citrate synthase

Gene Context Sentence

Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of CS gene in 62 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32253400 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease with few successful treatments, and is strongly associated with cigarette smoking (CS). […] However, their protective activity against CS-induced COPD airway inflammation and oxidative stress and its underlying mechanism still remain not well-understood. […] The present study uses a CS-induced mouse model to estimate the morphological changes in lung tissue. […] The results demonstrated that TF suppressed the histological changes in the lungs of CS-challenged mice, as evidenced by reduced generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and diminished the protein expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). […] Interestingly, TF could inhibit CS-induced oxidative stress in the lungs of COPD mice. […] It suggested that TF derived from loquat leaves could be considered to be an alternative or a new functional material and used for the treatment of CS-induced COPD.
32302448 At baseline, the patients showed a pro-coagulant profile characterized by an increased clot strength (CS, median 55 hPa, 95% interquartile range 35-63), platelet contribution to CS (PCS, 43 hPa; interquartile range 24-45), fibrinogen contribution to CS (FCS, 12 hPa; interquartile range 6-13.5) elevated D-dimer levels (5.5 μg/mL, interquartile range 2.5-6.5), and hyperfibrinogenemia (794 mg/dL, interquartile range 583-933). […] After increasing the thromboprophylaxis, there was a significant (P = .001) time-related decrease of fibrinogen levels, D-dimers (P = .017), CS (P = .013), PCS (P = .035), and FCS (P = .038).
32363334 We found only one case report from China where COVID-19-associated fulminant myocarditis and cardiogenic shock (CS) was successfully rescued using VA-ECMO as a bridge to recovery (BTR). […] We identified potential clinical scenarios (cardiac injury, myocardial infarction with and without obstructive coronary artery disease, viral myocarditis, and decompensated heart failure) leading to CS and risk factors for poor/uncertain benefit (age, sepsis, mixed/predominantly vasodilatory shock, prothrombotic state and/or coagulopathy, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure or high-risk prognostic scores) specific to using VA-ECMO as BTR in COVID-19 infection. […] A small subset of patients with cardiovascular complications from COVID-19 infection may progress to refractory CS. […] Accepting that resource scarcity may be the overwhelming concern for healthcare systems during this pandemic, VA-ECMO can be considered in highly selected cases of refractory CS and echocardiographic evidence of biventricular failure.
32391662 The SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was detected in throat swab samples with RT-PCR test kits from Sansure Biotech (“Sansure” for short), Jiangsu Bioperfectus Technologies (“Bioperfectus” for short) and BGI Genomics (“BGI” for short). […] The results of magnetic bead method for nucleic acid extraction by two different extractors (Sansure Natch CS S12C Fully Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction System vs. 
32482976 Patients with recent hip fractures were identified as COVID positive (C+), COVID suspected (Cs) or COVID negative (C-). […] Seventeen (12.2%) patients were confirmed C+ by testing and another 14 (10.1%) were suspected (Cs) of having had the virus but were never tested. […] The C+ cohort, when compared to Cs and C- cohorts, had: an increased mortality rate (35.3% vs 7.1% vs 0.9%), increased length of hospital stay, a greater major complication rate and a greater incidence of ventilator need postoperatively.
32512383 The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by SARS-CoV-2-mediated cytokine storm (CS) in lungs leads to the high mortality in COVID-19 patients. […] To reduce ARDS, an ideal approach is to diminish virus loading by activating immune cells for CS prevention or to suppress the overactive cytokine-releasing immune cells for CS inhibition. […] Here, a potential radiation-mediated CS regulation is raised by reevaluating the radiation-mediated pneumonia control in the 1920s, with the following latent advantages of lung radiotherapy (LR) in treatment of COVID-19: (1) radiation accesses poorly circulated tissue more efficiently than blood-delivered medications; (2) low-dose radiation (LDR)-mediated metabolic rewiring and immune cell activation inhibit virus loading; (3) pre-consumption of immune reserves by LDR decreases CS severity; (4) higherdose radiation (HDR) within lung-tolerable doses relieves CS by eliminating in situ overactive cytokine-releasing cells.
32513791 In recent commentaries from Lancet Rheumatology and The Journal of Rhuematology (1-2) the authors eloquently illustrated the connection between COVID-19 infection, the subsequent cytokine storm (CS) that ensues in a number of patients and the potential efficacy of biologics that Rheumatologists routinely use in their practices. […] Moreover those biologics were originally investigated by Rheumatologists for the treatment of numerous rheumatic conditions, including macrophage activating syndrome (MAS), a similar form of storm that resembles the one occurring in COVID-19 patients (3).
32527990 Until now, no justified protocol has been reported for the anesthetic management in cesarean section (CS). […] She was stable and the CS was planned after she reached term. […] Through spinal anesthesia, CS was conducted. […] CONCLUSIONS Special precautions should be considered when pregnant women are undergoing CS.
32568186 Moreover, increased levels of cytokines so-called "cytokines storm (CS), and overt intravascular disseminated coagulation have been also reported. […] The hypercoagulation and CS would speculate about a microvascular dysfunction.
32615891 Data were collected regarding urgent endoscopies (EGD, CS, ERCP) in two different time periods: March 2019 and March 2020. […] The entity of reduction of overall urgent EGDs and CSs performed in March 2020 versus March 2019 was statistically significant: 541 versus 974 (-80%), p < .001 for EGD and 171 versus 265 (-55%), p < .008, for CS, respectively. […] No statistically significant difference in diagnostic yield for CS between 2019 and 2020 was found.Conclusion: The study showed a statistically significant reduction of urgent EGD and CS performed during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, in March 2020, compared to March 2019. […] No statistically significant difference was found in terms of diagnostic yield of urgent CS between March 2020 and March 2019.
32676039 We tried to summarize data reported in the last months from several Countries, highlighting that COVID-19 was characterized by cytokine storm (CS) and endothelial dysfunction in severely ill patients, where the progression of the disease was fast and fatal.
32689846 In confront with previous publications, we have found a higher rate of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) severe forms, even when compared to non-pregnant women with the same baseline characteristics. […] We have analyzed the demographic characteristics, pregnancy-related conditions and presenting symptoms to identify features that could determine which patients will need hospitalization because of COVID-19 (Group 1-G1) and those who not (Group 2-G2). […] Among the 23 patients that delivered with active SARS-CoV-2, the overall rate of cesarean section (CS) and preterm birth were 52.2% and 34.8%, respectively, but we observed that the rate of CS was even higher in G1 compared to G2: 81.8% versus 25%, p = .012. […] No evidence of late vertical transmission was noticed but prematurity and high CS rate were common findings, although it is difficult to establish any causality between these conditions and COVID-19.
32768693 To examine outcomes among patients who were treated with the targeted anti-cytokine agents, anakinra or tocilizumab, for COVID-19 -related cytokine storm (COVID19-CS). […] Local experts developed and implemented criteria to define COVID19-CS. […] Patients who died had more severe sepsis and respiratory failure and met COVID-CS laboratory criteria longer (median = 3 days) compared to those extubated/never intubated (median = 1 day). […] Prompt identification and treatment of COVID19-CS before intubation may be more important than the specific type of anti-inflammatory treatment.
32834302 The influence of music therapy (MT) as a support intervention to reduce stress and improve wellbeing in Clinical Staff (CS) working with COVID-19 patients was evaluated. […] An immediate significant variation in the CS emotional status was observed. […] The results seem to confirm that in an emergency situation, it is possible to put in place a remote MT support intervention for CS exposed to highly stressful situations.
32849666 In this paper, we hypothesized a complex host response to SARS-CoV-2, with the Contact System (CS) playing a pivotal role in innate immune response. […] CS is linked with different proteolytic defense systems operating in human vasculature: the Kallikrein-Kinin (KKS), the Coagulation/Fibrinolysis and the Renin-Angiotensin (RAS) Systems. […] CS consists of Factor XII (FXII) and plasma prekallikrein (complexed to high-molecular-weight kininogen-HK). […] Therapies targeting the CS, the KKS and action of BK could be effective for the treatment of COVID-19.
32858810 The aim of the present study was to identify the possible impact of working contextual and personal variables (age, gender, working position, years of experience, proximity to infected patients) on professional quality of life, represented by compassion satisfaction (CS), burnout, and secondary traumatization (ST), in HCWs facing COVID-19 emergency. […] Further, two multivariable linear regression analyses were fitted to explore the association of mental health selected outcomes, anxiety and depression, with some personal and working characteristics that are COVID-19-related. […] HCWs were assessed by Professional Quality of Life-5 (ProQOL-5), the Nine-Item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the Seven-Item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) to evaluate, respectively, CS, burnout, ST, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. […] Females showed higher ST than males, while frontline staff and healthcare assistants reported higher CS rather than second-line staff and physicians, respectively.
32860287 To evaluate compassion fatigue (CF), burnout (BO), compassion satisfaction (CS) and perceived stress in healthcare professionals during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) health crisis in Spain. […] CF, CS and BO were assessed with the Professional Quality of Life Questionnaire, and perceived stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Scale-14. […] Physicians had higher CF and BO scores, while nurses had higher CS scores. […] Professionals working in specific COVID-19 units and in emergency departments had higher CF and BO scores, while levels of CS and perceived stress were similar regardless of the workplace. […] However, CS seems to be increasing, especially among nurses, possibly due to their motivation to relieve suffering and due to their perceived social recognition. […] It is necessary to implement interventions that help improve CS and prevent BO and CF among professionals in the long term.
32879987 Scores ranging from 1 to 5 were assigned reflecting subjective assessment of image quality and related COVID-19 features, including ground glass opacities (GGO), crazy paving (CP), consolidation (CS), nodular infiltrates (NI), bronchovascular thickening (BVT), and pleural effusion (PE).
32889551 Caesarean Section (CS) was carried out in total 105 women (52.76%).
32889932 Nonetheless, they face a series of hurdles in entering U.S. residency programs and throughout their training experiences.IMGs must expend significant resources to obtain Education Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) certification, which includes Steps 1, 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK), and 2 Clinical Skills (CS) of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE).
32924020 Corticosteroid (CS) injections are commonly used both in primary and secondary care in the management of chronic shoulder pain. […] There was initial concern with the use of CS injections during the COVID-19 pandemic due to the increased potential for adrenal insufficiency and altered immune response.
32932327 In Italy, COVID outbreak has mostly occurred in the metropolitan area of Milan, and in the surrounding region of Lombardy, and previously “conventional” hospitals were converted into COVID spokes to increase ICU beds availability, and to allow only urgent CS procedures. […] Among urgent CS patients (left main stenosis with unstable angina, acute endocarditis, valvular regurgitation with impending heart failure), 10 patients (mean age = 57 ± 9 years), despite a negative admission triage, developed COVID-pneumonia postoperatively, at a median of 7 days after CS. […] Overall in-hospital mortality was 10% (1/10), peaking 25% in patients who developed COVID pneumonia immediately after CS. […] As postoperative mortality in case of COVID pneumonia is not negligible, meticulous rules (precise triage, safe hospital path, high level of protection for health-care teams, prompt diagnosis of suspicious symptoms) should be strictly followed in patients undergoing CS during COVID pandemic. […] The role of therapies alternative to CS should be further assessed.
32966484 In the present study, 4 marine sulfated polysaccharides were screened for their inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2, including sea cucumber sulfated polysaccharide (SCSP), fucoidan from brown algae, iota-carrageenan from red algae, and chondroitin sulfate C from sharks (CS). […] Of them, SCSP, fucoidan, and carrageenan showed significant antiviral activities at concentrations of 3.90-500 μg mL-1. […] SCSP exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity with IC50 of 9.10 μg mL-1. […] Furthermore, a test using pseudotype virus with S glycoprotein confirmed that SCSP could bind to the S glycoprotein to prevent SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry.
32978237 To develop predictive criteria for COVID-19-associated cytokine storm (CS), a severe hyperimmune response that results in organ damage in some patients infected with COVID-19. […] We hypothesised that criteria for inflammation and cell death would predict this type of CS. […] We found that the criteria for macrophage activation syndrome, haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and the HScore did not identify the COVID-19 cytokine storm (COVID-CS). […] These results highlight the relevance of hyperinflammation and tissue damage in the COVID-CS. […] We propose new early predictive criteria to identify the CS occurring in patients with COVID-19.
32991738 Here, we explored the location and expression of ACE2, and its correlation with gender, age and cigarette smoke (CS), in a CS-exposed mouse model and 224 non-malignant lung tissues (125 non-smokers, 81 current smokers and 18 ex-smokers) by immunohistochemistry. […] Moreover, the correlations of ACE2 with CS-induced oxidative stress-related markers, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) were investigated. […] We demonstrated that ACE2 was predominantly overexpressed on the apical surface of bronchial epithelium, while reduced in alveolar epithelium, owing to the dramatically decreased abundance of alveolar type II pneumocytes in CS-exposed mouse lungs.
33015145 We estimated that there were 5740 (95% credible set (CS) 5552-5936) excess deaths in the HPA of Bergamo and 3703 (95% CS 3535-3877) in Brescia, corresponding to a 2.55-fold (95% CS 2.50-2.61) and 1.93 (95% CS 1.89-1.98) increase in the number of deaths.
33020836 This observational study enrolled patients with moderate to severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia [arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) <200 mmHg] who received lopinavir/ritonavir and HCQ plus either corticosteroids (CS group, n = 50) or corticosteroids and baricitinib (BCT-CS group, n = 62). […] Statistics were adjusted by the inverse propensity score weighting (IPSW). […] A greater improvement in SpO2/FiO2 from hospitalization to discharge was observed in the BCT-CS vs CS group (mean differences adjusted for IPSW, 49; 95% CI: 22, 77; P < 0.001). […] A higher proportion of patients required supplemental oxygen both at discharge (62.0% vs 25.8%; reduction of the risk by 82%, OR adjusted for IPSW, 0.18; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.43; P < 0.001) and 1 month later (28.0% vs 12.9%, reduction of the risk by 69%, OR adjusted for IPSW, 0.31; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.86; P = 0.024) in the CS vs BCT-CS group. .
33035673 To assess the characteristics and risk factors for mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 treated with tocilizumab (TCZ), alone or in combination with corticosteroids (CS). […] Of them, 186 (17%) were treated with TCZ, of which 129 (87.8%) in combination with CS. […] The use of CS, in combination with TCZ, was identified as protective factor against mortality (HR = 0.26, p < 0.001) in such severe COVID-19 patients receiving TCZ. […] In severe COVID-19 patients receiving TCZ due to systemic host-immune inflammatory response syndrome, the use of CS in addition to TCZ therapy, showed beneficial effect in preventing in-hospital mortality.
33038922 This study intends to examine the factors associated with cesarean section (CS) during lockdown time. […] The subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were used to examine the association of CS and risk factors among populations with different characteristics and to control for possible confounding, respectively.
33042534 Our hospital utilised local private hospital as a dedicated cold site (CS) for urgent elective surgery during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. […] A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all the cases operated at the CS during a 2-month period (30 March 2020 to 29 May 2020) was carried out. […] A total of 153 patients were operated at the CS over the study period with a median age of 57 years (Interquartile range, IQR 47-70). 62% were females and 82% had a Body Mass Index (BMI) less than 30. 73% of the operations were performed for cancer. 59% of the surgeries were graded as intermediate and 26% as major or complex.
33064288 With an increasing death rate, it becomes important to throw some light on the life cycle of the virus and its associated pathogenesis in the form of lung inflammation through cytokine storm (CS) production. […] Previously, known anti-inflammatory drugs and therapeutic strategies that might show potential in controlling the CS of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is also mentioned in this study. […] Our critical analysis provides insights into the inflammation cycle induced in the lungs by early virus replication, downregulation and shedding of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in the CS production.
33071957 Adrenal insufficiency might be a clinical challenge that needs a prompt treatment also in CS patients during COVID-19 infection. […] We should consider the possibility to titrate or temporary halt medical therapies of CS in the context of COVID-19 infection. […] Unexpected hyperkalemia in CS patients under treatment with heparin might be the signal of aldosterone suppression.
33072848 MI-CS, is unknown. […] We aimed to examine the association of Corona virus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and incidence of acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock (MI-CS). […] Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified patients hospitalized with MI-CS. […] Incidence rates (IR) and incidence rate ratios (IRR) were used to compare MI-CS before and after March 11 in 2015-2019 and in 2020. […] We could not identify a significant association of the national lockdown on the incidence of MI-CS, along with similar in-hospital management and mortality in patients with MI-CS.
33113222 Delayed immune reconstitution (IR) and cytokine storm (CS) remain serious obstacles for the cure of COVID-19. […] It suggests that Thymosin α1 and adoptive COVID-19-specific T cells could improve IR, while convalescent plasma, IL-6 blockade, mesenchymal stem cells and corticosteroids could suppress CS.
33116752 Severe pathological manifestations of the disease in the infected population with comorbidities are linked to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), associated with an exaggerated synthesis and expression of cytokines, leading to a systemic inflammatory response also known as a cytokine storm (CS). […] Age-related immune imbalance increases patient susceptibility to CS.
33117240 We used crowdsourcing (CS) to examine how COVID-19 lockdown affects the content of dreams and nightmares. […] The CS took place on the sixth week of the lockdown. […] This CS survey on dream-association networks and pandemic stress introduces novel, collectively shared COVID-19 bad dream contents.
33143660 The expert panel for COVID-19 in Japan has focused on the “3 Cs,” namely, “closed spaces with poor ventilation,” “crowded spaces with many people,” and “close contact.” […] However, specific standards for indoor environmental quality control have not been recommended and many scientific uncertainties remain regarding the infection dynamics and mode of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in closed indoor spaces.
33146390 We found that the TRS-L core sequence (CS) and the secondary structure of the leader sequence are generally conserved within coronavirus genera but different between genera. […] By examining the location of recombination breakpoints with respect to TRS-B CS, we observed that recombination hotspots are more frequently co-located with TRS-B sites than expected.
33174446 The study design was cross-sectional and involved lung resections from 39 patients in total, which included 19 patients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage I or GOLD stage II COPD, of which 9 were current smokers with COPD (COPD-CS) and 10 were ex-smokers with COPD (COPD-ES), 10 were normal lung function smokers, and 10 were never-smoking normal controls.
33253396 This unprecedented time provided the opportunity to reenvision the delivery of nursing education and operation of the college of nursing, using the principles of the four Cs of interorganizational partnering as a guide supported by positive organizational scholarship.
33259798 Current smoking is associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19, but it is not clear how cigarette smoke (CS) exposure affects SARS-CoV-2 airway cell infection. […] We directly exposed air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures derived from primary human nonsmoker airway basal stem cells (ABSCs) to short term CS and then infected them with SARS-CoV-2. […] We found an increase in the number of infected airway cells after CS exposure with a lack of ABSC proliferation. […] Single-cell profiling of the cultures showed that the normal interferon response was reduced after CS exposure with infection. […] Treatment of CS-exposed ALI cultures with interferon β-1 abrogated the viral infection, suggesting one potential mechanism for more severe viral infection. […] Our data show that acute CS exposure allows for more severe airway epithelial disease from SARS-CoV-2 by reducing the innate immune response and ABSC proliferation and has implications for disease spread and severity in people exposed to CS.
33283602 ACE2 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 cell-entry, and is at the very center of several pathophysiological pathways regarding the RAAS, CS, KKS, T2DM, and IL-6.
33351674 From the start of the pandemic, we used electronic medical record-assisted telephone follow-up (E-TFU) of cancer survivors (CS) to minimize hospital exposure. […] The aim of this prospective study was to assess how breast cancer survivors (bCSs) perceived E-TFU. […] A 15-item survey was e-mailed to bCSs who had been managed with E-TFU. […] The responses were measured using Likert-like scales and were correlated with the main characteristics of the bCS using Pearson’s test. […] E-TFU was an important means of avoiding hospital contacts during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the majority of bCSs in the survey were satisfied with this procedure.
33356534 Pulmonary impairment score increased from NFs-Cs- group (3.8 ± 3.9), to NFs+Cs+ group (6.7 ± 4.1). […] Intensive care unit patients showed higher COVID-19 Cs positivity in conjunctiva (12.5%) against hospitalized ones (5.8%). […] The most severe pulmonary impairment can be observed in NFs and Cs positivity.
33362576 Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking (CS) are two known risk factors in many diseases including respiratory infections. […] There are totally 1547 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 enrolled in the study, alcohol consumption and CS history were evaluated among these patients. […] Our findings indicated that COVID-19 patients with a history of CS tend to have more severe outcomes than non-smoking patients. […] CS is a risk factor for developing severe illness and increasing mortality during the SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] We believe that our findings will provide a better understanding on the effects of alcohol intake and CS exposure in COVID-19 patients.
33368347 In conclusion, low CS was associated with indicators of psychological distress.
33380344 The study population included 2050 adults with chronic inflammatory arthritis receiving glucocorticoids, conventional-synthetic (cs), or targeted-synthetic/biological (ts/b) disease-modifying drugs (DMARDs). […] No independent effects of csDMARDs, age, sex, and comorbidities were observed.
33411623 To modernize and automate cancer data collection and reporting, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is planning, developing, and piloting a cancer surveillance cloud-based computing platform (CS-CBCP) with standardized electronic reporting from laboratories and health-care providers. […] Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic has illustrated the importance of continuity of operations plans, and the CS-CBCP has the potential to provide such a platform suitable for remote operations of central cancer registries.
33424100 Basing on scientific evidence and discussions with many people about COVID-19, an outline of the Three Cs Strategy is presented as an alternative to lockdown. […] The suggested solutions - eg encouraging regular physical activity outdoors (also for symptomless quarantined people), frequent ventilation with fresh air, and more careful use of antipyretics - can markedly help to reduce the rate of transmission of this disease.
33467466 The “cytokine storm” (CS) in COVID-19 leads to the worst stage of illness, and its timely control through immunomodulators, corticosteroids, and cytokine antagonists may be the key to reducing mortality. […] After reviewing published studies, we proposed a Cytokine Storm Score (CSs) to identify patients who were in this hyperinflammation state, and at risk of progression and poorer outcomes. […] Maria" Hospital in Terni with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, and analyzed the “CS score” (CSs) and the severity of COVID-19. […] Then we conducted a prospective study of COVID-19 patients admitted after the definition of the CSscore. […] CSs can accurately identify COVID-19 patients in the early stages of a CS, to conduct timely, safe, and effect administration of immunomodulators, corticosteroids, and cytokine antagonists, to prevent progression and reduce mortality.
33515531 It must be pointed out that CS might induce PDE4 up-regulation similarly to the COVID-19 inflammation, and therefore could potentiate COVID-19 inflammation opening the potential therapeutic effects of PDE4 inhibitor in both COVID-19-inflammation and CS.
33519271 The compelling evidences link the progression of viral infection of SARS-CoV-2 with excessive inflammation as a result of the exaggerated immune response and elevated production of “immunocytokines” resulting in cytokine storm (CS); followed by a series of events, like acute organ damage, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as well as death. […] Tocilizumab (IL-6 blocker), Baricitinib (JAKs and AAK1 inhibitor), TNFα inhibitors (Infliximab, Adalimumab, Certolizumab) are currently being evaluated for possible block of the CS. […] Hence, rationalizing anti-inflammatory therapeutics would be the most judicious approach for significant reduction in COVID-19 mortality. […] In order to elucidate optimized and rationaled use of different therapeutics in COVID-19, we collated latest available information from emerging scientific evidences, integrated previous attempts as well as clinical successes, and various adopted approaches to mitigate past outbreaks with of SARS-CoV and MERS CoV.
33519325 As such, an enhanced cuckoo search optimization algorithm (CS) is proposed using fractional-order calculus (FO) and four different heavy-tailed distributions in place of the Lévy flight to strengthen the algorithm performance during dealing with COVID-19 multi-class classification optimization task. […] The proposed FO-CS variants have been validated with eighteen UCI data-sets as the first series of experiments.
33520590 Experimental result demonstrates that the BHACRW performs better in terms of mean square error (MSE) and accuracy of training FNN, compared to standard BHA and eight well-known metaheuristic algorithms: whale optimization algorithm (WOA), biogeography-based optimizer (BBO), gravitational search algorithm (GSA), genetic algorithm (GA), cuckoo search (CS), multiverse optimizer (MVO), symbiotic organisms search (SOS), and particle swarm optimization (PSO).
33521496 The e-fellows forum (FF) provides a capstone experience for works-in-progress and the e-consultation service (CS) supports simulation research during the earlier project stages of design and development. […] Nine simulation fellows presented at the FF and seven junior simulation investigators participated in the CS sessions. […] Most preferred the virtual format (56% FF, 66% CS) and found the sessions to be helpful in project advancement (66% FF, 100% CS). […] COVID-19 affected most projects (89% FF, 67% CS).
33522893 Some COVID-19 patients experience sudden and rapid deterioration with the onset of fatal cytokine storm syndrome (CSS), which have increased interest in CSS’s mechanisms, diagnosis and therapy. […] Although the prototypic concept of CSS was first proposed 116 years ago, we have only begun to study and understand CSS for less than 30 years. […] Actually, diseases under CSS umbrella include familial/primary and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), and cytokine storm (CS). […] Hematologic malignancies and autoimmune diseases that cause CSS are named malignancy-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (MAHS) and MAS, respectively. […] In-depth research on the pathogenesis of HLH/CSS has greatly increased the number of patients that were able to be definitively diagnosed with HLH/CSS. […] However, it should be emphasized that HLH/CSS diagnosis is difficult at the early stages due to the non-specific clinical signs and symptoms, which tends to result in missed and incorrect diagnoses. […] Therefore, clinicians should not only possess extensive clinical experience to ensure high sensitivity to the characteristics of HLH/CSS but must also be familiar with HLH-2004/2009 diagnostic criteria, and HScore methods. […] The paper concisely comment evolution of CSS classifications, cytokines associated with CSS, evolution of CSS diagnostic criteria and importance of the correct identification of hemophagocytes in diagnosing CSS, which is timely and may benefit clinicians familiar HLH-2004/2009 diagnostic criteria, and HScore methods. […] Abbreviations: aBMT: autologous bone marrow transplantation; CAR-T: chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T-cell; COVID-19: coronavirus disease 2019; CSS: cytokine storm syndrome; HLH: hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; MAS: macrophage activation syndrome; CRS: cytokine release syndrome; CS: cytokine storm; MAHS: malignancy-associated hemophagocytic syndrome; IAHS: infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome; fHLH/pHLH: familial/primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; sHLH: secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; SARS-CoV-2: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; TCR-T, T-cell receptor-engineered T-cell.
33527080 By blocking the binding of the S-protein to the CS-GRP78 cell surface receptor, they can inhibit the binding of the virus to the host.
33530804 Women with COVID-19 have a high rate of preterm birth and CS.
33559733 Management to suppress the inflammatory response in the native COVID-19 case required high-dose corticosteroids (CS) to suppress inflammatory pathways, with concurrent ACE2 upregulation, along with high-dose intralesional hyaluronidase to dissolve the inciting HA filler.
33566210 An array of infections, including the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), trigger macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and subsequently hypercytokinemia, commonly referred to as a cytokine storm (CS). […] It is postulated that CS is mainly responsible for critical COVID-19 cases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). […] We propose prompt in vivo studies in animal models and human subjects to determine the putative effectiveness of a natural, algae-based treatment for viral CS and ARDS, and explore the potential of a novel anti-TNF-α therapy.
33585031 A total of 93 patients were enrolled, the Tocilizumab (TCZ) group (case) and Corticosteroid (CS) group (Control). […] The median age was 58 years (IQR-21), 37 (39.8%) patients with diabetes mellitus, 11 (11.8%) in the TCZ group, and 26 (28%) in the CS group. […] On the whole, the total median hospital stay in days was 7 with IQR (4), a total of 83 (89.2%) patients recovered successfully and discharged, 27 (29%) in the TCZ group and 56 (60.2%) in the CS group. […] Total 10 (10.8%) patients died, out of which 6 (6.5%) belonged to the TCZ group and 4 (4.3%) belonged to the CS group The median Oxygen requirement with IQR was 8 (9) in both the groups and in total as well, p-value (0.714).
33594347 Myocarditis is a challenging diagnosis due to heterogeneity of clinical presentation, ranging from mild symptoms to fatal arrhythmia and cardiogenic shock (CS). […] We present a 43-year-old man with mixed connective tissue disease treated with hydroxychloroquine who rapidly developed CS 4 days from symptom onset with fever and cough, showing positive polymerase chain reaction nasopharyngeal swab for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA. […] The myocardium recovered completely after a week with mechanical circulatory support (MCS). […] Still the most probable aetiology of CS in this case is myocarditis as a sole symptom of COVID-19. […] We present the first case of fulminant myocarditis rapidly progressing to CS in a COVID-19 patient without respiratory failure, successfully treated with inotropes and MCS.