DrugBank ID: db00503
DrugCentral: ritonavir
Synonymous :ritonavir | ritonavirum

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of ritonavir gene in 184 abstracts.

pmid sentence
31996494 Lopinavir /Ritonavir, Nucleoside analogues, Neuraminidase inhibitors, Remdesivir, peptide (EK1), abidol, RNA synthesis inhibitors (such as TDF, 3TC), anti-inflammatory drugs (such as hormones and other molecules), Chinese traditional medicine, such ShuFengJieDu Capsules and Lianhuaqingwen Capsule, could be the drug treatment options for 2019-nCoV.
32023685 Drugs are possibly effective for 2019-nCoV include: remdesivir, lopinavir / ritonavir, lopinavir / ritonavir combined with interferon-β, convalescent plasma, and monoclonal antibodies.
32037389 All the patients were given antiviral treatment including lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra®), arbidol, and Shufeng Jiedu Capsule (SFJDC, a traditional Chinese medicine) and other necessary support care. […] The efficacy of antiviral treatment including lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, and SFJDC warrants further verification in future study.
32056407 Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
32057209 Combination of Ribavirin and Interferon-α is recommended by the 5(th) edition National Health Commission’s Regimen (Revised Edition) because of the effect on MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), and the effectiveness of Lopinavir/Ritonavir and Remdisivir needs to be confirmed by randomized controlled trial (RCT), given the situation of no specific antivirus drug on NCP is unavailable.
32062875 Twenty patients were treated with lopinavir and ritonavir.
32096367 Early antiviral treatment could alleviate disease severity and prevent illness progression, and we found lopinavir/ritonavir combined with abidol showed antiviraleffects in COVID-19.
32125362 Clinical course was summarized, including requirement for supplemental oxygen and intensive care and use of empirical treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir. […] Five individuals requiring supplemental oxygen were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir. […] Four of the 5 patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir developed nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhea, and 3 developed abnormal liver function test results.
32138488 Management is primarily supportive, with newer antivirals (lopinavir ritonavir and Remdesivir) under investigation.
32152082 In addition, a combination of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors, lopinavir/ritonavir, and interferon beta (LPV/RTV-INFb) were shown to be effective in patients infected with SARS-CoV.
32164424 Similar to outbreaks of other newly identified virus, there is no proven regimen from conventional medicine and most reports managed the patients with lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, beta-interferon, glucocorticoid and supportive treatment with remdesivir undergoing clinical trial.
32171866 The Lopinavir and Ritonavir Tablets, Chinese medicine, oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation were statistically different in the elderly group and the young and middle-aged group, and the P values were all <0.05.
32171872 We aimed to compare arbidol and lopinavir/ritonavir(LPV/r) treatment for patients with COVID-19 with LPV/r only.
32179150 Chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, ribavirin and ritonavir have shown efficacy to inhibit coronavirus in vitro.
32187464 Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg, respectively) twice a day for 14 days, in addition to standard care, or standard care alone. […] A total of 199 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent randomization; 99 were assigned to the lopinavir-ritonavir group, and 100 to the standard-care group. […] Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir was not associated with a difference from standard care in the time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio for clinical improvement, 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.72). […] Mortality at 28 days was similar in the lopinavir-ritonavir group and the standard-care group (19.2% vs. […] In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, lopinavir-ritonavir led to a median time to clinical improvement that was shorter by 1 day than that observed with standard care (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.91). […] Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common in the lopinavir-ritonavir group, but serious adverse events were more common in the standard-care group. […] Lopinavir-ritonavir treatment was stopped early in 13 patients (13.8%) because of adverse events. […] In hospitalized adult patients with severe Covid-19, no benefit was observed with lopinavir-ritonavir treatment beyond standard care.
32202256 In view of the earlier evidence about effectiveness of repurposed lopinavir/ritonavir against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (CoV), as well as preliminary docking studies conducted by the ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization approved the restricted public health use of lopinavir/ritonavir combination amongst symptomatic COVID-19 patients detected in the country. […] Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with any one of the following criteria will be eligible to receive lopinavir/ritonavir for 14 days after obtaining written informed consent: (i) respiratory distress with respiratory rate ≥22/min or SpO2 of <94 per cent; (ii) lung parenchymal infiltrates on chest X-ray; (iii) hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or need for vasopressor/inotropic medication; (iv) new-onset organ dysfunction; and (v) high-risk groups - age >60 yr, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, chronic lung disease and immunocompromised persons.
32210741 Our results showed that several HIV inhibitors such as lopinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir produce strong interaction with the active site of SARS-CoV-2 main protease.
32219357 She was treated with dobutamine, antiviral drugs (lopinavir/ritonavir), steroids, chloroquine, and medical treatment for heart failure, with progressive clinical and instrumental stabilization.
32220650 All children received interferon alfa by aerosolisation twice a day, 14 (39%) received lopinavir-ritonavir syrup twice a day, and six (17%) needed oxygen inhalation.
32227274 Furthermore, COVID-19 mRNA clearance time was positively correlated with the length of hospital stay in patients treated with either IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir or IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir + ribavirin. […] Therapeutic regimens of IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir and IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir + ribavirin might be beneficial for treatment of COVID-19.
32228827 The drugs predicted by EpiMed’s apparent precision treatment prediction platform for disease-drug association analysis are mainly TNF-α inhibitors, resveratrol, ritonavir, paeony, retinoic acid, forsythia, and houttuynia cordata. Conclusions: The abnormal activation of multiple inflammatory pathways may be the cause of heart failure in patients after coronavirus infection. […] Resveratrol, ritonavir, retinoic acid, amaranth, forsythia, houttuynia may have therapeutic effects.
32243270 This review summarizes the current evidence of potential therapeutic agents, such as lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, interferon, ribavirin, tocilizumab and sarilumab.
32246834 In addition to the recommended antiviral drugs such as interferon-ɑ, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, and chloroquine phosphate, some clinical trials focusing on virus RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitors have been registered and initiated.
32256547 We identified 24 clinical trials, involving more than 20 medicines, such as human immunoglobulin, interferons, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, methylprednisolone, bevacizumab, and traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). […] Se identificaron 24 ensayos clínicos relacionados con más de 20 medicamentos, como inmunoglobulina humana, interferones, cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, metilprednisolona, bevacizumab y medicina tradicional china. […] Foram identificados 24 ensaios clínicos envolvendo mais de 20 medicamentos, tais como imunoglobulina humana, interferons, cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, metilprednisolona, bevacizumabe e medicamentos chineses tradicionais.
32271456 The study aimed to investigate whether lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in combination with other pneumonia-associated adjuvant drugs has a better therapeutic effect on COVID-19.
32277367 Antiviral drugs like lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir and remdesivir are also being explored.
32277555 This case states the importance of close monitoring of the concentration of ciclosporin in patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, routine treatment of corticosteroid can be continued.
32279418 Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir were started, and the antiviral drug was replaced with darunavir/cobicistat after two days for diarrhea.
32280433 The result showed that atazanavir, an antiretroviral medication used to treat and prevent the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is the best chemical compound, showing an inhibitory potency with Kd of 94.94 nM against the SARS-CoV-2 3C-like proteinase, followed by remdesivir (113.13 nM), efavirenz (199.17 nM), ritonavir (204.05 nM), and dolutegravir (336.91 nM). […] Interestingly, lopinavir, ritonavir, and darunavir are all designed to target viral proteinases. […] In addition, we also found that several antiviral agents, such as Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir), could be used for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2.
32283143 Lopinavir/ritonavir and arbidol have been previously used to treat acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication in clinical practice; nevertheless, their effectiveness remains controversial. […] In this study, we evaluated the antiviral effects and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir and arbidol in patients with the 2019-nCoV disease (COVID-19). […] Fifty patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were divided into two groups: including lopinavir/ritonavir group (34 cases) and arbidol group (16 cases). […] Lopinavir/ritonavir group received 400mg/100mg of Lopinavir/ritonavir, twice a day for a week, while the arbidol group was given 0.2g arbidol, three times a day. […] On day 14 after the admission, no viral load was detected in arbidol group, but the viral load was found in 15(44.1%) patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir. […] Patients in the arbidol group had a shorter duration of positive RNA test compared to those in the lopinavir/ritonavir group (P<0.01). […] In conclusion, our data indicate that arbidol monotherapy may be superior to lopinavir/ritonavir in treating COVID-19.
32283325 There was no statistical difference between groups in medications taken before hospitalization; a significantly higher proportion of patients with abnormal liver function (57.8%) had received lopinavir/ritonavir after admission compared to patients with normal liver function (31.3%). […] A significantly higher proportion of patients with abnormal liver function had received lopinavir/ritonavir after admission; these drugs should be given with caution.
32293834 The most frequently used agents both in Turkey and all over the world including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir and remdesivir will be reviewed here .
32293875 However, a combination of two HIV-1 protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir has been found to be effective against SARS-CoV, and both drugs could bind well to the SARS-CoV 3C-like protease (SARS-CoV 3CLpro). […] Ritonavir showed somewhat higher atomic contacts, binding efficiency and key binding residues than that of lopinavir in correspondence with slightly less water accessibility at the 3CLpro active site. […] In addition, only ritonavir could interact with the oxyanion hole residues N142 and G143 via two hydrogen bond formations.
32297571 In particular, several cases of recovered patients havebeen reported after being treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (which is widely used to treat humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection) in combination with the anti-flu drug oseltamivir.
32298767 The use of lopinavir/ritonavir was also found to lead to increased odds of liver injury (OR from 4.44 to 5.03, both p <0.01).
32299753 This document attempts to provide reasonable guidance for the use of antimicrobials which have uncertain benefit but may increase risk of QT interval prolongation and ventricular proarrhythmia, notably, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
32301155 Lopinavir/ritonavir (usually associated with hydroxychloroquine) was used in 50.0% of patients and had to be prematurely discontinued in 2 of them.
32303672 SARS-CoV-2 was detected and antiviral therapy with Lopinavir/Ritonavir, associated with hydroxychloroquine, was promptly started.
32306822 Cobicistat, ritonavir, lopinavir, and darunavir are in the top screened molecules from FDA approved drugs.
32307245 The protease inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) alone is not shown to provide better antiviral efficacy than standard care.
32309622 Potential therapeutic strategies, including remdesivir, chloroquine phosphate, abidol, lopinavir/ritonavir, plasma, antibody, vaccine and stem cells are discussed in this review.
32309809 The results depicted that adding Lopinavir-Ritonavir to the standard treatment regimen of patients with severe COVID-19 has no benefits.
32313662 Lopinavir/ritonavir was given; continuous renal replacement therapy was also introduced.
32314010 The patient was treated with antiviral agents (lopinavir/ritonavir), and treatment with cDMARDs was discontinued except hydroxychloroquine.
32317225 He was successfully treated in the intensive care unit with mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory support; and antiretroviral treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir.
32324352 Lopinavir/ritonavir is not effective.
32324898 The ADR could be explained by the use of lopinavir/ ritonavir and umifenovir by 63.8% and 18.1%, respectively.
32328850 Particularly, drugs that show superior maternal and fetal safety are worthy of consideration for pregnant women with COVID-19, such as chloroquine, metformin, statins, lobinavir/ritonavir, glycyrrhizic acid, and nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery (NMDD), etc.
32329231 All consecutive patients on DOACs were candidates for administration of antiviral agents (lopinavir, ritonavir, or darunavir).
32329520 Drug repositioning may offer a strategy and a number of drugs have been repurposed, including lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir and tocilizumab.
32329879 However, the current treatment options include hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir (Kaletra®), and nitazoxanide.
32329881 Patients were also treated with anticoagulant therapy with Enoxaparin 4000 IU/day via subcutaneous injection, antiviral therapy with Lopinavir 800 mg/day + Ritonavir 200 mg/day, hydroxychloroquine 400 mg/day, ceftriaxone 2 g/day IV, vitamine C 6 g/day for 4 days, and were on Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV).
32330817 Patients also received lopinivir/ritonavir (82%), hydroxychloroquine (79%), and tocilizumab (12%) according to this treatment algorithm.
32331982 An increase of Ct values was 0.9 per day in 2 cases of COVID-19 treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), an increase was 1.0 per day in 3 cases without LPV/r through illness day 1-10, indicating that LPV/r did not shorten the duration of SARS CoV-2 shedding.
32337790 The clinical course was complicated by extreme overexposure to the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus, following coadministration of chloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir therapy.
32337859 Following administration of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine with reduced immunosuppressant, he recovered from COVID-19.
32338347 In severe pneumonia and critically ill children, trial of hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir/ritonavir should be considered.
32339832 Without much experience, currently, the medicines that are clinically being evaluated for COVID-19 include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, lopinavir, ritonavir, tocilizumab and corticosteroids.
32342677 We experienced a case of severe thrombocytopenia with epistaxis and petechiae, while treating a COVID-19 patient with ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
32343413 Both patients were already on lopinavir/ritonavir before tocilizumab (added day 9 and day 13) was added.
32346491 Herein, we examine the effects of Favipiravir (FPV) versus Lopinavir (LPV)/ritonavir (RTV) for the treatment of COVID-19.
32348232 The patient was hospitalized and treated with Oseltamivir 75 mg every 12 hours, Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra) 400/100 mg every 12 hours and hydroxychloroquine 400 mg stat.
32350686 According to the CDC and Chinese treatment guidelines for COVID-19, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and one of the investigational agents (remdesivir) are recommended in critically ill older patients.
32352535 Cardiovascular considerations of therapies currently used, including remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, ribavirin, interferons, and lopinavir/ritonavir, as well as experimental therapies, such as human recombinant ACE2 (rhACE2), are discussed.
32352944 Interferon-alpha (5 million U twice daily by inhalation), lopinavir/ritonavir (400/100 mg twice daily orally), as well as chloroquine (500 mg twice daily orally for 10 days) and azithromycin (500 mg twice per day) cause a milder course of the disease and reduce the duration of treatment.
32354369 The patient received combination of interferonalfa-1b and ribavirin, lopinavir and ritonavir for antiviral treatment at different stages.
32357553 Currently, antiviral drugs, including chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir, have shown effective inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
32358890 A variety of repurposed drugs and investigational drugs such as remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, lopinavir, interferon-beta, and other potential drugs have been studied for COVID19 treatment.
32359771 As the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) global pandemic rages across the globe, the race to prevent and treat this deadly disease has led to the “off-label” repurposing of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, which have the potential for unwanted QT-interval prolongation and a risk of drug-induced sudden cardiac death.
32360480 Further, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and off-label antiviral drugs, such as the nucleotide analogue remdesivir, HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir, broad-spectrum antiviral drugs arbidol and favipiravir as well as antiviral phytochemicals available to date may limit spread of SARS-CoV-2 and morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 pandemic.
32360583 We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), and WANFANG DATA for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective cohort, and retrospective cohort studies that evaluated therapies (hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir-based therapy, and ribavirin-based therapy, etc.) for SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. […] The lopinavir/ritonavir-based combination showed superior virological eradication and radiographical improvement with reduced rate of ARDS. […] Lopinavir/ritonavir combinations might observe better virological eradication capability than other anti-coronavirus agents.
32362193 The patients were treated with four combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir tablets, arbidol tablets, Lianhuaqingwen granules, and recombinant human interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) injection via aerosol. […] It should be noted that lopinavir/ritonavir tablets have many drug interactions and are the most likely drugs to cause hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in these two patients.
32362245 All the studied molecules could bind to the active site of the SARS-CoV-2 protease (PDB: 6Y84), out of which rutin (a natural compound) has the highest inhibitor efficiency among the 33 molecules studied, followed by ritonavir (control drug), emetine (anti-protozoal), hesperidin (a natural compound), lopinavir (control drug) and indinavir (anti-viral drug).
32362644 In view of the earlier evidence about effectiveness of repurposed lopinavir/ritonavir against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (CoV), as well as preliminary docking studies conducted by the ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization approved the restricted public health use of lopinavir/ritonavir combination amongst symptomatic COVID-19 patients detected in the country. […] Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with any one of the following criteria will be eligible to receive lopinavir/ritonavir for 14 days after obtaining written informed consent: (i) respiratory distress with respiratory rate ≥22/min or SpO2of <94 per cent; (ii) lung parenchymal infiltrates on chest X-ray; (iii) hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or need for vasopressor/inotropic medication; (iv) new-onset organ dysfunction; and (v) high-risk groups - age >60 yr, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, chronic lung disease and immunocompromised persons.
32363219 The current study, aims to predict theoretical structure for protease of COVID-19 and to explore further whether this protein can serve as a target for protease inhibitor drugs such as remdesivir, nelfinavir, lopinavir, ritonavir and α-ketoamide.
32363963 This is a report of a case with mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) with severe eye involvement and concurrent COVID-19 treated successfully using simultaneous high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and anti-viral treatment as hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and ribavirin.
32364041 The covalent docking showed that saquinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir, delavirdine, cefuroxime axetil, oseltamivir and prevacid have the highest binding energies MMGBSA of -72.17, -72.02, -65.19, -57.65, -54.25, -51.8, and -51.14 kcal/mol, respectively. […] The 50 ns molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for saquinavir, ritonavir and remdesivir to evaluate the stability of these drugs inside the binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 main protease.
32367767 The docking scores were compared with 3CLpro-referenced inhibitors (Lopinavir and Ritonavir). […] This ligand-protein interaction study revealed that more than half of the top twenty alkaloids and terpenoids interacted favourably with the coronaviruses 3CLpro, and had binding affinities that surpassed that of lopinavir and ritonavir.
32372695 Similarly, other investigational drugs such as favipiravir and lopinavir/ritonavir can prolong QT interval and cause Torsade de Pointes.
32373997 No sufficient results have been reached by the use of interferon (IFN), lopinavir/ritonavir, orbidol, and oseltamivir in the treatment of the coronaviruses infection.
32378314 Despite reduction in immunosuppression and treatment with tocilizumab, intravenous immunoglobulin, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and broad-spectrum antibiotics, she ultimately died from multiorgan failure.
32379199 The duration of nasopharyngeal virus shedding lasted for 49 days even with the administration of lopinavir/ritonavir for 8 days.
32386448 The antimalarials, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and the antivirals Lopinavir/Ritonavir have been recently recorded as having anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) effects.1 In particular, regarding Italy, one of the countries most affected by the pandemic, the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical disease (Lombardy section) has recommended the use of HCQ for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32388331 On the contrary, direct β-cell damage, cytokine-induced insulin resistance, hypokalemia and drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19 (like corticosteroids, lopinavir/ritonavir) can contribute to worsening of glucose control in people with diabetes mellitus.
32388937 Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19 in the real world. Methods: The clinical data of 178 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 admitted to Guangzhou Eighth People’s Hospital were retrospectively analyzed from January 21 to February 9, 2020.
32389518 The most used treatments were hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir-ritonavir, and steroids. […] Mortality is high and reaches 23%; deceased patients were more frequently on ICH, developed pneumonia more frequently, and received less frequently lopinavir-ritonavir and steroids.
32390367 All patients received antibiotic therapy, and most (97/98 patients; 99.0%) received antiviral therapy (lopinavir/ritonavir).
32391234 He positively responded to a 14-day course of Lopinavir-Ritonavir, Ribavirin, Azithromycin, and Hydroxychloroquine.
32391658 Early antiviral treatment could alleviate disease severity and prevent illness progression, and we found lopinavir/ritonavir combined with abidol showed antiviral effects in COVID-19.
32391999 Recently, the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment published treatment options for antiviral treatment for COVID-19 where chloroquine was suggested as first choice for off-label treatment, beside remdesivir en lopinavir/ritonavir.
32394467 Neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir, peramivir, and zanamivir are invalid for 2019-nCoV and are not recommended for treatment but protease inhibitors such as lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) inhibit the progression of MERS-CoV disease and can be useful for patients of COVID-19 and, in combination with Arbidol, has a direct antiviral effect on early replication of SARS-CoV.
32399456 A 52-year-old patient with SARS-CoV-2 was diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia and treated with darunavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).
32400965 Faced with this novel coronavirus, scientists have been trying to use drugs that have not been validated by rigorous clinical trials, such as lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32401715 We assessed the efficacy and safety of combined interferon beta-1b, lopinavir-ritonavir, and ribavirin for treating patients with COVID-19. […] Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to a 14-day combination of lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg every 12 h, ribavirin 400 mg every 12 h, and three doses of 8 million international units of interferon beta-1b on alternate days (combination group) or to 14 days of lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg every 12 h (control group). […] One patient in the control group discontinued lopinavir-ritonavir because of biochemical hepatitis. […] Early triple antiviral therapy was safe and superior to lopinavir-ritonavir alone in alleviating symptoms and shortening the duration of viral shedding and hospital stay in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19.
32404786 All patients were treated with interferon, 6 cases combined with Ribavirin, and 12 cases combined with lopinavir or ritonavir. […] There was no significant difference of RNA turning negative between the groups of interferon, interferon plus ribavirin and interferon plus lopinavir or ritonavir treatment.
32405160 Patients admitted before March 13th (n=23) were prescribed the standard therapy (hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir and ritonavir) and were considered controls.
32405245 Patients were administered neuraminidase inhibitors (20%), lopinavir/ritonavir (32.9%), and ciclesonide inhalation (11.4%).
32405421 Comparator drugs were oseltamivir, umifenovir, lopinavir/ritonavir or placebo.
32405423 Minimum estimated costs of production were US $0.93/day for remdesivir, $1.45/day for favipiravir, $0.08/day for hydroxychloroquine, $0.02/day for chloroquine, $0.10/day for azithromycin, $0.28/day for lopinavir/ritonavir, $0.39/day for sofosbuvir/daclatasvir and $1.09/day for pirfenidone.
32405454 Lopinavir/ritonavir (200mg/50mg) two tablet tow times, Ribavirin 200mg every six hours, and Oseltamivir 75mg tow times were given for the treatment of COVID-19.
32406317 It is noteworthy that Viomycin showed higher -CDocker energy as compared to the drugs currently under clinical trial for SARS-CoV-2 treatment viz. Ritonavir and Lopinavir.
32406606 The gene detection for drug use guidance showed the genetic locus ABCB1 (3435T>C) rs1045642 belonged to type CC and it mean the efficiency of lopinavir-ritonavir would be significantly decreased.
32407459 Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir showed no significant benefit in mortality and ARDS rates.
32410206 Pharmacotherapy included recombinant human interferon α2b, lopinavir/ritonavir, novaferon, antibiotics, systematic corticosteroids and traditional Chinese medicine prescription.
32410772 As per SOLIDARITY trial by WHO, some of the most promising candidates include chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine which are anti-malarial medications, Remdesivir, Lopinavir-Ritonavir combination with or without interferon which are anti-HIV drugs and convalescent plasma therapy.
32412509 For others such as lopinavir/ritonavir, neither significant virological nor clinical benefit has been shown.
32418730 Several publicized drugs are being used with not much evidence of their efficacy such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin or lopinavir-ritonavir. […] Since March 27th, 2020, the French Pharmacovigilance Network directed all cardiac adverse drug reactions associated with “off-label” use of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and lopinavir-ritonavir in COVID-19 to the Nice Regional Center of Pharmacovigilance. […] Lopinavir-ritonavir came third with 17 reports (14%) and chloroquine fourth with 3 reports (2.5%).
32423027 Whereas plasma therapy attracts much interest, the European project Discovery focuses on the potentialities of small molecules like remdesivir, the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and chloroquine.
32423584 Patients were permitted concomitant use of lopinavir-ritonavir, interferons, and corticosteroids.
32425199 Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir are currently being studied in trials and show some promise.
32425246 The only FDA approved drug to treat COVID-19 is remdesivir, and other off-label medications used include chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, convalescent plasma therapy, azithromycin, vitamin C, corticosteroids, interferon and colchicine.
32430428 However, studies regarding the risk factors associated with prolonged SARS-CoV-2 shedding and the impact of Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPV/r) treatment on viral shedding remain scarce.
32434337 Current potential treatment options include hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and convalescent plasma.
32436445 The use of lopinavir-ritonavir did not prove beneficial in a large RCT.
32438446 A more in-depth assessment demonstrated that only nitazoxanide, nelfinavir, tipranavir (ritonavir-boosted) and sulfadoxine achieved plasma concentrations above their reported anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity across their entire approved dosing interval. […] Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, mefloquine, atazanavir (ritonavir-boosted), tipranavir (ritonavir-boosted), ivermectin, azithromycin and lopinavir (ritonavir-boosted) were all predicted to achieve lung concentrations over 10-fold higher than their reported EC50 .
32444382 To this end, the antiviral efficacies of lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, and emtricitabine-tenofovir for SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed in the ferret infection model. […] While the lopinavir-ritonavir-, hydroxychloroquine sulfate-, or emtricitabine-tenofovir-treated group exhibited lower overall clinical scores than the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated control group, the virus titers in nasal washes, stool specimens, and respiratory tissues were similar between all three antiviral-candidate-treated groups and the PBS-treated control group. […] In this study, we tested the FDA-approved drugs lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, and emtricitabine-tenofovir against SARS-CoV-2 infection in a highly susceptible ferret infection model.
32445484 Several drugs are being repurposed into clinical trials in COVID-19 patients, ranging from drugs already well established in other diseases, such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir+ ritonavir, azithromycin and tocilizumab/sarilumab, to those such as remdesivir still in development for their initial indication (1).
32448818 The additive effects of interferons on the inhibitory effects of other candidate drugs to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection, such as lopinavir, ritonavir and favipiravir, have also been studied.
32449022 Twenty-nine patients were enrolled and divided into two groups: group 1 (14 patients) was composed of patients treated with off-label hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, whereas group 2 (15 patients) was composed of patients treated with hydroxychloroquine only, combined with the inhalation of acetic acid disinfectant at a 0.34% concentration.
32449235 We report a case of the successful recovery from severe COVID-19 of a kidney-transplanted patient treated with hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, steroid and tocilizumab.
32458149 A number of anti-viral drugs such as ribavirin, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, antibiotics such as azithromycin and doxycycline, and anti-parasite such as ivermectin have been recommended for COVID-19 treatment.
32459144 Remdesivir, ritonavir and chloroquine have all been reported to play a role in suppressing SARS-CoV-2.
32460458 We examined the in vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine on SARS-CoV-2, at concentrations which can be used to treat coronavirus-19 patients with little concern of toxicity. […] Lopinavir/ritonavir (7/1.75 μg/mL), hydroxychloroquine base (1 or 2 μg/mL), or a combination thereof were administered 1 hour after the inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 to Vero cells at a multiplicity of infection of 0.05. […] The severity of cytopathic effects was lower in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated cells, and viral load was significantly reduced in this group compared with the control group (p < 0.001). […] Lopinavir/ritonavir showed significant inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 in vitro at its usual plasma concentration. […] However, the in vitro antiviral activity of hydroxychloroquine at concentrations commonly used in humans was minimal, whether used alone or in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir.
32462545 The most frequently administered drug classes were antivirals, antibiotics, and corticosteroids, and of the 115 reported drugs, the most frequently administered was combination lopinavir/ritonavir, which was associated with a time to clinically meaningful response (complete symptom resolution or hospital discharge) of 11.7 (1.09) days.
32470751 As per SOLIDARITY trial by WHO, some of the most promising candidates include chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine which are anti-malarial medications, Remdesivir, Lopinavir-Ritonavir combination with or without interferon which are anti-HIV drugs and convalescent plasma therapy.
32473230 No specific treatment against SARS-CoV-2 is available after 6 months of COVID-19 worldwide outbreak Antivirals could decrease the viral load and reduce direct and indirect damages of SARSCoV-2 infection Ritonavir-bosted lopinavir is effective against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro Sequential virological and pharmacological monitoring helped to understand the efficacy of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir in a SARS-CoV-2 infected patient Ritonavir-boosted lopinavir could be proposed as early treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32470470 Current treatment of COVID-19 patients relies mainly on antiviral drugs lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, and remdesivir, the anti-malarial drugs hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, and traditional Chinese medicine.
32474026 A recent randomised control trial compared lopinavir/ritonavir with standard care among 199 patients with severe Covid-19 infection and concluded that there was no significant reduction in mortality rate with lopinavir/ritonavir. […] There was a numerical reduction in mortality rate, less intensive care unit stay and less complications in the lopinavir-ritonavir group.
32475183 Lopinavir in combination with ritonavir is approved for the treatment of HIV and has recently been subject to a clinical trial in severe COVID-19. […] As, in severe COVID-19, lopinavir/ritonavir had no beneficial effects but increased gastrointestinal adverse effects, this combination should not be used at this stage of COVID-19. […] In my opinion, the rationale for undertaking a trial of lopinavir/ritonavir in COVID-19 was poor.
32476080 The following variables were extracted for this study: age, gender, temperature, and saturation of oxygen on admission, treatment with heparin, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, steroids, tocilizumab, a combination of lopinavir with ritonavir, and oseltamivir, together with data on mortality.
32488958 The most commonly used antiviral drug was lopinavir/ritonavir tablet.
32492211 Delayed antiviral treatment (HR 0.976 [95% CI, 0.962-0.990]) and lopinavir/ritonavir + IFN-α combination therapy as the initial antiviral treatment (HR 1.649 [95% CI, 1.162-2.339]) were independent factors associated with prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding. […] Early initiation of lopinavir/ritonavir + IFN-α combination therapy may help shorten the duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding.
32493468 Other exclusion criteria include using drugs with potential interaction with Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Interferon-β 1a, Interferon-β 1b, pregnant or lactating women, history of alcohol or drug addiction in the past 5 years, blood ALT/AST levels > 5 times the upper limit of normal on laboratory results and refusal to participate. […] The first group (Arm 1) will receive Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra) + Interferon-β 1a (Recigen), the second group (Arm 2) will be administered Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra) + Interferon-β 1b (Ziferon), and the control group (Arm 3) will be treated by Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra).
32493740 We included studies of ribavirin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, umifenovir (arbidol), favipravir, interferon and lopinavir/ritonavir. […] An exception was treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir, for which we found low-quality evidence for a decrease in length of stay in the intensive care unit (risk difference 5 d shorter, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0 to 9 d) and hospital stay (risk difference 1 d shorter, 95% CI 0 to 2 d). […] For safety outcomes, evidence was of low or very low quality, with the exception of treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir for which moderate-quality evidence suggested likely increases in diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.
32495917 Lopinavir/ritonavir has modest antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. […] The aim was to investigate the viral kinetics and factors associated with viral clearance during lopinavir/ritonavir-based combination treatment in non-severe patients.
32495921 Hence, based upon limited in-vitro and anecdotal data, Chloroquine, or Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Lopinavir and Ritonavir are being employed in the management.
32496210 This case reports the usage of lopinavir/ritonavir-based combination antiviral regimen for a patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32501454 We included consecutive patients (aged ≥18 years) with COVID-19, moderate-to-severe ARDS, and hyperinflammation (defined as serum C-reactive protein ≥100 mg/L, ferritin ≥900 ng/mL, or both) who were managed with non-invasive ventilation outside of the ICU and who received standard treatment of 200 mg hydroxychloroquine twice a day orally and 400 mg lopinavir with 100 mg ritonavir twice a day orally.
32501538 Patients were divided into two groups according to different treatment plans (danoprevir and lopinavir/ritonavir). […] COVID-19 patients treated with danoprevir or lopinavir/ritonavir were all improved and discharged. […] Additionally, under the circumstance that there was no significant difference in patients’ general information between the two groups, we found that the mean time to achieve both negative nucleic acid testing and hospital stays of patients treated with danoprevir were significantly shorter than those of patients with lopinavir/ritonavir.
32503620 Group A will receive the antiretroviral Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra) while group B will receive Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra) + Colchicine 1.5 mg loading then 0.5 mg twice daily orally. […] Patients of both groups will be treated under optimal treatment based on the CDC and WHO guidelines and national consensus proposed in Iran including the same dosages of Lopinavir/Ritonavir, antibiotics, trace elements and antioxidants while only in group-B patients Colchicine will be added on top of this protocol.
32503817 Different preclinical studies conducted on other coronaviruses suggested that promising clinical outcomes for 2019-nCoV should be obtained by using alpha-interferon, chloroquine phosphate, arabinol, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and anti-inflammatory drugs.
32512873 This strategy has been implemented for other respiratory viruses (influenza above all) and was successfully used in South Korea among healthcare workers against the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus, by providing people who were exposed to high-risk contacts with lopinavir-ritonavir plus ribavirin.
32513289 Current use of CYP 3A4 or P-gp inhibitor drugs such as quinidine, amiodarone, diltiazem, spironolactone, verapamil, clarithromycin, erythromycin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, indinavir, ritonavir or cobicistat.
32513308 A recent clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of lopinavir- ritonavir for patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 used a similar ordinal scale, as have recent clinical trials of novel therapeutics for severe influenza, including a post-hoc analysis of a trial evaluating immune plasma.
32514689 Additionally, seven pharmacological agents (chloroquine, tetrandrine, umifenovir (arbidol), carrimycin, damageprevir, lopinavir/ritonavir) are in phase IV of clinical trials.
32515383 Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Ribavirin, remdesivir and Ravipiravir are some of the major antiviral agents showing initial encouraging results.
32520888 All patients were treated with interferon, 6 cases combined with Ribavirin, and 12 cases combined with lopinavir or ritonavir. […] There was no significant difference of RNA turning negative between the groups of interferon, interferon plus ribavirin and interferon plus lopinavir or ritonavir treatment.
32522754 A rapid recovery of respiratory and general symptoms was observed after 1 week of treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir plus hydroxychloroquine and broad-spectrum antibiotics (piperacillin-tazobactam plus teicoplanin).
32524645 We comment on hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir with zinc supplement, remdesivir, tocilizumab, ciclesonide, niclosamide and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).
32526083 During the hospitalization, 86 patients developed de novo LFTs abnormality, which was associated with the use of tocilizumab, lopinavir/ritonavir and acetaminophen and not clearly associated with the composite endpoint.
32527340 The main antiviral drugs included α-interferon (69.5%), lopinavir/ritonavir (65.0%), abidol (60.0%), and ribavirin (55.7%).
32527344 According to the guidelines, the routine treatment group was recommended to receive lopinavir/ritonavir 500 mg + α-aerosolized interferon 500×104 U, twice daily; the artesunate treatment group was given artesunate 60 mg, twice daily besides the routine treatment, for 10 days in both groups.
32530369 Group A received lopinavir/ritonavir as a third agent in the antiviral regimen, while group B did not. […] The present study suggests that lopinavir/ritonavir may reduce the viral carriage in a shorter period of time compared with other antiviral regimens. […] Further studies are needed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32532939 Hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, umifenovir, favipiravir, ribavirin and beta-interferon-1 gave rise to variable but still inconsistent proof of clinical efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19.
32533671 This area has faced numerous challenges, including the shortage of frequent-use products (hydroalcoholic solutions, lopinavir/ritonavir suspension), the use of new preparations for SARS-CoV-2 (tocilizumab, remdesivir), or requests from overwhelmed wards unable to assume the safe preparation of a high volume of medications (intravenous solutions). […] Como todo el sector sanitario, la farmacotecnia hospitalaria ha sufrido el impacto de la pandemia de la COVID-19, enfrentándose a la necesidad de cubrir el desabastecimiento de productos de uso frecuente (soluciones hidroalcohólicas, lopinavir/ritonavir suspensión), a nuevas preparaciones surgidas de las nuevas necesidades provocadas por el SARS-CoV-2 (tocilizumab, remdesivir), o a peticiones de plantas desbordadas por la carga asistencial, incapaces de asumir con un mínimo de seguridad la preparación de numerosos medicamentos (mezclas intravenosas).
32536150 The efficacies of lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine remain to be determined in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] To compare the virological and clinical responses to lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine treatment in COVID-19 patients. […] This retrospective cohort study included patients with COVID-19 treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine at a single center in Korea from February 17 to March 31, 2020. […] Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine concurrently and those treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine for less than 7 days were excluded. […] Of 65 patients (mean age, 64.3 years; 25 men [38.5%]), 31 were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and 34 were treated with hydroxychloroquine. […] Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir had a significantly shorter time to negative conversion of viral RNA than those treated with hydroxychloroquine (median, 21 days vs. 28 days). […] Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 4.21) and younger age (aHR, 2.64; 95% CI 1.43 to 4.87) was associated with negative conversion of viral RNA. […] There was no significant difference in time to clinical improvement between lopinavir-ritonavir- and hydroxychloroquine-treated patients (median, 18 days vs. 21 days). […] Lymphopenia and hyperbilirubinemia were more frequent in lopinavir-ritonavir-treated patients compared with hydroxychloroquine-treated patients. […] Lopinavir-ritonavir was associated with more rapid viral clearance than hydroxychloroquine in mild to moderate COVID-19, despite comparable clinical responses.
32539520 Cao B, Wang Y, Wen D, et al. A trial of lopinavir-ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med.
32544867 All patients received conventional therapy including Hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir. […] Our findings support the use of IFN-β-1a in combination with hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir in the management of COVID-19.
32546018 However, the present review aims to highlight the important antiviral approaches, including interferons, ribavirin, mycophenolic acids, ritonavir, lopinavir, inhibitors, and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to provoke the nonstructural proteins and deactivate the structural and essential host elements of the virus to control and treat the infection of COVID-19 by inhibiting the viral entry, viral RNA replication and suppressing the viral protein expression.
32546437 A total of 59% (n=37), 49% (n=31) and 24% (n=15) of the patients were on lopinavir/ritonavir, interferons, or steroids, respectively.
32547039 Presently, effective drugs are lacking, although current studies have confirmed that drugs with therapeutic potential include redaciclovir, lopinavir/ritonavir combined with interferon-β, convalescent plasma, and monoclonal antibodies.
32548163 On January 24, three tablets of lopinavir and ritonavir were added orally (twice daily).
32548166 She was given antiviral agents (lopinavir and ritonavir), and follow-up detection showed that these abnormalities were markedly decreased within 3 d.
32554424 Two patients were managed with both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin; one was treated with lopinavir-ritonavir.
32554861 All patients received antiviral treatment, including Lopinavir / Ritonavir (29.3%), Interferon (14.6%) and their combination (40.6%), Arbidol (6.7%), Xuebijing (7.1%) and Chloroquine phosphate (1.3%).
32554953 Several anti-viral drugs such as RNA dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin), protease inhibitors (lopinavir, ritonavir) and drugs targeting endocytic pathway (hydroxychloroquine) are being evaluated for COVID-19 but standard therapeutics yet not available.
32555974 These include chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), nitazoxanide, remdesivir, Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV / r), in addition to treatment with convalescent plasma.
32556649 His respiratory function deteriorated despite treatments with lopinavir/ritonavir, oseltamivir, azithromycin and meropenem at a regional hospital.
32561148 This includes clinically available drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir, which are being repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19.
32561274 Molecular docking studies revealed that among the 77 drugs, screened top ten drugs shows good binding affinities, whereas the top three drugs: Lopinavir-Ritonavir, Tipranavir, and Raltegravir were undergone for molecular dynamics simulation studies for their conformational stability in the active site of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro protein. […] In the present study among the library of FDA approved antiviral drugs, the top three inhibitors Lopinavir-Ritonavir, Tipranavir, and Raltegravir show the best molecular interaction with the main protease of SARS-CoV-2.
32562159 According to the drug regimen, the patients were divided into two groups; group I who received regimen I consisting azithromycin, prednisolone, naproxen, and lopinavir/ritonavir and group II who received regimen II including meropenem, levofloxacin, vancomycin, hydroxychloroquine, and oseltamivir. […] This study revealed the beneficial effect of the short-term use of low-dose prednisolone in combination with azithromycin, naproxen and lopinavir/ritonavir (regimen I), in decreasing ALOS compared to regimen II.
32562561 Hydroxychloroquine was administered in 11 patients, associated with lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon β in 2 cases each.
32565199 A treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine twice daily was started. […] Consequently, treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine was stopped.
32565309 Our results for the first time suggest that a quadruple combination therapy (Ribavirin, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Umifenovir, and Lianhua Qingwen) can be considered as a preferred treatment approach to severe COVID-19 patients.
32566561 The effectiveness and safety of antiviral agents for children with COVID-19 is uncertain: For adults with COVID-19, lopinavir/ritonavir had no effect on mortality [risk ratio (RR) =0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45 to 1.30].
32569708 Treatment options for the pulmonary phase include: Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir.
32572376 Based on the previous experiences with similar coronavirus management and present preliminary data from uncontrolled studies, drugs like chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and favipiravir have been recommended by the researchers to manage COVID-19.
32574332 All patients were diagnosed as suffering from non-severe COVID-19 pneumonia and were successfully treated with Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPV/r).
32578156 The benefit-risk balance for the use of lopinavir-ritonavir in COVID-19 needs to be monitored on an ongoing basis, therefore a systematic benefit-risk assessment was designed and conducted. […] The exposure of interest was lopinavir-ritonavir treatment in severe COVID-19 compared to standard of care, placebo or other treatments. […] We screened 143 papers from PubMed and 264 papers from Embase for lopinavir-ritonavir; seven papers were included in the final benefit-risk assessment. […] In comparison to standard of care, data for several key benefits and risks were identified for lopinavir-ritonavir. […] Time to clinical improvement was not significantly different for lopinavir-ritonavir in comparison to standard of care (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 0.95-1.80). […] From one study, there were fewer cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome with lopinavir-ritonavir compared with standard of care (13% vs 27%). […] There also appeared to be fewer serious adverse events with lopinavir-ritonavir (20%) vs standard of care (32%). […] Limited data were available for comparison of lopinavir-ritonavir to other treatments. […] Based on currently available data, there was no clear benefit for the use of lopinavir-ritonavir compared to standard of care in severe COVID-19. […] There was a reduction in acute respiratory distress syndrome with lopinavir-ritonavir in one study. […] Overall, the benefit-risk profile for lopinavir-ritonavir in severe COVID-19 cannot be considered positive until further efficacy and effectiveness data become available.
32584236 Likewise, protease inhibitors, including lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, and nucleoside analogue remdesivir were proposed to be the potential drug candidates in COVID-19 management.
32585765 Darunavir together with ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and favipiravir were initiated on the first day of admission at primary hospital.
32585855 The clinical course was summarized, including the impact of drugs (angiotensin II receptor blockers [ARB], ibuprofen, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors [DPP4i]) and the therapeutic effect of lopinavir/ritonavir. […] Patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir had significantly shorter progression-free survival than those not receiving lopinavir/ritonavir.
32589146 Recently, three randomized clinical trials on COVID-19 treatments were completed, one for lopinavir-ritonavir and two for remdesivir. […] The lopinavir-ritonavir trial enrolled 39 additional patients due to insignificant results after the sample size reached the planned number, which led to inflation of the type I error rate. […] For the lopinavir-ritonavir trial, with the increase of sample size from 160 to 199, the type I error rate was inflated from 0.05 to 0.071. […] The difference of RMTIs between the two groups evaluated at day 28 was -1.67 days (95% CI [-3.62, 0.28]; P=.09) in favor of lopinavir-ritonavir but not statistically significant.
32589165 Since the beginning of the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) 2 lopinavir/ritonavir was selected for treatment. […] The recent publication of Cao et al in the NEJM[1] showed that lopinavir/ritonavir treatment did not accelerate clinical improvement compared with standard of care.