DrugBank ID: db09145
DrugCentral: water
Synonymous :agua | dihydrogen oxide | purified water | sterile water | water purified

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of water gene in 91 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32096367 The “Four-Anti and Two-Balance”strategy included antivirus, anti-shock, anti-hyoxemia, anti-secondary infection, and maintaining of water, electrolyte and acid base balance and microecological balance.
32196032 Droplet microfluidic systems have the capability to overcome such limitations by conducting complex multi-step assays with high reliability, resolution, and throughput in a pico-liter volume water-in-oil emulsion droplet format.
32211765 No therapies are available, and the only way to contain the virus spread is to regularly and thoroughly clean oneself hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water, to maintain at least 1 metre (3 feet) distance from anyone who is coughing or sneezing, to avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth, and to stay home if one feels unwell.
32224550 The threat of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) to health systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) can be compared metaphorically to a lake in Africa infested with a bask of crocodiles and the saying: “the eye of the crocodile.” In the lake, only the eyes of the crocodile appear on the surface while the rest of the body is submerged in water.
32230995 To efficiently solve this problem, we propose a hybrid algorithm based on the water wave optimization (WWO) metaheuristic and neighborhood search.
32232986 The results showed that instant hand wiping using a wet towel soaked in water containing 1.00% soap powder, 0.05% active chlorine, or 0.25% active chlorine from sodium hypochlorite removed 98.36%, 96.62%, and 99.98% of the virus from hands, respectively.
32273245 Optimal CL care behaviours should be the same as those under normal circumstances, which include appropriate hand washing (thoroughly with soap and water) and drying (with paper towels) before both CL application and removal. […] Daily CL cleaning and correct case care for reusable CL should be followed according to appropriate guidelines, and CL exposure to water must be avoided.
32279686 Furthermore, they are exacerbated by an increasing number of vulnerable populations suffering from chronic deficiencies in food, water, and energy.
32293717 PPE made of more breathable material may lead to a similar number of spots on the trunk (MD 1.60, 95% CI -0.15 to 3.35) compared to more water-repellent material but may have greater user satisfaction (MD -0.46, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.08, scale of 1 to 5).
32293875 Ritonavir showed somewhat higher atomic contacts, binding efficiency and key binding residues than that of lopinavir in correspondence with slightly less water accessibility at the 3CLpro active site.
32304561 This includes appropriate use of a filtering face-piece respirator (N95, N99, FFP2/3, or PAPR), double gloves, facial protection (full visor and/or face shield), full body water-resistant disposable gown, shoe covers and a hairnet.
32311380 If combined with the provision of clean water and sanitation, targeted hygiene can reduce the circulation of resistant bacteria in homes and communities, regardless of a country’s Human Development Index (overall social and economic development).
32315907 In view of the current situation regarding the Covid-19 disease, a discussion is proposed on the need for research focusing on the presence and evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in water, soils and other environmental compartments, reached through wastewater and sewage sludge spreading.
32320083 In this study, we demonstrated, using avian coronavirus of infectious bronchitis virus to mimic SARS-CoV-2, that medical masks and N95 masks remained their blocking efficacy after being steamed on boiling water even for 2 hours.
32322159 This approach was applied to develop four new nanofiber filters tailored for capturing 100nm airborne COVID-19 to achieve over 90% efficiency with pressure drop below 30Pa (3.1mm water). […] One filter developed meeting the 90% efficiency has ultralow pressure drop of only 18Pa (1.9mm water) while another filter meeting the 30Pa limit has high efficiency reaching 94%.
32325742 The antiviral activity of 12 water and water-alcohol plant extracts of the leaves and stem bark of three different species of mulberry-Morus alba var. alba, Morus alba var. rosa, and Morus rubra-were evaluated. […] Leaves’ water-alcohol extracts exhibited maximum antiviral activity on human coronavirus, while stem bark and leaves’ water and water-alcohol extracts were the most effective on picornaviruses.
32327306 Vaccines were touted as one of the most successful health invention ever introduced; on a similar level to health improvements due to clean water.
32333243 The informal settlements of the Global South are the least prepared for the pandemic of COVID-19 since basic needs such as water, toilets, sewers, drainage, waste collection, and secure and adequate housing are already in short supply or non-existent. […] Immediate measures to protect residents of urban informal settlements, the homeless, those living in precarious settlements, and the entire population from COVID-19 include the following: (1) institute informal settlements/slum emergency planning committees in every urban informal settlement; (2) apply an immediate moratorium on evictions; (3) provide an immediate guarantee of payments to the poor; (4) immediately train and deploy community health workers; (5) immediately meet Sphere Humanitarian standards for water, sanitation, and hygiene; (6) provide immediate food assistance; (7) develop and implement a solid waste collection strategy; and (8) implement immediately a plan for mobility and health care.
32334159 On the other hand, there are also negative secondary aspects such as the reduction in recycling and the increase in waste, further endangering the contamination of physical spaces (water and land), in addition to air.
32335408 However, the lock down of the COVID-19 pandemic caused the air quality in many cities across the globe to improve and drop in water pollutions in some parts of the world.
32336079 Regardless of which mask is used, performing hand hygiene frequently with an alcohol-based hand rub or with soap and water if hands are dirty; is the most effective preventive measure for COVID-19.
32337862 The article also outlines the differences between hand decontamination using alcohol-based hand gels and soap and water, and the complex factors that can interfere with effective hand hygiene compliance.
32345515 We described the management procedures for tracheostomy in a patient with COVID-19, including the anesthesia preparation, surgical procedures, required medical supplies (a N95 mask or powered air purifying respirator, goggles, face shield, cap, double gloves, and a water-resistant disposable gown), and appropriate consultation with an infection prevention team.
32348025 If the procedure is vital to the survival of the patient, FFP3 and/or PAPRs devices, goggles, full-face visor, double gloves, water-resistant gowns and protective caps, are mandatory.
32353720 Then we discuss the current framework of disease transmission through water and excreta and how the transmission of a respiratory disease fits into it.
32361598 This scoping review was conducted to summarize research data on CoV in water environments. […] In detail, the review captured relevant studies investigating three main areas: 1) CoV persistence/survival in waters; 2) CoV occurrence in water environments; 3) methods for recovery of CoV from waters. […] The data available suggest that: i) CoV seems to have a low stability in the environment and is very sensitive to oxidants, like chlorine; ii) CoV appears to be inactivated significantly faster in water than non-enveloped human enteric viruses with known waterborne transmission; iii) temperature is an important factor influencing viral survival (the titer of infectious virus declines more rapidly at 23°C-25 °C than at 4 °C); iv) there is no current evidence that human coronaviruses are present in surface or ground waters or are transmitted through contaminated drinking-water; v) further research is needed to adapt to enveloped viruses the methods commonly used for sampling and concentration of enteric, non enveloped viruses from water environments. […] The evidence-based knowledge reported in this paper is useful to support risk analysis processes within the drinking and wastewater chain (i.e., water and sanitation safety planning) to protect human health from exposure to coronavirus through water.
32361744 Chromatographic separation was obtained through an Acquity HSS T3 1.8 μm, 2.1 × 50 mm column, with a gradient of water and acetonitrile with 0.05% formic acid.
32364936 Applications of electrochemical biosensors for the detection of pathogens in food and water safety, medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and bio-threat applications are highlighted.
32371231 Computer simulations for past, present and emerging epidemic hotspots (e.g., Wuhan, Milan, Madrid, New York City, Teheran, Seattle, Detroit and New Orleans) identified temperature, average in-sewer travel time and per-capita water use as key variables.
32372877 A goal in our study is to develop air filters (e.g. respirator, facemask, ventilator, medical breathing filter/system) with 90% capture on 100-nm airborne COVID-19 with pressure drop of less than 30 Pa (3.1 mm water). […] The pressure drop for the 6-layer nanofiber filter was only 26 Pa (2.65 mm water column) which was below our limit of 30 Pa (3.1 mm water). […] The 6-layer charged nanofiber filter was qualified as a ‘N98 respirator’ (98% capture efficiency for 300-nm NaCl aerosols) but with pressure drop of only 2.65-mm water which was 1/10 below conventional N95 with 25-mm (exhaling) to 35-mm (inhaling) water column!
32373409 Frequent hand washing implies a prolonged exposure to water and other chemical or physical agents and may induce several pathophysiologic changes, such as epidermal barrier disruption, impairment of keratinocytes, the subsequent release of proinflammatory cytokines, activation of the skin immune system, and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
32380474 Since plasma sodium monitoring is not always possible in times of COVID-19, we recommend to delay the desmopressin dose once a week until aquaresis occurs allowing excess retained water to be excreted. […] • In contrast, hypernatraemia may develop in COVID-19 patients in ICU most probably due to insensible water losses from pyrexia, increased respiration rate and use of diuretics.
32388136 Many environmental indices such as lowering NO2 and CO2 emissions and reduction in particulate matters in air as a result of less human activities have led to clean air and pollution free water in many countries.
32388159 Here, with the help of remote sensing images, this work quantitatively demonstrated the improvement in surface water quality in terms of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Vembanad Lake, the longest freshwater lake in India.
32389845 The consequent overcrowding - with insufficient water, sanitation and healthcare (including laboratory capacity) - could lead to conditions that are ideal for spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Syria.
32389891 The main route of transmission of the human coronaviruses (HCoVs), and presumably also of the new pandemic SARS-CoV-2, is via droplets and close contacts, however their fecal elimination also suggests the possible spread via water. […] A scientific literature search was thus carried out to highlight the current state of the art and knowledge gaps regarding coronavirus in water. […] Since 1978 only 22 studies have met the inclusion criteria, and considered heterogeneous purposes, detection methods and types of water. […] In vitro experiments have addressed the recovery efficiency of analytical methods, survival in different types of water and the removal efficiency of water treatments. […] The scarcity of information on HCoV in the environment suggests that research is needed to understand the fate of these viruses in the water cycle.
32391184 Taken together, such studies allowed us to identify a residue pair (Glu-His) and a conserved His as critical for binding; a conserved GSCGS motif as important for the start of catalysis, a partial negative charge cluster (PNCC) formed by Arg-Tyr-Asp as essential for catalysis, and a conserved water molecule mediating the remote interaction between PNCC and catalytic dyad.
32391241 Surface water improvements associated with the COVID-19 economic slowdown illustrate environmental resiliency and societal control over urban water quality.
32391658 The “Four-Anti and Two-Balance” strategy included antivirus, anti-shock, anti-hyoxemia, anti-secondary infection, and maintaining of water, electrolyte and acid base balance and microecological balance.
32399095 The highest log octanol/water partition coefficient, high number of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, lowest non-bonded interaction energy between the receptor and the ligand, and high binding affinity were considered for the best ligand for the envelope (mycophenolic acid: log P = 3.00; DG = -10.2567 kcal/mol; pKi = 7.713 µM) and nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (1-[(2,4-dichlorophenyl)methyl]pyrazole-3,5-dicarboxylic acid: log P = 2.901; DG = -12.2112 kcal/mol; pKi = 7.885 µM) of SARS-CoV-2.
32403261 The success of the hand sanitization solely depends on the use of effective hand disinfecting agents formulated in various types and forms such as antimicrobial soaps, water-based or alcohol-based hand sanitizer, with the latter being widely used in hospital settings.
32406115 And, although not all of the microbially relevant infrastructure will be within reach of schools, there is usually access to a market, local food store, wastewater treatment plant, farm, surface water body, etc., all of which can provide opportunities to explore microbiology in action.
32406402 Although COVID-19 has impacted water and wastewater utilities in new and profound ways, they must still provide their vital services despite the disruptions. […] In the United States, professional associations have long advocated in this area and have already developed considerable policy guidance and resources to help water and wastewater utilities prepare for and respond to emergencies.
32406406 Soapy water, alcohol, bleach immersion, ethylene oxide, ionizing radiation, microwave, high temperature, autoclave or steam are not fully recommended.
32407826 The top five sampling sites with a positive rate in medical areas were beepers (50.00%), water machine buttons (50.00%), elevator buttons (42.86%), computer mouses (40.00%), and telephones (40.00%).
32412096 PPE made of more breathable material may lead to a similar number of spots on the trunk (MD 1.60, 95% CI -0.15 to 3.35) compared to more water-repellent material but may have greater user satisfaction (MD -0.46, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.08, scale of 1 to 5).
32414379 Even low-cost interventions such as facemasks for patients with a cough and water supplies for handwashing may be challenging, as is ‘physical distancing’ in overcrowded primary health care clinics.
32415548 Therefore, in this study, was discussed the role of environmental factors and conditions such as temperature, humidity, wind speed as well as food, water and sewage, air, insects, inanimate surfaces, and hands in COVID-19 transmission. […] According to the latest evidence, the presence of coronavirus in the sewer has been confirmed, but there is no evidence that it is transmitted through sewage or contaminated drinking water.
32416535 This proposed model is premised on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from human feces through municipal waste water treatment plants into the natural aquatic environment where potential wildlife hosts become infected.
32416536 Regarding social factors, we identified the return of indigenous people to their communities, poor access to water, language barriers, and limited access to the Internet, as factors that will not allow them to take the minimum preventive measures against the disease.
32416598 Importantly, we provide evidence that RNA extraction can be successfully bypassed when samples are stored in UTM medium or in molecular water but not when samples are stored in saline solution and in Hanks medium.
32417554 The present study has attempted to explore the impact of forced lockdown on environmental components like Particulate matter (PM) 10, Land surface temperature (LST), river water quality, noise using image and field derived data in pre and during lockdown periods. […] Adjacent river water is qualitatively improved due to stoppage of dust release to the river. […] For instance, total dissolve solid (TDS) level in river water adjacent to crushing unit is attenuated by almost two times.
32425251 The procedure resulted in average recoveries of 10 ± 3.5% and 10 ± 2.1% in influent water (n = 2) and 3.3 ± 1.6% and 6.2 ± 1.0% in effluent water (n = 2) samples for PEDV and MgV, respectively. […] Then, the method was used to monitor the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 from March 12 to April 14, 2020 in influent, secondary and tertiary effluent water samples. […] Two secondary water samples resulted positive (2 out of 18) and all tertiary water samples tested as negative (0 out 12).
32433389 Failure to account for the lack of complete indoor plumbing and access to potable water in a pandemic may be an important determinant of the increased incidence of COVID-19 cases.
32438824 In low-income countries, reduction of transmission is of paramount importance, but social distancing is challenged by high population densities and access to handwashing facilities with soap and water is limited. […] Our objective was to estimate global access to handwashing with soap and water to inform use of handwashing in the prevention of COVID-19 transmission. […] We utilized observational surveys and spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression modeling in the context of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study to estimate access to a handwashing station with available soap and water for 1,062 locations from 1990 to 2019. […] Despite overall improvements from 1990 {33.6% [95% uncertainty interval (UI): 31.5, 35.6] without access} to 2019, globally in 2019, 2.02 (95% UI: 1.91, 2.14) billion people, 26.1% (95% UI: 24.7, 27.7) of the global population, lacked access to handwashing with available soap and water.
32443022 This includes appropriate use of a filtering face-piece respirator (N95, N99, FFP2/3, or PAPR), double gloves, facial protection (full visor and/or face shield), full body water-resistant disposable gown, shoe covers and a hairnet.
32448085 The first step in this investigation was to solvate the isolated S-protein in water for molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, being observed a transition from “up” to “down” conformation of receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S-protein with angle of 54.3 and 43.0 degrees, respectively.
32461409 While both alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHR) or washing with soap and water are claimed to have been effective, hand sanitizers have gained more popularity due to the ease of use.
32466392 MITs allow for caries removal (particularly in primary teeth) without any high-speed rotating instrument cooled with nebulized air-water spray (with high risk of virus environmental diffusion), usually adopted during traditional treatments.
32473036 Four and six centers used peracetic acid during the period of shutdown and return to work, alone or matched with OPA or acidified water.
32470688 When the lockdown measures were enforced in Italy to control the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 infection on March 10th 2020, the ordinary urban water traffic around Venice, one of the major pressures in the lagoon, came to a halt. […] This provided a unique opportunity to analyse the environmental effects of restrictions to mobility on water transparency. […] We conclude that the high water transparency can be considered as a transient condition determined by a combination of natural seasonal factors and the effects of COVID-19 restrictions.
32475597 This review summarizes the potential pharmacological activities of polysaccharides isolated by hot water extraction from Lung Cleansing and Detoxifying Decoction, which is consistent with its production method, to provide the theoretical basis for ongoing research on its application.
32481719 Ion channels, transporters, and pumps coordinate the transcellular and paracellular movement of ions and water to maintain the ASL volume and mucus hydration. microRNA (miRNA) is a class of non-coding, short single-stranded RNA regulating gene expression by post-transcriptional mechanisms. miRNAs have been increasingly recognized as essential regulators of ion channels and transporters responsible for ASL homeostasis. miRNAs also influence the airway host defense.
32493409 Although access to clean water and soap is universal in high-income settings, it remains a basic need many do not have in low- and middle-income settings.We analyzed data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 16 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, using the most recent survey since 2015. […] Differences in the percentage of households with an observed handwashing place with water and soap were estimated by place of residence and wealth quintiles. […] Equiplots showed wide within-country disparities, disproportionately affecting the poorest households and rural residents, who represent the majority of the population in most of the countries.Social inequalities in access to water and soap matter for the COVID-19 response in sub-Saharan Africa. […] Interventions such as mass distribution of soap and ensuring access to clean water, along with other preventive strategies should be scaled up to reach the most vulnerable populations.
32493460 Key components of the CoVideo are the promotion of five hygiene practices: i) social distancing and avoiding group gatherings, ii) frequently washing hands with soap and water or sanitizer, iii) cleaning surfaces at home (e.g., kitchen counters), iv) not sharing eating utensils, and v) avoidance of stockpiling essential goods (such as toilet paper and face masks).
32495123 This lockdown impacted the pollution levels of environment and improved air and water quality in the short span owing to very less human activities.
32496256 The majority, i.e. 1318 (87%), followed advisories and reported washing hands with soap and water regularly, 1108 (73%) reported regularly wearing masks, 1344 (89%) reported following lockdown guidelines, and 1306 (87%) reported maintaining social distancing.
32498549 Results from an online survey (N = 511) revealed that the vast majority (>90 percent) of respondents had very often or always practiced preventive behaviors against contracting COVID-19 such as washing their hands more regularly with soap and water, staying away from crowded places, and wearing face masks out in public.
32501392 Zoonotic disease risks are ultimately interlinked with biodiversity crises and water insecurity.
32506926 A poor, overcrowded living condition, limited access to safe drinking water and health services, and a restricted communication system have substantially increased the risk of rapid spread of COVID-19 in these refugee camps.
32511851 Ethanol (70%) was tested in parallel as a positive control, and water only as a negative control. […] Surviving virus from each sample was quantified by standard end-point dilution assay and the log reduction value (LRV) of each compound compared to the negative (water) control was calculated.
32520122 Interest in use of face masks (Pr=0.0041), social distancing (Pr=0.0043) and hand hygiene with alcohol gel (Pr=0.0037) was greater than interest in respiratory etiquette (Pr=0.0010) and hand hygiene with soap and water (Pr=0.0005). the difference in interest in issues related to combating Covid-19 was substantial and can guide new strategies for disseminating health information. descrever os perfis de interesse de busca de informações na internet sobre termos relacionados à epidemia da Covid-19 no Brasil. realizou-se uma pesquisa quantitativa exploratória usando o Google Health Trends; foram analisados dados diários de interesse, definido como probabilidade de consulta (Pr), sobre 23 termos nas buscas realizadas por usuários conectados no Brasil no período de 1º de janeiro a 9 de abril de 2020. o pico de interesse (Pr=0,0651) pelo tema coronavirus ocorreu em 21 de março; o interesse pelos temas uso de máscaras (Pr=0,0041), distanciamento social (Pr=0,0043) e higienização das mãos com álcool em gel (Pr=0,0037) foi superior ao interesse pelos temas etiqueta respiratória (Pr=0,0010) e higienização das mãos com água e sabão (Pr=0,0005). a diferença de interesse pelos temas relacionados ao combate à Covid-19 foi expressiva e pode orientar novas estratégias de divulgação de informações em saúde. describir los perfiles de las consultas de búsqueda basadas en la Internet sobre términos relacionados a la epidemia del Covid-19 en Brasil.
32522671 In the context of progressive lockdown exit and hospital activities recovery, we assessed the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in rehabilitation pools and therapeutic water environments in order to provide specific recommendations to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 while ensuring essential rehabilitation cares for patients.
32524893 In many ways, efforts to contain the spread of COVID-19 in densely populated communities with limited access to food, water and sanitation may seem counter-intuitive and even impossible under conditions of precarity.
32524953 Furthermore, environmental surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and accumulated human waste, as well as efforts to mitigate the virus’ entry into unprotected household water sources, should be a priority part of the COVID-19 response in settings without safely managed sanitation for the duration of the pandemic.
32530505 Disinfectants with multiple agents and adverse pH are more likely to be best active at higher water temperatures.
32532012 Consequently, by the end of April 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to numerous environmental impacts, both positive such as enhanced air and water quality in urban areas, and negative, such as shoreline pollution due to the disposal of sanitary consumables.
32544735 Temperature, dew point, relative humidity, absolute humidity, and water vapor showed positive significant correlation with COVID-19 pandemic.
32548599 Due to high levels of stress and work intensity, insufficient sleep and a lack of access to water after entering the isolation ward, staff may suffer from oral mucosal ulcers and other oral mucosal diseases.
32549749 Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions remain to be important in the prevention of further spread of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). […] Basic hygiene interventions such as handwashing with water and soap (HWWS) when applied consistently will deactivate and remove the virus particles from the hands.
32556161 A Dentoform model was fitted into a dental mannequin and coated with Glo Germ to detect splatter during simulated dental AGPs produced with use of a high-speed handpiece, an ultrasonic scaler, and an air-water syringe, all in conjunction with high-volume suction.
32559276 Key sectors at particular risk of collapse or reduced efficiency in the wake of COVID-19 include food systems, incomes, and social protection, health care services for women and children, and services and access to clean water and sanitation.
32560459 The analysis of published data shows that bound water acts as a plasticizer of biological tissues, a decrease in bound water content results in an increase in biological tissue stiffness, and increased tissue stiffness leads to NF-kB activation and triggered actin polymerization-NF-kB activation is associated with age-related diseases. […] It can be suggested that changes in bound water content through changing tissue stiffness can affect cellular processes and the development of pathologies related to aging.
32565272 When hand washing with soap and water is unavailable, a sufficient volume of sanitizer is necessary to ensure complete hand coverage, and compliance is critical for appropriate hand hygiene.
32568806 This purpose can be achieved by applying alcohol-based hand rubs, washing hands properly with soap and water, and applying other antiseptic agents. […] Nevertheless, regular hand hygiene could also be challenging, because water, detergents, and disinfectants may predispose HCWs to hand dermatitis.
32570023 In the first half of 2020, because of the widespread of the COVID-19, researches were focused on the monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 in water, wastewater, sludge, air, and on surfaces, in order to assess the risk of contracting the viral infection from contaminated environments. […] SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding strategies in the environment, either through animate and unanimate matrices, or exploiting the organic matter in water, wastewater, and waste in general, have been discussed in the present article.
32574854 Reports from all over the world are indicating that after the outbreak of COVID-19, environmental conditions including air quality and water quality in rivers are improving and wildlife is blooming. […] But after declaration of lockdown due to COVID-19, quality of air has started to improve and all other environmental parameters such as water quality in rivers have started giving a positive sign towards restoring.
32574914 We hereby present the imprints of lockdown on water quality (both chemical and biological) parameters during the nationwide lockdown (COVID-19 epidemic) in India between 25th March to 30th May 2020. […] The present study describes the changes in chemical and biological water quality parameters based on twenty-two groundwater samples from the coastal industrial city of Tuticorin in Southern India, taken before (10 and 11th February 2020) and during the lockdown (19 and 20th April 2020) periods. […] Contents of Cr, Cu, Zn and Cd, however, remained similar and fluoride did not show any change, probably as they were sourced from rock-water interactions. […] The multivariate analyses aptly illustrated this and the principal component analyses helped to identify the sources that controlled water qualities of the lockdown compared to the pre-lockdown period.
32578477 Objective: Social distancing and hand washing with soap and water have been advocated as the main proactive measures against the spread of coronavirus. […] We sought to find out what other alternative materials and methods would be used among populations without running water and who may not afford alcohol-based sanitizers. Results: We reviewed studies that reported use of sand, soil, ash, soda ash, seawater, alkaline materials, and sunlight as possible alternatives to handwashing with soap and water. […] The consideration of use of these alternative locally available in situations of unavailability of soap and water and alcohol-based sanitizers is timely in the face of coronavirus pandemic.
32578839 Several measures are highlighted, including social distancing, optimized water management, airflow and microclimatic parameters in the pool as well in the annexed rooms, verification of sanitation procedures.
32582578 Design-A features a mask with a water channel that allows the user to remain hydrated without removing the cover.