Gene Context Sentence

Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of ANG gene in 30 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32061198 ACE2 plays an important role in the RAS, and the imbalance between ACE/Ang II/AT1R pathway and ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas receptor pathway in the RAS system will lead to multi-system inflammation. […] Increased ACE and Ang II are poor prognostic factors for severe pneumonia. […] The binding of COVID-19 and ACE2 resulted in the exhaustion of ACE2, and then ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas receptor pathway was inhibited. […] ACE2是肾素-血管紧张素系统(RAS)的重要组成部分,RAS系统中ACE/Ang II/AT1R通路与ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas受体通路失衡将导致多系统炎症。 […] ACE和Ang II升高是重症肺炎的不良预后因素。 […] 新型冠状病毒与ACE2的结合导致ACE2耗竭,ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas受体通路受到抑制,RAS系统失衡,使新型冠状病毒肺炎患者病死率升高。
32221983 This article reviews the correlation between angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and severe risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the possible mechanisms. […] ACE2 is a crucial component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). […] The classical RAS ACE-Ang II-AT1R regulatory axis and the ACE2-Ang 1-7-MasR counter-regulatory axis play an essential role in maintaining homeostasis in humans.
32228252 The mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 infection is the requisite binding of the virus to the membrane-bound form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and internalization of the complex by the host cell. […] ACE2, however, is a key enzymatic component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS); ACE2 degrades ANG II, a peptide with multiple actions that promote CVD, and generates Ang-(1-7), which antagonizes the effects of ANG II. […] Moreover, experimental evidence suggests that RAAS blockade by ACE inhibitors, ANG II type 1 receptor antagonists, and mineralocorticoid antagonists, as well as statins, enhance ACE2 which, in part, contributes to the benefit of these regimens.
32250244 The discovery that SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) binds to the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-2, which is highly expressed in the lower airways, explained why SARS-CoV-2 causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure. […] To the contrary, compelling evidence exists that the ACE-1/angiotensin(Ang)II/ATR-1 pathway is involved in SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS, while the ACE-2/Ang(1-7)/ATR2/MasR pathway counteracts the harmful actions of AngII in the lung. […] A reduced ACE-1/ACE-2 ratio is, in fact, a feature of ARDS that can be rescued by human recombinant ACE-2 and Ang(1-7) administration, thus preventing SARS-CoV-2-induced damage to the lung. […] Based on the current clinical evidence treatment with ACE-inhibitors I (ACEis) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) continues to provide cardiovascular and renal protection in patients diagnosed with COVID-19.
32255491 Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the major enzyme responsible for conversion of Ang II into Ang-(1-7).
32264791 Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) has a multiplicity of physiological roles that revolve around its trivalent function: a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), facilitator of amino acid transport, and the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 receptor. […] Recombinant ACE2, gene-delivery of Ace2, Ang 1-7 analogs, and Mas receptor agonists enhance ACE2 action and serve as potential therapies for disease conditions associated with an activated RAS. […] Recombinant human ACE2 has completed clinical trials and efficiently lowered or increased plasma angiotensin II and angiotensin 1-7 levels, respectively.
32333398 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme2 is the cell surface binding site for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19. […] We propose that an imbalance in the action of ACE1- and ACE2-derived peptides, thereby enhancing angiotensin II (Ang II) signalling is primary driver of COVID-19 pathobiology. […] ACE1/ACE2 imbalance occurs due to the binding of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2, reducing ACE2-mediated conversion of Ang II to Ang peptides that counteract pathophysiological effects of ACE1-generated ANG II. […] Ang (1-7), which activates MAS1); (d) recombinant human ACE2 or ACE2 peptides as decoys for the virus.
32335068 The patient had exquisite BP sensitivity to low-dose angiotensin II (Ang-2), allowing for rapid liberation from high-dose vasopressors. […] We hypothesize that sensitivity to Ang-2 might be related to biological effect of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. […] The case is suggestive of a potential role for synthetic Ang-2 for patients with COVID-19 and septic shock.
32338224 SARS-CoV binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2 which is present on nonimmune cells, such as respiratory and intestinal epithelial cells, endothelial cells, kidney cells (renal tubules) and cerebral neurons and immune cells, such as alveolar monocytes/macrophages [4-6]. […] Down-regulation of ACE2 causes excessive production of angiotensin (ANG) II by the related enzyme ACE with stimulation of ANG type 1a receptor (AT1R) and enhanced lung vascular permeability [18]. […] There is evidence that ACE2 protects from severe acute lung failure and operates as a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) [18, 37]. […] It is well known that ANG II via activation of the AT1R promotes detrimental effects on the host, such as, vasoconstriction, reactive oxygen species generation, inflammation and matrix remodelling [38]. […] ACE2 counterbalances the noxious effects exhibited by ANG II and AT1R via activation of AT2R which arrests cell growth, inflammation and fibrosis [39]. […] Hanff and associates [50] have discussed the possible association between COVID-19-associated cardiovascular mortality and dysregulation of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS). […] In fact, there are no available data which support that ACE inhibitors or ANG II type I receptor blockers increase COVID-19 infection via its binding to ACE2.
32340044 The SARS-CoV-2 infects humans through the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-2) receptor. […] The ACE-2 receptor is a part of the dual system renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) consisting of ACE-Ang-II-AT1R axis and ACE-2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis. […] In metabolic disorders and with increased age, it is known that there is an upregulation of ACE-Ang-II-AT1R axis with a downregulation of ACE-2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis. […] The activated ACE-Ang-II-AT1R axis leads to pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic effects in respiratory system, vascular dysfunction, myocardial fibrosis, nephropathy, and insulin secretory defects with increased insulin resistance. […] On the other hand, the ACE-2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects on the respiratory system and anti-inflammatory, antioxidative stress, and protective effects on vascular function, protects against myocardial fibrosis, nephropathy, pancreatitis, and insulin resistance. […] The already strained ACE-2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas in metabolic disorders is further stressed due to the use of the ACE-2 by the virus for entry, which affects the prognosis in terms of respiratory compromise. […] Further evidence needs to be gathered on whether modulation of the renin angiotensin system would be advantageous due to upregulation of Mas activation or harmful due to the concomitant ACE-2 receptor upregulation in the acute management of COVID-19.
32365180 The virus invades the target cell by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 and modulates the expression of ACE2 in host cells. […] ACE2, a pivotal component of the renin-angiotensin system, exerts its physiological functions by modulating the levels of angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang-(1-7). […] Ang II, ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) regulate follicle development and ovulation, modulate luteal angiogenesis and degeneration, and also influence the regular changes in endometrial tissue and embryo development.
32369211 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) removes a single residue from Ang I to yield Ang (1-9) and cleaves a single residue from Ang II to generate Ang (1-7). […] Thus ACE2 counterbalances ACE function decreasing Ang II levels1 . […] Consequently, this enzyme has a protective role against excessively high blood pressure values and high level of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation2 .
32374416 The relationship between Renin-Angiotensin system (RAS) and COVID-19 pandemic and, in particular, RAS as part of the CoV-2 infection process via Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), the entry point of SARS-CoV-2, has resulted in conflicting suggestions regarding how RAS and its role(s) should inform treating COVID-19. […] ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II (Ang)-type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), in fact, have been suggested to be avoided as they potentially upregulate ACE2 1 and, conversely, there are suggestions that ARBs might be beneficial 2 as SARS-CoV-2 causing ACE2 downregulation slows the Ang II conversion to the vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiatherosclerotic Ang 1-7 3-5 , and the use of ARBs by blocking the excessive Ang II type-1 receptors activation, would be beneficial upregulating ACE2 activity and increasing Ang 1-7 levels.
32392562 In this review, we provide the latest insights into the roles of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) and Ang II receptor-1 (AT1-R) in this disease. […] Novel therapeutic strategies, including recombinant ACE2, ACE inhibitors, AT1-R blockers, and Ang 1-7 peptides, may prevent or reduce viruses-induced pulmonary, cardiac, and renal injuries.
32414711 ACE2 is a component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which has an important counterregulatory effect on the classical ACE-dependent pathway. […] However, ACE2 is protective against lung injury while ANG II (which is catabolised by ACE2) is associated with lung injury both in mice and humans.
32435607 We aim to explore the potential role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in this regard through this literature review. […] As a crucial enzyme of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), ACE2 not only mediates the virus entry but also affects the pathophysiological process of virus-induced acute lung injury (ALI), as well as other organs’ damage. […] Meanwhile, ACE2 could catalyze angiotensin II (Ang II) to form angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7), thus alleviates the harmful effect of Ang II and amplifies the protection effect of Ang1-7. […] ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) have been shown to increase the level of expression of ACE2 and could be potential strategies in protecting lungs, heart, and kidneys.
32469114 The renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of variety of diseases. […] Targeting the formation and action of angiotensin II (Ang II), the main RAS peptide, has been the key therapeutic target for last three decades. […] ACE-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2), a monocarboxypeptidase that had been discovered 20 years ago, is one of the catalytically most potent enzymes known to degrade Ang II to Ang-(1-7), a peptide that is increasingly accepted to have organ -protective properties that oppose and counterbalance those of Ang II.
32485101 Vascular growth factor (VEGF), which is widely distributed in the brain, probably plays a crucial role in brain inflammation via facilitating the recruitment of inflammatory cells and regulating the level of angiopoietins II (Ang II). […] Also, Ang II is considered as the products of SARS-CoV-2-attacking target, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32492292 The spike glycoprotein on the virion surface docking onto the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 dimer is an essential step in the process of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in human cells-involves downregulation of ACE2 expression with systemic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) imbalance and promotion of multi-organ damage. […] In general, the RAS induces vasoconstriction, hypertension, inflammation, fibrosis, and proliferation via the ACE/Ang II/Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis and induces the opposite effects via the ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas axis. […] SARS-CoV-2 induces the ACE2 internalization and shedding, leading to the inactivation of the ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas axis. […] In brief, the first hit originates from chronic inflammation activating the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis, and the second originates from the COVID-19 infection inactivating the ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas axis.
32504757 The Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) 2, is an essential receptor for cell fusion and engulfs the SARS coronavirus infections. […] While ACE2 downregulation by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein leads to an overactivation of Angiotensin (Ang) II/AT1R axis and the deleterious effects of Ang II may explain the multiorgan dysfunction seen in patients. […] Specifically, the role of Ang II leading to the appearance of Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS) and the cytokine storm in COVID-19 is discussed below. […] In this review, we summarized the latest research progress in the strategies of treatments that mainly focus on reducing the Ang II-induced deleterious effects rather than attenuating the virus replication.
32507883 After transmembrane angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been found to be SARS-CoV-2 receptor, we hypothesized an immune-hematological mechanism for Covid-19 based on renin-angiotensin system (RAS) imbalance to explain clinical, laboratory and imaging findings on disease course. […] We believe that exaggerated activation of ACE/Angiotensin II (Ang II)/Angiotensin Type 1 (AT1) receptor RAS axis in line with reduction of ACE2/Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor may exert a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Covid-19.
32522617 ACE2 is a part of RAS which is expressed in several organs that opposes the AngII functions by converting Ang II to Ang (1-7), the one with vasodilation effects.
32522846 ACE2 is a crucial component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). […] The classical ACE-angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang II)-angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis and the ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas counter-regulatory axis play an essential role in RAS system. […] ACE2 antagonises the activation of the classical RAS ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis and protects against lung injury. […] In the meantime, however, the use of RAS blockers such as ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers that inhibit the damaging (ACE-Ang II) arm of the RAS cascade in the lung may also be promising.
32526061 The reviewed evidence suggests that PDE5 inhibitors could offer a new strategy in managing COVID-19 by (i) counteracting the Ang-II-mediated downregulation of AT-1 receptor; (ii) acting on monocyte switching, thus reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines, interstitial infiltration and the vessel damage responsible for alveolar hemorrhage-necrosis; (iii) inhibiting the transition of endothelial and smooth muscle cells to mesenchymal cells in the pulmonary artery, preventing clotting and thrombotic complications.
32534506 The biologic studies show that the target receptor for the virus might be angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] This peptide is responsible for converting angiotensin II (Ang II), which is a profoundly active peptide, into Ang 1-7 with quite a balancing barbell function. […] Nevertheless, we hypothesized that a back load build up effect on Ang II may usurp the ACE capacity and subsequently leave the bradykinin system unabated.
32562701 Apelin or its receptor agonists are of great potential treatment for COVID-19 through suppressing angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II (Ang-II) production, as well as, down-regulating angiotensin receptor 1 (AT1R) and ACE2 up-regulation. […] These drugs have potential to improve acute lung injury and cardiovascular/coagulopathy complications in COVID-19 which are associated with elevated Ang-II/Ang(1-7) ratio.
32564694 We showed ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) 2 is higher in the kidney of male compared with female mice. […] To further investigate this sex difference, we examined the role of ACE2 in Ang-[1-8] (angiotensin [1-8])-induced hypertension and regulation of the renin-angiotensin system in the kidney of WT (wild type) and Ace2 KO (knockout) mice. […] Mean arterial pressure rose faster in WT male than WT female mice after Ang-[1-8] infusion. […] Ang-[1-8] infusion reduced glomerular AT1R (angiotensin type 1 receptor) binding in WT female mice by 30%, and deletion of Ace2 abolished this effect. […] In contrast, Ang-[1-8] infusion increased glomerular AT1R binding in WT male mice by 1.2-fold, and this effect of Ang-[1-8] persisted in Ace2 KO male mice (1.3-fold). […] ACE2 also had an effect on renal protein expression of the neutral endopeptidase NEP (neprilysin), the enzyme that catabolizes Ang-[1-10] (angiotensin [1-10]), the precursor of Ang-[1-8]. […] Ang-[1-8] infusion downregulated NEP protein expression by 20% in WT male, whereas there was a slight increase in NEP expression in WT female mice. […] Deletion of Ace2 resulted in lowered NEP expression after Ang-[1-8] infusion in both sexes. […] These findings suggest sex-specific ACE2 regulation of the renin-angiotensin system contributes to female protection from Ang-[1-8]-induced hypertension.
32582222 A common denominator of all affected organs is the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a protease responsible for the conversion of Angiotensin 1-8 (Ang II) to Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7). […] Ang 1-7 acts on these tissues and in other target organs via Mas receptor (MasR), where it exerts beneficial effects, including vasodilation and suppression of inflammation and fibrosis, along an attenuation of cardiac and vascular remodeling.
32584474 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), serves as the major entry point into cells for SARS-CoV-2 which attaches to human ACE2, thereby reducing the expression of ACE2 and causing lung injury and pneumonia. […] It can induce ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis activity and inhibits renin and the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis, thereby increasing expression and concentration of ACE2, MasR and Ang-(1-7) and having a potential protective role against acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
32591908 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key counter-regulatory component of the renin-angiotensin system. […] ACE2 converts angiotensin (Ang) II to Ang-(1-7), which directly opposes the vasoconstrictive, proinflammatory, and prothrombotic effects of Ang II. […] Drugs that interact with the renin-angiotensin system may impact ACE2 expression and COVID-19 pathogenesis; however, the magnitude and direction of these effects are unknown at this time. […] High quality research is needed to improve our understanding of how agents that act on the renin-angiotensin system impact ACE2 and COVID-19-related disease outcomes.