WATER


DrugBank ID: db09145
DrugCentral: water
Synonymous :agua | dihydrogen oxide | purified water | sterile water | water purified



Drug Sentece Context


Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of water gene in 293 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32096367 The “Four-Anti and Two-Balance”strategy included antivirus, anti-shock, anti-hyoxemia, anti-secondary infection, and maintaining of water, electrolyte and acid base balance and microecological balance.
32196032 Droplet microfluidic systems have the capability to overcome such limitations by conducting complex multi-step assays with high reliability, resolution, and throughput in a pico-liter volume water-in-oil emulsion droplet format.
32211765 No therapies are available, and the only way to contain the virus spread is to regularly and thoroughly clean oneself hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water, to maintain at least 1 metre (3 feet) distance from anyone who is coughing or sneezing, to avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth, and to stay home if one feels unwell.
32224550 The threat of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) to health systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) can be compared metaphorically to a lake in Africa infested with a bask of crocodiles and the saying: “the eye of the crocodile.” In the lake, only the eyes of the crocodile appear on the surface while the rest of the body is submerged in water.
32230995 To efficiently solve this problem, we propose a hybrid algorithm based on the water wave optimization (WWO) metaheuristic and neighborhood search.
32232986 The results showed that instant hand wiping using a wet towel soaked in water containing 1.00% soap powder, 0.05% active chlorine, or 0.25% active chlorine from sodium hypochlorite removed 98.36%, 96.62%, and 99.98% of the virus from hands, respectively.
32273245 Optimal CL care behaviours should be the same as those under normal circumstances, which include appropriate hand washing (thoroughly with soap and water) and drying (with paper towels) before both CL application and removal. […] Daily CL cleaning and correct case care for reusable CL should be followed according to appropriate guidelines, and CL exposure to water must be avoided.
32279686 Furthermore, they are exacerbated by an increasing number of vulnerable populations suffering from chronic deficiencies in food, water, and energy.
32293717 PPE made of more breathable material may lead to a similar number of spots on the trunk (MD 1.60, 95% CI -0.15 to 3.35) compared to more water-repellent material but may have greater user satisfaction (MD -0.46, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.08, scale of 1 to 5).
32293875 Ritonavir showed somewhat higher atomic contacts, binding efficiency and key binding residues than that of lopinavir in correspondence with slightly less water accessibility at the 3CLpro active site.
32304561 This includes appropriate use of a filtering face-piece respirator (N95, N99, FFP2/3, or PAPR), double gloves, facial protection (full visor and/or face shield), full body water-resistant disposable gown, shoe covers and a hairnet.
32311380 If combined with the provision of clean water and sanitation, targeted hygiene can reduce the circulation of resistant bacteria in homes and communities, regardless of a country’s Human Development Index (overall social and economic development).
32315907 In view of the current situation regarding the Covid-19 disease, a discussion is proposed on the need for research focusing on the presence and evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in water, soils and other environmental compartments, reached through wastewater and sewage sludge spreading.
32320083 In this study, we demonstrated, using avian coronavirus of infectious bronchitis virus to mimic SARS-CoV-2, that medical masks and N95 masks remained their blocking efficacy after being steamed on boiling water even for 2 hours.
32322159 This approach was applied to develop four new nanofiber filters tailored for capturing 100nm airborne COVID-19 to achieve over 90% efficiency with pressure drop below 30Pa (3.1mm water). […] One filter developed meeting the 90% efficiency has ultralow pressure drop of only 18Pa (1.9mm water) while another filter meeting the 30Pa limit has high efficiency reaching 94%.
32325742 The antiviral activity of 12 water and water-alcohol plant extracts of the leaves and stem bark of three different species of mulberry-Morus alba var. alba, Morus alba var. rosa, and Morus rubra-were evaluated. […] Leaves’ water-alcohol extracts exhibited maximum antiviral activity on human coronavirus, while stem bark and leaves’ water and water-alcohol extracts were the most effective on picornaviruses.
32327306 Vaccines were touted as one of the most successful health invention ever introduced; on a similar level to health improvements due to clean water.
32333243 The informal settlements of the Global South are the least prepared for the pandemic of COVID-19 since basic needs such as water, toilets, sewers, drainage, waste collection, and secure and adequate housing are already in short supply or non-existent. […] Immediate measures to protect residents of urban informal settlements, the homeless, those living in precarious settlements, and the entire population from COVID-19 include the following: (1) institute informal settlements/slum emergency planning committees in every urban informal settlement; (2) apply an immediate moratorium on evictions; (3) provide an immediate guarantee of payments to the poor; (4) immediately train and deploy community health workers; (5) immediately meet Sphere Humanitarian standards for water, sanitation, and hygiene; (6) provide immediate food assistance; (7) develop and implement a solid waste collection strategy; and (8) implement immediately a plan for mobility and health care.
32334159 On the other hand, there are also negative secondary aspects such as the reduction in recycling and the increase in waste, further endangering the contamination of physical spaces (water and land), in addition to air.
32335408 However, the lock down of the COVID-19 pandemic caused the air quality in many cities across the globe to improve and drop in water pollutions in some parts of the world.
32336079 Regardless of which mask is used, performing hand hygiene frequently with an alcohol-based hand rub or with soap and water if hands are dirty; is the most effective preventive measure for COVID-19.
32337862 The article also outlines the differences between hand decontamination using alcohol-based hand gels and soap and water, and the complex factors that can interfere with effective hand hygiene compliance.
32345515 We described the management procedures for tracheostomy in a patient with COVID-19, including the anesthesia preparation, surgical procedures, required medical supplies (a N95 mask or powered air purifying respirator, goggles, face shield, cap, double gloves, and a water-resistant disposable gown), and appropriate consultation with an infection prevention team.
32348025 If the procedure is vital to the survival of the patient, FFP3 and/or PAPRs devices, goggles, full-face visor, double gloves, water-resistant gowns and protective caps, are mandatory.
32353720 Then we discuss the current framework of disease transmission through water and excreta and how the transmission of a respiratory disease fits into it.
32361598 This scoping review was conducted to summarize research data on CoV in water environments. […] In detail, the review captured relevant studies investigating three main areas: 1) CoV persistence/survival in waters; 2) CoV occurrence in water environments; 3) methods for recovery of CoV from waters. […] The data available suggest that: i) CoV seems to have a low stability in the environment and is very sensitive to oxidants, like chlorine; ii) CoV appears to be inactivated significantly faster in water than non-enveloped human enteric viruses with known waterborne transmission; iii) temperature is an important factor influencing viral survival (the titer of infectious virus declines more rapidly at 23°C-25 °C than at 4 °C); iv) there is no current evidence that human coronaviruses are present in surface or ground waters or are transmitted through contaminated drinking-water; v) further research is needed to adapt to enveloped viruses the methods commonly used for sampling and concentration of enteric, non enveloped viruses from water environments. […] The evidence-based knowledge reported in this paper is useful to support risk analysis processes within the drinking and wastewater chain (i.e., water and sanitation safety planning) to protect human health from exposure to coronavirus through water.
32361744 Chromatographic separation was obtained through an Acquity HSS T3 1.8 μm, 2.1 × 50 mm column, with a gradient of water and acetonitrile with 0.05% formic acid.
32364936 Applications of electrochemical biosensors for the detection of pathogens in food and water safety, medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and bio-threat applications are highlighted.
32371231 Computer simulations for past, present and emerging epidemic hotspots (e.g., Wuhan, Milan, Madrid, New York City, Teheran, Seattle, Detroit and New Orleans) identified temperature, average in-sewer travel time and per-capita water use as key variables.
32372877 A goal in our study is to develop air filters (e.g. respirator, facemask, ventilator, medical breathing filter/system) with 90% capture on 100-nm airborne COVID-19 with pressure drop of less than 30 Pa (3.1 mm water). […] The pressure drop for the 6-layer nanofiber filter was only 26 Pa (2.65 mm water column) which was below our limit of 30 Pa (3.1 mm water). […] The 6-layer charged nanofiber filter was qualified as a ‘N98 respirator’ (98% capture efficiency for 300-nm NaCl aerosols) but with pressure drop of only 2.65-mm water which was 1/10 below conventional N95 with 25-mm (exhaling) to 35-mm (inhaling) water column!
32373409 Frequent hand washing implies a prolonged exposure to water and other chemical or physical agents and may induce several pathophysiologic changes, such as epidermal barrier disruption, impairment of keratinocytes, the subsequent release of proinflammatory cytokines, activation of the skin immune system, and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
32380474 Since plasma sodium monitoring is not always possible in times of COVID-19, we recommend to delay the desmopressin dose once a week until aquaresis occurs allowing excess retained water to be excreted. […] • In contrast, hypernatraemia may develop in COVID-19 patients in ICU most probably due to insensible water losses from pyrexia, increased respiration rate and use of diuretics.
32388136 Many environmental indices such as lowering NO2 and CO2 emissions and reduction in particulate matters in air as a result of less human activities have led to clean air and pollution free water in many countries.
32388159 Here, with the help of remote sensing images, this work quantitatively demonstrated the improvement in surface water quality in terms of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Vembanad Lake, the longest freshwater lake in India.
32389845 The consequent overcrowding - with insufficient water, sanitation and healthcare (including laboratory capacity) - could lead to conditions that are ideal for spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Syria.
32389891 The main route of transmission of the human coronaviruses (HCoVs), and presumably also of the new pandemic SARS-CoV-2, is via droplets and close contacts, however their fecal elimination also suggests the possible spread via water. […] A scientific literature search was thus carried out to highlight the current state of the art and knowledge gaps regarding coronavirus in water. […] Since 1978 only 22 studies have met the inclusion criteria, and considered heterogeneous purposes, detection methods and types of water. […] In vitro experiments have addressed the recovery efficiency of analytical methods, survival in different types of water and the removal efficiency of water treatments. […] The scarcity of information on HCoV in the environment suggests that research is needed to understand the fate of these viruses in the water cycle.
32391184 Taken together, such studies allowed us to identify a residue pair (Glu-His) and a conserved His as critical for binding; a conserved GSCGS motif as important for the start of catalysis, a partial negative charge cluster (PNCC) formed by Arg-Tyr-Asp as essential for catalysis, and a conserved water molecule mediating the remote interaction between PNCC and catalytic dyad.
32391241 Surface water improvements associated with the COVID-19 economic slowdown illustrate environmental resiliency and societal control over urban water quality.
32391658 The “Four-Anti and Two-Balance” strategy included antivirus, anti-shock, anti-hyoxemia, anti-secondary infection, and maintaining of water, electrolyte and acid base balance and microecological balance.
32399095 The highest log octanol/water partition coefficient, high number of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, lowest non-bonded interaction energy between the receptor and the ligand, and high binding affinity were considered for the best ligand for the envelope (mycophenolic acid: log P = 3.00; DG = -10.2567 kcal/mol; pKi = 7.713 µM) and nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (1-[(2,4-dichlorophenyl)methyl]pyrazole-3,5-dicarboxylic acid: log P = 2.901; DG = -12.2112 kcal/mol; pKi = 7.885 µM) of SARS-CoV-2.
32403261 The success of the hand sanitization solely depends on the use of effective hand disinfecting agents formulated in various types and forms such as antimicrobial soaps, water-based or alcohol-based hand sanitizer, with the latter being widely used in hospital settings.
32406115 And, although not all of the microbially relevant infrastructure will be within reach of schools, there is usually access to a market, local food store, wastewater treatment plant, farm, surface water body, etc., all of which can provide opportunities to explore microbiology in action.
32406402 Although COVID-19 has impacted water and wastewater utilities in new and profound ways, they must still provide their vital services despite the disruptions. […] In the United States, professional associations have long advocated in this area and have already developed considerable policy guidance and resources to help water and wastewater utilities prepare for and respond to emergencies.
32406406 Soapy water, alcohol, bleach immersion, ethylene oxide, ionizing radiation, microwave, high temperature, autoclave or steam are not fully recommended.
32407826 The top five sampling sites with a positive rate in medical areas were beepers (50.00%), water machine buttons (50.00%), elevator buttons (42.86%), computer mouses (40.00%), and telephones (40.00%).
32412096 PPE made of more breathable material may lead to a similar number of spots on the trunk (MD 1.60, 95% CI -0.15 to 3.35) compared to more water-repellent material but may have greater user satisfaction (MD -0.46, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.08, scale of 1 to 5).
32414379 Even low-cost interventions such as facemasks for patients with a cough and water supplies for handwashing may be challenging, as is ‘physical distancing’ in overcrowded primary health care clinics.
32415548 Therefore, in this study, was discussed the role of environmental factors and conditions such as temperature, humidity, wind speed as well as food, water and sewage, air, insects, inanimate surfaces, and hands in COVID-19 transmission. […] According to the latest evidence, the presence of coronavirus in the sewer has been confirmed, but there is no evidence that it is transmitted through sewage or contaminated drinking water.
32416535 This proposed model is premised on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from human feces through municipal waste water treatment plants into the natural aquatic environment where potential wildlife hosts become infected.
32416536 Regarding social factors, we identified the return of indigenous people to their communities, poor access to water, language barriers, and limited access to the Internet, as factors that will not allow them to take the minimum preventive measures against the disease.
32416598 Importantly, we provide evidence that RNA extraction can be successfully bypassed when samples are stored in UTM medium or in molecular water but not when samples are stored in saline solution and in Hanks medium.
32417554 The present study has attempted to explore the impact of forced lockdown on environmental components like Particulate matter (PM) 10, Land surface temperature (LST), river water quality, noise using image and field derived data in pre and during lockdown periods. […] Adjacent river water is qualitatively improved due to stoppage of dust release to the river. […] For instance, total dissolve solid (TDS) level in river water adjacent to crushing unit is attenuated by almost two times.
32425251 The procedure resulted in average recoveries of 10 ± 3.5% and 10 ± 2.1% in influent water (n = 2) and 3.3 ± 1.6% and 6.2 ± 1.0% in effluent water (n = 2) samples for PEDV and MgV, respectively. […] Then, the method was used to monitor the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 from March 12 to April 14, 2020 in influent, secondary and tertiary effluent water samples. […] Two secondary water samples resulted positive (2 out of 18) and all tertiary water samples tested as negative (0 out 12).
32433389 Failure to account for the lack of complete indoor plumbing and access to potable water in a pandemic may be an important determinant of the increased incidence of COVID-19 cases.
32438824 In low-income countries, reduction of transmission is of paramount importance, but social distancing is challenged by high population densities and access to handwashing facilities with soap and water is limited. […] Our objective was to estimate global access to handwashing with soap and water to inform use of handwashing in the prevention of COVID-19 transmission. […] We utilized observational surveys and spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression modeling in the context of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study to estimate access to a handwashing station with available soap and water for 1,062 locations from 1990 to 2019. […] Despite overall improvements from 1990 {33.6% [95% uncertainty interval (UI): 31.5, 35.6] without access} to 2019, globally in 2019, 2.02 (95% UI: 1.91, 2.14) billion people, 26.1% (95% UI: 24.7, 27.7) of the global population, lacked access to handwashing with available soap and water.
32443022 This includes appropriate use of a filtering face-piece respirator (N95, N99, FFP2/3, or PAPR), double gloves, facial protection (full visor and/or face shield), full body water-resistant disposable gown, shoe covers and a hairnet.
32448085 The first step in this investigation was to solvate the isolated S-protein in water for molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, being observed a transition from “up” to “down” conformation of receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S-protein with angle of 54.3 and 43.0 degrees, respectively.
32461409 While both alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHR) or washing with soap and water are claimed to have been effective, hand sanitizers have gained more popularity due to the ease of use.
32466392 MITs allow for caries removal (particularly in primary teeth) without any high-speed rotating instrument cooled with nebulized air-water spray (with high risk of virus environmental diffusion), usually adopted during traditional treatments.
32473036 Four and six centers used peracetic acid during the period of shutdown and return to work, alone or matched with OPA or acidified water.
32470688 When the lockdown measures were enforced in Italy to control the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 infection on March 10th 2020, the ordinary urban water traffic around Venice, one of the major pressures in the lagoon, came to a halt. […] This provided a unique opportunity to analyse the environmental effects of restrictions to mobility on water transparency. […] We conclude that the high water transparency can be considered as a transient condition determined by a combination of natural seasonal factors and the effects of COVID-19 restrictions.
32475597 This review summarizes the potential pharmacological activities of polysaccharides isolated by hot water extraction from Lung Cleansing and Detoxifying Decoction, which is consistent with its production method, to provide the theoretical basis for ongoing research on its application.
32481719 Ion channels, transporters, and pumps coordinate the transcellular and paracellular movement of ions and water to maintain the ASL volume and mucus hydration. microRNA (miRNA) is a class of non-coding, short single-stranded RNA regulating gene expression by post-transcriptional mechanisms. miRNAs have been increasingly recognized as essential regulators of ion channels and transporters responsible for ASL homeostasis. miRNAs also influence the airway host defense.
32493409 Although access to clean water and soap is universal in high-income settings, it remains a basic need many do not have in low- and middle-income settings.We analyzed data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 16 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, using the most recent survey since 2015. […] Differences in the percentage of households with an observed handwashing place with water and soap were estimated by place of residence and wealth quintiles. […] Equiplots showed wide within-country disparities, disproportionately affecting the poorest households and rural residents, who represent the majority of the population in most of the countries.Social inequalities in access to water and soap matter for the COVID-19 response in sub-Saharan Africa. […] Interventions such as mass distribution of soap and ensuring access to clean water, along with other preventive strategies should be scaled up to reach the most vulnerable populations.
32493460 Key components of the CoVideo are the promotion of five hygiene practices: i) social distancing and avoiding group gatherings, ii) frequently washing hands with soap and water or sanitizer, iii) cleaning surfaces at home (e.g., kitchen counters), iv) not sharing eating utensils, and v) avoidance of stockpiling essential goods (such as toilet paper and face masks).
32495123 This lockdown impacted the pollution levels of environment and improved air and water quality in the short span owing to very less human activities.
32496256 The majority, i.e. 1318 (87%), followed advisories and reported washing hands with soap and water regularly, 1108 (73%) reported regularly wearing masks, 1344 (89%) reported following lockdown guidelines, and 1306 (87%) reported maintaining social distancing.
32498549 Results from an online survey (N = 511) revealed that the vast majority (>90 percent) of respondents had very often or always practiced preventive behaviors against contracting COVID-19 such as washing their hands more regularly with soap and water, staying away from crowded places, and wearing face masks out in public.
32501392 Zoonotic disease risks are ultimately interlinked with biodiversity crises and water insecurity.
32506926 A poor, overcrowded living condition, limited access to safe drinking water and health services, and a restricted communication system have substantially increased the risk of rapid spread of COVID-19 in these refugee camps.
32511851 Ethanol (70%) was tested in parallel as a positive control, and water only as a negative control. […] Surviving virus from each sample was quantified by standard end-point dilution assay and the log reduction value (LRV) of each compound compared to the negative (water) control was calculated.
32520122 Interest in use of face masks (Pr=0.0041), social distancing (Pr=0.0043) and hand hygiene with alcohol gel (Pr=0.0037) was greater than interest in respiratory etiquette (Pr=0.0010) and hand hygiene with soap and water (Pr=0.0005). the difference in interest in issues related to combating Covid-19 was substantial and can guide new strategies for disseminating health information. descrever os perfis de interesse de busca de informações na internet sobre termos relacionados à epidemia da Covid-19 no Brasil. realizou-se uma pesquisa quantitativa exploratória usando o Google Health Trends; foram analisados dados diários de interesse, definido como probabilidade de consulta (Pr), sobre 23 termos nas buscas realizadas por usuários conectados no Brasil no período de 1º de janeiro a 9 de abril de 2020. o pico de interesse (Pr=0,0651) pelo tema coronavirus ocorreu em 21 de março; o interesse pelos temas uso de máscaras (Pr=0,0041), distanciamento social (Pr=0,0043) e higienização das mãos com álcool em gel (Pr=0,0037) foi superior ao interesse pelos temas etiqueta respiratória (Pr=0,0010) e higienização das mãos com água e sabão (Pr=0,0005). a diferença de interesse pelos temas relacionados ao combate à Covid-19 foi expressiva e pode orientar novas estratégias de divulgação de informações em saúde. describir los perfiles de las consultas de búsqueda basadas en la Internet sobre términos relacionados a la epidemia del Covid-19 en Brasil.
32522671 In the context of progressive lockdown exit and hospital activities recovery, we assessed the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in rehabilitation pools and therapeutic water environments in order to provide specific recommendations to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 while ensuring essential rehabilitation cares for patients.
32524893 In many ways, efforts to contain the spread of COVID-19 in densely populated communities with limited access to food, water and sanitation may seem counter-intuitive and even impossible under conditions of precarity.
32524953 Furthermore, environmental surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and accumulated human waste, as well as efforts to mitigate the virus’ entry into unprotected household water sources, should be a priority part of the COVID-19 response in settings without safely managed sanitation for the duration of the pandemic.
32530505 Disinfectants with multiple agents and adverse pH are more likely to be best active at higher water temperatures.
32532012 Consequently, by the end of April 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to numerous environmental impacts, both positive such as enhanced air and water quality in urban areas, and negative, such as shoreline pollution due to the disposal of sanitary consumables.
32544735 Temperature, dew point, relative humidity, absolute humidity, and water vapor showed positive significant correlation with COVID-19 pandemic.
32548599 Due to high levels of stress and work intensity, insufficient sleep and a lack of access to water after entering the isolation ward, staff may suffer from oral mucosal ulcers and other oral mucosal diseases.
32549749 Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions remain to be important in the prevention of further spread of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). […] Basic hygiene interventions such as handwashing with water and soap (HWWS) when applied consistently will deactivate and remove the virus particles from the hands.
32556161 A Dentoform model was fitted into a dental mannequin and coated with Glo Germ to detect splatter during simulated dental AGPs produced with use of a high-speed handpiece, an ultrasonic scaler, and an air-water syringe, all in conjunction with high-volume suction.
32559276 Key sectors at particular risk of collapse or reduced efficiency in the wake of COVID-19 include food systems, incomes, and social protection, health care services for women and children, and services and access to clean water and sanitation.
32560459 The analysis of published data shows that bound water acts as a plasticizer of biological tissues, a decrease in bound water content results in an increase in biological tissue stiffness, and increased tissue stiffness leads to NF-kB activation and triggered actin polymerization-NF-kB activation is associated with age-related diseases. […] It can be suggested that changes in bound water content through changing tissue stiffness can affect cellular processes and the development of pathologies related to aging.
32565272 When hand washing with soap and water is unavailable, a sufficient volume of sanitizer is necessary to ensure complete hand coverage, and compliance is critical for appropriate hand hygiene.
32568806 This purpose can be achieved by applying alcohol-based hand rubs, washing hands properly with soap and water, and applying other antiseptic agents. […] Nevertheless, regular hand hygiene could also be challenging, because water, detergents, and disinfectants may predispose HCWs to hand dermatitis.
32570023 In the first half of 2020, because of the widespread of the COVID-19, researches were focused on the monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 in water, wastewater, sludge, air, and on surfaces, in order to assess the risk of contracting the viral infection from contaminated environments. […] SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding strategies in the environment, either through animate and unanimate matrices, or exploiting the organic matter in water, wastewater, and waste in general, have been discussed in the present article.
32574854 Reports from all over the world are indicating that after the outbreak of COVID-19, environmental conditions including air quality and water quality in rivers are improving and wildlife is blooming. […] But after declaration of lockdown due to COVID-19, quality of air has started to improve and all other environmental parameters such as water quality in rivers have started giving a positive sign towards restoring.
32574914 We hereby present the imprints of lockdown on water quality (both chemical and biological) parameters during the nationwide lockdown (COVID-19 epidemic) in India between 25th March to 30th May 2020. […] The present study describes the changes in chemical and biological water quality parameters based on twenty-two groundwater samples from the coastal industrial city of Tuticorin in Southern India, taken before (10 and 11th February 2020) and during the lockdown (19 and 20th April 2020) periods. […] Contents of Cr, Cu, Zn and Cd, however, remained similar and fluoride did not show any change, probably as they were sourced from rock-water interactions. […] The multivariate analyses aptly illustrated this and the principal component analyses helped to identify the sources that controlled water qualities of the lockdown compared to the pre-lockdown period.
32578477 Objective: Social distancing and hand washing with soap and water have been advocated as the main proactive measures against the spread of coronavirus. […] We sought to find out what other alternative materials and methods would be used among populations without running water and who may not afford alcohol-based sanitizers. Results: We reviewed studies that reported use of sand, soil, ash, soda ash, seawater, alkaline materials, and sunlight as possible alternatives to handwashing with soap and water. […] The consideration of use of these alternative locally available in situations of unavailability of soap and water and alcohol-based sanitizers is timely in the face of coronavirus pandemic.
32578839 Several measures are highlighted, including social distancing, optimized water management, airflow and microclimatic parameters in the pool as well in the annexed rooms, verification of sanitation procedures.
32582578 Design-A features a mask with a water channel that allows the user to remain hydrated without removing the cover.
32343408 Similarly, it was very uncertain whether the rate of women experiencing symptoms of reproductive tract infection differed between women cleaning hands with ash compared with cleaning hands using soap (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.86; very low-certainty evidence) or when compared with handwashing with water only or not washing hands (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.96; very low-certainty evidence).
32406064 Skin parameters were measured on areas covered by the respective masks and on uncovered skin 2 and 4 hours after donning, and 0.5 and 1 hour after removing the masks, including skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, pH, and sebum secretion.
32599421 The increasing use of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) for magnetic resonance imaging is leading to widespread contamination of freshwater and drinking water systems. […] Contrary to previous assumptions that GBCAs are stable throughout the water cycle, they can degrade. […] There is specific concern regarding UV end-of-pipe water treatments, which may degrade GBCAs. […] Degradation products in drinking water supplies can increase the risk of adverse health effects. […] This is of particular relevance where the raw water for drinking water production has a higher proportion of recycled wastewater. […] Temporal variations in anthropogenic gadolinium concentrations in river water can be used to better understand river-aquifer interactions and groundwater flow velocities. […] Collecting urine from all patients following MRI examinations could be a way forward to halt the generally increasing concentrations of Gd in drinking water systems and recover this technologically critical element.
32599638 There is also a correlation with the use of chlorination of drinking water in these regions.
32603505 These findings suggest a possible risk of faecal-oral, foodborne and waterborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in developing countries that often use sewage-polluted waters in irrigation and have poor water treatment systems.
32604457 A medical interview by an experienced physician is the foundation of the post-travel screening process both in symptomatic and asymptomatic travelers; the interview should focus on identifying exposure to risk factors (endemic infectious diseases, failure to adopt disease prevention measures, consumption of food or water from unsafe sources, insect bites, animal bites, travelling in large groups, unsafe sex with casual partners).
32605306 Water-soluble extracts of SS were prepared, and their virus-inactivating activity was evaluated against the human virus pathogens SARS-CoV-2 and IAV; we also examined virucidal activity against feline calicivirus and murine norovirus, which are surrogates for human NV.
32608097 Ethanol and water were evaluated in parallel as standard positive and negative controls.
32614377 Studies have shown that chemical sterilization using soap and water, alcohols, and bleach render the respirator nonfunctional.
32617403 The practice of on-demand sedation with benzodiazepines and/or opiates will allow most patients to complete a water-aided examination with minimal or no sedation. […] Other methods reported to minimize patient discomfort during colonoscopy can be used, in addition to water-aided techniques. […] Trainee education in water-aided colonoscopy has been demonstrated to confer benefits.
32624650 The model output favourably compares with the experimentally obtained evaporation characteristics of levitated droplets of pure water and salt solution, respectively, ensuring fidelity of the model.
32626666 Results: The analytical specificity and sensitivity of our assay was 100% and 500 copies/ml when serial dilution was performed in both water and sputum.
32631753 Nine essential services are also identified including Health, Defence, Law & Order, Finance, Transport, Telecommunication, Energy, Food, and Water.
32639930 Multilayer cloth masks, designed to fit around the face and made of water-resistant fabric with a high number of threads and finer weave, may provide reasonable protection.
32641343 Participants will randomly receive HIVC diluted in sterile water or placebo for 7 days once enrolled.
32644841 To collect the samples, the mothers wore surgical masks, washed their hands with an 85% alcohol-based gel, and washed their breast with gauze that was saturated with soap and water.
32644871 With India’s population of more than 1.3 billion people at a significant population density compared with the rest of the world, the lack of universal access to clean water and overall poor socioeconomic status, all have posed a major challenge to India’s fight against COVID-19.
32652357 Although there is no current evidence showing that coronaviruses can be transmitted through contaminated drinking water, there is a growing concern on the impact of the current pandemic wave on underprivileged societies because of their poor wastewater treatment infrastructures, overpopulation, and outbreak management strategies.
32653736 Hand hygiene by washing with soap and water is recommended for the prevention of COVID-19 spread.
32654854 Poor living conditions in LMICs including lack of sanitation, running water and overcrowding may facilitate transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
32657566 The coating performs well in the cross-hatch durability test and remains intact and active after 13 days of being immersed in water or after exposure to multiple cycles of exposure to the virus and disinfection.
32659559 The COVID-19 pandemic has once again highlighted the importance of access to sufficient quantities of safe water and sanitation in public health.
32660683 More specifically, this includes addressing risks relating to sanitation, drinking water, food safety, vector control, and mass gatherings.
32661521 Eight dry-field isolation methods were tested in a setup that included a realistic dental manikin and a high-speed handpiece that generated air-water spray.
32669149 During this public emergency, 79.4% participants changed diet habits, including increasing vegetables, fruit and water intake, and reducing sugary drinks and snacks.
32669264 Community Water Fluoridation (CWF) is safe and effective at reducing dental caries.
32674164 From appropriate sun protection and water safety to insect exposure and recreational precautions, it is important to review key safety points to ensure a happy and healthy season.
32679506 River samples were evaluated for water quality parameters and afterwards, concentrated for viral analysis using skimmed milk flocculation method.
32687996 Ensuring a safe and reliable water supply and maintaining water sanitation has become ever more critical during the pandemic. […] For this reason, researchers and practitioners have promptly investigated the impact associated with the spread of SARS-CoV-2 on water treatment processes, focusing specifically on water disinfection. […] However, the COVID-19 pandemic impacts multiple aspects of the urban water sector besides those related to the engineering processes, including sanitary, economic, and social consequences which can have significant effects in the near future. […] Furthermore, this outbreak appears at a time when the water sector was already experiencing a fourth revolution, transitioning toward the digitalisation of the sector, which redefines the Water-Human-Data Nexus. […] In this contribution, a product of collaboration between academics and practitioners from water utilities, we delve into the multiple impacts that the pandemic is currently causing and their possible consequences in the future. […] We show how the digitalisation of the water sector can provide useful approaches and tools to help address the impact of the pandemic.
32687997 This article aims to examine the latest investigations on SARS-CoV-2 plausible environmental transmission modes, employment of wastewater surveillance for early detection of COVID-19, and elucidating the role of solid waste, water, and atmospheric quality on viral infectivity. […] Water bodies receiving raw sewage may pose risk of infection but this has not been investigated to date.
32693284 Nevertheless, virus presence and infectivity in treated wastewaters, but also in the receiving water bodies are still poorly investigated.
32696810 In addition, COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates were significantly associated with the total water service index and lethality rate was significantly associated with the sewage treatment index.
32701918 Water consumption and Wastewater Management; 5.
32704480 However, access to safe water and hygiene is inadequate in many places around the globe; hence T-zone touching restriction is considered more worthwhile compared to other prevention strategies.
32707253 To prevent virus transmission, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends frequent hand washing with soap and water.
32708367 In this study, we performed first-principles calculations suggesting that water molecules once in contact with the graphene oxide (GO) layer interact with its functional groups, therefore, developing an electric field induced by the heterostructure formation. […] Experiments on GO polymer composite film supports the theoretical findings, showing that the interaction with water aerosol generates a voltage output signal of up to -2 V.
32711332 The mortalities and morbidities associated with the current COVID-19 pandemic warrants a much more focused research on the role of environments, such as wastewater and surface water, in disease transmission.
32712670 C57Bl/6 female mice (four/treatment group) were administered either lopinavir-cART, darunavir-cART or water by oral gavage once daily starting on the day of plug detection until sacrifice.
32715046 Data highlight that households are highly exposed to novel Covid-19, and also equally sensitive to inadequate and poor availability and accessibility of clean water, sanitation and health care system. […] Data suggest a grass root awareness program (ex-ante preventive measures) in the regional languages; increase public health budget to meet the demand and improve the supply chain; establishment of more physical and human infrastructure in long run; comprehensive plan to ensure continuous water supply in the rural areas.
32718076 Hyponatremia is one of the most common water-electrolyte imbalances in the human organism.
32718282 The liposomes were tested in DSS treated mice, which had received DSS via drinking water order to develop a model IBD.
32726003 Jinhao Jiere Granules: dissolve in boiling water and take after meals, 8 g/time, 2 times/day, a course of 5 days, followed up for 14 days, respectively.
32731509 The body weight increase presented positive association with the consumption of fried foods ≥ 3 times per week (OR; 3.36, p < 0.001), low water consumption (OR; 1.58, p = 0.03), and sedentary time ≥6 h/day (OR; 1.85, p = 0.01).
32733983 Fiberglass casts are suboptimal because they require a follow up for cast removal while a conventional plaster cast is amenable to self-removal by submerging in water and cutting the cotton bandages with scissors.
32734857 The case highlights the importance of strict monitoring of water and air systems immediately before reopening business or public sector buildings, and the need to consider Legionella infections among the differential diagnosis of respiratory infections after lockdown due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
32735690 Simulated dental procedures using a fluorescent dye in the water of the dental equipment were carried out, with and without the use of the device.
32752599 Community isolation facilities with proper sanitation, reliable disposal systems, and a clean water supply should be set up to isolate and treat sick patients.
32755777 We analyze the lockdown’s impact on the water quality status of this stretch using a combination of measured parameters and satellite image derived indices. […] Class C Water Quality Index estimates of nine stations indicate an improvement of 37% during the lockdown period. […] While the partial/non-operational status of most industries during the lockdown enabled significant reduction in effluent loads and a consequent betterment in the river water quality, its spatial variations and even deterioration in some locations resulted from the largely undiminished inflow of domestic sewage through multiple drains.
32758842 Since industrial units and commercial establishments were closed, water was not being lifted by them with a negligible discharge of industrial wastewater. […] Analysis of the storage data of the last ten years revealed that the storage till May 6, 2020 was 82.83% more than the average of the previous ten years, which meant that more water was available for the river during the lockdown period. […] The gradual transformation in the quality of the water has given a sign of optimism from the point of restoration. […] Yet, it is believed that this improvement in water quality is ‘short-lived’ and quality would deteriorate once the normal industrial activities are resumed, indicating a strong influence of untreated commercial-industrial wastewater.
32758864 The intermediate dimensioned droplets are proved to be changed into aerosol, losing their water content and becoming seriously contagious, but in their initial phase they could be easily caught by a simple surgical mask.
32758897 The traditional formulation of ibuprofen is poorly soluble in water, so the administered dose must be 10 times higher than the dose required for a therapeutic effect.
32763612 Given that the novel coronavirus was detected in stool and urine from diagnosed patients, the potential risk of its transmission through the water environment might not be ignored.
32767925 Finally, as a novel idea for the direct targeting of H2 , this review introduces the possibility that H2 causes structural changes in proteins via hydrate water changes.
32768790 Sampling was carried out on 8 and 27 May 2020 at the Old Pirana Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) at Ahmedabad, Gujarat that receives effluent from Civil Hospital treating COVID-19 patients.
32772895 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) report promising results against this drug target so, we perform molecular docking followed by MD-simulation studies of HCQ and modelled some ligand (Mod-I and Mod-II) molecules with SARS-CoV-2-main protease which reveals the structural organization of the active site residues and presence of a conserve water-mediated catalytic triad that helps in the recognition of Mod-I/II ligand molecules. […] The study may be helpful to gain a detailed structural insight on the presence of water-mediated catalytic triad which could be useful for inhibitor modelling.
32779305 A total of 30 compounds of Solanum tuberosum and Brassica juncea residue smoke water were selected for the virtual screening against SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and cellular proteins involved in the mechanism of infection.
32783878 The present study aimed to assess the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater and river water in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan, using four quantitative and two nested PCR assays. […] Influent and secondary-treated (before chlorination) wastewater samples and river water samples were collected five times from a wastewater treatment plant and three times from a river, respectively, between March 17 and May 7, 2020. […] The wastewater and river water samples (200-5000 mL) were processed by using two different methods: the electronegative membrane-vortex (EMV) method and the membrane adsorption-direct RNA extraction method. […] None of the river water samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA.
32784463 A. lavenia water and chloroform fractions showed antioxidant properties in vitro.
32785274 Combining pocket estimation and docking with water, we determined that GLU 8 and ASN 15 in the N-terminal region were in close proximity to form H-bonds which was further validated by insertion of the E protein in an ERGIC-mimic membrane.
32785566 Conclusion prevent the transmission of the virus in the pregnancy-postpartum cycle, assess whether there is a need to interrupt pregnancies, decrease the circulation of people, avoid skin-to-skin contact and water births, prefer epidural over general anesthesia, keep mothers who tested positive or are symptomatic isolated from NB, and encourage breastfeeding.
32790273 The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in human wastewater together with poor quality of public drinking water supplies in developing countries is of concern. […] Additionally, the frequent use of contaminated water for bathing, nasal irrigation, swimming, and ablution can be a risk factor in contracting infectious agents such as the brain-eating amoebae and possibly SARS-CoV-2. […] The use of appropriate tap water filters should be encouraged to remove pathogenic microbes, together with restrained nasal irrigation (not forcing water inside nostrils vigorously) during ritual ablution or bathing to avoid dangerous consequences for populations residing in developing countries.
32790662 If soap and water are not readily available, CDC recommends the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer products that contain at least 60% ethyl alcohol (ethanol) or 70% isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) in community settings (1); in health care settings, CDC recommendations specify that alcohol-based hand sanitizer products should contain 60%-95% alcohol (≥60% ethanol or ≥70% isopropanol) (2).
32790730 Washing hands frequently with water and soap and use of hand sanitizer was reported by 93.33%, of participants.
32795090 When fluorescein and the commercial water tracer dye were nebulized, aerosols ≤8.61 µm and ≤2.08 µm respectively were generated, but the collected aerosols did not appear visibly fluorescent. […] Vitamin B2’s reliability as a fluorescent tracer when suspended in aerosols and small droplets ≤14.1 µm and known mucosal safety profile make it an ideal compound compared to fluorescein and commercial water-based fluorescent dyes for use as a safe fluorescent tracer in healthcare contamination models especially with human subjects.
32795148 The influence of crystallographic water on an outcome of a virtual screening against selected targets was also investigated.
32795645 Although in theory, cloth masks can be helpful to limit the spread of the COVID-19, serious consideration should be given to the choice of textile, the number of layers of cloth used, pre-treatment of the material with water repellent material and other compounds that can enhance the filtration efficiency of the masks without compromising their breathability.
32798877 Three environmental impacts were studied (Global Warming Potential, Blue Water Footprint and Land Use) and a total of seven weekly diet scenarios were designed: two pre-COVID diets for March and April in 2019 (MAR19, APR19), one COVID diet (COVID) and two alternative diets, one based on the National Dietary Guidelines (NDG) and another one on the Planetary Health Diet (PHD).
32800237 The present article, therefore, describes the SARS-CoV-2 paths of contagion such as drinking water, solid waste, sewer water, ambient air, and the rest of emerging likely paths.
32802991 Handwashing with soap and water remains the most effective public health measure to reduce the risk of infectious diseases, which kill over 2.5 million people annually, mostly children in developing countries. […] This suggests that research on water, sanitation, and hygiene issues deserve continuous scholarly attention. […] Further, households in urban areas, households that spent between 0-30 min to get to a source of water, and households in Eastern and Brong-Ahafo regions were less likely to have access to hand hygiene resources.
32809910 Dental professionals in resource poor countries, as opposed to those in developed countries, face additional challenges due to the lack of personal protective equipment, and chronic infrastructural impediments extant in such jurisdictions, such as regular and chronic interruptions to electricity and water supplies.
32816647 Lack of access to services that are considered critical and life-saving such as food, drinkable water, and shelter, together with limited access to health services are turning an already serious crisis into a major human disaster.
32827813 Nonetheless, many peer-reviewed articles have studied these aspects but mostly in isolation; a complete array of coronavirus survival and transmission from an infected individual through air- and water-borne channels and its subsequent intractions with environmental factors, surfaces, particulates and chemicals is not comprehensively explored. […] Learning from the earlier coronavirus studies, including SARS and MERS, an attempt has been made to understand the survival of SARS-CoV-2 outside of the host body and discuss the probable air and water-borne transmission routes and its interactions with the outside environment.
32828084 Here, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations starting from closed and open states of the S protein trimer in the presence of explicit water and ions.
32828268 Acidic electrolyzed water (EW) with a high concentration of free available chlorine (FAC) shows strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
32831933 Dietary and lifestyle modifications during Ramadan month and their impact on immunity, such as water intake and hydration status, sleep duration and timing, caloric intake and mealtime, and social and spirtual activities, were addressed.
32834057 Following a communications plan and using a spokesperson, water utilities should focus on simple messages that use basic terminology.
32834215 The COVID-19 pandemic has had wide-ranging effects on the water industry, but now you and your colleagues are getting your utility back to “normal,” whatever normal now means.
32834216 I nearly miss the call as I scramble to remove my face mask while noticing it’s our water treatment plant phone. […] Immediately I hope the plant is running smoothly and no one is out of water.
32834217 Unless a water or wastewater utility has had to deal with a serious disruption in the past, emergency preparedness may not have been a priority. […] However, with COVID-19, every water and wastewater utility has now faced a prolonged emergency and can-and should-learn from it.
32834241 In this review, a discussion is provided on the power of compressed fluids, such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and subcritical water extraction (SWE) to obtain antiviral and anti-inflammatory compounds from natural sources.
32834376 With the economy at a standstill, the Palestinian governing authority has limited financial resources to (re)build key sanitation, hygiene, waste treatment and water supply infrastructure.
32834378 Recognizing the importance of handwashing in preventing the spread of COVID-19, concerns have arisen about the condition of millions of Africans who lack access to hygiene facilities and clean water services.
32834381 We identify three policies that meet these criteria: a fossil fuel subsidy swap to fund clean energy investments and dissemination of renewable energy in rural areas; reallocating irrigation subsidies to improve water supply, sanitation and wastewater infrastructure; and a tropical carbon tax, which is a levy on fossil fuels that funds natural climate solutions.
32834382 In other instances, the water is unaffordable or the supply has been shut off on account of unpaid bills. […] But when there is no water in the home or yard, or no mechanism for delivering enough water, good hand-washing is extremely difficult. […] Well before COVID-19, global cost-benefit analyses of water and sanitation investments, with benefits measured in time-savings as well as health, showed significant net benefits in all sub-regions of the developing world. […] This Viewpoint paper argues that, in the current crisis and its aftermath, it is imperative for governments and donors to prioritize and generously fund affordable, reliable, and accessible water services in underserved regions of the world.
32834491 This article aims to assess the impact of coronavirus (COVID-19) spread-prevention actions on water consumption, based on a case study in Joinville, Southern Brazil. […] Residential water consumption data, obtained through telemetry in two periods (before and after a governmental action imposing quarantine and social isolation), were analyzed. […] The results of the Wilcoxon test show that there are significant differences between the analyzed periods, indicating a water consumption drop in the commercial, industrial and public categories, and an increase in the residential category. […] The results also indicate an increase in water consumption, which was steeper in apartment buildings than in houses, whether isolated or grouped in condominiums. […] A weak association was found between the variation in water consumption and the spatial distribution of buildings. […] Understanding water consumption related aspects is important to gather essential information to ensure the urban water supply system is resilient in a pandemic situation.
32834521 Here, both aspects of solar energy i.e., light and heat are utilized for both energy production and water heating. […] However, by modifying the size of heat-absorbing top electrode and by increasing the temperature gradient through the addition of water coolant under the bottom electrode, an uplift in the champion device results in as increment of VOC ∼5.5 times and Seebeck coefficient obtained was -250 μV/0C, respectively. […] The proposed modules can generate electric power from light and utilize the penetrating sunlight inside the room and for the heating of the water which also acts as a coolant.
32834770 Therefore, its tautomeric state was predicted by using density functional theory in gas phase and in solution (toluene, acetonitrile and water).
32835034 The modified mask (C-PU/Si/HDTMS) demonstrated good water repellency resulting in high water contact angle (132°) and low sliding angle (17°).
32835043 We also assessed the breathability (air permeability), texture, fiber composition, and water absorption properties of the fabrics.
32835069 Here, we measured the amount of SARS-CoV-2 RNA at the inflow point of the main waste water treatment plant (WWTP) of Montpellier, France.
32835070 The months from March to June refer as water crisis months in many places of India, because in these months of summer generally, Indian people face shortage of water. […] In the summer season, groundwater level decreases due to high temperature and increased evaporation of water in most of the places. […] It has been observed that the rainfall in India in the months of March to May (as of now, on May 18, 2020) is high as compared to previous years and it might increase the groundwater level and people of India would not face a water crisis during this summer.
32835071 However, some startling information is gathered in terms of reduced premature mortality cases associated with air and water quality improvement, enhanced e-learning on a broader platform, work from home, and successful e-health. […] Similarly, industrial pollution has been recognized as one of the primary causes of water resource pollution and would, therefore, bring change in policy vis-à-vis groundwater pollution control.
32836117 Our analysis also suggests the likelihood of infection due to contact with sewage-contaminated water (e.g. swimming, surfing, angling) or food (e.g. salads, shellfish) is extremely low or negligible based on very low predicted abundances and limited environmental survival of SARS-CoV-2.
32837280 Other sources of contamination are faeces, blood, food, water, semen etc.
32837312 In this article, I discuss the impacts of COVID-19 on the water sector. […] I point out that our efforts to control the spread of COVID-19 will increase the water demand and worsen the water quality, leading to additional challenges in water planning and management. […] In view of the impacts of COVID-19 and other global-scale phenomena influencing water resources (e.g., global climate change), I highlight the urgent need for interdisciplinary collaborations among researchers studying water and new strategies to address water issues.
32837497 Its efficiency relies on the photocatalytic generation of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon UV illumination, and on a particularly high dielectric constant of TiO2, which is of paramount importance for enhanced wettability by the water droplets carrying the germs.
32837634 Home gardening can play an important role in advancing food and nutritional security during and after the COVD-19 pandemic, while also strengthening the provisioning of numerous ecosystem services (i.e., plant biodiversity, microclimate, water runoff, water quality, human health).
32837636 Small island states have features in common which make it difficult for them to assure food security through self-production, notably limited land, fresh water and labour.
32837639 Water scarcity at home increasingly compromises agricultural production.
32837683 Dental treatment necessitates close-proximity, face-to-face practices and can generate droplets or aerosols containing water, saliva, blood, microorganisms, and other debris during the procedure.
32837716 By the use of plenty of water, minerals like magnesium and Zinc, micronutrients, herbs, food rich in vitamins C, D & E and better life style one can promote the health and can overcome this infection.
32837732 The refugees are living in highly challenging circumstances of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), natural disasters of the monsoon season as well as existing health and educational challenges of HIV, malnutrition and other diseases.
32837748 Used masks were soaked in hot water at a temperature greater than 56 °C for 30 min, based on a recommended method to kill COVID-19 virus by the National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China. […] The masks were then dried using an ordinary household hair dryer to recharge the masks with electrostatic charge to recover their filtration function (the so-called “hot water decontamination + charge regeneration” method).
32837773 In this paper, I assess the effectiveness and implications of social distancing, frequent handwashing, and lockdown in the context of slums in Indian cities, where overcrowding, lack of access to water and sanitation, and dependence on daily wages for sustenance and livelihood are common.
32837821 The proposed approach has been applied in different cases involving critical infrastructures in Europe (energy supply, water supply, transportation, etc., exposed to various threats), including the health system in Austria.
32837887 A four-by-one (4:1) ratio of common alcohol diluted in water meets the minimum requirements set by health agencies for the alcoholic concentration of disinfectants. […] For the post-COVID-19 period, the authors give three perspectives: (a) future investigation of human dermal toxicity of common ethanol, (b) establishment of a program for the ethanol decontamination, and (c) countries such as the US, Sweden, Thailand, and Colombia to rethink their energy policy for the adoption of biofuel E100 (ethanol and water) instead of E85 (blend of ethanol, gasoline, and water), as part of their biodefense strategy.
32838144 A CPAP set at a pressure of 8 cm of water (Goodknight®) was then introduced with better tolerance, allowing the patient to wear it almost continuously for more than 38 h.
32838226 The unprecedented number of building closures related to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is concerning because water stagnation will occur in many buildings that do not have water management plans in place. […] Stagnant water can have chemical and microbiological contaminants that pose potential health risks for occupants. […] To provide a primer of large building water system preventative and remedial strategies, peer-reviewed, government, industry, and nonprofit literature relevant to water stagnation and decontamination practices for plumbing was synthesized.
32838660 Molecular docking scores were further validated by molecular dynamics using Schrodinger, which supported the strong stability of ligands with the proteins at their active sites through water bridges, hydrophobic interactions, and H-bonding.
32839091 Eighty-seven percent of respondents reported following the recommended 20-second rule most times/every time and 96% used soap and water during handwashing.
32839746 Wastewater surveillance is an efficient system for the evaluation of the relative prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections in a community, and there is the need of using reliable concentration methods for an accurate and sensitive quantification of the virus in water.
32860861 Twelve fluids with different recipes composed of ethanol, isopropanol, SDBS, SLS, glycerin, and water of standardized hardness (WSH) were tested for their evaporation time and virucidal efficiency.
32861728 The decay of RNA from SARS-CoV-2 and a potential surrogate, murine hepatitis virus (MHV), were investigated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in untreated wastewater, autoclaved wastewater, and dechlorinated tap water stored at 4, 15, 25, and 37°C. […] The average T90 (time required for 1 log10 reduction) for RNA of SARS-CoV-2 ranged from 8.04 to 27.8 days in untreated wastewater, 5.71 to 43.2 days in autoclaved wastewater, and 9.40 to 58.6 days in tap water. […] The average T90 for RNA of MHV at 4 to 37˚C ranged from 7.44 to 56.6 in untreated wastewater, 5.58 to 43.1 days in autoclaved wastewater, and 10.9 to 43.9 days in tap water.
32863290 For patients with mild/moderate COVID-19, 752 (76%) clinicians would prescribe exercise and water to prevent VTE.
32863544 The 2019 United Nations World Water Development Report provided a dramatic status of world water, however without questioning the main drivers of an imminent water crisis, that were unbounded, unequal, economic, and population growth, within the context of reducing resources in a finite world. […] With business-as-usual, without acting on the drivers of water scarcity, regional water crises were inevitable in the next 3 decades, starting from Africa. […] Constrained by political, financial, and energy burdens, the technological improvements that have helped humanity to deal with the increased demand for water, food, and energy over the last 70 years, were likely not enough to avoid the water crisis. […] This will limit social expenditures in general, and the expenditures for the water issue in particular. […] The water crisis will consequently become worse in the next months, with consequences still difficult to predict. […] There is the opportunity of significant health, food, and water crisis, especially in Africa. […] While the concepts of washing hands and social distancing that are difficult to apply haven’t produce so far major issues with the Covid19 outbreak in Africa, borders closure, restrictions on movement, and more poverty will translate in a lack of food and water potentially much more worrying than the virus spreading.
32864794 To address this, alum is packed on the squalene/water interphase is packed, forming an alum-stabilized Pickering emulsion (PAPE). […] Intriguingly, with the dense array of alum on the oil/water interphase, PAPE not only adsorbs large quantities of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) antigens, but also harbors a higher affinity for DC uptake, which provokes the uptake and cross-presentation of the delivered antigens.
32866312 While researchers have acknowledged the potential role of environmental scientists, engineers, and industrial hygienists during this pandemic, the role of the water utility professional is often overlooked. […] While various technical guidances and reports have initially provided direction to the water sector, the rapidly growing body of research publications necessitates the constant review of these papers and data synthesis. […] This paper presents the latest findings and highlights their implications from a water and wastewater utility operation and management perspective.
32867123 We find that relatively short sampling times allow for loop rearrangement from predicted structures determined in absence of water or ions, to structures better aligned with experimental data.
32868993 It involves pouring water in one nostril and flushing out through the other nostril with the help of special equipment called “Neti pot”, to keep the nasal passage clean.
32870651 Herein, we propose the use of novel adsorbents, namely micelle clay complexes comprising the clay montmorillonite, coupled with activated carbon for effective eradication of neuropathogenic microbes such as SARS-CoV-2 and Naegleria fowleri from water supplies for ablution/nasal irrigation. […] These can be incorporated easily to water collection devices, i.e., taps and water bottles, in the domestic setting. […] Such strategies are particularly useful for communities who have lack of access to safe water supplies, rely heavily on water storage tanks, or lack adequate water sanitation facilities, especially in developing countries.
32870707 Inability to determine whether the water seals were dried out in the flats of the infected families.
32872902 Two experiments to measure the size of microscopic dielectric spherical particles immersed in purified water with spheres of a nominal diameter 5.2 ± 0.15 μm have been carried out in order to revisit Mie scattering techniques. […] The technique we offer here is found to be useful to familiarize technicians who work in the areas of applied optics, such as chemistry, electronics, water contamination, and optical instruments with Mie scattering techniques, and who may not have a formal introduction to the electromagnetic theory.
32880555 However, owing to the isolating and social distancing nature of quarantine, it often leads to extreme economic hardship and shortages in basic needs such as food, medicine, water and communication - and to the curtailment of certain universal social norms such as attending a parent’s funeral.
32895629 Further, due to the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in sewage and stool samples, its transmission through water routes cannot be neglected. […] The fate of SARS-CoV-2 in the wastewater treatment plants and its removal during various treatment stages remains unexplored and demands immediate attention; particularly, where treated effluent is utilised as reclaimed water. […] The review also addresses the UN SDG ‘Clean Water and Sanitation’ as it is aimed at providing pathogenically safe water for recycling purposes.
32896576 This pathway occurs via diffusion and gravity-induced drift of single virions and respiratory droplets consisting primarily of water, including small fraction of nonvolatile matter, and containing virions. […] These processes are accompanied by water evaporation resulting in reduction of the droplet size.
32901196 Despite of the evidence, based on fewer reports on SARS-CoV-2 occurrence and persistence in wastewater/sewage/water, the transmission of the infective virus to the community is yet to be established.
32904125 The transmission of virus through aerosols produced by high- and low-speed handpieces, ultrasonic scalers, air/water syringes, or an infected patient coughing, and even when taking intraoral radiographs has made it difficult for dental personnel to provide even the most basic services to the needful.
32904886 Dentistry uses rotary, ultrasonic, and laser-based instruments that produce water-based aerosols in the daily, routine treatment of patients. […] By altering the physical response of water to the rotary or ultrasonic forces that are used in dentistry, the generation of aerosol particles and the distance any aerosol may spread beyond the point of generation can be markedly suppressed or completely eliminated in comparison to water for both the ultrasonic scaler and dental handpiece.
32904898 Overall carbon emissions have dropped, and the COVID-19 lockdown has led to an improvement in air quality and a reduction in water pollution in many cities around the globe.
32905026 Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is a water-soluble polymer obtained by polymerization of monomer N-vinylpyrrolidone.
32910735 Swallow trials included five trials of 5- and 10-ml water.
32911141 These findings are helpful as an early health warning tool and in prioritizing upcoming risk management strategies, such as Emergency Response Plans (ERPs) for water and sanitation operators during the COVID-19 and future pandemics.
32911161 In developing countries, the need for clean water provision, sanitation and hygiene has only received limited attention. […] Three potential mechanisms may account for SARS-CoV-2 faecal-oral transmission: (1) untreated contaminated drinking water, (2) raw and poorly cooked marine and aquatic foods from contaminated sources, (3) raw wastewater-based vegetatble production systems (e.g., salads) and aquaculture, and (4) vector-mediated transmission from faecal sources to foods, particularly those from open markets and street vending. […] SARS-CoV-2 faecal-oral transmission could be particularly high in developing countries due to several risk factors, including; (1) poor drinking water, wastewater and sanitation infrastructure, (2) poor hygiene and food handling practices, (3) unhygienic and rudimentary funeral practices, including home burials close to drinking water sources, and (4) poor social security and health care systems with low capacity to cope with disease outbreaks. […] Hence, clean drinking water provision, proper sanitation, food safety and hygiene could be critical in the current fight against COVID-19.
32911779 Variables considered were illness perceptions toward COVID-19, problem-solving, avoidance-based coping, self-efficacy, as well as adherence to precautionary measures including physical distancing, limiting unnecessary travelling, and washing hands regularly with soap and water.
32913005 Water-resistant fabrics (polyesters/nylon), blends of fabrics and water-absorbing fabrics (cotton) should be in the outside layer, middle layer/layers and inside layer, respectively.
32913034 WHO has recommended personal hygiene (respiratory hygiene, using face masks, washing hands with warm water and soap, use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, avoid touching mouth, eyes & nose, cleanliness), social distancing and careful handling of purchased products as an effective preventive measure for COVID-19 disease.
32915888 Majority (80%) of stations in Accra have at least one Veronica Bucket with flowing water and soap, but the number of washing places at each station is not adequate.
32917717 A detailed strain analysis indicates that, on such a site, ebselen exerts a pronounced allosteric effect that regulates catalytic site access through surface-loop interactions, thereby inducing a reconfiguration of water hotspots.
32918060 The secondary aim was to investigate differences between open and closed dental operatories.Method Dental procedures were simulated on a dental manikin using citric acid (10%) added to the water lines with universal indicating paper (UIP) placed in strategic locations in the operatory, on the clinician and assistant.
32918236 The resultant data can be applied to drug design efforts: scoring solvent displacement for docking, rational lead modification, prioritization of ligand- and protein- based pharmacophore elements, and creation of water-based pharmacophores.
32919683 Further, the review highlights the method of fabrication, biohybrid nanomotors, toxicities along with their application in the field of active drug delivery, diabetes, precise surgery, ischemic stroke therapy, diagnosis and treatment of coronavirus, microwave hyperthermia, zika virus detection, anti-bacterial activity, water treatment and sensing and challenges lying at the forefront in the development of these tiny nanomachines.
32921540 Of the YouTube videos that met inclusion criteria, 27% discussed the use of at least 96% ethanol or 99.8% isopropyl alcohol, 4.1% incorporated 3% hydrogen peroxide, 82% used glycerol or an alternative humectant, and 4.1% specified the need for distilled or previously boiled water.
32921735 92.7%) rather through running water (92.3% vs· 79.8%), or blood/body fluids (88.0% vs.
32921866 •COVID-19 has exposed service gaps in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in informal settlments in cities.
32921917 However, there is need of additional research on coronaviruses specific disinfection data generation, regular monitoring of performance considering all factors influencing virus survival, performance evaluation in actual water treatment, need of augmenting disinfection dosages, environmental considerations to select the most appropriate disinfection technology.
32922301 TNF alpha reduces fluid absorption due to impairment of sodium and chloride transport required for building an osmotic gradient across epithelial cells, which in the airways maintains airway surface liquid helping to keep airways open and enabling bacterial clearance and aids water absorption from the alveolar spaces.
32922517 Moreover, these medications cause water and sodium retention and increase the response to circulating vasoconstrictors, which results in increased blood pressure levels.
32924345 We characterized the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in three water matrices: fresh, tap, and seawater. […] The stability of SARS-CoV-2 varied according to the water matrix: infective SARS-CoV-2 was undetectable after treatment with fresh water and seawater, but remained detectable for 2 days in tap water, when starting with an initial concentration of 10⁴ PFU/mL. […] In addition, viral RNA persisted longer than infectious virus in all water matrices. […] This study was conducted in stagnant water containing a significantly high titer of virus, thus, human-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through the actual aquatic environment is expected to be rare.
32928313 These will be given simple distilled water gargles and nasal lavage for 20-30 seconds, thrice daily for six days.
32932918 Seven types of masks were selected in this study and subjected to air and water vapor permeability testing, thermal conductivity testing and a wear trial. […] Additionally, masks that contain sufficient highly thermally conductive materials and have good water vapor permeability are often more comfortable to wear as they can transfer heat and moisture from the body quickly, and thus do not easily dampen and deteriorate.
32934662 Refugees and internally displaced persons in humanitarian settings are particularly susceptible to the spread of infectious illnesses such as COVID-19 due to overcrowding and inadequate access to clean water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities.
32938338 Guests attended multiple events and participated in high-risk transmission behaviours such as shaking hands, kissing, dancing, sharing drinks and sharing shisha (water pipes).
32939273 A conserved water molecule is also identified that may participate in hydrolysis.
32940656 Ethanol, 70%, was tested in parallel as a positive control and water only as a negative control. […] Surviving virus from each sample was quantified by standard end point dilution assay, and the log reduction value of each compound was compared with the negative (water) control.
32941447 Only 36,373 respondents (29.4%) disagreed that gargling with salt water is effective in protecting against COVID-19.
32942791 The literature was searched for articles in English with key words COVID-19, immunity, steroid for pain management injections with steroid, local anesthetics, dextrose water, normal saline, pain and genetic medicine, pain, and regenerative medicine. […] Many other medications have been used for interventional pain procedures to relieve pain, such as dextrose water, normal saline solution, local anesthetics, and many adjuvants.
32945160 The use of sewage water for irrigation is common in many developing countries, and it is only partially treated in the majority of countries with less than 10% of collected wastewater receiving any form of treatment globally.
32946526 Under laboratory conditions, we examined the hydrophobicity of fabrics (cotton, polyester, silk), as measured by their resistance to the penetration of small and aerosolized water droplets, an important transmission avenue for the virus causing COVID-19.
32947555 The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water (8:92) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min.
32948576 A majority (70%) of women did not know you can survive COVID-19, compared with 61% of men. 60% of men and 54% of women had already taken action to avoid infection with the coronavirus, mostly washing hands with soap and water (87%).
32949761 Respondents reported concerns over accessing running water, soap and disinfectant products (43%, 42%, and 59% respectively), and security concerns for themselves or their staff (52%).
32949774 We sought to resolve the question whether viable SARS-CoV-2 can occur in aerosols using VIVAS air samplers that operate on a gentle water vapor condensation principle.
32959018 The deteriorating water quality (WQ) of the sacred north-flowing perennial Indian River, Ganga was a serious concern in recent decades for population adjoining to the river and policy planners. […] This information can assist the environmentalist, policymaker, and water resources planners & managers to prepare strategic planning in advance to maintain the aesthetic and cultural value of Ganga river in future.
32963540 Water from this river has traditionally been considered a therapeutic agent for several diseases.
32964165 This study indicates that, the pandemic situation significantly improves air quality in different cities across the world, reduces GHGs emission, lessens water pollution and noise, and reduces the pressure on the tourist destinations, which may assist with the restoration of the ecological system.
32965017 The weather allied conditions have an impact on air, water, soil, food, ecosystem, feelings, behaviors, and pattern of health and disease.
32966232 Unani scholars like Hippocrates (370-460 BC), Galen (130-200 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), and Avicenna (980-1037 AD) had described four etiological factors for Amraz-e-Waba viz., change in quality of air, water, Earth, and celestial bodies, accordingly mentioned various preventive measures to be adopted during epidemics such as restriction of movement, isolation or “quarantena”, and fumigation with loban (Styrax benzoin W.
32970710 The response of skin to friction is a complex interplay between the lubricating properties and durability of the film deposited on the surface and the response of skin to the lubricating substance, which include epidermal absorption, occlusion, and water retention.
32972485 A positive significantly correlation was observed between the increase consumption of yoghurt, cheese and water and FCV-19S scores.
32973098 Calculations with these equations provide a straightforward way of determining whether emitted droplets remain airborne or rapidly fall to the ground, after accounting for the decrease in droplet size from water evaporation. […] At a relative humidity of 50%, for example, droplets with initial radii larger than about 50 μm rapidly fall to the ground, while smaller, potentially virus-containing droplets shrink in size from water evaporation and remain airborne for many minutes.
32976823 In Apulia (southern Italy), all non-urgent hospital activities were suspended, and some wards were closed, with a consequent reduction in the use of the water network and the formation of stagnant water. […] The purpose of this study was to monitor the microbiological quality of the water network (coliforms, E. coli, Enterococci, P. aeruginosa, and Legionella) in three wards (A, B and C) of a large COVID-19 regional hospital, closed for three months due to the COVID-19 emergency. […] Our study revealed that all three wards’ water network showed higher contamination by Legionella pneumophila sg 1 and sg 6 at T1 (after lockdown) compared to the period before the lockdown (T0). […] In addition, a statistically significant difference was detected in ward B between the number of positive water samples at T0 vs T1 for L. pneumophila sg 1 and sg 6 (24% vs 80% p-value < 0.001) and for coliforms (0% vs 64% p-value < 0.001). […] Our results highlight the need to implement a water safety plan that includes staff training and a more rigorous environmental microbiological surveillance in all hospitals before occupying a closed ward for a longer than one week, according to national and international guidelines.
32977575 The minimum size of the particles can decrease due to the evaporation of water on the particle surfaces.
32980018 However, existing inequalities in access to certain basic necessities of life (water, sanitation facility, and food storage) create layered vulnerabilities to COVID-19 and can render the preventive measures ineffective or simply counterproductive. […] We conclude that SSA governments would need to infuse innovative gender- and age-sensitive support services (such as water supply, portable sanitation) to augment the preventive measures prescribed by the WHO.
32982072 Many U.S. states and cities have imposed water disconnection moratoriums during the COVID-19 pandemic. […] States, which have economic regulation of private water utilities, were more likely to impose moratoriums, and those with higher COVID-19 case rates imposed moratoriums earlier. […] States with unified Republican Control and cities with more 2016 Trump voters were less likely to impose moratoriums on water disconnection.
32982895 Promoting hygienic behaviors in the household (frequent hand washing) while at the same time being conscious not to keep the water flowing when not required would contribute to a range of benefits (health, financial, biospheric, altruistic) and promote wellbeing.
32987722 Our USD 300 set up achieved rapid RT-PCR using thin-walled PCR tubes and a water bath setup using sous vide immersion heaters, a Raspberry Pi computer, and a single servo motor that can process up to 96 samples at a time. […] Using COVID-19 positive clinical specimens, we demonstrated that RT-PCR assays can be performed in as little as 12 min using untreated samples, heat-inactivated samples, or extracted RNA templates with our low-cost water bath setup.
32990602 Human security is dependent on sustainable livelihoods of which food and water systems are a vital part.
32996453 The highly infectious nature of the SARS-CoV-2 virus requires rigorous infection prevention and control (IPC) to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 within healthcare facilities, but in low-resource settings, the lack of water access creates a perfect storm for low-handwashing adherence, ineffective surface decontamination, and other environmental cleaning functions that are critical for IPC compliance. […] Data from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme show that one in four healthcare facilities globally lacks a functional water source on premises (i.e., basic water service); in sub-Saharan Africa, half of all healthcare facilities have no basic water services. […] But even these data do not tell the whole story, other water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) assessments in low-resource healthcare facilities have shown the detrimental effects of seasonal or temporary water shortages, nonfunctional water infrastructure, and fluctuating water quality.
32998618 Also, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was performed on the compound which has the highest binding affinity inside 6LU7 obtained from molecular docking analysis to study it is stability inside receptor in explicit water solvent. […] Finally, MD simulation confirmed that the complex formed between caulerpin and 3CLpro is stable in water explicit and had no major effect on the flexibility of the protein throughout the simulations and provided a suitable basis for our study.
33006576 At the heart of 3CL Mpro is an unusual catalytic dyad formed by the side chains of His41 and Cys145 and a coordinated water molecule.
33010498 The suspension of recycling programs has hindered natural resources from being saved, with emphasis on 24,076 MWh of electric power and 185,929 m3 of potable water - respectively enough to supply 152,475 households and 40,010 people, over a month.
33011025 Most of the pediatricians had at their disposal surgical masks (96%), care gloves (80.2%), hydroalcoholic gel (99.0%), and soap and water (86.1%).
33011225 The presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in water and wastewater has recently been reported. […] According to the updated literature, the stools and masks of the patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were considered as the primary route of coronavirus transmission into water and wastewater. […] Most of coronavirus types which attract human (possible for SARS-CoV-2) are often inactivated rapidly in water (i.e., the survival of human coronavirus 229E in water being seven days at 23 °C). […] However, the survival period of coronavirus in water and wastewater strongly depends on temperature, kinds of wastewater, concentration of suspended solids and organic matter, solution pH, and the dose of disinfectant used. […] The World Health Organization has claimed that the current disinfection process of drinking water could effectively inactivate most of the bacterial and viral communities present in water, especially SARS-CoV-2 (more sensitive to disinfectant like free chlorine). […] Although the existence of SARS-CoV-2 in the water influent has been confirmed, an important question is whether it can survive or infect after the disinfection process of drinking water. […] To date, there is one study confirming that the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in water for people was null based on the absence of cytopathic effect (CPE) in infectivity tests. […] Therefore, further studies should focus on the survival of SARS-CoV-2 in water and wastewater under different operational conditions (i.e., temperature and water matrix) and whether the transmission from COVID-19-contaminated water to human is an emerging concern. […] Although paper-based devices have been suggested for detecting traces of SARS-CoV-2 in water, the protocols and appropriate devices should be developed soon.
33012269 Conventional wisdom suggests that the continent will bear a higher burden of COVID-19 for the same reasons it suffers from other infectious diseases: ecology, socio-economic conditions, lack of water and sanitation infrastructure, and weak health systems.
33014385 All parts of the sampling equipment were completely disinfected by hot water, ethanol (70%), chlorine solution (1000 ppm), hot water (70 °C for 1 min) and washed with distilled water.
33017909 Aquaporins (AQPs) are molecular water channels, facilitating water transport across the cell membrane in response to osmotic gradients.
33020695 SPM reduced up to 15.9%, showing improvement in surface water quality.
33020707 The binding affinity and the number of hot-spot residues, atomic contacts, and H-bond formations of SFG/nsp16 complex were distinctly higher than those of SAH/nsp16 system, consistent with the lower water accessibility at the enzyme active site.
33020721 The checklist included three sections: demographic characteristics (8 questions), disinfection of body and non-living surfaces (21 questions), and adverse effects of disinfectants on health (15 questions). 87% of participants used the incorrect proportions of water and alcohol to make this disinfectant available at home.
33024381 A thermocol box was taken from the central drug store and was fitted with two UV tubes of 254 nm wavelength procured from local service center of water purifiers.
33029275 In recent years, on-site H2 gas generators, which produce high-purity H2 by water electrolysis, have begun to be introduced in hospitals, clinics, beauty salons, and fitness clubs because of their ease of use.
33031366 Statewide mitigation measures included limitation of public events; closures of bars, gyms, movie theaters, and water parks; reduced restaurant dine-in capacity; and voluntary resident action to stay at home and wear masks (when and where not mandated).
33033132 Sequencing wastewater may be useful for detecting pathogens and assaying microbial water quality.
33035211 All positive specimens were collected within 3 days after diagnosis, and 10 (10/42, 23.8%) were found in toilet (5 on toilet bowl, 4 on sink/faucet/shower, 1 on floor drain), 4 (4/21, 19.0%) in anteroom (2 on water dispenser/cup/bottle, 1 on chair/table, 1 on TV remote), 1 (1/8, 12.5%) in kitchen (1 on dining-table), 1 (1/18, 5.6%) in bedroom (1 on bed/sheet pillow/bedside table), 1 (1/5, 20.0%) in car (1 on steering wheel/seat/handlebar) and 3 (3/20, 21.4%) on door knobs.
33035219 Majority (96.7%) of the participants agreed ‘COVID-19 is a dangerous disease’, almost all (98.7%) participants wore a face mask in crowded places, 98.8% agreed to report a suspected case to health authorities, and 93.8% implemented washing hands with soap and water.
33039225 Introducing a new, simple and inexpensive portable equipment for lifeguards, consisting of a pre-assembled full-size plastic blanket with a mask and HEPA filter, which could offer significant time-saving advantages to reduce COVID-19 risk transmission in the first few minutes of CPR after water rescue, avoiding the negative impact of delayed ventilation.
33039415 RAS was initially related to regulation of blood pressure and sodium and water homeostasis.
33039922 The situation is likely to be more aggravated in developing and least developed countries struggling with the problem of ineffective waste disposal system, open defecation, poor sanitation, and limited access to clean drinking water.
33045227 Water is an essential resource required for various human activities such as drinking, cooking, and other recreational activities. […] While developed nations have made significant improvement in providing adequate quality water and sanitation devoid of virus contaminations to a significant percentage of the residences, many of the developing countries are still lacking in these regards, leading to many death cases among the vulnerable due to ingestion of virus-contaminated water and other waterborne pathogens. […] However, the recent global pandemic of COVID-19 seems to have changed the paradigm by reawakening the importance of water quality and sanitation, and focusing more attention on the pervasive effect of the use of virus-contaminated water as it can be a potential driver for the spread of the virus and other waterborne diseases, especially in developing nations that are characterized by low socioeconomic development. […] Therefore, this review assessed the socioeconomic inequalities related to the usage of virus-contaminated water and other waterborne pathogens in developing countries. […] The socioeconomic factors attributed to the various waterborne diseases due to the use of virus-contaminated water in many developing countries are poverty, the standard of living, access to health care facilities, age, gender, and level of education. […] Some mitigation strategies to address the viral contamination of water sources are therefore proposed, while future scope and recommendations on tackling the essential issues related to socioeconomic inequality in developing nations are highlighted.
33046408 This report provides a perspective on the relevance of saline water gargling and nasal irrigation to the COVID-19 crisis. […] Saline water gargling and nasal irrigation represent simple, economical, practically feasible, and globally implementable strategies with therapeutic and prophylactic value.
33047816 Compared with distilled water, coolant containing chlorhexidine (CHX), cinnamon extract coolant or povidone iodine may reduce CFU: CHX (MD -124.00, 95% CI -135.78 to -112.22; 20 participants), povidone iodine (MD -656.45, 95% CI -672.74 to -640.16; 40 participants), cinnamon (MD -644.55, 95% CI -668.70 to -620.40; 40 participants).
33049758 This study evaluated the water quality and hygiene factors among 43 smokers of five villages in rural Luang Namtha Province. […] Water samples were collected from participant’s TWPs and assessed for the presence of Escherichia coli, coliforms and aerobic plate count (APC) bacteria using the 3M Petrifilm. […] Most TWPs were infrequently cleaned, heavily used and contained a warm, brown-coloured water. […] The warm, dark and moist internal water container may facilitate microbial survival and growth.