glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

Gene Context Sentence

Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of G6PD gene in 31 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32281268 HCov-229E is one of the four flu-causing coronaviruses which share great sequence similitude, while many symptoms of patients infected with COVID-19 resemble those of patients infected with these known flu-causing coronaviruses.2 A previous study reported that human lung epithelial A549 cells treated with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) interfering RNA (RNAi) to lower G6PD activity displayed augmented (12-fold) viral production in comparison to normal counterparts when infected with coronavirus HCov-229E. […] Moreover, viral replication in these G6PD-deficient cells was found to be 3-fold higher than normal cells, following a 10-h incubation, as estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).3 G6PD deficiency remains the most common human enzymatic disorder of red blood cells worldwide.
32316233 Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency screening test is essential for malaria treatment, control, and elimination programs. […] G6PD deficient individuals are at high risk of severe hemolysis when given anti-malarial drugs such as primaquine, quinine, other sulphonamide-containing medicines, and chloroquine, which has recently been shown to be potent for the treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). […] We evaluated the geographical accessibility to POC testing for G6PD deficiency in Ghana, a malaria-endemic country. […] We also obtained the geolocated data of all public hospitals providing G6PD deficiency testing services in the region. […] Using ArcGIS 10.5, we quantified geographical access to G6PD deficiency screening test and identified clinics as well as visualize locations with poor access for targeted improvement. […] Access to G6PD deficiency screening test was varied across the districts, and G6PD deficiency screening test was available in all eight public hospitals. […] This implies that the health facility-to-population ratio for G6PD deficiency testing service was approximately 1:159,210 (8/1,273,677) population. […] The spatial analysis quantified the current mean distance to a G6PD deficiency testing service from all locations in the region to be 34 ± 14 km, and travel time (68 ± 27 min). […] The estimated mean distance from a clinic to a district hospital for G6PD deficiency testing services was 15 ± 11 km, and travel time (46 ± 33 min). […] Access to POC testing for G6PD deficiency in Ghana was poor. […] Given the challenges associated with G6PD deficiency, it would be essential to improve access to G6PD deficiency POC testing to facilitate administration of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to pregnant women, full implementation of the malaria control program in Ghana, and treatment of COVID-19 patients with chloroquine in malaria-endemic countries. […] To enable the World Health Organization include appropriate G6PD POC diagnostic tests in its list of essential in-vitro diagnostics for use in resource-limited settings, we recommend a wider evaluation of available POC diagnostic tests for G6PD deficiency, particularly in malaria-endemic countries.
32324284 Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited genetic disorder caused by red cell enzymatic defects and is associated with haemolytic crisis when patients are exposed to oxidative agents (fava beans, drugs, infections). […] Hydroxychloroquine is suspected to trigger haemolytic crisis in G6PD-deficient patients, and off-label administration of this drug to patients infected with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) could cause concern. […] We report here the first case of severe haemolytic crisis in a patient with G6PD deficiency, initiated by severe COVID-19 infection and hydroxychloroquine use. […] With worldwide spread of COVID-19, especially in regions with a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency, our case should alert physicians to this possible correlation.
32493447 Exclusion criteria include: History of COVID -19 virus infection, clinical symptoms such as fever, nausea, dyspnea and myalgia in the past two months, history of underlying diseases hypersensitivity to hydroxychloroquine and G6PD enzyme deficiency.
32496938 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has its own side effects, some of which are very serious like acute haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient patients. […] We report a case of acute haemolysis leading to admission in intensive care unit and renal failure in a patient with uncovered G6PD deficiency.
32500556 However, the article also suggested that hydroxychloroquine possibly worsened the hemolysis, and further cautioned the use of hydroxychloroquine in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient patients.
32600868 Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common X-linked mutation that is more prevalent in African, Asian, Latin American and Mediterranean populations. […] Given the potential for coronavirus to trigger oxidative stress, unrecognized G6PD deficiency in the presence of the COVID-19 viral infection may cause hemolytic crisis and worse outcome in affected individuals. […] Further, since certain drugs that may be used to treat COVID-19 infection may cause hemolytic crisis in individuals with G6PD deficiency, it may be warranted to recommend adding G6PD deficiency to the list of screening elements in a COVID-19 workup for those patients where there is a high suspicion for this genetic mutation.
32616067 To be included in the trial the participant MUST: 1) Have given written informed consent to participate 2) Be aged 18 years to 70 years 3) Not previously have been diagnosed with COVID-19 4) Work in a high-risk secondary or tertiary healthcare setting (hospitals accepting COVID-19 patients) with direct patient-facing care EXCLUSION CRITERIA: The presence of any of the following will mean participants are ineligible: 1) Known COVID-19 positive test at baseline (if available) 2) Symptomatic for possible COVID-19 at baseline 3) Known hypersensitivity reaction to hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine or 4-aminoquinolines 4) Known retinal disease 5) Known porphyria 6) Known chronic kidney disease (CKD; eGFR<30ml/min) 7) Known epilepsy 8) Known heart failure or conduction problems 9) Known significant liver disease (Gilbert’s syndrome is permitted) 10) Known glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency 11) Currently taking any of the following contraindicated medications: Digoxin, Chloroquine, Halofantrine, Amiodarone, Moxifloxacin, Cyclosporin, Mefloquine, Praziquantel, Ciprofloxacin, Clarithromycin, Prochlorperazine, Fluconazole 12) Currently taking hydroxychloroquine or having a clinical indication for taking hydroxychloroquine 13) Currently breastfeeding 14) Unable to be followed-up during the trial 15) Current or future involvement in the active treatment phase of other interventional research studies (excluding observational/non-interventional studies) before study follow-up visit 16) Not able to use or have access to a modern phone device/web-based technology 17) Any other clinical reason which may preclude entry in the opinion of the investigator INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Interventions being evaluated are: A) Daily hydroxychloroquine or B) Weekly hydroxychloroquine or C) Placebo The maximum treatment period is approximately 13 weeks per participant.
32665039 Exclusion criteria include: currently pregnant, planning to become pregnant during the study period, and/or breast feeding; known hypersensitivity/allergy to hydroxychloroquine or to 4-aminoquinoline compounds; current use of hydroxychloroquine; known prolonged QT syndrome and/or baseline resting ECG with QTc>450 ms and/or concomitant medications which simultaneously may prolong the QTc that cannot be temporarily suspended/replaced; known pre-existing retinopathy, G6PD deficiency, porphyria, liver disease including cirrhosis, encephalopathy, hepatitis or alcoholism, diabetes on oral hypoglycemics or insulin, or renal insufficiency/failure; disclosure of self-administered use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine within 12 weeks prior to study; confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 at time of enrollment.
32697769 BACKGROUND Beta-hemoglobinopathies and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are genetic disorders that cause hemolytic anemia when exposed to oxidative stress. […] He was found to have hemoglobin D thalassemia and G6PD deficiency during further evaluation. […] Hydroxychloroquine therapy started initially, was discontinued after 3 doses once the G6PD deficiency was diagnosed. […] CONCLUSIONS Hydroxychloroquine therapy can induce hemolytic crises in patients with underlying G6PD deficiency or hemoglobinopathies and should be avoided or closely monitored. […] The significance of this case report is that it is the first report that outlines the clinic course of COVID-19 pneumonia in a patient with underlying hemoglobin D disease and G6PD deficiency.
32707089 Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency facilitates human coronavirus infection due to glutathione depletion. […] G6PD deficiency may especially predispose to hemolysis upon coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection when employing pro-oxidant therapy. […] We describe a severe case of COVID-19 infection in a G6PD-deficient patient treated with hydroxychloroquine who benefited from intravenous (IV) NAC beyond reversal of hemolysis. […] NAC blocked hemolysis and elevation of liver enzymes, C-reactive protein (CRP), and ferritin and allowed removal from respirator and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenator and full recovery of the G6PD-deficient patient. […] NAC was also administered to 9 additional respirator-dependent COVID-19-infected patients without G6PD deficiency.
32736597 All subjects must be aged ≥18 years, male or female, must be willing and able to give informed consent and must not have any contraindications to take hydroxychloroquine (intolerance or previous toxicity for hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, bradycardia or reduction in heart rhythm with arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, retinopathy, congestive heart failure with use of diuretics, favism or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, diabetes type 1, major comorbidities such as advanced chronic kidney disease or dialysis therapy, known history of ventricular arrhythmia, any oncologic/hematologic malignancy, severe neurological and mental illness, current use of medications with known significant drug-drug interactions, and known prolonged QT syndrome or current use of drugs with known QT prolongation).
32864162 We also identified other variants, that are associated with adverse effects, most notable in hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (G6PD; hemolysis), ribavirin (ITPA; hemolysis), and interferon β -1b (IRF6; liver toxicity).
32908842 We report a case of haemolytic anaemia in a 32-year-old patient and a fortuitous highlighting of G6PD deficiency. […] A rapid drop in haemoglobin in COVID-19 patients should alert physicians to test for haemolytic anaemia and enzymopathies.Our review of the literature shows that use of hydroxychloroquine is safe in G6PD-deficient patients.
33007039 These uses raise concerns about its safe use in the setting of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, especially as 11% of African American men carry the G6PD A- variant. […] Recently, we created a novel “humanized” mouse model containing the G6PD deficiency A- variant (Val68Met) using CRISPR technology. […] We tested the effects of high-dose HCQ administration over 5 days on hemolysis in our novel G6PD A- mice. […] Residual erythrocyte G6PD activity in G6PD A- mice was ~6% compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. […] Though the effects of high doses over prolonged periods was not assessed, this study provides early, novel safety data of the use of HCQ in the setting of G6PD deficiency secondary to G6PD A-. […] In addition to novel safety data for HCQ, to our knowledge, we are the first to present the creation of a “humanized” murine model of G6PD deficiency.
33038530 Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is necessary to prevent the exhaustion and depletion of cellular GSH. […] X-linked genetic G6PD deficiency is common in the AA population and predominantly in males. […] Acquired deficiency of G6PD has been widely reported in subjects with conditions of obesity and diabetes. […] This suggests that individuals with G6PD deficiency are vulnerable to excess oxidative stress and at a higher risk for inadequacy or deficiency of 25(OH)VD, leaving the body unable to protect its ‘oxidative immune-metabolic’ physiological functions from the insults of COVID-19.
33050945 All COVID-19 patients admitted to Shahid Mohammadi Hospital in Bandar Abbas whose PCR test results are positive for SARS-Cov-2 and sign the written consent of the study are included in the study and immunocompromised patients, end-stage renal disease, moderate renal failure (clearance Creatinine 30 to 50 ml/min) or stage 4 severe chronic kidney disease or need for dialysis (creatinine clearance lesser than 30 ml/min), history of liver disease, hepatitis C infection or alcoholism, Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency(G6PD), the ratio of Alanine transaminase to Aspartate transaminase 5 times above the normal limit, history or evidence of long QT segment on Electrocardiogram, psoriasis or porphyria, pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives, Dasatinib, Neratinib, Ozanimod, Pazopanib, Rilpivirine, Siponimod and/or Tizanidine and allergies to any study drug are excluded.
33085221 We characterized medication orders, focusing on medications with actionable PGx guidance related to 14 commonly assayed genes (CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A5, DPYD, G6PD, HLA-A, HLA-B, IFNL3, NUDT15, SLCO1B1, TPMT, UGT1A1, and VKORC1).
33110725 She had glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and no significant previous history of any disease.
33129363 • Known sensitivity/allergy to hydroxychloroquine or Favipiravir • Current use of hydroxychloroquine for another indication • Prior diagnosis of retinopathy • Prior diagnosis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency • Major comorbidities increasing the risk of study drug including: i.
33164538 Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enhances the normal senescence and accelerates the precocious removal of chronologically young, yet biologically aged cells. […] The aim of this mini review was to shed more light on the role of G6PD deficiency in aged people infected with Covid-19 (Ref.
33183501 Acute hemolytic anemia developed in an African American man with COVID-19-related pneumonia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency who completed the standard 5-day experimental course of hydroxychloroquine. […] Although the trigger leading to our patient’s hemolytic sequelae will never be known with certainty, his clinical course suggests that hydroxychloroquine use and/or COVID-19 infection may trigger hemolysis in susceptible patients with G6PD deficiency.
33195336 G6PD is essential for an adequate immune response. […] Both G6PDd and SARS-CoV-2 compromise the AO system through the same pathways rendering G6PDd the Achilles’ heel for COVID-19. […] Thus, the evolutionary antimalarial advantage of the G6PDd cohort can be a disadvantage against SARS-CoV-2.
33235826 A hemolytic anemia investigation panel came back normal, including G6PD. […] A second G6PD test was ordered at the 5-month follow-up appointment and revealed decreased levels. […] Clinicians should thus be aware of possible false negative tests when testing for G6PD during hemolytic crisis.
33263566 DHEA is an extremely potent inhibitor of Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD), with uniquely unstable uncompetitive inhibition kinetics. […] This has particular relevance to COVID-19, because G6PD-deficient human cells have been demonstrated to be exceptionally sensitive to infection by human coronavirus. […] Because DHEA is lipophilic and freely passes into cells, oral DHEA bypasses the normal controls regulating androgen biology and uncompetitive G6PD inhibition.
33341486 Comorbidities were present in 50% of patients, G6PD deficiency in 33%, hypertension in 27%, and diabetes mellitus in 26%.
33375707 The medications given to the patient and the patient’s glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase (G6PD) status seem to be important factors determining the severity of the methemoglobinemia and carboxyhemoglobinemia. […] Therefore, G6PD status should be determined before medications such as hydroxychloroquine are administered.
33401987 Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient individuals may experience a hemolytic crisis after being exposed to oxidants or infection. […] Individuals with G6PD deficiency are more susceptible to coronavirus infection than individuals with normally functioning G6PD. […] An altered immune response to viral infections is found in individuals with G6PD deficiency. […] Evidence indicates that G6PD deficiency is a predisposing factor of COVID-19.
33439304 We hypothesized that G6PD, the most common X-linked enzyme deficiency, associated with redox status, may have a role in severity of pneumonia. […] A total of 17 patients were evaluated: six with G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) and 11 with normal levels. […] The two groups (normal and G6PDd) were comparable in terms of age, sex, co-morbidities, and laboratory parameters-LDH, IL-6, CRP, and ferritin, respectively. […] Thirteen patients needed ventilatory support ; 8 in the normal group and 5 in the G6PDd group (72% vs.83%). […] G6PDd groups included G6PD levels (12.2 vs. […] Only one patient with G6PDd died; 16 were discharged home. […] Our clinical series ascribes a possible biological role for G6PDd in SARS-CoV2 viral proliferation. […] It is imperative that further studies are performed to understand the interplay between the viral and host factors in G6PDd that may lead to disparity in outcomes. […] KEY POINTS: • COVID19 studies show higher mortality in men, due to severe pneumonia and ARDS, indicating possible X-linked mediated differences • G6PD, the most common X-linked enzymopathy, highly prevalent in African Americans and Italians, maintains redox homeostasis. […] • Preclinical studies using G6PD deficient (G6PDd) cells infected with human coronavirus (hCoV), show impaired cellular responses, viral proliferation and worsening oxidative damage. […] • Retrospective chart review in hospitalized patients with COVID19 pneumonia needing supplemental oxygen shows differences between the two groups (Normal and G6PDd) in hematological indices; the G6PDdgroup demonstrated prolonged PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and longer days on mechanical ventilation indicating the severity of the pneumonia.
33542445 The major drug variant pairs that associated with variations in adverse effects include CQ/HCQ (G6PD; hemolysis and ABCA4; retinopathy), ATV (MDR1 and UGT1A128; hyperbilirubinemia; and APOA5; dyslipidemia), NVP (HLA-DRB101, HLA-B*3505 and CYP2B6; skin rash and MDR1; hepatotoxicity), and EFV (CYP2B6; depression and suicidal tendencies).
33574271 We also identified other variants, that are associated with adverse effects, most notable in hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (G6PD; hemolysis), ribavirin (ITPA; hemolysis), and interferon β -1b (IRF6; liver toxicity).