androgen receptor

Gene Context Sentence

Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of AR gene in 36 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32405266 Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses from the Coronaviridae family affecting neurological, gastrointestinal, hepatic and respiratory systems. […] Clearly, forecasting the “confirmed” and “recovered” COVID-19 cases helps planning to control the disease and plan for utilization of health care resources. […] Time series models based on statistical methodology are useful to model time-indexed data and for forecasting. […] Autoregressive time series models based on two-piece scale mixture normal distributions, called TP-SMN-AR models, is a flexible family of models involving many classical symmetric/asymmetric and light/heavy tailed autoregressive models.
32426089 Spring and Summer 2020 are unique in that the challenges of care for those suffering from pollen allergy coincide with the COVID-19 pandemic. […] Several considerations are important to allow optimal care of allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma and hence prevention of coronavirus spread through sneezing, rhinorrhoea and coughing. […] This compact overview of recommendations by the EUFOREA expert teams on allergic airway diseases and AIT is based on investigation of the current COVID-19 literature in association with the key words above and shared clinical experience of the experts involved. […] It deals with similarities and differences between AR and coronavirus infection, specific recommendations for allergic disease care in the COVID-19 era, including guidance on allergen specific immunotherapy, AIT.
32473009 Sex-differences in infectious diseases are a common but neglected problem. […] We used the national surveillance database of COVID-19 in mainland China to compared gender differences in attack rate (AR), proportion of severe and critical cases (PSCC) and case fatality rate (CFR) in relation to age, affected province, and onset-to-diagnosis interval. […] The overall AR was significantly higher in female population than in males (63.9 versus 60.5 per million persons; P ˂ .001). […] The female-to-male differences were age-dependent, which were significant among people aged 50-69 years for AR, and in the patients of 30-years or older for both PSCC and CFR (all P ≤ .001). […] The AR, PSCC and CFR varied greatly from province to province. […] However, female-to-male differences in AR, PSCC and CFR were significant in the epicenter, Hubei province, where 82.2% confirmed cases and 97.4% deaths occurred. […] After adjusting for age, affected province and onset-to-diagnosis interval, the female-to-male difference in AR, PSCC and CFR remained significant in multivariate logistic regression analyses. […] Further epidemiological and biological investigations are required to better understand the sex-specific differences for effective interventions.
32536757 In Nigeria, there were 1, 932 COVID-19 confirmed cases, 319 discharged cases and 58 deaths as of 30th April 2020. […] This paper, therefore, subjected the daily cumulative reported COVID-19 cases of these three variables to nine (9) curve estimation statistical models in simple, quadratic, cubic, and quartic forms. […] We identified the best models to be Quartic Linear Regression Model with an autocorrelated error of order 1 (AR(1)); and found the Ordinary Least Squares, Cochrane Orcutt, Hildreth-Lu, and Prais-Winsten and Least Absolute Deviation (LAD) estimators useful to estimate the models’ parameters. […] The forecast values are alarming, and so, the Nigerian Government needs to hastily review her activities and interventions towards COVID-19 to provide some tactical and robust structures and measures to avert these challenges.
32554380 Mindfulness Virtual Community (MVC), a web-based program informed by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) constructs and featuring online videos, discussion forums, and videoconferencing was developed to target depression, anxiety, and experiences of excess stress among university students. […] Assessment of an eight-week web-based mindfulness and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) program in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress (primary outcomes) and increasing mindfulness (secondary outcome) within a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with undergraduate students at a large Canadian university. […] The outcomes (depression, anxiety, stress, and mindfulness) were measured via online survey at baseline and at eight weeks post-intervention using the Patient Health Questionniare-9 (PHQ9), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire Short Form (FFMQ-SF). […] Analyses employed generalized estimation equation (GEE) methods with AR(1) covariance structures and were adjusted for possible covariates (gender, age, country of birth, ethnicity, English as first language, paid work, unpaid work, relationship status, physical exercise, self-rated health, and access to private mental health counselling). […] Of the 159 students who provided T1 data, 32 were males and 125 were females with a mean age of 22.55 years. […] Participants in the MVC (n = 79) and WLC (n = 80) groups were similar in sociodemographic characteristics at T1 with the exception of gender and weekly hours of unpaid volunteer work. […] At post-intervention follow-up, per the adjusted comparisons, there were statistically significant between-group reductions in depression scores (β = -2.21, P = .01) and anxiety scores (β = -4.82, P = .006) and a significant increase in mindfulness scores (β = 4.84, P = .02) compared to WLC. […] There were no statistically significant differences in perceived stress for MVC (β = .64, P = .48) compared to WLC. […] Online mindfulness interventions can be effective in addressing common mental health conditions among post-secondary populations on a large scale, simultaneously reducing the current burden on traditional counselling services.
32670694 COVID 19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, a newly discovered coronavirus, has caused the global pandemic of early 2020. […] The first case was described in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and by March 2020, most countries around the world have put in place some of the strictest restrictions seen in decades in order to slow down the spread of the disease. […] Patients with pre-existing hypertension and cardiovascular comorbidities were reported to be at an increased risk of serious infections caused by SARS-CoV-2. […] Considering that those are among the most common chronic medical conditions in the Western world, the potential impact of it is huge. […] Furthermore, the association between ACE inhibitors/AR blockers, which are among the most frequently prescribed medications, and serious cases of COVID 19 has been studied with the same mechanism in mind. […] The reports on the association between hypertension and COVID 19 morbidity and mortality are less clear, and the International Society of Hypertension even claims that there is none. […] The reports on the association between heart failure or coronary disease and COVID 19 are more uniform, and all seem to point to a greater risk from serious infections faced by patients with those comorbidities. […] A significant effort will need to be invested by the scientific community into finding strategies for protecting those patients from contracting the virus in the first place and then, once infected, into developing management plans aimed at preserving cardiac function as much as possible.
32709978 A new coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2, emerged in Wuhan city, China, in December 2019 causing atypical pneumonia and affecting multiple body organs. […] The rapidly increasing numbers of infected patients and deaths due to COVID-19 disease necessitated declaring it as a global pandemic. […] Drug repurposing approach has been pursued as a temporary management tactic to treat COVID-19 patients. […] Delving into the possible mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between COVID-19 and PCa alludes a potential association between SARS-CoV-2 targets on host epithelial cells and PCa genetic aberrations and molecular signatures, including AR and TMPRSS2.
32778005 Autorefraction (AR) is the most common examination performed prior to prescribing glasses. […] The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review of the accuracy and effectiveness of available portable automated refractors compared to the current standard of care, subjective refraction (SR). […] A literature search of PubMED, Embase and 97 unique publications in English on portable autorefractors. […] Twelve studies comparing a portable AR device to at least one form of SR were systematically included in this review. […] There are numerous portable autorefractors available, but few were compared against SR. […] Quicksee and SVOne are the most accurate and patient-preferred devices.
32807426 The current COVID-19 pandemic has recently brought to attention the myriad of neuro- logic sequelae associated with Coronavirus infection including the predilection for stroke, particularly in young patients. […] Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a well-described clinical syndrome leading to vasoconstriction in the intracra- nial vessels, and has been associated with convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage and oc- casionally cervical artery dissection. […] It is usually reported in the context of a trigger such as medications, recreational drugs, or the postpartum state; however, it has not been described in COVID-19 infection. […] We report a case of both cervical vertebral ar- tery dissection as well as convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage due to RCVS, in a pa- tient with COVID-19 infection and no other triggers.
32836712 Management of novel viral respiratory disease outbreak on-board a ship with person-to-person transmission can be a public health challenge because of close proximity of inhabitants due to confined space and air-conditioned environment. […] It has a potential to be explosive, with high secondary attack rate (SAR) and cause significant morbidity and mortality. […] This study compares control measures instituted on-board two ships with similar outbreaks and recommends a standardized evidence-based outbreak response against them. […] This is a descriptive study, showing comparative analysis of control measures instituted on-board two ships, a cruise ship in case of COVID-19 and a warship in case of H1N1 influenza, with novel viral respiratory disease outbreak, at different span of time. […] Data of the date of onset, clinical details, laboratory results, history of travel, history of contact with positive case and control measures initiated were collected, analysed and compared. […] Of the two ships compared, one was a cruise ship with 712 COVID-19 cases, with an attack rate (AR) of 19.2% and 13 deaths, and other a warship with 14 cases of H1N1 influenza and an AR of 4.83%. […] Active surveillance, early self-reporting and immediate disembarkation of the suspects, along with strict compliance of hand hygiene, cough etiquettes and disinfection enhancement, will help in early mitigation of the outbreak. […] Health education should be undertaken to impart evidence-based knowledge and alleviate fear of the unknown.
32895607 COVID-19 has had significant impact on US stock market volatility. […] This study focuses on understanding the regime change from lower to higher volatility identified with a Markov Switching AR model. […] Utilizing machine learning feature selection methods, economic indicators are chosen to best explain changes in volatility. […] Significant increases in total and idiosyncratic risk are observed across all industries, while changes in systematic risk vary across industry.
32896785 We estimated attack rate (AR) at county level. […] Generalized additive model and stratified linear mixed-effects model were developed to identify the effects of multiple meteorological factors on local transmission. […] The ARs in affected counties ranged from 0.6 to 9750.4 per million persons, with a median of 8.8. […] The higher AR of COVID-19 was significantly associated with lower average temperature, moderate cumulative precipitation and higher wind speed. […] Warm areas can also be in higher risk of the disease with the increasing wind speed. […] In conclusion, transportation and meteorological factors may play important roles in the transmission of COVID-19 in mainland China, and could be integrated in consideration by public health alarm systems to better prevent the disease.
32904889 This pilot study recruited 27 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and a deviated nasal septum (DNS) which represents the common causes for NO and 26 controls (with normal nasal breathing). […] Pre-decongestant ENA score was used to detect the presence of nasal obstruction in patients compared to controls, with a sensitivity of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.66-0.96) and a specificity of 0.77 (0.54-1.00). […] Post-decongestant percentage change in INA score was used to identify the presence of AR or CRS, with a sensitivity of 0.87 (0.69-1.00) and specificity of 0.72 (0.55-0.89) for AR; and a sensitivity of 0.92 (0.75-1.00) and specificity of 0.69 (0.52-0.86) for CRS. […] We have demonstrated that the NAD can help distinguish between normal and abnormal nasal breathing and help diagnose AR, CRS, and DNS.
33003634 Healthcare workers (HCWs) worldwide are putting themselves at high risks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by treating a large number of patients while lacking protective equipment. […] We used data on COVID-19 cases in the city of Wuhan to compare epidemiological characteristics between HCWs and non-HCWs and explored the risk factors for infection and deterioration among HCWs based on hospital settings. […] The attack rate (AR) of HCWs in the hospital can reach up to 11.9% in Wuhan. […] From mid-January, the median time interval of HCW cases was significantly shorter than in non-HCW cases. […] HCWs working in county-level hospitals in high-risk areas were more vulnerable to COVID-19. […] HCW cases working in general, ophthalmology, and respiratory departments were prone to deteriorate compared with cases working in the infection department. […] The AR of COVID-19 in HCWs are higher than in non-HCWs.
33015554 Marked differences in COVID-19 mortalities have been observed among 47 prefectures in Japan. […] The following data by prefecture were abstracted from open resources provided by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan as of May 24, 2020: total number of COVID-19 deaths; polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive ratio (i.e., number of patients with PCR-positive results/number of patients aiming diagnosis of COVID-19 or individuals in close contacted with COVID-19 patients); number of call centers, outpatient centers, and hospital beds specifically for patients diagnosed with COVID-19; and others. […] The primary outcome was COVID-19 mortality per million population. […] Multiple and simple linear regression models were applied. […] Two variables were significantly associated with COVID-19 mortality: PCR-positive ratio (P < 0.001) and number of critical care medical centers per million population (P = 0.001). […] PCR-positive ratio was positively associated with COVID-19 mortality (aR-sqr = 0.522). […] Critical care medical centers may also play an important role in reducing the risk of COVID-19 death.
33025599 Astragali Radix (AR) and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR) are widely used as traditional tonic and promising edible immunomodulatory herbal medicine, but the systemic mechanism is not well understood. […] Therefore, a strategy based on network pharmacology and molecular docking was designed to explore the systemic mechanism of AR-AMR acting on pneumonia. […] After a series of bioinformatics assays, seven kernel targets were obtained, including TNF, IL6, IFNG, IL1B, IL10, IL4, and TLR9. […] And seven key compounds were identified as the synergy components of AR-AMR acting on pneumonia, the four key compounds belonging to AR were (3R)-3-(2-hydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-chromanol, formononetin, quercetin, and kaempferol, the three key compounds belonging to AMR were atractylone, 14-acetyl-12-senecioyl-2E, 8E, 10E-atractylentriol, and α-Amyrin. […] Collectively, these observations strongly suggest that the molecular mechanisms of AR-AMR regulating pneumonia were closely related to the correlation between inflammation and immune response. […] PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Astragali radix and Atractylodis macrocephalae rhizoma can be used as “medicine-food homology” for dietary supplement. […] AR and AMR are widely used as a traditional tonic and promising edible immunomodulatory herbal medicine. […] The AR-AMR herb pairs are used for compatibility many times in the recommended prescriptions in COVID-19 develop pneumonia in China. […] However, the ingredients and mechanisms of AR-AMR acting on Pneumonia via immunomodulation are unclear. […] In this paper, bioinformatics and network biology were used to systematically explore the mechanisms of the AR-AMR herb pairs in treatment of pneumonia, and further analyze the correlation mechanism between it and COVID-19 develop pneumonia. […] To sum up, our study reveals the interrelationships between components, targets, and corresponding biological processes of AR-AMR acting on pneumonia. […] Understanding these relationships may provide guidance and theoretical basis for the further application of AR-AMR herb pairs.
33040422 To compare the pre, lockdown, and post-lockdown aeromedical retrieval (AR) patient characteristics during a period of Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) social isolation. […] An observational study with retrospective data collection, consisting of AR between 26 January and 23 June 2020. […] There were 16981 ARs consisting of 1983 (11.7%) primary evacuations (PEs) and 14998 (88.3%) inter-hospital transfers (IHTs), with a population median age of 52 years (interquartile range [IQR] 29.0-69.0), with 49.0% (n= 8283) of the cohort being male and 38.0% (n= 6399) being female. […] As compared to pre-restriction, the odds of retrieval for the restriction and post-restriction period differed across time between the major diagnostic groups. […] This included, an increase in cardiovascular retrieval for both restriction and post-restriction periods (OR 1.12 95% CI 1.02-1.24 and OR 1.18 95% CI 1.08-1.30 respectively), increases in neoplasm in the post restriction period (OR 1.31 95% CI 1.04-1.64), and increases for congenital conditions in the restriction period (OR 2.56 95% CI 1.39-4.71). […] Cardiovascular and congenital conditions had increased rates of priority 1 patients in the restriction and post restriction periods. […] The lockdown period resulted in increased AR rates of circulatory and congenital conditions. […] This article is protected by copyright.
33081974 Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses from the Coronaviridae family affecting neurological, gastrointestinal, hepatic and respiratory systems. […] Clearly, forecasting the “confirmed” and “recovered” COVID-19 cases helps planning to control the disease and plan for utilization of health care resources. […] Time series models based on statistical methodology are useful to model time-indexed data and for forecasting. […] Autoregressive time series models based on two-piece scale mixture normal distributions, called TP-SMN-AR models, is a flexible family of models involving many classical symmetric/asymmetric and light/heavy tailed autoregressive models.
33090015 To determine the impact coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) will have on the 2020-2021 otolaryngology (OTO-HNS) resident application cycle. […] A cross-sectional survey targeting OTO-HNS program directors (PD) was created and disseminated via email to PDs on May 28th 2020. […] Nineteen (65.5%) respondents indicated they would not host away rotations (AR) in 2020, and 9 (31.0%) reported that they would consider away rotators without home programs. […] Regarding the historical importance of AR, 21 (72.4%) PDs stated they were either “extremely” or “very” important in evaluating candidates. […] Eight PDs (27.6%) stated their evaluation of candidates will likely change, with a shift toward an increased reliance on letters of recommendation, research involvement, and clerkship grades. […] The large majority of PDs-25 (86.2%)-were not worried that the COVID-19 pandemic would affect the abilities of new interns beginning in 2021. […] Virtual interviews and engagement activities will mostly supplant sub-Is and AR for the 2020-2021 OTO-HNS application cycle. […] Surveyed PDs largely believe these will be insufficient in providing a comprehensive assessment of candidates, and will similarly limit applicants’ ability to gauge residency programs.
33115587 Amidst the quarantine and lockdown measures, face-to-face education is disrupted around the globe. […] Different online platforms are being utilised for didactic teaching and learning as well as for students 2019; assessment and examination. […] Clinical learning has also shifted to virtual learning. […] Manikins and virtual reality/augmented reality (VR/AR)-based simulation devices along with haptic technology can be very helpful for skills training. […] However, some sorts of blended learning and virtual curriculum may be incorporated in dental education in the future. […] For this narrative review, a thorough in-depth review of the available literature, relevant to our field, was carried out. […] In this article, impact of COVID-19 on dental education has been discussed along with some solutions to these challenges. […] Key Words: COVID-19, Dental education, E-learning, Virtual/augmented reality.
33117402 AR in the early phase of Covid-19 might be beneficial to prevent hyperinflammation.
33243116 A novel betacoronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused a large disease outbreak in Wuhan, China in December 2019, is currently spreading across world’s many of the countries. […] Along with binding of the virus spike with the host cell receptor, fusion of the viral envelope with host cell membranes is a critical step in establishing successful infection of SARS-CoV-2. […] These features of SARS-CoV-2 entry contribute to its rapid spread and severe symptoms, high fatality rates among infected patients. […] This review is based on latest published literature including review articles, research articles, hypothetical manuscript, pre-print articles and official documents. […] The literature search was made from various published papers on physiological aspects relevant to SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. […] In this report, we focus on the role of host cell proteases (ACE2, ADAM17, TMPRSS2) and androgen receptor (AR) in SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] The hypotheses put forth by us are based on the role played by the proteases ACE2, ADAM17, TMPRSS2 and AR in SARS-CoV-2 infection which were deduced based on various studies. […] We have also summarized how these host proteins increase the pathology and the infective ability of SARS-CoV-2 and we posit that their inhibition may be a therapeutic option for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33264098 University students are experiencing higher levels of distress and mental health disorders than before. […] This study’s aim was to evaluate the efficacy of an 8-week MVC program in reducing depression, anxiety, and perceived stress (primary outcomes), and improving mindfulness (secondary outcome) in undergraduate students at a large Canadian university. […] Guided by two prior randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that each demonstrated efficacy when conducted during regular university operations, this study coincided with a university-wide labor strike. […] In this parallel-arm RCT, 154 students were randomly allocated to an 8-week MVC intervention (n=76) or a wait-list control (WLC) condition (n=78). […] Generalized estimation equations with an AR (1) covariance structure were used to evaluate the impact of the intervention, with outcome evaluations performed on both an intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) basis. […] Participants (n=154) included 35 males and 117 females with a mean age of 23.1 years. […] There were no statistically significant differences at baseline between the MVC and WLC groups on demographics and psychological characteristics, indicating similar demographic and psychological characteristics across the two groups. […] Results under both ITT and PP approaches indicated that there were no statistically significant between-group differences in PHQ-9 (ITT: β=-0.44, P=.64; PP: β=-0.62, P=.053), BAI (ITT: β=-2.06, P=.31; PP: β=-2.32, P=.27), and FFMQ-SF (ITT: β=1.33, P=.43; PP: β=1.44, P=.41) compared to WLC. […] During a university labor strike, the MVC program led to statistically significant reductions in PSS compared to the WLC group, but there were no other significant between-group differences. […] Comparisons with previous cycles of intervention testing, undertaken during nondisrupted university operations, when efficacy was demonstrated, are discussed.
33284781 Location-based augmented reality (AR) games, such as Pokémon GO and Harry Potter: Wizards Unite, have been shown to have a beneficial impact on the physical activity, social connectedness, and mental health of their players. […] In March 2020, global social distancing measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic prompted the AR games developer Niantic Inc to implement several changes to ensure continued player engagement with Pokémon GO and Harry Potter: Wizards Unite. […] The aims of this study were to examine the impact of COVID-19-related social restrictions on the physical and mental well-being of AR game players; to examine the impact of COVID-19-related social restrictions on the use of video games and motivations for their use; and to explore the potential role of AR games (and video games in general) in supporting well-being during COVID-19-related social restrictions. […] Participants were recruited on the web via four subreddits dedicated to Pokémon GO or Harry Potter: Wizards Unite. […] We report results for 2004 participants (1153/1960 male, 58.8%, average age 30.5 years). […] More than half of the participants reported poor mental health (925/1766, 52.4%; raw World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index score <13). […] Participants reported a significant increase in video game play time from 16.38 hours per week on average (SD 19.12) to 20.82 hours (SD 17.49) (P<.001 approximately three quarters of the participants reported that playing video games had been beneficial to their mental health. changes made pok go and harry potter: wizards unite were very well received by players continued use these while exercising maintain social connection. in addition seeking an escape during pandemic as a form entertainment they used for emotional coping lower stress relax alleviate health conditions. ar have potential promote physical covid-19 pandemic. further research is needed explore digital behavioral interventions human well-being wider population.> </.001>
33301988 The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 that produced a severe lung disease in afflicted patients in China and other countries was the reason for the incredible attention paid toward this viral infection. […] It is known that SARS-CoV-2 is dependent on TMPRSS2 activity for entrance and subsequent infection of the host cells and TMPRSS2 is a host cell molecule that is important for the spread of viruses such as coronaviruses. […] Androgen receptor (AR) initiates a transcriptional cascade which plays a serious role in both normal and malignant prostate tissues. […] One of the molecular signs of prostate cancer is TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. […] The possible molecular relation between fusion positive prostate cancer patients and the increased risk of lethal respiratory viral infections especially SARS-CoV-2 can candidate TMPRSS2 as an attractive drug target. […] The studies show that some molecules such as nicotinamide, PARP1, ETS and IL-1R can be studied deeper in order to control SARS-CoV-2 infection especially in prostate cancer patients. […] This review attempts to investigate the possible relation between the gene expression pattern that is produced through TMPRSS2-ERG fusion positive prostate cancer and the possible influence of these fluctuations on the pathogenesis and development of viral infections such as SARS-CoV-2.
33303727 Donor-derived, cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA) level correlates with allograft injury with clinical validity and utility for quiescence and active acute rejection (AR) in kidney transplant recipients. […] During COVID-19 in the United States (US), we surveyed weekly (January 6, 2020-May 25, 2020) metrics for dd-cfDNA corresponding to both a low risk for active rejection (dd-cfDNA < 0.5%) and cohorts with indeterminate levels of 0.5% to 1.0% and > 1.0%. […] During the study timeframe, over 11,000 patient samples (67%) from 150 kidney transplantation centers were transitioned from standard facility-based to remote phlebotomy. […] Linearized slopes for numbers of samples corresponding to indeterminate risk for AR cohorts of > 1.0% and 0.5% to 1.0% were -0.31 and -0.12, respectively; indicating that prevalence of these “at risk for AR cohorts” decreased during remote surveillance. […] Approximately 73% of samples corresponded to low risk of AR (dd-cfDNA < 0.5%), while an additional 15% of samples had dd-cfDNA level ≤ 1.0%. […] The combination of remote home phlebotomy including dd-cfDNA analysis and a tele-health program offer a new paradigm that may substantially improve patient compliance and assuage anxiety regarding the state of kidney allograft health during the COVID-19 pandemic. […] Further prospective multi-center studies with robust outcomes data are warranted.
33305659 Antiviral activities have been found for PT150 and other members of its class in a variety of virus families; thus, it was now tested against SARS-CoV-2 in human bronchial epithelial lining cells and showed effective 90% inhibitory antiviral concentration (EC90) of 5.55 µM. […] PT150 is a member of an extended platform of novel glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and androgen receptor (AR) modulating molecules. […] In vivo, their predominant net effect is one of systemic glucocorticoid antagonism, but they also show direct downregulation of AR and minor GR agonism at the cellular level. […] We hypothesize that anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity depends in part on this AR downregulation through diminished TMPRSS2 expression and modulation of ACE2 activity.
33310900 , and androgen receptor (AR) in subsets of lung epithelial cells. […] AR levels are markedly elevated in males relative to females greater than 70 y of age. […] In males greater than 70 y old, smoking was associated with elevated levels of AR and ACE2 in lung epithelial cells. […] Transcriptional repression of the AR enhanceosome with AR or bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) antagonists inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro.
33403990 On 26 March 2020, the South African (SA) government initiated a 21-day national level 5 lockdown which was subsequently eased off and downgraded to level 4 on 1 May and to level 3 on 1 June. […] The effect of lockdown measures on SARS-CoV-2 infectivity is currently uncertain. […] In this article, we analyse the effects of the lockdown measures on the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in one of the epicentres in SA. […] To measure the effects of lockdown measures introduced in SA on SARS-CoV-2 attack rates (ARs, the percentage of individuals who tested positive in a specified time period) in Gauteng Province during a 4-month period (March - June 2020). […] The ARs are reported over time (unweighted and age-weighted 14-day moving averages) by age groups, gender, and different regions/districts in Gauteng. […] A total of 162 528 tests were performed at a private laboratory between 5 March and 30 June 2020, of which 20 574 were positive (overall AR 12.7%). […] There was an exponential increase in the AR in June (18.3%) when lockdown was eased to level 3, in comparison with 4.2% (March), 2.2% (April) and 3.3% (May). […] The increase in June was seen in all the age groups, although it was more pronounced in the 21 - 60 years age groups than the younger (0 - 20 years) and older (>60 years) age groups. […] The AR was significantly higher in males (13.2%) compared with females (12.1%) (χ2 test, p<0.0001). […] The findings of this study testify to the rapid increase in ARs resulting from easing of the lockdown regulations, especially to level 3 in June. […] Of concern is the upward trend in the AR across all age groups, especially <20 years (15.9%), which was not reported in other parts of the world.
33493227 The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak is a public health emergency of international concern. […] The spike glycoprotein (S protein) of SARS-CoV-2 is a key target of antiviral drugs. […] Focusing on the existing S protein structure, molecular docking was used in this study to calculate the binding energy and interaction sites between 14 antiviral molecules with different structures and the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, and the potential drug candidates targeting the SARS-CoV-2 S protein were analyzed. […] Tizoxanide, dolutegravir, bictegravir, and arbidol were found to have high binding energies, and they effectively bind key sites of the S1 and S2 subunits, inhibiting the virus by causing conformational changes in S1 and S2 during the fusion of the S protein with host cells. […] Based on the interactions among the drug molecules, the S protein and the amino acid environment around the binding sites, rational structure-based optimization was performed using the molecular connection method and bioisosterism strategy to obtain Ti-2, BD-2, and Ar-3, which have much stronger binding ability to the S protein than the original molecules. […] This study provides valuable clues for identifying S protein inhibitor binding sites and the mechanism of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect as well as useful inspiration and help for the discovery and optimization of small molecule S protein inhibitors.
33493639 COVID-19 emerged as a pandemic toward the end of 2019, causing large numbers of people to become infected and die. […] To determine whether allergic diseases are a risk factor for hospitalization in COVID-19. […] The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR ), recurrent wheezing, atopic dermatitis (AD), and asthma was 10.3%, 5.5%, 4.7%, and 3.7%, respectively, within the whole study population. […] While having asthma ± AR, AD, and passive tobacco exposure were not found to be related to hospitalization due to COVID-19, having a pet at home was found to be decreased risk of hospitalization (OR: 0.191, 95% CI: 0.047-0.779, p = 0.021). […] Spirometry tests revealed a higher FEV1/FVC ratio and a PEF reversibility in hospitalized patients compared to nonhospitalized ones (p = 0.023 and p = 0.003, respectively). […] Asthma and allergic diseases do not appear to be risk factors for hospitalization due to COVID-19 in children, and having a pet at home can be a protective effect. […] Pulmonary function testing seems to be important for monitoring lung damage following COVID-19.
33500878 Patients requiring surgical intervention who are positive for COVID-19 are not only more likely to develop complications post-operatively, but also pose an increased infection risk to the surgical team involved in their care. […] We present a case series (compliant with SCARE [4] and PROCESS [5] criteria) to demonstrate the effective use of an AR technology platform during the intraoperative treatment of two complex COVID positive patients diagnosed with Fournier’s gangrene.Retrospective review of prospectively collected data of all patients that required surgery involving multiple specialties during the COVID-19 pandemic at Jaber AlAhmad hospital in Kuwait between March 2020 to October 2020. […] We present two cases to highlight the use of an augmented reality (AR) platform during the treatment of COVID-19 positive patients with Fournier’s gangrene in order to safeguard surgical teams whilst simultaneously enabling these complex cases to benefit from multi-specialty input intraoperatively. […] This case series demonstrates how AR solutions can be employed to bolster infection control measures and may be useful in the treatment of surgical patients who test positive for COVID-19. […] AR solutions could be considered as an infection control strategy to safeguard surgical teams operating on COVID-19 positive patients.
33522308 No prophylactic treatments for COVID-19 have been clearly proven and found. […] In this pandemic context, cancer patients constitute a particularly fragile population that would benefit the best from such treatments, a present unmet need. […] In case of pandemic, if the protective effect of hormonal therapies will be proven on cancer patients, the use of specific hormonal therapies could be extended to other oncological groups and to healthy individuals to decrease the overall risk of infection by SARS-CoV-2. […] Androgen receptor (AR) signaling in the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) regulation is emerging as an important determinant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) susceptibility. […] In our study, we analyzed AR and TMPRSS2 expression in 17,352 normal and 9,556 cancer tissues from public repositories and stratified data according to sex and age. […] The emerging picture is that some patient groups may be particularly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and may benefit from antiandrogen- or tamoxifen-based therapies. […] These findings are relevant to choose proper treatments in order to protect cancer patients from concomitant SARS-CoV-2 contagion and related symptoms and put forward the idea that hormonal therapies could be used as prophylactic agents against COVID-19.
33544838 Yellow fever virus (YFV) live attenuated vaccine can, in rare cases, cause life-threatening disease, typically in patients with no previous history of severe viral illness. […] Autosomal recessive (AR) complete IFNAR1 deficiency was reported in one 12-yr-old patient. […] One 13-yr-old patient had AR complete IFNAR2 deficiency. […] AR IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 deficiency and neutralizing auto-Abs against type I IFNs thus accounted for more than half the cases of life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease studied here.
33552151 In this paper, we study the nonnegativity and stability properties of the solutions of a newly proposed extended SEIR epidemic model, the so-called SE(Is)(Ih)AR epidemic model which might be of potential interest in the characterization and control of the COVID-19 pandemic evolution. […] The proposed model incorporates both asymptomatic infectious and hospitalized infectious subpopulations to the standard infectious subpopulation of the classical SEIR model. […] In parallel, it also incorporates feedback vaccination and antiviral treatment controls. […] The exposed subpopulation has three different transitions to the three kinds of infectious subpopulations under eventually different proportionality parameters. […] Their local asymptotic stability properties and the attainability of the endemic equilibrium point are investigated based on the next generation matrix properties, the value of the basic reproduction number, and nonnegativity properties of the solution and its equilibrium states.
33558541 The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly become a global public health threat. […] Among these drugs, a second-generation antiandrogen agent, enzalutamide, was proposed because it reduces the expression of transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), a key component mediating SARS-CoV-2-driven entry, in prostate cancer cells. […] Tmprss2 knockout significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo. […] Enzalutamide effectively inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in human prostate cells, however, such antiviral efficacy was lacking in human lung cells and organoids. […] Accordingly, enzalutamide showed no antiviral activity due to the AR-independent TMPRSS2 expression in mouse and human lung epithelial cells. […] Moreover, we observed distinct AR binding patterns between prostate cells and lung cells and a lack of direct binding of AR to TMPRSS2 regulatory locus in human lung cells.