SERINE


DrugBank ID: db00133
DrugCentral: serine
Synonymous :(s)-2-amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid | (s)-serine | alpha-amino-beta-hydroxypropionic acid | beta-hydroxyalanine | l-serine | ser | serina | serine | serinum



Drug Sentece Context


Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of serine gene in 173 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32027036 Despite the low heterogeneity of the 2019-nCoV genomes, we could identify at least two hypervariable genomic hotspots, one of which is responsible for a Serine/Leucine variation in the viral ORF8-encoded protein.
32083328 Position 723 in the COVID-2019 has a serine instead a glycine residue, while at aminoacidic position 1010 a proline instead an isoleucine.
32142651 Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming.
32271454 The protein-protein interaction network exhibited hub targets of MXSGD, such as Heat shock protein 90, RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase, Transcription factor AP-1, Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, Cellular tumor antigen p53, Vascular endothelial growth factor A, and Tumour necrosis factor.
32278065 SARS-CoV uses the the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming.
32279064 Similar to the respiratory mucosa, angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor and transmembrane serine protease 2 TMPRSS2) co-express in the gastrointestinal tract, which facilitates viral entry into the tissue.
32299776 These pulmonary findings were accompanied by significant deposits of terminal complement components C5b-9 (membrane attack complex), C4d, and mannose binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease (MASP)2, in the microvasculature, consistent with sustained, systemic activation of the alternative and lectin-based complement pathways.
32316719 Objective: Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) are the key proteins for 2019-nCoV entry into host cells.
32321878 This serine/threonine protein kinase is now recognised as a point of convergence for host inflammatory response.
32325025 (Cell) identify ACE2 as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor, and the latter show its entry mechanism depends on cellular serine protease TMPRSS2.
32331255 The interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with the human ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) receptor, and its subsequent cleavage by serine protease and fusion, are the main events in the pathophysiology. […] The serine protease inhibitors, spike protein-based vaccines, or ACE2 blockers may have therapeutic potential in the near future.
32333601 We hypothesized that the viral entry molecules angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) are expressed in the intestine.
32335456 While the binding to host cell receptor is the first step of infection, the entrance of the virus into the cell needs the cleavage of S1-S2 subunits to expose S2 for fusion to cell membrane via host proteases including cathepsins, cell surface transmembrane protease/serine (TMPRSS) proteases, furin, trypsin and factor Xa.
32336007 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), also known as cluster of differentiation 26 (CD26), is a serine exopeptidase expressed ubiquitously in several tissues, including but not limited to lung, kidney, liver, gut, and immune cells.
32343593 Finally, the small bowel is rich in furin, a serine protease which can separate the S-spike of the coronavirus into two “pinchers” (S1 and 2).
32343658 Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) plays a role in the fusion of the virus with cells; inhibitors of this enzyme are known as well.
32345328 In this study, we investigated the gene expression of angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) with prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC).
32348692 Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) mediate viral infection of host cells.
32352535 Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2, following proteolytic cleavage of its S protein by a serine protease, binds to the transmembrane angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) -a homologue of ACE-to enter type 2 pneumocytes, macrophages, perivascular pericytes, and cardiomyocytes.
32352944 S-proteins covering its surface, which bind to the cell receptor - angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) and transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) are important in shaping virus activity.
32360480 Such drugs comprise inhibitors of TMPRSS2 serine protease and inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32376402 Among them, Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), serine-threonine kinase (AKT), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and I kappa B Kinase (IKK) inhibitors emerged as candidate drugs.
32376714 Cleavage of the spike protein by transmembrane protease serine 2 and other cellular proteases initiates fusion and endocytosis.
32376987 The transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 was previously identified as the essential protease that can cleave hemagglutinin of many subtypes of influenza virus and spike protein of coronavirus.
32382146 To determine the expressions of SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) genes in human and mouse ocular cells and comparison to other tissue cells.
32404436 Expression of two mucosa-specific serine proteases, TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4, facilitated SARS-CoV-2 spike fusogenic activity and promoted virus entry into host cells.
32408547 In the current study, we used an in silico approach to screen natural compounds to find potent inhibitors of the host enzyme transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2).
32410502 TMPRSS2 encodes a transmembrane serine protease which plays a crucial role in SARS-CoV-2 cell entry.
32412125 The androgen receptor regulates transcription of the transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2), which is required for SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.
32412310 Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men and raises particular interest during the pandemic as recent reports show that the TMPRSS2 (and other serine proteases), which facilitate the entry, replication and budding of the virion from a cell, can be inhibited using androgen deprivation therapy.
32413319 SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry.
32422146 To extend our work in interleukin (IL)-13 biology to determine if airway epithelial cell expression of two key mediators critical for SARS-CoV-2 infection, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) are modulated by IL-13.
32423094 Firstly, SARS-CoV-2 has a strong interaction with the human ACE2 receptor, which plays an essential role in cell entry together with transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2); it is interesting to note that the ACE2 gene lays on the X-chromosome, thus allowing females to be potentially heterozygous and differently assorted compared to men who are definitely hemizygous.
32452644 The key steps of virus life cycle have been recently clarified, highlighting the role of host type 2 angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2) and TMPRSS2 serine protease in virus-cell binding and entry, respectively.
32455942 Processing of certain viral proteins and bacterial toxins by host serine proteases is a frequent and critical step in virulence. […] However, there remains some confusion on the relative roles of the possible serine proteases involved for priming. […] Using anthrax toxin as a model system, we show that in vivo inhibition of priming by pan-active serine protease inhibitors can be effective at suppressing toxicity. […] Hence, our studies should encourage further efforts in developing either pan-serine protease inhibitors or inhibitor cocktails to target SARS-CoV2 and potentially ward off future pandemics that could develop because of additional mutations in the S-protein priming sequence in coronaviruses.
32468052 SARS‑CoV‑2 infection of host cells is facilitated by the angiotensin‑converting enzyme 2 (ACE‑2), and by transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and other host cell proteases such as cathepsin L (CTSL).
32469279 Here, we used a homology-based structural model of transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), a cell surface receptor, required for entry of virus to the target host cell.
32470470 We provide evidence that supports the combined use of serine protease and CatL inhibitors as a possibly safer and more effective therapy than other available therapeutics to block coronavirus host cell entry and intracellular replication, without compromising the immune system.
32482249 To describe detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) in seminal fluid of patients recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to describe the expression profile of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) within the testicle.
32488318 These lesions may be associated with multisystemic manifestations that could occur due to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and transmembrane serine protease action, allowing the pulmonary infection and possibly skin manifestation.
32491949 Specifically, decreased expression of proteins, including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in the airway epithelium in children may prevent viral entry.
32492203 Genetic confirmation of the hypotheses regarding gene expression and mutation pattern of target genes, including angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), basigin (CD147/BSG) and paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme (FURIN/PCSK3), as well as correlation analysis, was done in relation to lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC) using in silico analysis.
32493627 The presence of glutamine, asparagine, leucine, phenylalanine and serine amino acids in SARS-CoV-2 enhances ACE2 binding. […] The N protein is composed of a serine-rich linker region sandwiched between N Terminal Domain (NTD) and C Terminal Domain (CTD).
32497257 In the attempt to understand how the virus spreads and how to pharmacologically abolish it, it was highlighted that SARS-CoV-2 infects human cells by means of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro ).
32508311 Early reports have confirmed that transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are critical targets of SARS-CoV-2 that facilitate viral entry into host cells.
32512290 Subsequently, the S protein is cleaved by transmembrane protease serine 2 with the help of FURIN which facilitates the entry of the virus into the cell after binding.
32524732 T, co-regulating the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine 2 in host cells, may facilitate SARS-CoV-2 internalization.
32532094 We previously found that nafamostat mesylate, an existing drug used for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), effectively blocked Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) S protein-mediated cell fusion by targeting transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), and inhibited MERS-CoV infection of human lung epithelium-derived Calu-3 cells.
32537478 It has been reported that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) are the main cell entry proteins for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and play a critical role in causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32538775 SARS-CoV-2 has to use nuclear factor-κB (NF-kB), caveloae, clathrin, lipoxin, serine protease and proteasome pathways in addition to ACE2 to enter the target cell and initiate damage.
32546188 Ongoing trials directly and indirectly target COVID-19-related endothelial dysfunctions: i.e., a virus-cell entry using recombinant angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS-2) blockade, coagulation activation, and immunomodulatory therapies, such as anti-IL-6 strategies.
32555974 Studies carried out to date on possible SARS-CoV2 drug targets highlight glycoprotein S, Mpro (main protease or protease type 3C), and a member of the transmembrane serine protease II families (TMPRSS2).
32562397 Similar to the respiratory mucosa, angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) co-express in the gastrointestinal tract, which facilitates viral entry into the tissue.
32572552 The current body of evidence indicates that SARS-CoV‑2 requires the membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the membrane-bound serine protease TMPRSS2 to enter cells.
32574109 Specifically, we review the potential clinical utility of two transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2)-targeting protease inhibitors, nafamostat mesylate and camostat mesylate, as well as two novel potent fusion inhibitors and the repurposed Ebola drug, remdesivir, which is specific to RdRp, against human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2.
32574265 These drugs include therapeutics with potential to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells such as serine protease inhibitors of the cellular protease TMPS2 and drugs targeting the renin-angiotensin system; antivirals with potential to block SARS-CoV-2 replication or factors that could boost the antiviral response; monoclonal antibodies targeting pro-inflammatory cytokines that drive the hyperinflammatory response during COVID-19 progression toward the severe stage and therapeutics that could ameliorate the function of the lungs.
32574272 Host proteases, e.g., cathepsins, furin, or members of the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSP) family, such as Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), are involved in virus entry by proteolytically activating virus ligands.
32574273 Finally, a direct effect of GL or GA to reduce virus transmission exists, which may involve reduced expression of type 2 transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2), which is required for virus uptake.
32582302 The SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for the infection depends on two human genes: the human receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for cell invasion, and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming.
32583042 At the time of the research, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was clearly identified as the receptor and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) as the necessary protease to enable the infection of human cells with SARS-CoV‑2.
32587094 Using this quantitative matrix, we elucidated 47 potential functional missense variants from genomic databases within ACE2/SLC6A19/transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), warranting genomic enrichment analyses in SARS-CoV-2 patients.
32589459 The spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 interact with ACE2 or basigin/CD147 receptors, regulating human-to-human transmissions of COVID-19 together with serine protease TMPRSS2.
32595355 One of the important SARS-CoV-2 targets namely type 2 transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) was screened with NPC’s NIH small molecule library which includes approved drugs by FDA and compounds in clinical investigation.
32595360 The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular interactions between monoterpenoids and spike protein of 2019-nCoV together with the cellular proteases [transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), cathepsin B (CatB), and cathepsin L (CatL)].
32619328 To illustrate the incidence of criteria (lupus anticoagulant [LAC], anticardiolipin [aCL] immunoglobulin G [IgG]/IgM, antibeta2-glycoprotein I antibodies [aβ2GPI] IgG/IgM) and noncriteria (anti-phosphatidyl serine/prothrombin [aPS/PT], aCL, and aβ2GPI IgA) aPL in a consecutive cohort of critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients, their association with thrombosis, antibody profile and titers of aPL.
32620366 The aim of this brief communication is to describe the pathophysiology of this sex-discrepancy, based on the infectivity mechanism of the coronavirus including the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), the Type II transmembrane Serine Protease (TMPRSS2), and the androgen receptor.
32622411 Identification of cell types coexpressing the key angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) genes and proteins as well as other candidates potentially involved in SARS-CoV-2 cell entry.
32624257 Binding requires the help of another host protein, transmembrane protease serine S1 member 2.
32633815 Only serine (Ser) in pangolin and both threonine (Thr) and serine (Ser) O-linked glycans were seen in RaTG13, suggesting that a detailed study needed in pangolin (Manis javanica) and bat (Rhinolophus affinis) related CoV.
32638018 Inversely, the most important S protein cleavage protease TMPRSS2 (transmembrane protease serine protease-2) in the heart exhibits an extremely lower expression than that in the lung (adjusted P < 0.0001), which may restrict entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cardiac cells.
32639031 Activation of proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), in particular by the serine protease thrombin, is a critical element in platelet aggregation and coagulation.
32641482 Interestingly, overexpression of serine protease TMPRSS2 or amphotericin treatment significantly neutralized the IFN-inducible transmembrane 3 (IFITM3) restriction of human coronavirus (CoV) entry, but did not compromise the effect of LY6E on the entry of human coronaviruses.
32661206 Cellular receptor ACE2, serine protease TMPRSS2 and exopeptidase CD26 (also known as DPP4) are the three membrane bound proteins potentially implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32662421 The novel coronavirus canonically utilizes the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for cell entry.
32664949 It is cleaved by type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS)2 and disintegrin and metallopeptidase domain (ADAM)17 to assist viral entry into host cells.
32668165 Second, mRNA for ACE2 is elevated and mRNA for TMPRSS2, a serine protease, is decreased in CF airway epithelial cells. […] Second, many CF patients are treated with azithromycin, which suppresses viral infection and lung inflammation and inhibits the activity of furin, a serine protease. […] Finally, the CF lung contains high levels of serine protease inhibitors including ecotin and SERPINB1, which are predicted to reduce the ability of TMPRSS2 to facilitate SARS-CoV-2 entry into airway epithelial cells.
32672528 Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) has been established as one of the host proteins that facilitate entry of coronaviruses into host cells.
32675206 SARS-CoV, the agent responsible for the 2003 SARS outbreak, utilises angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) host molecules for viral entry.
32675285 Type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) are a group of enzymes participating in diverse biological processes.
32686577 Structural analyses have elucidated hot spots in viral binding domains, mutations, and specific proteins in the host such as the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) to be implicated in cell entry and viral infectivity.
32687449 SARS-CoV-2 relies on 2 host cell receptors for successful attachment: angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine 2.
32690544 The coronaviral entry requires the spike (S)-protein for attachment to the host cell surface, and employs human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) for entry and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) for S-protein priming.
32692176 Cathepsin C (CatC) is a cysteine dipeptidyl aminopeptidase that activates most of tissue-degrading elastase-related serine proteases.
32695123 Firstly, it is already clear that GSK-3 phosphorylation of SARs CoV1 N protein on key serine residues is needed for viral replication such that small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) of GSK-3 can inhibit viral replication.
32703421 Following receptor binding, transmembrane protease serine 2 (encoded by TMPRSS2) primes the S protein to allow cellular uptake.
32703818 In the present study, we show that S can be cleaved by the proprotein convertase furin at the S1/S2 site and the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) at the S2’ site. […] Combining various TMPRSS2 inhibitors with furin inhibitor MI-1851 produced more potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 than an equimolar amount of any single serine protease inhibitor.
32718020 Frequent targets are the viral spike protein, the host angiotensin converting enzyme 2, the host transmembrane protease serine 2, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis process.
32721806 Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor, regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) action are critical for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) cell entry and infectivity.
32726128 Testosterone on the contrary enhances the levels of the two most critical molecules, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the transmembrane protease serine-type 2 (TMPRSS2), transcriptionally and posttranslationally, thereby increasing viral load and delaying viral clearance in men as compared with women.
32726325 Development of novel approaches for regulating the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) is becoming increasingly important within the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic since these enzymes play a crucial role in cell infection.
32730844 A putative target to interfere with the virus is the host transmembrane serine protease family member II (TMPRSS2). […] Repositioning approved, investigational and experimental drugs on the serine protease domain of TMPRSS2 could thus be valuable. […] There is no experimental structure for TMPRSS2 but it is possible to develop quality structural models for the serine protease domain using comparative modeling strategies as such domains are highly structurally conserved.
32741259 SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 employ the host cellular serine protease TMPRSS2 for spike (S) protein priming for viral entry into host cells.
32748331 It has been reported that SARS-CoV-2 enters into the host cell through interaction between conserved residues of viral spike protein and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor which is highly expressed in host’s cardiac and pulmonary cells and finally transmembrane protease, serine-2 (TMPRSS2), helps in priming of the surface protein.
32755524 SARS-CoV-2, which is an enveloped, RNA virus has been shown to attach to the host cell receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 with spike (S) protein and membrane fusion is provided by transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) of the host cell.
32757420 We therefore performed data mining of two independent NCBI GEO genome-wide RNA expression files (GSE7894 and GSE994) and report that in both data sets, current smokers and never smokers have, on average, closely similar bronchial epithelial cell mRNA levels of ACE2, as well as TMPRSS2, coding for a serine protease priming SARS-Cov-2 for cell entry, and ADAM17, coding for a protease implicated in ACE2 membrane shedding.
32759995 The entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells is dependent upon angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which serves as a functional attachment receptor for the viral spike glycoprotein, and the serine protease TMPRSS2 which allows fusion of the viral and host cell membranes.
32763970 Deleting NLRP3 inflammasome components or the downstream cell death executioner gasdermin D (GSDMD) led to an initial reduction in cell death followed by a robust increase in the incidence of caspase-8- and receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (RIPK3)-mediated inflammatory cell deathafter coronavirus infection.
32764454 On the other hand, it has been reported that SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), that promotes cellular entry of this virus in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2).
32768580 This study investigates the N720D variant, positioned in the collectrin-like domain (CLD) at proximity to type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) cleavage site.
32769760 Based on these intricate mechanisms, various preventive and therapeutic strategies may be devised, such as upregulating ACE2 and/or using recombinant ACE2, and exploiting the NEP, bradykinin and serine protease pathways, in addition to anti-inflammatory and antiviral therapies.
32783758 It illustrates new analyses of the structure of ACE2 that provides better understanding of its actions particularly in lung and gut, shedding of ACE2 by ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metallopeptidase domain 17 protein), and role of TMPRSS2 (transmembrane serine proteases 2) in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 entry into host cells.
32786691 As a function of IL-6 levels, we identified significant dysregulation in serum levels of various coagulation factors, accompanied by increased levels of antifibrinolytic components, including several serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs).
32808185 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) are the main cell entry receptors of SARS-CoV-2.
32810867 Recent research has confirmed the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) as key host-specific cellular moieties responsible for the cellular entry of the virus.
32816230 To review the data regarding the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine-2 (TMPRSS2) in head and neck tissue.
32824674 High testosterone levels could upregulate transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), facilitating the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into host cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
32825469 The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and furin, which promote entry of the virus into the host cell, have been identified as determinants of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32826650 Using immunohistochemistry, the samples were tested for the expression of angiotension-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), dendritic cell-specific intracellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), DC-SIGN-related protein (DC-SIGNR), and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2).
32829149 We highlight 376 approved, investigational or experimental drugs targeting S1A serine proteases that may also inhibit TMPRSS2. […] Whilst the presence of a relatively uncommon lysine residue in the S2/S3 subsites means that some serine protease inhibitors will not inhibit TMPRSS2, this residue is likely to provide a handle for selective targeting in a focused drug discovery project. […] We discuss how experimental drugs targeting related serine proteases might be repurposed as TMPRSS2 inhibitors to treat coronaviruses.
32835132 mTOR is a serine-threonine kinase and participates in cell proliferation, cellular metabolism was found to be activated during Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral infection and replication.
32837754 In order to investigate the potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission, we explored ACE2 and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) expression patterns in peri-implantation embryos and the maternal-fetal interface using previously published single-cell transcriptome data.
32844538 A1AT inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection and two of the most important proteases in the pathophysiology of Covid-19: the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and the disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17).
32848790 Interestingly, some products may block the ACE-2 receptor or the serine protease TMPRRS2 required by SARS-CoV-2 to infect human cells.
32851855 ACE2 expression in the lungs is relatively low, but it is present in type II pneumocytes-a cell type also endowed with TMPRSS2 (transmembrane protease serine 2).
32853537 Although there is some evidence that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 can invade the human placenta, limited data exist on the gestational age-dependent expression profile of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 cell entry mediators, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine 2, at the human maternal-fetal interface. […] This is important because the expression of decidual and placental angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine 2 across gestation may affect the susceptibility of pregnancies to vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. […] This study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of specific severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 cell entry genes, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine 2, in the placenta across human pregnancy and in paired samples of decidua and placenta in pregnancies complicated by preterm birth or preeclampsia compared with those in term uncomplicated pregnancies. […] Samples were subjected to quantitative polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing or RNA sequencing for next-generation RNA sequencing for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine 2 mRNA expression quantification, respectively. […] In the first cohort, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine 2, exhibited a gestational age-dependent expression profile, that is, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine 2 mRNA was higher (P<.05 in the first-trimester placenta than second-trimester preterm birth and term placentae exhibited a negative correlation with gestational age contrast transmembrane protease serine was expressed both decidual placental samples but did not change pregnancies complicated by either or preeclampsia. even though there is some evidence of increased rates associated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection we found no increase mrna expression angiotensin-converting enzyme at maternal-fetal interface.> </.05>
32857620 This proof of concept demonstrates azithromycin downregulates pathways involving serine proteases TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS11D required for SARS-CoV-2 activation and its cell-to-cell transmission while downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, NDST-1 and their associated pathways.
32860686 We will describe several classes of drugs such as serine protease inhibitors, heparin, heparan sulfate receptor inhibitors, chelating agents, immunomodulators and many others.
32861070 And transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) could cleave the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, which facilitates the fusion of SARS-CoV-2 and cellular membranes.
32861340 Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), which interacts with ACE2, may be a better candidate for targeted therapies.
32861744 The zymogen/proenzyme plasminogen is converted to the serine protease plasmin, a key fibrinolytic factor by plasminogen activators including tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA).
32862058 Using comparative immunofluorescence, we examined the localization and relative tissue abundance of SARS-CoV2 spike glycoprotein (CoV2 SP) along with the co-localization of two SARS-CoV2 viral entry proteins angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2).
32863223 SARS-CoV-2 infects human cells by binding to the cellular surface protein angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2); in addition, the cellular transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) is needed for priming of the spike (S) protein of the virus.
32863636 The use of serine protease inhibitors such as ulinastatin has been advised by some experts.
32864545 Androgens upregulate the protease TMPRSS2 (type II transmembrane serine protease-2), which facilitates efficient virus-host cell fusion with the epithelium of the lungs, thus increasing susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and development of severe COVID-19.
32866534 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor serves as an entry point for this deadly virus while the proteases like furin, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and 3 chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) are involved in the further processing and replication of SARS-CoV-2.
32867666 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (b.) serine protease and (c.) proteolytic activation pathways or the cell membrane receptor called the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2).
32869854 Human serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are the main inhibitors of serine proteases, but some of them also have the capability to effectively inhibit cysteine proteases. […] Mpro target sites with its active site serine and other flanking residues can possibly interact with serpins.
32870433 Thrombin is a trypsin-like serine protease with multiple physiological functions.
32873700 Transmembrane serine protease 2 is encoded by the TMPRSS2 gene.
32878480 To date, no study has examined whether an increased fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) may affect the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors and co-receptors, including ACE2 and the transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS1, TMPRSS2, and TMPRSS11D.
32883010 The ocular surface and retina have the necessary proteins, Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2), CD147, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Cathepsin L (CTSL) necessary to be infected with SARS-CoV-2.
32887532 Type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) of the human respiratory tract generate high interest owing to their ability, among other roles, to cleave surface proteins of respiratory viruses. […] Areas covered: This review includes WIPO-listed patents reporting small molecules and peptide-based inhibitors of type II transmembrane serine proteases of the respiratory tract.
32887634 Platelets expressed ACE2, a host cell receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and TMPRSS2, a serine protease for Spike protein priming.
32890967 SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells is characterized by viral spike protein interaction with cellular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and serine protease TMPRSS2.
32901936 The cleavage of the S1-S2 protein, which is required for the conformational changes of the S2 subunit and processing of viral fusion, is regulated by the host proteases, including cathepsin L (during endocytosis) and type II membrane serine protease (independently).
32903321 The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which has been responsible for the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, uses the cell receptor angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for spike (S) protein priming.
32918208 Human factor Xa (FXa) is a serine protease of the common coagulation pathway.
32918944 Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) has been shown to prime the viral spike for its interaction with its receptor.
32926098 Mechanistically, NETs triggered by SARS-CoV-2 depend on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, serine protease, virus replication, and PAD-4.
32936429 A tentative hypothesis to explain these findings is the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and serine protease TMPRSS2 involved in viral infection.
32940922 Cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 depends on the binding of its spike protein to a cellular receptor named angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and the subsequent spike protein-priming by host cell proteases, including transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2).
32943233 Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2), the lectin pathway’s effector enzyme, binds the nucleocapsid protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), resulting in complement activation and lung injury.
32944935 Reports denote SARS-CoV-2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) as its primary entry point into the host cell.
32947136 Furthermore, studies have indicated that the spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 use the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor for its attachment similar to SARS-CoV-1, which is followed by priming of spike protein by Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) which can be targeted by a proven inhibitor of TMPRSS2, camostat.
32948440 Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (Gsk-3) is a conserved serine/threonine kinase that mainly participates in cell proliferation, development, stress, and inflammation in humans.
32950067 We found that MSCs from bone marrow, amniotic fluid, and adipose tissue carry angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine subtype 2 at low levels on the cell surface under steady-state and inflammatory conditions.
32954047 Interestingly, in ORF8 substitution of Leucine, a nonpolar to Serine a polar amino acid at same position (aa84 L to S) in 23 isolates of five countries i.e.
32955126 The receptor for spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin 2 converting enzyme (ACE2), and transmembrane protease serine (for viral entry) is expressed in upper gastrointestinal (GI) enterocytes, ACE2 is expressed on enteroendocrine cells (EECs), and SARS-CoV-2 infects enterocytes but not EECs (studies needed with native EECs).
32960480 The plasma serine protease inhibitor alpha-1 antitrypsin was suggested to protect from COVID-19 by inhibiting TMPRSS2, a cell surface serine protease essential for the SARS-CoV-2 cell entry.
32964796 Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine (autophagy inhibitor); AKT/protein kinase B: AKT serine/threonine kinase; ATG: autophagy related; ATPase: adenosine triphosphatase; BMM: bone marrow macrophage; CGAS: cyclic GMP-AMP synthase; CHO: Chinese hamster ovary/cell line; CoV: coronaviruses; COVID-19: Coronavirus disease 2019; DMV: double-membrane vesicle; EAV: equine arteritis virus; EDEM1: ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase like protein 1; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERAD: ER-associated degradation; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HCoV: human coronavirus; HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; HSV: herpes simplex virus; IBV: infectious bronchitis virus; IFN: interferon; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MCoV: mouse coronavirus; MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; MHV: mouse hepatitis virus; NBR1: NBR1 autophagy cargo receptor; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2 (autophagy receptor that directs cargo to phagophores); nsp: non-structural protein; OS9: OS9 endoplasmic reticulum lectin; PEDV: porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; PtdIns3K: class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PLP: papain-like protease; pMEF: primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts; SARS-CoV: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SKP2: S-phase kinase associated protein 2; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STING1: stimulator of interferon response cGAMP interactor 1; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; Vps: vacuolar protein sorting.
32969768 These cells, C2BBe1 intestinal cells with a brush border having high levels of transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), showed robust viral propagation, and could be persistently infected with SARS-CoV-2, supporting the clinical observations of persistent GI infection in COVID-19 patients.
32972339 The priming of the spike (S) protein of the virus by proteolytic cleavage by the trans-membrane serine protease-2 (TMPRSS2) is necessary for fusion of the virus to the host cell after it binds to its receptor angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2).
32985199 SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to use the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein.
32987757 There is a vast practice of using antimalarial drugs, RAS inhibitors, serine protease inhibitors, inhibitors of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the virus and immunosuppressants for the treatment of the severe form of COVID-19, which often occurs in patients with chronic diseases and older persons.
32992681 The present study aims to investigate the microRNAs that regulate the expression of hypothalamic angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), essential elements for SARS-CoV-2 cell entry.
32992731 Proposed mechanisms involve host cell membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs), such as transmembrane serine protease isoform 2 (TMPRSS2), lysosomal endopeptidase Cathepsin L (CTSL), subtilisin-like proprotein peptidase furin (FURIN), and even potentially membrane bound heparan sulfate proteoglycans.
32993622 Abnormalities in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and the androgen-driven transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) have been elicited as key modulators of SARS-CoV-2.
32994064 Artificial intelligence can have an important role in analysing such data to identify populations at higher risk of COVID-19-related urological pathologies and to suggest treatments that block viral entry into cells by interrupting the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-transmembrane serine protease 2 (ACE2-TMPRSS2) pathway.
32994673 S consists of two subunits, S1 and S2, which are cleaved by the widely expressed transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) before the virus fuses to the plasma membrane and infects the cell.
33007239 Cleavage and the syncytium are abolished by treatment with the furin inhibitors decanoyl-RVKR-chloromethylketone (CMK) and naphthofluorescein, but not by the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) inhibitor camostat.
33008593 We determined the expression levels of receptor ACE2 and CD147, and serine protease TMPRSS2 in human and mouse brain cell lines and mouse different region of brain tissues with qRT-PCR and Western blot.
33011745 Here, we determined the expression of the SARS-CoV2 receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and its associated cellular serine protease TPMRSS2 in the dental pulp under normal and inflamed conditions.
33015550 Additionally, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and furin facilitate virus entry into the host.
33029419 ACE2: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; COVID-19: coronavirus disease 2019; CRP: C-reactive protein; ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate; HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; IRB, Institutional Review Board; ISH, in situ hybridisation; RT-PCR: reverse transcriptase-PCR; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2; TMPRSS2: transmembrane protease, serine 2; WBC: white blood cell.
33029570 Entry of SARS-CoV-2, etiological agent of COVID-19, in the host cell is driven by the interaction of its spike protein with human ACE2 receptor and a serine protease, TMPRSS2.
33031797 According to bulk RNA and single cell RNA sequencing analysis, we found that high expression of both angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) makes the lung and intestine vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2.
33032170 For ACE2 mediated cell entry of the SARS-CoV-2, co-expression of one more protein-Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) is essential.
33035337 SARS-CoV-2 uses human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for viral entry and transmembrane serine protease family member II (TMPRSS2) for spike protein priming.
33042335 One of the known regulators of endocytosis is the serine protease (TMPRSS2) and AP2-associated protein kinase 1 (AAK1), which also facilitates the passage of viruses into cells.
33042994 Following the binding of the S1 receptor-binding domain (RBD) to ACE2, transmembrane protease/serine subfamily 2 (TMPRSS2) cleaves the S2 domain to facilitate membrane fusion.
33043235 FXa, a serine protease, has been shown to play a role in the cleavage of SARS-CoV-1 spike protein (SP), with the inhibition of FXa resulting in the inhibition of viral infectivity.
33043253 This work makes an assessment of wildlife susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 by analyzing the similarities of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane Protease, Serine 2 (TMPRSS2) -both recognized as receptors and protease for coronavirus spike protein- and the genetic variation of the viral protein spike in the recognition sites.
33049583 Then, the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 can be cleaved and activated by transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) of the host cells for SARS-CoV-2 infection.