DrugBank ID: db00503
DrugCentral: ritonavir
Synonymous :ritonavir | ritonavirum

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of ritonavir gene in 410 abstracts.

pmid sentence
31996494 Lopinavir /Ritonavir, Nucleoside analogues, Neuraminidase inhibitors, Remdesivir, peptide (EK1), abidol, RNA synthesis inhibitors (such as TDF, 3TC), anti-inflammatory drugs (such as hormones and other molecules), Chinese traditional medicine, such ShuFengJieDu Capsules and Lianhuaqingwen Capsule, could be the drug treatment options for 2019-nCoV.
32023685 Drugs are possibly effective for 2019-nCoV include: remdesivir, lopinavir / ritonavir, lopinavir / ritonavir combined with interferon-β, convalescent plasma, and monoclonal antibodies.
32037389 All the patients were given antiviral treatment including lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra®), arbidol, and Shufeng Jiedu Capsule (SFJDC, a traditional Chinese medicine) and other necessary support care. […] The efficacy of antiviral treatment including lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, and SFJDC warrants further verification in future study.
32056407 Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
32057209 Combination of Ribavirin and Interferon-α is recommended by the 5(th) edition National Health Commission’s Regimen (Revised Edition) because of the effect on MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), and the effectiveness of Lopinavir/Ritonavir and Remdisivir needs to be confirmed by randomized controlled trial (RCT), given the situation of no specific antivirus drug on NCP is unavailable.
32062875 Twenty patients were treated with lopinavir and ritonavir.
32096367 Early antiviral treatment could alleviate disease severity and prevent illness progression, and we found lopinavir/ritonavir combined with abidol showed antiviraleffects in COVID-19.
32125362 Clinical course was summarized, including requirement for supplemental oxygen and intensive care and use of empirical treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir. […] Five individuals requiring supplemental oxygen were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir. […] Four of the 5 patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir developed nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhea, and 3 developed abnormal liver function test results.
32138488 Management is primarily supportive, with newer antivirals (lopinavir ritonavir and Remdesivir) under investigation.
32152082 In addition, a combination of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors, lopinavir/ritonavir, and interferon beta (LPV/RTV-INFb) were shown to be effective in patients infected with SARS-CoV.
32164424 Similar to outbreaks of other newly identified virus, there is no proven regimen from conventional medicine and most reports managed the patients with lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, beta-interferon, glucocorticoid and supportive treatment with remdesivir undergoing clinical trial.
32171866 The Lopinavir and Ritonavir Tablets, Chinese medicine, oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation were statistically different in the elderly group and the young and middle-aged group, and the P values were all <0.05.
32171872 We aimed to compare arbidol and lopinavir/ritonavir(LPV/r) treatment for patients with COVID-19 with LPV/r only.
32179150 Chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, ribavirin and ritonavir have shown efficacy to inhibit coronavirus in vitro.
32187464 Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg, respectively) twice a day for 14 days, in addition to standard care, or standard care alone. […] A total of 199 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent randomization; 99 were assigned to the lopinavir-ritonavir group, and 100 to the standard-care group. […] Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir was not associated with a difference from standard care in the time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio for clinical improvement, 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.72). […] Mortality at 28 days was similar in the lopinavir-ritonavir group and the standard-care group (19.2% vs. […] In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, lopinavir-ritonavir led to a median time to clinical improvement that was shorter by 1 day than that observed with standard care (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.91). […] Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common in the lopinavir-ritonavir group, but serious adverse events were more common in the standard-care group. […] Lopinavir-ritonavir treatment was stopped early in 13 patients (13.8%) because of adverse events. […] In hospitalized adult patients with severe Covid-19, no benefit was observed with lopinavir-ritonavir treatment beyond standard care.
32202256 In view of the earlier evidence about effectiveness of repurposed lopinavir/ritonavir against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (CoV), as well as preliminary docking studies conducted by the ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization approved the restricted public health use of lopinavir/ritonavir combination amongst symptomatic COVID-19 patients detected in the country. […] Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with any one of the following criteria will be eligible to receive lopinavir/ritonavir for 14 days after obtaining written informed consent: (i) respiratory distress with respiratory rate ≥22/min or SpO2 of <94 per cent; (ii) lung parenchymal infiltrates on chest X-ray; (iii) hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or need for vasopressor/inotropic medication; (iv) new-onset organ dysfunction; and (v) high-risk groups - age >60 yr, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, chronic lung disease and immunocompromised persons.
32210741 Our results showed that several HIV inhibitors such as lopinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir produce strong interaction with the active site of SARS-CoV-2 main protease.
32219357 She was treated with dobutamine, antiviral drugs (lopinavir/ritonavir), steroids, chloroquine, and medical treatment for heart failure, with progressive clinical and instrumental stabilization.
32220650 All children received interferon alfa by aerosolisation twice a day, 14 (39%) received lopinavir-ritonavir syrup twice a day, and six (17%) needed oxygen inhalation.
32227274 Furthermore, COVID-19 mRNA clearance time was positively correlated with the length of hospital stay in patients treated with either IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir or IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir + ribavirin. […] Therapeutic regimens of IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir and IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir + ribavirin might be beneficial for treatment of COVID-19.
32228827 The drugs predicted by EpiMed’s apparent precision treatment prediction platform for disease-drug association analysis are mainly TNF-α inhibitors, resveratrol, ritonavir, paeony, retinoic acid, forsythia, and houttuynia cordata. Conclusions: The abnormal activation of multiple inflammatory pathways may be the cause of heart failure in patients after coronavirus infection. […] Resveratrol, ritonavir, retinoic acid, amaranth, forsythia, houttuynia may have therapeutic effects.
32243270 This review summarizes the current evidence of potential therapeutic agents, such as lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, interferon, ribavirin, tocilizumab and sarilumab.
32246834 In addition to the recommended antiviral drugs such as interferon-ɑ, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, and chloroquine phosphate, some clinical trials focusing on virus RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitors have been registered and initiated.
32256547 We identified 24 clinical trials, involving more than 20 medicines, such as human immunoglobulin, interferons, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, methylprednisolone, bevacizumab, and traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). […] Se identificaron 24 ensayos clínicos relacionados con más de 20 medicamentos, como inmunoglobulina humana, interferones, cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, metilprednisolona, bevacizumab y medicina tradicional china. […] Foram identificados 24 ensaios clínicos envolvendo mais de 20 medicamentos, tais como imunoglobulina humana, interferons, cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, metilprednisolona, bevacizumabe e medicamentos chineses tradicionais.
32271456 The study aimed to investigate whether lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in combination with other pneumonia-associated adjuvant drugs has a better therapeutic effect on COVID-19.
32277367 Antiviral drugs like lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir and remdesivir are also being explored.
32277555 This case states the importance of close monitoring of the concentration of ciclosporin in patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, routine treatment of corticosteroid can be continued.
32279418 Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir were started, and the antiviral drug was replaced with darunavir/cobicistat after two days for diarrhea.
32280433 The result showed that atazanavir, an antiretroviral medication used to treat and prevent the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is the best chemical compound, showing an inhibitory potency with Kd of 94.94 nM against the SARS-CoV-2 3C-like proteinase, followed by remdesivir (113.13 nM), efavirenz (199.17 nM), ritonavir (204.05 nM), and dolutegravir (336.91 nM). […] Interestingly, lopinavir, ritonavir, and darunavir are all designed to target viral proteinases. […] In addition, we also found that several antiviral agents, such as Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir), could be used for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2.
32283143 Lopinavir/ritonavir and arbidol have been previously used to treat acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication in clinical practice; nevertheless, their effectiveness remains controversial. […] In this study, we evaluated the antiviral effects and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir and arbidol in patients with the 2019-nCoV disease (COVID-19). […] Fifty patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were divided into two groups: including lopinavir/ritonavir group (34 cases) and arbidol group (16 cases). […] Lopinavir/ritonavir group received 400mg/100mg of Lopinavir/ritonavir, twice a day for a week, while the arbidol group was given 0.2g arbidol, three times a day. […] On day 14 after the admission, no viral load was detected in arbidol group, but the viral load was found in 15(44.1%) patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir. […] Patients in the arbidol group had a shorter duration of positive RNA test compared to those in the lopinavir/ritonavir group (P<0.01). […] In conclusion, our data indicate that arbidol monotherapy may be superior to lopinavir/ritonavir in treating COVID-19.
32283325 There was no statistical difference between groups in medications taken before hospitalization; a significantly higher proportion of patients with abnormal liver function (57.8%) had received lopinavir/ritonavir after admission compared to patients with normal liver function (31.3%). […] A significantly higher proportion of patients with abnormal liver function had received lopinavir/ritonavir after admission; these drugs should be given with caution.
32293834 The most frequently used agents both in Turkey and all over the world including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir and remdesivir will be reviewed here .
32293875 However, a combination of two HIV-1 protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir has been found to be effective against SARS-CoV, and both drugs could bind well to the SARS-CoV 3C-like protease (SARS-CoV 3CLpro). […] Ritonavir showed somewhat higher atomic contacts, binding efficiency and key binding residues than that of lopinavir in correspondence with slightly less water accessibility at the 3CLpro active site. […] In addition, only ritonavir could interact with the oxyanion hole residues N142 and G143 via two hydrogen bond formations.
32297571 In particular, several cases of recovered patients havebeen reported after being treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (which is widely used to treat humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection) in combination with the anti-flu drug oseltamivir.
32298767 The use of lopinavir/ritonavir was also found to lead to increased odds of liver injury (OR from 4.44 to 5.03, both p <0.01).
32299753 This document attempts to provide reasonable guidance for the use of antimicrobials which have uncertain benefit but may increase risk of QT interval prolongation and ventricular proarrhythmia, notably, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
32301155 Lopinavir/ritonavir (usually associated with hydroxychloroquine) was used in 50.0% of patients and had to be prematurely discontinued in 2 of them.
32303672 SARS-CoV-2 was detected and antiviral therapy with Lopinavir/Ritonavir, associated with hydroxychloroquine, was promptly started.
32306822 Cobicistat, ritonavir, lopinavir, and darunavir are in the top screened molecules from FDA approved drugs.
32307245 The protease inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) alone is not shown to provide better antiviral efficacy than standard care.
32309622 Potential therapeutic strategies, including remdesivir, chloroquine phosphate, abidol, lopinavir/ritonavir, plasma, antibody, vaccine and stem cells are discussed in this review.
32309809 The results depicted that adding Lopinavir-Ritonavir to the standard treatment regimen of patients with severe COVID-19 has no benefits.
32313662 Lopinavir/ritonavir was given; continuous renal replacement therapy was also introduced.
32314010 The patient was treated with antiviral agents (lopinavir/ritonavir), and treatment with cDMARDs was discontinued except hydroxychloroquine.
32317225 He was successfully treated in the intensive care unit with mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory support; and antiretroviral treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir.
32324352 Lopinavir/ritonavir is not effective.
32324898 The ADR could be explained by the use of lopinavir/ ritonavir and umifenovir by 63.8% and 18.1%, respectively.
32328850 Particularly, drugs that show superior maternal and fetal safety are worthy of consideration for pregnant women with COVID-19, such as chloroquine, metformin, statins, lobinavir/ritonavir, glycyrrhizic acid, and nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery (NMDD), etc.
32329231 All consecutive patients on DOACs were candidates for administration of antiviral agents (lopinavir, ritonavir, or darunavir).
32329520 Drug repositioning may offer a strategy and a number of drugs have been repurposed, including lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir and tocilizumab.
32329879 However, the current treatment options include hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir (Kaletra®), and nitazoxanide.
32329881 Patients were also treated with anticoagulant therapy with Enoxaparin 4000 IU/day via subcutaneous injection, antiviral therapy with Lopinavir 800 mg/day + Ritonavir 200 mg/day, hydroxychloroquine 400 mg/day, ceftriaxone 2 g/day IV, vitamine C 6 g/day for 4 days, and were on Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV).
32330817 Patients also received lopinivir/ritonavir (82%), hydroxychloroquine (79%), and tocilizumab (12%) according to this treatment algorithm.
32331982 An increase of Ct values was 0.9 per day in 2 cases of COVID-19 treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), an increase was 1.0 per day in 3 cases without LPV/r through illness day 1-10, indicating that LPV/r did not shorten the duration of SARS CoV-2 shedding.
32337790 The clinical course was complicated by extreme overexposure to the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus, following coadministration of chloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir therapy.
32337859 Following administration of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine with reduced immunosuppressant, he recovered from COVID-19.
32338347 In severe pneumonia and critically ill children, trial of hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir/ritonavir should be considered.
32339832 Without much experience, currently, the medicines that are clinically being evaluated for COVID-19 include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, lopinavir, ritonavir, tocilizumab and corticosteroids.
32342677 We experienced a case of severe thrombocytopenia with epistaxis and petechiae, while treating a COVID-19 patient with ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
32343413 Both patients were already on lopinavir/ritonavir before tocilizumab (added day 9 and day 13) was added.
32346491 Herein, we examine the effects of Favipiravir (FPV) versus Lopinavir (LPV)/ritonavir (RTV) for the treatment of COVID-19.
32348232 The patient was hospitalized and treated with Oseltamivir 75 mg every 12 hours, Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra) 400/100 mg every 12 hours and hydroxychloroquine 400 mg stat.
32350686 According to the CDC and Chinese treatment guidelines for COVID-19, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and one of the investigational agents (remdesivir) are recommended in critically ill older patients.
32352535 Cardiovascular considerations of therapies currently used, including remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, ribavirin, interferons, and lopinavir/ritonavir, as well as experimental therapies, such as human recombinant ACE2 (rhACE2), are discussed.
32352944 Interferon-alpha (5 million U twice daily by inhalation), lopinavir/ritonavir (400/100 mg twice daily orally), as well as chloroquine (500 mg twice daily orally for 10 days) and azithromycin (500 mg twice per day) cause a milder course of the disease and reduce the duration of treatment.
32354369 The patient received combination of interferonalfa-1b and ribavirin, lopinavir and ritonavir for antiviral treatment at different stages.
32357553 Currently, antiviral drugs, including chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir, have shown effective inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
32358890 A variety of repurposed drugs and investigational drugs such as remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, lopinavir, interferon-beta, and other potential drugs have been studied for COVID19 treatment.
32359771 As the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) global pandemic rages across the globe, the race to prevent and treat this deadly disease has led to the “off-label” repurposing of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, which have the potential for unwanted QT-interval prolongation and a risk of drug-induced sudden cardiac death.
32360480 Further, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and off-label antiviral drugs, such as the nucleotide analogue remdesivir, HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir, broad-spectrum antiviral drugs arbidol and favipiravir as well as antiviral phytochemicals available to date may limit spread of SARS-CoV-2 and morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 pandemic.
32360583 We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), and WANFANG DATA for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective cohort, and retrospective cohort studies that evaluated therapies (hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir-based therapy, and ribavirin-based therapy, etc.) for SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. […] The lopinavir/ritonavir-based combination showed superior virological eradication and radiographical improvement with reduced rate of ARDS. […] Lopinavir/ritonavir combinations might observe better virological eradication capability than other anti-coronavirus agents.
32362193 The patients were treated with four combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir tablets, arbidol tablets, Lianhuaqingwen granules, and recombinant human interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) injection via aerosol. […] It should be noted that lopinavir/ritonavir tablets have many drug interactions and are the most likely drugs to cause hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in these two patients.
32362245 All the studied molecules could bind to the active site of the SARS-CoV-2 protease (PDB: 6Y84), out of which rutin (a natural compound) has the highest inhibitor efficiency among the 33 molecules studied, followed by ritonavir (control drug), emetine (anti-protozoal), hesperidin (a natural compound), lopinavir (control drug) and indinavir (anti-viral drug).
32362644 In view of the earlier evidence about effectiveness of repurposed lopinavir/ritonavir against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (CoV), as well as preliminary docking studies conducted by the ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization approved the restricted public health use of lopinavir/ritonavir combination amongst symptomatic COVID-19 patients detected in the country. […] Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with any one of the following criteria will be eligible to receive lopinavir/ritonavir for 14 days after obtaining written informed consent: (i) respiratory distress with respiratory rate ≥22/min or SpO2of <94 per cent; (ii) lung parenchymal infiltrates on chest X-ray; (iii) hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or need for vasopressor/inotropic medication; (iv) new-onset organ dysfunction; and (v) high-risk groups - age >60 yr, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, chronic lung disease and immunocompromised persons.
32363219 The current study, aims to predict theoretical structure for protease of COVID-19 and to explore further whether this protein can serve as a target for protease inhibitor drugs such as remdesivir, nelfinavir, lopinavir, ritonavir and α-ketoamide.
32363963 This is a report of a case with mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) with severe eye involvement and concurrent COVID-19 treated successfully using simultaneous high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and anti-viral treatment as hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and ribavirin.
32364041 The covalent docking showed that saquinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir, delavirdine, cefuroxime axetil, oseltamivir and prevacid have the highest binding energies MMGBSA of -72.17, -72.02, -65.19, -57.65, -54.25, -51.8, and -51.14 kcal/mol, respectively. […] The 50 ns molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for saquinavir, ritonavir and remdesivir to evaluate the stability of these drugs inside the binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 main protease.
32367767 The docking scores were compared with 3CLpro-referenced inhibitors (Lopinavir and Ritonavir). […] This ligand-protein interaction study revealed that more than half of the top twenty alkaloids and terpenoids interacted favourably with the coronaviruses 3CLpro, and had binding affinities that surpassed that of lopinavir and ritonavir.
32372695 Similarly, other investigational drugs such as favipiravir and lopinavir/ritonavir can prolong QT interval and cause Torsade de Pointes.
32373997 No sufficient results have been reached by the use of interferon (IFN), lopinavir/ritonavir, orbidol, and oseltamivir in the treatment of the coronaviruses infection.
32378314 Despite reduction in immunosuppression and treatment with tocilizumab, intravenous immunoglobulin, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and broad-spectrum antibiotics, she ultimately died from multiorgan failure.
32379199 The duration of nasopharyngeal virus shedding lasted for 49 days even with the administration of lopinavir/ritonavir for 8 days.
32386448 The antimalarials, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and the antivirals Lopinavir/Ritonavir have been recently recorded as having anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) effects.1 In particular, regarding Italy, one of the countries most affected by the pandemic, the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical disease (Lombardy section) has recommended the use of HCQ for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32388331 On the contrary, direct β-cell damage, cytokine-induced insulin resistance, hypokalemia and drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19 (like corticosteroids, lopinavir/ritonavir) can contribute to worsening of glucose control in people with diabetes mellitus.
32388937 Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19 in the real world. Methods: The clinical data of 178 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 admitted to Guangzhou Eighth People’s Hospital were retrospectively analyzed from January 21 to February 9, 2020.
32389518 The most used treatments were hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir-ritonavir, and steroids. […] Mortality is high and reaches 23%; deceased patients were more frequently on ICH, developed pneumonia more frequently, and received less frequently lopinavir-ritonavir and steroids.
32390367 All patients received antibiotic therapy, and most (97/98 patients; 99.0%) received antiviral therapy (lopinavir/ritonavir).
32391234 He positively responded to a 14-day course of Lopinavir-Ritonavir, Ribavirin, Azithromycin, and Hydroxychloroquine.
32391658 Early antiviral treatment could alleviate disease severity and prevent illness progression, and we found lopinavir/ritonavir combined with abidol showed antiviral effects in COVID-19.
32391999 Recently, the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment published treatment options for antiviral treatment for COVID-19 where chloroquine was suggested as first choice for off-label treatment, beside remdesivir en lopinavir/ritonavir.
32394467 Neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir, peramivir, and zanamivir are invalid for 2019-nCoV and are not recommended for treatment but protease inhibitors such as lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) inhibit the progression of MERS-CoV disease and can be useful for patients of COVID-19 and, in combination with Arbidol, has a direct antiviral effect on early replication of SARS-CoV.
32399456 A 52-year-old patient with SARS-CoV-2 was diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia and treated with darunavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).
32400965 Faced with this novel coronavirus, scientists have been trying to use drugs that have not been validated by rigorous clinical trials, such as lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32401715 We assessed the efficacy and safety of combined interferon beta-1b, lopinavir-ritonavir, and ribavirin for treating patients with COVID-19. […] Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to a 14-day combination of lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg every 12 h, ribavirin 400 mg every 12 h, and three doses of 8 million international units of interferon beta-1b on alternate days (combination group) or to 14 days of lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg every 12 h (control group). […] One patient in the control group discontinued lopinavir-ritonavir because of biochemical hepatitis. […] Early triple antiviral therapy was safe and superior to lopinavir-ritonavir alone in alleviating symptoms and shortening the duration of viral shedding and hospital stay in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19.
32404786 All patients were treated with interferon, 6 cases combined with Ribavirin, and 12 cases combined with lopinavir or ritonavir. […] There was no significant difference of RNA turning negative between the groups of interferon, interferon plus ribavirin and interferon plus lopinavir or ritonavir treatment.
32405160 Patients admitted before March 13th (n=23) were prescribed the standard therapy (hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir and ritonavir) and were considered controls.
32405245 Patients were administered neuraminidase inhibitors (20%), lopinavir/ritonavir (32.9%), and ciclesonide inhalation (11.4%).
32405421 Comparator drugs were oseltamivir, umifenovir, lopinavir/ritonavir or placebo.
32405423 Minimum estimated costs of production were US $0.93/day for remdesivir, $1.45/day for favipiravir, $0.08/day for hydroxychloroquine, $0.02/day for chloroquine, $0.10/day for azithromycin, $0.28/day for lopinavir/ritonavir, $0.39/day for sofosbuvir/daclatasvir and $1.09/day for pirfenidone.
32405454 Lopinavir/ritonavir (200mg/50mg) two tablet tow times, Ribavirin 200mg every six hours, and Oseltamivir 75mg tow times were given for the treatment of COVID-19.
32406317 It is noteworthy that Viomycin showed higher -CDocker energy as compared to the drugs currently under clinical trial for SARS-CoV-2 treatment viz. Ritonavir and Lopinavir.
32406606 The gene detection for drug use guidance showed the genetic locus ABCB1 (3435T>C) rs1045642 belonged to type CC and it mean the efficiency of lopinavir-ritonavir would be significantly decreased.
32407459 Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir showed no significant benefit in mortality and ARDS rates.
32410206 Pharmacotherapy included recombinant human interferon α2b, lopinavir/ritonavir, novaferon, antibiotics, systematic corticosteroids and traditional Chinese medicine prescription.
32410772 As per SOLIDARITY trial by WHO, some of the most promising candidates include chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine which are anti-malarial medications, Remdesivir, Lopinavir-Ritonavir combination with or without interferon which are anti-HIV drugs and convalescent plasma therapy.
32412509 For others such as lopinavir/ritonavir, neither significant virological nor clinical benefit has been shown.
32418730 Several publicized drugs are being used with not much evidence of their efficacy such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin or lopinavir-ritonavir. […] Since March 27th, 2020, the French Pharmacovigilance Network directed all cardiac adverse drug reactions associated with “off-label” use of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and lopinavir-ritonavir in COVID-19 to the Nice Regional Center of Pharmacovigilance. […] Lopinavir-ritonavir came third with 17 reports (14%) and chloroquine fourth with 3 reports (2.5%).
32423027 Whereas plasma therapy attracts much interest, the European project Discovery focuses on the potentialities of small molecules like remdesivir, the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and chloroquine.
32423584 Patients were permitted concomitant use of lopinavir-ritonavir, interferons, and corticosteroids.
32425199 Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir are currently being studied in trials and show some promise.
32425246 The only FDA approved drug to treat COVID-19 is remdesivir, and other off-label medications used include chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, convalescent plasma therapy, azithromycin, vitamin C, corticosteroids, interferon and colchicine.
32430428 However, studies regarding the risk factors associated with prolonged SARS-CoV-2 shedding and the impact of Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPV/r) treatment on viral shedding remain scarce.
32434337 Current potential treatment options include hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and convalescent plasma.
32436445 The use of lopinavir-ritonavir did not prove beneficial in a large RCT.
32438446 A more in-depth assessment demonstrated that only nitazoxanide, nelfinavir, tipranavir (ritonavir-boosted) and sulfadoxine achieved plasma concentrations above their reported anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity across their entire approved dosing interval. […] Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, mefloquine, atazanavir (ritonavir-boosted), tipranavir (ritonavir-boosted), ivermectin, azithromycin and lopinavir (ritonavir-boosted) were all predicted to achieve lung concentrations over 10-fold higher than their reported EC50 .
32444382 To this end, the antiviral efficacies of lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, and emtricitabine-tenofovir for SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed in the ferret infection model. […] While the lopinavir-ritonavir-, hydroxychloroquine sulfate-, or emtricitabine-tenofovir-treated group exhibited lower overall clinical scores than the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated control group, the virus titers in nasal washes, stool specimens, and respiratory tissues were similar between all three antiviral-candidate-treated groups and the PBS-treated control group. […] In this study, we tested the FDA-approved drugs lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, and emtricitabine-tenofovir against SARS-CoV-2 infection in a highly susceptible ferret infection model.
32445484 Several drugs are being repurposed into clinical trials in COVID-19 patients, ranging from drugs already well established in other diseases, such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir+ ritonavir, azithromycin and tocilizumab/sarilumab, to those such as remdesivir still in development for their initial indication (1).
32448818 The additive effects of interferons on the inhibitory effects of other candidate drugs to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection, such as lopinavir, ritonavir and favipiravir, have also been studied.
32449022 Twenty-nine patients were enrolled and divided into two groups: group 1 (14 patients) was composed of patients treated with off-label hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, whereas group 2 (15 patients) was composed of patients treated with hydroxychloroquine only, combined with the inhalation of acetic acid disinfectant at a 0.34% concentration.
32449235 We report a case of the successful recovery from severe COVID-19 of a kidney-transplanted patient treated with hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, steroid and tocilizumab.
32458149 A number of anti-viral drugs such as ribavirin, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, antibiotics such as azithromycin and doxycycline, and anti-parasite such as ivermectin have been recommended for COVID-19 treatment.
32459144 Remdesivir, ritonavir and chloroquine have all been reported to play a role in suppressing SARS-CoV-2.
32460458 We examined the in vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine on SARS-CoV-2, at concentrations which can be used to treat coronavirus-19 patients with little concern of toxicity. […] Lopinavir/ritonavir (7/1.75 μg/mL), hydroxychloroquine base (1 or 2 μg/mL), or a combination thereof were administered 1 hour after the inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 to Vero cells at a multiplicity of infection of 0.05. […] The severity of cytopathic effects was lower in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated cells, and viral load was significantly reduced in this group compared with the control group (p < 0.001). […] Lopinavir/ritonavir showed significant inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 in vitro at its usual plasma concentration. […] However, the in vitro antiviral activity of hydroxychloroquine at concentrations commonly used in humans was minimal, whether used alone or in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir.
32462545 The most frequently administered drug classes were antivirals, antibiotics, and corticosteroids, and of the 115 reported drugs, the most frequently administered was combination lopinavir/ritonavir, which was associated with a time to clinically meaningful response (complete symptom resolution or hospital discharge) of 11.7 (1.09) days.
32470751 As per SOLIDARITY trial by WHO, some of the most promising candidates include chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine which are anti-malarial medications, Remdesivir, Lopinavir-Ritonavir combination with or without interferon which are anti-HIV drugs and convalescent plasma therapy.
32473230 No specific treatment against SARS-CoV-2 is available after 6 months of COVID-19 worldwide outbreak Antivirals could decrease the viral load and reduce direct and indirect damages of SARSCoV-2 infection Ritonavir-bosted lopinavir is effective against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro Sequential virological and pharmacological monitoring helped to understand the efficacy of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir in a SARS-CoV-2 infected patient Ritonavir-boosted lopinavir could be proposed as early treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32470470 Current treatment of COVID-19 patients relies mainly on antiviral drugs lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, and remdesivir, the anti-malarial drugs hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, and traditional Chinese medicine.
32474026 A recent randomised control trial compared lopinavir/ritonavir with standard care among 199 patients with severe Covid-19 infection and concluded that there was no significant reduction in mortality rate with lopinavir/ritonavir. […] There was a numerical reduction in mortality rate, less intensive care unit stay and less complications in the lopinavir-ritonavir group.
32475183 Lopinavir in combination with ritonavir is approved for the treatment of HIV and has recently been subject to a clinical trial in severe COVID-19. […] As, in severe COVID-19, lopinavir/ritonavir had no beneficial effects but increased gastrointestinal adverse effects, this combination should not be used at this stage of COVID-19. […] In my opinion, the rationale for undertaking a trial of lopinavir/ritonavir in COVID-19 was poor.
32476080 The following variables were extracted for this study: age, gender, temperature, and saturation of oxygen on admission, treatment with heparin, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, steroids, tocilizumab, a combination of lopinavir with ritonavir, and oseltamivir, together with data on mortality.
32488958 The most commonly used antiviral drug was lopinavir/ritonavir tablet.
32492211 Delayed antiviral treatment (HR 0.976 [95% CI, 0.962-0.990]) and lopinavir/ritonavir + IFN-α combination therapy as the initial antiviral treatment (HR 1.649 [95% CI, 1.162-2.339]) were independent factors associated with prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding. […] Early initiation of lopinavir/ritonavir + IFN-α combination therapy may help shorten the duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding.
32493468 Other exclusion criteria include using drugs with potential interaction with Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Interferon-β 1a, Interferon-β 1b, pregnant or lactating women, history of alcohol or drug addiction in the past 5 years, blood ALT/AST levels > 5 times the upper limit of normal on laboratory results and refusal to participate. […] The first group (Arm 1) will receive Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra) + Interferon-β 1a (Recigen), the second group (Arm 2) will be administered Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra) + Interferon-β 1b (Ziferon), and the control group (Arm 3) will be treated by Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra).
32493740 We included studies of ribavirin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, umifenovir (arbidol), favipravir, interferon and lopinavir/ritonavir. […] An exception was treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir, for which we found low-quality evidence for a decrease in length of stay in the intensive care unit (risk difference 5 d shorter, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0 to 9 d) and hospital stay (risk difference 1 d shorter, 95% CI 0 to 2 d). […] For safety outcomes, evidence was of low or very low quality, with the exception of treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir for which moderate-quality evidence suggested likely increases in diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.
32495917 Lopinavir/ritonavir has modest antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. […] The aim was to investigate the viral kinetics and factors associated with viral clearance during lopinavir/ritonavir-based combination treatment in non-severe patients.
32495921 Hence, based upon limited in-vitro and anecdotal data, Chloroquine, or Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Lopinavir and Ritonavir are being employed in the management.
32496210 This case reports the usage of lopinavir/ritonavir-based combination antiviral regimen for a patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32501454 We included consecutive patients (aged ≥18 years) with COVID-19, moderate-to-severe ARDS, and hyperinflammation (defined as serum C-reactive protein ≥100 mg/L, ferritin ≥900 ng/mL, or both) who were managed with non-invasive ventilation outside of the ICU and who received standard treatment of 200 mg hydroxychloroquine twice a day orally and 400 mg lopinavir with 100 mg ritonavir twice a day orally.
32501538 Patients were divided into two groups according to different treatment plans (danoprevir and lopinavir/ritonavir). […] COVID-19 patients treated with danoprevir or lopinavir/ritonavir were all improved and discharged. […] Additionally, under the circumstance that there was no significant difference in patients’ general information between the two groups, we found that the mean time to achieve both negative nucleic acid testing and hospital stays of patients treated with danoprevir were significantly shorter than those of patients with lopinavir/ritonavir.
32503620 Group A will receive the antiretroviral Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra) while group B will receive Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra) + Colchicine 1.5 mg loading then 0.5 mg twice daily orally. […] Patients of both groups will be treated under optimal treatment based on the CDC and WHO guidelines and national consensus proposed in Iran including the same dosages of Lopinavir/Ritonavir, antibiotics, trace elements and antioxidants while only in group-B patients Colchicine will be added on top of this protocol.
32503817 Different preclinical studies conducted on other coronaviruses suggested that promising clinical outcomes for 2019-nCoV should be obtained by using alpha-interferon, chloroquine phosphate, arabinol, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and anti-inflammatory drugs.
32512873 This strategy has been implemented for other respiratory viruses (influenza above all) and was successfully used in South Korea among healthcare workers against the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus, by providing people who were exposed to high-risk contacts with lopinavir-ritonavir plus ribavirin.
32513289 Current use of CYP 3A4 or P-gp inhibitor drugs such as quinidine, amiodarone, diltiazem, spironolactone, verapamil, clarithromycin, erythromycin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, indinavir, ritonavir or cobicistat.
32513308 A recent clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of lopinavir- ritonavir for patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 used a similar ordinal scale, as have recent clinical trials of novel therapeutics for severe influenza, including a post-hoc analysis of a trial evaluating immune plasma.
32514689 Additionally, seven pharmacological agents (chloroquine, tetrandrine, umifenovir (arbidol), carrimycin, damageprevir, lopinavir/ritonavir) are in phase IV of clinical trials.
32515383 Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Ribavirin, remdesivir and Ravipiravir are some of the major antiviral agents showing initial encouraging results.
32520888 All patients were treated with interferon, 6 cases combined with Ribavirin, and 12 cases combined with lopinavir or ritonavir. […] There was no significant difference of RNA turning negative between the groups of interferon, interferon plus ribavirin and interferon plus lopinavir or ritonavir treatment.
32522754 A rapid recovery of respiratory and general symptoms was observed after 1 week of treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir plus hydroxychloroquine and broad-spectrum antibiotics (piperacillin-tazobactam plus teicoplanin).
32524645 We comment on hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir with zinc supplement, remdesivir, tocilizumab, ciclesonide, niclosamide and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).
32526083 During the hospitalization, 86 patients developed de novo LFTs abnormality, which was associated with the use of tocilizumab, lopinavir/ritonavir and acetaminophen and not clearly associated with the composite endpoint.
32527340 The main antiviral drugs included α-interferon (69.5%), lopinavir/ritonavir (65.0%), abidol (60.0%), and ribavirin (55.7%).
32527344 According to the guidelines, the routine treatment group was recommended to receive lopinavir/ritonavir 500 mg + α-aerosolized interferon 500×104 U, twice daily; the artesunate treatment group was given artesunate 60 mg, twice daily besides the routine treatment, for 10 days in both groups.
32530369 Group A received lopinavir/ritonavir as a third agent in the antiviral regimen, while group B did not. […] The present study suggests that lopinavir/ritonavir may reduce the viral carriage in a shorter period of time compared with other antiviral regimens. […] Further studies are needed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32532939 Hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, umifenovir, favipiravir, ribavirin and beta-interferon-1 gave rise to variable but still inconsistent proof of clinical efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19.
32533671 This area has faced numerous challenges, including the shortage of frequent-use products (hydroalcoholic solutions, lopinavir/ritonavir suspension), the use of new preparations for SARS-CoV-2 (tocilizumab, remdesivir), or requests from overwhelmed wards unable to assume the safe preparation of a high volume of medications (intravenous solutions). […] Como todo el sector sanitario, la farmacotecnia hospitalaria ha sufrido el impacto de la pandemia de la COVID-19, enfrentándose a la necesidad de cubrir el desabastecimiento de productos de uso frecuente (soluciones hidroalcohólicas, lopinavir/ritonavir suspensión), a nuevas preparaciones surgidas de las nuevas necesidades provocadas por el SARS-CoV-2 (tocilizumab, remdesivir), o a peticiones de plantas desbordadas por la carga asistencial, incapaces de asumir con un mínimo de seguridad la preparación de numerosos medicamentos (mezclas intravenosas).
32536150 The efficacies of lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine remain to be determined in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] To compare the virological and clinical responses to lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine treatment in COVID-19 patients. […] This retrospective cohort study included patients with COVID-19 treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine at a single center in Korea from February 17 to March 31, 2020. […] Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine concurrently and those treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine for less than 7 days were excluded. […] Of 65 patients (mean age, 64.3 years; 25 men [38.5%]), 31 were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and 34 were treated with hydroxychloroquine. […] Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir had a significantly shorter time to negative conversion of viral RNA than those treated with hydroxychloroquine (median, 21 days vs. 28 days). […] Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 4.21) and younger age (aHR, 2.64; 95% CI 1.43 to 4.87) was associated with negative conversion of viral RNA. […] There was no significant difference in time to clinical improvement between lopinavir-ritonavir- and hydroxychloroquine-treated patients (median, 18 days vs. 21 days). […] Lymphopenia and hyperbilirubinemia were more frequent in lopinavir-ritonavir-treated patients compared with hydroxychloroquine-treated patients. […] Lopinavir-ritonavir was associated with more rapid viral clearance than hydroxychloroquine in mild to moderate COVID-19, despite comparable clinical responses.
32539520 Cao B, Wang Y, Wen D, et al. A trial of lopinavir-ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med.
32544867 All patients received conventional therapy including Hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir. […] Our findings support the use of IFN-β-1a in combination with hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir in the management of COVID-19.
32546018 However, the present review aims to highlight the important antiviral approaches, including interferons, ribavirin, mycophenolic acids, ritonavir, lopinavir, inhibitors, and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to provoke the nonstructural proteins and deactivate the structural and essential host elements of the virus to control and treat the infection of COVID-19 by inhibiting the viral entry, viral RNA replication and suppressing the viral protein expression.
32546437 A total of 59% (n=37), 49% (n=31) and 24% (n=15) of the patients were on lopinavir/ritonavir, interferons, or steroids, respectively.
32547039 Presently, effective drugs are lacking, although current studies have confirmed that drugs with therapeutic potential include redaciclovir, lopinavir/ritonavir combined with interferon-β, convalescent plasma, and monoclonal antibodies.
32548163 On January 24, three tablets of lopinavir and ritonavir were added orally (twice daily).
32548166 She was given antiviral agents (lopinavir and ritonavir), and follow-up detection showed that these abnormalities were markedly decreased within 3 d.
32554424 Two patients were managed with both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin; one was treated with lopinavir-ritonavir.
32554861 All patients received antiviral treatment, including Lopinavir / Ritonavir (29.3%), Interferon (14.6%) and their combination (40.6%), Arbidol (6.7%), Xuebijing (7.1%) and Chloroquine phosphate (1.3%).
32554953 Several anti-viral drugs such as RNA dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin), protease inhibitors (lopinavir, ritonavir) and drugs targeting endocytic pathway (hydroxychloroquine) are being evaluated for COVID-19 but standard therapeutics yet not available.
32555974 These include chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), nitazoxanide, remdesivir, Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV / r), in addition to treatment with convalescent plasma.
32556649 His respiratory function deteriorated despite treatments with lopinavir/ritonavir, oseltamivir, azithromycin and meropenem at a regional hospital.
32561148 This includes clinically available drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir, which are being repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19.
32561274 Molecular docking studies revealed that among the 77 drugs, screened top ten drugs shows good binding affinities, whereas the top three drugs: Lopinavir-Ritonavir, Tipranavir, and Raltegravir were undergone for molecular dynamics simulation studies for their conformational stability in the active site of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro protein. […] In the present study among the library of FDA approved antiviral drugs, the top three inhibitors Lopinavir-Ritonavir, Tipranavir, and Raltegravir show the best molecular interaction with the main protease of SARS-CoV-2.
32562159 According to the drug regimen, the patients were divided into two groups; group I who received regimen I consisting azithromycin, prednisolone, naproxen, and lopinavir/ritonavir and group II who received regimen II including meropenem, levofloxacin, vancomycin, hydroxychloroquine, and oseltamivir. […] This study revealed the beneficial effect of the short-term use of low-dose prednisolone in combination with azithromycin, naproxen and lopinavir/ritonavir (regimen I), in decreasing ALOS compared to regimen II.
32562561 Hydroxychloroquine was administered in 11 patients, associated with lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon β in 2 cases each.
32565199 A treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine twice daily was started. […] Consequently, treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine was stopped.
32565309 Our results for the first time suggest that a quadruple combination therapy (Ribavirin, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Umifenovir, and Lianhua Qingwen) can be considered as a preferred treatment approach to severe COVID-19 patients.
32566561 The effectiveness and safety of antiviral agents for children with COVID-19 is uncertain: For adults with COVID-19, lopinavir/ritonavir had no effect on mortality [risk ratio (RR) =0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45 to 1.30].
32569708 Treatment options for the pulmonary phase include: Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir.
32572376 Based on the previous experiences with similar coronavirus management and present preliminary data from uncontrolled studies, drugs like chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and favipiravir have been recommended by the researchers to manage COVID-19.
32574332 All patients were diagnosed as suffering from non-severe COVID-19 pneumonia and were successfully treated with Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPV/r).
32578156 The benefit-risk balance for the use of lopinavir-ritonavir in COVID-19 needs to be monitored on an ongoing basis, therefore a systematic benefit-risk assessment was designed and conducted. […] The exposure of interest was lopinavir-ritonavir treatment in severe COVID-19 compared to standard of care, placebo or other treatments. […] We screened 143 papers from PubMed and 264 papers from Embase for lopinavir-ritonavir; seven papers were included in the final benefit-risk assessment. […] In comparison to standard of care, data for several key benefits and risks were identified for lopinavir-ritonavir. […] Time to clinical improvement was not significantly different for lopinavir-ritonavir in comparison to standard of care (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 0.95-1.80). […] From one study, there were fewer cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome with lopinavir-ritonavir compared with standard of care (13% vs 27%). […] There also appeared to be fewer serious adverse events with lopinavir-ritonavir (20%) vs standard of care (32%). […] Limited data were available for comparison of lopinavir-ritonavir to other treatments. […] Based on currently available data, there was no clear benefit for the use of lopinavir-ritonavir compared to standard of care in severe COVID-19. […] There was a reduction in acute respiratory distress syndrome with lopinavir-ritonavir in one study. […] Overall, the benefit-risk profile for lopinavir-ritonavir in severe COVID-19 cannot be considered positive until further efficacy and effectiveness data become available.
32584236 Likewise, protease inhibitors, including lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, and nucleoside analogue remdesivir were proposed to be the potential drug candidates in COVID-19 management.
32585765 Darunavir together with ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and favipiravir were initiated on the first day of admission at primary hospital.
32585855 The clinical course was summarized, including the impact of drugs (angiotensin II receptor blockers [ARB], ibuprofen, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors [DPP4i]) and the therapeutic effect of lopinavir/ritonavir. […] Patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir had significantly shorter progression-free survival than those not receiving lopinavir/ritonavir.
32589146 Recently, three randomized clinical trials on COVID-19 treatments were completed, one for lopinavir-ritonavir and two for remdesivir. […] The lopinavir-ritonavir trial enrolled 39 additional patients due to insignificant results after the sample size reached the planned number, which led to inflation of the type I error rate. […] For the lopinavir-ritonavir trial, with the increase of sample size from 160 to 199, the type I error rate was inflated from 0.05 to 0.071. […] The difference of RMTIs between the two groups evaluated at day 28 was -1.67 days (95% CI [-3.62, 0.28]; P=.09) in favor of lopinavir-ritonavir but not statistically significant.
32589165 Since the beginning of the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) 2 lopinavir/ritonavir was selected for treatment. […] The recent publication of Cao et al in the NEJM[1] showed that lopinavir/ritonavir treatment did not accelerate clinical improvement compared with standard of care.
32164080 Drugs are possibly effective for 2019-nCoV include: remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir combined with interferon-β, convalescent plasma, and monoclonal antibodies.
32164081 Combination of Ribavirin and interferon-α is recommended by the 5(th) edition National Health Commission’s Regimen (Revised Edition) because of the effect on Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the effectiveness of Lopinavir/Ritonavir and Remdisivir needs to be confirmed by randomized controlled trial (RCT), given the situation of no specific antivirus drug on NCP is unavailable.
32409433 A randomized controlled trial of lopinavir/ritonavir demonstrated no apparent clinical or virologic benefit and drug-drug interactions and side effects further limit its utility.
32450631 Thirty-four patients were treated with interferon-α and Lopinavir/Ritonavir with good prognosis.
32593339 The most frequently used drug with antiviral activity was hydroxychloroquine (40 [7%] patients), followed by remdesivir (17 [3%] patients), lopinavir-ritonavir (six [1%] patients), and oseltamivir (three [1%] patients).
32594562 The most common therapeutic agent being trialled currently is hydroxychloroquine (24 trials with potential sample size of over 25 000 participants), followed by lopinavir-ritonavir (seven trials) and remdesevir (five trials) There are many candidate drugs in pre-clinical and early phase development, and these form a pipeline for future large clinical trials if current candidate therapies prove ineffective or unsafe.
32597315 Among the top results expected to bind with SARS-CoV-2 PLpro strongly were three cell protectives and antioxidants (NAD+, quercitrin, and oxiglutatione), three antivirals (ritonavir, moroxydine, and zanamivir), two antimicrobials (doripenem and sulfaguanidine), two anticancer drugs, three benzimidazole anthelmintics, one antacid (famotidine), three anti-hypertensive ACE receptor blockers (candesartan, losartan, and valsartan) and other miscellaneous systemically or topically acting drugs. […] Phenformin, quercetin, and ritonavir all demonstrated prospective binding affinities for COVID-19 PLpro over 50 ns MD simulations, with binding energy values of -56.6, -40.9, and -37.6 kcal/mol, respectively. […] Energetic and structural analyses showed phenformin was more stable than quercetin and ritonavir.
32604775 Chloroquine, interferon, and antiviral agents such as remdesivir, lopinavir, and ritonavir are agents under investigation in these trials.
32604797 Some antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir as well as antiretroviral drugs including darunavir, lopinavir, and ritonavir are suggested to be effective in treating disorders caused by SARS-CoV-2.
32611911 Among the currently available drugs, hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir may be considered for patients with severe COVID-19 infection, awaiting further clinical trials.
32612432 Hydroxychloroquine and antiproteases (lopinavir/ritonavir) were reported to be safe; however, therapeutic efficacy and safety of remdesivir still lack evidence.
32612804 A preliminary search identified the following drugs as being used to treat COVID-19 symptoms: atazanavir (ATV), azithromycin (AZI), chloroquine (CLQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCLQ), dipyridamole, famotidine (FAM), favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), nitazoxanide, remdesivir, ribavirin and tocilizumab.
32617527 Molecular docking results against protein targets Furin, papain like proteases, RdRp and Spike glycoprotein had shown paritaprevir, ritonavir, entecavir and chloroquine derivatives are the best drugs to inhibit multi targets of coronavirus infection including natural compounds corosolic acid, baicalin and glycyrrhizic acid with minimal inhibitory concentrations. […] Thus we propose use of paritaprevir, entecavir, ritonavir and chloroquine derivatives as best drug combination along with niacinamide, folic acid and zinc supplements to treat novel coronavirus infection.
32619760 Older age (hazard ratio (HR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98-1.00; p = 0.04), time lag from illness onset to hospital admission (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.88-0.94; p < 0.001), diarrhea (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.96; p = 0.036), corticosteroid treatment (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39-0.94; p = 0.024), and lopinavir/ritonavir use (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.52-0.94; p = 0.014) were significantly and independently associated with prolonged viral RNA shedding. […] Lopinavir/ritonavir use may be associated with prolonged viral RNA shedding in non-severe patients; further randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this finding.
32621621 The multivariable Cox proportional hazards model showed that the hazards ratio of resolution in lung involvement was 1.878 (P = .020) for patients administered lopinavir/ritonavir, compared with those not administered lopinavir/ritonavir (95% confidence interval: 1.103-3.196). […] Among influenza coinfected patients, those treated with lopinavir/ritonavir exhibited faster pneumonia resolution within 2 weeks after symptom onset (37% vs 1%; P = .001). […] Lopinavir/ritonavir eliminated the difference of lung involvement between influenza coinfected and noninfected groups, indicating that lopinavir/ritonavir is associated with pneumonia resolution in COVID-19.
32624690 Finally, patients with baseline QT prolongation or those taking QT prolonging drugs must be cautious when treating with lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19.
32627127 The race to prevent and treat this disease has led to “off-label” prescribing of medications such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir).
32629768 In this paper we review the studies evaluating lopinavir/ritonavir association (LPV/r) use in COVID-19, and previously in SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).
32631826 These repurposed drugs have mainly included remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin, interferons, and hydroxychloroquine.
32634080 Several compounds, including remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, interferon-β, ribavirin, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, and ivermectin, have emerged as promising alternatives.
32634603 The antiviral therapies remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and umifenovir, if considered, should be initiated before the peak of viral replication for an optimal outcome.
32641091 We found that the lopinavir/ritonavir treatment recommended in the fifth edition of the Treatment Plan of China can only help to improve a minority of throat-swab nucleic-acid results (3/15) in hospitals. […] Our previous use of chloroquine to treat patients with COVID-19 infection showed an improvement in more throat-swab nucleic-acid results (5/10) than the use of lopinavir/ritonavir. […] The control group will be given lopinavir/ritonavir treatment for no more than 10 days. […] This experiment should reveal the efficacy and safety of using chloroquine versus lopinavir/ritonavir for patients with mild/general COVID-19 infection.
32641296 Lopinavir-ritonavir was administered every 12 hours, 800/200 mg on day 1 and 400/100 mg on day 2 until day 5 or 7.
32641471 Use of lopinavir-ritonavir ±ribavirin + interferon beta (aOR 1.94, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.13, p=0.006) and corticosteroids (aOR 3.92, 95% CI 2.14 to 7.16, p<0.001) was independently associated with ALT/AST elevation. […] Use of lopinavir-ritonavir, with or without ribavirin, interferon beta and/or corticosteroids was independently associated with ALT/AST elevation.
32643436 Initial findings from antivirals such as remdesivir, favipiravir, danoprevir or lopinavir with ritonavir are presented.
32646657 It is also important to pay attention to possible drug interactions, especially in the case of tacrolimus, with some of the treatments with antiviral effect given in the context of COVID 19 (lopinavir/ritonavir, azithromycin).
32649301 The commercial lopinavir/ritonavir oral liquid is in short supply and may need to be compounded soon.
32650356 The patient was admitted to our department and treated with hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, darunavir, azithromycin and enoxaparin.
32652521 Nine patients (including 5 with no symptoms) were given hydroxychloroquine, and 3 of them were also given lopinavir/ritonavir.
32653015 Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir have potential interest, but virological and clinical data are scarce, especially in critically ill patients. […] The present report took the opportunity of compassionate use and successive drug shortages to compare the effects of two therapeutic options, lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine, as compared to standard of care only. […] Eighty patients were treated during a 4-week period and included in the analysis: 22 (28%) received standard of care only, 20 (25%) patients received lopinavir/ritonavir associated to standard of care, and 38 (47%) patients received hydroxychloroquine and standard of care. […] Treatment escalation occurred in 9 (41%), 10 (50%), and 15 (39%) patients who received standard of care only, standard of care and lopinavir/ritonavir, and standard of care and hydroxychloroquine, respectively (p = 0.567). […] In critically ill patients admitted for SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia, no difference was found between hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir/ritonavir as compared to standard of care only on the proportion of patients who needed treatment escalation at day 28.
32655654 It is hoped that existing antivirals including remdesivir and lopinavir-ritonavir might have roles in the treatment of COVID-19, but results from trials thus far have not been promising.
32656006 The use of lopinavir/ritonavir and remdesivir was associated with significant clinical improvement in severe pneumonia.
32656222 Multivariable regression showed that the number of concomitant medications (odds ratio [OR]: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.21) and the combination treatment of lopinavir/ritonavir and arbidol (OR: 3.58, 95% CI: 1.44-9.52) were risk factors for liver injury in non-critically ill patients. […] The metabolism of arbidol can be significantly inhibited by lopinavir/ritonavir in vitro (p < 0.005), which may be the underlying cause of drug-related liver injury.
  1. Researchers’ claim that nutrition and immunity enhancers and treatment plans such as arbidol, lopinavir/ritonavir, convalescent plasma and mesenchymal stem cells and drugs including remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and favipiravir are effective against COVID-19.
32661006 Forty-two patients in the interferon group received IFN β-1a in addition to the national protocol medications (hydroxychloroquine plus lopinavir-ritonavir or atazanavir-ritonavir).
32663933 Psychopharmacological ongoing treatments should be prioritized and most doses should be reduced 25-50% of original dose if the patient receives lopinavir/ritonavir, with some exceptions including quetiapine, asenapine, olanzapine, sertraline, lamotrigine, bupropion, and methadone.
32664810 Results & methodology: Here we present two successful cases of tocilizumab administration in two COVID-19 patients with prior administration of antiviral therapy (hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir and ritonavir) with adequate response and resolution of ARDS, septic shock and severe pneumonia within the first 72 h.
32665040 To determine if lopinavir/ritonavir +/- hydroxychloroquine will reduce the proportion of participants who survive without requiring ventilatory support, 15 days after enrolment, in adult participants with non-critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Participants will have been hospitalised with confirmed COVID-19, and will be randomised 1:1:1:1 to receive lopinavir /ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, both or neither drug in addition to standard of care management. […] Participants will be randomised 1:1:1:1 to: Group 1: standard of care; Group 2: lopinavir (400mg) / ritonavir (100mg) twice daily for 10 days in tablet form; Group 3: hydroxychloroquine (800mg) 4x200mg administered 12 hours apart on Day 1, followed by 400mg twice a day for 6 days; Group 4: lopinavir /ritonavir plus hydroxychloroquine.
32667444 We do not recommend the routine use of hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir, corticosteroids, or tocilizumab for the treatment of COVID-19.
32669846 The most dangerous PDDIs were interaction of lopinavir/ritonavir or atazanavir with clopidogrel, prasugrel, and new oral anticoagulants (NOACs).
32676695 To evaluate the effects of an association therapy of hydroxychloroquine (HY) plus ritonavir/darunavir (RD) or azithromycin (AZ) on QTc intervals. […] Hydroxychloroquine with both ritonavir/darunavir or azithromycin therapy significantly increased the QTc-interval at 7 days.
32676976 The two arms of the trial consist of a control therapy (alpha interferon inhalation, 50 µg twice daily; and lopinavir/ritonavir, 400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) and a testing therapy (control therapy plus Keguan-1 19.4 g twice daily) by random number table at 1:1 ratio with 24 cases each group.
32677909 He was treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, recombinant human interferon alfa-2b inhalation, methylprednisolone.
32677909 He was treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, recombinant human interferon alfa-2b inhalation, methylprednisolone.
32677909 He was treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, recombinant human interferon alfa-2b inhalation, methylprednisolone.
32677909 He was treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, recombinant human interferon alfa-2b inhalation, methylprednisolone.
32677909 He was treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, recombinant human interferon alfa-2b inhalation, methylprednisolone.
32677909 He was treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, recombinant human interferon alfa-2b inhalation, methylprednisolone.
32677909 He was treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, recombinant human interferon alfa-2b inhalation, methylprednisolone.
32677909 He was treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, recombinant human interferon alfa-2b inhalation, methylprednisolone.
32678017 In the cases we report, the patient continued to deteriorate even after administration of antiviral drugs such as lopinavir/ritonavir, interferon-α, and ribavirin, as well as intravenous injection of meropenem, methylprednisolone, and immunoglobulin.
32678815 Provide a timely, rigorous, and continuously updated summary of the evidence on the role of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. […] We searched for randomized trials and non-randomized studies evaluating the effect of lopinavir/ritonavir versus placebo or no treatment in patients with COVID-19. […] Finally, we identified 12 studies, including two randomized trials, evaluating lopinavir/ritonavir, in addition to standard care versus standard care alone in 250 adult inpatients with COVID-19. […] The evidence from randomized trials shows lopinavir/ritonavir may reduce mortality (relative risk: 0.77; 95% confidence interval: 0.45 to 1.3; low certainty evidence), but the anticipated magnitude of the absolute reduction in mortality, varies across different risk groups. […] Lopinavir/ritonavir also had a slight reduction in the risk of requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, developing respiratory failure, or acute respiratory distress syndrome. […] For severe and critical patients with COVID-19, lopinavir/ritonavir might play a role in improving outcomes, but the available evidence is still limited.
32682788 Several drugs such as Remdesivir, Hydroxychloroquine, Chloroquine, Ribavirin, Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Favipiravir, Interferons, Bevacizumab, Azithromycin, etc. are currently under clinical trials.
32684351 In this article, we reviewed the current options for COVID-19 therapy including small molecules such as Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir etc, peptide inhibitors of ACE2, Traditional Chinese Medicines and Biologics such as SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies, mesenchymal stem cells and vaccines etc.
32685234 Currently, the management of patients with COVID-19 depends mainly on repurposed drugs which include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, interferon-α, interferon-β and others.
32688374 The combination lopinavir/ritonavir is recommended to treat HIV-infected patients at the dose regimen of 400/100 mg q12h, oral route. […] A trend towards a 28 day mortality reduction was observed in COVID-19-infected patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir. […] To assess the plasma concentrations of lopinavir and ritonavir in patients with severe COVID-19 infection and receiving lopinavir/ritonavir. […] Mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 infection included in the French COVID-19 cohort and treated with lopinavir/ritonavir were included. […] Lopinavir/ritonavir combination was administered using the usual adult HIV dose regimen (400/100 mg q12h, oral solution through a nasogastric tube). […] Lopinavir and ritonavir pharmacokinetic parameters were determined after an intensive pharmacokinetic analysis. […] Plasma concentrations of lopinavir and ritonavir were first assessed in eight patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir. […] After the dose reduction to 400/100 mg q24h, lopinavir/ritonavir pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed in nine patients. […] In mechanically ventilated patients with severe COVID-19 infections, the oral administration of lopinavir/ritonavir elicited plasma exposure of lopinavir more than 6-fold the upper usual expected range.
32692462 It is not known whether the adverse events (AEs) associated with the administration of lopinavir and ritonavir (LPV/r) in the treatment of COVID-19 are concentration-dependent. […] At 400 mg b.i.d., the plasma trough concentrations of LPV/r were high and showed marked interindividual variability (median [interquartile range]: 16,600 [11,430-20,842] ng/ml for lopinavir and 501 [247-891] ng/ml for ritonavir). […] The trough lopinavir concentration was negatively correlated with body mass index, while the trough ritonavir concentration was positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with prothrombin activity.
32694915 Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, interferons, umifenovir, remdesivir, and interleukin antagonists, such as tocilizumab, have been recommended as potential treatment options in COVID-19.
32696811 After treatment with ritonavir-boosted danoprevir (DNVr, 100/100 mg, once daily), all four patients showed two to three consecutive negative SARS-CoV-2 RNA and were thus discharged from hospital.
32698440 We previously predicted antivirals (atazanavir, remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir) and non-antiviral drugs (tiotropium and rapamycin) that may inhibit the replication complex of SARS-CoV-2 using our molecular transformer-drug target interaction (MT-DTI) deep-learning-based drug-target affinity prediction model.
32705942 Amongst these drugs, Ritonavir has been used in clinical trials with patients affected by COVID-19 and Nelfinavir showed anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity.
32707096 Additionally, early IFN-α2b and umifenovir alone or together were associated with reduced mortality and accelerated recovery in comparison with treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) alone.
32707160 Thus, the aim of this study was to review and evaluate the literature data on the toxicity of the selected individual drugs (ritonavir, lopinavir, remdesivir, chloroquine, and umifenovir) and the available clinical data concerning the possible adverse effects of the selected drug combinations (lopinavir/ritonavir + umifenovir, lopinavir/ritonavir + interferon β, chloroquine + remdesivir, and chloroquine + azithromycin).
32715804 She received lopinavir/ritonavir and azithromycin as well as early methyl prednisolone therapy.
32717568 Chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir or ribavirin have all been successful in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. […] The results of clinical trials point to the potential clinical efficacy of antivirals, especially remdesivir (GS-5734), lopinavir/ritonavir, and favipiravir.
32718719 To determine the prevalence of potential interactions in COVID-19 patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r).
32720578 Compound A38 has the highest G-score (-7.83) when compared to all the standard compounds which are proposed for COVID-19 treatment such as ritonavir (-7.48), lopinavir (-6.94), nelfinavir (-5.93), hydroxychloroquine (-5.47) and mataquine (-5.37).
32721449 Researchers from Thailand explored the use of combination of anti-influenza drugs such as Oseltamivir, Lopinavir and Ritonavir to treat it.
32722574 The clinical treatment of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV-2 is currently based on the experimental administration of HIV antiviral drugs, such as lopinavir, ritonavir, and remdesivir (a nucleotide analogue used for Ebola infection).
32725382 We found promising in vitro evidence for remdesivir, (hydroxy)chloroquine and favipiravir against SARS-CoV-2; potential clinical benefit in SARS-CoV-2 with remdesivir, the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus ribavirin; and strong evidence for LPV/r plus ribavirin against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) for post-exposure prophylaxis in healthcare workers.
32725890 Medications used in COVID-19 treatment (lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and tocilizumab) were associated with peak hospitalization liver transaminase elevations >5x ULN.
32729288 Overall, 60.0% of patients received antibiotic treatment and 66.0%, empirical antiviral treatment, mainly with lopinavir/ritonavir (65%) or hydroxychloroquine (42%).
32730095 However, healthcare professionals are using ritonavir, flavipiravir, lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir.
32731059 In this case, exacerbation began before COVID-19; she required ICU admission, non-invasive ventilatory support, and received hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir and ritonavir which were well tolerated.
32732190 Three drugs might reduce symptom duration compared with standard care: hydroxychloroquine (mean difference -4.5 days, low certainty), remdesivir (-2.6 days, moderate certainty), and lopinavir-ritonavir (-1.2 days, low certainty).
32732245 In the public hospital of Esine, northern Italy, 140 consecutive inpatients, with virologically and radiographically confirmed COVID-19 admitted in the period 5-19 March 2020, were treated with ‘SoC’ (hydroxychloroquine and/or intravenous dexamethasone; and/or lopinavir/ritonavir).
32735546 The top 10 candidates according to our algorithm are hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, chloroquine, ritonavir, losartan, remdesivir, favipiravir, methylprednisolone, rapamycin, and tilorone dihydrochloride.
32735768 Supportive care and management of the complications that are caused mainly by inflammation might be the key to greater survival rates and shorter hospitalization (e.g., the use of remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, umifenovir (arbidol), oseltamivir, ganciclovir, favipiravir, darunavir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, colchicine, azithromycin, anakinra, canakinumab, tocilizumab, siltuximab, sarilumab, Type 1 interferon, interferon β-1a, interferon α- 2b, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, fedratinib, methylprednisolone and dexamethasone).
32737681 From the screening of approved drug library, three antiviral agents ritonavir, nelfinavir and saquinavir were predicted to be the most potent Mpro inhibitors.
32737799 As a result, treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir was initiated, and patient symptoms and signs improved significantly during the course of hospitalization.
32740371 The effectiveness of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and chloroquine treatment for COVID-19 has not been verified.
32746653 Here, we summarized and evaluated the current treatment drugs and regimens, and put forward the treatment recommendations, including using the potential repurposed or experimental drugs against COVID-19, e.g. chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), remdesivir (RDV), and favipiravir (FPV).
32750019 The use of lopinavir/ritonavir should be avoided because of the severe drug interaction with calcineurin inhibitors.
32750131 Experimental therapies for COVID-19 present a risk of drug-drug interactions, with lopinavir/ritonavir (10% RED, 41% AMBER; mainly a perpetrator of pharmacokinetic interactions but also risk of QT prolongation particularly when given with concomitant drugs that can prolong QT), chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (both 7% RED and 27% AMBER, victims of some interactions due to metabolic profile but also perpetrators of QT prolongation) posing the greatest risk.
32750187 The good cavity model of the protease 3D structure was used in molecular docking, and this allowed verifying the theoric interactions of this protein and lopinavir and ritonavir antiviral drugs.
32754388 In this article, we have compiled comprehensive data on many candidate drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, umifenovir, arbidol, lopinavir, ritonavir, baricitinib, hydroxychloroquine, nitazoxanide, azithromycin, baloxavir, oseltamivir, losartan, and tocilizumab.
32754599 Good antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 was not observed with the use of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r).
32755653 Prescribed anti-infective agents were lopinavir-ritonavir (n=12), azithromycin (AZI) (n=28) and AZI combined with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) (n=52).
32757500 All patients had received other medications for COVID-19, including lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine, before administration of RDV.
32758569 The docking was done with most discussed drugs for SARS-CoV-2 like Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Remdesivir, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), routine antiviral drugs like Oseltamivir and Ribavirin. […] The generated data confirms the potential of Ritonavir, Lopinavir and Remdesivir as a therapeutic candidate against SARS-CoV-2. […] Molecular interactions of Ritonavir, Lopinavir and Remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 proteins enhanced their potential as a candidate drug for treatment of COVID-19.
32758659 Virus- or host-targeted medications included lopinavir/ritonavir (2820/4005, 70.4%), hydroxychloroquine (2618/3995, 65.5%), interferon beta (1153/3950, 29.2%), corticosteroids (1109/3965, 28.0%) and tocilizumab (373/3951, 9.4%).
32758689 Antiviral effects of Novaferon in COVID-19 patients with treatment of Novaferon, Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir, or Lopinavir/Ritonavir were evaluated. […] Results from the 89 enrolled COVID-19 patients showed that both Novaferon and Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups had significantly higher viral clearance rates on day six than Lopinavir/Ritonavir group (50.0% vs. […] The median time to viral clearance was six days, six days, and nine days for three groups, respectively, a 3-day reduction in both the Novaferon and Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups compared with the Lopinavir/Ritonavir group.
32759267 We confirmed that ATV inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication, alone or in combination with ritonavir (RTV) in Vero cells and a human pulmonary epithelial cell line.
32762922 The most used antiviral drugs were hydroxychloroquine (85.6%) and lopinavir/ritonavir (61.4%); 33.1% developed respiratory distress.
32765274 Eligible patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 were randomized into three groups: ribavirin (RBV) plus interferon-α (IFN-α), lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus IFN-α, and RBV plus LPV/r plus IFN-α at a 1:1:1 ratio.
32767353 We retrospectively evaluated all patients admitted to COVID internal medicine units with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and treated with darunavir-ritonavir (single daily dose, for seven days).
32767755 Lopinavir/ritonavir, originally developed for treating HIV, is currently undergoing clinical studies for treating the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] We built a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of lopinavir/ritonavir in white and Chinese populations. […] Our aim was to perform pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic correlations by comparing simulated free plasma and lung concentration values achieved using different dosing regimens of lopinavir/ritonavir with unbound half-maximal effective concentration (EC50,unbound) and unbound effective concentration 90% values of lopinavir against SARS-CoV-2. […] The model was validated against multiple observed clinical datasets for single and repeated dosing of lopinavir/ritonavir. […] Using the current lopinavir/ritonavir regimen of 400/100 mg twice daily, lopinavir does not achieve sufficient free lung concentrations for efficacy against SARS-CoV-2.
32768505 These include anti-viral agents (remdesivir, ribavirin, lopinavir-ritonavir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, oseltamivir, umifenovir), immunomodulatory agents (tocilizumab, interferons, plasma transfusions), and adjunctive agents (azithromycin, corticosteroids), among other miscellaneous agents.
32771797 In this review, we summarized the real-time information of 2019-nCoV treatment methods and mainly focused on the chemical drugs including lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir and other potential innovative active molecules.
32773165 The most frequently used combination of drugs was low molecular weight heparins, hydroxychloroquine, and ritonavir/lopinavir.
32773212 Initial favorable reports on lopinavir/ritonavir contradicted by recent studies.
32773656 No respiratory symptoms were identified, but both developed diarrhea, one probably secondary to lopinavir/ritonavir.
32776298 To date no trial comparing hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) has been performed.
32776534 To compare the rate of clinical improvement between those who started LPV/ritonavir (LPV/r)+HCQ within 5 days of symptom onset (early treatment, ET) and those who started later (delayed treatment, DT).
32777318 The skin reactions of antimalarials (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine), antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin with or without interferon, oseltamivir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and darunavir), and treatments for complications (imatinib, tocilizumab, anakinra, immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, colchicine and low molecular weight heparins) are analyzed.
32777550 Hydroxychloroquine (23.9%), lopinavir/ritonavir (8.2%), steroids (3.2%), and antibiotics (3.1%) were the most used drugs.
32779770 Lopinavir/ritonavir, together with gender and drug-drug interactions, may have contributed to the induction of QTc prolongation in those patients.
32785135 Our objective was to develop and validate a strategy to assess risk for adverse drug events (ADE) associated with COVID-19 repurposed drugs using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ), alone or in combination with azithromycin (AZ), and the combination lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r).
32793619 The use of certain drugs especially lopinavir and ritonavir showed an association with the progression of liver damage in severe cases.
32798339 Use of hydroxychloroquin in 284(76.1%) (p=0.041,OR0.555,95%CI 0.314-0.981), lopinavir/ ritonavir in 283(75.9%) (p=4.222E-009,OR0.198, 95%CI0.114-0.345), tocilizumab in 124(33.2%) patients, (p=3.27E006, OR0.150, 95%CI0.063-0.358) were associated with recovery.
32801640 Some potential drugs have shown antiviral effects on SARS-CoV-2 infections, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, interferon alpha, and remedsivir.
32804802 Treatment for COVID-19 included frequently hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, high dose steroids, lopinavir/ritonavir and tocilizumab.
32806775 Concerning requiring medical attention, there was a higher risk of readmission for the patients with chest radiographs, computed tomography scans taken and lopinavir/ritonavir at the time of their first admission.
32809210 Based on our study, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, either alone or in combination with azithromycin, remdesivir, corticosteroids, convalescent sera, ritonavir/lopinavir, tocilizumab and arbidol were evaluated as therapeutic options.
32810285 Lopinavir-ritonavir was significantly associated with shorter mean time to clinical recovery (SMD -0.32; 95% CI -0.57 to -0.06), remdesivir was significantly associated with better overall clinical recovery (RR 1.17; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.29), and tocilizumab was associated with less all-cause mortality (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.93). […] Lopinavir-ritonavir, remdesivir and tocilizumab may have some benefits, while hydroxychloroquine administration may cause harm in nCOV-2019 patients.
32811406 We have assessed some drugs currently for patients (Lopinavir, Ritonavir, Anakinra and Interferon beta 1a), as the feasibility of COVID-19 specific antivirals is not presently known.
32812051 All participants also received the recommended national standard treatment which, at that time, was lopinavir/ritonavir and single-dose hydroxychloroquine.
32817707 SOC consisted of hydroxychloroquine 400mg bid plus, in those admitted before March 24th, also darunavir/ritonavir.
32820084 In fact, two of the actually used drugs against SARS-CoV2, such as chloroquine and the combination lopinavir/ritonavir, might determine a QT (the time from the start of the Q wave to the end of the T wave) interval prolongation and they show several interactions with antiarrhythmic drugs and antipsychotic medications, making them prone to an increased risk of developing arrhythmias.
32823497 The binding energy of hesperidin to these important components is lower than that of lopinavir, ritonavir, and indinavir, suggesting that it could perform an effective antiviral action.
32827400 Repurposing of drugs from different pharmacological groups including antivirals like remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, arbidol, oseltamivir, penciclovir, favipiravir, ganciclovir, and ribavirin; other antibiotics like azithromycin, ivermectin, eravacycline, valrubicin, streptomycin, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, caspofungin, and colistin; and other agents like hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, tocilizumab, camostat, nafamostat, carfilzomib, interferon, aprepitant, and dexamethasone can be considered for COVID-19 therapy.
32834942 A number of antiviral drugs such as Ribavirin, Remdesivir, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Azithromycin and Doxycycline have been recommended or are being used to treat COVID-19 patients.
32838169 Medications assessed included lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, favipiravir, heparin, and dexamethasone. […] Lopinavir/ritonavir showed no significant effect on viral clearance for COVID-19 cases (OR 0.95 [95% CI 0.50-1.83]). […] Arbidol showed no 7-day (OR 1.63 [95% CI 0.76-3.50]) or 14-day viral (OR 5.37 [95% CI 0.35-83.30]) clearance difference compared to lopinavir/ritonavir. […] Review of literature showed no significant clinical improvement with lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, hydroxychloroquine, or remdesivir. […] Favipiravir showed quicker symptom improvement compared to lopinavir/ritonavir and arbidol.
32838187 We recommend lopinavir/ritonavir as the effective drugs for antiviral treatment according to our experience in administering lopinavir/ritonavir to COVID-19 patients and the successful cases of these drugs in treating MERS and SARS, but need more clinical data to prove their efficacy in treating COVID-19.
32838232 Thirteen COVID-19 adult patients under invasive mechanical ventilation who had received previous antiviral and/or anti-inflammatory treatments (including steroids, lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine and/or tocilizumab, among others) were treated with allogeneic AT-MSC.
32838235 We included consecutive patients with COVID-19 related pneumonia at the early stage of respiratory failure, all treated with a standard protocol (hydroxychloroquine 400 mg daily, lopinavir 800 mg plus ritonavir 200 mg per day).
32838264 These include HIV protease inhibitors such as lopinavir/ritonavir that have low placental transfer, interferon that does not cross the placental barrier, and hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine that has high placental transfer.
32838353 Our study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04252885, named ELACOI), was an exploratory randomized (2:2:1) controlled trial assessing the efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or arbidol monotherapy for treating patients with mild/moderate COVID-19.
32838367 This review summarizes the existing evidence for medications currently under investigation for treatment of COVID-19, including remdesivir, chloroquine/hydroxychlorquine, convalescent plasma, lopinavir/ritonavir, IL-6 inhibitors, corticosteroids, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
32838713 Existing antivirals such as ASC09/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir with or without umifenovir in combination with antimalarial chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine have been repurposed to fight the current coronavirus epidemic.
32841688 All subjects underwent an HRCT study on the day of admission and eight weeks later, and were treated with lopinavir + ritonavir (Kaletra) 400/100 mg two times a day or darunavir + ritonavir two times a day, and Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg two times a day.
32842957 He was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for mechanical ventilation and vasopressors, plus antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir), and prophylactic anticoagulation.
32849448 These drugs include the broad spectrum antivirals such as umifenovir, protease inhibitors such as lopinavir/ritonavir as well as the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, remdesivir, and favipiravir.
32849934 The most reported therapies were hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) (eight studies) and lopinavir/ritonavir (four studies). […] Lopinavir/ritonavir was found beneficial when administered with interferon and ribavirin, but one clinical trial on its sole use proved contrary.
32850925 Among the 218 patients, 192 (88%) received lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon-alpha inhalation, and 196 (90%) patients received traditional Chinese medicine.
32853672 A total of 55 patients in the control group receiving hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) were compared with 56 patients in the case group who in addition to the same regimen also received AZM.
32853675 All patients received therapy with HCQ in combination with azithromycin (AZM), and 95 (90%) also with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r).
32857112 Fourteen children (15%) were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and/or hydroxychloroquine.
32857301 In this study the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine plus atazanavir/ritonavir was compared in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19. […] The patients received the national treatment protocol containing hydroxychloroquine (400 mg BD in first day and then 200 mg BD) plus atazanavir/ritonavir (300/100 mg daily) for 7 days. […] Our study did not support the use of hydroxychloroquine plus atazanavir/ritonavir in patients who had SpO2 < 90% at the time of hospital admission. […] SpO2 was the only predictor of clinical outcomes (duration of hospital stay, discharge from the hospital and mortality) in patients treated with hydroxychloroquine plus atazanavir/ritonavir.
32858566 We investigated the potential hepatotoxicity of lopinavir/ritonavir recently used in the treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. […] This is a retrospective cohort of critical patients in a teaching hospital: 12 treated with lopinavir/ritonavir and 30 in the standard-of-care group. […] Elevation occurred more frequently in patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (33% vs 6.7%). […] Caution is advised regarding the use of lopinavir/ritonavir in the most severe cases of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.
32861965 The widespread clinical use and existing knowledge on antiviral mechanisms of remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of previous epidemic diseases, namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), may be helpful in the combat with novel SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Recent clinical evidence didn’t confirm the beneficial role of lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 patients and their use was reassessed. […] 3CLpro is a major CoV protease that cleaves the large replicase polyproteins during viral replication and can be targeted by the protease inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir but the clinical effects are controversial. […] Numerous studies demonstrated the ability of remdesivir to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication but future research would be needed to understand the exact mode of action of lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells and to use this knowledge in the treatment of the current COVID-19.
32862111 Patients in the IFN group received IFN β-1b (250 mcg subcutaneously every other day for two consecutive weeks) along with the national protocol medications while in the control group, patients received only the national protocol medications (lopinavir/ritonavir or atazanavir/ritonavir plus hydroxychloroquine for 7-10 days).
32863364 Despite the initiation of lopinavir and ritonavir, respiratory failure progressed.
32864162 In this review, we summarized the pharmacogenomic literature available for COVID-19 drug therapies including hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, lopinavir/ritonavir, darunavir/cobicistat, interferon beta-1b, tocilizumab, ruxolitinib, baricitinib, and corticosteroids. […] We found several drug-gene variant pairs that may alter the pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (CYP2C8, CYP2D6, SLCO1A2, and SLCO1B1); azithromycin (ABCB1); ribavirin (SLC29A1, SLC28A2, and SLC28A3); and lopinavir/ritonavir (SLCO1B1, ABCC2, CYP3A).
32868801 Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir/lopinavir, and favipiravir are under trials for the treatment of this disease.
32869558 The addition of this conventional treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir, interferon, and convalescent plasma showed potential clinical improvement. […] For patients with MERS, ribavirin, lopinavir/ritonavir, interferon, and convalescent plasma were continuously recommended. […] The use of lopinavir/ritonavir and convalescent plasma was commonly reported.
32871594 Treatment, including lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine and corticosteroids, was administered in 23% of patients.
32871902 She was treated with Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin and Lopinavir/Ritonavir, and the rash with topical corticosteroids.
32874906 Ritonavir/lopinavir were administered to 5 patients whose respiratory conditions worsened during admission, all of whom improved.
32876224 The therapeutic agents evaluated were chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, tocilizumab, oseltamivir, interferon, atazanavir and anti SARS-CoV-2 serum.
32876229 SOLIDARITY is a mega clinical trial that recruited thousands of subjects with moderate to severe disease, who were randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups under evaluation, including hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir associated or not with interferon; or remdesivir compared to standard therapy.
32879113 Hot anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs include interferon α, ribavirin, lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine phosphate, abidol, as well as hydroxychloroquine sulfate and remdesivir.
32881266 Over half (116, 54%) the respondents intended to use lopinavir/ritonavir in confirmed cases of COVID-19 with severe disease.
32881350 All patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics, 4 received corticosteroids and 2 received both lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine.
32887670 They covered topics of chemoprophylaxis (including agents and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) agents), diagnosis (including clinical manifestations, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respiratory tract specimens, IgM and IgG antibody tests, chest computed tomography, chest x-ray, and CT features of asymptomatic infections), treatments (including lopinavir-ritonavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, interferon, remdesivir, combination of antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, glucocorticoid, qingfei paidu decoction, lianhua qingwen granules/capsules, convalescent plasma, lung transplantation, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)), and discharge management (including discharge criteria and management plan in patients whose RT-PCR retesting shows SARS-CoV-2 positive after discharge).
32888379 A thorough literature search was conducted to source information on the pharmacological properties of 5 drugs and 1 combination (azithromycin, chloroquine, favipiravir, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir) repurposed to treat COVID-19.
32889701 Number of drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, lopinavir, ritonavir, darunavir, arbidol, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab and interferons have shown inhibitory effects against the SARS-CoV2 in-vitro as well as in clinical conditions.
32891697 Among these pharmaceuticals, antiretrovirals such as lopinavir/ritonavir and remdesivir, antibiotics and antifungal agents can induce drug-induced liver injury (DILI), whose mechanisms are not always understood.
32894567 Lopinavir/ritonavir has been used for the treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus infections. […] We performed a systematic review of the literature regarding the use of lopinavir/ritonavir for the treatment of these three infections. […] We systematically searched the PubMed database from inception to April 30th, 2020, to identify in-vitro and animal studies and any reports of human use of lopinavir/ritonavir for the treatment of SARS, MERS and COVID-19. […] Five in-vitro studies evaluated the effect of lopinavir/ritonavir in SARS. […] Three additional in-vitro studies reported the EC50 of the antiviral activity of lopinavir/ritonavir in MERS. […] We identified no in vitro studies evaluating the effect of lopinavir/ritonavir on the novel coronavirus. […] Two retrospective matched-cohort studies reported the use of lopinavir/ritonavir in combination with ribavirin for SARS patients. […] Three case reports and one retrospective study described the use of lopinavir/ritonavir in MERS. […] Twenty-two papers describe the use of lopinavir/ritonavir in adult patients with COVID-19. […] The existing literature does not suffice for assessing whether Lopinavir/ritonavir has any benefit in SARS, MERS or COVID-19.
32904710 However, lopinavir-ritonavir, anakinra, and sarilumab had not proven their clinical efficacy.
32908681 Some reports described a possible ritonavir-related retinal toxicity. […] The objective of this research was to review and analyze previous studies conducted on ritonavir administration and retinal impairment in a narrative synthesis. […] PubMed was used to perform a systematic review of ritonavir effects and retinal damage. […] Seven single cases and one case series, reporting a total of 10 patients affected by retinal changes secondary to long-term ritonavir treatment, were included in the review. […] In the present study, we hypothesized that the use of ritonavir in life-saving treatments of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia might expose these patients to the risk of developing a retinotoxicity. […] We aimed to alert ophthalmologists on the importance of recognizing ritonavir-induced retinal impairment in SARS-CoV-2 patients.
32908736 Despite administration of multiple antiviral drugs, including lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, and favipiravir, the patient’s condition did not improve.
32910347 The human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors (lopinavir/ritonavir) has been recommended in the global Solidarity Trial in March launched by World Health Organization. […] We evaluated the antiviral efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir along with other two viral protease inhibitors in vitro, and discussed the possible inhibitory mechanism in silico. […] The in vitro to in vivo extrapolation was carried out to assess whether lopinavir/ritonavir could be effective in clinical. […] However, further in vitro to in vivo extrapolation of pharmacokinetics suggested that lopinavir/ritonavir could not reach effective concentration under standard dosing regimen [marketed as Kaletra®, contained lopinavir/ritonavir (200 mg/50 mg) tablets, recommended dosage is 400 mg/10 mg (2 tablets) twice daily]. […] This research concluded that lopinavir/ritonavir should be stopped for clinical use due to the huge gap between in vitro IC50 and free plasma concentration.
32911432 Here, our aim was to investigate small molecules, including lopinavir and ritonavir, α-ketoamide 13b, and ebselen, for their ability to interact with the Mpro.
32911619 Patients treated with lopinavir + ritonavir or antiplatelet therapy during admission had lower RPCP-FI and RPCP-PD.
  1. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether to take lopinavir/ritonavir (kaletra).
32918548 The panel recommends against the use of hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir-ritonavir (or other protease inhibitors) for COVID-19 in children.
32918656 Lopinavir-ritonavir combination is being used for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] A low dose of ritonavir is added to other protease inhibitors to take advantage of potent inhibition of cytochrome (CYP) P450 3A4, thereby significantly increasing the plasma concentration of coadministered lopinavir. […] Ritonavir also inhibits CYP2D6 and induces CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, and CYP1A2. […] This potent, time-dependent interference of major hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes by ritonavir leads to several clinically important drug-drug interactions. […] Lopinavir-ritonavir is added to their prescription of multiple cardiac medications leading to potential drug-drug interactions.
32920000 Improvement of COVID-19 clinical condition was seen in studies where combination of antiretroviral drugs, lopinavir and ritonavir, as well as immunomodulant antimalaric, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine together with the macrolide-type antibiotic, azithromycin, was used for patient’s treatment. […] Thus, by using in silico toxicogenomic data-mining approach, we aimed to assess both risks and benefits of the COVID-19 treatment with the most promising candidate drugs combinations: lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin. […] Our results have demonstrated that lopinavir/ritonavir increased the expression of the genes involved in immune response and lipid metabolism (IL6, ICAM1, CCL2, TNF, APOA1, etc.). […] In contrast to lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin downregulated the expression of TNF and IL6. […] As expected, inflammation, cardiotoxicity, and dyslipidaemias were revealed as the main risks of lopinavir/ritonavir treatment, while chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin therapy was additionally linked to gastrointestinal and skin diseases.
32922210 Recently, four large Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) have been performed in record time delivering reliable data: (1) the National Institutes of Health (NIH) RCT included 60 hospitals participating all over the world and showed the efficacy of remdesivir in reducing the recovery time in hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia; (2) three large RCTs already completed, for hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone and Lopinavir and Ritonavir respectively. […] These three ‘Recovery’ RCTs concluded definitely: (a) that treatment with hydroxychloroquine provides no benefits in patients hospitalized with COVID-19; (b) that treatment with dexamethasone reduced deaths by one-third in COVID-19 patients that were mechanically ventilated, and by one-fifth in patients receiving oxygen only; (c) that the combination of Lopinavir and Ritonavir is not effective in reducing mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients.
32924650 The narrative synthesis revealed three key themes (1) Use of antivirals only (such as lopinavir, umifenovir, and remdesivir), (2) Use of lopinavir-ritonavir alongside other treatments, and (3) Use of other antivirals in combination with other treatments.
32924827 The results indicated that, Ritonavir has the highest potency to block SARS-CoV-2 main protease and human TMPRSS2, a host cell factor that aids viral infection. […] These results suggest that protease inhibitors particularly Ritonavir, either alone or in combination with other drugs such as Atazanavir, have the potential to treat COVID 19.
32924964 Among the proposed therapeutic regimen, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, remdisevir, azithromycin, toclizumab and cromostat mesylate have shown promising results, and limited benefit was seen with lopinavir-ritonavir treatment in hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19.
32926918 Based on early experience, different treatment such as anti-viral drugs (remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir), corticosteroids (methylprednisolone, dexamethasone) or convalescent plasma therapy are recommended in addition to supportive care and symptomatic therapy.
32929403 Pregnancy was an exclusion criterion for 69% (75/109) of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, 80% (28/35) of lopinavir/ritonavir, and 48% (44/91) of convalescent plasma studies.
32940880 She had initially been treated with lopinavir/ritonavir and ciclesonide for 5 days, but developed severe pneumonia requiring invasive positive-pressure ventilation.
32941437 Meta-analysis showed no evidence of a difference between lopinavir-ritonavir versus standard care on serious adverse events (RR 0.64; 95% CI 0.39-1.04; p = 0.07, I2 = 0%; 2 trials; very low certainty) or nonserious adverse events (RR 1.14; 95% CI 0.85-1.53; p = 0.38, I2 = 75%; 2 trials; very low certainty).
32942296 In this study, we use the ligand-protein docking program and molecular dynamic simulation to ab initio investigate the binding mechanism and inhibitory ability of seven clinically approved drugs (Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Ritonavir, Beclabuvir, Indinavir and Favipiravir) and a recently designed α-ketoamide inhibitor (13b) at the molecular level.
32942923 In this report, we consolidate and review the available clinically and preclinically relevant results emanating from in vitro animal models and clinical studies of drugs approved for emergency use as a treatment for COVID-19, including remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir-ritonavir combinations.
32948577 There are also at least 25 registered trials of azithromycin (n=53), convalescent plasma (n=38), lopinavir/ritonavir (n=30), stem cell treatments (n=29) and tocilizumab (n=25). 142 trials were registered in the first 3 months of 2020, and 488 trials were registered between 1 April and 1 May 2020.
32951300 Her respiratory tract samples turned positive again afterwards, and she was treated with lopinavir-ritonavir.
32953990 To determine the prevalence of potential interactions in COVID19 patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r).
32958495 DisCoVeRy is a phase III, open-label, adaptive, controlled, multicentre clinical trial in which hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in need of oxygen therapy are randomised between five arms: (1) a control group managed with SoC and four therapeutic arms with re-purposed antiviral agents: (2) remdesivir + SoC, (3) lopinavir/ritonavir + SoC, (4) lopinavir/ritonavir associated with interferon (IFN)-β-1a + SoC and (5) hydroxychloroquine + SoC.
32958501 Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) (RR=0.90; 95% CI 0.76 to 1.07) and Arbidol (RR=1.09; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.29) were not associated with the negative conversion rate.
32960147 Seven hundred sixty-one (93.4%) were treated with a combination of oral antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine) with intramuscular administration of IFN-α2b (Heberon® Alpha R, Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Havana, Cuba), 3 times per week, for 2 weeks.
32961675 Combined hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin or lopinavir/ritonavir was found in 40% of protocols. […] The recommended treatment for patients with mild and moderate pneumonias was different antiviral combinations including hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (93.3%) or hydroxychloroquine plus lopinavir/ritonavir (79.9%). […] Different combinations of hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir (46.7%) and triple therapy with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir (40%) were the most recommended treatments for patients with severe pneumonia.
32963819 Ocular side effects have also been reported with other investigational drugs like lopinavir-ritonavir, interferons, and interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 inhibitors.
32964098 In this article, we provide a brief overview of the protocol and then analyse the QT changes observed in a group of patients during their hospitalization and treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection. 81 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled in the protocol (age 63.4 SD 17.2 years; 70.3% men), while being treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine, both individually or combined.
32965013 There are several potential medications available for COVID-19, such as Interferon α (IFN-α), Teicoplanin, Ribavirin, Galidesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Chloroquine phosphate, Arbidol, Velpatasvir, Favipiravir, Ledipasvir, Remdesivir, Sofosbuvir, Darunavir, Qingfei Paidu Decoction (QPD), and Imatinib.
32969369 There are ongoing clinical trials on potential drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids tocilizumab, azithromycin, anakinra, etc. and other therapeutic modalities like convalescent plasma therapy.
32974268 The drugs most actively tested in various centers include hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, azithromycin, tocilizumab, lopinavir chloroquine and ivermectin.
32978702 Numerous drugs have been repurposed and investigated for therapeutic effectiveness in the disease, including those from “Solidarity,” an international clinical trial (azithromycin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, the fixed combination lopinavir/ritonavir, and remdesivir).
32984561 He had received combination treatment with interferon beta 1b and lopinavir/ritonavir.
32989996 Many patients however receive off-label antivirals such as lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin and/or chloroquine and /or interferons. […] Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, distress syndrome, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, chloroquine, interferons.
32991900 Antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, darunavir, lopinavir, zanamivir, peramivir, and oseltamivir, have also been tested as treatments for COVID-19.
32997237 The following variables were extracted for this study: age, gender, temperature, and saturation of oxygen on admission, treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, heparin, steroids, tocilizumab, a combination of lopinavir with ritonavir, and oseltamivir, together with data on mortality.
33001040 Statistical analysis on drug administration after admission showed that the usage rates of lopinavir/ritonavir, glucocorticoids, and thymopeptides were significantly higher in the abnormal group than the normal groups (p<0.05).
33008327 The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous injection of interferon alpha-2b (IFN alpha-2b) combined with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in the treatment of COVID-19 infection, compared with that of using LPV/r alone.
33013255 From the flexible docking results, the following four FDA approved drugs Sincalide, Pentagastrin, Ritonavir, and Phytonadione were identified.
33014380 This review aims to collect and summarize a list of drugs used to treat COVID-19, including dexamethasone, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, tociluzimab, nitazoxanide and ivermectin.
33014523 Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that male gender (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.02-1.46), receiving lopinavir/ritonavir treatment within 7 days from illness onset (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63-0.90), and receiving systemic glucocorticoid therapy (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.46-2.21) were independent factors associated with prolonged viral shedding.
33015628 Classification of eight drug molecules (atazanavir, darunavir, fosamprenavir (amprenavir-metabolised product), saquinavir, lopinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir, and indinavir) based on their molecular structures was completed and reported. […] The binding scores of the drugs on protease followed the order saquinavir > nelfinavir > lopinavir = indinavir > darunavir > amprenavir > ritonavir > atazanavir.
33020690 Pharmacological treatments including antivirals (Lopinavir/Ritonavir), Immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory drugs including, Tocilizumab and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been widely investigated as a treatment for COVID-19.
33020836 This observational study enrolled patients with moderate to severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia [arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) <200 mmHg] who received lopinavir/ritonavir and HCQ plus either corticosteroids (CS group, n = 50) or corticosteroids and baricitinib (BCT-CS group, n = 62).
33022569 Under this scenario, the combination of two HIV-1 protease inhibitors, lopinavir and ritonavir, has attracted attention since they have been previously employed against the SARS-CoV main proteinase (Mpro) and exhibited some signs of effectiveness. […] Similar studies were performed with lopinavir and ritonavir coupled to monomeric and dimeric SARS-CoV Mpro and SARS-CoV2 Mpro to compare the inhibitory differences. […] Our study provides the structural and energetic basis of the inhibitory properties of lopinavir and ritonavir on SARS-CoV Mpro and SARS-CoV2 Mpro, allowing us to identify two FDA-approved drugs that can be used against SARS-CoV2 Mpro.
33023552 On day 4 of admission, with suspicion of COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir and oseltamivir were added to the antibiotic regimen.
33023821 All patients received antiviral therapy based on ritonavir and lopinavir, associated with hydroxychloroquine.
33025225 Comparison of antiviral strategies (none, hydroxychloroquine (OHQ), lopinavir/ritonavir (L/R), others (combination or remdesivir) in an observational multicentre cohort of patients with moderate-to-severe Covid-19 ARDS. […] Take home message Neither hydroxychloroquine nor lopinavir/ritonavir as COVID-19 antiviral treatment is associated with higher ventilator-free days at day 28 when compared with standard of care (no antiviral treatment) in ICU patients under invasive mechanical ventilation. […] Lopinavir/ritonavir is associated with an increased risk of renal replacement therapy requirement. […] Lopinavir/ritonavir may be associated with need for RRT.
33026741 Whether combined treatment with recombinant interferon beta-1b and lopinavir-ritonavir reduces mortality among patients hospitalized with Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is unclear. […] Hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed MERS were randomly assigned to receive recombinant interferon beta-1b plus lopinavir-ritonavir (intervention) or placebo for 14 days. […] A combination of recombinant interferon beta-1b and lopinavir-ritonavir led to lower mortality than placebo among patients who had been hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed MERS.
33029451 Based on available evidence, antivirals like lopinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir specific medication like chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, corticosteroids, and intravenous gamma globulin, are not recommended, so early detection and supportive treatment is needed for an optimal outcome.
33030105 Finally, a long MD analysis revealed two select candidate ligands, including ritonavir and naloxegol, highly stabilizing those key residues engaged in RBD-hACE2 interaction. […] Because of the crucial role of the S protein in virus virulence, our results highly propose ritonavir and naloxegol as the potentially helpful therapeutics against COVID-19, mandating appropriate clinical trials.
33031729 Lopinavir-ritonavir combination and azithromycin treatments were given, and the patient’s symptoms regressed with treatment.
33031764 Lopinavir-ritonavir has been proposed as a treatment for COVID-19 on the basis of in vitro activity, preclinical studies, and observational studies. […] Here, we report the results of a randomised trial to assess whether lopinavir-ritonavir improves outcomes in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. […] Eligible and consenting patients were randomly allocated to either usual standard of care alone or usual standard of care plus lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg, respectively) by mouth for 10 days or until discharge (or one of the other RECOVERY treatment groups: hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone, or azithromycin) using web-based simple (unstratified) randomisation with allocation concealment. […] Between March 19, 2020, and June 29, 2020, 1616 patients were randomly allocated to receive lopinavir-ritonavir and 3424 patients to receive usual care. […] Overall, 374 (23%) patients allocated to lopinavir-ritonavir and 767 (22%) patients allocated to usual care died within 28 days (rate ratio 1·03, 95% CI 0·91-1·17; p=0·60). […] In patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, lopinavir-ritonavir was not associated with reductions in 28-day mortality, duration of hospital stay, or risk of progressing to invasive mechanical ventilation or death. […] These findings do not support the use of lopinavir-ritonavir for treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19.
33031797 Conversely, drugs with poor lung distributions, including lopinavir/ritonavir, umifenovir and remdesivir, were insufficient to inhibit viral replication. […] Lopinavir/ritonavir might inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in the GI tract according to their distribution profiles.
33033687 Eleven critical cases received lopinavir/ritonavir (8.2%).
33041111 According to level 1 evidence reviewed here, the most effective SARS-Co-V-2 pharmacologic treatments include remdesivir for mild to severe disease, and a triple regimen therapy consisting of lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin and interferon beta-1b for mild to moderate disease.
33041712 Though data are limited, antiviral therapies such as remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and other drugs like hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine have been used for severe COVID-19 cases, with remdesivir showing the greatest promise.
33041830 These include antivirals (remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, umifenovir, and favipiravir), interferon, antimalarials (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine), antiparasitic drugs (ivermectin and nitazoxanide), biologics (monoclonal antibodies and interleukin receptor antagonist), cellular therapies (mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells), convalescent plasma, and cytokine adsorber.
33042544 The combination therapy of Lopinavir/Ritonavir plus Favipiravir might be a treatment option for patients with COVID-19.
33042826 In our series, hospitalization rate was 74%, 39% of patients developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and the case-fatality rate was 35% (8/23). 87% of patients received anti-viral treatment (87% hydroxychloroquine, 74% lopinavir/ritonavir, 13% azithromycin), 43% corticosteroids, 26% interferon-β, 4% tocilizumab, and 82% of hospitalized patients received anticoagulation.
33043250 She was treated with hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir as per hospital protocol.
33043651 All the patients received antiviral treatment, either lopinavir/ritonavir or oseltamivir.
33046764 Seven HIV inhibitors, darunavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and tipranavir, were used as the potential lead drugs to investigate access to the drug binding sites in Mpro.
33048175 To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for lopinavir boosted by ritonavir in coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) patients. […] Concentrations of lopinavir/ritonavir were assayed by an accredited LC-MS/MS method. […] After determination of the base model that better described the data set, the influence of covariates (age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), gender, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), C reactive protein (CRP), and trough ritonavir concentrations) was tested on the model. […] From 13 hospitalized patients (4 females, 9 males, age = 64 ± 16 years), 70 lopinavir/ritonavir plasma concentrations were available for analysis. […] Among the covariates tested on the PK parameters, only the ritonavir trough concentrations had a significant effect on CL/F and improved the fit. […] Model-based simulations with the final parameter estimates under a regimen lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg b.i.d. showed a high variability with median concentration between 20 and 30 mg/L (Cmin/Cmax) and the 90% prediction intervals within the range 1-100 mg/L.
33048786 The results show a high rate of adverse events (10/23, 43%) in treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir. […] Even though the limitations of our study derived from the small sample size, these results could help in building evidence about the safety of using lopinavir/ritonavir for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33049737 Chloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravi, lopinavir, ribavirin or ritonavir have shown efficacy to inhibit coronavirus in vitro.