DrugBank ID: db01593
DrugCentral: zinc
Synonymous :zinc, chelated | zinc, elemental | zincum metallicum | zn

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of zinc gene in 76 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32210741 Furthermore, broad library protease inhibitors obtained from PubChem and ZINC (www.zinc.docking.org) were evaluated.
32267566 Tetracyclines (e.g. tetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline) are highly lipophilic antibiotics that are known to chelate zinc compounds on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)1 . […] Coronaviruses are also known to heavily rely on host MMPs for survival, cell infiltration, cell to cell adhesion, and replication, many of which have zinc as part of their MMP complex2,3 . […] It is possible that the zinc chelating properties of tetracyclines may also aid in inhibiting COVID-19 infection in humans limiting their ability to replicate within the host.
32289821 The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) binds specifically to CpG dinucleotides and recruits other proteins to degrade a variety of viral RNA genomes.
32292689 By performing target-based virtual ligand screening, a total of 21 targets (including two human targets) were screened against compound libraries including ZINC drug database and our own database of natural products.
32306822 Potential compounds were screened from the CHEMBL database, ZINC database, FDA approved drugs and molecules under clinical trials. […] Seven hundred compounds from ZINC/CHEMBL databases and fourteen hundred compounds from drug-bank were selected based on positive interactions with the reported binding site.
32334392 Among trace elements, selenium and zinc have also shown favourable immune-modulatory effects in viral respiratory infections.
32335560 We seek to draw the attention of the scientific community to the possibility of drastically reducing the effects of the virus on the affected patients and improving clinical trials outcome through the synergistic action of zinc and chloroquine in patients suffering from the coronavirus disease.
32340216 A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system.
32362243 The structure files of Indian spices chemical compounds were taken from PubChem database or Zinc database and screened by molecular docking, by using AutoDock-4.2, MGLTools-1.5.6, Raccoon virtual screening tools.
32396382 Here, we review theoretical mechanisms and evidence related to efficacy and safety of select supplements in the setting of COVID-19, including vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc, elderberry, and silver.
32408070 Besides direct antiviral effects, CQ/HCQ specifically target extracellular zinc to intracellular lysosomes where it interferes with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity and coronavirus replication. […] As zinc deficiency frequently occurs in elderly patients and in those with cardiovascular disease, chronic pulmonary disease, or diabetes, we hypothesize that CQ/HCQ plus zinc supplementation may be more effective in reducing COVID-19 morbidity and mortality than CQ or HCQ in monotherapy. […] Therefore, CQ/HCQ in combination with zinc should be considered as additional study arm for COVID-19 clinical trials.
32430459 We also identified drugs that may target the top-ranked proteins in MR, such as fostamatinib and zinc.
32446866 A combination such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and zinc, all of which have previously been used topically in the eye and which work at least in part by blocking ACE2 receptors, may offer a safe, cost-effective and resource-sparing intervention.
32471251 Low micronutrient status, such as of vitamin A or zinc, has been associated with increased infection risk.
32473509 Zinc Iodide and Dimethyl Sulfoxide compositions are proposed as therapeutic agents to treat and prevent chronic and acute viral infections including SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. […] Given the fact that Zinc Iodide has been used as an oral antiseptic agent and DMSO has been already proven as a safe pharmaceutical solvent and therapeutic agent, we hypothesize that the combination of these two agents can be applied as an effective, safe and inexpensive treatment for SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infection.
32512490 It is well known that zinc (Zn) possesses a variety of direct and indirect antiviral properties, which are realized through different mechanisms.
32513807 Because of their potential to influence immune response, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), zinc, vitamin D, and N-acetylcysteine have been hypothesized to be useful for prevention or treatment of COVID-19.
32519786 Hydroxychloroquine (600mg/day), Azithromycine, steroids (dexamethasone 20mg/day), vitamin C (3g/day), Zinc, diuretics and Enoxaparine were equally used for the two patients.
32522597 We report here on four consecutive outpatients with clinical characteristics (CDC case definition) of and/or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were treated with high dose zinc salt oral lozenges. […] All four patients experienced significant improvement in objective and symptomatic disease measures after one day of high dose therapy suggesting that zinc therapy was playing a role in clinical recovery. […] A mechanism for zinc’s effects is proposed based on previously published studies on SARS- CoV-1, and randomized controlled trials assessing zinc shortening of common cold duration. […] The limited sample size and study design preclude a definitive statement about the effectiveness of zinc as a treatment for COVID-19 but suggest the variables to be addressed to confirm these initial findings in future trials.
32524645 We comment on hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir with zinc supplement, remdesivir, tocilizumab, ciclesonide, niclosamide and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).
32534175 A randomized trial of ivermectin, and/or nutraceuticals that have been published to support immune function including glutathione, vitamin C, zinc, and immunomodulatory supplements (3,6 Beta glucan) could be beneficial in preventing transmission or lessening symptomatology but requires statistical validation.
32565398 Interventions included intravenous ascorbic acid, intramuscular cholecalciferol, enteral and intramuscular vitamin E, enteral zinc sulfate, and oral and parenteral glutamine.
32567995 Authors have screened more than one million molecules available in the ZINC database and taken the best two compounds based on binding energy score.
32568969 These therapies include immunomodulators (i.e. intravenous immunoglobulin, thymosin α-1, IL-6, tocilizumab, cyclosporine, thalidomide, fingolimod), Chinese medicines (i.e. glycyrrhizin, baicalin, Xuebijing), anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (bevacizumab), estrogen modulating drugs, statins and nutritional supplements (i.e. vitamin A, B, C, D, E and zinc).
32574914 The physico-chemical parameters compared are pH, total dissolved solids (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate (NO3), fluoride (F), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and selenium (Se), and the bacterial parameters are total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, and fecal streptococci.
32593867 Clinical factors (age, comorbidities, NEWS-2 score), biological factors (lymphocytopenia; eosinopenia; decrease in blood zinc; and increase in D-dimers, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine phosphokinase, troponin and C-reactive protein) and moderate and severe lesions detected in low-dose CT scans were associated with poor clinical outcome.
32605683 The most common pharmacological treatment regimens administered were zinc, hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin and convalescent plasma.
32617527 Thus we propose use of paritaprevir, entecavir, ritonavir and chloroquine derivatives as best drug combination along with niacinamide, folic acid and zinc supplements to treat novel coronavirus infection.
32621718 Among the best shape-based compounds, a novel compound identified was not indexed in any chemical databases (PubChem, Zinc, or ChEMBL).
32635353 The treatment was well-tolerated in conjunction with standard drug therapies for COVID-19 (hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and zinc).
32641644 In this article, I will briefly discuss, why keeping adequate zinc balance might enhance the host response and be protective of viral infections.
32644876 Some nutrients are actively involved in the proper functioning and strengthening of the human immune system against viral infections including dietary protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, iron, zinc, and selenium.
32650197 Concurrent use of certain nutraceuticals - yeast beta-glucan, zinc, vitamin D, spirulina, phase 2 inducers, N-acetylcysteine, glucosamine, quercetin, and magnesium - might also improve therapeutic outcomes in COVID-19.
32653930 Thirty-one percent of the guidelines highlighted the importance of minerals and vitamins such as zinc and vitamins C, A, and D to maintain a well-functioning immune system. […] However, supplementation with vitamins C and D, as well as with zinc and selenium, was highlighted as potentially beneficial for individuals with, or at risk of, respiratory viral infections or for those in whom nutrient deficiency is detected.
32671829 Several lines of evidence support a link between the essential element zinc and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] An important fact is that zinc is present in proteins of humans and of viruses. […] Some zinc sites in viral enzymes may serve as drug targets and may liberate zinc ions, thus leading to changes in intracellular concentration of zinc ions, while increased intracellular zinc may induce biological effects in both the host and the virus. […] Drugs such as chloroquine may contribute to increased intracellular zinc. […] Moreover, clinical trials on the use of zinc alone or in addition to other drugs in the prophylaxis/treatment of COVID-19 are ongoing. […] Thereby, we aim to discuss the rationale for targeting zinc metalloenzymes as a new strategy for the treatment of COVID-19.
32672528 The model was used to screen the ZINC database for commercially available compounds having similar features with the experimentally tested drugs.
32690179 Preliminary data suggest that the nutritional status can change the course of the infection, and on the matter, zinc is crucial for growth, development, and the maintenance of immune function. […] The aim of this paper is to establish the relation between zinc and COVID-19. […] From the prior scientific knowledge, we have performed a review of the literature and examine the role of zinc in immune function in the infection by COVID-19. […] Our findings are that the zinc as an anti-inflammatory agent may help to optimize immune function and reduce the risk of infection. […] Zinc supplementation can be a useful strategy to reduce the global burden of infection in the elderly, there is a need the increased reporting to improve our understanding of COVID-19 and the care of affected patients.
32690999 SARS-CoV-2 mortality/morbidity risk increases with age and for those chronic disease co-morbidities, both of which are associated with lower zinc status, as is the risk of infection. […] Rapid review methods will be applied to a systematic review of zinc for the prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 and viral respiratory tract infections in humans. […] Included are published studies reporting randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compare zinc intervention to placebo and/or other comparator interventions.
32698238 In this article, we tried to summarize the possible association between COVID-19 and the HM’s development by reviewing the role of NOD-Like Receptor (NLR) Family Pyrin Domain Containing 7 (NLRP7), cytokines, zinc, and leukocytes in the pathogenesis of HM.
32708755 Based purely on experimental studies in which RAS pathway inhibitors were administered in vivo to humans/rodents, a reasonable hypothesis of using inhibitors that block both ACE and ACE2 zinc metalloproteases and their downstream pathways in COVID-19 patients will be proposed. […] In particular, metal (zinc) chelators and renin inhibitors may work alone or in combination to inhibit the positive feedback loops (initially triggered by SARS-CoV-2 and subsequently sustained by hypoxia independently on viral trigger) as both arms of renin-angiotensin system are upregulated, leading to critical, advanced and untreatable stages of the disease.
32733775 The Shanghai panel, and a parallel medical group in Guangzhou, are advising the use of high-dose IV ascorbate for the treatment of ARDS, along with other supportive therapies, including Vitamin D and zinc.
32739642 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a membrane-bound zinc metallopeptidase that generates the vasodilatory peptide angiotensin 1-7 and thus performs a protective role in heart disease.
32741313 Herein, we report the high-throughput virtual screening and molecular docking studies to search for the best potential inhibitors against Mpro from FDA approved drugs available in the ZINC database as well as the natural compounds from the Specs database.
32754164 This review will therefore discuss the potential of zinc as preventive and therapeutic agent alone or in combination with other strategies, as zinc meets all the above described criteria. […] While a variety of data on the association of the individual zinc status with viral and respiratory tract infections are available, study evidence regarding COVID-19 is so far missing but can be assumed as was indicated by others and is detailed in this perspective, focusing on re-balancing of the immune response by zinc supplementation. […] Especially, the role of zinc in viral-induced vascular complications has barely been discussed, so far. […] Interestingly, most of the risk groups described for COVID-19 are at the same time groups that were associated with zinc deficiency. […] As zinc is essential to preserve natural tissue barriers such as the respiratory epithelium, preventing pathogen entry, for a balanced function of the immune system and the redox system, zinc deficiency can probably be added to the factors predisposing individuals to infection and detrimental progression of COVID-19. […] Finally, due to its direct antiviral properties, it can be assumed that zinc administration is beneficial for most of the population, especially those with suboptimal zinc status.
32764275 Selected agents were immune transfer factor (oligo- and polypeptides from porcine spleen, ultrafiltered at <10 kDa; Imuno TF®), anti-inflammatory natural blend (Uncaria tomentosa, Endopleura uchi and Haematoccocus pluvialis; Miodesin®), zinc, selenium, ascorbic acid, cholecalciferol, ferulic acid, spirulina, N-acetylcysteine, glucosamine sulfate potassium hydrochloride, trans-resveratrol, and maltodextrin-stabilized orthosilicic acid (SiliciuMax®).
32777300 In this study, a virtual screening procedure employing docking of the two different datasets from the ZINC database, including 1615 FDA approved drugs and 4266 world approved drugs were used to identify new potential small molecule inhibitors for the newly released crystal structure of main protease protein of SARS-CoV-2.
32778891 In the second module, it uses deep learning generative model trained by drug-like molecules of ZINC database and molecular docking invoked by Autodock Vina automatically.
32784601 The aim of the present article was to explore the usefulness of early micronutrient intervention, with focus on zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, to relieve escalation of COVID-19. […] We conducted an online search for articles published in the period 2010-2020 on zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, and corona and related virus infections. […] There were a few studies providing direct evidence on associations between zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, and COVID-19. […] Adequate supply of zinc, selenium, and vitamin D is essential for resistance to other viral infections, immune function, and reduced inflammation.
32795605 Vitamin B1, B6, B12, vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D), folate, selenium, and zinc levels were measured in 50 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. […] No significant increase in the incidence of deficiency was found for vitamins B1, B6, and B12, folate, and zinc in patients with COVID-19.
32802622 The majority of the patients received zinc and calcium supplements as well.
32835132 Interestingly, the key tumor-suppressor p53 protein will undergo degradation by virus-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase Ring-finger and CHY zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (RCHY1) leading to an increased viral survival in host cells.
32837716 By the use of plenty of water, minerals like magnesium and Zinc, micronutrients, herbs, food rich in vitamins C, D & E and better life style one can promote the health and can overcome this infection.
32837982 While nicotine and ivermectin may be blocking transport abilities of the virus or its components, famotidine, remdesivir and chloroquine in combination with zinc ions can deactivate important enzymes needed for the replication of the virus.
32839664 Nutritious, biofortified crops such as potato, sweetpotato, but also wheat, maize and beans among others, can play a more significant role to provide key micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc) at large scale.
32850261 Results Impact of various clinical treatments was assessed, showing no change in median overall survival (OS) of both hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin or vitamin C with zinc.
32872374 Functional foods and nutraceuticals within popular diets contain immune-boosting nutraceuticals, polyphenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, pigments, unsaturated fatty-acids, micronutrient vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate, and trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper.
32879473 However, as noted, no serum autoantibodies were observed against islet cells, glutamic acid decarboxylase, tyrosine phosphatase, insulin and zinc-transporter 8.
32897031 Particular attention is paid to oxidative stress as one of the main causes for subfertility and male infertility, as well as the role of trace elements (zinc, selenium) and antioxidants (vitamins A, E and C) in the pathogenesis of male infertility and opportunities for the correction of fertility issues.
32902518 Getting insight into the complexity and relevance of proteomics in CRS, epithelial-mesenchymal contribution to CRS, zinc levels in nasal and systemic compartment of CRS, nasal biomarkers of CRSwNP that predict recurrence of disease after sinus surgery, and the odor identification test for children, called ‘U-Sniff’, and FID scores (Frequency, Intensity and Duration) scores for epistaxis are all in the 2020 October issue and highly relevant for Rhinology practice.
32911042 Because most severely ill patients with COVID-19 in our hospital showed zinc deficiency, we aimed to examine the relationship between the patient’s serum zinc level and severe cases of COVID-19. […] Serum zinc <70 μg/dL was defined as the criterion for hypozincemia, and patients continuously with serum zinc <70 μg/dL were classified in the hypozincemia cohort. […] In evaluating the relationship between the serum zinc level and severity of patients with COVID-19 by multivariate logistic regression analysis, critical illness can be predicted through the sensitivity and false specificity of a ROC curve with an error rate of 10.3% and AUC of 94.2% by only two factors: serum zinc value (P = 0.020) and LDH value (P = 0.026).
32911778 Specifically, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) evaluated and deems six vitamins (D, A, C, Folate, B6, B12) and four minerals (zinc, iron, copper and selenium) to be essential for the normal functioning of the immune system, due to the scientific evidence collected so far.
32915473 Importantly, the activity of the complexes against both PLpro enzymes correlated with the ability of the inhibitors to remove zinc ions from the labile zinc center of the enzyme.
32920234 Zinc is a trace element with potent immunoregulatory and antiviral properties, and is utilized in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] However, we do not know the clinical significance of serum Zinc levels in COVID-19 patients. […] The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of serum zinc in COVID-19 patients and to establish a correlation with disease severity. […] This was a prospective study of fasting zinc levels in COVID-19 patients at the time of hospitalization. […] COVID-19 patients with zinc deficiency were compared to those with normal zinc levels. […] COVID-19 patients (n = 47) showed significantly lower zinc levels when compared to healthy controls (n = 45): median 74.5 (interquartile range 53.4-94.6) μg/dl vs 105.8 (interquartile range 95.65-120.90) μg/dl (p < 0.001). […] Amongst the COVID-19 patients, 27 (57.4%) were found to be zinc deficient. […] The odds ratio (OR) of developing complications was 5.54 for zinc deficient COVID-19 patients. […] The study data clearly show that a significant number of COVID-19 patients were zinc deficient. […] These zinc deficient patients developed more complications, and the deficiency was associated with a prolonged hospital stay and increased mortality.
32930657 As a result of in vitro evidence suggesting zinc sulphate may be efficacious against COVID-19, our hospitals began using zinc sulphate as add-on therapy to hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.Aim. […] To compare outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients ordered to receive hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin plus zinc sulphate versus hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone.Methodology. […] Patients taking zinc sulphate in addition to hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (n=411) and patients taking hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone (n=521) did not differ in age, race, sex, tobacco use or relevant comorbidities. […] The addition of zinc sulphate did not impact the length of hospitalization, duration of ventilation or intensive care unit (ICU) duration. […] In univariate analyses, zinc sulphate increased the frequency of patients being discharged home, and decreased the need for ventilation, admission to the ICU and mortality or transfer to hospice for patients who were never admitted to the ICU. […] After adjusting for the time at which zinc sulphate was added to our protocol, an increased frequency of being discharged home (OR 1.53, 95 % CI 1.12-2.09) and reduction in mortality or transfer to hospice among patients who did not require ICU level of care remained significant (OR 0.449, 95 % CI 0.271-0.744). […] This study provides the first in vivo evidence that zinc sulphate may play a role in therapeutic management for COVID-19.
32938758 Supplemental magnesium, vitamin D and zinc should be administered.
32940134 In this context, a library consisting of 3180 FDA-approved drugs from ‘the ZINC database’ was used to identify novel drug candidates against ‘the Mpro’ of SARS-CoV-2.
32950529 In addition, virtual screening of the compounds from ZINC database also allowed the prediction of two compounds (ZINC09128258 and ZINC09883305) with pharmacophore features that interact effectively with RdRp of SARS-CoV-2, indicating their potentiality as effective inhibitors of the enzyme.
32953343 Most patients were treated with a combination of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, zinc, and vitamin C.
32963884 Sixty-five molecules from the ZINC database subset (AfroDb Natural Products) were virtually screened with some reported repurposed therapeutics against six SARS-CoV-2 and two human targets.
32983745 The aim of this study was to measure serum 25(OH)D, vitamin B12, and zinc levels in COVID-19 positive pregnant women to evaluate the role of these micronutrients in treatment and prevention. […] The mean serum zinc level was 62.58 ± 2.63, and the mean serum vitamin B12 level was 295.55 ± 302.48.
32990314 Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc membrane metallopeptidase that plays a key role in regulating vasoactive peptide levels and hence cardiovascular activity through its conversion of angiotensin I (Ang I) to Ang II and its metabolism of bradykinin.
32992693 Oral medicinal doses of vitamin C (1-3 g/d) and zinc (80 mg/d elemental zinc) could be promising at the first signs and symptoms of COVID-19 as well as for general colds.
32994673 Other hypotheses propose that the patient’s status of immunity, vitamin D level, Zinc deficiency or other physiological parameters determine how any given patient will effectively weather the viremia and the consequential multi-symptomatic CoViD-19.
33022567 A total of 1000 protease-inhibitor-like compounds available in the ZINC database were screened by molecular docking with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and the top 2 lead compounds based on binding affinity were found to be 1,2,4 triazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidin-7-one compounds.
33028965 In vitro studies showed that ranitidine bismuth citrate and its related compounds exhibited inhibition towards both the ATPase (IC50 = 0.69 µM) and DNA-unwinding (IC50 = 0.70 µM) activities of the SARS-CoV-2 helicase via an irreversible displacement of zinc(II) ions from the enzyme by bismuth(III) ions.
33045596 Zinc and the combination with zinc ionophore have been reported in basic research and several clinical investigations as a potentially viable and economical preventive and therapeutic options for COVID-19 treatment. […] Zinc is a vital microelement that actively supports respiratory epithelium barrier integrity, innate and adaptive immune functions, and inflammatory regulations. […] Moreover, zinc may also prevent viral entry, suppress viral replication, and mitigate the damages due to oxidative stress and hyperinflammatory reaction in patients with respiratory infections. […] Hinokitiol (β-thujaplicin) is a natural monoterpenoid and is considered as a safe zinc ionophore to help zinc transport into cells. […] Considering that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), the most studied zinc ionophore drug for COVID-19, is linked to potentially serious side effects, we propose the implementation of hinokitiol as a zinc ionophore and anti-infective agent for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 and other viral infections.