DrugBank ID: db01593
DrugCentral: zinc
Synonymous :zinc, chelated | zinc, elemental | zincum metallicum | zn

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of zinc gene in 145 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32210741 Furthermore, broad library protease inhibitors obtained from PubChem and ZINC (www.zinc.docking.org) were evaluated.
32267566 Tetracyclines (e.g. tetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline) are highly lipophilic antibiotics that are known to chelate zinc compounds on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)1 . […] Coronaviruses are also known to heavily rely on host MMPs for survival, cell infiltration, cell to cell adhesion, and replication, many of which have zinc as part of their MMP complex2,3 . […] It is possible that the zinc chelating properties of tetracyclines may also aid in inhibiting COVID-19 infection in humans limiting their ability to replicate within the host.
32289821 The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) binds specifically to CpG dinucleotides and recruits other proteins to degrade a variety of viral RNA genomes.
32292689 By performing target-based virtual ligand screening, a total of 21 targets (including two human targets) were screened against compound libraries including ZINC drug database and our own database of natural products.
32306822 Potential compounds were screened from the CHEMBL database, ZINC database, FDA approved drugs and molecules under clinical trials. […] Seven hundred compounds from ZINC/CHEMBL databases and fourteen hundred compounds from drug-bank were selected based on positive interactions with the reported binding site.
32334392 Among trace elements, selenium and zinc have also shown favourable immune-modulatory effects in viral respiratory infections.
32335560 We seek to draw the attention of the scientific community to the possibility of drastically reducing the effects of the virus on the affected patients and improving clinical trials outcome through the synergistic action of zinc and chloroquine in patients suffering from the coronavirus disease.
32340216 A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system.
32362243 The structure files of Indian spices chemical compounds were taken from PubChem database or Zinc database and screened by molecular docking, by using AutoDock-4.2, MGLTools-1.5.6, Raccoon virtual screening tools.
32396382 Here, we review theoretical mechanisms and evidence related to efficacy and safety of select supplements in the setting of COVID-19, including vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc, elderberry, and silver.
32408070 Besides direct antiviral effects, CQ/HCQ specifically target extracellular zinc to intracellular lysosomes where it interferes with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity and coronavirus replication. […] As zinc deficiency frequently occurs in elderly patients and in those with cardiovascular disease, chronic pulmonary disease, or diabetes, we hypothesize that CQ/HCQ plus zinc supplementation may be more effective in reducing COVID-19 morbidity and mortality than CQ or HCQ in monotherapy. […] Therefore, CQ/HCQ in combination with zinc should be considered as additional study arm for COVID-19 clinical trials.
32430459 We also identified drugs that may target the top-ranked proteins in MR, such as fostamatinib and zinc.
32446866 A combination such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and zinc, all of which have previously been used topically in the eye and which work at least in part by blocking ACE2 receptors, may offer a safe, cost-effective and resource-sparing intervention.
32471251 Low micronutrient status, such as of vitamin A or zinc, has been associated with increased infection risk.
32473509 Zinc Iodide and Dimethyl Sulfoxide compositions are proposed as therapeutic agents to treat and prevent chronic and acute viral infections including SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. […] Given the fact that Zinc Iodide has been used as an oral antiseptic agent and DMSO has been already proven as a safe pharmaceutical solvent and therapeutic agent, we hypothesize that the combination of these two agents can be applied as an effective, safe and inexpensive treatment for SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infection.
32512490 It is well known that zinc (Zn) possesses a variety of direct and indirect antiviral properties, which are realized through different mechanisms.
32513807 Because of their potential to influence immune response, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), zinc, vitamin D, and N-acetylcysteine have been hypothesized to be useful for prevention or treatment of COVID-19.
32519786 Hydroxychloroquine (600mg/day), Azithromycine, steroids (dexamethasone 20mg/day), vitamin C (3g/day), Zinc, diuretics and Enoxaparine were equally used for the two patients.
32522597 We report here on four consecutive outpatients with clinical characteristics (CDC case definition) of and/or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were treated with high dose zinc salt oral lozenges. […] All four patients experienced significant improvement in objective and symptomatic disease measures after one day of high dose therapy suggesting that zinc therapy was playing a role in clinical recovery. […] A mechanism for zinc’s effects is proposed based on previously published studies on SARS- CoV-1, and randomized controlled trials assessing zinc shortening of common cold duration. […] The limited sample size and study design preclude a definitive statement about the effectiveness of zinc as a treatment for COVID-19 but suggest the variables to be addressed to confirm these initial findings in future trials.
32524645 We comment on hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir with zinc supplement, remdesivir, tocilizumab, ciclesonide, niclosamide and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).
32534175 A randomized trial of ivermectin, and/or nutraceuticals that have been published to support immune function including glutathione, vitamin C, zinc, and immunomodulatory supplements (3,6 Beta glucan) could be beneficial in preventing transmission or lessening symptomatology but requires statistical validation.
32565398 Interventions included intravenous ascorbic acid, intramuscular cholecalciferol, enteral and intramuscular vitamin E, enteral zinc sulfate, and oral and parenteral glutamine.
32567995 Authors have screened more than one million molecules available in the ZINC database and taken the best two compounds based on binding energy score.
32568969 These therapies include immunomodulators (i.e. intravenous immunoglobulin, thymosin α-1, IL-6, tocilizumab, cyclosporine, thalidomide, fingolimod), Chinese medicines (i.e. glycyrrhizin, baicalin, Xuebijing), anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (bevacizumab), estrogen modulating drugs, statins and nutritional supplements (i.e. vitamin A, B, C, D, E and zinc).
32574914 The physico-chemical parameters compared are pH, total dissolved solids (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate (NO3), fluoride (F), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and selenium (Se), and the bacterial parameters are total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, and fecal streptococci.
32593867 Clinical factors (age, comorbidities, NEWS-2 score), biological factors (lymphocytopenia; eosinopenia; decrease in blood zinc; and increase in D-dimers, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine phosphokinase, troponin and C-reactive protein) and moderate and severe lesions detected in low-dose CT scans were associated with poor clinical outcome.
32605683 The most common pharmacological treatment regimens administered were zinc, hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin and convalescent plasma.
32617527 Thus we propose use of paritaprevir, entecavir, ritonavir and chloroquine derivatives as best drug combination along with niacinamide, folic acid and zinc supplements to treat novel coronavirus infection.
32621718 Among the best shape-based compounds, a novel compound identified was not indexed in any chemical databases (PubChem, Zinc, or ChEMBL).
32635353 The treatment was well-tolerated in conjunction with standard drug therapies for COVID-19 (hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and zinc).
32641644 In this article, I will briefly discuss, why keeping adequate zinc balance might enhance the host response and be protective of viral infections.
32644876 Some nutrients are actively involved in the proper functioning and strengthening of the human immune system against viral infections including dietary protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, iron, zinc, and selenium.
32650197 Concurrent use of certain nutraceuticals - yeast beta-glucan, zinc, vitamin D, spirulina, phase 2 inducers, N-acetylcysteine, glucosamine, quercetin, and magnesium - might also improve therapeutic outcomes in COVID-19.
32653930 Thirty-one percent of the guidelines highlighted the importance of minerals and vitamins such as zinc and vitamins C, A, and D to maintain a well-functioning immune system. […] However, supplementation with vitamins C and D, as well as with zinc and selenium, was highlighted as potentially beneficial for individuals with, or at risk of, respiratory viral infections or for those in whom nutrient deficiency is detected.
32671829 Several lines of evidence support a link between the essential element zinc and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] An important fact is that zinc is present in proteins of humans and of viruses. […] Some zinc sites in viral enzymes may serve as drug targets and may liberate zinc ions, thus leading to changes in intracellular concentration of zinc ions, while increased intracellular zinc may induce biological effects in both the host and the virus. […] Drugs such as chloroquine may contribute to increased intracellular zinc. […] Moreover, clinical trials on the use of zinc alone or in addition to other drugs in the prophylaxis/treatment of COVID-19 are ongoing. […] Thereby, we aim to discuss the rationale for targeting zinc metalloenzymes as a new strategy for the treatment of COVID-19.
32672528 The model was used to screen the ZINC database for commercially available compounds having similar features with the experimentally tested drugs.
32690179 Preliminary data suggest that the nutritional status can change the course of the infection, and on the matter, zinc is crucial for growth, development, and the maintenance of immune function. […] The aim of this paper is to establish the relation between zinc and COVID-19. […] From the prior scientific knowledge, we have performed a review of the literature and examine the role of zinc in immune function in the infection by COVID-19. […] Our findings are that the zinc as an anti-inflammatory agent may help to optimize immune function and reduce the risk of infection. […] Zinc supplementation can be a useful strategy to reduce the global burden of infection in the elderly, there is a need the increased reporting to improve our understanding of COVID-19 and the care of affected patients.
32690999 SARS-CoV-2 mortality/morbidity risk increases with age and for those chronic disease co-morbidities, both of which are associated with lower zinc status, as is the risk of infection. […] Rapid review methods will be applied to a systematic review of zinc for the prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 and viral respiratory tract infections in humans. […] Included are published studies reporting randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compare zinc intervention to placebo and/or other comparator interventions.
32698238 In this article, we tried to summarize the possible association between COVID-19 and the HM’s development by reviewing the role of NOD-Like Receptor (NLR) Family Pyrin Domain Containing 7 (NLRP7), cytokines, zinc, and leukocytes in the pathogenesis of HM.
32708755 Based purely on experimental studies in which RAS pathway inhibitors were administered in vivo to humans/rodents, a reasonable hypothesis of using inhibitors that block both ACE and ACE2 zinc metalloproteases and their downstream pathways in COVID-19 patients will be proposed. […] In particular, metal (zinc) chelators and renin inhibitors may work alone or in combination to inhibit the positive feedback loops (initially triggered by SARS-CoV-2 and subsequently sustained by hypoxia independently on viral trigger) as both arms of renin-angiotensin system are upregulated, leading to critical, advanced and untreatable stages of the disease.
32733775 The Shanghai panel, and a parallel medical group in Guangzhou, are advising the use of high-dose IV ascorbate for the treatment of ARDS, along with other supportive therapies, including Vitamin D and zinc.
32739642 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a membrane-bound zinc metallopeptidase that generates the vasodilatory peptide angiotensin 1-7 and thus performs a protective role in heart disease.
32741313 Herein, we report the high-throughput virtual screening and molecular docking studies to search for the best potential inhibitors against Mpro from FDA approved drugs available in the ZINC database as well as the natural compounds from the Specs database.
32754164 This review will therefore discuss the potential of zinc as preventive and therapeutic agent alone or in combination with other strategies, as zinc meets all the above described criteria. […] While a variety of data on the association of the individual zinc status with viral and respiratory tract infections are available, study evidence regarding COVID-19 is so far missing but can be assumed as was indicated by others and is detailed in this perspective, focusing on re-balancing of the immune response by zinc supplementation. […] Especially, the role of zinc in viral-induced vascular complications has barely been discussed, so far. […] Interestingly, most of the risk groups described for COVID-19 are at the same time groups that were associated with zinc deficiency. […] As zinc is essential to preserve natural tissue barriers such as the respiratory epithelium, preventing pathogen entry, for a balanced function of the immune system and the redox system, zinc deficiency can probably be added to the factors predisposing individuals to infection and detrimental progression of COVID-19. […] Finally, due to its direct antiviral properties, it can be assumed that zinc administration is beneficial for most of the population, especially those with suboptimal zinc status.
32764275 Selected agents were immune transfer factor (oligo- and polypeptides from porcine spleen, ultrafiltered at <10 kDa; Imuno TF®), anti-inflammatory natural blend (Uncaria tomentosa, Endopleura uchi and Haematoccocus pluvialis; Miodesin®), zinc, selenium, ascorbic acid, cholecalciferol, ferulic acid, spirulina, N-acetylcysteine, glucosamine sulfate potassium hydrochloride, trans-resveratrol, and maltodextrin-stabilized orthosilicic acid (SiliciuMax®).
32777300 In this study, a virtual screening procedure employing docking of the two different datasets from the ZINC database, including 1615 FDA approved drugs and 4266 world approved drugs were used to identify new potential small molecule inhibitors for the newly released crystal structure of main protease protein of SARS-CoV-2.
32778891 In the second module, it uses deep learning generative model trained by drug-like molecules of ZINC database and molecular docking invoked by Autodock Vina automatically.
32784601 The aim of the present article was to explore the usefulness of early micronutrient intervention, with focus on zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, to relieve escalation of COVID-19. […] We conducted an online search for articles published in the period 2010-2020 on zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, and corona and related virus infections. […] There were a few studies providing direct evidence on associations between zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, and COVID-19. […] Adequate supply of zinc, selenium, and vitamin D is essential for resistance to other viral infections, immune function, and reduced inflammation.
32795605 Vitamin B1, B6, B12, vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D), folate, selenium, and zinc levels were measured in 50 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. […] No significant increase in the incidence of deficiency was found for vitamins B1, B6, and B12, folate, and zinc in patients with COVID-19.
32802622 The majority of the patients received zinc and calcium supplements as well.
32835132 Interestingly, the key tumor-suppressor p53 protein will undergo degradation by virus-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase Ring-finger and CHY zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (RCHY1) leading to an increased viral survival in host cells.
32837716 By the use of plenty of water, minerals like magnesium and Zinc, micronutrients, herbs, food rich in vitamins C, D & E and better life style one can promote the health and can overcome this infection.
32837982 While nicotine and ivermectin may be blocking transport abilities of the virus or its components, famotidine, remdesivir and chloroquine in combination with zinc ions can deactivate important enzymes needed for the replication of the virus.
32839664 Nutritious, biofortified crops such as potato, sweetpotato, but also wheat, maize and beans among others, can play a more significant role to provide key micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc) at large scale.
32850261 Results Impact of various clinical treatments was assessed, showing no change in median overall survival (OS) of both hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin or vitamin C with zinc.
32872374 Functional foods and nutraceuticals within popular diets contain immune-boosting nutraceuticals, polyphenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, pigments, unsaturated fatty-acids, micronutrient vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate, and trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper.
32879473 However, as noted, no serum autoantibodies were observed against islet cells, glutamic acid decarboxylase, tyrosine phosphatase, insulin and zinc-transporter 8.
32897031 Particular attention is paid to oxidative stress as one of the main causes for subfertility and male infertility, as well as the role of trace elements (zinc, selenium) and antioxidants (vitamins A, E and C) in the pathogenesis of male infertility and opportunities for the correction of fertility issues.
32902518 Getting insight into the complexity and relevance of proteomics in CRS, epithelial-mesenchymal contribution to CRS, zinc levels in nasal and systemic compartment of CRS, nasal biomarkers of CRSwNP that predict recurrence of disease after sinus surgery, and the odor identification test for children, called ‘U-Sniff’, and FID scores (Frequency, Intensity and Duration) scores for epistaxis are all in the 2020 October issue and highly relevant for Rhinology practice.
32911042 Because most severely ill patients with COVID-19 in our hospital showed zinc deficiency, we aimed to examine the relationship between the patient’s serum zinc level and severe cases of COVID-19. […] Serum zinc <70 μg/dL was defined as the criterion for hypozincemia, and patients continuously with serum zinc <70 μg/dL were classified in the hypozincemia cohort. […] In evaluating the relationship between the serum zinc level and severity of patients with COVID-19 by multivariate logistic regression analysis, critical illness can be predicted through the sensitivity and false specificity of a ROC curve with an error rate of 10.3% and AUC of 94.2% by only two factors: serum zinc value (P = 0.020) and LDH value (P = 0.026).
32911778 Specifically, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) evaluated and deems six vitamins (D, A, C, Folate, B6, B12) and four minerals (zinc, iron, copper and selenium) to be essential for the normal functioning of the immune system, due to the scientific evidence collected so far.
32915473 Importantly, the activity of the complexes against both PLpro enzymes correlated with the ability of the inhibitors to remove zinc ions from the labile zinc center of the enzyme.
32920234 Zinc is a trace element with potent immunoregulatory and antiviral properties, and is utilized in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] However, we do not know the clinical significance of serum Zinc levels in COVID-19 patients. […] The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of serum zinc in COVID-19 patients and to establish a correlation with disease severity. […] This was a prospective study of fasting zinc levels in COVID-19 patients at the time of hospitalization. […] COVID-19 patients with zinc deficiency were compared to those with normal zinc levels. […] COVID-19 patients (n = 47) showed significantly lower zinc levels when compared to healthy controls (n = 45): median 74.5 (interquartile range 53.4-94.6) μg/dl vs 105.8 (interquartile range 95.65-120.90) μg/dl (p < 0.001). […] Amongst the COVID-19 patients, 27 (57.4%) were found to be zinc deficient. […] The odds ratio (OR) of developing complications was 5.54 for zinc deficient COVID-19 patients. […] The study data clearly show that a significant number of COVID-19 patients were zinc deficient. […] These zinc deficient patients developed more complications, and the deficiency was associated with a prolonged hospital stay and increased mortality.
32930657 As a result of in vitro evidence suggesting zinc sulphate may be efficacious against COVID-19, our hospitals began using zinc sulphate as add-on therapy to hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.Aim. […] To compare outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients ordered to receive hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin plus zinc sulphate versus hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone.Methodology. […] Patients taking zinc sulphate in addition to hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (n=411) and patients taking hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone (n=521) did not differ in age, race, sex, tobacco use or relevant comorbidities. […] The addition of zinc sulphate did not impact the length of hospitalization, duration of ventilation or intensive care unit (ICU) duration. […] In univariate analyses, zinc sulphate increased the frequency of patients being discharged home, and decreased the need for ventilation, admission to the ICU and mortality or transfer to hospice for patients who were never admitted to the ICU. […] After adjusting for the time at which zinc sulphate was added to our protocol, an increased frequency of being discharged home (OR 1.53, 95 % CI 1.12-2.09) and reduction in mortality or transfer to hospice among patients who did not require ICU level of care remained significant (OR 0.449, 95 % CI 0.271-0.744). […] This study provides the first in vivo evidence that zinc sulphate may play a role in therapeutic management for COVID-19.
32938758 Supplemental magnesium, vitamin D and zinc should be administered.
32940134 In this context, a library consisting of 3180 FDA-approved drugs from ‘the ZINC database’ was used to identify novel drug candidates against ‘the Mpro’ of SARS-CoV-2.
32950529 In addition, virtual screening of the compounds from ZINC database also allowed the prediction of two compounds (ZINC09128258 and ZINC09883305) with pharmacophore features that interact effectively with RdRp of SARS-CoV-2, indicating their potentiality as effective inhibitors of the enzyme.
32953343 Most patients were treated with a combination of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, zinc, and vitamin C.
32963884 Sixty-five molecules from the ZINC database subset (AfroDb Natural Products) were virtually screened with some reported repurposed therapeutics against six SARS-CoV-2 and two human targets.
32983745 The aim of this study was to measure serum 25(OH)D, vitamin B12, and zinc levels in COVID-19 positive pregnant women to evaluate the role of these micronutrients in treatment and prevention. […] The mean serum zinc level was 62.58 ± 2.63, and the mean serum vitamin B12 level was 295.55 ± 302.48.
32990314 Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc membrane metallopeptidase that plays a key role in regulating vasoactive peptide levels and hence cardiovascular activity through its conversion of angiotensin I (Ang I) to Ang II and its metabolism of bradykinin.
32992693 Oral medicinal doses of vitamin C (1-3 g/d) and zinc (80 mg/d elemental zinc) could be promising at the first signs and symptoms of COVID-19 as well as for general colds.
32994673 Other hypotheses propose that the patient’s status of immunity, vitamin D level, Zinc deficiency or other physiological parameters determine how any given patient will effectively weather the viremia and the consequential multi-symptomatic CoViD-19.
33022567 A total of 1000 protease-inhibitor-like compounds available in the ZINC database were screened by molecular docking with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and the top 2 lead compounds based on binding affinity were found to be 1,2,4 triazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidin-7-one compounds.
33028965 In vitro studies showed that ranitidine bismuth citrate and its related compounds exhibited inhibition towards both the ATPase (IC50 = 0.69 µM) and DNA-unwinding (IC50 = 0.70 µM) activities of the SARS-CoV-2 helicase via an irreversible displacement of zinc(II) ions from the enzyme by bismuth(III) ions.
33045596 Zinc and the combination with zinc ionophore have been reported in basic research and several clinical investigations as a potentially viable and economical preventive and therapeutic options for COVID-19 treatment. […] Zinc is a vital microelement that actively supports respiratory epithelium barrier integrity, innate and adaptive immune functions, and inflammatory regulations. […] Moreover, zinc may also prevent viral entry, suppress viral replication, and mitigate the damages due to oxidative stress and hyperinflammatory reaction in patients with respiratory infections. […] Hinokitiol (β-thujaplicin) is a natural monoterpenoid and is considered as a safe zinc ionophore to help zinc transport into cells. […] Considering that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), the most studied zinc ionophore drug for COVID-19, is linked to potentially serious side effects, we propose the implementation of hinokitiol as a zinc ionophore and anti-infective agent for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 and other viral infections.
33065600 Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of over 20 zinc-dependent proteases with different biological and pathological activities, and many have been implicated in several diseases.
33073355 Potential supplements include vitamin D and zinc. […] Similarly, zinc is an important supplement that is important in one’s diet regardless of any effect on SARS-CoV-2.
33083627 Lead compounds were screened using Cambridge, Drugbank, ZINC and TIMBLE databases and these identified lead compounds were screened for their toxicity and Lipinski’s rule of five.
33092041 Literature analysis showed that in vitro and observational studies, and clinical trials, highlight the important role of vitamins A, C, and D, omega-3 fatty acids, and zinc in modulating the immune response. […] Supplementation with vitamins, omega 3 fatty acids and zinc appears to be a safe and low-cost way to support optimal function of the immune system, with the potential to reduce the risk and consequences of infection, including viral respiratory infections.
33094446 Zinc, one of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant micronutrient found in food with well-established role in immunity, is currently being used in some clinical trials against COVID-19. […] This review integrates the contemporary studies of role of zinc in antiviral immunity along with discussing its potential role against COVID-19, and ongoing COVID-19 clinical trials using zinc.
33100579 Due to the thermodynamic requirement of lower operating pressure and higher operating pressure, currently, there is no single operational approach, although some practice approaches (220 °C at 48 atm using copper) and zinc oxide/alumina are suggested for optimal performance.
33109252 The primary objectives of this study are to determine efficacy of Siddha medicine, Kabasura kudineer in reduction of SARS-CoV-2 viral load and reducing the onset of symptoms in asymptomatic COVID-19 when compared to Vitamin C and Zinc (CZ) supplementation. […] The control group will receive Vitamin C (60000 IU) and Zinc tablets (100mg) orally in the morning and evening respectively for 14 days.
33109677 The top immune boosting strategies were vitamin C (34.8%), diet (34.4%), sleep (34.4%), exercise (30.8%) and zinc (26.9%).
33122096 The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the outpatient setting after early treatment with zinc, low-dose hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (triple therapy) dependent on risk stratification. […] Risk stratification-based treatment of COVID-19 outpatients as early as possible after symptom onset using triple therapy, including the combination of zinc with low-dose hydroxychloroquine, was associated with significantly fewer hospitalisations.
33126054 Several redox-relevant micronutrients are known to contribute to an adequate immune response, including the essential trace elements zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se).
33131530 We found that: (i) Interactome-based infection pathways differ from the other three omics-based profiles. (ii) Viral process, mRNA splicing, cytokine and interferon signaling, and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis are important pathways in SARS-CoV-2 infection. (iii) SARS-CoV-2 infection also shares pathways with Influenza A, Epstein-Barr virus, HTLV-I, Measles, and Hepatitis virus. (iv) Further, bacterial, parasitic, and protozoan infection pathways such as Tuberculosis, Malaria, and Leishmaniasis are also shared by this virus. (v) A total of 50 candidate drugs, including the prophylaxis agents and pathway specific inhibitors are identified against COVID-19. (vi) Betamethasone, Estrogen, Simvastatin, Hydrocortisone, Tositumomab, Cyclosporin A etc. are among the important drugs. (vii) Ozone, Nitric oxide, plasma components, and photosensitizer drugs are also identified as possible therapeutic candidates. (viii) Curcumin, Retinoic acids, Vitamin D, Arsenic, Copper, and Zinc may be the candidate prophylaxis agents.
33148157 Strong recommendations remain unchanged for breast feeding, healthy complimentary feeding, use of supplemental formula where appropriate, Oral nutritional supplements, Zinc, n-3& n- 6 fatty acids, probiotics all have a certain role to play as a stimulant for Covid19 in children.
33160363 Therefore, immunonutrition involves feeding enriched with various pharmaconutrients (Omega 3 Fatty Acids, Vitamin C, Arginine, Glutamine, Selenium, Zinc, Vitamin, E and Vitamin D) to modulate inflammatory responses, acquired immune response and to improve patient outcomes.
33170448 Zinc, a crucial trace element involved in several biological and metabolic processes, has been found to play a pivotal role in promoting and appropriately regulating the host defense mechanisms against viral infections. […] Zinc is naturally present in some foods, fortified in others and also available as dietary supplement. […] The current RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) of zinc is 12 and 10 mg for males and females respectively. […] Zinc is the second most common trace mineral after iron in the cell. […] Zinc is biologically essential for cellular processes, including growth and development, as well as DNA synthesis and RNA transcription. […] Zinc deficiency results in a number of metabolic changes besides a compromised immune system. […] In this review, the role of zinc in regulating the host defense and viral replication is being discussed with the main focus on COVID-19.
33179568 Further, in silico docking and MD simulation suggest that EGCG analogues ZINC21992196 and ZINC 169337541 may act as a better inhibitor.
33193427 ., copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) from growing medium, i.e., from soil, which led to their considerable presence in tea infusion.
33195401 Zinc plays a crucial role in the process of virion maturation inside the host cell. […] The accessory Cys-rich proteins expressed in SARS-CoV-2 by genes ORF7a and ORF8 are likely involved in zinc binding and in interactions with cellular antigens activated by extensive disulfide bonds. […] A conceivable hypothesis is that lack of cellular zinc, or substitution thereof, might lead to a significant slowing down of viral maturation.
33196946 This review focusses only upon zinc to illustrate some problems in rectifying these TM deficiencies affecting the balance between continued ill-health (‘illth’) or regaining optimal physical and mental wellbeing.
33200084 crystal structure (PDB ID: 6LU7) a combination of in silico screening, molecular docking, and dynamic approaches, a set of 5000 compounds of the ZINC database were screened.
33217430 Replication of the replicon was also sensitive overexpression to zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP).
33221267 Medications started included mostly vitamins or other supplements including zinc (n = 9), vitamin C (6), and other supplements (3).
33225970 Patients who were known COVID-19 positive (with positive RT-PCR), eligible and willing were enrolled in the study. extracts) of Shunthi (Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Vidanga (Embelia ribes), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Haritaki (Terminalia chebula), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus), Aamalaki (Emblica officinalis), Pippali (Piper longum) and calcined Zinc, Shankha bhasma.
33230497 , folate, C, D and E) and trace elements (zinc, copper, selenium, iron) have been demonstrated to have key roles in supporting the human immune system and reducing risk of infections. […] Each of the nutrients named above has roles in supporting antibacterial and antiviral defence, but zinc and selenium seem to be particularly important for the latter.
33230498 Evidence for vitamins C, D and zinc and their roles in preventing pneumonia and respiratory infections (vitamins C and D) and reinforcing immunity (zinc) appears to look particularly promising.
33232691 The orientation of nsp13 that anchors the 5’ extension of template RNA shows a remarkable conformational shift, resulting in zinc finger 3 of its ZBD inserting into a minor groove of paired template-primer RNA.
33235974 This paper evaluates the most recent literature on zinc status related to antiviral immunity and its possible role in COVID-19. […] It is concluded that zinc is a critical factor for antiviral immunity. […] There is ample evidence suggesting that zinc depletion, also prevalent in high-income nations, compromises immune functions. […] Notably, major risk groups for COVID-19, the elderly, men more than women, obese individuals and patients with diabetes are all at risk of zinc deficiency. […] Moreover, various widely used antihypertensive drugs and statin therapy have been reported to negatively influence zinc status. […] As zinc depletion impairs antiviral immunity, it is hypothesised to increase susceptibility for COVID-19. […] Therefore, dietary preventive measures and prompt implementation of zinc supplementation for risk groups should be considered.
33236142 Zinc (Zn) has strong immunogenic properties and is known to bind to a number of proteins, modulating their activities.
33236293 This study aimed to determine zinc, copper and magnesium status on pregnant women with COVID-19. 100 healthy (33/32/35) and 100 SARS-CoV-2 positive (34/33/33) pregnant women were included in the study according to their trimesters. […] In the first and third trimesters serum zinc level was lower (p:0,004 and p:0,02), serum copper level was higher (p:0,006 and p:0,008), the Zn / Cu ratio decreased(p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001) and the serum magnesium level was higher(p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001) in the COVID-19 group.In the second trimester COVID-19 patients had lower serum zinc (p:0,05) and copper levels (p:0,0003) compared to controls. […] Disease severity correlated with zinc/copper ratio in COVID19 patients (p:0.018, r:-0.243). […] Serum zinc and Zn/Cu ratio levels had a negative relationship with acute phase markers such as IL-6, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, procalcitonin and C-reactive Protein.
33238195 The accumulating evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV have demonstrated that several polyphenols found in plants and zinc- polyphenol clusters have been in use as herbal medicines have antiviral activities against viruses with various mechanisms. […] Curcumin, zinc and zinc-ionophores have been considered as nutraceuticals and nutrients showing great antiviral activities with their medicinal like activities. […] In this work, we discussed the potential prophylactic and/or therapeutic effects of curcumin, zinc and zinc-ionophores in treatment of viral infections including COVID-19. […] Curcuminoids and Zinc classified as nutraceuticals under GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) by FDA can provide complementary treatment for COVID 19 patients with their immunity-boosting and antiviral properties.
33240495 For school meal basket, all micronutrients show large average declines ranging from 9⋅5 % for zinc to 11 % for vitamin-A. […] For household food baskets on average, vitamin-A reduced 37 % followed by iron at 19 %, reduction in zinc is low due to the high zinc content in whole grain cereals.
33245701 Zinc and vitamins D and C have also been well studied for their ability to shorten the duration of upper respiratory infections, and vitamin D has been found to reduce mortality in COVID-19 patients.
33247380 We aimed to evaluate the effect of combining chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (CQ/HCQ) and zinc in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. […] One hundred ninety-one patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 infection were randomized into two groups: group I (96) patients received both HCQ and zinc, and group II (95) received HCQ only. […] Clinical recovery after 28 days was achieved by 79.2% in the zinc group and 77.9% in zinc-free treatment group, without any significant difference (p = 0.969). […] Zinc supplements did not enhance the clinical efficacy of HCQ. […] More randomized studies are needed to evaluate the value of adding zinc to other therapies for COVID 19.
33268419 Elemental zinc has previously been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on coronaviruses and other viral respiratory infections due to its effect on RNA polymerase. […] Additionally, zinc has well-demonstrated protective effects against hypoxic injury-a clear mechanism of end-organ injury in respiratory distress syndrome. […] We aimed to assess the effect of high-dose intravenous zinc (HDIVZn) on SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33306471 Considering this, the ADP-Ribose-1"-phosphate bound closed form of Mac1 domain is considered for screening with large database of ZINC.
33306725 Arsenicum album, vitamin supplements, and zinc supplements were the most commonly used preventive medicines. […] For the management of Covid-19 related symptoms, paracetamol, antihistamines, antibiotics, and mineral (zinc and calcium) supplements were used most often.
33308117 Furthermore, we discuss perspectives of the drug’s repurposing due to its ability to inhibit beta-hematin formation and to be a Zinc Ionophore.
33308613 Key dietary components such as vitamins C, D, E, zinc, selenium and the omega 3 fatty acids have well-established immunomodulatory effects, with benefits in infectious disease.
33344529 We evaluated the ameliorative effect of the proposed SARS-CoV-2 prophylactic drugs melatonin, vitamin C, and zinc on CIS-induced OS, inflammation, and DNA damage in rats. […] Forty male Swiss albino rats (200-250 g, 7-9 weeks old) were divided into five groups as controls, CIS, treated with melatonin (20 mg/kg), and vitamin C plus zinc [VitC+Zn (250 + 2.5 mg/kg)] alone or in combination (melatonin+VitC+zinc) subjected to CIS for 3 weeks.
33351847 Two AVPs that may shape viral genomes are the zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) and the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3).
33365326 Among these elements, zinc and vitamins C and D stand out for having immunomodulatory functions and for playing roles in preserving physical tissue barriers. […] Thus, the present review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the roles of zinc and vitamins C and D in the immune response to viral infections, focusing on the synergistic action of these nutrients in the maintenance of physical tissue barriers, such as the skin and mucous membranes. […] Thus, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the adequate intake of zinc and vitamins C and D may represent a promising pharmacological tool due to the high demand for these nutrients in the case of contact with the virus and onset of the inflammatory process.
33368619 We verify the prevalence of low zinc levels among critically ill patients infected by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the intensive care unit (ICU) who required invasive mechanical ventilation, as well as its association with severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ratio was ≤100 mm Hg. […] Low zinc levels were established if zinc levels were <70 μg/dL. , with 59.9% (161 of 269) of patients having overweight and obesity. […] The prevalence of low zinc levels was 79.6% (214 of 269) and severe ARDS was 56.5% (152 of 269). […] There was an association of low zinc levels and severe ARDS (odds ratio [OR], 14.4; 95% CI, 6.2-33.5; P < .001), even after adjusting for baseline variables (OR, 15.4; 95% CI, 6.5-36.3; P < .001). […] Critically ill patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 with severe ARDS have a high prevalence of low serum zinc levels.
33375422 The conducted GT analysis and cross-sectional studies revealed that during the COVID-19 outbreak in March 2020, the interest in immune-related compounds and foods like vitamins C and D, zinc, omega-3, garlic, ginger, or turmeric, as well as their consumption increased. […] Except for the role of vitamins D and C, zinc, and selenium in patients with deficiencies of those nutrients, there are no clear and convincing studies that support the role of DSs use in COVID-19 prevention and treatment in healthy, well-nourished individuals.
33375692 A consideration of the molecular biology underlying inflammasome priming and activation enables the prediction that a range of nutraceuticals may have clinical potential for suppressing inflammasome activity-antioxidants including phycocyanobilin, phase 2 inducers, melatonin, and N-acetylcysteine, the AMPK activator berberine, glucosamine, zinc, and various nutraceuticals that support generation of hydrogen sulfide.
33388006 At least two agents with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 (zinc, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin) and one antibiotic (azithromycin, doxycycline, ceftriaxone) were used along with inhaled budesonide and/or intramuscular dexamethasone consistent with the emergent science on early COVID-19 treatment.
33392261 In this paper, we reported molecular docking-based virtual screening (VS) of 2000 compounds obtained from the ZINC database and 10 FDA-approved (antiviral and anti-malaria) on 3CLpro using AutoDock Vina to find potential inhibitors. […] In conclusion, novel 3CLpro inhibitors from the ZINC database were successfully identified using VS and molecular docking approach, fulfilling the Lipinski rule of five, and having low FEB and functional molecular interactions with the target protein.
33395417 Here, we focus on zinc deficiency symptoms, symptom overlap with other conditions, as well as zinc effects on immune health and mechanistic zinc deficiency risk groups. […] There are well-studied beneficial effects of zinc on the immune system including a decreased susceptibility to and improved clinical outcomes for infectious pathogens including multiple viruses. […] Zinc is also an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress agent, relevant to some severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms. […] Unfortunately, zinc deficiency is common worldwide and not exclusive to the developing world. […] Lifestyle choices and preexisting conditions alone can result in zinc deficiency, and we compile zinc risk groups based on a review of the literature. […] It is also important to distinguish chronic zinc deficiency from deficiency acquired upon viral infection and immune response and their different supplementation strategies. […] Zinc is being considered as prophylactic or adjunct therapy for COVID-19, with 12 clinical trials underway, highlighting the relevance of this trace element for global pandemics. […] Using the example of zinc, we show that there is a critical need for a deeper understanding of essential trace elements in human health, and the resulting deficiency symptoms and their overlap with other conditions.
33409924 Deficiency of zinc has been supposed to contribute to loss of smell and taste in COVID-19 patients. […] Our study aimed to assess the serum zinc levels among patients with COVID-19 of various severities, with and without olfaction dysfunction, and to evaluate the effect of zinc therapy in recovery of smell dysfunction among such patients. […] Serum zinc levels were measured for all infected patients. […] One hundred and five patients were detected to have anosmia and/or hyposmia and were categorized randomly into 2 groups; the first group included 49 patients who received zinc therapy and the second group included 56 patients who did not received zinc. […] Serum zinc levels were not significantly different between the patient subgroups regarding disease severity or the presence or absence of olfactory and/or gustatory dysfunction (p ˃ 0.05). […] The median duration of recovery of gustatory and/or olfactory function was significantly shorter among patients who received zinc therapy than those who did not received zinc (p < 0.001), while the median duration of complete recovery from COVID-19 was not significantly different among the two groups (p ˃ 0.05). […] Although the zinc status of COVID-19 patients did not exhibit a significant role in development of anosmia and/or hyposmia or disease severity, zinc therapy may have a significant role in shortening the duration of smell recovery in those patients without affecting the total recovery duration from COVID-19.
33415646 Given the established roles of zinc in combating oxidative damage and viral infections, zinc is being trialed as a treatment modality against COVID-19. […] Zinc also has confirmed roles in both male and female reproduction. […] The possible depletion of zinc with the oxidative events of COVID-19 is especially relevant to the fertility of affected couples. […] This review aims to present the pathophysiology of COVID-19, especially in relation to reproductive function; the role of zinc in the COVID-19 disease process; and how zinc depletion in concert with cytokine storm and reactive oxygen species production could affect reproduction.
33425283 Gold, silver, copper, zinc and iron oxide nanoparticles are effective against coronavirus.
33448317 The present review discusses the possible synergistic action of OncoTherad with vitamin D, zinc and glutamine, nutrients that have been shown to facilitate immune responses mediated by IFN signaling, as well as the potential of this combination as a therapeutic option for COVID‑19.
33450678 Vitamins (A, B, C, D, and E), minerals (selenium and zinc), and bioactive substances from curcumin, echinacea, propolis, garlic, soybean, green tea, and other polyphenols were identified as having potential roles in interfering with spike glycoproteins, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, and transmembrane protease serine 2 at the entry site, and inhibiting activities of papain-like protease, 3 chymotrypsin-like protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the replication cycle of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
33458853 Zinc possesses potential health benefits against COVID-19 pandemic by improving immune response, minimizing infection and inflammation, preventing lung injury, inhibiting viral replication through the interference of the viral genome transcription, protein translation, attachment, and host infectivity. […] However, this review focuses on the various mechanisms of action of zinc and its supplementation as adjuvant for vaccines an effective therapeutic regimen in the management of the ravaging COVID-19 pandemic. […] However, Zinc is known to modulate several physiological functions including intracellular signaling, enzyme function, gustation, and olfaction, as well as reproductive, skeletal, neuronal, and cardiovascular systems. […] Hence, achieving a significant therapeutic approach against COVID-19 could imply the use of zinc as a supplement together with available drugs and vaccines waiting for emergency authorization to win the battle of COVID-19. […] Together, it becomes innovative and creative to supplement zinc with currently available drugs and vaccines.
33472840 Our synthesis of global evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that micronutrient supplements including zinc, vitamins C and D, and multiple micronutrient supplements may be modestly effective in preventing ARIs and improving their clinical course.
33487035 Several micronutrients, such as vitamin D, retinol, vitamin C, selenium and zinc are of special importance supporting both the adaptive and innate immune systems. […] According to epidemiological, experimental and observational studies, some case reports and a few intervention studies the supplementation of vitamin D and/or zinc are promising. […] Besides, the data of a recent prospective study with COVID-19 patients reveal that a significant number of them were zinc deficient. […] The zinc deficient patients had more complications and the deficiency was associated with a prolonged hospital stay and increased mortality.
33518801 The effective treatment of COVID-19 using Zinc complexes as add-on to Chloroquine/ Hydroxychloroquine has received major attention in this context. […] We are proposing some zinc compounds coordination to Chloroquine/ Hydroxychloroquine in order to enhance their activity.
33520683 Among them, quercetin, one of the most abundant of plant flavonoids, is proposed as a lead candidate with its ability on the virus side to inhibit SARS-CoV spike protein-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) interaction, viral protease and helicase activities, as well as on the host cell side to inhibit ACE activity and increase intracellular zinc level.
33532161 It is based on affordable, commonly available components: anti-inflammatory corticosteroids (methylprednisolone, “M”), high-dose vitamin C infusion (ascorbic acid, “A”), vitamin B1 (thiamine, “T”), anticoagulant heparin (“H”), antiparasitic agent ivermectin, and supplemental components (“+”) including melatonin, vitamin D, elemental zinc, and magnesium.
33544528 Here we aim to highlight the role of a few particular nutrients namely Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Omega-3 fatty acids, Zinc and Magnesium along with the synergistic roles they play in enhancing immunity and thus, maintaining homeostasis.
33551661 Screening of existing drugs was carried out by mining data based on viral gene expressions from the ZINC database. […] Through ZINC data mining, tanshinones were found to have high binding affinities to this target.
33552370 They were given mostly azithromycin 15mg/kg, zinc and chloroquine sulfate 5mg/kg. […] They were given mostly azithromycin 15mg/kg, zinc and chloroquine sulfate 5mg/kg.
33555346 Sequence motifs preceding the CpG-loss-associated loci in the N ORF match recently identified binding patterns of the Zinc finger Anti-viral Protein.
33570583 Deficiencies of micronutrients, especially vitamins A, B complex, C, and D, zinc, iron, and selenium, are common among vulnerable populations in general and among COVID-19 patients in particular and could plausibly increase the risk of mortality.
33572045 Zinc is an essential micronutrient that impacts host-pathogen interplay at infection. […] Zinc balances immune responses, and also has a proven direct antiviral action against some viruses. […] Importantly, zinc deficiency (ZD) is a common condition in elderly and individuals with chronic diseases, two groups with an increased risk for severe severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. […] We hypothesize that serum zinc content (SZC) influences COVID-19 disease progression, and thus might represent a useful biomarker. […] In parallel, we have studied severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) replication in the Vero E6 cell line modifying zinc concentrations. […] Our study demonstrates a correlation between serum zinc levels and COVID-19 outcome. […] Serum zinc levels lower than 50 µg/dL at admission correlated with worse clinical presentation, longer time to reach stability, and higher mortality. […] Our in vitro results indicate that low zinc levels favor viral expansion in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. […] We encourage performing randomized clinical trials to study zinc supplementation as potential prophylaxis and treatment with people at risk of zinc deficiency.
33576820 To examine whether high-dose zinc and/or high-dose ascorbic acid reduce the severity or duration of symptoms compared with usual care among ambulatory patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio to receive either 10 days of zinc gluconate (50 mg), ascorbic acid (8000 mg), both agents, or standard of care. […] Patients who received usual care without supplementation achieved a 50% reduction in symptoms at a mean (SD) of 6.7 (4.4) days compared with 5.5 (3.7) days for the ascorbic acid group, 5.9 (4.9) days for the zinc gluconate group, and 5.5 (3.4) days for the group receiving both (overall P = .45). […] In this randomized clinical trial of ambulatory patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, treatment with high-dose zinc gluconate, ascorbic acid, or a combination of the 2 supplements did not significantly decrease the duration of symptoms compared with standard of care.
33577069 COVID-19 induced-dysgeusia was also associated with systemic diseases, medications, zinc, chemicals, and disinfectants.
33577131 Whole blood levels of essential and/or toxic metal(loid)s were analyzed, including magnesium, calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, thallium, and lead according to the disease severity and outcome. […] Compared to the non-severe COVID-19 patients, severe cases showed significant higher levels of whole blood calcium, chromium, and copper, but lower levels of magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, arsenic, thallium, and lead.
33588905 In particular, the role of vitamin D, probiotics, lactoferrin, and zinc is of significant clinical interest, although there are only a few data on their use in COVID-19 patients. […] The supplementation with vitamin D, probiotics, lactoferrin and zinc could have a role both in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and in mitigating the clinical course in infected patients, contributing in the prevention of immune-mediated organ damage.
33590901 This trial compared the rate and time of viral clearance in subjects receiving the combination of nitazoxanide, ribavirin and ivermectin plus Zinc vs. those receiving supportive treatment. […] This trial concluded that combined use of Nitazoxanide, Ribavirin, and Ivermectin plus zinc supplement effectively clear the SARS-COV2 from nasopharynx in shorter time than the symptomatic therapy.
33594938 Evidence supporting the potential beneficial roles of vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc, and B3 vitamins is reviewed here, revealing a combination of basic research elucidating underlying mechanisms of action, preclinical studies and human intervention studies has led to the proliferation of registered clinical trials on COVID-19.