15.5%]), azithromycin alone, 33/147 (22.4% [95% CI: 16.0%-30.1%]), and neither drug, 108/409 (26.4% [95% CI: 22.2%-31.0%]). […] From Cox regression modeling, predictors of mortality were age>65 years (HR:2.6 [95% CI:1.9-3.3]), white race (HR:1.7 [95% CI:1.4-2.1]), CKD (HR:1.7 [95%CI:1.4-2.1]), reduced O2 saturation level on admission (HR:1.5 [95%CI:1.1-2.1]), and ventilator use during admission (HR: 2.2 [95%CI:1.4-3.3]). […] Hydroxychloroquine provided a 66% hazard ratio reduction, and hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin 71% compared to neither treatment (p<0.001). […] In this multi-hospital assessment, when controlling for COVID-19 risk factors, treatment with hydroxychloroquine alone and in combination with azithromycin was associated with reduction in COVID-19 associated mortality.
32623505 A CT score of ≥ 18 was associated with an increased mortality risk and was found to be predictive of death both in univariate (HR, 8.33; 95% CI, 3.19-21.73; p < 0.0001) and multivariate analysis (HR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.10-12.77; p = 0.0348).
32623632 Its profile in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease (CLD) is largely unknown. […] Forty three percent of CLD without cirrhosis presented as acute liver injury and 20% cirrhotics presented with either acute-on-chronic liver failure [5 (11.6%)] or acute decompensation [4 (9%)]. […] Liver related complications increased (p < 0.05) with stage of liver disease; a Child-Turcotte Pugh score of 9 or more at presentation predicted high mortality [AUROC 0.94, HR = 19.2 (95 CI 2.3-163.3), p < 0.001, sensitivity 85.7% and specificity 94.4%).
32631458 A retrospective cohort of COVID-19 patients from four hospitals in three provinces in China was established, and 598 patients were included from 1 January to 8 March 2020, and divided into moderate, severe and critical illness group. […] Patients of critical illness suffered from inferior survival, as compared with patients in the severe group (HR = 14.309, 95% CI: 5.585-36.659) and in the moderate group (HR = 41.021, 95% CI: 17.588-95.678).
32634023 Risk factors for increased mortality in patients with COVID-19 undergoing surgery included positive smoking status (hazard ratio (HR) 15.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.55 to 52.2; p < 0.001) and greater than three comorbidities (HR 13.5 (95% CI 2.82 to 66.0, p < 0.001). […] Risk factors for increased mortality in patients with COVID-19 undergoing surgery included positive smoking status and multiple (greater than three) comorbidities.
32634029 COVID-19 was independently associated with increased 30-day mortality risk adjusting for: 1) age, sex, type of residence (hazard ratio (HR) 2.93; p = 0.008); 2) Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (HR 3.52; p = 0.001); and 3) ASA (HR 3.45; p = 0.004).
32637999 PA diameter was independently associated with an increased risk of myocardial injury [adjusted odds ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.19, P = 0.01] and death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.17, P = 0.01]. […] Myocardial injury was independently associated with an increased risk of death by multivariable Cox regression (adjusted HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.27-3.96, P = 0.005).
32638507 In severe COVID-19 patients with T2DM, we demonstrated a higher risk of all-cause fatality with glucocorticoid treatment (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 3.61; 95% CI, 1.14-11.46; P = .029) and severe hyperglycemia (fasting plasma glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L; adjusted HR, 11.86; 95% CI, 1.21-116.44; P = .034).
32640463 COVID-19-related death was associated with: being male (hazard ratio (HR) 1.59 (95% confidence interval 1.53-1.65)); greater age and deprivation (both with a strong gradient); diabetes; severe asthma; and various other medical conditions. […] Compared with people of white ethnicity, Black and South Asian people were at higher risk, even after adjustment for other factors (HR 1.48 (1.29-1.69) and 1.45 (1.32-1.58), respectively).
32641351 In multivariable Cox regression analyses, higher CFS scores (HR 1.659, 95% CI 1.090 to 2.525, p=0.018) were an independent predictor for a higher risk of mechanical ventilation after adjusting for age, Charlson Comorbidity Index and quick sepsis-related organ failure score. […] Additionally, lower CFS scores (HR 0.554, 95% CI 0.312 to 0.983, p=0.043) were associated with earlier discharge from hospital.
32642086 Little is known about COVID-19 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). […] We enrolled 1,048 patients aged 40 years and above, including 50 patients with COPD and 998 patients without COPD, and with COVID-19 confirmed via high-throughput sequencing or real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, between December 11, 2019 and February 20, 2020. […] 1.7%) and a significantly higher proportion of increased activated partial thromboplastin time (23.5% vs. […] Patients with COPD and COVID-19 had a higher risk of reaching the composite endpoints [hazard ratio (HR): 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-3.38; P=0.001] or death (HR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.15-4.51; P=0.019), after adjustment.
32647915 Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that age (HR 1.02 [95% CI 1.00, 1.04]), male sex (HR 1.75 [95% CI 1.17, 2.60]), CRB-65 score 1-2 (HR 2.68 [95% CI 1.56, 4.59]), CRB-65 score 3-4 (HR 5.25 [95% CI 2.05, 13.43]) and FBG ≥7.0 mmol/l (HR 2.30 [95% CI 1.49, 3.55]) were independent predictors for 28-day mortality.
32648959 We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 Global Research Database, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Research Article Database and trial registries to identify completed and ongoing studies on 4 June 2020. […] We followed standard Cochrane methodology. […] We followed standard Cochrane methodology. […] To assess bias in included studies, we used the Cochrane ‘Risk of bias’ tool for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), the Risk of Bias in Non-randomised Studies - of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool for controlled non-randomised studies of interventions (NRSIs), and the assessment criteria for observational studies, provided by Cochrane Childhood Cancer for non-controlled NRSIs. […] Time to death (1 RCT, 103 participants; 1 controlled NRSI, 195 participants) We are very uncertain whether convalescent plasma prolongs time to death (RCT: hazard ratio (HR) 0.74, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.82; controlled NRSI: HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.96; very low-certainty evidence).
32651067 ARB treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of hospitalization (HR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.10 - 0.88).
32651938 None of the seven patients with known chronic liver disease had liver decompensation. […] In patients with altered liver function tests, PaO2/FiO2 < 200 was associated with greater mortality and need for intensive care (HR 2.34, 95% CI 1.07-5.11, p = 0.033).
32652164 TCZ use was associated with a better overall survival (HR 0.499 [95% CI 0.262-0.952], p = 0.035) compared to controls but with a longer hospital stay (HR 1.658 [95% CI 1.088-2.524], p = 0.019) mainly due to biochemical, respiratory and infectious adverse events.
32654098 Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and azithromycin have been used for treatment of COVID-19, but may cause QT prolongation. […] We examined electrocardiograms (ECG) pre/post-medication initiation to evaluate QTc, HR, QRS duration, and presence of other arrhythmias. […] Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and/or azithromycin were associated with QTc prolongation but did not result in fatal arrhythmias.
32654422 High mortality rate was identified (32.5%), related with older age (hazard ratio [HR] 3.12 for those older than 60 years, P = .039). […] Each mg/L of CRP soon after tocilizumab increased the risk of death by 1% (HR 1.01 [confidence interval 1.004-1.024], P = .003).
32657473 Using TWIRLS, we automatically analyzed more than three million words in more than 14,000 literature articles in only 4 hr. […] Through a preliminary analysis of blood indices of COVID-19 patients with a history of hypertension, we found that non-ARB (Angiotensin II receptor blockers) users had more symptoms of severe illness than ARB users.
32662893 According to the disease severity, the patients were categorized as three groups (moderate: 85, severe: 54, and critical: 20). […] In multivariate Cox proportional hazard model BUN/Cr ratio (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05; P = .030), and NLR (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.06-1.30; P = .020) were independent predictors for survival of COVID-19 disease. […] The optimal thresholds of the BUN/Cr ratio at 33.5 and 51.7 had the superior possibility for severe disease and mortality, area under the curve (AUC) were 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. […] The optimal thresholds of NLR at 3.27 and 5.72 had a superior possibility for severe disease and mortality, AUC were 0.87 and 0.85, respectively.
32667106 The process included the following: (1) anticipate mental health needs; (2) use leadership capable of mobilizing the systems and resources; (3) convene a multidisciplinary team; (4) delegate tasks and set timelines; (5) choose a clinical service model; (6) motivate staff as a workforce of volunteers; (7) develop training and educational materials; (8) develop personal, local, and national resources; (9) develop marketing plans; (10) deliver the training; (11) launch a 24 hr/7days per week Healthcare Worker Mental Health COVID-19 Hotline, and launch follow-up sessions for staff; (12) structure data collection to determine effectiveness and outcomes; and (13) obtain funding (not required).
32667669 Independent risk factors associated with mortality included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.60-1.92), male sex (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.31-1.88), high fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), high positive end-expiratory pressure (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06) or low Pao2:Fio2 ratio (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74-0.87) on ICU admission, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.28-2.19), hypercholesterolemia (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), and type 2 diabetes (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.39). […] No medication was independently associated with mortality (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.97-1.42; angiotensin receptor blockers HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.85-1.29).
32673191 For both White (Adjusted HR, 1.3, 95%CI 1.2-1.4, p<0.001) and Non-White patients (Adjusted HR 1.2, 95%CI 1.1-1.3, p<0.001), increasing mRALE scores were associated with a higher likelihood of experiencing composite adverse outcome with no evidence of interaction (p = 0.16).
32677385 Underlying comorbidity (hazard ratio [HR], 3.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.67-6.71; p < 0.001), lymphocyte count (HR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.04-0.38; p < 0.001) and crazy-paving sign (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.03-4.48; p = 0.042) were the independent factors.
32681933 The multivariable cox regression indicated that age (hazard ratio (HR) 3.450, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.627-7.314, P = 0.001), coronary heart disease (HR 1.855, 95% CI 1.006-3.421; P = 0.048), elevated cTnI-ultra (HR 3.083, 95% CI 1.616-5.883, P = 0.001), elevated CK-MB (HR 2.907, 95% CI 1.233-6.854; P = 0.015), and elevated NT-proBNP (HR 5.776, 95% CI 2.272-14.682; P < 0.001) were associated with in-hospital mortality. cTnI-ultra might be the best predictor of in-hospital mortality among myocardial injury biomarkers.
32683576 Frailty was prospectively measured and mortality ascertained through linkage with national and local statutory reports. […] For frailty, differences in effect size were evident between cases (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93-1.12) and controls (HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.46-2.72), with an interaction term (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.37-0.71) in multivariable models.
32684211 Ramsay score, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) before sedation and at 1, 12, 24 hours after sedation, sleep time were collected, and the side effects such as excessive sedation, fall of tongue, abdominal distension, aspiration, bradycardia, escalation to invasive mechanical ventilation during 24 hours were also collected. […] The changes of indicators among the three groups were compared. […] HR decreased gradually after sedation treatment, which was significantly lower after 12 hours of sedation than that before sedation, and HR in dexmedetomidine group was significantly lower than that in control group after 12 hours of sedation (bpm: 84.0±13.9 vs. […] PaO2 increased and RR decreased in all three groups after ventilation. […] There were no differences of MAP, HR, PaO2 and RR between dexmedetomidine group and midazolam group at different time points. […] Adverse events occurred in all three groups. […] Dexmedetomidine is more effective and safer than midazolam in these patients, but attention should be paid to HR and blood pressure monitoring.
32687223 Furthermore, we found no obvious difference in nucleic acid conversion time between ACEIs/ARBs and CCBs groups (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.97, 3.38]; P = .18) in the multivariable analysis as well as chest computed tomography improved time (HR: 0.73; 95% CI [0.45, 1.2]; P = .87), and hospitalization time between ACEIs/ARBs and CCBs groups (HR: 1.06; 95% CI [0.44, 1.1]; P = .83).
32690880 We found having cancer was an independent risk factor for in-hospital death from COVID-19 in persons <65 years (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04, 5.76; P = 0.041) but not in those ≥65 years (HR = 1.12 [0.56, 2.24]; P = 0.740).
32696008 Methylprednisolone (125 mg every 6hr for 24 hr with tapering to 60 mg every 12 hr) was administered shortly after patients were intubated (median 11 hr after intubation).
32697835 To find the factors that potentially protect females from COVID-19, we recruited all confirmed patients hospitalized at three branches of Tongji Hospital (n=1902) from January 28 to March 8, 2020, and analyzed the correlation between menstrual status (n=509,including 68 from Mobile Cabin Hospital)/female hormones (n=78)/ cytokines related to immunity and inflammation(n=263), and the severity/clinical outcomes in female patients under 60 years of age.Non-menopausal female patients had milder severity and better outcome compared with age-matched men (p<0.01/p<0.01). […] Menopausal patients had longer hospitalization times than non-menopausal patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.46,p= 0.033). […] Both anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) and estradiol (E2) showed a negative correlation with severity of infection (AHR=0.146/0.304, 95%CI = [0.026-0.824]/[0.092-1.001], p=0.029/0.05).
32710674 This is a population-based retrospective cohort study involving 34 936 hypertensive adults >50 years in Tarragona (Southern Catalonia, Spain) who were retrospectively followed through pandemic period (from 01/03/2020 to 30/04/2020). […] Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and estimate the risk of suffering COVID-19 infection. […] In multivariable analyses, only age (HR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.02-1.05; P < .001) and nursing home residence (HR: 19.60; 95% CI: 13.80-27.84; P < .001) appeared significantly associated with increased risk of COVID-19. […] Considering anti-hypertensive drugs, receiving diuretics (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 0.90-1.67; P = .205), calcium channel blockers (HR: 1.29; 95%CI: 0.91-1.82; P = .148), beta-blockers (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.68-1.37; P = .844), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.61-1.13; P = .238) did not significantly alter the risk of PCR-confirmed COVID-19, whereas receiving angiotensin II receptor blockers was associated with an almost statistically significant reduction risk (HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.44-1.01; P = .054).
32712122 Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that compared with FPG < 7 mmol/L, FPG levels of 7.0-11.1 mmol/L and ≥ 11.1 mmol/L were associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for poor outcome (HR, 5.538 [95% CI, 2.269-13.51] and HR, 11.55 [95% CI, 4.45-29.99], respectively).
32713374 To investigate associations between clozapine treatment and increased risk of COVID-19 infection in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders who are receiving antipsychotic medications in a geographically defined population in London, UK. […] Using information from South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLAM) clinical records, via the Clinical Record Interactive Search system, we identified 6309 individuals who had an ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and were taking antipsychotics at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic onset in the UK. […] Individuals who were on clozapine had increased risk of COVID-19 infection compared with those who were on other antipsychotic medication (unadjusted hazard ratio HR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.73-3.96), which was attenuated after adjusting for potential confounders, including clinical contact (adjusted HR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.14-2.72).
32716566 Compared to the 2018 sample, the confined preschoolers demonstrated changes in sleep patterns characterized by later bedtimes and wake times, longer nocturnal and shorter nap sleep durations, comparable 24-hr sleep duration, and fewer caregiver-reported sleep disturbances.
32719045 From 1 April 2020, patients with COVID-19-associated CSS, defined as rapid respiratory deterioration plus at least two out of three biomarkers with important elevations (C-reactive protein >100 mg/L; ferritin >900 µg/L; D-dimer >1500 µg/L), received high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone for 5 consecutive days (250 mg on day 1 followed by 80 mg on days 2-5). […] Treated patients had 79% higher likelihood on reaching the primary outcome (HR: 1.8; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.7) (7 days earlier), 65% less mortality (HR: 0.35; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.65) and 71% less invasive mechanical ventilation (HR: 0.29; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.65).
32726951 We calculated odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs) under the fixed- and random-effect model. […] In contrast, when the meta-analysis was performed restricting only to studies that used appropriate adjustment (e.g., time, disease severity), there was a significant difference between the two groups (HR 0.378, 95% CI 0.221-0.646 in the random effects model, p < 0.0001).
32730223 Age, shortness of breath, comorbidities including hypertension, heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, higher NLR, lower albumin levels, and multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity were associated with progression. […] In the multivariate analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.121, confidence interval [CI] 1.070-1.174, P<0.001), heart disease (HR 2.587, CI 1.156-5.787, P=0.021), higher NLR (HR 1.136, CI 1.094-1.180, P < 0.001), and multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity (HR 4.518, CI 1.906-10.712, P<0.001) remained critical illness predictors. […] The NLR was independently associated with progression to critical illness; the relationship was significant and graded (HR: 1.16 per unit; 95% CI: 1.10-1.22; P for trend < 0.001).
32732245 Cox proportional hazards regression survival analysis showed that a lower risk of death was independently associated with colchicine treatment (HR=0.151 (95% CI 0.062 to 0.368), p<0.0001), whereas older age, worse PaO2/FiO2, and higher serum levels of ferritin at entry were associated with a higher risk.
32733373 The impact of chronic neurological disorders (CND) on prognosis is unclear. […] Presence of CND was an independent predictor of death (HR 2.129, 95% CI: 1.382-3.280) but not a severer Covid-19 disease (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 0.970-3.158).
32733921 Scores on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (median [interquartile range (IQR)] 19.0 [13.25-25.0] vs. […] Cox regression suggested that myocardial injury was an independent risk factor for high mortality during the time from admission to death (hazard ratio [HR], 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-3.83]; P = 0.023).
32735706 Obesity (HR, 6.607; 95% CI: 1.955-22.329; P = 0.002) was an independent risk factor of respiratory failure.
32737124 We used Cox proportional hazards models to derive adjusted HRs for exposure to ACE inhibitor and ARB drugs adjusted for sociodemographic factors, concurrent medications and geographical region. […] ACE inhibitors were associated with a significantly reduced risk of COVID-19 disease (adjusted HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.74) but no increased risk of ICU care (adjusted HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.06) after adjusting for a wide range of confounders. […] Adjusted HRs for ARBs were 0.63 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.67) for COVID-19 disease and 1.02 (95% CI 0.83 to 1.25) for ICU care.There were significant interactions between ethnicity and ACE inhibitors and ARBs for COVID-19 disease. […] The risk of COVID-19 disease associated with ACE inhibitors was higher in Caribbean (adjusted HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.28) and Black African (adjusted HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.59) groups than the white group (adjusted HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.70). […] A higher risk of COVID-19 with ARBs was seen for Black African (adjusted HR 1.24, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.58) than the white (adjusted HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.62) group.
32740720 The analysis utilised Cox regression to account for patients that are still progressing through their tracheostomy pathway. […] In Cox regression analysis, FiO2 at tracheostomy ≥ 0.4 (HR 1.80; 95% CI 0.89-3.60; p = 0.048) and last pre-tracheostomy peak cough flow (HR 2.27; 95% CI 1.78-4.45; p = 0.001) were independent variables associated with prolonged time to decannulation.
32741139 In a meta-analysis of three cohort studies with a low risk of bias, hydroxychloroquine use was not significantly associated with mortality (pooled hazard ratio (HR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-2.42). […] In a meta-analysis of two cohort studies with some concerns/high risk of bias, anakinra use was associated with lower mortality (pooled HR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.4).
32745512 We used Cox proportional hazards modelling to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of our primary outcome, which was a positive COVID-19 test. […] Compared with the general community, front-line health-care workers were at increased risk for reporting a positive COVID-19 test (adjusted HR 11·61, 95% CI 10·93-12·33). […] To account for differences in testing frequency between front-line health-care workers and the general community and possible selection bias, an inverse probability-weighted model was used to adjust for the likelihood of receiving a COVID-19 test (adjusted HR 3·40, 95% CI 3·37-3·43).
32749010 We found no correlation between abnormal coagulation parameters and thrombosis, except for higher D-dimer (HR 1.99; 95% CI 1.3-3.1; P = .002).
32750201 One hundred and eighty-three patients were included. […] Time from onset to admission (HR = 0.829, P < 0.001), and administration of corticosteroid (HR = 0.496, P = 0.002), arbidol (HR = 2.605, P = 0.008) and oseltamivir (HR = 0.416, P < 0.001) were independently associated with duration of viral shedding.
32755653 Prescribed anti-infective agents were lopinavir-ritonavir (n=12), azithromycin (AZI) (n=28) and AZI combined with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) (n=52). […] Multivariate analyses showed a reduction of unfavorable outcome in patients receiving AZI±HCQ (hazard ratio [HR]=0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI: 0.21-0.97], P=0.04), particularly among an identified category of individuals (lymphocyte ≥1000/mm3 or CRP ≥100 mg/L).
32767631 The angiography showed an acute massive thrombosis of a dominant right coronary artery without clear evidence of atherosclerosis. […] Despite the optimal pharmacological therapies and different PCI techniques, the final TIMI flow was 0/1 and after 3 hr the clinical condition evolved in cardiac arrest for pulseless electric activity. […] Due to high levels of proinflammatory mediators, diffuse coronary thrombosis could occur even in patients without cardiac history or comorbidities. […] This clinical case suggests that coronary thrombosis in COVID-19 patients may be unresponsive to optimal pharmacological (GP IIb-IIIa infusion) and mechanical treatment (PCI).
32767868 In the total cohort, male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 9.264; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.021-42.457; p = 0.004), C-reactive protein (CRP) (HR, 1.080 per mg/dL; 95% CI, 1.010-1.156; p = 0.025), and COVID-affected lung proportion (CALP) (HR, 1.067 per percentage; 95% CI, 1.033-1.101; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with CEFS. […] CRP (HR, 1.164 per mg/dL; 95% CI, 1.006-1.347; p = 0.041) was independently associated with CEFS in the mild pneumonia group (n = 54). […] Normally aerated lung proportion (NALP) (HR, 0.872 per percentage; 95% CI, 0.794-0.957; p = 0.004) and NALP volume (NALPV) (HR, 1.002 per mL; 95% CI, 1.000-1.004; p = 0.019) were associated with a lower risk of critical events in the severe pneumonia group (n = 28).
32769260 Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified patient age (p = 0.013, HR 1.108) and prealbumin levels (p = 0.015, HR 0.986) as independent predictors for patient mortality.
32770449 Factors independently associated with anxiety were female gender (HR 1.85 [1.33-2.55]), working in a university-affiliated hospital (HR 0.58 [0.42-0.80]), living in a city of > 1 million inhabitants (HR 1.40 [1.01-1.94]), and clinician’s rating of the ethical climate (HR 0.83 [0.77-0.90]). […] Independent determinants of depression included female gender (HR 1.63 [1.15-2.31]) and clinician’s rating of the ethical climate (HR 0.84 [0.78-0.92]). […] Factors independently associated with symptoms of severe burnout included age (HR 0.98/year [0.97-0.99]) and clinician’s rating of the ethical climate (HR 0.76 [0.69-0.82]).
32772283 It was further demonstrated in the multivariable analysis that cardiac injury could possibly increase the risk of short-term mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (HR = 1.811, p-value = 0.023).
32775778 Increasing mean lung dose (hazard ratio [HR] per Gy = 1.1, P = .002), lung cancer diagnosis (HR = 3.0, P = .034), and receiving radiation therapy between 1 month and 1 year before COVID-19 testing (HR = 3.4, P = .013) were associated with increased risk of death.
32777153 At admission, higher baseline lactate dehydrogenase (257 vs 358 IU/mL, P = .001) or ARDS conferred higher risk of death (HR 2.09, P = .044).
32779737 Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), oxygenation index (PaO2 /FiO2), renal function, C-reactive protein (CRP), cytokines, procalcitonin (PCT), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), sequential organ failure score (SOFA), and prognosis were compared after CRRT. […] Five COVID-19 patients, three males and two females, aged 70.2 ± 19.6 years, were enrolled. […] After treatment, HR (101.4 ± 14.08 vs. […] Among the five patients, negative conversion of nucleic acid test was found in three cases, while two cases died.
32779808 At multivariate analysis adjusted for main covariates, there was no association between SOT and 30-day mortality HR 1.15 (95% CI 0.39-3.35) P = .79.
32785086 Univariate results suggested a modest protective effect from the use of NSAIDs, but in the multivariable analysis, there was no association between prior NSAID use and time to mortality (adjusted HR (aHR) = 0.89, 95% CI 0.52-1.53, p = 0.67) or length of stay (aHR 0.89, 95% CI 0.59-1.35, p = 0.58).
32788025 The oxygen flow was lowered to 2-3 L/min, the patient’s respiratory rate (RR) was observed through the soft breathing bag fluctuations, and the oxygen flow was adjusted at any time. […] The changes of pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), RR and heart rate (HR) before and after application of new simple respirator were observed, and the blood gas test results of part of the patients were collected. […] At the same time, 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) can be filtered through the filter to reduce the formation of aerosol and protect the medical staff and patients.
32788285 16.8%; unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.20, 95% CI 1.27-3.81, P = 0.005) than in NG (16.8%) and marginally so in DM (28.6%; 1.73, 0.92-3.25, P = 0.086) patients. […] Upon multiple adjustments, only HG remained an independent predictor (HR 1.80, 95% CI 1.03-3.15, P = 0.04).
32790733 Follow up was through May 5, 2020. […] Among 2512 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 there have been 547 deaths (22%), 1539 (61%) discharges and 426 (17%) remain hospitalized. 1914 (76%) received at least one dose of hydroxychloroquine and 1473 (59%) received hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin. […] After adjusting for imbalances via propensity modeling, compared to receiving neither drug, there were no significant differences in associated mortality for patients receiving any hydroxychloroquine during the hospitalization (HR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.80-1.22]), hydroxychloroquine alone (HR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.83-1.27]), or hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin (HR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.75-1.28]). […] The 30-day unadjusted mortality for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, the combination or neither drug was 25%, 20%, 18%, and 20%, respectively. […] Among 547 evaluable ICU patients, including 134 receiving tocilizumab in the ICU, an exploratory analysis found a trend towards an improved survival association with tocilizumab treatment (adjusted HR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.57-1.00]), with 30 day unadjusted mortality with and without tocilizumab of 46% versus 56%. […] This observational cohort study suggests hydroxychloroquine, either alone or in combination with azithromycin, was not associated with a survival benefit among hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
32790836 The multivariable Cox regression models showed that older age (≥65 years old) (HR 3.165, 95%CI 1.722-5.817) and patients with CVD (HR 2.166, 95%CI 1.189-3.948) were independent risk factors for death.
32795225 We hypothesized that cytotoxic chemotherapy administered within 35 days of a COVID-19 diagnosis is associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) of severe or critical COVID-19. […] Cytotoxic chemotherapy administration was not significantly associated with a severe or critical COVID-19 event (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.60). […] Hematologic malignancy was associated with increased COVID-19 severity (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.30 to 2.80). […] Patients with lung cancer also demonstrated higher rates of severe or critical COVID-19 events (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.20 to 3.30). […] Lymphopenia at COVID-19 diagnosis was associated with higher rates of severe or critical illness (HR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.50 to 3.10). […] Patients with baseline neutropenia 14-90 days before COVID-19 diagnosis had worse outcomes (HR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.70 to 11.00).
32795897 In the subgroup analysis, it was found that thymosin α1 therapy significantly reduced 28-day mortality (Hazards Ratios HR, 0.11, 95% confidence interval CI 0.02-0.63, P=0.013) via improvement of Pa02/FiO2 (P = 0.036) and prolonged the hospital length of stay (P = 0.024) as well as the total duration of the disease (P=0.001) in the critical type patients, especially those aged over 64 years, with white blood cell >6.8×109/L, neutrophil >5.3×109/L, lymphocyte < 0.73 × 109/L, PaO2/FiO2 < 196, SOFA > 3, and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II > 7.
32798471 Compared with people with an HbA1c of 48-53 mmol/mol (6·5-7·0%), people with an HbA1c of 86 mmol/mol (10·0%) or higher had increased COVID-19-related mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2·23 [95% CI 1·50-3·30, p<0·0001] in type 1 diabetes and 1·61 [1·47-1·77, p<0·0001] in type 2 diabetes). […] In addition, in people with type 2 diabetes, COVID-19-related mortality was significantly higher in those with an HbA1c of 59 mmol/mol (7·6%) or higher than in those with an HbA1c of 48-53 mmol/mol (HR 1·22 [95% CI 1·15-1·30, p<0·0001] for 59-74 mmol/mol [7·6-8·9%] and 1·36 [1·24-1·50, p<0·0001] for 75-85 mmol/mol [9·0-9·9%]). […] The association between BMI and COVID-19-related mortality was U-shaped: in type 1 diabetes, compared with a BMI of 25·0-29·9 kg/m2, a BMI of less than 20·0 kg/m2 had an HR of 2·45 (95% CI 1·60-3·75, p<0·0001) and a BMI of 40·0 kg/m2 or higher had an HR of 2·33 (1·53-3·56, p<0·0001); the corresponding HRs for type 2 diabetes were 2·33 (2·11-2·56, p<0·0001) and 1·60 (1·47-1·75, p<0·0001).
32804790 Patients intubated within 8 hours were more likely to have diabetes, chronic comorbidities, and higher admission Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. […] Mortality did not differ by time to intubation (≤ 8 hr: 38.2%; 8-24 hr: 31.6%; ≥ 24 hr: 38.1%; p = 0.7), and there was no association between time to intubation and mortality in adjusted analysis.
32804796 During the forced 40-d in-home confinement, a mean 25% reduction of PA was observed as compared with the 40-d confinement-free period (1.2 ± 0.3 vs 1.6 ± 0.5 hr/d, respectively, P = .0001).
32805722 Additionally, logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazards model respectively indicated that elevated LDH level was an independent risk factor for the severity (HR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.25-5.97; P=0.012) and mortality (HR: 40.50, 95% CI: 3.65-449.28; P=0.003) of COVID-19.
32822883 The most prominent risk factors for death were male sex (hazard ratio (HR) 1.45; 95%CI 1.15-1.83), pre-existing lung disease (HR 1.61; 95%CI 1.20-2.16), and increased patient age (HR 4.11 (95%CI 2.57-6.58) for age >79 years versus <60 years).
32826326 The risk factors for AKI included age (per 10 years) (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.69; P=0.002) and serum IL-6 level (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.73; P=0.003).
32834586 Finally, we propose and simulate a strategy of controlled natural immunization through risk-based population compartmentalization (PC) wherein the population is divided in Low Risk (LR) and High Risk (HR) compartments based on risk factors (like comorbidities and age) and subjected to different disease transmission dynamics by isolating the HR compartment while allowing the LR compartment to develop natural immunity. […] Upon release from the preventive isolation, the HR compartment finds itself surrounded by enough number of immunized individuals to prevent the spread of infection and thus most of the deaths occurring in this group are avoided.
32835245 Admission to the ICU for invasive mechanical ventilation or death occurred in 13 (25%) patients in the anakinra group and 32 (73%) patients in the historical group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·22 [95% CI 0·11-0·41; p<0·0001). […] The treatment effect of anakinra remained significant in the multivariate analysis (HR 0·22 [95% CI 0·10-0·49]; p=0·0002).
32837666 Electrocardiogram showed a heart rate (HR) of 56 beats/min, slight ST depression in leads II, III, and aVF, and mild saddle-back type ST elevation in leads V1 and V2. […] Despite a high fever and hypoxemia, his HR remained within 50-70 beats/min. […] Electrocardiogram showed a HR of only 81 beats/min, despite a body temperature of 39.2 °C, slight ST depression in leads V4, V5, V6, and a prominent U wave in multiple leads. […] Despite a high fever and hypoxemia, her HR remained within 50-70 beats/min. […] Both patients had a poor compensatory increase in their HR, despite their critical status.
32837696 Given these extraordinary circumstances, the protocols available from the applied behavior-analytic, parent training, and autism literature did not appear to fully meet the needs of parents having to be with their children under extreme levels of stress in a confined space with limited reinforcers for 24 hr a day, 7 days a week.
32838235 Tocilizumab significantly improved survival compared to standard care (multivariate HR: 0.057; 95% C.I = 0.017- 0.187, p < 0.001).
32838323 Overall median survival from time of admission was not reached (95% CI 23 days-not reached) among patients receiving tocilizumab and was 19 days (16-26) for those who did not receive tocilizumab (hazard ratio [HR] 0·71, 95% CI 0·56-0·89; p=0·0027). […] In the primary multivariable Cox regression analysis with propensity matching, an association was noted between receiving tocilizumab and decreased hospital-related mortality (HR 0·64, 95% CI 0·47-0·87; p=0·0040).
32839385 8.7%, p < 0.001, multivariable HR 2.68 (1.58-4.55), p < 0.001). […] A prolonged QTc was independently associated with a higher mortality even after adjustment for age, comorbidities, and treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32842255 Myocardial injury was an important prognostic factor of COVID-19 (HR=5.382, 95%CI 2.404-12.050, P<0.001).
32845276 Elevated troponin levels were associated with an increased in-hospital mortality (37% vs 13%; HR, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.13-2.59]; P = .01 via multivariable Cox regression analysis), and this was independent from concomitant cardiac disease.
32848488 Elderly cases had significant longer incubation periods than young age cases (HR 1.49 with 95% CI: 1.09-2.05).
32851419 25(OH)D concentration was associated with severe COVID-19 infection and mortality univariably (mortality per 10 nmol/L 25(OH)D HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.86-0.98; p = 0.016), but not after adjustment for confounders (mortality per 10 nmol/L 25(OH)D HR 0.98; 95% CI = 0.91-1.06; p = 0.696).
32852721 Using Cox models, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality (along with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were estimated separately for ACEIs/ARBs and other antihypertensives versus CCBs and non-use. […] Compared with CCBs, adjusted analyses showed no difference in the risk of death among ACEI (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.89-1.06) or ARB (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.89-1.06) users.
32853230 COVID-19 cumulative incidence, hospitalization and death rates, and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated according to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. […] After adjusting for age and comorbidities, men had a higher risk of hospitalization (HR 1.4 95% CI 1.2 to 1.6) and of death (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.1). […] Patients over age 80 compared to age < 50 had HR 7.1 (95% CI 5.4 to 9.3) and HR 27.8 (95% CI 12.5 to 61.7) for hospitalization and death, respectively. […] Immigrants had a higher risk of hospitalization (HR 1.3, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.81) than Italians and a similar risk of death. […] Risk of hospitalization and of death were higher in patients with heart failure, arrhythmia, dementia, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension, while COPD increased the risk of hospitalization (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.5) but not of death (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.7). […] Previous use of ACE inhibitors had no effect on risk of death (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.34).
32853675 All patients received therapy with HCQ in combination with azithromycin (AZM), and 95 (90%) also with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). […] Multivariable Cox regression revealed that comedications with known risk of TdP (HR = 11.28, 95% CI 1.08-117.41), higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR) ratio (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.18 per unit increase) and higher serum hs-cardiac troponin I (HR = 4.09, 95% CI 1.36-12.2 per unit increase) were major contributors to moderate-to-severe QTc prolongation.
32853982 Observational data suggest an acquired prothrombotic state may contribute to the pathophysiology of COVID-19. […] Secondary outcomes were intubation and venous thromboembolism (VTE). […] Three-hundred-thirteen patients (29.4%) died, 319 (30.0%) required intubation, and 30 (2.8%) had diagnosed VTE. […] Using Cox proportional-hazard modeling, each 1 μg/ml increase in admission D-dimer level was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.06 (95%CI 1.04-1.08, p < 0.0001) for death, 1.08 (95%CI 1.06-1.10, p < 0.0001) for intubation, and 1.08 (95%CI 1.03-1.13, p = 0.0087) for VTE. […] Patients with stable D-dimer trajectories had HRs of 0.29 (95%CI 0.17-0.49, p < 0.0001) and 0.22 (95%CI 0.10-0.45, p = 0.0001) relative to those with increasing D-dimer trajectories, for the outcomes death and intubation respectively. […] Patients with low-increasing D-dimer trajectories had a multivariable HR for VTE of 0.18 (95%CI 0.05-0.68, p = 0.0117) relative to those with high-decreasing D-dimer trajectories.
32855527 After adjustment for confounders, the significant predictors of heart failure were average systolic blood pressure (SBP) (hazard ratio (HR) per 10 mmHg 1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15, 3.13) and pulse pressure (HR per 10 mmHg 2.71, 95% CI: 1.39, 5.29).
32857301 The discharge rate of the moderate group was significantly higher than the severe group at day 7, 14 and 28 (HR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.35-0.69, p = < 0.001 at day 7, HR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.35-0.66, p = < 0.001 at day 14 and HR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.36-0.67, p = < 0.001at day 28). […] The 28-day mortality of the severe group was six times higher than the moderate group (HR = 6.00; 95% CI: 2.50-14.44), p = < 0.001).
32859477 After adjustment for propensity scores, we found 30% lower risk of death in patients receiving HCQ (HR=0.70; 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.84; E-value=1.67).
32860454 Furthermore, we identified patients who needed nutrition support (HR 16.99) and with correction of electrolyte imbalance (HR 18.24) via intravenous injection were more likely to have a poor outcome.
32860509 Little is known about characteristics of seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) (NL63, 229E, OC43 and HKU1) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT). this is a collaborative Spanish and European bone marrow transplantation groups retrospective multicentre study, which included allo-HCT recipients (adults and children) with upper and/or lower respiratory tract disease (U/LRTD) caused by seasonal HCoV diagnosed through multiplex PCR assays from January 2012 to January 2019. […] Three-month overall mortality after HCoV detection was 7% in the whole cohort and 16% in those with LRTD. […] We identified 3 conditions associated with higher mortality in recipients with LRTD: absolute lymphocyte count <0.1 x10 9/mL [hazard ratio (HR), 10.8], corticosteroid (HR 4.68) and ICU admission (HR 8.22) (p<0.01).
32861230 In this retrospective study, the data including demographic features and the patient’s clinical background in terms of co-morbidities such as diabetes, cancer, chronic lung disease (CLD), coronary heart disease (CHD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and weak immune system (WIS) were extracted from electronic medical records. […] According to Cox’s regression analysis, age variables (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.03, CI: 1.02-1.04), patients with a history of diabetes (HR: 2.16, CI: 1.38-3.38), cancer (HR: 3.57, CI: 1.82-7.02), CLD (HR: 2.21, CI: 1.22-4) and CHD (HR: 2.20, CI: 1.57-3.09) were significant and affected the hazard of death in patients with COVID-19 and assuming that the other variables in the model are constant, the hazard of death increases by 3% by increasing one unit (year), and the hazard of death in COVID-19 patients with CHD, diabetes, cancer, CLD is 2.16, 3.57, 2.2 and 2.21, respectively.
32862111 Time to clinical improvment in the IFN group was significantly shorter than the control group ([9(6-10) vs. 11(9-15) days respectively, p = 0.002, HR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.33-3.39]).
32864627 Hydroxychloroquine, a drug commonly used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, has received much negative publicity for adverse events associated with its authorisation for emergency use to treat patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. […] We studied the safety of hydroxychloroquine, alone and in combination with azithromycin, to determine the risk associated with its use in routine care in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. […] In this multinational, retrospective study, new user cohort studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis aged 18 years or older and initiating hydroxychloroquine were compared with those initiating sulfasalazine and followed up over 30 days, with 16 severe adverse events studied. […] Self-controlled case series were done to further establish safety in wider populations, and included all users of hydroxychloroquine regardless of rheumatoid arthritis status or indication. […] Separately, severe adverse events associated with hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (compared with hydroxychloroquine plus amoxicillin) were studied. […] Cox models were fitted to estimate calibrated hazard ratios (HRs) according to drug use. […] The study included 956 374 users of hydroxychloroquine, 310 350 users of sulfasalazine, 323 122 users of hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin, and 351 956 users of hydroxychloroquine plus amoxicillin. […] However, long-term use of hydroxychloroquine appeared to be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality (calibrated HR 1·65 [95% CI 1·12-2·44]). […] Addition of azithromycin appeared to be associated with an increased risk of 30-day cardiovascular mortality (calibrated HR 2·19 [95% CI 1·22-3·95]), chest pain or angina (1·15 [1·05-1·26]), and heart failure (1·22 [1·02-1·45]). […] Hydroxychloroquine treatment appears to have no increased risk in the short term among patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but in the long term it appears to be associated with excess cardiovascular mortality. […] The addition of azithromycin increases the risk of heart failure and cardiovascular mortality even in the short term. […] National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, NIHR Senior Research Fellowship programme, US National Institutes of Health, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Janssen Research and Development, IQVIA, Korea Health Industry Development Institute through the Ministry of Health and Welfare Republic of Korea, Versus Arthritis, UK Medical Research Council Doctoral Training Partnership, Foundation Alfonso Martin Escudero, Innovation Fund Denmark, Novo Nordisk Foundation, Singapore Ministry of Health’s National Medical Research Council Open Fund Large Collaborative Grant, VINCI, Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking, EU’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, and European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations.
32868231 A multiple regression analysis selected relevant symptoms (hazard ratio [HR], 3.1), familiarity (HR, 1.99), and lockdown period (HR, 2.2) as independent predictors of high-risk lesions (high-risk adenomas and colorectal cancer).
32870469 In the univariate Cox model analysis, type 2 diabetes mellitus was associated with a prolonged viral RNA shedding (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.06-3.11, p = 0.04). […] In the multivariate Cox model analysis, type 2 diabetes was associated with a prolonged viral RNA shedding (HR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.89, p = 0.029).
32871594 The case fatality rate was 24% and determinants associated with the risk of death were body temperature {hazard ratio [HR] 1.96 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-3.44]; P = 0.02} and CRP at diagnosis [HR 1.01 (95% CI 1.005-1.017); P < 0.0001].
32872734 On Cox regression analysis, diabetes (HR 4.82, 95% CI 0.89-26.03, p = 0.043) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 16.58, 95% CI 3.10-88.70, p = 0.044) were risk factors for mortality.
32873607 Adjusted HR for mortality was estimated using Cox proportional hazard model adjusting and propensity score matching. […] South Asian ethnicity was associated with an increased risk of death, both by Cox regression (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8), after adjusting for age, sex, deprivation and comorbidities, and by propensity score matching, matching for the same factors but categorising ethnicity into South Asian or not (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.6).
32877769 We reviewed the electronic medical records (EMR) of patients hospitalized during the peak of the pandemic, March 1st through March 31st, to document the type and frequency of neurological problems seen in patients with COVID-19 at presentation to the emergency room. […] Secondary aims were to determine: 1) the frequency of neurological complaints during the hospital stay; 2) whether the presence of any neurological complaint at presentation or any of the individual types of neurological complaints at admission predicted three separate outcomes: death, length of hospital stay, or the need for intubation; and 3) if the presence of any neurological complaint or any of the individual types of neurological complaints developed during hospital stay predicted the previous three outcomes. […] The HR (95 %CI) for remaining in the hospital for a ten-year increase in age was 1.2, (1.1, 1.3, p < 0.0001), and for death was 1.3, (1.1, 1.5, p < 0.01). […] Adjusting for age, patients who at presentation had neurological issues as their chief complaint were at significantly increased risk for remaining in the hospital, HR = 1.7, (1.1,2.5, p = 0.0001), and dying, HR = 2.1(1.1,3.8, p = 0.02), compared to patients without any neurological complaint. […] Of the individual admission complaints, AMS was associated with a significantly prolonged hospital stay, HR = 1.8, (1.0-3.3, p = 0.05). […] After adjusting for age, dialysis, and intubation, patients with AMS during hospital stay had a HR of 1.6, (1.1, 2.5, p = 0.01) for remaining in the hospital.
32880390 Compared to the non-corticosteroid group, systemic corticosteroid use was not associated with beneficial effect in reducing in-hospital mortality in either severe cases (HR = 1.77; 95% CI, 1.08-2.89; P = 0.023), or critical cases (HR = 2.07; 95% CI, 1.08-3.98; P = 0.028).
32886365 Although the mortality rate was high in patients with smokers compared to healthy patients (4.22%, the hazard ratio [HR], 1.358; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.542-1.100; p = .014), it was less than in diabetics (7.04%, HR 1.531, 95% CI: 1.668-1.337, p = .000), and diabetic plus smoker (10.00%, HR, 1.659; 95% CI, 1.763-1.510; p = .000).
32890139 Severe disease adjusted risk of death was similar in both the groups(HR=0.84[0.32-2.20]). […] Among SOT recipients, COVID-19-related treatment with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was associated with ten-fold higher hazard of death compared to without HCQ (HR=10.62[1.24-91.09]).
32892742 After adjustment of age, sex, body mass index, haemoglobin, white blood count, lymphocyte count, albumin, CD8+ count, D-dimer, and C-reactive protein, frailty (HR = 7.47, 95% CI 1.73-32.34, P = 0.007) and pre-frailty (HR = 5.01, 95% CI 1.16-21.61, P = 0.03) were associated with a higher hazard of severe disease than the non-frail.
32892746 After adjusting for age, gender and underlying diseases, they still had elevated possibility of developing severe cases than those with high HDL-C (HR 2.827, 95% CI 1.190-6.714, P = 0.019).
32892789 The log-rank test compared the survival functions for each variable and from that, hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, and the proportional hazard model was used in Cox multiple regression. […] The multiple model for increased risk of death when they were admitted to the ICU HR 1.28, diabetes HR 1.17, neurological disease HR 1.34, kidney disease HR 1.11, heart disease HR 1.14, black or mixed race of HR 1.50, asthma HR 0.71 and pneumopathy HR 1.12.
32897885 Clinical variables significantly associated with the composite endpoint of non-rebreather or higher oxygen requirement and death (n events = 25/77) included number of co-morbidities (HR 5.41, P = 0.004), infiltrates (HR 3.08, P = 0.032), and neutropenia (HR 1.15, P = 0.04).
32899739 Meanwhile, they received an 8-week Mindfulness-Oriented Meditation (MOM) course, through two group meetings and six individual video-lessons. […] Based on baseline personality profiles, analyses of variance were performed in a low-resilience (LR, n = 32) and a high-resilience (HR, n = 26) group. […] The LR and HR groups differed at baseline in most of the self-report measures. […] HR group.
32903258 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of corticosteroids in non-intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF). […] This was a single-center retrospective cohort study, from 16th March, 2020 to 30th April, 2020; final follow-up on 10th May, 2020. 265 patients consecutively admitted to the non-ICU wards with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia were screened for inclusion. 205 patients who developed AHRF (SpO2/FiO2 ≤ 440 or PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300) were only included in the final study. […] The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the development of the composite primary outcome was 0.15 (95% CI, 0.07-0.33; P <0.001). […] Among non-ICU patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by AHRF, treatment with corticosteroid was associated with a significantly lower risk of the primary composite outcome of ICU transfer, intubation, or in-hospital death, composite of intubation or death and individual components of the primary outcome.
32903644 The proportional hazard Cox models showed that the risk factors for severity progression and death included comorbidities (HR: 4.53, 95% CI: 1.78-11.55 and HR: 7.81, 95% CI: 1.02-59.86), leukocytosis (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.05-1.22 and HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10-1.42), neutrophilia (HR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07-1.13 and HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13-1.46, and elevated LDH (HR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.12-1.15 and HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.10-1.12). […] Elevated D-dimer (HR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03), IL-6 (HR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02) and IL-10 levels (HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07) were also risk factors for the progression of disease severity. […] Meanwhile, lymphopenia and wake immune responses [e.g., lower CD3, CD4, or CD19 counts (all HR < 1)] were associated with disease deterioration and death.
32907762 Despite anticoagulation, usually with heparin, mortality for thromboembolic events in COVID-19 remains high. […] Clinical efficacy of heparin is due to its interaction with antithrombin (AT) that may be decreased in COVID-19. […] A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that low AT (levels below 80%) was a predictor of mortality (HR:3.97; 95%CI:1.38 to 11.43; p = 0.0103).
32912793 Retrospective observational study on 3894 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized from February 19th to May 23rd, 2020 and recruited in 30 clinical centres distributed throughout Italy. […] These findings were confirmed by multivariable Cox survival analysis (hazard ratio (HR): 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.6-14.7 for age ≥85 vs 18-44 y); HR = 4.7; 2.9-7.7 for estimated glomerular filtration rate levels <15 vs ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2; HR = 2.3; 1.5-3.6 for C-reactive protein levels ≥10 vs ≤ 3 mg/L).
32918209 The use of an ACEI/ARB in COVID-19 patients was significantly associated with lower odds (odds ratio [OR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.95; n = 18,749) or hazard (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.75, 95% CI 0.60-0.95; n = 26,598) of mortality compared with non-use of ACEI/ARB. […] However, the use of an ACEI/ARB was non-significantly associated with lower odds (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.75-1.10; n = 7446) or hazard (HR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.33-1.66; n = 6325) of developing severe/critical disease compared with non-use of an ACEI/ARB.
32920569 Ultra-High-Resolution Computed Tomography (U-HR-CT) is the reference imaging technique for pneumonia in the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). […] Our study aimed to investigate the clinical performance of LUS in the initial evaluation of pneumonia in COVID-19 patients, compared to standard U-HR-CT. […] Among 29 patients with confirmed COVID-19, all U-HR-CT hallmarks showed an excellent concordance with LUS findings according to Cohen coefficient. […] In our experience, LUS is a viable alternative to U-HR-CT, with the advantages of being radiation-free, flexible, cost-effective, and reasonably reducing nosocomial transmission risks because performed at bed-side.
32921872 In Cox multivariate regression analysis, cardiac troponin I was a predictor of mortality in both groups (confirmed COVID-19 group: HR, 3.54; 95%CI, 1.70-7.34; P = .001; ruled out COVID-19 group: HR, 5.57; 95%CI, 1.70-18.20; P = .004).
32926573 Conflicting evidence regarding the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection do exist. […] We recorded 146 deaths: 35 in no treatment, 7 in HCQ treatment group, and 102 in HCQ + azithromycin treatment group (log rank test for Kaplan-Meier curve P < 0.001). […] At multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, age (hazard ratio (HR) 1.057, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.035-1.079, P < 0.001), mechanical ventilation/continuous positive airway pressure (HR 2.726, 95% CI 1.823-4.074, P < 0.001), and C reactive protein above the median (HR 2.191, 95% CI 1.479-3.246, P < 0.001) were directly associated with death, whereas use of HCQ + azithromycin (vs. no treatment; HR 0.265, 95% CI 0.171-0.412, P < 0.001) was inversely associated. […] In this study, we found a reduced in-hospital mortality in patients treated with a combination of HCQ and azithromycin after adjustment for comorbidities.
32926815 Reynolds HR, Adhikari S, Pulgarin C, et al. 
32926871 No clinical use of these embedded sensors is currently being made, despite the relevance of remote clinical pulse oximetry to the management of chronic cardiopulmonary disease, and the triage, initial management and remote monitoring of persons effected by respiratory viral pandemics, such as SARS-CoV-2 or Influenza. […] Clinical comparison of the smartphone sensor with App versus hospital reference devices determined SpO2 and heart rate (HR) accuracy was 0.48 % points (CI 0.38 to 0.58; p<0.001) and 0.73 bpm (CI 0.33 to 1.14; p<0.001) respectively; with SpO2 and HR precision 1.25 versus reference 0.95 points (p< 0.001) and 5.99 versus reference 3.80 bpm (p<0.001), respectively. […] Given the immense and immediate practical medical importance of remote intermittent clinical pulse oximetry to both chronic disease management and the global ability to respond to respiratory viral pandemics, the smartphone sensor with APP should be prioritized and fast tracked for FDA/ ISO approval to allow clinical use.
32927735 Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses an enormous challenge to health care systems throughout the world. […] Ninety-three (50%) patients required hospitalization (inpatient subgroup). […] When adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities, VitD deficiency was associated with higher risk of IMV/D and death (HR 6.12, 95% CI 2.79-13.42, p < 0.001 and HR 14.73, 95% CI 4.16-52.19, p < 0.001, respectively).
32927835 The Cox proportional-hazards model was applied to evaluate the association between factors (sex, onset month, age group, city of residence) and mortality, and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals were estimated. […] Compared with those aged 0-59 years, higher mortality was observed among those aged 60-69 years (HR: 12.02 [3.37-42.93]), 70-79 years (HR: 44.62 [15.16-131.30]), 80-89 years (HR: 68.38 [22.93-203.89]), and ≥90 years (HR: 144.71 [42.55-492.15]).
32929124 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an important and urgent threat to global health. […] After adjusting covariates, PCT (≥ 0.10 ng/mL) and CRP (≥ 52.14 mg/L) exhibited independent increasing risks of mortality were used hazard ratio (HR) of 52.68 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.77-1571.66) and 5.47 (95% CI: 1.04-28.72), respectively.
32931637 Major influences on mortality were high IL-6 levels at Covid-19 diagnosis (HR = 6.95, P = .0121) and age ≥ 65 years (HR = 6.22, P = .0156).
32934372 This retrospective, propensity score-matched case-control study assessed the effectiveness of convalescent plasma therapy in 39 patients with severe or life-threatening COVID-19 at The Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. […] Survival also improved in plasma recipients (adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.89; chi-square test P = 0.027).
32937279 Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) models were used to determine the risk factors associated with in hospital death.
32941927 Treated with corticosteroid (Hazard ratio [HR], 0.698; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.512 to 0.951; P = 0.023) was an adverse factor of the clearance of SARS-CoV-2, especially for male patients (HR, 0.620; 95% CI, 0.408 to 0.942; P = 0.025).
32945968 Multivariate analyses adjusting for demographics and comorbidities showed that an AI system-based score ≥ 30 on the initial CXR was an independent predictor both for mortality (HR 2.60 (95% CI 1.69 - 3.99; p < 0.001)) and critical COVID-19 (HR 3.40 (95% CI 2.35-4.94; p < 0.001)).
32946070 Single-center retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 patients hospitalized at our university-affiliated NYC hospital from 3/10/20 through 4/13/20 with follow-up to 5/1/20. […] Hispanics were also more likely to suffer in-hospital mortality from COVID-19 compared with Whites (HR 1.84; 95% CI 1.21-2.80; p = 0.005). […] There was a non-significant increased hazard of in-hospital mortality among Blacks when compared with Whites (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.95-1.78; p = 0.09).
32946859 Statin use prior to admission was associated with reduced risk of severe COVID-19 (adjusted OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.11 to 0.71, p < 0.01) and faster time to recovery among those without severe disease (adjusted HR for recovery 2.69, 95%CI 1.36 to 5.33, p < 0.01). […] There was potential evidence of faster time to recovery with ARB use (adjusted HR 1.92, 95%CI 0.81 to 4.56).
32947555 Stability was achieved at room temperature for 24 hr after 3 freeze-thaw cycles and at -80 °C for 21 days.
32948572 Each case was matched with up to three controls, based on gender and age ±1 year old (94 cases and 181 controls). […] Adjusting for age, gender and the early period of the outbreak, poor health conditions were associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 mortality (HR of comorbidity score, 1.31 [95% CI 1.11 to 1.54]; p=0.001). […] The estimated mortality risk in patients with pre-existing coronary heart disease (CHD) was three times that of those without CHD (p<0.001).
32949175 The percentage of patients with no, one, two, or three organs affected was 59.75%, 30.46%, 8.07%, and 1.72%, respectively. […] Patients with three organ injuries had the highest mortality rate [57.9%; hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) vs. patients without OI: 22.31 (10.42-47.77), those with two (23.6%; HR 8.68, 95% CI 4.58-16.48), one (8.6%; HR 3.1, 95% CI 1.7-5.7), or no OI (2.6%); P < 0.001].
32950003 Patients under IL-6 blockade showed delayed viral clearance in the Kaplan-Meier curves (HR 0•35 [95%CI] [0•15-0•81], log-rank p = 0•014), but an adjusted propensity score matching model did not demonstrate a significant relationship of IL-6 blockade with viral clearance (HR 1•63 [0•35-7•7]). […] Cox regression showed an inverse association between SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance and the initial viral load (HR 0•35 [0•11-0•89]). […] Patients under the IL-6 blocker showed shorter median time to seropositivity, higher peak antibody titers, and higher cumulative proportion of seropositivity in the Kaplan Meier curves (HR 3•1 [1•9-5] for S-IgG; and HR 3•0 [1•9-4•9] for N-IgG; log-rank p<0•001 for both). […] However, no significant differences between groups were found in either S-IgG (HR 1•56 [0•41-6•0]) nor N-IgG (HR 0•96 [0•26-3•5]) responses in an adjusted propensity score analysis.
32950749 Chronic liver disease (CLD) represents a major global health burden. […] The liver-specific factors associated with independent risk of higher overall mortality were alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) (hazard ratio [HR] 2.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-4.55), decompensated cirrhosis (HR 2.91 [1.70-5.00]) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (HR 3.31 [1.53-7.16]). […] Other factors were increasing age, diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and current smoker.
32950880 Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) models were used to determine the risk factors associated with in hospital death.
32951042 We calculated survival curves and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the risk of mortality. […] Survival curves show an increased proportion of deaths between 23rd March and 14th June 2020 in care homes for older people, with an adjusted HR of 1·72 (1·55, 1·90) compared to 2016. […] Compared to the general population in 2016-2019, adjusted care home mortality HRs for older adults rose from 2·15 (2·11,2·20) in 2016-2019 to 2·94 (2·81,3·08) in 2020. […] The survival curves and increased HRs show a significantly increased risk of death in the 2020 study periods.
32960899 The adjusted HRs for death and death or intubation for patients in the week-2-MP group were 0.35 (95%CI 0.11 to 1.06, p = 0.064) and 0.33 (95%CI 0.13 to 0.84, p = 0.020), respectively. […] These differences were specifically seen in the subcohort of patients with a SpO2/FiO2 at day 7 lower than 353 (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.12, p = 0.073 and HR 0.34, 95%CI 0.12 to 0.94, p = 0.038, respectively) but not in patients with higher SpO2/FiO2. […] Patients receiving out-of-week-2-MP, non-pulse glucocorticoids or no glucocorticoids had an increased adjusted risk for both outcomes compared with week-2-MP group: HR 5.04 (95% CI 0.91-27.86), HR 10.09 (95% CI 2.14-47.50), HR 4.14 (95% CI 0.81-21.23), respectively, for death; HR 7.38 (95% CI 1.86-29.29), HR 13.71 (95% CI 3.76-50.07), HR 3.58 (95% CI 0.89-14.32), respectively, for death or intubation.
32961244 Retrospective cohort study SETTINGS PARTICIPANTS: 4,264 critically ill COVID-19 patients (143 dialysis patients, 521 chronic kidney disease [CKD] patients, and 3,600 patients without CKD) admitted to ICUs at 68 hospitals in the United States. […] Presence (versus absence) of pre-existing kidney disease OUTCOME(S): In-hospital mortality (primary); respiratory failure, shock, ventricular arrhythmia/ cardiac arrest, thromboembolic event, major bleed, and acute liver injury (secondary) ANALYTICAL APPROACH: We used standardized differences to compare patient characteristics (values >0.10 indicate a meaningful difference between groups) and multivariable adjusted Fine and Gray survival models to examine outcome associations. […] Compared to patients without pre-existing kidney disease, dialysis patients had a higher risk of 28-day in-hospital death (adjusted HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.09, 1.81), while patients with CKD had an intermediate risk (adjusted HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.08, 1.44).
32961245 The risks of in-hospital death for patients with AKI-non KRT and AKI-KRT were greater than among those without AKI (HR 5.6 [95% CI 5.0-6.3] and HR 11.3 [95% CI 9.6 - 13.1], respectively). […] After adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and illness severity, the risk of death remained higher among those with AKI non-KRT (adjusted HR 3.4 [95% CI 3.0-3.9]) and AKI-KRT (adjusted HR 6.4 [95% CI 5.5-7.6]) compared to those without AKI. […] Among those with AKI-KRT who survived, 30.6% remained on dialysis at discharge, and pre-hospitalization chronic kidney disease was the only independent risk factor associated with needing dialysis at discharge (adjusted OR 9.3 [95% CI 2.3 - 37.8]).
32966822 Compared with patients undergoing surgery within 2 months of diagnosis, we found worse OS for patients with a surgical delay of 3-4 months (hazard ratio [HR] 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.25) or 5-6 months (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.19-1.91). […] Considering only healthy patients with Charlson Comorbidity Index = 0, worse OS was associated with surgical delay of 5-6 months (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.21-2.34, P= .002) but not 3-4 months (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.93-1.26, P = 309).
32969952 In bivariate models, order adoption was associated with COVID-19 diagnoses (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.01), Republican governor (HR = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.44), Medicaid expansion (HR = 2.50; 95% CI, 1.40 to 4.48), and hospital capacity (HR = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.70), consistent with findings in the multivariate models.
32972121 In Kaplan-Meier estimation and multivariable Cox regression analyses, newly developed pneumonia was significantly related with delayed time to negative conversion in mild COVID-19 patients (Log-rank test, p=0.02; HR=2.90 [95% CI=1.06-7.97]).
32973511 The number and type of provider encounters, interventions related to rivaroxaban therapy, the occurrence of thromboembolism or bleeding, and the time of the first outpatient visit after discharge were recorded. […] There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the occurrence ratio of systemic thrombosis, heart failure (LVEF < 40%), and left atrial dilation, which was defined as enlargement of left atrial diameter (LAD) > 40 mm. […] There was no significant difference after pharmacist intervention in terms of thrombosis occurrence ratio between the two groups (P = 0.338, HR: 0.722, 95% CI: 0.372-1.405).
32977359 In multivariate Cox regression, the strongest predictor of in-ICU death was decreased cardiac index [hazard ratio (HR), 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45-0.98; P = 0.041], after adjusting for male sex, shock status, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. […] Negative associations with mortality were observed for LVSVi (HR, 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.96; P = 0.002), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (HR, 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.84; P < 0.001), and S’ (HR, 0.78, 95% CI 0.69-0.88; P < 0.001).
32978065 Higher age was associated with in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05 per each year, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01‒1.08) and lower probability of home discharge (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95‒0.99). […] CFS (>5) and CCI, but not HFRS, were predictive of in-hospital mortality (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.02‒3.65 and HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.02‒1.58, respectively). […] Patients with CFS >5 had a lower probability of being discharged home (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.25‒0.58). […] Other comorbidities (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, lung diseases, chronic kidney disease and dementia) were not associated with either outcome.
32978207 Using Cox regression analysis, tertiles of increasing age (≥75, upper vs <62 years, lower: HR 7.92; p<0.001) and number of chronic diseases (≥4 vs 0-1: HR 2.09; p=0.007), respiratory rate (HR 1.04 per unit increase; p=0.001), PaO2/FiO2 (HR 0.995 per unit increase; p<0.001), serum creatinine (HR 1.34 per unit increase; p<0.001) and platelet count (HR 0.995 per unit increase; p=0.001) were predictors of mortality.
32979987 Early descriptions of patients admitted to hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic showed a lower prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than would be expected for an acute respiratory disease like COVID-19, leading to speculation that inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) might protect against infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or the development of serious sequelae. […] We assessed the association between ICS and COVID-19-related death among people with COPD or asthma using linked electronic health records (EHRs) in England, UK. […] In this observational study, we analysed patient-level data for people with COPD or asthma from primary care EHRs linked with death data from the Office of National Statistics using the OpenSAFELY platform. […] We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the association between exposure categories and the outcome in each population, adjusted for age, sex, and all other prespecified covariates. […] People with COPD who were prescribed ICSs were at increased risk of COVID-19-related death compared with those prescribed LABA-LAMA combinations (adjusted HR 1·39 [95% CI 1·10-1·76]).
32983456 A ROX index less than 4.94 measured 2 to 6 h after the start of therapy was associated with increased risk of intubation (HR 4.03 [95% CI 1.18 - 13.7]; p=0.026).
32984798 Reduced RV systolic function (HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.05 - 3.09; p = 0.032) was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality after adjustment for demographic and clinical risk factors.
32984835 To present three patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 infection who developed life-threatening hyperpyrexia while being treated with dexmedetomidine for sedation. […] We describe three patients, a 60-year-old female, 43-year-old female, and 46-year-old male, who were hospitalized in surge ICUs during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in the early spring of 2020. […] All developed hyperpyrexia, defined as a temperature above 41.1°C, following an increase in dexmedetomidine dosing to above 1.5 µg/kg/hr. […] Dexmedetomidine, a centrally acting alpha-2 agonist, may alter hypothalamic temperature regulation through disturbances in neurotransmitter expression and metabolism.
32988954 The risk of infection was more than double among HCW self-washing their masks compared with the hospital laundry (HR 2.04 (95% CI 1.03 to 4.00); p=0.04).
32992048 Use of neither ACE-I nor ARB was associated with mortality (multivariable hazard ratio (HR) adjusted also for COVID-19 treatments: 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.77-1.20 and HR=0.89, 0.67-1.19 for ACE-I and ARB, respectively). […] Findings were similar restricting the analysis to hypertensive (N=2,057) patients (HR=1.00, 0.78-1.26 and HR=0.88, 0.65-1.20) or when ACE-I or ARB were considered as a single group.
32993751 However, using Cox multivariate analyses adjusted for age and Charlson comorbidity index only the association with the reduced risk of being intubated or dying maintained the significance (HR 0.44, 95%CI 0.22-0.89, p = 0.022).
32994260 All analyses will be presented as crude and adjusted HR and OR with associated 95% CIs and p values. […] This study has been registered, reviewed and approved by the following: Health Research Authority (20/HRA1898); Ethics Committee of Hospital Policlinico Modena, Italy (369/2020/OSS/AOUMO); Health and Care Research Permissions Service, Wales; and NHS Research Scotland Permissions Co-ordinating Centre, Scotland.
32995704 In multivariate analysis, AC was associated with longer time to death, both at prophylactic (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15 to 0.58; p < 0.001) and therapeutic doses (HR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.32; p < 0.001) compared with no AC.
32997749 Biomarkers of hyperinflammation were present including: hyperferritinaemia (up to 691 µ/L; normal 15-80 µg/L), C-reactive protein (CRP) (>100mg/L for >10 days, normal 0-5 mg/L), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) consistently >100mm/hr (normal 0-15 mm/hr), raised white cell count with neutrophilia, elevated D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), anaemia and Mott cells on bone marrow analysis. […] The condition was refractory to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) but improved within 24hrs of high dose methylprednisolone.
32998791 CURB-65 (hazard ratio (HR) 1.61; 95% CI 1.05-2.46), LDH (HR 1.003; 95% CI 1.001-1.004) and albumin (HR 0.9; 95% CI 0.81-1) were risk factors for in-hospital death in severe patients with COVID-19.
33003961 Hs-TnI measurements were independent predictors of mortality at multivariate analysis adjusted for confounding parameters such as age (HR 1.004 for each 10 point of troponin, 95% CI 1.002-1.006, p < 0.001).
33006442 After adjustment, subjects with pre-admission usage of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors (HR = 0.35, 95%CI 0.14-0.86, P = .022) had a lower risk of adverse clinical outcomes, including death, acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory failure, septic shock, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit admission. […] Particularly, hypertension patients receiving RAAS inhibitor treatment either before (HR = 0.35, 95%CI 0.13-0.97, P = .043) or after (HR = 0.18, 95%CI 0.04-0.86, P = .031) admission showed a significantly lower risk of adverse clinical outcomes than those receiving application of other antihypertensive medicines. […] Furthermore, consecutive application of RAAS inhibitors in COVID-19 patients with hypertension showed better clinical outcomes (HR = 0.10, 95%CI 0.01-0.83, P = .033) than non-RAAS inhibitors users.
33006944 We further validated both digital contact tracing tools by verifying the physician-patient contacts with the EMR of 156 patients who attended at NCID’s screening center over a 24-hr time frame within the study period.
33007173 After matching ILD patients with COVID-19 had higher mortality (HR 1.60, Confidence Intervals 1.17-2.18 p=0.003) compared with age, sex and co-morbidity matched controls without ILD. […] Patients with a Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) of <80% had an increased risk of death versus patients with FVC ≥80% (HR 1.72, 1.05-2.83). […] Furthermore, obese patients with ILD had an elevated risk of death (HR 2.27, 1.39-3.71).
33007454 Hospitals were given the opportunity to decide independently on the use of three different COVID-19 treatment strategies: HCQ or CQ, or no treatment. […] HCQ however was associated with a significant decreased risk of transfer to the ICU (Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.47, 95%CI = 0.27-0.82, p = 0.008), when compared to controls. […] This effect was not found in the CQ group (HR = 0.80; 95%CI = 0.55-1.15, p = 0.207), and remained significant after competing risk analysis.
33007478 Using the Cox proportional hazards regression model accounting for time varying exposures in matched pairs, corticosteroid therapy was not associated with mortality difference (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.93-1.03, p 0.4694).
33010257 Patients with high IL-6 not treated with TCZ showed high mortality (HR: 4.6; p=0.003), as well as those with low IL-6 treated with TCZ (HR: 3.6; p=0.016).
33011717 In this single-center, retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the data of 469 COVID-19 patients admitted to the Brookdale University Hospital in Brooklyn, NY, from March 18 through April 23, 2020. […] The Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, hemodynamic status, and PF ratio (arterial oxygen partial pressure [PaO2]/fractional inspired oxygen [FiO2]) determined that on admission, an elevated blood urea nitrogen (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-2.48), a low eGFR (HR 1.43; CI 1.1-2.03), AKI stage 1 (HR 1.14; CI 0.64-2.03), AKI stage 2 (HR 1.86; CI 1.03-3.56), and AKI stage 3 (HR 2.1; CI 1.3-2.81) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality.
33014523 Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.06), hypertension without receiving angiotensinogen converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) therapy (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.14-4.59), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 7.55; 95% CI, 2.44-23.39) were independent risk factors for progression to severe or critical pneumonia. […] Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that male gender (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.02-1.46), receiving lopinavir/ritonavir treatment within 7 days from illness onset (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63-0.90), and receiving systemic glucocorticoid therapy (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.46-2.21) were independent factors associated with prolonged viral shedding.
33014804 Independent factors associated with death were performance status (PS) ≥2 (HR = 3.9, 95% CI = [1.1-13.8] p = 0.04) and extent of COVID-19 pneumonia ≥30% (HR = 12.0, 95% CI = [2.2-64.4] p = 0.004).
33015815 During intensive care, 50% of patients died and their death was associated with older age (HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.07-3.97), obesity (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.15-4.35) and male gender (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.02-3.57).
33015836 In this study, red and brown Lens culinaris protein hydrolysates were prepared by tryptic digestion, using an enzyme/substrate ratio of 1:20 (g/g), at 37°C, 12 hr then peptide fractions <3 kDa were filtered by using ultrafiltration membranes.
33020114 Patients in smokers group were more likely to be male and had higher incidence of underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (19% vs 6%, p<0.001), HIV infection (11% vs 5%,p<0.001), cancer (11% vs 6%, p=0.005), congestive heart failure (15% vs 8%, p<0.001), coronary artery disease (15% vs 9%, p=0.3), chronic kidney disease (11% vs 8%, p=0.037) and end-stage renal disease (10% vs 6%, p=0.009) compared with non-smokers. […] Univariate Cox model for survival analysis by smoking status showed that among smokers only current smokers had higher risk of death compared with never smokers (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.12, p<0.001).
33020166 After adjusting for age, sex, SOFA-scores, intubation, past history, medical complications, medications and comfort-care-status, COVID-19 patients with neurologic disorders had increased risk of in-hospital mortality (Hazard Ratio[HR] 1.38, 95% CI 1.17-1.62, P<0.001) and decreased likelihood of discharge home (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63-0.85, P<0.001).
33021131 Covid-19 associated coagulopathy (CAC) is associated with prothrombotic state and thromboembolism. […] However, true incidence of thromboembolic events is difficult to determine in the ICU setting. […] The aim of our study was to investigate the cumulative incidence of thromboembolic events in Covid-19 patients needing intensive care unit (ICU) admission and assessing the utility of point of care ultrasound (POCUS) to screen for and diagnose lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT). […] The primary outcome was to study the cumulative incidence of thromboembolic events in Covid-19 patients needing ICU admission. […] Forty patients developed 52 thromboembolic events, with the rate of 37.3%. […] We found a high 45-day cumulative incidence of thromboembolic events of 37% and a high 45-day cumulative incidence of lower and upper extremity DVT of 21% and 10% respectively. […] Occurrence of a thromboembolic event was not associated with a higher risk of mortality (HR 1.08, p value = .81). […] Covid-19 patients in ICU have a high cumulative incidence of thromboembolic events, but not associated with higher mortality.
33023798 Individuals with mental disorders were found more likely to be older, taking antithrombotic agents, and had diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive lung disease, and urinary tract infections than those without mental disorders. […] However, compared to patients without mental disorders, the hazard ratio (HR) for mortality in elderly COVID-19 patients with mental disorders was not statistically significant (HR: 1.57, 95%CI: 0.95-2.56).
33023905 Kaplan-Meier event rates for 7-day case fatality were 439 (2.3%) compared with 37 (2.9%) (HR: 0.81, 95% CI (0.58 to 1.13), p=0.21).
33024072 Fine and Gray’s survival analysis revealed that the SARS cohort was associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide, and the adjusted subdistribution HR (sHR) was 2.805 (95% CI: 2.182-3.605, p < 0.001) for psychiatric disorders and suicide.
33025516 Nevertheless, data are lacking about the determinants of acute kidney injury (AKI) and the combined effect of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and AKI in COVID-19 patients. […] We collected data on patient demographics, comorbidities, chronic medications, vital signs, baseline laboratory test results and in-hospital treatment in patients with COVID-19 consecutively admitted to our Institution. […] Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or proteinuria at urinalysis within 180 days prior to hospital admission. […] Independent associates of AKI were chronic kidney disease, C-reactive protein (CRP) and ventilation support. […] Among patients with acute kidney injury, 111 died (63%) and its occurrence increased the risk of death by 60% (HR 1.60 [95% IC 1.21-2.49] p = 0.002) independently of potential confounding factors including hypertension, preexisting kidney damage, and comorbidities.
33029089 There was an association between elevated PCT levels and mortality in the univariate ((hazard ratio [1], 3.377; 95% confidence interval [2], 1.012-10.344; P = 0.033) and multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR, 4.933; 95% CI, 1.170-20.788; P = 0.030).
33029657 Diabetes was independently associated with risk of death (HR 2.32 [95% CI 1.44, 3.75], p = 0.001), even after adjustment for age, sex and other relevant comorbidities. […] Moreover, a strong association between higher glucose levels and risk of death was documented irrespective of diabetes diagnosis (HR 1.14 × 1.1 mmol/l [95% CI 1.08, 1.21], p < 0.001).
33034016 At univariate analysis, age (HR 1.045 [CI 1.008-1.082]), cognitive impairment (HR 1.949 [CI 1.045-3.364]), C-reactive protein (HR 1.004 [CI 1.011-1.078]), lactate dehydrogenases (HR 1.003 [CI 1.001-1.004]) and GNRI moderate-severe risk category (HR 8.571 [CI 1.096-67.031]) were risk factors for in-hospital death, while albumin (HR 0.809 [CI 0.822-0.964]), PaO2/FiO2 ratio (HR 0.996 [CI 0.993-0.999]) and body mass index (HR 0.875 [CI 0.782-0.979]) were protective factors. […] At multivariate analysis, PaO2/FiO2 ratio (HR 0.993 [CI 0.987-0.999], p = 0.046) and GNRI moderate-severe risk category (HR 9.285 [1.183-72.879], p = 0.034) were independently associated with in-hospital death.
33035673 By multivariate analysis, mortality was associated with older age (HR = 1.09, p < 0.001), chronic heart failure (HR = 4.4, p = 0.003), and chronic liver disease (HR = 4.69, p = 0.004). […] The use of CS, in combination with TCZ, was identified as protective factor against mortality (HR = 0.26, p < 0.001) in such severe COVID-19 patients receiving TCZ.
33035991 Median overall survival was shorter in those with hospital-acquired infection than that in a contemporary community-acquired population (27 days versus unreached, hazard ratio (HR) = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2-4.4, p = 0.0006.
33039965 Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (HR: 1.099; 95%CI: 1.057-1.143; p < 0.0001), d-dimer greater (HR: 1.294; 95%CI: 1.138-1.473; p < 0.0001) and decreased complement C3 level (HR: 0.073; 95%CI: 0.007-0.722; p = 0.025) on admission.
33040020 Three academic hospitals in Milan (Italy) involving three respiratory high dependency units and three general wards. […] Anthropometrical, clinical characteristics and blood biomarkers were assessed within the first 24 hours from admission. hARF was graded as follows: severe (partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) <100 mm Hg); moderate (PaO2/FiO2 101-200 mm Hg); mild (PaO2/FiO2 201-300 mm Hg) and normal (PaO2/FiO2 >300 mm Hg). […] The only independent risk factors for mortality were age ≥65 years (HR 3.41; 95% CI 2.00 to 5.78, p<0.0001), PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤200 mm Hg (HR 3.57; 95% CI 2.20 to 5.77, p<0.0001) and respiratory failure at admission (HR 3.58; 95% CI 1.05 to 12.18, p=0.04). […] A moderate-to-severe impairment in PaO2/FiO2 was independently associated with a threefold increase in risk of in-hospital mortality.
33041130 According to multivariate regression analysis results, the presence of any comorbid disease (p = 0.027, HR = 26.11 (95%CI: 1.45 to 471.31)), elevated C-reactive protein levels (CRP) (p < 0.001, HR = 1.24 (95%CI: 1.11 to 1.38)) and presence of dyspnea (p = 0.026, HR = 4.26 ((95%CI: 1.19 to 15.28)) were found to significantly increase the mortality, while high pulse O 2 saturation level (p < 0.001, HR = 0.90 (95%CI: 0.82 to 0.99) was found to decrease.
33041508 The multivariate COX regression analyses showed that hypoproteinemia was an independent risk factor associated with deterioration of severe patients (HR, 0.763; 95% CI, 0.596 to 0.978; p = 0.033). […] The restricted cubic spline indicated that when HR = 1, the corresponding value of albumin is 29.6 g/L.
33043447 We investigated the association between the De Ritis ratio on admission and in-hospital mortality in 105 consecutive patients with coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to three COVID-19 referral centres in Sardinia, Italy. […] In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the HR in patients with De Ritis ratios ≥1.63 (upper tertile of this parameter) remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, cardiovascular disease, intensity of care, diabetes, respiratory diseases, malignancies and kidney disease (HR: 2.46, 95% CI 1.05-5.73, P = .037).
33043484 In a PS weighted multivariate proportional hazards model, AC was associated with reduced risk of death at prophylactic (hazard ratio [HR] 0.35 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.22-0.54]) and therapeutic doses (HR 0.14 [95% CI 0.05-0.23]) compared to no AC.
33044747 We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 Global Research Database, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Research Article Database and trial registries to identify completed and ongoing studies on 19 August 2020. […] We followed standard Cochrane methodology. […] We followed standard Cochrane methodology. […] To assess bias in included studies, we used the Cochrane ‘Risk of bias’ 2.0 tool for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), the Risk of Bias in Non-randomised Studies - of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool for controlled non-randomised studies of interventions (NRSIs), and the assessment criteria for observational studies, provided by Cochrane Childhood Cancer for non-controlled NRSIs. […] We are uncertain whether convalescent plasma decreases mortality (time to event) (hazard ratio (HR) 0.64, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.25; 2 RCTs, 189 participants; low-certainty evidence). […] These were predominantly allergic or respiratory, thrombotic or thromboembolic and cardiac events. […] There are 138 ongoing studies evaluating convalescent plasma and hyperimmune immunoglobulin, of which 73 are RCTs (three already completed).
33049250 The primary outcomes evaluated were elevated cardiac troponins (I, T, or high sensitivity), elevated brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), bradycardia (defined as < 60 beats per minute, bpm), and maternal heart rate (HR) nadir. […] The nadir HR ranged from 30-92 bpm and bradycardia occurred in one-third of patients (n=10/31). […] Half of women with elevated troponin and three-fourths of women with elevated BNP had an episode of bradycardia recorded during their hospital course.
33052324 Age and male sex, but not Black (adjusted HR 1.06 [0.82-1.37]) or Mixed/Other ethnicity (adjusted HR 0.72 [0.47-1.10]), were associated with in-hospital mortality. […] Asian ethnicity was associated with higher in-hospital mortality but with a large confidence interval (adjusted HR 1.71 [1.15-2.56]).
33063117 Three clinical trials comparing sofosbuvir/daclatasvir-based regimens with a comparator in hospitalized COVID-19 patients were combined in a meta-analysis. […] Our search identified eight studies of which three met the inclusion criteria (n = 176 patients); two studies were randomized and one was non-randomized. […] Sofosbuvir/daclatasvir improves time to clinical recovery [HR = 2.04 (95% CI = 1.25-3.32), P = 0.004].
33063540 Patients were categorized into three groups according to admission BG levels: <140 mg/dL, 140-180 mg/dL and >180 mg/dL. […] Hyperglycaemia (after adjusting for age, diabetes, hypertension and other confounding factors) was an independent risk factor of mortality (BG >180 mg/dL: HR 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-1.73) (BG 140-180 mg/dL; HR 1.48; 95%CI: 1.29-1.70).
33064125 Higher dose escalation (n = 46, 64.8%) was associated with a nonsignificant decrease in survival time compared to lower dose escalation (n = 25, 35.2%), with a mean difference in time to death of 19.8 hours (hazard ratio [HR], 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-2.97). […] Receipt of a palliative care consult (n = 56, 78.9%) during the final hospital visit was associated with increased survival time (mean difference, 20.1 hours; HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.16-0.63).
33065275 Age, gender, number of drugs daily taken, functional abilities, albuminemia, use of corticosteroids and/or hydroxychloroquine and/or antibiotics (i.e., azithromycin or rovamycin), and hospitalization for COVID-19 were used as potential confounders. […] The full-adjusted hazard ratio for mortality according to vitamin D3 supplementation was HR = 0.11 [95 %CI:0.03;0.48], P = 0.003.
33066327 Older adults (>70 years) (HR = 5.00, 95%CI = 2.83-8.91), patients on MVs (5.39, 3.83-7.64), non-Saudi patients (1.37, 1.01-1.89), and ICU admission (2.09, 1.49-2.93) were associated with a high risk of mortality.
33068758 When stratified by treatment actually received in individual patients, the use of (hydroxy)chloroquine was associated with an increased 21-day mortality (HR 1.58; 95% CI 1.24-2.02) in the full model.
33073361 Multivariable Cox regression analyses showed that age (per 10-year increase) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.74), admission FPG between 7.0 and 11.0 and ≥11.1 mmol/L (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.11-3.25 and HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.21-3.64, respectively), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.31-6.39), and cardiac injury (HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.33-3.47) were independent predictors of 28-day mortality in COVID-19 patients.
33075378 Patients treated with corticosteroids and tocilizumab combination showed lower mortality compared with patients receiving standard-of-care (SoC) treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 0.44; 95% CI, 0.35-0.55; P < .0001) and with patients treated with corticosteroids alone (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53-0.83; P = .004) or in combination with anakinra (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.81; P = .003). […] Corticosteroids when administered alone (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.57-0.76; P < .0001) or in combination with tocilizumab (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.35-0.55; P < .0001) or anakinra (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.81; P < .0001) improved hospital survival compared with SoC treatment.
33077274 After adjusted age and sex, for each standard deviation increase in BMI, the risk of in-hospital death was reduced by 13% (HR = 0.871, 95%CI: 0.795-0.955, p = 0.003), and the risk of ICU transfer was reduced by 7% (HR = 0.932, 95%CI:0.885-0.981, p = 0.007).
33080002 Time to death, compared via hazard ratios (HRs), and 30-day mortality, compared via risk differences. […] In the primary analysis, during a median follow-up of 27 (IQR, 14-37) days, patients treated with tocilizumab had a lower risk of death compared with those not treated with tocilizumab (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.92).
33080017 This cohort-embedded, investigator-initiated, multicenter, open-label, bayesian randomized clinical trial investigating patients with COVID-19 and moderate or severe pneumonia requiring at least 3 L/min of oxygen but without ventilation or admission to the intensive care unit was conducted between March 31, 2020, to April 18, 2020, with follow-up through 28 days. […] In the TCZ group, 12 patients had a WHO-CPS score greater than 5 at day 4 vs 19 in the UC group (median posterior absolute risk difference [ARD] -9.0%; 90% credible interval [CrI], -21.0 to 3.1), with a posterior probability of negative ARD of 89.0% not achieving the 95% predefined efficacy threshold. […] At day 14, 12% (95% CI -28% to 4%) fewer patients needed noninvasive ventilation (NIV) or mechanical ventilation (MV) or died in the TCZ group than in the UC group (24% vs 36%, median posterior hazard ratio [HR] 0.58; 90% CrI, 0.33-1.00), with a posterior probability of HR less than 1 of 95.0%, achieving the predefined efficacy threshold. […] The HR for MV or death was 0.58 (90% CrI, 0.30 to 1.09). […] At day 28, 7 patients had died in the TCZ group and 8 in the UC group (adjusted HR, 0.92; 95% CI 0.33-2.53).
33080051 From 1002 patients included, 110 (60.9% male, median age of 81.5 [IQR 75-87] years, median Short-Form Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI] of 1 [IQR 1-3]) were on OAC at admission, mainly for atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. […] After propensity score matching, 67.9% of these patients died during hospitalization, which translated into a significantly higher mortality risk compared to patients without prior OAC (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.08-2.16). […] After multivariate Cox regression analysis, respiratory insufficiency during hospitalization (HR 6.02, 95% CI 2.18-16.62), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) during hospitalization (HR 2.29, 95% CI 1.34-3.91) and the Short-Form CCI (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.49) were the main risk factors for mortality in patients on prior OAC.
33083287 The random-effects model with 95% CI was used to calculate the pooled Odds Ratio (OR) and Hazard Ratio (HR). […] The Comorbidity with some chronic diseases such as Diabetes type2 OR: 2.42(1.06-5.52), Hypertension OR: 2.54(1.21-5.32), Kidney disorder OR: 2.61(1.22-5.60), Respiratory disorder 3.09 (1.39-6.88) and Heart diseases OR: 4.37 (1.13-16.90) can increase the risk of COVID19 mortality.
33087155 A prospective cohort study was carried out with 45 RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients that required hospitalization at three different hospitals, between April and May 2020. […] Patients with severe hypoperfusion in areas of apparently healthy lung parenchyma had an increased probability of being admitted to ICU and to initiate IMV (HR of 11.9 (95% CI 1.55-91.9) and HR 7.8 (95% CI 1.05-61.1), respectively).
33089037 Red cell distribution width (RDW), a measure of anisocytosis, is observed in chronic inflammation and is a prognostic marker in critically ill patients without COVID-19, but data in COVID-19 are limited. […] After adjusting for age, sex, race, cardiovascular disease, and hemoglobin, there was an association between RDW and mortality (Quartile 4 vs Quartile 1: HR 4.04 [1.08-15.07]), with each 1% increment in RDW associated with a 39% increased rate of mortality (HR 1.39 [1.21-1.59]).
33089972 In multivariable Cox regression reduced TAPSE [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.07-1.31], P = 0.002, per 1 mm decrease], RV strain (HR = 1.64, 95%CI[1.02;2.66], P = 0.043, per 1% decrease) and GLS (HR = 1.20, 95%CI[1.07-1.35], P = 0.002, per 1% decrease) were significantly associated with COVID-19-related death.
33091817 Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe skin pustular drug reaction that can lead to life-threatening consequences. […] The most common comorbidities among the patients were rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. […] In addition, hydroxychloroquine, cephalosporin, and amoxicillin were found as the three most common medications associated with AGEP induction. […] The median duration of treatment was significantly longer in hydroxychloroquine group compared to other drugs (8 versus 5 days; HR 0.57,95%CI 0·35-0.91). […] Likewise, the median duration of treatment was significantly longer in febrile patients compared to the afebrile ones (7 versus 4 days; HR 0.46, 95%CI 0.25-0.85).
33092330 Participants were asked to provide data such as daily step count (Steps) or heart rate (HR) measured and collected by their smart technology devices. […] During the lockdown, the number of steps dropped from 8,284±4,390 to 3,294±3,994 steps (p< 0.001), while mean peak HR decreased from 61.3±18.2% to 55.9±17.3% (p< 0.001).
33092732 RV dysfunction (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49 to 4.43; p = 0.001) and dilation (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.96; p = 0.02) each independently conferred mortality risk. […] Patients without adverse RV remodeling were more likely to survive to hospital discharge (HR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.90; p = 0.041).
33093359 Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with hypercoagulability and increased thrombotic risk in critically ill patients. […] Three hundred fourteen patients (76.3%) did not receive aspirin, while 98 patients (23.7%) received aspirin within 24 hours of admission or 7 days prior to admission. […] After adjusting for 8 confounding variables, aspirin use was independently associated with decreased risk of mechanical ventilation (adjusted HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.37-0.85, p=0.007), ICU admission (adjusted HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.38-0.85, p=0.005), and in-hospital mortality (adjusted HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.31-0.90, p=0.02). […] There were no differences in major bleeding (p=0.69) or overt thrombosis (p=0.82) between aspirin users and non-aspirin users.
33094522 /L (HR 3.43, 95% CI 1.84-6.40), C-reactive protein greater than 100 mg/L (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.04-3.59), and lactate dehydrogenase over 300 U/L (HR 2.90, 95% CI 1.26-6.67). […] Immunoglobulin treatment (HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.21-0.73) can reduce the risk of death. […] Sinus tachycardia (HR 2.94, 95% CI 1.16-7.46) and ventricular arrhythmia (HR 2.79, 95% CI 1.11-7.04) were independent ECG risk factors for mortality from COVID-19.
33095841 Overall unadjusted survival at 1 week after date of positive COVID-19 test was 87.5% (95% CI 86.1-88.8%); mortality increased with age, treatment vintage and there was borderline evidence of Asian ethnicity (HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.94-1.44) being associated with higher mortality.
33097933 Most ECG variables were significantly associated with mortality, including atrial fibrillation (P = 0.002), increasing heart rate (P = 0.002), presence of left bundle branch block (LBBB; P < 0.001), QRS duration (P <0 .001), a QRS duration of ≥110 ms (P < 0.001), ST segment depression (P < 0.001), abnormal Q/QS wave (P = 0.034), premature ventricular complexes (PVCs; P = 0.051), and presence of any ECG abnormality [hazard ratio (HR) 4.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.40-8.76; P < 0.001].
33107607 ) > 0.40, the hazard ratio (HR) for death or ICU admission, between the corticosteroids and non-corticosteroids group, was 0.07 (95% CI 0.01-0.4), p = .002, and for patients requiring low-flow oxygen, the HR was 0.70 (95% CI 0.13-3.8), p = .68.
33109676 Among positive cases admitted to the hospital (N=3273), we estimated HR for both discharge and death across various explanatory variables, including patient demographics, hospital site and unit, smoking status, vital signs, lab results and comorbidities. […] Significant risk factors for mortality included age (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.06; p=1.15e-32), oxygen saturation (HR 0.985, 95% CI 0.982 to 0.988; p=1.57e-17), care in intensive care unit areas (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.92; p=7.81e-6) and elevated creatinine (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.10; p=7.48e-10), white cell count (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.04; p=8.4e-3) and body mass index (BMI) (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.03; p=1.09e-2).
33110595 In the multivariate analysis, only history of diabetes and chronic kidney disease remained independently associated with death in the positive cohort. […] In bivariate analysis, pregnant patients with a positive test had a higher risk of death than pregnant patients with a negative test (relative risk (RR) = 3.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.48-10.12), but no higher risk was found than in non-pregnant women with a positive test (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.44-1.53), and 60-day mortality did not significantly differ among pregnant patients with or without a positive test (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.12-1.30) or between COVID-19-positive patients who were pregnant or not pregnant (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.35-1.56). […] The presence of diabetes mellitus and chronic disease increases the risk of death in women of childbearing age, but not specifically in pregnant patients.
33116052 A total of 10,362 patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 with a start of critical care between March 1, 2020, and June 22, 2020, of whom 9,990 were eligible (excluding patients with a duration of critical care less than 24 hr or missing core variables).
33117850 The unadjusted risk for 28-day in-hospital death was lower for patients who received remdesivir compared with patients who received supportive care (hazard ratio [HR], 0.42; 95% CI, 0.16-1.08). […] Although this trend remained the same after adjusting for age, sex, race, and oxygen requirements on admission (adjusted HR [aHR], 0.49; 95% CI, 0.19-1.28), as well as chronic comorbidities and use of corticosteroids (aHR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.16-1.23), it did not reach statistical significance.
33119835 Three models were built for stratification of mortality risk: clinical, clinical/visual CT evaluation, and clinical/software-based CT assessment. […] Visual pneumonia extent > 40% (HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.2-3.85, P = 0.01), %high attenuation area - 700 HU > 35% (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.2-3.94, P = 0.01), exudative consolidations (HR 2.85-2.93, 95% CI 1.61-5.05/1.66-5.16, P < 0.001), visual CAC score > 1 (HR 2.76-3.32, 95% CI 1.4-5.45/1.71-6.46, P < 0.01/P < 0.001), and CT classified as COVID-19 and other disease (HR 1.92-2.03, 95% CI 1.01-3.67/1.06-3.9, P = 0.04/P = 0.03) were significantly associated with shorter OS.
33128497 After adjustment, high MPR was associated with an elevated incidence of SP (HR, 5.841, 95% CI, 1.566-21.791, P = .009). […] The IPTW method also suggested that MPR was a significant factor related to the incidence of SP (HR, 8.337, 95% CI, 4.045-17.182, P < .001).
33135047 The Cox model applied to the CSH function (HR = 0.58(CI: 0.39-0.89); p = 0.01) and the competing risks FG model (HR = 0.60(CI: 0.39-0.92); p = 0.02) suggest that statins are associated with reduced COVID-19-related mortality.
33135113 The aim of our study was to assess the association of acute and chronic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with worse COVID-19 outcomes. […] Information on NSAID use was collected through a telephone questionnaire, and patients were followed up for COVID-19 infection outcomes, including death, admission, severity, time to clinical improvement, oxygen requirement and length of stay. […] Acute use of ibuprofen was not associated with a greater risk of mortality relative to non-use (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.632 [95% CI 0.073-5.441; P = 0.6758]). […] Chronic NSAID use was also not associated with a greater risk of mortality (adjusted HR 0.492 [95% CI 0.178-1.362; P = 0.1721]). […] Acute or chronic use of ibuprofen and other NSAIDs was not associated with worse COVID-19 disease outcomes.
33136661 Age was significantly associated with increased risk of mortality (HR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03 - 1.08, p < 0.001 for a 1 year increase in age).
33138935 Sixty-three patients were treated with ACEI/ARB and 138 were not. […] Lower mortality rate was observed in patients treated with ACEI/ARB compared with patients not treated with ARB or ACEI (22.2% [14] vs 37.7% [52], hazard ratio [HR] 0.54; 95% confidence interval 0.30-0.97; P = .03). […] In a multivariate Cox regression model including age, sex, ADL score, Charlson index, renal function, dyspnea, C-reactive protein, and white blood cell count, use of ACEI/ARB was significantly associated with lower in-hospital mortality (HR 0.52 (0.27-0.99), P = .048).
33138936 A multivariable Cox model showed that male sex (HR 4.00, 95% CI 2.08-7.71, P < .001), increased fraction of inspired oxygen (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.09, P < .001), and crackles (HR 2.42, 95% CI 1.15-6.06, P = .019) were the best predictors of mortality, while better functional status was protective (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99, P = .001).
33140379 Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality in association with continuous and the lower two quartiles of thyroid hormone concentrations in severely or critically ill patients. […] The lower (versus upper) two quartiles of FT3 was associated with all-cause mortality HR (95% CI) of 9.23 (2.01, 42.28). […] The HR (95% CI) for all-cause mortality in association with continuous FT3 concentration was 0.41 (0.21, 0.81).
33141117 After PS matching, corticosteroid therapy was associated with 28-day mortality (adjusted HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.13, P = 0.045).
33141251 Compared with those without PE, these subjects had younger age, higher BMI, less often heart failure and chronic kidney disease, more severe cardio-pulmonary involvement, and higher admission D-dimer [4344 (1099-15,118) vs. […] In multivariate regression, only D-dimer was associated with PE (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.13-2.62; p = 0.01).
33141353 Multivariable regression, including age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR (95% CI), was used to explore risk factors associated with adverse outcomes. […] Two hundred three (79%) patients presented from the community, 34 (13%) from care homes and 20 (8%) were existing inpatients. […] Being overweight/obese HR (95% CI) 3.09 (1.32, 7.23), p = 0.009; a care home resident 2.68 (1.24, 5.6), p = 0.012; socioeconomically deprived 1.05 (1.01, 1.09), p = 0.012; and older 1.04 (1.01, 1.06), p = 0.002 were significantly associated with death.
33142266 Secondary endpoints included death, shock, need for mechanical ventilation, need for supplemental oxygen, arrhythmia, venous thromboembolism, encephalopathy, abnormal troponin level, and length of stay. […] Patients with cancer were more likely to develop COVID-19-associated severe disease than were those without cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 2.02; 95% CI, 1.53-2.68; P<.001 furthermore patients with both cancer and cvd had a higher likelihood of covid-19-associated severe disease compared those either ci p=“.02)” or alone.> </.001>
33144126 In Cox multivariate regression analysis, cardiac troponin I was a predictor of mortality in both groups (confirmed COVID-19 group: HR, 3.54; 95%CI, 1.70-7.34; P=.001; ruled out COVID-19 group: HR, 5.57; 95%CI, 1.70-18.20; P=.004).
33147282 Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, risk factors associated with RP included a higher ratio of lymphocyte/white blood cell on admission (adjusted HR 7.038; 95% CI, 1.911-25.932; P = 0.0034), lower peak temperature during hospitalization (adjusted HR, 0.203; 95% CI, 0.093-0.443; P<0.0001), and the presence of comorbidities, particularly hypertension or chronic diseases in the respiratory system (adjusted HR, 3.883; 95% CI, 1.468-10.273; P = 0.0063). […] Antivirus treatment with arbidol was associated with a lower likelihood of re-positive outcomes (adjusted HR, 0.178; 95% CI, 0.045-0.709; P = 0.0144).
33148777 CPAP was found to be significantly (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.40) associated with lower risk of death in patients with hospital stay equal to, or below 7 days. […] However, for longer hospitalisation CPAP was found to be associated with increased risk of death (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.40 to 2.12). […] In addition, lower A-a gradient was associated with lower risk of death in CPAP patients (HR 1.011, 95% CI 1.010 to 1.013).
33150437 The median (IQR) age was 64 (53-71) years; 51.2% were male, 38.9% were retirees and 7.4% had self-reported histories of chronic disease. […] Compared with those who recovered and were discharged, patients who died were older [hazard ratio (HR), 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.05], more likely to be male (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.44-2.11) and more likely to have hypertension (HR, 5.58), cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.83) or diabetes (HR, 1.67). […] Advanced age, male sex and a history of chronic disease were associated with COVID-19 critical illness and death.
33151337 After adjusting for sex, age and frailty, in-hospital mortality did not significantly differ between transplant and dialysis patients [hazard ratio (HR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.59-1.10, P = 0.18]. […] In the subset of dialysis patients who were a candidate for transplantation (n = 148), 8 patients died within 28 days, as compared with 7 deaths in 23 patients who underwent a kidney transplantation <1 year before presentation (HR adjusted for sex, age and frailty 0.20, 95% CI 0.07-0.56, P < 0.01).
33151983 The three main leading causes of admission were: fever (77%), dry cough (73%), and fatigue (69%). […] The Cox Proportional-Hazards Model for PCEP indicated the following significant risk factors: Oxygen saturation < 80% (HR = 6.3; [CI 95%: 2.5,15.5]), lymphopenia (HR = 3.5; [CI 95%: 2.2,5.5]), Oxygen saturation 80%-90% (HR = 2.5; [CI 95%: 1.1,5.8]), and thrombocytopenia (HR = 1.6; [CI 95%: 1.1,2.5]).
33152195 For the development of the severe disease, prognostic factors were a history of hemodialysis (HR=135), diabetes (HR=4.4), and an increased level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (HR=1,004), while the lymphocyte count over 1,064 was a protective factor (HR=0.9). […] Conclusions: The most important prognostic factors for mortality were being over 60 years of age, hypertension, diabetes, and cirrhosis, while for the development of severe disease they were chronic kidney disease with hemodialysis, NEWS2 with high risk at admission, increased levels of LDH and C reactive protein (CRP), and leukocytosis.
33153910 Residents who were positive for COVID-19 and had multiple symptoms at the time of testing had the highest risk of mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 4.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.97, 6.65) and hospitalization (subhazard ratio 2.38, 95% CI 1.70, 3.33), even after accounting for comorbidity burden. […] Cases who were asymptomatic at testing had a higher risk of mortality (HR 2.92, 95% CI 1.95, 4.35) but not hospitalization (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.82, 1.38) compared with those who were negative for COVID-19.
33153955 Hs-TnT and NT-proBNP levels were independent predictors of death or MV (HR, 2.18; 95%CI, 1.23-3.83 and 1.87 (95%CI, 1.05-3.36), respectively) and of mortality alone (HR, 2.91; 95%CI, 1.211-7.04 and 5.47; 95%CI, 2.10-14.26, respectively).
33160999 The aim of this study was to assess general anxiety levels in endodontists and dental assistants related to different conditions during the pandemic and lockdown and to evaluate hemodynamic changes in endodontists’ heart rate (HR), blood pressure, and blood oxygenation during their workday. […] Hemodynamic parameters were monitored using a sphygmomanometer for HR and blood pressure and a pulse oximeter for oxygen saturation. […] Values were higher in the strict confinement period and significant for HR when arriving at the clinic (P < .05). […] Higher HR and blood pressure levels were registered during the workday, especially when arriving at the clinic.
33161001 Patients with higher levels of dental anxiety and those treated in the strict confinement period presented an elevated HR.
33162306 Compared with nonmyocardial injury patients, patients with myocardial injury were older (68.4 ± 10.1 v 62.1 ± 13.5 years; p = 0.02), had higher prevalence of underlying CV disease (34.1% v 11.1%; p = 0.02), and in-ICU CV complications (41.5% v 13.9%; p = 0.008), higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (20.3 ± 7.3 v 14.4 ± 7.4; p = 0.001), and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores (7, interquartile range (IQR) 5-10 v 5, IQR 3-6; p < 0.001). […] Myocardial injury on admission increased the risk of 28-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.200; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29 to 3.74; p = 0.004). […] Age ≥75 years was another risk factor for mortality (HR, 2.882; 95% CI 1.51-5.50; p = 0.002).
33163331 The emergence of COVID-19 has brought a serious global public health threats especially for most of the cities across the world even in India more than 50 % of the total cases were reported from large ten cities. […] Five count data regression models such as Poisson regression (PR), negative binomial regression (NBR), hurdle regression (HR), zero-inflated Poisson regression (ZIPR), and zero-inflated negative binomial regression (ZINBR) were used to understand the impact of living environment deprivation on COVID-19 hotspot in Kolkata megacity.
33169643 Multivariable analysis incorporating age, comorbidities, AF/AFL, QRS abnormalities, and ST-T wave changes, and initial hs-cTnT ≥20 ng/L showed that increased age (HR 1.04/year), elevated hs-cTnT (HR 4.57), AF/AFL (HR 2.07), and a history of coronary artery disease (HR 1.56) and active cancer (HR 1.87) were associated with increased mortality.
33172477 Time-dependent Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 60-day in-hospital mortality. […] In Cox regression analysis using corticosteroid treatment as a time-varying variable, corticosteroid treatment was associated with a significant reduction in risk of in-hospital death within 60 days after adjusting for age, sex, SOFA score at hospital admission, propensity score of corticosteroid treatment, comorbidities, antiviral treatment, and respiratory supports (HR 0.42; 95% CI 0.21, 0.85; p = 0.0160).
33173851 Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed increasing hazards of inpatient mortality associated with older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.02; 95% CI 1.01 - 1.04), LTCF residence (HR 3.23; 95% CI1.68 - 6.20), and quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) scores (HR 2.59; 95% CI1.78 - 3.76).
33178979 This is the first study to examine inter-rater agreement between ED clinicians and radiologists in regards to COVID-19 CXR interpretation.Further service configurations such as 24-hr hot reporting of CXRs can be guided by these data, as well as an ongoing, nationwide follow-up study.
33179839 In-hospital treatment with corticosteroids and heparin had beneficial effects (adjusted HR for death: 0.46; 95% CI 0.29-0.74; P = 0.001; n = 404 for corticosteroids, and adjusted HR 0.41; 95% CI 0.25-0.67; P < 0.001; n = 364 for heparin).
33180278 MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, WHO COVID-19 databases from inception to 15/06/2020 and medRxiv. […] Age- and sex-adjusted risks were significantly elevated for Black (HR: 1.38 [1.09-1.75]) and Asian (HR: 1.42 [1.15-1.75]), but not for Hispanic (RR: 1.14 [0.93-1.40]). […] Further adjusting for comorbidities attenuated these associations to non-significance: Black (HR: 0.95 [0.72-1.25]); Asian (HR: 1.17 [0.84-1.63]); Hispanic (HR: 0.94 [0.63-1.44]).
33180839 This report is focused on HRV parameters kinetics before, during and after this lockdown period. 95 participants were included in this study (27 women, 68 men, 37 ± 11 years, 176 ± 8 cm, 71 ± 12 kg), who underwent regular orthostatic tests (a 5-minute supine followed by a 5-minute standing recording of heart rate (HR)) on a regular basis before (BSL), during (CFN) and after (RCV) the lockdown. […] HR, power in low- and high-frequency bands (LF, HF, respectively) and root mean square of the successive differences (RMSSD) were computed for each orthostatic test, and for each position. […] There was an increase in HR and a decrease in RMSSD when measured supine in CFN and RCV, compared to BSL in WB-, whilst opposite results were found in WB+ (i.e. decrease in HR and increase in RMSSD in CFN and RCV; increase in LF and HF in RCV). […] When pooling data of the three phases, there were significant correlations between VAS and HR, RMSSD, HF, respectively, in the supine position; the higher the VAS score (i.e., subjective well-being), the higher the RMSSD and HF and the lower the HR. […] In standing position, HRV parameters were not modified during CFN but RMSSD was correlated to VAS. […] The changes in HRV parameters during and after the lockdown period were in line with subjective well-being responses. […] However, these results confirmed the usefulness of HRV as a non-invasive means for monitoring well-being and health in this population.
33181098 We measured the incidence of and hazard ratios (HRs) for psychiatric disorders, dementia, and insomnia, during the first 14 to 90 days after a diagnosis of COVID-19. […] In patients with no previous psychiatric history, a diagnosis of COVID-19 was associated with increased incidence of a first psychiatric diagnosis in the following 14 to 90 days compared with six other health events (HR 2·1, 95% CI 1·8-2·5 vs influenza; 1·7, 1·5-1·9 vs other respiratory tract infections; 1·6, 1·4-1·9 vs skin infection; 1·6, 1·3-1·9 vs cholelithiasis; 2·2, 1·9-2·6 vs urolithiasis, and 2·1, 1·9-2·5 vs fracture of a large bone; all p<0·0001). […] The HR was greatest for anxiety disorders, insomnia, and dementia. […] We observed similar findings, although with smaller HRs, when relapses and new diagnoses were measured.
33181320 Compared with treatment initiated after 3 weeks, early treatment with QFPDD after less than 1 week, 1-2 weeks, or 2-3 weeks had a higher likelihood of recovery, with adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95 % confidence interval [CI]) of 3.81 (2.65-5.48), 2.63 (1.86-3.73), and 1.92 (1.34-2.75), respectively.
33182695 The extent of lung involvement on CT was classified both subjectively and with a simple semi-quantitative method measuring the affected area at three lung levels. […] A 10% increase in the affected lung parenchyma area increased the instantaneous risk of intubation (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.00) and the instantaneous risk of ICU admission (HR 1.73).
33184086 In multivariate analysis, high fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4; HR 2.784), low lymphocyte count (HR 0.480), diabetes (HR 1.917) and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (HR 1.714) were found to be independent risk factors for mortality in patients with COVID-19 receiving respiratory support (all p<0.05).
33185316 Cox regression analysis showed that lymphocytopenia (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.88, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.68-0.96, p = 0.048), increased lactate (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.94-1.46, p = 0.049), and D-dimers (HR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.03-1.44, p = 0.03) were mortality predictors.
33188461 The COVID-19 pandemic has required triage and delays in surgical care throughout the world. […] Bootstrapping methods were used to identify optimal time-to-surgery (TTS) thresholds at which overall survival differences were greatest. […] Bootstrapping the data to dichotomize the cohort identified the largest rise in hazard ratio (HR) at day 67, which was used as the optimal TTS cut-point in survival analysis. […] The patients who underwent surgical treatment longer than 67 days after diagnosis had a significantly increased risk of death (HR, 1.189; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.122-1.261; P < 0.0001).
33188961 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with abnormal inflammatory and coagulation markers, potentially mediating thrombotic events. […] Our objective was to investigate the incidence, time course, laboratory features, and in-hospital outcomes of COVID-19 patients with suspected venous thromboembolism (VTE). […] The medical records of the included patients were reviewed for D-dimer, fibrinogen, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, platelet count, C-reactive protein (CRP), and high-sensitivity troponin T at admission and at up to seven time points before and after ultrasound examination. […] The clinical outcomes included superficial venous thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, intubation, and death. […] The independent predictors of death included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.07; P = .04), active malignancy (HR, 4.39; 95% CI, 1.39-13.91; P = .01), elevated admission D-dimer (HR, 1.016; 95% CI, 1.003-1.029; P = .02), and evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (HR, 4.81; 95% CI, 1.76-13.10; P = .002).
33194083 After adjusted for related covariates, AKI development was independently correlated with LOS (β (95% CI): 9.16 (3.87-14.46)), rather than primary outcomes (HR (95% CI): 1.34 (0.56-3.21)) in COVID-19 patients.
33196991 The data were reported as hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). 81 older people (mean age 84.1 years; females = 61.9%) were included. […] Therapeutic doses were not associated to a better survival rate (HR 1.06; 95% CI 0.47-2.60; p = 0.89), even after adjusting for 15 confounders related to mortality (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.30-2.71; p = 0.84).
33197395 Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose has been shown to improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency. […] There was no difference in cardiovascular death between the two groups (77 [14%] of 558 in the ferric carboxymaltose group vs 78 [14%] in the placebo group; hazard ratio [HR] 0·96, 95% CI 0·70-1·32, p=0·81). 217 total heart failure hospitalisations occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 294 occurred in the placebo group (RR 0·74; 95% CI 0·58-0·94, p=0·013). […] The composite of first heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death occurred in 181 (32%) patients in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 209 (38%) in the placebo group (HR 0·80, 95% CI 0·66-0·98, p=0·030).
33198368 Rates of hospitalisations and death in those found positive were assessed and hazard ratios (HR) were estimated. […] After adjusting for confounding factors, there was no association between IV and hospitalisation (1.00; 95% CI 0.84-1.29) or death (HR = 1.14; 95% CI 0.95-1.37). […] However, for patients age ≥65 vaccinated close to the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, HRs were 0.66 (95% CI: 0.44-0.98) and 0.70 (95% CI 0.50-1.00), for hospitalisation and death, respectively.
33200120 Individuals of Asian ethnicity may also be at higher risk of ITU admission (pooled adjusted RR 1.97 95% CI 1.34-2.89) (but no studies had yet been peer-reviewed) and death (pooled adjusted RR/HR 1.22 [0.99-1.50]).
33208294 In subgroup analyses, the association between thymosin α1 therapy and 28-day mortality appeared to be stronger among male patients (HR 0.673, 95% CI 0.454-0.998; p = 0.049). […] There were two phenotypes after cluster analysis, but no benefits of thymosin α1 were shown in phenotype 1 (HR 0.823 95% CI 0.581-1.166; p = 0.273) and phenotype 2 (HR 1.148 95% CI 0.710-1.895; p = 0.442).
33214191 Moreover, in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with T2DM, ARDS and coagulopathy were the main causes of mortality, with an HR of 7.96 (95% CI 2.25 to 28.24, p=0.001) for ARDS and an HR of 2.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 5.21, p=0.032) for coagulopathy. […] This was different from inpatients with COVID-19 without T2DM, in whom ARDS and cardiac injury were the main causes of mortality, with an HR of 12.18 (95% CI 5.74 to 25.89, p<0.001) for ARDS and an HR of 4.42 (95% CI 2.73 to 7.15, p<0.001) for cardiac injury.
33216443 Age above 60 years (hazard ratio [HR] 3.21; 95% CI 1.78, 5.78) and hyperglycemia (HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.14, 2.82) were the only significant predictors of in-hospital mortality.
33216846 We evaluated whether frailty and multimorbidity predict in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19 beyond chronological age. 165 patients admitted from March 8th to April 17th, 2020, with COVID-19 in an acute geriatric ward in Italy were included. […] The hazard (HR) of in-hospital mortality as a function of CFS score and number of chronic diseases in the whole population and in those aged 70+ years were calculated. […] Each unitary increment in the CFS was associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death in the whole sample (HR=1.3; 95%CI=1.05-1.62) and in patients aged 70+ years (HR=1.29;95%CI=1.04-1.62), whereas the number of chronic diseases was not significantly associated with higher risk of death.
33220354 Unadjusted and adjusted risk of death was significantly lower for treated patients compared with controls (hazard ratio, 0.33, 95% CI, 0.15-0.74, P = .007, and HR, 0.18, 95% CI, 0.07-0.50, P = .001, respectively).
33220973 Type of treatment was not a predictor of LOS (HR = 0.565, 95% CI = 0.357-0.894, p = 0.015) or duration until symptom resolution (HR = 0.630, 95% CI = 0.405-0.979, p = 0.040).
33224596 Asian patients were more likely to present with venous thromboembolic disease (adj.OR=4.10, 95% CI 1.49-11.27, P=0.006). […] Importantly, our adjusted multi-variate Cox regression analysis revealed significantly higher all-cause mortality both for Asian (adj.HR=1.89, 95% CI 1.23-2.91, P=0.004) and Afro-Caribbean ethnicity (adj.HR=2.09, 95% CI 1.30-3.37, P=0.002).
33225517 Patients with high IL-6 levels have a relatively worse prognosis (HR = 2.30).
33226861 Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of risk factors associated with rehospitalization or death. […] Risk for rehospitalization or death was higher for male patients (HR, 1.45 [CI, 1.04 to 2.03]); White patients (HR, 1.74 [CI, 1.22 to 2.47]); and patients with heart failure (HR, 2.12 [CI, 1.41 to 3.19]), diabetes with complications (HR, 1.71 [CI, 1.17 to 2.52]), 2 or more emergency department visits in the past 6 months (HR, 1.78 [CI, 1.21 to 2.62]), pain daily or all the time (HR, 1.46 [CI, 1.05 to 2.05]), cognitive impairment (HR, 1.49 [CI, 1.04 to 2.13]), or functional dependencies (HR, 1.09 [CI, 1.00 to 1.20]).
33229434 Although patients with CAD had a higher risk of all-cause mortality than patients without CAD (HR 3.01, 95% CI 2.27 to 3.99), this difference was no longer significant in the adjusted model (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.63). […] Results were consistent among patients with prior MI (adjusted HR (aHR) 0.87, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.41), prior PCI (aHR 1.10, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.62), prior CABG (aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.82), or CAD medically treated (aHR 0.84, 95% CI 0.29 to 2.44). […] Multivariable analysis showed that age (aHR per 5 year increase 1.62, 95% CI 1.53 to 1.72) and female sex (aHR 0.63, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.82) were the only two independent correlates of mortality.
33230863 Treatment with 0.1 and 0.05 ppm ozone gas for 10 and 20 hr, respectively, decreased SARS-CoV-2 infectivity by about 95%.
33232684 Relative to those not receiving diabetes medications, residents taking metformin were at significantly reduced hazard of death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28, 0.84] over the subsequent 30 days from COVID-19 diagnosis. […] There was no association with insulin (adjusted HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.60, 1.64) or other diabetes medications (adjusted HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.38, 1.32). […] These findings suggest a relative survival benefit in nursing home residents on metformin, potentially through its mTOR inhibition effects.
33234138 This retrospective study of hormone therapy in female COVID-19 patients shows that the fatality risk for women > 50 years receiving estradiol therapy (user group) is reduced by more than 50%; the OR was 0.33, 95% CI [0.18, 0.62] and the hazard ratio (HR) was 0.29, 95% CI [0.11,0.76].
33234660 Each additional day between symptom onset and hospital admission was associated with a 1% increase in mortality risk (HR 1.01; p<0.005).
33236373 After a multivariate parametric survival regression, IL-6, NT-proBNP and RESP scores remained significant independent predictors, with hazard ratios (HR) of 1.069 [95%-CI: 0.986-1.160], P = .016 1.001 [95%-CI: 1.000-1.001], P = .012; and .843 [95%-CI: 0.564-1.260], P = .040, respectively.
33236710 Hence, the aim of this study was to assess COVID-19-related KAP of the University of Sharjah (UOS) students and compare between health-related (HR) and non-HR (NHR) majors. […] A cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2020 in which 1,012 (481 health-related and 531 NHR) students participated via an online KAP questionnaire. […] Those in HR majors had a higher knowledge score (76%) than those in NHR students (69%). […] Regarding attitudes, both HR and NHR students demonstrated comparable and positive attitudes to curb the spread. […] With respect to practices, more NHR students used masks (92.3%), almost all the time than HR students (88.4%). […] HR students (99.4%) avoided crowded places and practiced social distancing more than NHR students (99.4% versus 97.4% and 97.7% versus 93.2%, respectively).
33239507 At 23.5 hours of sepsis, sheep received fluid resuscitation (30 mL/kg, Hartmann solution) and were randomized to IV sodium ascorbate (0.5 g/kg over 0.5 hr + 0.5 g/kg/hr for 6.5 hr; n = 5) or vehicle (n = 5). […] Norepinephrine was titrated to restore mean arterial pressure to baseline values (~80 mm Hg). […] The norepinephrine dose was decreased, to zero in four of five sheep, whereas mean arterial pressure increased (to 83 ± 2 mm Hg).
33248471 Unexpectedly, we found that insulin treatment for patients with COVID-19 and T2D was associated with a significant increase in mortality (27.2% versus 3.5%; adjusted HR, 5.38 [2.75-10.54]).
33249945 After PS matching, the cox regression survival analysis showed that corticosteroid use was significantly associated with a lower mortality rate (HR = 0.592, [95%CI 0.406-0.862], p = 0.006).
33256813 (HR: 0.988; 95%CI 0.988-0.998; p: 0.018) ratios were the only independent predictors of mortality, with ROC-determined cutoff values of 159 mmHg and 0.635 mm/mmHg, respectively. in ARDS on COVID-19.
33256958 Although symptomatology overlapped between residents with COVID-19+ and COVID-19-, those with COVID-19+ were 3 times more likely to die within 30 days [hazard ratio (HR), 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7-3.6]. […] Within this group, mortality was higher for men than for women (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.2), and we observed a higher mortality for residents with dementia, reduced kidney function, and Parkinson’s disease, even when corrected for age, gender, and comorbidities. […] This emphasizes the importance of using low-threshold testing in NH residents, which is an essential prerequisite to using limited personal protective equipment and isolation measures efficiently.
33257488 HRs and 95% CI will be used as an outcome measure. […] To compute for adjusted HR with 95% CI, crude HR of outcomes will be adjusted according to the prespecified possible confounders. […] The dissemination of results will be conducted through scientific/medical conferences and through journal publication.
33257496 There were no significantly higher adjusted risks of hospitalisation (HR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.68-1.11), intensive care unit admission (HR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.86-1.86), or mortality (HR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.53-1.95) in patients with RMD versus comparators. […] There was a trend towards a higher risk of mechanical ventilation in the RMD cohort versus comparators, although not statistically significant (adjusted HR: 1.51, 95% CI: 0.93-2.44). […] There was a trend towards improvement in mechanical ventilation risk in the recent versus early RMD cohort (10% vs 19%, adjusted HR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.17-1.12).
33257703 At Cox regression analysis, significant predictors of in-hospital mortality were: hypernatremia (HR 9.12), lymphocyte count < 1000 cells/µL (HR 7.45), cardiovascular diseases other than hypertension (HR 6.41), and higher levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6, pg/mL) (HR 1.005).
33259686 Age >60 years, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, CRP >60 mg/L, lymphopenia, kidney transplant status (HR = 1.55), and creatinine level >115 µmol/L (HR = 2.32) were associated with COVID-19-related mortality in univariate analysis.
33259918 A bivariate Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) model was employed to determine the HR between individual factors and death. […] In multivariate Cox model, older age (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.09), cardiovascular disease (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.79), DM (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.09-1.92), severe hypoxaemia (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.49-2.72), lymphocytopenia (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.20-2.20) and increased C-reactive protein (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06) were risk factors for mortality.
33261636 Harm reduction (HR) services, which aim to reduce the negative effects of drug use on health, are likely to be diminished in a pandemic. […] However, innovative HR interventions and messaging may also develop in response to such a crisis. […] It is vital to understand the most effective ways to deliver HR in pandemic situations so that guidance can be provided for current and future disruptions to service provision. […] A rapid evidence review was conducted with the aim of exploring what HR interventions and messaging are most effective during a pandemic-type situation. […] A search was also made of grey literature, including a targeted search of HR messaging from key national and service provider websites. […] The rapid findings suggest that HR services should be deemed essential during a pandemic, with staff supported to work safely and social distancing adaptations implemented. […] The evidence on HR communication was very limited but key messages on infection control, uncertain drug supply and accessing services were identified. […] This rapid evidence review identifies implications for national policy makers, commissioners and HR service providers. […] A person-centred rather than disease-centred approach to HR delivered by collaborating partners, as well as prioritizing tailored HR messaging, is recommended. […] Further research evaluating the delivery of HR services and messaging, particularly focusing on health inequalities, is urgently needed.
33262553 Hs-TnT and NT-proBNP levels were independent predictors of death or MV (HR, 2.18; 95%CI, 1.23-3.83 and 1.87 (95%CI, 1.05-3.36), respectively) and of mortality alone (HR, 2.91; 95%CI, 1.211-7.04 and 5.47; 95%CI, 2.10-14.26, respectively).
33262790 Cox models indicated that individuals in the higher genetic risk score quintiles of BMI and LDL were more predisposed to COVID-19 (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.24, CI: 1.03-1.49 and HR: 1.37, CI: 1.14-1.65, for the top vs the bottom quintile for BMI and LDL cholesterol, respectively).
33263159 Cox proportional hazards regression indicated age (p < 0.0001, HR 4.17), H-score (< 9, HR 0.36, p = 0.0012), and worsening of H-score vs A score > 3 (HR 1.57, p = 0.0227) as associated with worse outcome.
33270741 After multivariable adjustment for age, gender, SAPS 3, and Charlson Comorbidity Index, COVID-19 remained not associated with survival at 28 days (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.33-1.06, p = 0.076).
33271421 At multivariable analysis, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE; HR = 0.84; 95% CI 0.66-0.98; p = 0.046) and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP; HR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.03-1.23; p = 0.008) resulted the only parameters independently associated with PE occurrence.
33271558 At univariate analysis, LUS score (hazard ratio [HR] 1.168, 95% CI 1.049-1.301) and pleural effusions (HR 3.995, 95% CI 1.056-15.110) were associated with in-hospital death. […] At multivariate analysis, only LUS score (HR 1.168, 95% CI 1.049-1.301) was independelty associated with in-hospital death. […] The LUS score’s best cutoff for distinguishing patients experiencing in-hospital death was 17 (at multivariate analysis LUS score ≥17, HR 4.827, 95% CI 1.452-16.040).
33274479 All patients received clarithromycin, enoxaparin and methylprednisolone or prednisone up to 10 days. […] The Cox proportional hazard analysis showed the highest HR improvement value of 2.15 (1.39-3.34, 95%CI, P = 0.0005) for CsA treatment in moderate to severe patients, and HR = 1.95 (1.35-2.83, 95%CI, P = 0.0003) for all patients. […] Further investigation through controlled clinical trials is warranted.
33275763 Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and immunosuppression, such as in renal transplantation (RT), stand as one of the established potential risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Patients with CKD Stages 3-5, chronic HD and RT were compared with patients who had COVID-19 but no kidney disease. […] Adjusted mortality and adjusted combined outcomes in CKD group and HD groups were significantly higher than the control group [hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) CKD: 2.88 (1.52-5.44); P = 0.001; 2.44 (1.35-4.40); P = 0.003; HD: 2.32 (1.21-4.46); P = 0.011; 2.25 (1.23-4.12); P = 0.008), respectively], but these were not significantly different in the RT from in the control group [HR (95% CI) 1.89 (0.76-4.72); P = 0.169; 1.87 (0.81-4.28); P = 0.138, respectively].
33275896 Here, we developed nanoparticle vaccines by covalently conjugating the self-assembled 24-mer ferritin to the receptor binding domain (RBD) and/or heptad repeat (HR) subunits of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein. […] RBD and RBD-HR nanoparticle vaccinated hACE2 transgenic mice vaccinated with RBD and/or RBD-HR nanoparticles exhibited reduced viral load in the lungs after SARS-CoV-2 challenge. […] RBD-HR nanoparticle vaccines also promoted neutralizing antibodies and cellular immune responses against other coronaviruses. […] The nanoparticle vaccination of rhesus macaques induced neutralizing antibodies, and T and B cell responses prior to boost immunization; these responses persisted for more than three months. […] RBD- and HR-based nanoparticles thus present a promising vaccination approach against SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses.
33277291 After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and comorbidities, statin exposure was not associated with a significantly different risk of mortality (HR 0.96 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.18); 30-day standardised absolute risk (SAR), 9.8% (8.7% to 11.0%) vs 9.5% (8.2% to 10.8%); SAR difference, -0.4% (-1.9% to 1.2%)), severe COVID-19 infection (HR 1.16 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.41); 30-day SAR, 13.0% (11.8% to 14.2%) vs 14.9% (12.8% to 17.1%); SAR difference, 1.9% (-0.7% to 4.5%)), and the composite outcome of all-cause mortality or severe COVID-19 infection (HR 1.05 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.23); 30-day SAR, 17.6% (16.4% to 18.8%) vs 18.2% (16.4% to 20.1%); SAR difference, 0.6% (-1.6% to 2.9%)).
33277453 Cox regression analysis revealed that age (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.06), diabetes mellitus (adjusted HR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.32 to 3.26), immunocompromised patients (adjusted HR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.29 to 4.21), acute kidney injury (AKI) (adjusted HR = 3.23, 95% CI: 2.01 to 5.19), ICU admission (adjusted HR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.46 to 4.21), Asthma and COPD (adjusted HR = 2.13, CI:1.6 to 4.28) and ACEI (adjusted HR = 3.08, 95% CI: 1.56 to 6.06), respectively were associated with in-hospital death. […] Among diabetic patients, ACEI (adjusted HR = 3.51, 95% CI: 1.59 to 7.75), AKI (adjusted HR = 3.32, 95% CI: 1.76 to 6.45) and ICU admission (adjusted HR = 3.64, 95% CI: 1.530 to 8.65) were associated with increased mortality. […] The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed a lower survival rate in diabetic patients with ACE inhibitor (adjusted HR = 3.36, 95% CI: 2.25 to 7.71).
33277765 To ensure continuity of cancer genetic counseling at a large academic medical center while also promoting the safety of patients and staff, our team transitioned to fully remote telephone genetic counseling and testing services within 48 hr.
33278893 Multivariate cox proportional hazards regression model revealed that age [Hazards ratio, HR 3.0 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.7-5.3); p < 0.001], congestive heart failure [adjusted HR 3.5 (CI 1.4-8.3); p = 0.006], smoking [adjusted HR 5.8 (CI 2.0-17.2); p < 0.001], β-blocker use [adjusted HR 1.7 (CI 1.0-2.9); p = 0.04], bilateral lung infiltrates [adjusted HR 1.9 (CI 1.1-3.3); p = 0.02], creatinine > 90 µmol/l [adjusted HR 2.1 (CI 1.3-3.5); p = 0.004] and 25(OH)D < 12.5 nmol/l [adjusted HR 7.0 (CI 1.7-28.2); p = 0.007] were significant predictors of mortality among hospitalized Covid-19 patients. […] Random blood glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l was significantly associated with intensive care admission [adjusted HR 1.5 (CI 1.0-2.2); p = 0.04], as well as smoking, β-blocker use, neutrophil > 7.5, creatinine > 90 µmol/l and alanine aminotransferase > 65U/l.
33280066 Mortality was lower in patients treated with tocilizumab than in controls: 16.8% versus 31.5%, hazard ratio (HR) 0.514 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.355-0.744], p < 0.001; weighted HR 0.741 (95% CI 0.619-0.887), p = 0.001. […] Among patients treated with steroids, mortality was lower in those treated with tocilizumab than in those treated with steroids alone [10.9% versus 40.2%, HR 0.511 (95% CI 0.352-0.741), p = 0.036; weighted HR 0.6 (95% CI 0.449-0.804), p < 0.001] (interaction p = 0.094).
33289142 The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression and multivariate Cox analyses were used to screen significant factors associated with in-hospital mortality. […] Six variables, including neutrophil (hazard ratio [HR], 1.088; 95% confidence interval [CI], [1.0004-1.147]; p < .001), C-reactive protein (HR, 1.007; 95% CI, [1.0026-1.011]; p = .002), IL-6 (HR, 1.001; 95% CI, [1.0003-1.002]; p = .005), d-dimer (HR, 1.034; 95% CI, [1.0111-1.057]; p = .003), prothrombin time (HR 1.086, 95% CI [1.0369-1.139], p < .001), and myoglobin (HR, 1.001; 95% CI, [1.0007-1.002]; p < .001), were identified and applied to develop a nomogram. […] Decision curve analysis showed relatively wide ranges of threshold probability, suggesting a high clinical value of the nomogram. […] Neutrophil, C-reactive protein, IL-6, d-dimer, prothrombin time, and myoglobin levels were significantly correlated with in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients.
33290813 The association between heparin locking, increased dosing of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis and systemic anticoagulation on THDC patency was assessed. […] Proportional hazards modeling was used to perform a survival analysis to estimate the likelihood and timing of THDC malfunction with the three different prophylactic measures. […] The likelihood of THDC malfunction in the heparin locked group is lower than all other groups (Hazards ratio [HR]= 0.07, 95% CI [0.01, 0.45], p=0.005). […] The rate of malfunction in patients with subcutaneous heparin (SQH) 7,500 units three times daily (TID) is significantly lower than of the rate for patients receiving none (HR=0.03, 95% CI [0.001, 0.74], p=0.032). […] Higher D-dimer levels were related to greater mortality (HR=3.28, 95% CI [1.16, 9.28], p=0.025), but were not significantly associated with THDC malfunction (HR=1.79, 95% CI [0.42, 7.71], p=0.434).
33296419 Multivariable analysis revealed that old age (Hazard ratio [HR] = 4.668, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.250-17.430, p = 0.022), high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (HR = 1.167, 95% CI = 1.078-1.264, p < 0.001), elevated creatinine kinase (HR = 1.002, 95% CI = 1.001-1.004, p = 0.007), and severe AKI (HR = 12.199, 95% CI = 4.235-35.141, p < 0.001) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality.
33303459 To investigate possible relationships between pre-existing medical conditions (including common comorbidities and chronic medications) and risk for suffering COVID-19 disease in middle-aged and older adults. […] Baseline cohort characteristics (age, sex, vaccinations, comorbidities and chronic medications) were established at study start (1st. […] March 2020) and primary outcome was time to COVID-19 confirmed by PCR among cohort members throughout the epidemic period (from 1st. […] Risk for suffering COVID-19 was evaluated by Cox regression, estimating multivariable HRs adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities and medications use. […] Assessing the total study cohort, only age (HR 1.02; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.03; p=0.002), nursing-home residence (HR 21.83; 95% CI 16.66 to 28.61; p<0.001) and receiving diuretics (HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.76; p=0.026) appeared independently associated with increased risk. […] Smoking (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.93; p=0.022), ACE inhibitors (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.99; p=0.046) and antihistamine (HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.22 to 1.01; p=0.052) were associated with a lower risk. […] Among community-dwelling individuals, cancer (HR 1.52; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.24; p=0.035), chronic respiratory disease (HR 1.82; 95% CI 1.08 to 3.07; p=0.025) and cardiac disease (HR 1.53; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.19; p=0.021) emerged to be also associated with an increased risk. […] Receiving ACE inhibitors (HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.99; p=0.046) and influenza vaccination (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.91; p=0.012) was associated with decreased risk.
33304701 Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis for each variable, its hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated, and a nomogram was made using the high-risk respiratory parameters to establish the RAS model. […] Some 10 feet oxygen desaturation test (HR: 0.99, 95%CI: 0.95-1.04, p–value: 0.706) was not a powerful predictor of the progression of disease. […] However, respiratory rate of more than 30 breaths/minute (b/m) (HR: 3.03, 95%CI: 1.77-5.19), resting oxygen saturation of less than 90% (HR: 2.41, 95%CI: 1.15-5.06), and an elevated alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (HR: 2.14, 95%CI: 1.04-4.39) were considered statistically significant high-risk predictors of disease progression and death, in the formed RAS model.
33307029 After multivariable Cox regression analysis, age >70 (HR, 4.16; 95% CI, 1.78-9.73) had a negative effect and tacrolimus (TAC) use (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-0.99) had a positive independent effect on survival. […] In a second model excluding age, both diabetes (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.06-3.58) and chronic kidney disease (HR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.05-3.67) emerged as associated with death CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-five per cent of patients requiring hospitalization for Covid-19 died, the risk being higher in patients older than 70 and with medical co-morbidities, such as impaired renal function and diabetes.
33309764 We aimed to compare the rates of in hospital mortality in propensity score matched cohorts of COVID-19 patients in chronic anticoagulation versus those that were not. […] We compared, after propensity score matching, those who received chronic anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation with those who did not. […] (HR 0.81, 95%CI 0.65-1.01, p = 0.054). […] Among elderly patients with COVID-19, those on chronic oral anticoagulant treatment for atrial fibrillation seem to be at lower risk of all-cause mortality compared to their propensity score matched non-anticoagulated counterpart.
33316211 People living with HIV had higher risk of COVID-19 death than those without HIV after adjusting for age and sex: hazard ratio (HR) 2·90 (95% CI 1·96-4·30; p<0·0001). […] The association was attenuated, but risk remained high, after adjustment for deprivation, ethnicity, smoking and obesity: adjusted HR 2·59 (95% CI 1·74-3·84; p<0·0001). […] There was some evidence that the association was larger among people of Black ethnicity: HR 4·31 (95% CI 2·42-7·65) versus 1·84 (1·03-3·26) in non-Black individuals (p-interaction=0·044).
33316235 After marginal structural modeling, corticosteroid therapy was not associated significantly with 28-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.80; 95% CI, 0.54-1.18; P = .26). […] Corticosteroid therapy was associated with a reduced 28-day mortality (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25-0.80; P = .0062) in patients with the hyperinflammatory phenotype.
33317814 PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched. […] Delaying surgery for 12 weeks may decrease OS in breast (HR 1.46, 95%CI 1.28-1.65), lung (HR 1.04, 95%CI 1.02-1.06) and colon (HR 1.24, 95%CI 1.12-1.38) cancers. […] When breast cancers were analyzed by stage, OS was decreased in stages I (HR 1.27, 95%CI 1.16-1.40) and II (HR 1.13, 95%CI 1.02-1.24) but not in stage III (HR 1.20, 95%CI 0.94-1.53).
33322456 was also significantly associated with death from COVID-19 (HR = 1.72).
33323475 In non-ICU patients, severe hyperglycemia (blood glucose [BG] >13.88 mmol/L [250 mg/dL]) on days 2-3 was independently associated with high mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 7.17; 95% CI 2.62-19.62) compared with patients with BG <7.77 mmol/L (140 mg/dL). […] This relationship was not significant for admission glucose (HR 1.465; 95% CI 0.683-3.143). […] In patients admitted directly to the ICU, severe hyperglycemia on admission was associated with increased mortality (adjusted HR 3.14; 95% CI 1.44-6.88). […] This relationship was not significant on day 2 (HR 1.40; 95% CI 0.53-3.69).
33326484 Statistical analysis through association studies, logistic and Cox regression models and survival analysis was performed. […] The adjusted HR for death at 28 days in the group of patients requiring endotracheal intubation was 5.4 (95% CI 1.51 to 19.5; p = 0.009).
33331168 It is especially suitable as triage tool for HR-HPV-positive women facing SARS-Cov-2 exposure and infection risks in hospital.
33336038 Three factors were observed to be independently associated with progression to severe COVID-19 during 14 days after admission: (a) age 65 years or older (hazard ratio [HR] = 8.456; 95% CI: 2.706-26.426); (b) creatine kinase (CK) ≥ 180 U/L (HR = 3.667; 95% CI: 1.253-10.733); and (c) CD4+ T-cell counts <300 cells/µL (HR = 4.695; 95% CI: 1.483-14.856).
33339536 However, when stratified analysis based on corticosteroid initiation time was performed, there was a significant correlation between corticosteroid use (≤ 3 day after ICU admission) and 90-day mortality (logistic regression adjusted for baseline: OR 4.49, 95% CI 1.17-17.25, p = 0.025; Cox adjusted for baseline and time varying variables: HR 3.89, 95% CI 1.94-7.82, p < 0.001; MSM adjusted for baseline and time-dependent variants: OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.16-4.65, p = 0.017).
33340603 By focally dampening cytokine hyperactivation, LD-RT may improve disease outcomes through immunomodulation. […] Median TTCR was 12 days in the control cohort compared to 3 days in the LD-RT cohort (HR 2.9, p=0.05).
33341806 Overall 60-day mortality was 14.4% {23.8% (n = 24) in the AKI group versus 5% (n = 5) in the non-AKI group (HR 2.79 [1.04-7.49], p = 0.040); and 35.3% (n = 12) in the RRT group versus 10.2% (n = 17) in the non-RRT group, respectively (HR 2.21 [1.01-4.85], p = 0.047)}.
33342753 We built large-scale propensity score methods derived through a data-driven approach and negative control experiments across ten pairwise comparisons, with results meta-analysed to generate 1280 study effects. […] For each study effect, we did negative control outcome experiments using a possible 123 controls identified through a data-rich algorithm. […] Among 1 355 349 antihypertensive users (363 785 ACEI or ARB monotherapy users, 248 915 CCB or THZ monotherapy users, 711 799 ACEI or ARB combination users, and 473 076 CCB or THZ combination users) included in analyses, no association was observed between COVID-19 diagnosis and exposure to ACEI or ARB monotherapy versus CCB or THZ monotherapy (calibrated hazard ratio [HR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·84-1·14) or combination use exposure (1·01, 0·90-1·15). […] ACEIs alone similarly showed no relative risk difference when compared with CCB or THZ monotherapy (HR 0·91, 95% CI 0·68-1·21; with heterogeneity of >40%) or combination use (0·95, 0·83-1·07). […] Directly comparing ACEIs with ARBs demonstrated a moderately lower risk with ACEIs, which was significant with combination use (HR 0·88, 95% CI 0·79-0·99) and non-significant for monotherapy (0·85, 0·69-1·05).
33342929 Binary logistic regression was used to screen the factors associated with disease aggravation, and multivariable analyses with the Cox proportional hazards model were used to estimate the effects of prognostic factors on the improvement time and PCR conversion days in throat swabs and stool swabs. […] Hydroxychloroquine used early was associated with earlier PCR conversion in both throat swabs (HR = 1.558, p = 0.001) and stool swabs (HR = 1.400, p = 0.028). […] The early use of hydroxychloroquine decreased the improvement time and the duration of COVID-19 detection in throat and stool swabs.
33347952 The mean levels of AST and D-Bil increased early after symptom onset in deceased patients and showed disparity compared with that in discharged patients throughout the clinical course of the disease. […] Abnormal admission AST (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.39, 95%CI: 1.04-1.86, P=0.027) and D-Bil (adjusted HR: 1.66, 95%CI: 1.22-2.26, P=0.001) levels were independent risk factors for mortality due to COVID-19.
  1. Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) penetrates the respiratory epithelium through angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) binding. […] A rise in hsTnI was noted in 34% of the cohort, whereas only three patients had acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and one case of myocarditis. […] Death occurred more frequently in patients with hsTnI elevation (HR 3.95, 95% CI 2.69-5.71).
33349815 We used Cox regression to estimate the association between ongoing routine hydroxychloroquine use before the COVID-19 outbreak in England (considered as March 1, 2020) compared with non-users of hydroxychloroquine and risk of COVID-19 mortality among people with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. […] Between Sept 1, 2019, and March 1, 2020, of 194 637 people with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus, 30 569 (15·7%) received two or more prescriptions of hydroxychloroquine. […] After accounting for age, sex, ethnicity, use of other immunosuppressive drugs, and geographical region, no association with COVID-19 mortality was observed (HR 1·03, 95% CI 0·80 to 1·33).
33352454 Seventy-three diabetic patients were included. […] Predictive factors of in-hospital death were elevated white blood cells count (HR 9.4, CI 1.50-58.8, p 0.016) and severe pneumonia on imaging (HR 25.0, CI 1.34-466, p 0.031) in diabetic patients, and cognitive impairment (HR 5.80, CI 1.61-20.9, p 0.007) and cardiovascular disease (HR 5.63, CI 1.54-20.6, p 0.009) in non-diabetic patients.
33353359 The pre-dialysis systolic BP (SBP) and heart rate (HR) during H-GMQ were significantly higher than before, the serum sodium decreased significantly at the end of H-GMQ.
33353548 The Cox models adding the LUS score as a continuous variable (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.05, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.02 ~ 1.08; P < 0.001; Akaike information criterion [AIC] = 272; C-index = 0.903) or as a categorical variable (HR 10.76, 95% CI 2.75 ~ 42.05; P = 0.001; AIC = 272; C-index = 0.902) were found to predict poor outcomes more accurately than the basic model (AIC = 286; C-index = 0.866).
33355656 Skeletal muscle depletion is common in the elderly and individuals with chronic comorbidities, who have an increased risk of developing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is defined by hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen. […] Higher PMD (HR per SD increment: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.14; P = 0.008) was associated with shorter duration of viral shedding among female survivors.
33355697 Derivation cohort (n = 761) included patients from the first three participating hospitals; validation cohort (n = 633) included patients from the remaining hospitals. […] Enlarged MPAD (≥ 31 mm) was a predictor of mortality at adjusted (hazard ratio, HR [95%CI]: 1.741 [1.253-2.418], p < 0.001) and multivariable regression analysis (HR [95%CI]: 1.592 [1.154-2.196], p = 0.005), together with male gender, old age, high creatinine, low well-aerated lung volume, and high pneumonia extension (c-index [95%CI] = 0.826 [0.796-0.851]).
33355857 Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified the SF ratio at exacerbation (HR, 0.916; 95% CI, 0.846-0.991; P = 0.029) and National Early Warning Score (NEWS) (HR, 1.277; 95% CI, 1.010-1.615; P = 0.041) as significant predictors of mortality.
33359539 31.7% (17.9-45.4%) of females underwent IMV or death (log-rank p < 0.0001) and this amounted to a difference in terms of HR of 0.40 (0.26-0.63, p 0.0001).
33364109 Individuals were requested to measure blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) at the time of TBCC.
33367803 Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) from Cox regression were computed. […] Multivariate survival analyses revealed that individuals living in municipalities with extreme poverty had 9% higher risk of dying at any given time proportionally to those living in municipalities classified as not poor (HR 1.09; 95% CI 1.06-1.12).
33368601 Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analysis of patients split into groups according to average RVLS above or below 20% revealed significantly increased 30-day mortality in patients with average RVLS under 20% (HR: 3.189; 95% CI: 1.297-12.91; P = .0195).
33369663 To estimate the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalisation in patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease (IRD); in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with specific DMARDs; and the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection among hospitalised patients with RA. […] The adjusted incidence of COVID-19 hospitalisation was estimated for patients with RA; spondyloarthritis including psoriatic arthritis; connective tissue disease; vasculitides; and non-IRD individuals.Further, the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalisation was estimated for patients with RA treated respectively non-treated with TNF-inhibitors, hydroxychloroquine, or glucocorticoids.Lastly, the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection (intensive care, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or death) among hospital-admitted patients was estimated for RA and non-IRD individudals. […] Patients with IRD (n = 58,052) had an increased partially adjusted incidence of hospitalisation with COVID-19 compared with the 4.5 million people in the general population (HR 1.46, 95%CI 1.15 to 1.86) with strongest associations for patients with RA (n = 29,440, HR 1.72, 95%CI 1.29 to 2.30) and vasculitides (n = 4072, HR 1.82, 95%CI 0.91 to 3.64). […] COVID-19 admitted patients with RA had a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 0.80 to 2.53) for a severe outcome.
33370368 In an adjusted Cox model, coronary artery disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were associated with increased mortality (HRs: 3.99 [95% CI 1.46-10.90] and 3.10 [95% CI 1.25-7.66]) as were angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (HR 2.33 [95% CI 1.21-4.47]) and a SOFA score >15 (HR 3.46 [95% CI 1.65-7.25).
33378410 We defined three endpoints: critical COVID-19 and transfer to ICU, fatal COVID-19 and death, composite endpoint critical and fatal COVID-19, a composite of ICU treatment and death. […] We observed significantly more events for patients with CAC above the group’s median of 31 for critical outcome (HR: 1.97[1.09,3.57], p = 0.026), for fatal outcome (HR: 4.95[1.07,22.9], p = 0.041) and the composite endpoint (HR: 2.31[1.28,4.17], p = 0.0056.
33378989 The cumulative lung lesion remission rate at day 14 was significantly higher in combination group as compared with favipiravir group (P = 0.019, HR 2.66 95 % CI [1.08-6.53]). […] And there was also a significant difference between tocilizumab and favipivavir (P = 0.034, HR 3.16, 95 % CI 0.62-16.10). […] In addition, there was no significant difference between the combination group and the tocilizumab group (P = 0.575, HR 1.28 95 %CI 0.39-4.23).
33382747 In diabetic patients, increased mortality was associated with decreased lymphocyte count (≤0.45×10⁹/L, HR 0.196, 95% CI 0.049-0.781, P = 0.021), lactate dehydrogenase >600 U/L (HR 8.010, 95% CI 1.540-41.670, P = 0.013), hsCRP >90 mg/L (HR 4.551, 95% CI 1.472-14.070, P = 0.009) and interleukin-10 >10 U/mL (HR 5.362, 95% CI 1.239-23.199, P = 0.025).
33385419 We evaluated the relations between PRA and all-cause mortality after three years and long-term, and to cardiovascular events after median 8.7 years. […] Adjustments were made for variables that influenced the hazard ratio (HR) > 5% for the relation between PRA and outcome. […] Baseline PRA was associated with all-cause mortality during three-years (unadjusted HR 1.74 per 1 SD increase in logarithmically transformed PRA; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.16, p < 0.0001) and long-term (HR 1.12, CI 1.00-1.25, p = 0.046). […] After adjustments, only the three-year association remained significant. […] Higher PRA was a significant independent predictor of all-cause mortality after three years, but not at long-term follow-up and not significantly associated with cardiovascular incidence.
33388007 Patients in the hypertension group had a higher risk for in-hospital death [HR: 2.57, 95% CI (1.46~4.51)].
33388386 A history of cardiovascular, chronic kidney and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases were found in 32.8%, 22.1% and 6.4% of participants, respectively. […] The risk of experiencing the primary outcome was similar in patients with or without diabetes [hazard ratio (HR): 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-1.41; P = 0.14], and was 1.29 (95% CI: 0.97-1.69) for in-hospital death, 1.26 (95% CI: 0.9-1.72) for death with no transfer to an ICU and 1.14 (95% CI: 0.88-1.47) with transfer to an ICU.
33390830 The current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global infection, and is seriously threatening human life, especially cancer patients. […] The multivariate Cox regression analysis results indicated that increased ACE2 expression was independent predictor of longer OS (HR: 0.8259, 95%CI: 0.7734-0.8819, P<0.0001) and RFS (HR: 0.8023, 95%CI: 0.7375-0.8729, P<0.0001) in ccRCC patients.
33392306 Age > 60 years [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4-0.9] was an independent risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 shedding, while chloroquine (HR = 22.8; 95%CI: 2.3-224.6) was a protective factor.
33392411 In the survival analysis at 28 days of follow-up, patients with T2D showed an increased hazard for intubation (HR 3.00; 95% CI, 1.39 to 6.46).
33393678 Univariate Cox regression analysis and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression (LASSO) were used to select variables. […] The six independent risk factors revealed by multivariate Cox regression were myoglobin (HR 5.353, 95% CI 2.633-10.882; p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (HR 2.063, 95% CI 1.036-4.109; p = 0.039), neutrophil count (HR 2.015, 95% CI 1.154-3.518; p = 0.014), interleukin 6 (HR 9.753, 95% CI 2.952-32.218; p < 0.001), age (HR 2.016, 95% CI 1.077-3.773; p = 0.028), and international normalized ratio (HR 2.595, 95% CI 1.412-4.769; p = 0.002).
33395786 D-dimer level ≥2.01 μg/mL was a significant predictor of subsequent deaths (P < 0.01; HR, 3.165; 95% CI, 2.013-4.977).
33398608 Compared to survivors, patients who died were older (79.7 ± 10.8 vs 65.6 ± 14.1, p < 0.001), with a more complex cardiovascular history, including coronary artery disease (CAD, 33.3% vs 13.3%, p = 0.004), atrial fibrillation (23.8 vs 8.8, p = 0.011) and chronic kidney disease (CKD 35.7% vs 7.0%, p < 0.001). 30-day mortality was 20,9% in these patients; atrial fibrillation (OR 12.74, 95% CI 3.65-44.48, p < 0.001), ST-segment depression (OR 5.30, 95% CI 1.50-18.81, p = 0.010) and QTc-interval prolongation (OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.24-8.10, p = 0.016) at ECG admission were associated to an increased mortality risk. […] At multivariate analysis, after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes, CAD, and MCA admission, sinus rhythm (HR 2.7, CI 95% 1.1-7.0, p = 0.038) and LMWH (HR 8.5, 95% CI 2.0-36.6, p = 0.004) were confirmed to be independent predictors of increased survival.
33400475 Three online consensus workshops were convened to establish outcome measures for the four core domains of respiratory failure, multiple organ failure, shortness of breath, and recovery. […] About 130 participants (patients, public, and health professionals) from 17 countries attended the three workshops. […] The Modified Medical Research Council measure for shortness of breath, with minor adaptations (recall period of 24 hr to capture daily fluctuations and inclusion of activities to ensure relevance and to capture the extreme severity of shortness of breath in people with coronavirus disease 2019), was regarded as fit for purpose for this indication.
33402523 The “Enhanced dose THRomboprophylaxis in Admissions (ETHRA)” protocol was applied in certain Departments, suggesting the use of intermediate anticoagulation dosage. […] The primary endpoint was a composite of intubation/venous thromboembolism/death. […] Regression analysis demonstrated significant reduction of events with intermediate or therapeutic dosage [HR=0.16 (95%CI=0.05-0.52) p=0.002; HR=0.17 (0.04-0.71) p=0.015, respectively]. […] Three patients (3%) had minor hemorrhagic complications.
33405482 HR HPV).
33408529 Compared with the Oxygen group, the adjusted 60-day mortality risk significantly increased in the IMV-after-NIV (HR 2.776; p=0.024) and IMV-only groups (HR 2.966; p=0.001).
33410884 It is unclear whether chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs worsens or improves the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with plausible mechanisms for both. […] Chronic immunosuppression was defined as prescriptions for immunosuppressive drugs current at the time of admission. […] After adjustment, there were no significant differences in the risk of mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio [HR], .79; 95% confidence interval [CI], .46-1.35), in-hospital mortality (HR, .66; 95% CI, .28-1.55), or length of stay (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, .92-1.47) among individuals with immunosuppression and counterparts. […] Chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs was neither associated with worse nor better clinical outcomes among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 in one US health system.
33412395 We conducted a retrospective study of all adult confirmed COVID-19 hospitalized patients who received combination of three doses of 12 million international units of IFN-β1-a and Lopinavir 400 mg and Ritonavir 100 mg every 12 h (case group) for 14 days besides standard care and age- and sex- matched COVID-19 patients with receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (control group) at Masih Daneshvari Hospital as a designated hospital for COVID-19 between Feb 19 and Apr 30, 2020. […] In multivariate analysis, not receiving IFN-β1-a (HR 5.12, 95% CI: 2.77-9.45), comorbidity (HR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.13-4.60) and noninvasive ventilation (HR 2.77, 95% CI: 1.56-4.93) remained significantly associated with all-cause mortality.
33412596 After adjustment for propensity scores, we found a 40% lower risk of death in patients receiving heparin (HR=0.60; 95%CI: 0.49 to 0.74; E-value=2.04).
33412996 The adjusted hazard rations (HR) for association of known variables for all-cause mortality due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were 2.467 (95%CI, 1.007-6.044; P=0.048) for short of breath, 1.025 (95%CI, 1.001-1.049; P=0.042) for AST.
33419396 After an unsuccessful attempt of prone positioning, we alternated three-hours cycles of semi-recumbent and tripod position, still keeping him in CPAP. […] Arterial blood gases (PaO2/FiO2, PaO2, SaO2, PaCO2 and A/a gradient), respiratory (VE, VT, RR) and hemodynamic parameters (HR, MAP) were collected in the supine and tripod position.
33422598 While COVID-19 infection has been associated with acute kidney injury (AKI), it is unclear whether this association is independent of traditional risk factors such as hypotension, nephrotoxin exposure, and inflammation. […] Compared to patients who tested negative, patients with COVID-19 had higher rate of AKI in univariable analysis (HR, 1.84 [1.73, 1.95]). […] In fully adjusted model controlling for demographics, comorbidities, vital signs, medications, and laboratory results, COVID-19 remained associated with a high rate of AKI (adjusted HR, 1.40 [1.29-1.53]).
33423874 Kaplan-Meier curves showed that patients with lung diseases had a worse 30-day survival (HR=1.78; 95%C.I. […] Multivariable Cox regression showed that prior lung disease remained a risk factor for mortality (HR, 1.21; 95%C.I. […] Variables independently associated with all-cause mortality risk in patients with lung diseases were oxygen saturation less than 92% on admission (HR, 4.35; 95% CI 3.08-6.15) and elevated D-dimer (HR, 1.84; 95% CI 1.27-2.67). […] Age younger than 60 years (HR 0.37; 95% CI 0.21-0.65) was associated with decreased risk of death.
33424703 This paper explores how some Italian HR managers narrate the changes imposed by the COVID-19 threat in the workplace. […] Events since December 2019 have presented exceptional circumstances to which HR managers have reacted in very different ways. […] This study explored how HR managers came to introduce organizational changes aimed at coping with the emergency, as well as how employees were involved in those organizational changes. […] The article is based on a thematic analysis of some interviews with Italian HR managers whose companies decided to switch working from home on a massive scale. […] We wanted to offer some reflections on the actions taken by a few HR managers and Italian companies to keep working at a time when most workers were forced to respect the lockdown.
33426640 Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for incident pneumonia. […] Comparing high vs low CRF, the multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CIs) for pneumonia was 0.75 (0.61-0.91). […] Comparing high vs low FSB, the corresponding HR was 0.81 (0.68-0.97). […] Compared to men with low CRF & low FSB, the multivariable-adjusted HRs of pneumonia for the following groups: high CRF & low FSB; low CRF & high FSB; and high CRF & high FSB were 0.88 (0.65-1.20), 0.89 (0.71-1.13), and 0.62 (0.48-0.80) respectively.
33434117 Hazard ratios were (HR = 6.9, 95% CI [2.0-24.1], p = 0.002 and HR = 6.2, 95% CI [2.1-18.3], p = 0.001) respectively.
33436450 Extended multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in 3 time periods: preshutdown (Jan. […] 14-June 16) and reopening (June 17-July 31). = 14 494 301) (preshutdown adjusted HR 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-2.11; peak adjusted HR 2.95, 95% CI 2.88-3.03; reopening adjusted HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.39-1.51). […] They were also more likely to have a positive test result (peak adjusted HR 3.66, 95% CI 3.22-4.16; reopening adjusted HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.15-2.71). […] In the peak period, people with a recent history of homelessness were over 20 times more likely to be admitted to hospital for COVID-19 (adjusted HR 20.35, 95% CI 16.23-25.53), over 10 times more likely to require intensive care for COVID-19 (adjusted HR 10.20, 95% CI 5.81-17.93) and over 5 times more likely to die within 21 days of their first positive test result (adjusted HR 5.73, 95% CI 3.01-10.91).
33437952 There were 205 influenza hospitalisations/deaths, with cancer survivors at higher risk than controls (adjusted HR 2.78, 95% CI 2.04-3.80). […] Haematological cancer survivors had large elevated risks persisting for >10 years (HR overall 15.17, 7.84-29.35; HR >10 years from cancer diagnosis 10.06, 2.47-40.93). […] Survivors of other cancers had evidence of raised risk up to 5 years from cancer diagnosis only (HR >5 years 2.22, 1.31-3.74).
33439939 Highest risk of death were observed in individuals aged 80 or older (HR = 8.06; p < 0.001), male (HR = 1.45, p < 0.001), non-white skin color (HR = 1.13; p < 0.033) or with no information (HR = 1.29; p < 0.001), with comorbidities (HR = 10.44; p < 0.001) or presence of comorbidities not reported (HR = 10.87; p < 0.001).
33440207 We performed a prospective observational study of a randomly selected cohort of consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection between March 8, 2020 through April 25, 2020. […] Seventy-three patients fulfilled both the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria and were finally included in the study. […] Despite a high level of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis (89%), the incidence of PE was 35.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29.6 to 41.6%), mostly with a peripheral location and low thrombotic load (Qanadli score 18.5%). […] Multivariate analysis showed that heart rate (Hazard Ratio [HR], 1.04), room-air oxygen saturation (spO2) (HR, 0.87), D-dimer (HR, 1.02), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (HR, 1.01) at the time of admission were independent predictors of incident PE during hospitalization.
33443364 Cox’s proportional hazard regression model analysis confirmed that RM indicators, including peak creatine kinase (CK) levels > 1000 IU/L (HR = 6.46, 95% CI: 3.02-13.86) and peak serum myoglobin (MYO) concentrations > 1000 ng/mL (HR = 9.85, 95% CI: 5.04-19.28), were independent risk factors for in-hospital death.
33444411 We enrolled 2191 consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from three Italian dedicated units (derivation cohort: 1810 consecutive patients from Bergamo and Pavia units; validation cohort: 381 consecutive patients from Rome unit). […] Seven variables were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality: age (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.08, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.07-1.09), male sex (HR 1.62, 95%CI 1.30-2.00), duration of symptoms before hospital admission <10 days (HR 1.72, 95%CI 1.39-2.12), diabetes (HR 1.21, 95%CI 1.02-1.45), coronary heart disease (HR 1.40 95% CI 1.09-1.80), chronic liver disease (HR 1.78, 95%CI 1.16-2.72), and lactate dehydrogenase levels at admission (HR 1.0003, 95%CI 1.0002-1.0005).
33446135 This multicenter, retrospective, observational study collected data from 47 nephrology clinics in Turkey. […] The main study outcome was in-hospital mortality and the determinants were analyzed by Cox regression survival analysis. ) during hospitalization (HR; 1.864 [95% CI, 1.025-3.390], p = 0.041) were risk factors for mortality.
33449918 In COVID-19 but not in controls, hyponatremia was associated with a higher 30-day mortality (HR 1.4, 95%-CI 1.10-16.62, p=0.05). […] In both groups, hypernatremia on admission was associated with higher 30-day mortality (COVID-19: HR 11.5, 95%-CI 5.00-26.43, p<0.001; controls: HR 5.3, 95%-CI 1.60-17.64, p=0.006).
33452217 To determine whether the IntelliVue monitor (ECG plus Masimo pulse oximeter (PO)) displays heart rate (HR) at birth more quickly than Nellcor PO (PO alone) among infants of 29-35 weeks’ gestational age. […] We found no differences between the groups in the time to first HR display (median (IQR) IntelliVue ECG 49 (33, 71) vs Nellcor 47 (37, 86) s, p>0.999), in the proportion who had a face mask applied for breathing support, or in the time at which it was applied. […] IntelliVue ECG did not display HR more quickly than Nellcor PO in preterm infants.
33455936 After adjustment for age and sex, patients from Asian (HR 1.49 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.86); p<0.001) and black (HR 1.30 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.65); p=0.036) backgrounds were more likely to die.
33463721 /L (HR=13.64, 95%CI=0.25 to 74.71).
33465342 Due to the high risk of thrombotic complications (TC) during SARS-CoV-2 infection, several scientific societies have proposed to increase the dose of preventive anticoagulation, although arguments in favor of this strategy are inconsistent. […] Clinical and laboratory data were collected from ICU admission to day 14, including anticoagulation status and thrombotic and hemorrhagic events. […] High dose prophylactic anticoagulation was associated with a significant reduced risk of TC (HR 0.81 [0.66-0.99]) without increasing the risk of bleeding (HR 1.11 [0.70-1.75]). […] High dose prophylactic anticoagulation is associated with a reduction in thrombotic complications in critically ill COVID-19 patients without an increased risk of hemorrhage.
33468081 Results were presented as crude and adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). […] After adjusting for confounding factors, age, sex, and comorbidities, ESRD patients were more likely to experience in-hospital mortality compared to non-ESRD patients (Adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.59 (1.55-4.32)).
33470455 We have delivered 266 hr of synchronous small group teaching to medical and physician associate students.
33477268 The prevalence and prognostic value of chronic heart failure (CHF) in the setting of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has seldom been studied. […] CHF was independently associated with 30-day mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 2.3, confidence interval (CI) 95%: 1.26-2.4). […] CHF was independently associated with all-cause mortality (HR 2.3, CI 95% 1.26-4.2).
33478953 In study 2, we identified people with rheumatoid arthritis/osteoarthritis. […] We used Cox regression to estimate HRs for COVID-19 related death in people currently prescribed NSAIDs, compared with those not currently prescribed NSAIDs, accounting for age, sex, comorbidities, other medications and geographical region. […] We observed no evidence of difference in risk of COVID-19 related death associated with current use (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.14) in the multivariable-adjusted model. […] In study 2, we included 1 708 781 people with rheumatoid arthritis/osteoarthritis, of whom 175 495 (10%) were current NSAID users. […] In the multivariable-adjusted model, we observed a lower risk of COVID-19 related death (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.94) associated with current use of NSAID versus non-use.
33484863 Follow-up exposure and clinical data were collected through online survey. […] Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of seroconversion. […] Seroconversion was independently associated with older age; lower education; contact with a confirmed case >15 min; chronic kidney disease; pregnancy; change/loss of smell; and negatively associated with workplace contact. […] Seropositivity was three-fold that observed at baseline.
33486375 Only three patients were reported to be previously healthy at admission. […] In univariate analysis, the presence of comorbidity (HR 0.0001; 95%CI 0.00001-0.00016), platelets count (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98-0.99), elevated procalcitonin (HR 1.05; 95%CI 1.016-1.09), and circulatory compromise (HR 16.34; 95%CI 1.99-134.35), all at the time of ICU admission, were associated with in-ICU mortality.
33493450 At day 14, 28 (47%; 95% CI 33 to 59) patients in the anakinra group and 28 (51%; 95% CI 36 to 62) in the usual care group needed ventilation or died, with a posterior probability of any efficacy of anakinra (hazard ratio [HR] being less than 1) of 54·5% (median posterior HR 0·97; 90% CrI 0·62 to 1·52).
33495654 Age over 60 years (HR=8.04; 95%CI 7.03-9.19), diabetes (HR=1.63; 95%CI 1.40-1.89), high blood pressure (HR=1.48; 95%CI 1.28-1.72), obesity (HR=1.37; 95%CI 1.18-1.60) and chronic kidney disease (HR=2.06; 95%CI 1.64-2.59) were significantly associated with mortality. […] Diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, and chronic kidney disease increased mortality among patients with COVID-19 in the population of Coahuila, Mexico.
33501997 Model development was based on adult Phase 1 exposure data in healthy volunteers who were administered a 200 mg loading dose of remdesivir IV over 0.5 hr on Day 1, then 100 mg daily maintenance doses of remdesivir intravenous (IV) over 0.5 hr starting on Day 2 and continuing through Days 5 or 10.
33502773 The primary manifestation is respiratory insufficiency that can also be related to diffuse pulmonary microthrombosis in people with COVID-19. […] This disease also causes thromboembolic events, such as pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, arterial thrombosis, catheter thrombosis, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. […] Recent studies have indicated a worse prognosis for people with COVID-19 who developed thromboembolism. […] Anticoagulants are medications used in the prevention and treatment of venous or arterial thromboembolic events. […] Several drugs are used in the prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic events, such as heparinoids (heparins or pentasaccharides), vitamin K antagonists and direct anticoagulants. […] Some practical guidelines address the use of anticoagulants for thromboprophylaxis in people with COVID-19, however, the benefit of anticoagulants for people with COVID-19 is still under debate. […] We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and IBECS databases, the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register and medRxiv preprint database from their inception to 20 June 2020. […] Secondary outcomes were mortality related to COVID-19, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, major bleeding, adverse events, length of hospital stay and quality of life. […] We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. […] We included seven retrospective NRS (5929 participants), three of which were available as preprints. […] Only three included studies reported the follow-up period, which varied from 8 to 35 days. […] One study reported a reduction in mortality only in a subgroup of 395 people who required mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio (HR) 0.86, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.89). […] Three studies reported no differences in mortality (adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 0.92 to 2.92; 449 participants; unadjusted OR 1.66, 95% CI 0.76 to 3.64; 154 participants and adjusted risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% CI 0.29 to 2.57; 192 participants). […] Therapeutic-dose anticoagulants versus prophylactic-dose anticoagulants (1 retrospective NRS, 244 participants) The study reported a reduction in all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 0.21, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.46) and a lower absolute rate of death in the therapeutic group (34.2% versus 53%).
33506810 Nevertheless, after accounting for the differences, Cox regression showed early LMWH administration (HR 2.91 [1.51-5.63], p.002) and higher lymphocytes nadir (HR 1.04 [1.01-1.08], p.020) as predictors of shorter time to swab negativity.
33506948 The treatment group had a longer nasal swab turning negative time (hazard ratio [HR] 5.33; 95% CI: 1.94-14.67; p = 0.001) than the control group. […] LPR treatment was also associated with a longer hospitalization time (HR 2.01; 95% CI: 1.24-3.29; p = 0.005). […] After adjusting for the influence of LPR treatment, adverse drug reaction events were associated with a longer nasopharyngeal swab negative time (HR 4.67; 95% CI 1.35-16.11; p = 0.015).
33507958 HDCPT showed a statistically significant decrease in mortality (HR = 0.087 [95% CI 0.021-0.36]; P < 0.001). 30-day time course analysis of laboratory marker tests showed marked differences in pro-inflammatory markers between survivors and non-survivors.
33508478 An unfavorable outcome was more frequent in patients with antibiotic therapy (HR = 2.94, CI95%: 1.07-8.11; p = 0.04). […] In multivariate analysis and on propensity score, antibiotic therapy was not significantly associated with outcome (HR = 1.612, CI95%: 0.562-4.629, p = 0.37).
33508512 Cox regression, performed in the subgroup of patients who received LMWH, did not show significant difference for sex (HR 2.7 [95% CI 0.53-14.3], p = 0.23), CCI (HR 0.7 [95% CI 0.37-1.45], p = 0.38), PaO2:FiO2 ratio (HR 0.98 [95% CI 0.97-1.0], p = 0.07), corticosteroid therapy (HR 0.99 [95% CI 0.22-4.5], p = 0.99) and beta-blocker therapy (HR 2.8 [95% CI 0.56-14,7], p = 0.21).
33512057 Heart rates (HR), corrected QT intervals (QTc), and ectopic burden were compared across monitoring modalities. […] There was intermediate correlation between resting HR across modalities (r = .58-.66) and poor correlation of peak HR (r = .27-.39). […] There was intermediate correlation between resting QTc intervals across modalities (r = .72-.77) but negligible correlation between QTc intervals at peak HR across modalities (r = -.01 to -.06). […] However, QTc interval comparison at peak HRs remains variable, and may be limited by the single-lead ECG vector when using the patch monitor. […] Apart from QTc intervals at peak HR, patch monitors demonstrated good correlation with the ECG and Holter monitor for other parameters.
33512742 The multivariable analysis showed that the presence of abnormal ECG at 7 days of hospitalization was an independent predictor of MAE (HR 3.2; 95% CI 1.2-8.7; p = .02).
33512975 ECGs under treatment showed a lower heart rate (HR) (69.45 ± 8.06 vs 80.1 ± 25.1 beats/min, P = 0,001) and a longer QRS (102.46 ± 15.08 vs 96.75 ± 17.14, P = 0.000) and QT corrected (QTc) interval (452.15 ± 37.55 vs 419.9 ± 33.41, P = 0,000) duration than ECGs before therapy. […] Patients admitted for SARS-CoV2 infection and treated with anti-COVID-19 drug therapy develop ECG changes such as reduction in HR and increase in QRS duration and QTc interval.
33513242 Diabetes (HR 8.9, p < 0.001), glucose levels (HR 1.25 x 1.1 mmol/L, p < 0.001) and glucose variability (HR 1.17 x 0.6 mmol/L, p < 0.001) were independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. […] Positivity for Nabs at the time of hospital admission conferred protection on mortality, both in the presence (HR 0.28, p=0.046) or absence of diabetes (HR 0.26, p=0.030).
33521300 ARB treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of hospitalization (HR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.10 - 0.88).
33521759 /L, HR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06, 1.50) were significantly associated with case fatality of COVID-19 patients.
33521772 Type 2 diabetes and obesity, as states of chronic inflammation, are risk factors for severe COVID-19. […] Metformin use was not associated with significantly decreased mortality in the overall sample of men and women by either Cox proportional hazards stratified model (hazard ratio [HR] 0·887 [95% CI 0·782-1·008]) or propensity matching (odds ratio [OR] 0·912 [95% CI 0·777-1·071], p=0·15). […] Metformin was associated with decreased mortality in women by Cox proportional hazards (HR 0·785, 95% CI 0·650-0·951) and propensity matching (OR 0·759, 95% CI 0·601-0·960, p=0·021). […] There was no significant reduction in mortality among men (HR 0·957, 95% CI 0·82-1·14; p=0·689 by Cox proportional hazards).
33521836 We applied a within-individual design using stratified Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of respiratory infections during treated periods compared with untreated periods. […] The incidence rate was 28% lower during lithium treatment (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61-0.86) and 35% higher during valproate treatment (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.73) compared with periods off treatment.
33527464 Hospitalized patients in Singapore with COVID-19 were subdivided into three groups in a retrospective cohort: normoglycemia (HbA1c: ≤5.6%), prediabetes (HbA1c: 5.7%-6.4%) and diabetes (HbA1c: ≥6.5%). […] Compared to normoglycemia, diabetes was significantly associated with severe COVID-19 on both univariate (hazard ratio [HR]: 9.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.54-17.84; p < .001) and multivariate analysis (HR: 3.99; 95% CI: 1.92-8.31; p < .001), while prediabetes was not a risk factor (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.22-4.03; p = .929).
33528595 < 80 (HR 0.55; 95% CI 0.40-0.77).
33529622 For the primary effectiveness outcome of ischemic stroke, systemic embolism and transient ischemic attack, no significant association was observed between use of DOACs compared with warfarin (HR 1.19, 95% CI 0.96-1.48, p=0.11). […] Use of DOACs was associated with lower risk of the primary safety outcome of intracranial hemorrhage, gastrointestinal bleeding, and other bleed (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.85, p <0.001).
33535120 In the first wave, thrombotic complications were common in COVID-19 patients. […] It is unknown whether state-of-the-art treatment has resulted in less thrombotic complications in the second wave. […] We assessed the incidence of thrombotic complications and overall mortality in COVID-19 patients admitted to eight Dutch hospitals between September 1st and November 30th 2020. […] The adjusted cumulative incidence of all thrombotic complications after 10, 20 and 30 days was 12% (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.8-15%), 16% (13-19%) and 21% (17-25%), respectively. […] The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for overall mortality in the second wave versus the first wave was 0.53 (95%CI 0.41-0.70). […] The adjusted HR for any thrombotic complication in the second versus the first wave was 0.89 (95%CI 0.65-1.2). […] Mortality was reduced by 47% in the second wave, but the thrombotic complication rate remained high, and comparable to the first wave. […] Careful attention to provision of adequate thromboprophylaxis is invariably warranted.
33535520 Associations with mortality were further evaluated using Cox Proportional Hazards Regression (Hazard Ratio (HR), 95% Confidence Interval). […] Older age, being male, presenting with high illness acuity and high frailty were independent predictors of death and a dose-response association between frailty and mortality was observed (CFS 1-4: reference; CFS 5-6: HR 1.78, 95% CI 0.90, 3.53; CFS 7-8: HR 2.57, 95% CI 1.26, 5.24). […] Clinicians should have a low threshold for testing for COVID-19 in older and frail patients during periods of community viral transmission, and diagnosis should prompt early advanced care planning.
33536313 In multivariate analysis, the risk factors associated with mortality were age ≥65 y, male gender, and presence of chronic pulmonary disease (hazard ratio [HR] > 2.0). […] Using a joint model, viral dynamics after hospital admission was an independent predictor of mortality (HR = 1.31, P < 10-3).
33536545 This analysis showed a significant association between antidepressant use and reduced risk of intubation or death (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.43-0.73, p < 0.001).
33539505 The presence of delirium did not modify the time from symptoms’ onset to hospitalization nor the length of stay in acute care, but it was associated with an increased risk of dying (HR 2.1; 1.2-3.7 95%CI; p=0.0113).
33540733 The predicted 60-day mortality was 25.9% (95% CI: 21.8%-30.0%), 44.7% (95% CI: 48.8%-50.6%), and 59.2% (95% CI: 49.4%-69.0%) for a patient admitted in these three states, respectively. […] Corticosteroids decreased the risk of being invasively ventilated (hazard ratio (HR) 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39-0.90) and IL-antagonists increased the probability of being successfully extubated (HR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.02-3.17).
33541909 The data reveal a picture in which a third of consultant physicians have a hazard ratio (HR) >1 for dying from COVID-19; one in five have HR >2; one in 11, HR >3; and one in 40, HR >4. […] Of concern are the risks to male physicians aged ≥60 with HR >3.8. […] A third of consultant physicians have an increased risk of a COVID-19-related death, and one in five have a higher relative risk (HR >2).
33543243 The risk of death increased independently with increasing age (>80 vs 18-49: HR 3.57, CI 2.54-5.02), frailty (CFS 8 vs 1-3: HR 3.03, CI 2.29-4.00) inflammation, renal disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, but not delirium.
33544293 Aiming to show clinical outcome of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers in hospital treatment of hypertensive patients with coronavirus disease 2019, systematically searched literatures through five databases were intensively appraised using The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation checklists for cohort studies. […] Based on the result evaluation from retrospective cohorts involving more than 15,000 patients across Asia and other regions of the world, ten encompassed studies divided into two subgroups in this meta-review showed that in-hospital hypertensive coronavirus disease 2019 patients receiving antihypertensive drugs were associated with overall risk reduction in subgroup 1 (hazard ratio, HR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.82-1.12) to no outcome association of all-cause mortalities in subgroup 2 (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.19-0.34).
33547620 In this observational study through medical record analysis, we quantified the mortality benefit of corticosteroids in two equally matched groups of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. […] Patients receiving corticosteroids had a lower risk of death than those who did not (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.67-0.90; p = 0.01). […] Patients receiving first dose of corticosteroids > 72 h into hospitalization had a lower risk of death compared to patients with first dose at earlier time intervals (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.38-0.82; p = 0.003). […] There was a mortality benefit in patients with > 7 days of symptom onset to initiation of corticosteroids (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.33-0.95; p = 0.03). […] In patients receiving oxygen therapy, corticosteroids reduced risk of death in mechanically ventilated patients (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.24-0.60; p < 0.001) but not in patients on high-flow or other oxygen therapy (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.20-1.07; p = 0.07) and (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.35-2.00; p = 0.69), respectively.
33549439 Height, weight, BMI, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, CRP, CPK, ICU and hospital length of stay and comorbidities were evaluated. […] Cox proportional hazard model-derived estimates, adjusted for age, gender and comorbidity, confirmed the results of the survival analysis (HR:5.30,95%C.I.1.26-22.34).
33550849 We examined the relative contribution of pulmonary diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and sleep apnea) to mortality risks associated with Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) independent of other medical conditions, health risks, and sociodemographic factors. […] Multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards modeling showed mortality risks were strongly associated with greater age (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.04-1.05), ethnic minority (Asians, Non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics) (HR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.10-1.44), low household income (HR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.49), and male sex (HR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.97). […] Higher mortality risks were also associated with a history of COPD (HR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02-1.58), obesity (HR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.04-1.37), and peripheral artery disease (HR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.05-1.69).
33551315 Compared to non-DM patients without EHG, non-DM patients with EHG exhibited higher adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality at 14 days (HR 7.51, CI 1.70-33.24) and 60 days (HR 6.97, CI 1.86-26.13).
33556464 Standard of care (SOC) treatment was: hydroxychloroquine and/or azithromycin with or without antivirals and anticoagulants. […] After adjusting for all the unbalanced baseline covariates, early AIT reduced the hazard of mortality by 74% (adjusted HR=0.26, p<0.001). […] The effect was similar in patients receiving anakinra alone (adjusted HR=0.28, p=0.04) and anakinra plus GC (adjusted HR=0.33, p=0.07). […] Late rescue treatment did not show a significant advantage over SOC alone (adjusted HR=0.82, p=0.70).
33559700 Hospitalization rates (HR), emergency care prevalence (ECP) and case fatality proportions (CFP) of hospitalized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients in one municipality have not been studied, including how these differ from other pandemic or seasonal viral diseases, such as influenza A/B or norovirus. […] A total of 67,000 cases of hospitalized patients of a tertiary care hospital and data of the regional health institute were analyzed to calculate HR, ECP and CFP of SARS-CoV‑2, influenza A/B and norovirus genotype 1/2. […] In the city and district of Fürth (Germany), 824 persons (0.34%) tested SARS-CoV-2-positive through 7 May 2020, 162 of whom (19.7%) were hospitalized. […] While HRs of SARS-CoV‑2 and influenza were similar, CFPs differ significantly. […] CFPs of negative-tested patients were comparable between the three infectious diseases.
33559821 In the primary analysis, there was no significant association between chlorpromazine use and mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-5.40; p = 0.163). […] Sensitivity analyses included a Cox regression in a 1:5 ratio matched analytic sample that showed a similar result (HR 1.67, 95% CI 0.91-3.06; p = 0.100) and a multivariable Cox regression that indicated a significant positive association (HR 3.10, 95% CI 1.31-7.34; p = 0.010).
33560044 High hsCRP and CRF were associated with a higher risk (HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.02-1.88) and a lower risk of pneumonia (HR = 0.55; CI, 0.39-0.76) after adjusting for potential confounders, respectively. […] Compared with normal hsCRP-Fit, moderate to high hsCRP-Unfit had an increased risk of pneumonia (HR = 1.63; CI, 1.21-2.20), but moderate to high hsCRP-Fit was not associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (HR = 1.25; CI, 0.93-1.68).
33560382 Three-day angiopoietin-2 increase of at least twofold from baseline was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality by multivariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 6.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.85-24.19; P = .004) with AUROC = 0.845 (95% CI, 0.725-0.940). […] Ten-day angiopoietin-2 of at least twofold from baseline was instead significantly associated with nonresolving pulmonary condition by multivariate analysis (HR, 5.33; 95% CI, 1.34-11.77; P ≤ .0001) with AUROC = 0.969 (95% CI, 0.919-1.000).
33560648 For each study comparison group, we fit a propensity score model through large-scale regularized logistic regression. […] After propensity score stratification, the hazard ratios (HRs) for death were as follows: famotidine vs no famotidine HR 1.03 (0.89-1.18), vs PPIs: HR 1.14 (0.94-1.39), and vs hydroxychloroquine: 1.03 (0.85-1.24).
33561834 First, a total of 3,022 COVID-19 cases in Wuhan Huoshenshan hospital were divided chronologically into two sets, one (1,780 cases, including 47 died) for nomogram modeling and the other (1,242 cases, including 22 died) for internal validation. […] Independent factors included age (HR for per year increment: 1.05), severity at admission (HR for per rank increment: 2.91), dyspnea (HR: 2.18), cardiovascular disease (HR: 3.25), and levels of lactate dehydrogenase (HR: 4.53), total bilirubin (HR: 2.56), blood glucose (HR: 2.56), and urea (HR: 2.14), which were finally selected into the nomogram.
33569200 A random-model meta-analysis was conducted to pool odds ratio (OR) and hazard ratio (HR). […] No improvement of viral clearance was found neither by time-to-event analysis (HR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.74-1.94, P=0.47) nor frequency on day 7 (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 0.33-6.63, P=0.62).
33569769 MR-proADM plasma levels above optimal cutoff (1.01 nmol/L) showed the strongest independent association with 28-day mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 10.470, 95% CI : 2.066-53.049; p<0.005) and with progression to severe disease (HR: 6.803, 95% CI: 1.458-31.750; p=0.015).
33570566 The concordant high lonely (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.87) and discordant robust (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.04-1.81) groups had an increased mortality risk compared to those in the concordant low lonely group.
33573632 The questionnaire items covered employment status and socioeconomic factors, and we used the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and EQ-5D-5L to assess depression and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), respectively.
33573928 Sixty-three (47.7%) patients died on ECMO and 70 (53.0%) during the index hospitalization. […] Advanced age (per year, hazard ratio [HR] 1.026, 95% CI 1.000-1-052) and low arterial pH (per unit, HR 0.006, 95% CI 0.000-0.083) before ECMO were the only baseline variables associated with increased risk of six-month mortality.
33574074 In univariable logistic regression analysis estimated PaO2/FiO2 (HR 0.99 [0.98-0.99]; p=0.027) and LUZ-score>22 points (5.45 (1.42-20.90); p=0.013) were predictors for the primary endpoint.
33574150 40.1% presented with the 3 criteria described, and therefore burn-out syndrome.Burn-out syndrome was independently related to the management of patients with SARS-CoV-2 (HR: 2.26; 95% CI 1.15 to 4.45), the lack of availability of personal protective equipment (HR: 1.41; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.91), increased responsibility (HR: 2.13; 95% CI 1.51 to 3.01), not having received financial compensation for overtime work (HR: 0.43; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.62), not having rested after 24-hour shifts (HR: 1.61; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.38), not having had holidays in the previous 6 months (HR: 1.36; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.84), consumption of sleeping pills (HR: 1.83; 95% CI 1.28 to 2.63) and higher alcohol intake (HR: 1.95; 95% CI 1.39 to 2.73).
33574690 There was no significant association between the use of proton-pump inhibitors and the duration of SARS-CoV-2 clearance, according to univariate analysis (HR, 1.309; 95% CI, 0.893-1.918) and multivariate analysis (HR, 1.575; 95% CI, 0.993-2.499). […] There was no significant association between the use of proton-pump inhibitors and the duration of hospital stay for COVID-19, according to univariate analysis (HR, 1.044; 95% CI, 0.714-1.528) and multivariate analysis (HR, 1.064; 95% CI, 0.651-1.740).
33575730 COX regression analysis showed that malnutrition (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.773, P for trend = 0.001) was proportional associated with being discharged from hospital delayed.
33581510 While the incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill patients is very high, in patients under non-invasive respiratory support (NIS) is still unknown. […] The specific incidence of thrombotic events in each of the clinical scenarios within the broad spectrum of severity of COVID-19, is not clearly established, and this has not allowed the implementation of thromboprophylaxis or anticoagulation for routine care in COVID-19. […] Patients that required mechanical ventilation were at higher risk of PE for a HR of 4.3 (95%CI 1.2-16). […] In this context, patients under NIS are a very high-risk group for developing PE without a clear strategy regarding thromboprophylaxis.
33582370 The main outcome was mortality; the effect estimate was reported in hazard ratio (HR) which was pooled from the unadjusted and adjusted effect estimate retrieved from the included studies.
33587448 In a meta-analysis of five studies, PLWH had a higher risk of COVID-19 mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.62-2.34) compared to people without HIV. […] Risk of death remained elevated for PLWH in a subgroup analysis of hospitalised cohorts (HR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.12-2.27) and studies of PLWH across all settings (HR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.69-2.56).
33588209 By Cox proportional hazards model, excessive 200 mg cumulative corticosteroid (HR, 3.425 [95% CI, 1.339-7.143]), time from illness onset to hospitalization (<5 days) (HR, 2.503 [95% CI, 1.433-4.371]) and arbidol-included therapy (HR, 2.073 [95% CI, 1.185-3.626]) were the independent risk factors to delay COVID-19 RNA shedding. […] Besides of excessive 200 mg of cumulative corticosteroid (HR, 2.825 [95% CI, 1.201-6.649]), admission within 5 days from illness onset (HR, 2.493 [95% CI, 1.393-4.462]) and arbidol-included therapy (HR, 2.102 [95% CI, 1.073-4.120]), lymphocytopenia (HR, 2.153 [95% CI, 1.097-4.225]) was further identified as another unfavorable factor to 10-day viral shedding.
33589360 Being over 65 years old (HR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.5-5.1) and having hypertension (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1-3.5) were independently associated with the risk of mortality. […] However, after adjustment, only age over 65 years (HR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.3) was a risk factor for death.