SERINE


DrugBank ID: db00133
DrugCentral: serine
Synonymous :(s)-2-amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid | (s)-serine | alpha-amino-beta-hydroxypropionic acid | beta-hydroxyalanine | l-serine | ser | serina | serine | serinum



Drug Sentece Context


Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of serine gene in 62 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32027036 Despite the low heterogeneity of the 2019-nCoV genomes, we could identify at least two hypervariable genomic hotspots, one of which is responsible for a Serine/Leucine variation in the viral ORF8-encoded protein.
32083328 Position 723 in the COVID-2019 has a serine instead a glycine residue, while at aminoacidic position 1010 a proline instead an isoleucine.
32142651 Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming.
32271454 The protein-protein interaction network exhibited hub targets of MXSGD, such as Heat shock protein 90, RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase, Transcription factor AP-1, Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, Cellular tumor antigen p53, Vascular endothelial growth factor A, and Tumour necrosis factor.
32278065 SARS-CoV uses the the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming.
32279064 Similar to the respiratory mucosa, angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor and transmembrane serine protease 2 TMPRSS2) co-express in the gastrointestinal tract, which facilitates viral entry into the tissue.
32299776 These pulmonary findings were accompanied by significant deposits of terminal complement components C5b-9 (membrane attack complex), C4d, and mannose binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease (MASP)2, in the microvasculature, consistent with sustained, systemic activation of the alternative and lectin-based complement pathways.
32316719 Objective: Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) are the key proteins for 2019-nCoV entry into host cells.
32321878 This serine/threonine protein kinase is now recognised as a point of convergence for host inflammatory response.
32325025 (Cell) identify ACE2 as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor, and the latter show its entry mechanism depends on cellular serine protease TMPRSS2.
32331255 The interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with the human ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) receptor, and its subsequent cleavage by serine protease and fusion, are the main events in the pathophysiology. […] The serine protease inhibitors, spike protein-based vaccines, or ACE2 blockers may have therapeutic potential in the near future.
32333601 We hypothesized that the viral entry molecules angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) are expressed in the intestine.
32335456 While the binding to host cell receptor is the first step of infection, the entrance of the virus into the cell needs the cleavage of S1-S2 subunits to expose S2 for fusion to cell membrane via host proteases including cathepsins, cell surface transmembrane protease/serine (TMPRSS) proteases, furin, trypsin and factor Xa.
32336007 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), also known as cluster of differentiation 26 (CD26), is a serine exopeptidase expressed ubiquitously in several tissues, including but not limited to lung, kidney, liver, gut, and immune cells.
32343593 Finally, the small bowel is rich in furin, a serine protease which can separate the S-spike of the coronavirus into two “pinchers” (S1 and 2).
32343658 Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) plays a role in the fusion of the virus with cells; inhibitors of this enzyme are known as well.
32345328 In this study, we investigated the gene expression of angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) with prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC).
32348692 Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) mediate viral infection of host cells.
32352535 Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2, following proteolytic cleavage of its S protein by a serine protease, binds to the transmembrane angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) -a homologue of ACE-to enter type 2 pneumocytes, macrophages, perivascular pericytes, and cardiomyocytes.
32352944 S-proteins covering its surface, which bind to the cell receptor - angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) and transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) are important in shaping virus activity.
32360480 Such drugs comprise inhibitors of TMPRSS2 serine protease and inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32376402 Among them, Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), serine-threonine kinase (AKT), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and I kappa B Kinase (IKK) inhibitors emerged as candidate drugs.
32376714 Cleavage of the spike protein by transmembrane protease serine 2 and other cellular proteases initiates fusion and endocytosis.
32376987 The transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 was previously identified as the essential protease that can cleave hemagglutinin of many subtypes of influenza virus and spike protein of coronavirus.
32382146 To determine the expressions of SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) genes in human and mouse ocular cells and comparison to other tissue cells.
32404436 Expression of two mucosa-specific serine proteases, TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4, facilitated SARS-CoV-2 spike fusogenic activity and promoted virus entry into host cells.
32408547 In the current study, we used an in silico approach to screen natural compounds to find potent inhibitors of the host enzyme transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2).
32410502 TMPRSS2 encodes a transmembrane serine protease which plays a crucial role in SARS-CoV-2 cell entry.
32412125 The androgen receptor regulates transcription of the transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2), which is required for SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.
32412310 Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men and raises particular interest during the pandemic as recent reports show that the TMPRSS2 (and other serine proteases), which facilitate the entry, replication and budding of the virion from a cell, can be inhibited using androgen deprivation therapy.
32413319 SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry.
32422146 To extend our work in interleukin (IL)-13 biology to determine if airway epithelial cell expression of two key mediators critical for SARS-CoV-2 infection, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) are modulated by IL-13.
32423094 Firstly, SARS-CoV-2 has a strong interaction with the human ACE2 receptor, which plays an essential role in cell entry together with transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2); it is interesting to note that the ACE2 gene lays on the X-chromosome, thus allowing females to be potentially heterozygous and differently assorted compared to men who are definitely hemizygous.
32452644 The key steps of virus life cycle have been recently clarified, highlighting the role of host type 2 angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2) and TMPRSS2 serine protease in virus-cell binding and entry, respectively.
32455942 Processing of certain viral proteins and bacterial toxins by host serine proteases is a frequent and critical step in virulence. […] However, there remains some confusion on the relative roles of the possible serine proteases involved for priming. […] Using anthrax toxin as a model system, we show that in vivo inhibition of priming by pan-active serine protease inhibitors can be effective at suppressing toxicity. […] Hence, our studies should encourage further efforts in developing either pan-serine protease inhibitors or inhibitor cocktails to target SARS-CoV2 and potentially ward off future pandemics that could develop because of additional mutations in the S-protein priming sequence in coronaviruses.
32468052 SARS‑CoV‑2 infection of host cells is facilitated by the angiotensin‑converting enzyme 2 (ACE‑2), and by transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and other host cell proteases such as cathepsin L (CTSL).
32469279 Here, we used a homology-based structural model of transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), a cell surface receptor, required for entry of virus to the target host cell.
32470470 We provide evidence that supports the combined use of serine protease and CatL inhibitors as a possibly safer and more effective therapy than other available therapeutics to block coronavirus host cell entry and intracellular replication, without compromising the immune system.
32482249 To describe detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) in seminal fluid of patients recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to describe the expression profile of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) within the testicle.
32488318 These lesions may be associated with multisystemic manifestations that could occur due to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and transmembrane serine protease action, allowing the pulmonary infection and possibly skin manifestation.
32491949 Specifically, decreased expression of proteins, including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in the airway epithelium in children may prevent viral entry.
32492203 Genetic confirmation of the hypotheses regarding gene expression and mutation pattern of target genes, including angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), basigin (CD147/BSG) and paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme (FURIN/PCSK3), as well as correlation analysis, was done in relation to lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC) using in silico analysis.
32493627 The presence of glutamine, asparagine, leucine, phenylalanine and serine amino acids in SARS-CoV-2 enhances ACE2 binding. […] The N protein is composed of a serine-rich linker region sandwiched between N Terminal Domain (NTD) and C Terminal Domain (CTD).
32497257 In the attempt to understand how the virus spreads and how to pharmacologically abolish it, it was highlighted that SARS-CoV-2 infects human cells by means of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro ).
32508311 Early reports have confirmed that transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are critical targets of SARS-CoV-2 that facilitate viral entry into host cells.
32512290 Subsequently, the S protein is cleaved by transmembrane protease serine 2 with the help of FURIN which facilitates the entry of the virus into the cell after binding.
32524732 T, co-regulating the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine 2 in host cells, may facilitate SARS-CoV-2 internalization.
32532094 We previously found that nafamostat mesylate, an existing drug used for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), effectively blocked Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) S protein-mediated cell fusion by targeting transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), and inhibited MERS-CoV infection of human lung epithelium-derived Calu-3 cells.
32537478 It has been reported that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) are the main cell entry proteins for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and play a critical role in causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32538775 SARS-CoV-2 has to use nuclear factor-κB (NF-kB), caveloae, clathrin, lipoxin, serine protease and proteasome pathways in addition to ACE2 to enter the target cell and initiate damage.
32546188 Ongoing trials directly and indirectly target COVID-19-related endothelial dysfunctions: i.e., a virus-cell entry using recombinant angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS-2) blockade, coagulation activation, and immunomodulatory therapies, such as anti-IL-6 strategies.
32555974 Studies carried out to date on possible SARS-CoV2 drug targets highlight glycoprotein S, Mpro (main protease or protease type 3C), and a member of the transmembrane serine protease II families (TMPRSS2).
32562397 Similar to the respiratory mucosa, angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) co-express in the gastrointestinal tract, which facilitates viral entry into the tissue.
32572552 The current body of evidence indicates that SARS-CoV‑2 requires the membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the membrane-bound serine protease TMPRSS2 to enter cells.
32574109 Specifically, we review the potential clinical utility of two transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2)-targeting protease inhibitors, nafamostat mesylate and camostat mesylate, as well as two novel potent fusion inhibitors and the repurposed Ebola drug, remdesivir, which is specific to RdRp, against human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2.
32574265 These drugs include therapeutics with potential to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells such as serine protease inhibitors of the cellular protease TMPS2 and drugs targeting the renin-angiotensin system; antivirals with potential to block SARS-CoV-2 replication or factors that could boost the antiviral response; monoclonal antibodies targeting pro-inflammatory cytokines that drive the hyperinflammatory response during COVID-19 progression toward the severe stage and therapeutics that could ameliorate the function of the lungs.
32574272 Host proteases, e.g., cathepsins, furin, or members of the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSP) family, such as Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), are involved in virus entry by proteolytically activating virus ligands.
32574273 Finally, a direct effect of GL or GA to reduce virus transmission exists, which may involve reduced expression of type 2 transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2), which is required for virus uptake.
32582302 The SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for the infection depends on two human genes: the human receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for cell invasion, and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming.
32583042 At the time of the research, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was clearly identified as the receptor and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) as the necessary protease to enable the infection of human cells with SARS-CoV‑2.
32587094 Using this quantitative matrix, we elucidated 47 potential functional missense variants from genomic databases within ACE2/SLC6A19/transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), warranting genomic enrichment analyses in SARS-CoV-2 patients.
32589459 The spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 interact with ACE2 or basigin/CD147 receptors, regulating human-to-human transmissions of COVID-19 together with serine protease TMPRSS2.