TNF


tumor necrosis factor


Gene Context Sentence


Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of TNF gene in 82 abstracts.

PMID Gene Context Sentence
32026671 However, there were no statistically significant differences in serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-1, IL-8, IL-10, hs-CRP, lymphocyte count and LDH among the three groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: The clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV pneumonia are similar to those of common viral pneumonia. […] 而3组研究对象血清中的肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)、IL-1β、IL-8、IL-10、hs-CRP、淋巴细胞计数、LDH表达水平差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。
32171193 This cytokine inhibits class II histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and inflammation in inflammatory diseases by suppressing MyD88 and subsequently IL-1β, IL-6, TNF and CCL2.
32205232 LH significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells and markedly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CXCL-10/IP-10) production at the mRNA levels.
32217834 Increased cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α), lymphopenia (in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells), and decreased IFN-γ expression in CD4+ T cells are associated with severe COVID-19.
32217835 Compared with moderate cases, severe cases more frequently had dyspnea, lymphopenia, and hypoalbuminemia, with higher levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and D-dimer as well as markedly higher levels of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α.
32228827 All differentially expressed genes were introduced into the SREING online analysis website for protein interaction network analysis, and core genes such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, IL-10, IL17, TNF, interferon regulatory factor 9, 2’-5’-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase 3, radical s-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2, c-x-c motif chemokine ligand 10, caspase 3 and other genes were screened. […] The drugs predicted by EpiMed’s apparent precision treatment prediction platform for disease-drug association analysis are mainly TNF-α inhibitors, resveratrol, ritonavir, paeony, retinoic acid, forsythia, and houttuynia cordata. Conclusions: The abnormal activation of multiple inflammatory pathways may be the cause of heart failure in patients after coronavirus infection. […] 冠状病毒与心衰差异表达基因富集分析,取交集处理共有GO条目20条,主要富集在病毒反应、病毒防御反应、Ⅰ型干扰素反应、γ干扰素调节、先天免疫反应调节、病毒生命周期负调控、病毒基因组复制调控等;共有5条KEGG通路,主要与肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)信号通路、白细胞介素(IL)-17信号通路、细胞因子与受体相互作用、Toll样受体信号通路、人类巨细胞病毒感染有关。 […] 蛋白互作网络分析筛选出信号传导及转录激活蛋白3、IL-10、IL-17、TNF、干扰素调节因子9、2’,5’-寡腺苷酸合成酶1、丝裂原活化蛋白激酶3、S-腺苷甲硫氨酸基区域蛋白2、CXC趋化因子配体10、半胱氨酸天冬氨酸蛋白酶3共10个核心基因。 […] EpiMed平台预测可能对冠状病毒所致心衰有效的药物为TNF-α抑制剂、白藜醇、利托那韦、白芍、维甲酸、连翘、鱼腥草等。
32253400 The results demonstrated that TF suppressed the histological changes in the lungs of CS-challenged mice, as evidenced by reduced generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and diminished the protein expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1).
32257537 Meanwhile, the level of TNF-α was significantly decreased, while IL-10 increased in MSC treatment group compared to the placebo control group.
32259129 In this context, both in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed that metronidazole could decrease the levels of several cytokines, which are known to increase during the COVID-19 infection, including interleukin (IL)8, IL6, IL1B, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, IL12, IL1α, and interferon (IFN)γ, as well as the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and neutrophil count.
32267560 The main mechanism of ARDS is uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response and cytokine storm following release of proinflammatory cytokines (such as interferons (IFN), interleukines (IL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α) and chemokines.2-3 So, some Chinese researchers proposed or used anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment regimen of patients with COVID-19.3-4.
32281329 Arachidonic acid(AA) metabolic pathway is principally used to synthesize inflammatory cytokines, such as monocyte chemotactic protein 1(MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor(TNF), IL, IFN, etc., which is closely related to the occurrence, development and regression of inflammation.
32294485 Elder age, underlying hypertension, high cytokine levels (IL-2R, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-a), and high LDH level were significantly associated with severe COVID-19 on admission.
32308263 In brief, notable T cytopoenia was recorded by flow cytometry in the CD4+ and the CD8+ populations, which were significantly yet inversely correlated with remarkably increased serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-a.
32317220 In COVID-19 patients a pro-inflammatory status with high levels of interleukin (IL)-1B, IL-1 receptor (R)A and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α has been demonstrated. […] Moreover, high levels of IL-6 and TNF-α have been observed in patients requiring intensive-care-unit hospitalization.
32320677 Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by circulating monocytes was sustained, a pattern distinct from bacterial sepsis or influenza.
32340759 Herein, we have reviewed possible molecular pathways of septic shock in the patients who have received antibiotics with inflammatory properties which mainly is release of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF- α) through different routes.
32354030 Moreover, given the recent evidence in different hospitals suggesting IL-6 and TNF-α inhibitor drugs as a possible therapy for COVID-19, we aimed to highlight that a dietary intervention could be useful to prevent the infection and/or to ameliorate the outcomes during therapy. […] Considering that the COVID-19 infection can generate a mild or highly acute respiratory syndrome with a consequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α, a dietary regimen modification in order to improve the levels of adiponectin could be very useful both to prevent the infection and to take care of patients, improving their outcomes.
32359943 The proportion of lymphocytes subsets, concentrations of immunoglobulins, complement C4, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ were within normal range in these 14 infected HCWs.
32360479 Laboratory tests showed decreased lymphocyte count, elevated PCT, IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-2R, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I, NT-proBNP, creatinine, and urea nitrogen.
32360580 The results showed that LS could significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells, and reduce the number of virus particles and it could markedly reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CXCL-10/IP-10) production at the mRNA levels.
32365221 The leukocytes, neutrophils, infection biomarkers [such as C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and ferritin] and the concentrations of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] were significantly increased, while lymphocytes were significantly decreased with increased severity of illness.
32373721 SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia severely ill patients, develop a systemic inflammatory response with a Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS), that is characterized by a sudden increase in several pro-inflammatory cytokines, mainly IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alfa by activated macrophages (M1 phenotype).
32374474 In the present study, silvestrol down-regulated several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, CCL2, CCL18) and increased TNF-α during differentiation and activation of M1-macrophages, suggesting that the effects of silvestrol might cancel each other out.
32376392 Cytokines are central to the pathophysiology of COVID-19; while some of them are beneficial (type-I interferon, interleukin-7), others appear detrimental (interleukin-1β, -6, and TNF-α) particularly in the context of the so-called cytokine storm. […] Next, reviewing current evidence drawn from clinical trials, we examine a number of cytokine and anti-cytokine therapies, including interleukin-1, -6, and TNF inhibitors, as well as less targeted therapies, such as corticosteroids, chloroquine, or JAK inhibitors.
32391668 The peripheral lymphocyte subsets (CD3+T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, NK cells, B cells), as well as serum levels of lymphocyte factors (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ) were dynamically monitored. […] On D2 of admission, the patient’s IL-6 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher than normal values, IFN-γ was at a normal high value, and then rapidly decreased; IL-2, IL-4, and TNF-α were all in the normal range.
32399213 Meanwhile, high IL-6 (from 251.8 to 6.32 pg mL-1), IL-10 (from 39.53 to 5.21 pg mL-1) and IFN-γ (from 13.55 to 3.16 pg mL-1) levels decreased, and IL-4 (from 2.36 to 3.19 pg mL-1) and TNF-α (from 2.27 to 20.2 pg mL-1) levels increased quickly when the viral RNA returned negative.
32413619 In contrast, in activated THP-1 derived macrophages, the CL extract more effectively attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-2, IL-6, IL-22) as well as TGF-β and IL-10.
32418288 CSF analyses during the acute stage were negative for SARS-CoV-2, positive for pleocytosis and hyperproteinorrachia, and showed increased IL-8 and TNF-α concentrations while other infectious or autoimmune disorders were excluded.
32425234 TNF antagonist treatment was not associated with severe COVID-19 (aOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.4-2.2). […] Notably, TNF antagonists do not appear to be associated with severe COVID-19.
32425950 T cell numbers were negatively correlated to serum IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α concentration, with patients in the disease resolution period showing reduced IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α concentrations and restored T cell counts.
32426374 We believe that targeting the central pathway (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6), balancing the Th1 and Th2 response, and administering long-term anti-inflammatory therapy might be promising prospects to reduce cardiovascular impairment and even MODS during the acute and recovery phases of COVID-19.
32432519 We discuss the possible excess risk for COVID-19 infection in the context of the common conditions among shiftworkers, including nurses, doctors, and first responders, among others of high exposure to the contagion, of sleep imbalance and circadian disruption.Abbreviations: ACE2: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; APC: Antigen-presenting cells; CCL: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand; CD+: Adhesion molecule expression; COVID-19: 2019 coronavirus disease; DCs: Dendritic cells; GH: Growth hormone; HPA: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal; HSF: Heat shock factor; HSP70: Heat shock protein 70; HSP90: Heat shock protein 90; IL: Interleukin; INFγ: Interferon-gamma; LT/LB: T/B lymphocytes; MHC: Major histocompatibility complex; NK: Natural killer; RAAS: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; SARS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome; SCN: Suprachiasmatic nucleus;SD: Sleep deprivation; SNS: Sympathetic nervous system; Th1/Th2: T helper lymphocytes 1/2; TLR2/TLR4: Toll-like receptor 2/4; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor alpha; VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor.
32437740 There was no correlation between maternal COVID-19 duration and the lymphocyte subsets or cytokine levels (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α).
32445956 Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, isorhamnetin, baicalein, naringenin, and wogonin could be the main active ingredients of Chinese medicines for the management of COVID-19 by targeting on AEC2 and 3CL protein and inhibiting inflammatory mediators, regulating immunity, and eliminating free radicals through COX-2, CASP3, IL-6, MAPK1, MAPK14, MAPK8, and REAL in the signaling pathways of IL-17, arachidonic acid, HIF-1, NF-κB, Ras, and TNF.
32452979 We describe a case of severe COVID-19 infection in a recently diagnosed pediatric Crohn’s disease patient successfully treated with Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) blockade. […] Cytokine profile revealed rising levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, higher than those described in either inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or severe COVID-19 alone. […] The patient was treated with infliximab for TNF-α blockade to address both moderately to severely active Crohn’s disease and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) temporally related to COVID-19. […] Cytokine profile improved with normalization of TNF-α, a decrease in IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations. […] This case supports a role for blockade of TNF-α in the treatment of COVID-19 inflammatory cascade. […] The role of anti-TNF agents in patients with MIS-C temporally related to COVID-19 requires further investigation.
32458530 Anti-TNF agents from among the biological therapies appear to be slightly risky in terms of susceptibility to infection.
32458536 Pivotal trials and postmarketing data also suggest that IL-17 and IL-23 blockers are safer than TNF-blockers.
32459524 The production of increased amounts of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and MCP-1 lead to oxidative stress and defective function of innate and adaptive immunity, while the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the infection.
32460839 After treatment, the percentage and counts of lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cell) were increased, and the level of IL-6, TNF-α, and C-reactive protein is significantly decreased after hWJC treatment.
32470153 The characteristics of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin and procalcitonin (PCT), and lymphocyte subsets of these patients were retrospectively compared before and after treatment. […] Levels of IL-2R, IL-6, TNF-α and CRP decreased significantly after treatment, followed by IL-8, IL-10 and PCT.
32471782 This case series describes four previously healthy children with COVID-19 infection confirmed by serologic antibody testing, but negative by nasopharyngeal RT-PCR swab, presenting to the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) with prolonged fever (5 or more days) and abrupt onset of hemodynamic instability with elevated serologic inflammatory markers and cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α).
32471903 Tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (anti-TNF) use was associated with a reduced odds of hospitalisation (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.81), while no association with antimalarial use (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.57) was observed. […] We found that glucocorticoid exposure of ≥10 mg/day is associated with a higher odds of hospitalisation and anti-TNF with a decreased odds of hospitalisation in patients with rheumatic disease.
32472461 The rational use of these anti-rheumatic drugs is based on the cytokinic storm (hyperproduction of IL1, IL6, TNF α) in the body by COVID-19 in its severe form.
32472655 Parthenolide is the principal sesquiterpene lactones and the main biologically active constituent Tanacetum parthenium (commonly known as feverfew) which has could significantly reduce IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α production pathways established in several human cell line models in vitro and in vivo studies.
32472703 Under these circumstances, persistent viral stimulation leads to a significant increase in circulating cytokines such as interleukin (IL) -6, IL-10 and TNF-α.
32474885 Anti-rheumatic drugs, which are tried for managing immunologic complications of COVID-19 infection, will also be discussed including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, JAK inhibitors, IL-6 inhibitors, IL-1 inhibitors, anti-TNF-α agents, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and colchicine.
32475230 Results showed that COVID-19 patients have higher serum level of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) and CRP than control individuals.
32485858 The main aim of this study is to find a therapeutic compound to inhibit IL-6, not TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, in macrophage-like cells, because the high-levels of IL-6 production by macrophages are reported to cause unfavorable outcomes under several disease conditions (e.g., autoimmune diseases, and acute viral infections, including COVID-19). […] In this study, the potential effects of javamide-II on IL-6, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha productions were determined using their ELISA kits in macrophage-like THP-1 cells. […] However, javamide-II did not inhibit IL-1beta or TNF-alpha productions much at the same concentrations. […] The data indicate that javamide-II may be a potent compound to inhibit IL-6 production via suppressing the p38 signal pathway, without significant effects on the productions of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in macrophage-like THP-1 cells.
32489022 Blood was collected on the 4 th day and the lung tissue was dissected to calculate the lung index and inhibition rate; flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage of T and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood; RT-PCR was used to detect the nucleic acid virus load in lung tissue; ELISA was used to detect motilin and gastrin in serum, and inflammatory factors TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 in lung tissue proteins. […] The low dose of Reyanning could effectively increase the percentage of total B lymphocytes(P<0.05), reduce virus load in lung tissue of model mice(P<0.01), reduce the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 in the lung tissue of model mice(P<0.01), reduce the content of motilin in the serum of model mice(P<0.01).
32489023 Lung tissue protein was extracted and the contents of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ were detected by ELISA. […] Compared with the model control group, the high and low doses of Compound Qinlan Oral Liquid significantly reduced lung tissue viral load(P<0.01), increased cross blood CD4~+ T lymphocytes, CD8~+ T lymphocytes and total B lymphocyte percentage(P<0.01), reduced serum motilin content(P<0.01), reduced IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in lungs(P<0.01) and reduced lung tissue inflammation.
32489026 Total 219 core target proteins were predicted, such as NFKB1, STAT1, RAF1, IL2, JAK1, IL6, TNF, BCL2 and other important targets, and 221 core target pathways were enriched, including cancer pathway, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus infection, chemokine signal pathway, PI3 K-AKT signal pathway, EB virus infection, virus carcinogenesis and T cell receptor signaling pathways, a collection of which were highly related to cytokine storms.
32489696 Hyper-elevation of Interleukin1 (IL-1), Tumor necrosis factor-1alfa (TNF-1 alfa), and Interleukin 6 (IL-6) produced by inflammatory macrophage M1 may damage the lung alveoli leading to severe pneumonitis, decreased oxygenation, and potential death despite artificial ventilation.
32497535 Given the role of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE) 4 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate in the inflammatory response, we hypothesize that selective PDE4 inhibition may attenuate the cytokine storm in COVID-19, through the upstream inhibition of pro-inflammatory molecules, particularly TNF-α, and the regulation of the pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. […] Conversely, other anti-cytokine agents lead to the downstream inhibition of specific targets, such as IL-1, IL-6 or TNF-α, and may not be efficient in blocking the cytokine storm, once it has been triggered.
32501293 TNF- alpha and GM-CSF showed no significant differences between severe and mild cases.Conclusion Together our data suggest early intervention to increase expression of CCL5 may prevent patients from developing severe illness.
32502616 Strikingly, we also identified the key pro-inflammatory signals TNF, NFKβ and IFNG as upstream regulators of the transcriptional profile of ACE2+TMPRSS2+ cells in the superficial conjunctival epithelium, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may utilise inflammatory driven upregulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression to enhance infection in ocular surface.
32504360 IL-4 (7.69%), IL-6 (19.23%), IL-10 (50%), TNF-α (11.54%) and IFN-γ (19.23%) were elevated.
32504923 T cell exhaustion, high viral load, and high levels of TNF-ɑ, IL1β, IL6, IL10 have been associated with severe SARS-CoV-2. […] Lower cellular redox status, which leads to pro-inflammatory states mediated by TNF-ɑ is also potentially implicated. […] NAC has also been shown to inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway (IL1β and IL18) in vitro, and decrease plasma TNF-ɑ in human clinical trials.
32505821 It might inhibit the cytokine storm by affecting C-reactive protein (CRP), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin- 6 (IL-6), interleukin- 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1), and other proteins.
32513566 In the most severe cases, the prognosis can be markedly worsened by the hyperproduction of mainly proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, preferentially targeting lung tissue.
32514854 After recovery from a COVID-19 infection, a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy was initiated.
32519164 Virus triggers the synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α and also promotes downregulation of ACE-2, which promotes a concomitant increase in levels of angiotensin II (AT-II). […] Both TNF-α and AT-II have been implicated in promoting overexpression of tissue factor (TF) in platelets and macrophages.
32524611 Compared to children without pneumonia(manifested as asymptomatic and acute upper respiratory infection), children with pneumonia were associated with higher percentages of the comorbidity history, symptoms of fever and cough, and increased levels of serum procalcitonin, alkaline phosphatase and serum interleukins (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α.There were no differences of treatments, duration of hospitalization, time from first positive to first negative nucleic acid testing and outcomes between children with mild pneumonia and without pneumonia.
32525657 Levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) were assessed using ELISA and compared between groups. […] Average TNF-α levels were significantly increased in the olfactory epithelium of the COVID-19 group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). […] Elevated levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α were seen in the olfactory epithelium in patients with COVID-19.
32526372 Many laboratory indicators, such as neutrophils, AST, γ-GT, ALP, LDH, NT-proBNP, Hs-cTnT, PT, APTT, D-dimer, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, CRP, ferritin and procalcitonin, were all significantly increased in deceased patients compared with recovered patients on admission.
32526511 Since SARS-CoV-2 related ARDS has a strong immunological component, many investigators are utilizing monoclonal antibodies against IL-6, TNF-alpha and CCR5.
32527304 Particularly, since pneumonia and ARDS are associated with a cytokine storm, drugs belonging to therapeutic classes as anti-IL-6, anti-TNF, and JAK inhibitors are currently studied.
32528233 The viral entry has been shown to cause ‘cytokine storm’ involving excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines including IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-7, IP-10, MCP-3 or GM-CSF, which is augmented by smoking.
32532356 Collect peripheral blood serum to detect various immunoglobulin changes: IgA, IgG, IgM, total IgE; Collect peripheral blood serum to explore the changes of cytokines, Th1 cytokines (IL-1 β, IL-2, TNF-a, ITN-γ), Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL -10).
32533777 Furthermore, logistic regression models showed neutrophils counts, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL6, IL1β, IL2R), and coagulation dysfunction biomarkers (D-Dimer, PT, Fbg) were significantly associated with the poor clinical outcomes of COVID-19.
32534189 In vitro studies have demonstrated the capacity of azithromycin to reduce production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8, IL-6, TNF alpha, reduce oxidative stress and modulate T-helper functions.
32534337 Different studies have shown that this compound inhibits the IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-18, TNF-α, NF-κB and NALP3 inflammasome pathways.
32534467 Clinical reports show that both mild and severe forms of disease result in changes in circulating leukocyte subsets and cytokine secretion, particularly IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, TNF, GM-CSF, IP-10 (IFN-induced protein 10), IL-17, MCP-3, and IL-1ra.
32536480 The combined use of thiopurines with steroids and/or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) monoclonal antibodies should also be avoided because those combinations can increase the risk for infections, including COVID-19. […] Finally, biologic treatment with anti-TNF-alpha agents or any other mechanism of action, such as anti-integrins or anti-interleukins, should be suspended if patients become infected with SARS-CoV-2.
32540603 Another advantage is that PTX selectively reduces the concentration of TNF-α mRNA in cells, which, in the case of an acute infectious state such as COVID-19, would seem to offer a more strategic approach.
32545268 Meanwhile, in vitro studies show potential of caflanone to inhibit virus entry factors including, ABL-2, cathepsin L, cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, Mip-1α, TNF-α), and PI4Kiiiβ as well as AXL-2, which facilitates mother-to-fetus transmission of coronavirus.
32545518 These include IL-1-beta, IL-6, TNF-α, the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, and a group of IFN-γ-induced genes.
32561873 Several clinical studies are underway that test the effects of inhibiting IL-6, IL-1β or TNF or targeting cytokine signalling via Janus kinase inhibition in the treatment of COVID-19.
32576347 54.0±13.1), and the levels of white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil count (NEU), procalcitonin (PCT), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukins (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10), IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at admission were significantly higher [WBC (×109/L): 7.16 (5.55, 9.75) vs. […] 572.13±274.55, TNF-α (ng/L): 10.94±5.95 vs.
32584199 The unintended consequences of the unprecedented scale and duration of pandemic control measures for children and families around the world should be carefully examined. 2019-nCoV, 2019 novel coronavirus; ADEM, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis; AAP, American Academy of Pediatrics; ACE-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; BCG, bacillus Calmette-Guérin; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; CRP, C-reactive protein; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; CT, computed tomography; CXR, chest X-ray; DOL, day of life; hCoV, human coronavirus; ICU, intensive care unit; IL, interleukin; IVIG, intravenous immunoglobulin; KD, Kawasaki disease; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; MERS, Middle East respiratory syndrome; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; MEURI, monitored emergency use of unregistered and experimental interventions; MIS-C, multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PICU, paediatric intensive care unit; RNA, ribonucleic acid; RCT, randomised-controlled trial; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; SARS-CoV-1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; TNF-alpha, tumour necrosis factor alpha; UK United Kingdom; UNICEF, United Nations Children’s Fund; USA, United States of America; WHO, World Health Organization.
32584597 Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNFR1) were assessed in plasma from healthy volunteers, hospitalized-but-stable COVID-19 patients (COVIDstable), COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission (COVIDICU) and individuals with severe community-acquired pneumonia requiring ICU support (CAPICU). […] IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and sTNFR1 were all increased in patients with COVID-19. […] COVIDICU patients could be clearly differentiated from COVIDstable, and demonstrated higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and sTNFR1 - but lower IL-10 - than CAPICU.
32587806 Recent evidence has implicated the development of cytokine release syndrome as the major cause of fatality in COVID-19 patients, with elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) observed in patients. […] Inhibitors of the small molecule Gal-3 have been shown to reduce the levels of both IL-6 and TNF-α in vitro and have shown anti-inflammatory effects in vivo.
32591762 Compared to moderate cases, critical cases exhibited stronger interactions between epithelial and immune cells, as indicated by ligand-receptor expression profiles, and activated immune cells, including inflammatory macrophages expressing CCL2, CCL3, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL3, CXCL10, IL8, IL1B and TNF.