REMDESIVIR


DrugBank ID: db14761
DrugCentral: remdesivir
Synonymous :remdesivir | remdésivir | remdesivirum



Drug Sentece Context


Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of remdesivir gene in 444 abstracts.

pmid sentence
31996494 Lopinavir /Ritonavir, Nucleoside analogues, Neuraminidase inhibitors, Remdesivir, peptide (EK1), abidol, RNA synthesis inhibitors (such as TDF, 3TC), anti-inflammatory drugs (such as hormones and other molecules), Chinese traditional medicine, such ShuFengJieDu Capsules and Lianhuaqingwen Capsule, could be the drug treatment options for 2019-nCoV.
32022370 Herein, we suggest four potential drug candidates (an ACE2-based peptide, remdesivir, 3CLpro-1 and a novel vinylsulfone protease inhibitor) that could be used to treat patients suffering with the 2019-nCoV.
32023685 Drugs are possibly effective for 2019-nCoV include: remdesivir, lopinavir / ritonavir, lopinavir / ritonavir combined with interferon-β, convalescent plasma, and monoclonal antibodies.
32054787 Remdesivir (GS-5734) effectively inhibited MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) replication in vitro, and showed efficacy against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV in a mouse model. […] Here, we tested the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic remdesivir treatment in a nonhuman primate model of MERS-CoV infection, the rhesus macaque. […] Prophylactic remdesivir treatment initiated 24 h prior to inoculation completely prevented MERS-CoV-induced clinical disease, strongly inhibited MERS-CoV replication in respiratory tissues, and prevented the formation of lung lesions. […] Therapeutic remdesivir treatment initiated 12 h postinoculation also provided a clear clinical benefit, with a reduction in clinical signs, reduced virus replication in the lungs, and decreased presence and severity of lung lesions. […] The data presented here support testing of the efficacy of remdesivir treatment in the context of a MERS clinical trial.
32081636 The one case of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in the USA is responding well to remdesivir, which is now undergoing a clinical trial in China.
32094225 Remdesivir (RDV) is an investigational compound with a broad spectrum of antiviral activities against RNA viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV).
32138488 Management is primarily supportive, with newer antivirals (lopinavir ritonavir and Remdesivir) under investigation.
32147628 Several drugs such as chloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, and favipiravir are currently undergoing clinical studies to test their efficacy and safety in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China; some promising results have been achieved thus far.
32152082 The most promising compound is remdesivir (GS-5734), a nucleotide analog prodrug currently in clinical trials for treating Ebola virus infections. […] Remdesivir inhibited the replication of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in tissue cultures, and it displayed efficacy in non-human animal models. […] Remarkably, the therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir appeared to be superior to that of LPV/RTV-INFb against MERS-CoV in a transgenic humanized mice model.
32164424 Similar to outbreaks of other newly identified virus, there is no proven regimen from conventional medicine and most reports managed the patients with lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, beta-interferon, glucocorticoid and supportive treatment with remdesivir undergoing clinical trial.
32173241 To date, effective treatment is lacking; however, clinical trials investigating the efficacy of several agents, including remdesivir and chloroquine, are underway in China.
32179150 Chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, ribavirin and ritonavir have shown efficacy to inhibit coronavirus in vitro.
32214286 These include vaccines, medications Remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine and potentially combination therapy.
32219882 To help understand the advantages and limitations of differential treatments, we provide a timely review and discuss the complications and corresponding major treatments, especially controversial ones such as antiviral therapy (remdesivir, ribavirin, and chloroquine), glucocorticoid therapy, extracorporeal support including an artificial liver system, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation based on available evidence.
32222463 The results suggest the effectiveness of Ribavirin, Remdesivir, Sofosbuvir, Galidesivir, and Tenofovir as potent drugs against SARS-CoV-2 since they tightly bind to its RdRp.
32238094 As a result three FDA approved drugs (Remdesivir, Saquinavir and Darunavir) and two natural compounds (. flavone and coumarine derivatives) were identified as promising hits.
32239125 Among them, remdesivir, an analogue of adenosine, is what seems to have a more promising future. […] Although all studies have been carried out with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, it seems that by virological and functional analogy, remdesivir is one of the few antiviral drugs with proven efficacy.
32243270 This review summarizes the current evidence of potential therapeutic agents, such as lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, interferon, ribavirin, tocilizumab and sarilumab.
32247050 Potential treatments included remdesivir, chloroquine, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma and vaccine immunization (when possible).
32247927 The first medication experience of the recovered patients in the US has led remdesivir to be the “specific drug”. […] China has also taken immediate action to put remdesivir into clinical trials with the purpose of applying it into clinical therapeutics for Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Further, we analyzed the pharmacological actions and previous trials of remdesivir to identify the feasibility of conducting experiments on COVID-19.
32251767 We report the antiviral effect of remdesivir, lopinavir, homorringtonine, and emetine against SARS-CoV-2 virus in Vero E6 cells with the estimated 50% effective concentration at 23.15 μM, 26.63 μM, 2.55 μM and 0.46 μM, respectively. […] Synergy between remdesivir and emetine was observed, and remdesivir at 6.25 μM in combination with emetine at 0.195 μM may achieve 64.9% inhibition in viral yield.
32253226 Herein, we show that the ribonucleoside analog β-D-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC, EIDD-1931) has broad spectrum antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and related zoonotic group 2b or 2c Bat-CoVs, as well as increased potency against a coronavirus bearing resistance mutations to the nucleoside analog inhibitor remdesivir.
32256547 We identified 24 clinical trials, involving more than 20 medicines, such as human immunoglobulin, interferons, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, methylprednisolone, bevacizumab, and traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). […] Se identificaron 24 ensayos clínicos relacionados con más de 20 medicamentos, como inmunoglobulina humana, interferones, cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, metilprednisolona, bevacizumab y medicina tradicional china. […] Foram identificados 24 ensaios clínicos envolvendo mais de 20 medicamentos, tais como imunoglobulina humana, interferons, cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, metilprednisolona, bevacizumabe e medicamentos chineses tradicionais.
32258351 Remdesivir (GS-5734™) is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug that is now being tested as a potential treatment for COVID-19 in international, multi-site clinical trials. […] Currently available evidence about the antiviral effects of remdesivir against coronaviruses is primarily based on in vitro and in vivo studies (including some on a chemically related compound, GS-441524™), which have demonstrated largely favorable findings. […] Thus, the purpose of this review is to synthesize the knowledge to date about remdesivir as a therapeutic option for coronaviruses, with a special focus on information relevant to the One Health community.
32275812 Remdesivir, a nucleotide analogue prodrug that inhibits viral RNA polymerases, has shown in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2. […] We provided remdesivir on a compassionate-use basis to patients hospitalized with Covid-19, the illness caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2. […] Patients received a 10-day course of remdesivir, consisting of 200 mg administered intravenously on day 1, followed by 100 mg daily for the remaining 9 days of treatment. […] This report is based on data from patients who received remdesivir during the period from January 25, 2020, through March 7, 2020, and have clinical data for at least 1 subsequent day. […] Of the 61 patients who received at least one dose of remdesivir, data from 8 could not be analyzed (including 7 patients with no post-treatment data and 1 with a dosing error). […] In this cohort of patients hospitalized for severe Covid-19 who were treated with compassionate-use remdesivir, clinical improvement was observed in 36 of 53 patients (68%). […] Measurement of efficacy will require ongoing randomized, placebo-controlled trials of remdesivir therapy.
32277040 The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, also named nsp12) is the central component of coronaviral replication/transcription machinery and appears to be a primary target for the antiviral drug, remdesivir. […] A comparative analysis model shows how remdesivir binds to this polymerase.
32277065 The nucleotide analogue remdesivir is an investigational drug for the treatment of human coronavirus infection. […] Remdesivir is a phosphoramidate prodrug and is known to target viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. […] In this issue, Gordon et al. identify that remdesivir acts as a delayed RNA chain terminator for MERS-CoV polymerase complexes.
32277367 Antiviral drugs like lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir and remdesivir are also being explored.
32280433 The result showed that atazanavir, an antiretroviral medication used to treat and prevent the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is the best chemical compound, showing an inhibitory potency with Kd of 94.94 nM against the SARS-CoV-2 3C-like proteinase, followed by remdesivir (113.13 nM), efavirenz (199.17 nM), ritonavir (204.05 nM), and dolutegravir (336.91 nM).
32281114 A case of late initiation of remdesivir antiviral therapy in the successful treatment of a patient with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a mixed medical ICU of a community teaching hospital is presented. […] A request for compassionate use remdesivir was submitted on the same hospital day as the positive COVID-19 PCR result. […] Supportive measures, in addition to a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine, were maintained until remdesivir could be supplied on day 9 of hospitalization, 13 days after symptom onset. […] Sixty hours after initiating remdesivir, the patient was successfully extubated and was able to transition to room air within 24 hours of extubation. […] Late initiation of remdesivir may be effective in treating SARS-CoV-2, unlike antivirals utilized for different disease states, such as oseltamivir, which are most effective when started as soon as possible following symptom onset.
32282022 The most promising therapy is remdesivir. […] Remdesivir has potent in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2, but it is not US Food and Drug Administration approved and currently is being tested in ongoing randomized trials.
32282502 No established treatment is currently available; however, several therapies, including remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, and interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitors, are being used off-label and evaluated in ongoing clinical trials.
32282982 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was used by 78.1% of respondents; azithromycin by 46.9%; tocilizumab by 31.3%, and remdesivir by 25.0%.
32283108 We then map a promising NA candidate, GS-441524 (the active metabolite of Remdesivir) to the nucleoside active site of both proteins, identifying the residues important for nucleotide recognition, discrimination, and excision. […] Additionally, we propose structural and function implications of two previously identified RdRp resistance mutations in relation to resistance against Remdesivir.
32284326 Replication of SARS-CoV-2 depends on the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which is the likely target of the investigational nucleotide analogue remdesivir (RDV).
32292909 For this emergency, the FDA has approved Remdesivir and Hydroxychloroquine for treatment of COVID-19 as Emergency Use Authorization.
32293834 The most frequently used agents both in Turkey and all over the world including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir and remdesivir will be reviewed here .
32294562 Several antiviral medications: Zanamivir, Indinavir, Saquinavir, and Remdesivir show potential as and 3CLPRO main proteinase inhibitors and as a treatment of COVID-19. […] Zanamivir, Indinavir, Saquinavir, and Remdesivir are among the exciting hits on the 3CLPRO main proteinase.
32296817 The few trials which allow their inclusion focus on post-exposure prophylaxis or outpatient treatment of milder disease, limiting the options available to pregnant women with severe COVID-19 to compassionate use of remdesivir, or off-label drug use of hydroxychloroquine or other therapies.
32297571 Inaddition, remdesivir, which has been previously administered to Ebola virus patients, has alsoproven effective in the U.S. against coronavirus, while antimalarial chloroquine and hydroxy-chloroquine, favipiravir and co-administered darunavir and umifenovir (in patient therapies)were also recently recorded as having anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects.
32297723 Remdesivir, originally develop as a treatment for Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus infections, is being studied for it effectiveness against 2019-nCoV infection.
32307245 Remdesivir is considered the most promising antiviral agent; it works by inhibiting the activity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). […] A large-scale study investigating the clinical efficacy of remdesivir (200 mg on day 1, followed by 100 mg once daily) is on-going.
32309622 Potential therapeutic strategies, including remdesivir, chloroquine phosphate, abidol, lopinavir/ritonavir, plasma, antibody, vaccine and stem cells are discussed in this review.
32317557 Adjunctive medication in the surviving patients while on ECMO was as follows: 4 of 5 survivors received intravenous steroids, 3 of 5 survivors received antiviral medications (Remdesivir), 2 of 5 survivors were treated with anti-interleukin-6-receptor monoclonal antibodies (Tocilizumab or Sarilumab), and 1 of 5 survivors received hydroxychloroquine.An analysis of 32 COVID-19 patients with severe pulmonary compromise supported with ECMO suggests that ECMO may play a useful role in salvaging select critically ill patients with COVID-19.
32318706 If an antiviral is used, the panel suggests remdesivir as the preferred agent. […] Hydroxychloroquine could be considered for patients who are not candidates for remdesivir or when remdesivir is not available.
32323565 The findings of this study propose the hypotheses that lung-specific delivery of SOD3/ATF4-related antioxidants will work in synergy with promising antiviral drugs such as remdesivir to further improve COVID-19 outcomes in the elderly.
32324352 Currently, chloroquine and remdesivir are possible treatment options.
32326602 A recent study has shown that remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the replication and infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2, 2019-nCov) in vitro. […] In the United States, one case of COVID-19 was successfully treated with compassionate use of remdesivir in January of 2020.
32329419 The clinical trials are underway for Remdesivir, an investigational anti-viral drug from Gilead Sciences.
32329520 Drug repositioning may offer a strategy and a number of drugs have been repurposed, including lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir and tocilizumab.
32329879 However, the current treatment options include hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir (Kaletra®), and nitazoxanide.
32330343 Among the 68 hospitalized patients, 12% required non-rebreather and 35% required intubation. 91% received hydroxychloroquine, 66% azithromycin, 3% remdesivir, 21% tocilizumab, and 24% bolus steroids.
32336586 There are currently no therapeutic drugs available that are directly active against SARS-CoV-2; however, several antivirals (remdesivir, favipiravir) and antimalarials (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) have emerged as potential therapies. […] Remdesivir and convalescent plasma may be considered in critical patients with respiratory failure; however, access to these therapies may be limited.
32338164 The results show the effectiveness of Sofosbuvir, Ribavirin, Galidesivir, Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Cefuroxime, Tenofovir, and Hydroxychloroquine, in binding to SARS-CoV-2 RdRp.
32343658 High in vitro activity has been found for the nucleotide analogue remdesivir, for the antimalarial drug chloroquine, and for nitazoxanide, a drug used to treat protozoan infections.
32350686 According to the CDC and Chinese treatment guidelines for COVID-19, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and one of the investigational agents (remdesivir) are recommended in critically ill older patients.
32352535 Cardiovascular considerations of therapies currently used, including remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, ribavirin, interferons, and lopinavir/ritonavir, as well as experimental therapies, such as human recombinant ACE2 (rhACE2), are discussed.
32357553 Currently, antiviral drugs, including chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir, have shown effective inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
32358203 The replication of SARS-CoV-2 requires the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a target of the antiviral drug, Remdesivir. […] Here we report the cryo-EM structure of the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp either in the apo form at 2.8 Å resolution or in complex with a 50-base template-primer RNA and Remdesivir at 2.5 Å resolution. […] The complex structure reveals that the partial double-stranded RNA template is inserted into the central channel of the RdRp where Remdesivir is covalently incorporated into the primer strand at the first replicated base pair and terminates chain elongation.
32358890 A variety of repurposed drugs and investigational drugs such as remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, lopinavir, interferon-beta, and other potential drugs have been studied for COVID19 treatment.
32360480 Further, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and off-label antiviral drugs, such as the nucleotide analogue remdesivir, HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir, broad-spectrum antiviral drugs arbidol and favipiravir as well as antiviral phytochemicals available to date may limit spread of SARS-CoV-2 and morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 pandemic.
32361744 Remdesivir has received significant attention for its potential application in the treatment of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2. […] Remdesivir has already been tested for Ebola virus disease treatment and found to have activity against SARS and MERS coronaviruses. […] The remdesivir core contains GS-441524, which interferes with RNA-dependent RNA polymerases alone. […] In non-human primates, following IV administration, remdesivir is rapidly distributed into PBMCs and converted within 2 h to the active nucleoside triphosphate form, while GS-441524 is detectable in plasma for up to 24 h. […] Nevertheless, remdesivir pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in humans are still unexplored, highlighting the need for a precise analytical method for remdesivir and GS-441524 quantification. […] The validation of a reliable UHPLC-MS/MS method for remdesivir and GS-441524 quantification in human plasma. […] Remdesivir and GS-441524 standards and quality controls were prepared in plasma from healthy donors. […] This method represents a useful tool for studying remdesivir and GS-441524 clinical pharmacokinetics, particularly during the current COVID-19 outbreak.
32363219 The current study, aims to predict theoretical structure for protease of COVID-19 and to explore further whether this protein can serve as a target for protease inhibitor drugs such as remdesivir, nelfinavir, lopinavir, ritonavir and α-ketoamide. […] Molecular interaction studies showed that protease structure had multiple active site residues for remdesivir, while for remaining ligands the structure had only one active site residue each.
32363221 The results of ongoing clinical trials on hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin alone or in combination and a new antiviral agent remdesivir may help to treat some of the infections.
32364041 The covalent docking showed that saquinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir, delavirdine, cefuroxime axetil, oseltamivir and prevacid have the highest binding energies MMGBSA of -72.17, -72.02, -65.19, -57.65, -54.25, -51.8, and -51.14 kcal/mol, respectively. […] The 50 ns molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for saquinavir, ritonavir and remdesivir to evaluate the stability of these drugs inside the binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 main protease.
32375574 This study demonstrated the putative inhibitory potential of lopinavir, remdesivir, oseltamir, azithromycin, ribavirin, and chloroquine towards V-ATPase, protein kinase A, SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein/ACE-2 complex and viral proteases. […] The amino acids Asp269, Leu370, His374, and His345 were predicted as the key residues for lopinavir binding to human SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein/ACE-2 complex while His378, Tyr515, Leu73, Leu100, Phe32 and Phe40 for remdesivir and Tyr510, Phe504, Met62, Tyr50, and His378 were predicted for azithromycin as the key residues for binding to SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein/ACE-2 complex.
32377559 Preliminary reports suggest that certain drugs, such as chloroquine and antiviral nucleotide analogues such as remdesivir, which inhibit viral replication, can target the new coronavirus, although their usefulness in the clinic is still under debate.
32378648 Remdesivir had been proposed as a promising option for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] We provided a rapid review to critically assess the potential anti-coronavirus effect of remdesivir on COVID-19 and other coronaviruses based on the most up-to-date evidence. […] Even though remdesivir was proposed as a promising option for treating COVID-19 based on laboratory experiments and reports from compassionate use, its safety and effect in humans requires high-quality evidence from well-designed and adequately-powered clinical trials for further clarification.
32384516 She also received a loading dose of remdesivir however was unable to complete the course due to organ failure and requirement of vasopressors for hemodynamic stability.
32389723 Ribavirin, a common antiviral drug, remdesivir, chloroquine and luteolin were studied.
32391519 Eighty-one percent of women were treated with hydroxychloroquine; 9% of women with severe disease and 65% of women with critical disease received remdesivir.
32391999 Recently, the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment published treatment options for antiviral treatment for COVID-19 where chloroquine was suggested as first choice for off-label treatment, beside remdesivir en lopinavir/ritonavir.
32394467 Ribavirin reduces hemoglobin concentrations in respiratory patients, and remdesivir improves respiratory symptoms.
32395179 Veno-venous ECMO was initiated on hospital day 7 in conjunction with a 10-day course of compassionate use antiviral treatment with remdesivir. […] This case report demonstrates a positive outcome in a young patient with COVID-19 treated by the judicious application of ECMO in conjunction with compassionate use antiviral treatment (remdesivir).
32395418 These drugs and therapeutic agents include antiviral agents (remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, and oseltamivir), and supporting agents (Ascorbic acid, Azithromycin, Corticosteroids, Nitric oxide, IL-6 antagonists), among others.
32396771 Remdesivir has been recently a strong candidate for the treatment of Covid-19. […] In this commentary, we have portrayed the structure of the coronavirus in a simple way as well as the site where remdesivir acts. […] Therefore, future disposal of agents such as remdesivir might be crucial for ensuring an efficient treatment, decrease mortality and allow early discharge.Communicated by Ramaswamy H.
32397906 A broad-spectrum of antiviral agents are being currently evaluated in clinical trials, and in this review, we specifically focus on the application of Remdesivir (RVD) as a potential anti-viral compound against Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) -CoV, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.
32397911 In particular, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, arbidol, tocilizumab and bevacizumab have shown promising results.
32400323 Although in vitro studies are scarce, data regarding chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, ivermectin, lopinavir, homoharringtonine and emetine seem promising.
32402130 Remdesivir has emerged as a promising treatment for SARS-Co-V-2 infection yet published clinical pharmacology and drug interaction studies are limited. […] Additional studies of the disposition of remdesivir, its active metabolite (GS-441524), and its triphosphate metabolite (GS-443902) are needed.
32405423 Minimum estimated costs of production were US $0.93/day for remdesivir, $1.45/day for favipiravir, $0.08/day for hydroxychloroquine, $0.02/day for chloroquine, $0.10/day for azithromycin, $0.28/day for lopinavir/ritonavir, $0.39/day for sofosbuvir/daclatasvir and $1.09/day for pirfenidone.
32407719 Patients in the PICU were more likely to require high-flow nasal cannula (p=0.0001) and were more likely to have received Remdesivir through compassionate release (p<0.05).
32407959 Remdesivir has shown in vitro activity against coronaviruses and is a possible antiviral treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] This prospective (compassionate), open-label study of remdesivir, which was conducted at Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy, between February 23 and March 20, 2020, involved patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia aged ≥18 years undergoing mechanical ventilation or with an oxygen saturation level of ≤94 % in air or a National Early Warning Score 2 of ≥4. […] The 10-day course of remdesivir was completed by 22 patients (63 %) and discontinued by 13, of whom eight (22.8 %) discontinued because of adverse events. […] Our data suggest that remdesivir can benefit patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia hospitalised outside ICU where clinical outcome was better and adverse events are less frequently observed.
32410772 As per SOLIDARITY trial by WHO, some of the most promising candidates include chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine which are anti-malarial medications, Remdesivir, Lopinavir-Ritonavir combination with or without interferon which are anti-HIV drugs and convalescent plasma therapy.
32412509 Several antivirals are being tested clinically, including remdesivir, at this time the most promising.
32418190 We describe our early experience with remdesivir in four critically ill COVID-19 patients. […] All patients had been previously treated with other antivirals before remdesivir initiation. […] Lymphocyte count increased in all patients soon after remdesivir initiation. […] We observed an in vivo virological effect of remdesivir in four critically ill, COVID-19 patients, coupled with a significant burden of adverse events.
32418885 No evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that a treatment may ameliorate the clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19 exists with the only exception of preliminary evidence from remdesivir trials.
32419524 To obtain convincing recommendations, we referred to opinions from the US National Institute of Health regarding drugs repurposed for COVID-19 therapy.Expert opinion: Although strong evidence of well-designed randomized controlled studies regarding COVID-19 therapy is presently lacking, remdesivir, teicoplanin, hydroxychloroquine (not in combination with azithromycin), and ivermectin might be effective antiviral drugs and are deemed promising candidates for controlling SARS-CoV-2.
32422376 This case highlights the high tolerability and the interesting immunomodulatory profile of the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra in the setting of severe COVID-19 associated with remdesivir therapy.
32423027 Whereas plasma therapy attracts much interest, the European project Discovery focuses on the potentialities of small molecules like remdesivir, the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and chloroquine.
32423584 Remdesivir (GS-5734), a nucleoside analogue prodrug, has inhibitory effects on pathogenic animal and human coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro, and inhibits Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2 replication in animal models. […] Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to intravenous remdesivir (200 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg on days 2-10 in single daily infusions) or the same volume of placebo infusions for 10 days. […] Between Feb 6, 2020, and March 12, 2020, 237 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to a treatment group (158 to remdesivir and 79 to placebo); one patient in the placebo group who withdrew after randomisation was not included in the ITT population. […] Remdesivir use was not associated with a difference in time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio 1·23 [95% CI 0·87-1·75]). […] Although not statistically significant, patients receiving remdesivir had a numerically faster time to clinical improvement than those receiving placebo among patients with symptom duration of 10 days or less (hazard ratio 1·52 [0·95-2·43]). […] Adverse events were reported in 102 (66%) of 155 remdesivir recipients versus 50 (64%) of 78 placebo recipients. […] Remdesivir was stopped early because of adverse events in 18 (12%) patients versus four (5%) patients who stopped placebo early. […] In this study of adult patients admitted to hospital for severe COVID-19, remdesivir was not associated with statistically significant clinical benefits.
32425199 Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir are currently being studied in trials and show some promise.
32425246 The only FDA approved drug to treat COVID-19 is remdesivir, and other off-label medications used include chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, convalescent plasma therapy, azithromycin, vitamin C, corticosteroids, interferon and colchicine.
32426243 Remdesivir is a novel therapeutic with known activity against SARS CoV-2 and related coronaviruses. […] Remdesivir, as well as convalescent plasma therapy, are currently under investigation as potential therapies for patients with Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19). […] In this case report we summarize the use of convalescent plasma therapy and then remdesivir as a late addition in the treatment of a critically ill obstetric patient with COVID-19. […] The patient subsequently improved, was extubated 5 days after initiation of remdesivir, was transitioned to room air 24 h later, and discharged at the completion of remdesivir therapy.
32428865 Remdesivir is a broad spectrum anti-viral drug that has shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2, in vitro and in vivo. […] In absence of any effective treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19), remdesivir has been tried for a compassionate use in severe COVID-19. […] We aimed to systematically search the literature to understand the pharmacology and clinical effects of remdesivir in patients with COVID-19. […] We systematically searched the PubMed, ClinicalTrial.Org and MedRxiv database up till May 5, 2020 using specific key words such as “Remdesivir” or ’GS-5734″ AND “COVID-19” or “SARS-CoV-2” and retrieved all the article published in English language, that have reported the pharmacology and the clinical outcomes of remdesivir in patients with COVID-19. […] Initial compassionate use of remdesivir has shown a fairly good result, but difficult to quantify, in the absence of control arm. […] Remdesivir has shown a mixed result in patients with COVID-19 with an acceptable side effect.
32429580 Remdesivir is a nucleotide prodrug that is currently undergoing extensive clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19. […] Herein, we report the antiviral activity of remdesivir against human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) compared to known anti-HIV agents. […] The study revealed that remdesivir exhibited an EC50 value of 0.07 µM against HCoV-229E with TC50 of > 2.00 µM against MRC-5 cells.
32434337 Current potential treatment options include hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and convalescent plasma.
32436445 The use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), remdesivir, and tocilizumab are some of the other promising potential therapies; however, they are yet to be tested in randomized clinical trials (RCTs).
32436867 Patients are being treated with protease drugs are inhibitors, remdesivir, chloroquine, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 inhibitors, ivermectin, sarilumab and tocilizumab, though none of these is Food and Drug Administration approved and are undergoing trials.
32438371 Our results enable a detailed analysis of the inhibitory mechanisms that underlie the antiviral activity of substances such as remdesivir, a drug for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)4.
32439198 The remdesivir, an antiviral drug, is appeared as ‘molecule of hope’ for the treatment of this disease. […] In this paper, we tried to describe the probable molecular mechanism of remdesivir to inhibit the RNA synthesis of SARS-CoV-2. […] However, more detail mechanism is needed to understand mechanism of action of remdesivir.
32445440 We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous remdesivir in adults hospitalized with Covid-19 with evidence of lower respiratory tract involvement. […] Patients were randomly assigned to receive either remdesivir (200 mg loading dose on day 1, followed by 100 mg daily for up to 9 additional days) or placebo for up to 10 days. […] The data and safety monitoring board recommended early unblinding of the results on the basis of findings from an analysis that showed shortened time to recovery in the remdesivir group. […] Preliminary results from the 1059 patients (538 assigned to remdesivir and 521 to placebo) with data available after randomization indicated that those who received remdesivir had a median recovery time of 11 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 9 to 12), as compared with 15 days (95% CI, 13 to 19) in those who received placebo (rate ratio for recovery, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.55; P<0.001). […] The Kaplan-Meier estimates of mortality by 14 days were 7.1% with remdesivir and 11.9% with placebo (hazard ratio for death, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.04). […] Serious adverse events were reported for 114 of the 541 patients in the remdesivir group who underwent randomization (21.1%) and 141 of the 522 patients in the placebo group who underwent randomization (27.0%). […] Remdesivir was superior to placebo in shortening the time to recovery in adults hospitalized with Covid-19 and evidence of lower respiratory tract infection.
32445484 Several drugs are being repurposed into clinical trials in COVID-19 patients, ranging from drugs already well established in other diseases, such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir+ ritonavir, azithromycin and tocilizumab/sarilumab, to those such as remdesivir still in development for their initial indication (1).
32446287 Remdesivir (formerly GS-5734) is a nucleoside analogue pro-drug currently being evaluated in COVID-19 clinical trials. […] In pre-clinical models, remdesivir has demonstrated potent antiviral activity against diverse human and zoonotic β-coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. […] In this article we critically review available data on remdesivir with an emphasis on biochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and in vitro activity against coronaviruses as well as clinical experience and current progress in COVID-19 clinical trials.
32448345 Remdesivir (GS-5734), a nucleoside analogue, has inhibitory effects on animal and human highly pathogenic coronaviruses, including MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, in in vitro and in vivo experiments. […] The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of remdesivir in adult patients with severe COVID-19. […] Adults (≥ 18 years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 virus infection, severe pneumonia signs or symptoms, and radiologically confirmed severe pneumonia are randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to intravenously administered remdesivir or placebo for 10 days. […] The primary endpoint is time to clinical improvement (censored at day 28), defined as the time (in days) from randomization of study treatment (remdesivir or placebo) until a decline of two categories on a six-category ordinal scale of clinical status (1 = discharged; 6 = death) or live discharge from hospital.
32450107 Patients for whom one of the treatments of interest was initiated more than 48 h after diagnosis or while they were on mechanical ventilation, as well as patients who received remdesivir, were excluded.
32454157 Several clinical trials are on-going including testing Remdesivir (anti-viral), Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine derivatives (anti-malarial drugs) etc.
32458149 A number of anti-viral drugs such as ribavirin, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, antibiotics such as azithromycin and doxycycline, and anti-parasite such as ivermectin have been recommended for COVID-19 treatment.
32458279 Remdesivir is one of the most promising drugs to treat COVID-19 based on the following facts: remdesivir has a broad-spectrum antiviral mechanism of action; it demonstrated in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 and in vivo efficacy in animal models against the similar coronavirus MERS-CoV; its safety profile has been tested in Ebola patients and in compassionate use in COVID-19 patients. […] Currently, remdesivir is being investigated in ten randomized controlled trials against COVID-19. […] The dose regimen of remdesivir is an IV loading dose of 200 mg on day 1 followed by daily IV maintenance doses of 100 mg for 5-9 days. […] Based on our data analysis, however, remdesivir with IV administration alone is unlikely to achieve excellent clinical efficacy. […] This analysis is based on the following observations: plasma exposures of remdesivir and its active metabolite are unlikely to be correlated with its clinical efficacy; remdesivir and its active metabolites are unlikely to be adequate in the lung to kill the SARS-CoV-2 virus. […] Even if remdesivir demonstrates benefits in the current randomized controlled trials, its efficacy may be limited.
32458969 Two candidate medications have been widely discussed: remdesivir, and hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin. […] Remdesivir has shown mild effectiveness in hospitalized inpatients, but no trials have been registered in outpatients.
32459144 Remdesivir, ritonavir and chloroquine have all been reported to play a role in suppressing SARS-CoV-2.
32459919 Remdesivir is an RNA polymerase inhibitor with potent antiviral activity in vitro and efficacy in animal models of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). […] Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous remdesivir for either 5 days or 10 days. […] All patients received 200 mg of remdesivir on day 1 and 100 mg once daily on subsequent days. […] In patients with severe Covid-19 not requiring mechanical ventilation, our trial did not show a significant difference between a 5-day course and a 10-day course of remdesivir.
32462988 The treatment for the severe respiratory illness caused by this virus is primarily symptomatic at this point, although the usage of a broad antiviral drug Remdesivir has been allowed on emergency basis by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
32468196 A systematic benefit-risk assessment was designed and conducted to examine the benefit-risk profile of remdesivir in COVID-19 patients compared with standard of care, placebo or other treatments. […] The Benefit-Risk Action Team (BRAT) framework was used to assess the overall benefit-risk of the use of remdesivir as a treatment for COVID-19 compared with standard of care, placebo or other treatments. […] We searched PubMed, Google Scholar and government agency websites to identify literature reporting clinical outcomes in patients taking remdesivir for COVID-19. […] Using the BRAT method, several key benefits and risks for use of remdesivir in COVID-19 compared with placebo have been identified. […] In another trial, a shorter time to recovery in patients treated with remdesivir was observed (11 vs 15 days), with non-significant reduced mortality risk (8% vs 12%). […] This trial reported fewer serious adverse events in patients taking remdesivir (18%) compared with the placebo group (26%); however, more patients in the remdesivir group discontinued treatment as a result of an adverse event compared with those patients receiving placebo (12% vs 5%). […] Preliminary clinical trial results suggest that there may be a favourable benefit-risk profile for remdesivir compared with placebo in severe COVID-19 infection and further data on benefits would strengthen this evaluation. […] There is limited safety data for remdesivir, which should be obtained in further studies.
32470751 As per SOLIDARITY trial by WHO, some of the most promising candidates include chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine which are anti-malarial medications, Remdesivir, Lopinavir-Ritonavir combination with or without interferon which are anti-HIV drugs and convalescent plasma therapy.
32473310 A few clinically approved drugs, such as remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nafamostat, camostat, and ivermectin, exhibited anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in vitro and/or in a small number of patients.
32470470 Current treatment of COVID-19 patients relies mainly on antiviral drugs lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, and remdesivir, the anti-malarial drugs hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, and traditional Chinese medicine.
32479865 Remdesivir, used as a positive control, demonstrated potent antiviral activity (EC50 = 0.38 μM).
32483554 One potential therapeutic approach currently being evaluated in numerous clinical trials is the agent remdesivir, which has endured a long and winding developmental path. […] Remdesivir is a nucleotide analogue prodrug that perturbs viral replication, originally evaluated in clinical trials to thwart the Ebola outbreak in 2014. […] Subsequent evaluation by numerous virology laboratories demonstrated the ability of remdesivir to inhibit coronavirus replication, including SARS-CoV-2. […] Here, we provide an overview of remdesivir’s discovery, mechanism of action, and the current studies exploring its clinical effectiveness.
32486229 Besides, the computations data of DFT the docking simulation studies was predicted that the Amodiaquine (2) has the least binding energy (-7.77 Kcal/mol) and might serve as a good inhibitor to SARS-CoV-2 comparable with the approved medicines, hydroxychloroquine, and remdesivir which have binding affinity -6.06 and -4.96 Kcal/mol, respectively.
32495921 Hence, based upon limited in-vitro and anecdotal data, Chloroquine, or Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Lopinavir and Ritonavir are being employed in the management.
32496239 However, it was reported that remdesivir an investigational antiviral agent hastens clinical recovery, but a study is yet to be published in peer-reviewed medical journal.
32496357 Ten received toclizumab and/or ribavirin; 1 received remdesivir.
32499832 Among the antivirals, the most promising appears to be remdesivir.
32501511 To define pediatric-specific dosing regimens for hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir for COVID-19 treatment. […] For remdesivir, pediatric dosages were derived using allometric-scaling with age-dependent exponents. […] Simulated drug exposures following a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine (400 mg every 12 hours × 2 doses followed by 200 mg every 12 hours × 8 doses) and a single 200-mg intravenous dose of remdesivir were computed for simulated adult participants. […] For remdesivir, the primary outcome was plasma exposure (area under the curve, 0 to infinity) following single-dose administration. […] For remdesivir, the analysis included 1000 and 6000 simulated adult and pediatric participants, respectively. […] This analysis provides pediatric-specific dosing suggestions for hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir and raises concerns regarding hydroxychloroquine use for COVID-19 treatment because concentrations were less than those needed to mediate an antiviral effect.
32503814 The results support the combination of copper, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), colchicine and nitric oxide (NO) with candidate antiviral agents, remdesivir or EIDD-2801, as a treatment for patients positive for SARS-CoV-2. […] The authors propose to study the effects of the combination of copper, NAC, colchicine, NO and currently used experimental antiviral agents, remdesivir or EIDD-2801, as a potential treatment scheme for SARS-COV-2.
32503817 Different preclinical studies conducted on other coronaviruses suggested that promising clinical outcomes for 2019-nCoV should be obtained by using alpha-interferon, chloroquine phosphate, arabinol, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and anti-inflammatory drugs.
32503874 Remdesivir, a nucleotide-analogue antiviral drug developed for Ebola, is determined to prevent and stop infections with COVID-19, while results are yet controversial. […] Here, we aim to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy of remdesivir in patients with COVID-19. […] We will include RCTs that assessed the efficacy of remdesivir versus placebo or standard of care. […] Random effects model will be carried out to calculate mean differences for continuous outcome data and risk ratio for dichotomous outcome data between remdesivir and placebo or standard of care.
32506110 This systemic review aimed at evaluating the available evidence on efficacy, safety to identify any promising role for compassionate use of remdesivir in patient suffered for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) as re-purposeful use. […] We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective case series studies and case reports that evaluated use of remdesivir in COVID-19. […] Though the drug remdesivir (RDV) is not approved by the FDA, still the “Emergency Use Authorization” (EUA) for compassionate use in severe cases is endorsed. […] Remdesivir was thought to be one of the promising options for treating the patients of COVID-19 based on few laboratory experiments and reports from some compassionate use and case reports.
32513308 *Use of remdesivir as treatment for COVID-19 is permitted.
32514228 Certain drugs that are clinically approved for other diseases were tested against COVID-19 as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, favipiravir, ribavirin, and remdesivir.
32515383 Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Ribavirin, remdesivir and Ravipiravir are some of the major antiviral agents showing initial encouraging results.
32516797 Remdesivir (GS-5734) is a nucleotide analog prodrug with broad antiviral activity1,2, that is currently investigated in COVID-19 clinical trials and recently received Emergency Use Authorization from the US Food and Drug Administration3,4. […] In animal models, remdesivir treatment was effective against MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection.2,5,6 In vitro, remdesivir inhibited replication of SARS-CoV-2.7,8 Here, we investigated the efficacy of remdesivir treatment in a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection9. […] In contrast to vehicle-treated animals, animals treated with remdesivir did not show signs of respiratory disease and had reduced pulmonary infiltrates on radiographs and reduced virus titers in bronchoalveolar lavages 12hrs after the first treatment administration. […] Virus shedding from the upper respiratory tract was not reduced by remdesivir treatment. […] At necropsy, lung viral loads of remdesivir-treated animals were lower and there was a reduction in damage to the lungs. […] Thus, therapeutic remdesivir treatment initiated early during infection had a clinical benefit in SARS-CoV-2-infected rhesus macaques. […] Although the rhesus macaque model does not represent the severe disease observed in a proportion of COVID-19 patients, our data support early remdesivir treatment initiation in COVID-19 patients to prevent progression to pneumonia.
32517353 As a computationally predicted, remdesivir-like inhibitor of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)-the central component of the replication/transcription machinery of SARS-CoV-2-silibinin is expected to reduce viral load and impede delayed interferon responses.
32521159 Recently, because of its positive results in clinical trials, remdesivir was approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat COVID-19 through Emergency Use Authorization. […] Here, we used molecular dynamics simulations and free energy perturbation methods to study the inhibition mechanism of remdesivir to its target SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). […] We then built a putative preinsertion binding structure by aligning the remdesivir + RdRp complex to the ATP bound poliovirus RdRp without the RNA template. […] The resulting stable preinsertion state of remdesivir appeared to form hydrogen bonds with the RNA template when aligned with the newly solved cryo-EM structure of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. […] The relative binding free energy between remdesivir and ATP was calculated to be -2.80 ± 0.84 kcal/mol, where remdesivir bound much stronger to SARS-CoV-2 RdRp than the natural substrate ATP. […] The ∼100-fold improvement in the Kd from remdesivir over ATP indicates an effective replacement of ATP in blocking of the RdRp preinsertion site. […] Key residues D618, S549, and R555 are found to be the contributors to the binding affinity of remdesivir. […] These findings suggest that remdesivir can potentially act as a SARS-CoV-2 RNA-chain terminator, effectively stopping its RNA replication, with key residues also identified for future lead optimization and/or drug resistance studies.
32524645 We comment on hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir with zinc supplement, remdesivir, tocilizumab, ciclesonide, niclosamide and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).
32526208 Nucleotide analog inhibitors, including broad-spectrum remdesivir and favipiravir, have shown promise in in vitro assays and some clinical studies for COVID-19 treatment, this despite an incomplete mechanistic understanding of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase nsp12 drug interactions. […] Furthermore, we investigate the inhibition mechanism of the triphosphate metabolite of remdesivir through structural and kinetic analyses.
32527327 Evolving hypoxia and infiltrates on chest imaging warranted the trial of an investigational antiviral drug - remdesivir.
32532085 In addition to remdesivir, lopinavir, and chloroquine, our primary screening additionally identified types I and II recombinant interferons, 25-hydroxycholesterol, and AM580 as the most potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents among the 22 antiviral agents.
32532939 Hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, umifenovir, favipiravir, ribavirin and beta-interferon-1 gave rise to variable but still inconsistent proof of clinical efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19.
32533671 This area has faced numerous challenges, including the shortage of frequent-use products (hydroalcoholic solutions, lopinavir/ritonavir suspension), the use of new preparations for SARS-CoV-2 (tocilizumab, remdesivir), or requests from overwhelmed wards unable to assume the safe preparation of a high volume of medications (intravenous solutions). […] Como todo el sector sanitario, la farmacotecnia hospitalaria ha sufrido el impacto de la pandemia de la COVID-19, enfrentándose a la necesidad de cubrir el desabastecimiento de productos de uso frecuente (soluciones hidroalcohólicas, lopinavir/ritonavir suspensión), a nuevas preparaciones surgidas de las nuevas necesidades provocadas por el SARS-CoV-2 (tocilizumab, remdesivir), o a peticiones de plantas desbordadas por la carga asistencial, incapaces de asumir con un mínimo de seguridad la preparación de numerosos medicamentos (mezclas intravenosas).
32538209 We encourage giving more attention to favipiravir, remdesivir, and measles vaccine.
32542131 The off-label use of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and emergency use authorization of remdesivir can hopefully help the clinicians while treating critically ill patients.
32547625 One leading candidate is remdesivir (GS-5734), a broad-spectrum antiviral that was initially developed for the treatment of Ebola virus (EBOV). […] Although remdesivir performed well in preclinical studies, it did not meet efficacy endpoints in a randomized trial conducted during an Ebola outbreak. […] Remdesivir holds promise for treating COVID-19 based on in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2, uncontrolled clinical reports, and limited data from randomized trials. […] Overall, current data are insufficient to judge the efficacy of remdesivir for COVID-19, and the results of additional randomized studies are eagerly anticipated. […] We then summarize preclinical and clinical studies of remdesivir for Ebola and COVID-19.
32550223 Remdesivir has generated hope.
32553861 For treatment, intravenous immunoglobulin was used in 18 (54%), corticosteroids in 17 (51%), tocilizumab in 12 (36%), remdesivir in 7 (21%), vasopressors in 17 (51%), mechanical ventilation in 5 (15%), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in 1 (3%), and intra-aortic balloon pump in 1 (3%).
32554907 With no clear remedies to treat the disease, doctors are repurposing drugs like chloroquine and remdesivir to treat COVID-19 patients.
32554953 Several anti-viral drugs such as RNA dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin), protease inhibitors (lopinavir, ritonavir) and drugs targeting endocytic pathway (hydroxychloroquine) are being evaluated for COVID-19 but standard therapeutics yet not available.
32555974 These include chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), nitazoxanide, remdesivir, Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV / r), in addition to treatment with convalescent plasma.
32561148 Novel experimental therapies, such as remdesivir and favipiravir, are also actively being investigated for antiviral efficacy.
32562915 34-35 °C) and assuming viral thermolability of SARS-CoV-2, local instillation or aerosol of antiviral (i.e. remdesivir) in humid heat vaporization (40°-41 °C) in the first phase of infection (phenotype I, before admission), both in asymptomatic but nasopharyngeal swab positive patients, together with antiseptic-antiviral oral gargles and povidone-iodine eye drops for conjunctiva (0,8-5% conjunctival congestion), would attack the virus directly through the receptors to which it binds, significantly decreasing viral replication, risk of evolution to phenotypes IV and V, reducing hospitalization and therefore death.
32563812 Remdesivir (GS-5734), a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) inhibitor that can be used to treat a variety of RNA virus infections, is expected to be an effective treatment for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. […] Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for remdesivir to treat COVID-19 patients. […] In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, this review presents comprehensive information on remdesivir, including information regarding the milestones, intellectual properties, anti-coronavirus mechanisms, preclinical research and clinical trials, and in particular, the chemical synthesis, pharmacology, toxicology, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of remdesivir. […] Furthermore, perspectives regarding the use of remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19 are also discussed.
32568027 Furthermore, we determined that the sensitivity of the two viruses to three established inhibitors of coronavirus replication (remdesivir, alisporivir and chloroquine) is very similar, but that SARS-CoV-2 infection was substantially more sensitive to pre-treatment of cells with pegylated interferon alpha.
32568282 The antiviral drug remdesivir has been shown to shorten duration of disease while interferon beta-1b may speed up viral clearance.
32568620 Complete genome sequence analysis, structural and molecular docking results revealed that Remdesivir is having a better binding affinity with -8.2 kcal/mol than the rest of protease inhibitors, and peptide. […] Remdesivir is strongly forming h-bonds with crucial Mpro residues, Cys145, and His164. […] Further, MD simulation analysis also confirmed, that these residues are forming H-bond with Remdesivir during 100 ns simulations run and found stable (∼99%) by RMSD and RMSF. […] Thus, present in silico study at molecular approaches suggest that, Remdesivir is a potent therapeutic inhibitor against 2019-nCoV.Communicated by Ramaswamy H.
32569708 Treatment options for the pulmonary phase include: Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir. […] Human clinical trials are starting to show some results, in some cases like that of Remdesivir these are controversial.
32572376 Based on the previous experiences with similar coronavirus management and present preliminary data from uncontrolled studies, drugs like chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and favipiravir have been recommended by the researchers to manage COVID-19.
32573468 Objectives A method based on liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection using 50 µL of plasma was developed and fully validated for quantification of remdesivir and its active metabolites GS-441524. […] Methods A simple protein precipitation was carried out using 75 µL of methanol containing the internal standard (IS) remdesivir-13C6 and 5 µL ZnSO4 1 M. […] The ion transitions used were m/z 603.3 → m/z 200.0 and m/z 229.0 for remdesivir, m/z 292.2 → m/z 173.1 and m/z 147.1 for GS-441524 and m/z 609.3 → m/z 206.0 for remdesivir-13C6. […] Results Calibration curves were linear in the 1-5000 μg/L range for remdesivir and 5-2500 for GS-441524, with limit of detection set at 0.5 and 2 μg/L and limit of quantification at 1 and 5 μg/L, respectively. […] Precisions evaluated at 2.5, 400 and 4000 μg/L for remdesivir and 12.5, 125, 2000 μg/L for GS-441524 were lower than 14.7% and accuracy was in the [89.6-110.2%] range. […] Higher stability of remdesivir and metabolite was observed on NaF-plasma. […] After 200 mg IV single administration, remdesivir concentration decrease rapidly with a half-life less than 1 h while GS-441524 appeared rapidly and decreased slowly until H24 with a half-life around 12 h.
32573538 The review provides detailed literature data on drugs such as hydroxychloroquine / chloroquine, lopinavir/natinavir, remdesivir, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin converting enzyme receptor blockers, tissue plasminogen activator, as well as plasma transfusion transfusions.
32574109 Specifically, we review the potential clinical utility of two transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2)-targeting protease inhibitors, nafamostat mesylate and camostat mesylate, as well as two novel potent fusion inhibitors and the repurposed Ebola drug, remdesivir, which is specific to RdRp, against human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2.
32574236 This review is specifically aimed to summarize the available evidence and ongoing clinical trials of remdesivir as a potential therapeutic option for COVID-19. […] Remdesivir is an investigational drug having broad spectrum antiviral activity with its target RNA dependent RNA polymerase. […] Several studies showed that remdesivir had promising in vitro and in vivo antiviral activities against SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV strains. […] There are few phase 3 randomized double-blind placebo controlled trials on the way to investigate the safety and efficacy of remdesivir. […] Of which, one completed double blind, placebo controlled trial showed that remdesivir showed faster time to clinical improvement in severe COVID-19 patients compared to placebo though not found statistically significant.
32574299 There are no treatment options available for the virus as such, limited to the use of anti-HIV drugs and/or other antivirals such as Remdesivir and Galidesivir.
32574327 Many conventional drugs including hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, lopinavir, remdesivir, etc., have been repurposed as treatments for this often deadly disease, but there is no specifically-designed effective drug available; also, the drugs mentioned have significant side effects and their efficacy is unknown.
32580257 Compassionate use of pharmacologic therapies such as remdesivir has shown promise, and further clinical trials of anticytokine agents are underway.
32584236 Likewise, protease inhibitors, including lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, and nucleoside analogue remdesivir were proposed to be the potential drug candidates in COVID-19 management.
32587649 Despite reported observational data about the experimental use of certain drugs, there is no conclusively proven curative therapy for COVID-19 as of now; however, remdesivir received emergency use authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently for use in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
32587651 Recently remdesivir has received emergency use authorization by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA for use in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
32589146 Recently, three randomized clinical trials on COVID-19 treatments were completed, one for lopinavir-ritonavir and two for remdesivir. […] One trial reported that remdesivir was superior to placebo in shortening the time to recovery, while the other two showed no benefit of the treatment under investigation. […] The remdesivir trial of Wang et al. failed to reach the planned sample size due to a lack of eligible patients, while the bootstrap method was used to predict the quantity of clinical interest conditionally and unconditionally if the trial had continued to reach the originally planned sample size. […] The remdesivir trial of Beigel et al. reported the median recovery time of the remdesivir and placebo groups and the rate ratio for recovery, while both quantities depend on a particular time point representing local information. […] For the remdesivir trial of Wang et al., the difference of RMTIs at day 28 was -0.89 day (95% CI [-2.84, 1.06]; P=.37). […] For the remdesivir trial of Beigel et al., the difference of RMTRs between the remdesivir and placebo groups at day 30 was -2.7 days (95% CI [-4.0, -1.2]; P<.001), confirming the superiority of remdesivir.
32589775 Remdesivir (RDV), a single diastereomeric monophosphoroamidate prodrug that inhibits viral RNA polymerases, has potent in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV2.
32591667 Additionally, this study suggested oseltamivir, iopinavir, remdesivir, chloroquine, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, and fedratinib as possible drugs to help manage COVID-19.
32164080 Drugs are possibly effective for 2019-nCoV include: remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir combined with interferon-β, convalescent plasma, and monoclonal antibodies.
32409433 Remdesivir appears to result in favorable outcomes with shortened time to recovery and a modest decrease in mortality for hospitalized patients in compassionate use series and some randomized controlled trials. […] Currently, remdesivir is available only from the US government via an emergency use authorization process.
32412158 Although there are upcoming promising agents such as remdesivir and convalescent plasma, inexpensive, safe and widely available adjunct treatments to ameliorate disease burden would be welcome.
32593339 The most frequently used drug with antiviral activity was hydroxychloroquine (40 [7%] patients), followed by remdesivir (17 [3%] patients), lopinavir-ritonavir (six [1%] patients), and oseltamivir (three [1%] patients).
32594120 We report a case of a male with COVID-19 who developed acute hepatotoxicity related to remdesivir with probable interaction of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors. […] Until further details upon this interaction become available, we recommend physicians to be cautious with the prescription of P-gp inhibitors in patients receiving remdesivir therapy.
32595613 Remdesivir (GS-5734) is a novel monophosphoramidate adenosine analog prodrug that exhibits potent antiviral activity against diverse RNA virus families, including positive-sense Coronaviridae and Flaviviridae and negative-sense Filoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Pneumoviridae. […] Currently, remdesivir is under phase 3 clinical development for disease COVID-19 treatment. […] Here, we found that remdesivir impeded both EV71 viral RNA (vRNA) and complementary (cRNA) synthesis, indicating that EV71 replication is inhibited by the triphosphate (TP) form of remdesivir. […] Moreover, remdesivir showed potent antiviral activity against diverse enteroviruses. […] These data extend the remdesivir antiviral activity to enteroviruses and indicate that remdesivir is a promising antiviral treatment for EV71 and other enterovirus infections.
32597995 Food and Drug Administration emergency use authorization for treatment of COVID-19: hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir.
32603692 Initial clinical studies revealed the promising potential of remdesivir that demonstrated a powerful and specific in vitro antiviral activity for COVID-19. […] Remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine are being tested in ongoing randomized trials.
32604775 Chloroquine, interferon, and antiviral agents such as remdesivir, lopinavir, and ritonavir are agents under investigation in these trials.
32604797 Some antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir as well as antiretroviral drugs including darunavir, lopinavir, and ritonavir are suggested to be effective in treating disorders caused by SARS-CoV-2.
32607304 The patient was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, dobutamine, remdesivir, and ventilatory support.
32607555 Remdesivir is a prodrug of the nucleoside analogue GS-441524 and is under evaluation for treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. […] To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of remdesivir and GS-441524 in plasma, bronchoalveolar aspirate (BAS) and CSF in two critically ill COVID-19 patients. […] Remdesivir was administered at 200 mg loading dose on the first day followed by 12 days of 100 mg in two critically ill patients. […] Remdesivir and GS-441524 concentrations were measured in these samples using a validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. […] We observed higher concentrations of remdesivir at C0 (6- to 7-fold higher than EC50 from in vitro studies) and a notable decay at C1. […] We report the first pharmacokinetic evaluation of remdesivir and GS-441524 in recovered COVID-19 patients. […] Further study of the pharmacokinetic profile of remdesivir, GS-441524 and the intracellular triphosphate form are required.
32612432 Hydroxychloroquine and antiproteases (lopinavir/ritonavir) were reported to be safe; however, therapeutic efficacy and safety of remdesivir still lack evidence.
32612804 A preliminary search identified the following drugs as being used to treat COVID-19 symptoms: atazanavir (ATV), azithromycin (AZI), chloroquine (CLQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCLQ), dipyridamole, famotidine (FAM), favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), nitazoxanide, remdesivir, ribavirin and tocilizumab.
32617855 Considering Remdesivir as the control, 42 compounds were shortlisted to have docking score better than Remdesivir. […] The top 5 hits were validated by using molecular dynamics simulation approach and free energy calculations possess strong inhibitory properties than the Remdesivir.
32618794 On hospital day 3, owing to increased dyspnea and oxygen requirement, the patient was treated with tocilizumab followed by 5 days of remdesivir. […] Tocilizumab and remdesivir may be effective for treatment of severe COVID-19 in pregnancy, but additional data are needed to guide risk-benefit considerations.
32619764 Remdesivir is a broad-spectrum antiviral with efficient in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2. […] Evidence of clinical improvement in patients with severe COVID-19 treated with remdesivir is controversial. […] The aim of this study was to describe the clinical outcomes and virological monitoring of the first five COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital, Paris, France, for severe pneumonia related to SARS-CoV-2 and treated with remdesivir. […] Remdesivir was interrupted before the initialy planned duration in four patients, two because of alanine aminotransferase elevations (3 to 5 normal range) and two because of renal failure requiring renal replacement. […] This case series of five COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care unit treatment for respiratory distress and treated with remdesivir, highlights the complexity of remdesivir use in such critically ill patients.
32621523 Two of 5 (20%) had moderate disease and received remdesivir as part of a clinical trial and reduced immunosuppression therapy.
32621718 Shape-based Machine learning reported remdesivir, valrubicin, aprepitant, and fulvestrant as the best therapeutic agents with the highest affinity for the target protein.
32622450 Despite the issuance of emergency use authorization for remdesivir, there are still no proven effective antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies, and their use in COVID-19 management should be guided by clinical trial protocols or treatment registries.
32624257 Initial data from a placebo-controlled study suggest faster time to recovery in patients on remdesivir; it is now being evaluated in additional controlled studies.
32628744 Remdesivir can prevent deaths in countries such as South Africa by decreasing the number of days people spend in ICU, therefore freeing up ICU bed capacity.
32629804 Therapeutics with particularly high potential efficacy for repurposing include camostat mesylate, remdesivir, favipiravir, tocilizumab, baricitinib, convalescent plasma, and humanized monoclonal antibodies. […] In early research, the targeted antivirals remdesivir and favipiravir appear to benefit patients by decreasing viral replication; clinical trials suggest that remdesivir speeds recovery from COVID-19.
32631826 These repurposed drugs have mainly included remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin, interferons, and hydroxychloroquine.
32634024 Using 2 recent trials evaluating treatments (remdesivir and convalescent plasma) for COVID-19 as examples, a valid, well-established yet underused procedure is presented for estimating the cumulative recovery or improvement rate curve across the study period.
32634080 Several compounds, including remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, interferon-β, ribavirin, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, and ivermectin, have emerged as promising alternatives.
32634603 The antiviral therapies remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and umifenovir, if considered, should be initiated before the peak of viral replication for an optimal outcome.
32636851 We present the current evidence for the use of vitamin C and quercetin both for prophylaxis in high-risk populations and for the treatment of COVID-19 patients as an adjunct to promising pharmacological agents such as Remdesivir or convalescent plasma.
32638628 At present, potential therapeutic targets and drugs for SARS-CoV-2 are continuously reported, and many repositioning drugs are undergoing extensive clinical research, including remdesivir and chloroquine.
32639466 Patients received therapies including hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, tocilizumab, and convalescent serum and were managed according to an institutional algorithm based on evidence available at the time of presentation.
32643436 Initial findings from antivirals such as remdesivir, favipiravir, danoprevir or lopinavir with ritonavir are presented. […] Where compassionate use of remdesivir has shown some benefits, therapies such as hydroxychloroquine have proven harmful due to their toxicities.
32643551 The patient received remdesivir, steroids, and anakinra.
32643603 Ad5-hACE2-transduced mice enabled rapid assessments of a vaccine candidate, of human convalescent plasma, and of two antiviral therapies (poly I:C and remdesivir).
32645175 One neonate received antiviral therapy with remdesivir and is, to our knowledge, the youngest patient to receive this drug for COVID-19.
32648899 Emerging data indicate that dexamethasone therapy reduces 28-day mortality in patients requiring supplemental oxygen compared with usual care (21.6% vs 24.6%; age-adjusted rate ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.74-0.92]) and that remdesivir improves time to recovery (hospital discharge or no supplemental oxygen requirement) from 15 to 11 days.
32649262 In particular, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, as well as antiviral drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir and lopinavir can all present potential ototoxic side effects.
32651941 Remdesivir is a nucleoside antiviral recently studied in several randomized trials for treatment of COVID-19. […] The available observational and prospective data are conflicting, requiring clinicians to critically evaluate and reconcile results to determine patient populations that may optimally benefit from remdesivir therapy, especially while drug supply is scarce. […] In this review, we analyze pertinent clinical remdesivir data for patients with COVID-19 from January 1, 2020, through May 31, 2020.
32655019 But, there is no data on using remdesivir in patients with severe CKD. […] Acute kidney injury has been reported with remdesivir in patients with severe COVID-19.
32655654 It is hoped that existing antivirals including remdesivir and lopinavir-ritonavir might have roles in the treatment of COVID-19, but results from trials thus far have not been promising.
32656006 The use of lopinavir/ritonavir and remdesivir was associated with significant clinical improvement in severe pneumonia.
32656310
  1. Researchers’ claim that nutrition and immunity enhancers and treatment plans such as arbidol, lopinavir/ritonavir, convalescent plasma and mesenchymal stem cells and drugs including remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and favipiravir are effective against COVID-19.
32657527 Nine of the 27 were hospitalized for one to thirteen days; of those, three lived in a nursing home, six received remdesivir through a clinical trial or emergency use authorization and tolerated it well; eight recovered and one died.
32660307 While great global efforts are underway to develop vaccines and to discover or repurpose therapeutic agents for this disease, as of this writing only the nucleoside drug remdesivir has been approved under Emergency Use Authorization to treat COVID-19.
32660611 Investigational antiviral therapies (such as remdesivir) will be allowed even if received as part of a clinical study.
32662203 The remdesivir could be considered the closest bifunctional drug to the provisional clinical administration for SARS-CoV-2.
32665809 While remdesivir has garnered much hope for its moderate anti-Covid-19 effects, its parent nucleoside, GS-441524, has been overlooked. […] Pharmacokinetic analysis of remdesivir evidences premature serum hydrolysis to GS-441524; GS-441524 is the predominant metabolite reaching the lungs. […] With its synthetic simplicity and in vivo efficacy in the veterinary setting, we contend that GS-441524 is superior to remdesivir for Covid-19 treatment.
32668216 We report that remdesivir (RDV) potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in human lung cells and primary human airway epithelial cultures (EC50 = 0.01 μM).
32668803 The early administration of a combination of antivirals such as remdesivir and lysosomotropic drugs, such as the antibiotics teicoplanin or dalbavancin, seems to be able to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and transition to COVID-19.
32670990 Clinical and laboratory findings in COVID-19 are unspecific.Chest CT has a diagnostic sensitivity comparable to nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR assay but lacks specificity.RT-PCR assays on biological specimens, particularly nasopharyngeal swabs, are considered the diagnostic gold standard.Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage can help confirm the diagnosis and should be performed in patients in whom diagnostic-driven treatment for COVID-19, such as tocilizumab or remdesivir, is being considered.
32671601 An approved therapy for patients with COVID-19 has yet to emerge; however, there are some medications used in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection globally including hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, dexamethasone, protease inhibitors, and anti-inflammatory agents.
32679055 We report the antiviral effect of remdesivir, lopinavir, chloroquine, umifenovir, berberine and cyclosporine A in Vero E6 cells model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with estimated 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.99, 5.2, 1.38, 3.5, 10.6 and 3 μM, respectively. […] We report a strong antagonism between remdesivir and berberine, in contrast with remdesivir/diltiazem, for which we describe high levels of synergy, with mean Loewe synergy scores of 12 and peak values above 50.
32681989 For treatment, 27 (38.6%) patients received hydroxychloroquine; 13 (18.6%) remdesivir; 23 (32.9%) corticosteroids; 3 (4.3%) tocilizumab; and 1 (1.4%) anakinra; no patient was given immunoglobulin or convalescent plasma.
32682787 Amongst these RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (favipiravir and remdesivir) and steroids especially dexamethasone showed promising effects.
32682788 Several drugs such as Remdesivir, Hydroxychloroquine, Chloroquine, Ribavirin, Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Favipiravir, Interferons, Bevacizumab, Azithromycin, etc. are currently under clinical trials.
32683060 Recent publication of several observational studies has generated much discussion surrounding efficacy of drugs including hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir, stressing the need for high-quality prospective, randomized control trials in patients with COVID-19.
32684351 In this article, we reviewed the current options for COVID-19 therapy including small molecules such as Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir etc, peptide inhibitors of ACE2, Traditional Chinese Medicines and Biologics such as SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies, mesenchymal stem cells and vaccines etc.
32685234 Currently, the management of patients with COVID-19 depends mainly on repurposed drugs which include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, interferon-α, interferon-β and others.
32686993 Among the predicted drugs compounds, clemizole, monorden, spironolactone and tanespimycin showed high binding energies; among the studied repurposing compounds, remdesivir, simeprevir and valinomycin showed high binding energies; among the predicted acidic compounds, acetylursolic acid and hardwickiic acid gave high binding energies; while among the studied anthraquinones and glycosides compounds, ellagitannin and friedelanone showed high binding energies against 3-Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), Papain-like protease (PLpro), helicase (nsp13), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsp12), 2’-O-ribose methyltransferase (nsp16) of SARS-CoV-2 and DNA-PK and CK2alpha in human.
32687756 Remdesivir for the treatment of Covid-19-preliminary report.
32687917 Nonetheless, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs, azithromycin were tested against COVID-19 in clinical trials, and finally, FDA approved emergency use of remdesivir in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
32690096 We discovered through the autodock simulations that Met124 plays a key role in the efficiency of drugs targeting ACE2, such as remdesivir, chloroquine, ciclesonide and niclosamide, and may be a potential target in COVID-19.
32691697 Generic antiviral drug remdesivir has been found to reduce time to clinical recovery but with insignificant clinical benefits and the antimalarial drug, hydroxychloroquine has been red flagged by USFDA for use as a prophylactic measure due to its cardiotoxicity.
32691699 We aim to discuss current clinical evidence regarding chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, and the cardiovascular burden of COVID-19. […] We found conflicting evidence of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin, and remdesivir in COVID-19 despite promising early reports of in vitro antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. […] There is no convincing clinical evidence of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin, and remdesivir use in COVID-19.
32692580 To date, only dexamethasone and remdesivir have been shown to be effective, but several other promising candidates are in trials.
32693415 Symptomatic mothers on hydroxychloroquine can safely breastfeed and no adverse effects were reported in a baby treated with remdesivir in another drug trial.
32694915 Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, interferons, umifenovir, remdesivir, and interleukin antagonists, such as tocilizumab, have been recommended as potential treatment options in COVID-19.
32696862 Thus, this study aimed at conducting a review of the use of Remdesivir in patients with COVID-19. […] On May 1, Remdesivir received emergency use authorization from the Food and Drug Administration. […] Remdesivir is currently the most promising molecule in the treatment of COVID-19, taking into account its broad antiviral spectrum (considering the genetic sequences of the virus, it is expected to maintain activity against SARS-CoV-2). […] Further studies are relevant as available data on the efficacy and safety of Remdesivir against SARS-nCoV-2 are limited.
32698440 We previously predicted antivirals (atazanavir, remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir) and non-antiviral drugs (tiotropium and rapamycin) that may inhibit the replication complex of SARS-CoV-2 using our molecular transformer-drug target interaction (MT-DTI) deep-learning-based drug-target affinity prediction model.
32699031 Remdesivir had numerically reduced mortality versus untreated controls that did not reach statistical significance. […] Black patients were approximately half as likely to receive remdesivir as white patients. […] SIGNIFICANCE: Evaluating the potential role of COVID-19 treatments in patients with cancer in a large observational study, there was no statistically significant 30-day all-cause mortality benefit with hydroxychloroquine or high-dose corticosteroids alone or in combination; remdesivir showed potential benefit.
32702095 The antiviral drug remdesivir has been shown clinically effective for treatment of COVID-19. […] We here demonstrate suppressive but not curative effect of remdesivir in an immunocompromised patient. […] During two 10-day courses of remdesivir starting 24 and 45 days after fever onset, pneumonia and spiking fevers remitted, but relapsed after discontinuation.
32702590 In this study, referencing the data published on the Protein Data Bank (PDB ID: 7BV2) on April 22, we conducted a detailed analysis of the interaction between the complex structures of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of SARS-CoV-2 and Remdesivir, an antiviral drug, from the quantum chemical perspective based on the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method. […] In addition to the hydrogen bonding and intra-strand stacking between complementary strands as seen in normal base pairs, Remdesivir bound to the terminus of an primer-RNA strand was further stabilized by diagonal π-π stacking with the -1A’ base of the complementary strand and an additional hydrogen bond with an intra-strand base, due to the effect of chemically modified functional group. […] We quantitatively revealed the exhaustive interaction within the complex among Remdesivir, template-primer-RNA, RdRp and co-factors, and published the results in the FMODB database.
32705976 To date, only two treatments, remdesivir and dexamethasone, have demonstrated clinical efficacy through randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in seriously ill patients.
32706859 We compared the efficacy of the antiviral agent, remdesivir, versus standard-of-care treatment in adults with severe COVID-19 using data from a phase 3 remdesivir trial and a retrospective cohort of patients with severe COVID-19 treated with standard-of-care. […] GS-US-540-5773 is an ongoing phase 3, randomized, open-label trial comparing two courses of remdesivir (remdesivir-cohort). […] GS-US-540-5807 is an ongoing real-world, retrospective cohort study of clinical outcomes in patients receiving standard-of-care treatment (non-remdesivir-cohort). […] Stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighted multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the treatment effect of remdesivir versus standard-of-care. […] After the inverse probability of treatment weighting procedure 312 and 818 patients were counted in the remdesivir- and non-remdesivir-cohorts, respectively. […] At day 14, 74.4% of patients in the remdesivir-cohort had recovered versus 59.0% in the non-remdesivir-cohort (adjusted odds ratio 2.03: 95% confidence interval 1.34-3.08, p<0.001). […] At day 14, 7.6% of patients in the remdesivir-cohort had died versus 12.5% in the non-remdesivir-cohort (adjusted odds ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.68, p=0.001). […] In this comparative analysis, by day 14, remdesivir was associated with significantly greater recovery and 62% reduced odds of death versus standard-of-care treatment in patients with severe COVID-19.
32707160 Thus, the aim of this study was to review and evaluate the literature data on the toxicity of the selected individual drugs (ritonavir, lopinavir, remdesivir, chloroquine, and umifenovir) and the available clinical data concerning the possible adverse effects of the selected drug combinations (lopinavir/ritonavir + umifenovir, lopinavir/ritonavir + interferon β, chloroquine + remdesivir, and chloroquine + azithromycin).
32711596 We started a study on the molecular docking of six potential pharmacologically active inhibitors compounds that can be used clinically against the COVID-19 virus, in this case, remdesivir, ribavirin, favipiravir, galidesivir, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine interacting with the main COVID-19 protease in complex with a COVID-19 N3 protease inhibitor. […] The highest values of affinity energy found in order from highest to lowest were chloroquine (CHL), hydroxychloroquine (HYC), favipiravir (FAV), galidesivir (GAL), remdesivir (REM) and ribavirin (RIB).
32717568 Chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir or ribavirin have all been successful in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. […] The results of clinical trials point to the potential clinical efficacy of antivirals, especially remdesivir (GS-5734), lopinavir/ritonavir, and favipiravir.
32721580 Remdesivir is a nucleotide analog prodrug with antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of human coronavirus in cell cultures and mouse models including severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus 2. […] Recently, the Food and Drug Agency (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended remdesivir for the treatment of patients hospitalized with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection.1,2 In the remdesivir clinical development program, some cases have raised concerns regarding potential hepatobiliary disorders associated with remdesivir, including in healthy volunteers and patients with COVID-19.3 In cohort studies of patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19 who were treated with compassionate-use remdesivir, elevated hepatic enzymes were the most frequent adverse drug reaction reported.4,5 In the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial assessing the effect of intravenous remdesivir in adults admitted to hospital with severe COVID-19 (n = 237), a higher proportion of remdesivir recipients than placebo recipients had dosing prematurely stopped by the investigators because of adverse events including aminotransferase or bilirubin increases (3 versus 0).6 Although there is no signal from the available data of severe hepatotoxicity or drug-induced liver injury in clinical trials, the number of patients exposed to remdesivir was too limited. […] Therefore, there is an urgent need to investigate the hepatic safety profile associated with remdesivir in COVID-19 patients.
32722574 The clinical treatment of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV-2 is currently based on the experimental administration of HIV antiviral drugs, such as lopinavir, ritonavir, and remdesivir (a nucleotide analogue used for Ebola infection).
32723092 This is the first reported case of an extremely preterm infant born to a mother with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who required intubation, and was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma, inhaled nitric oxide, and prone positioning for severe hypoxemic respiratory failure prior to and after delivery of this infant.
32723142 Repositioned drugs such as remdesivir have revealed a promising clinical efficacy against COVID-19.
32723801 For example, the experimental drug remdesivir, originally developed for Ebola virus infections, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as an emergency use treatment of COVID-19.
32725382 We found promising in vitro evidence for remdesivir, (hydroxy)chloroquine and favipiravir against SARS-CoV-2; potential clinical benefit in SARS-CoV-2 with remdesivir, the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus ribavirin; and strong evidence for LPV/r plus ribavirin against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) for post-exposure prophylaxis in healthcare workers.
32725890 Medications used in COVID-19 treatment (lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and tocilizumab) were associated with peak hospitalization liver transaminase elevations >5x ULN.
32726140 The search for effective pharmacological management of COVID-19 continues, but several promising candidates have been identified, including the viral nucleoside analog remdesivir.
32726230 To address the need for an effective treatment of SARS-CoV-2 during the worldwide pandemic, this systematic review of intravenous (IV) remdesivir was performed. […] Remdesivir, an anti-viral prodrug originally developed to treat Ebola virus disease, has shown broad spectrum activity against the Coronavirus family. […] A recent case report reported improvement of clinical symptoms with remdesivir in a patient with COVID-19. […] A total of seven ongoing and recruiting clinical trials of remdesivir (100-200 milligrams, intravenous [IV]) were included. […] Therefore, despite supportive data from in vitro and in vivo studies, the clinical effectiveness of IV remdesivir for treatment of COVID-19 and potential side effects remain incompletely defined in the human population.
32728817 The article concludes with a summary of the insights gained into pharmacological therapies: thrombosis prevention on the one hand, and specific antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies (remdesivir, tocilizumab, anakinra, dexamethasone) on the other.
32729392 Molecular docking on 40 derivatives of standard drugs (Remdesivir, Lopinavir and Theophylline) led to the identification of R10, R2 and L9 as potential inhibitors of 3CLpro, PLpro and Spike protein, respectively. […] Moreover, physicochemical and ADMET properties of R10, R2 and L9 along with Remdesivir, Lopinavir and Theophylline were determined.
32729620 Many drugs are being tested for repurposing, but so far only remdesivir has shown some positive benefits based on preliminary reports, but these results also need further confirmation via ongoing trials.
32730095 However, healthcare professionals are using ritonavir, flavipiravir, lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir.
32732190 Three drugs might reduce symptom duration compared with standard care: hydroxychloroquine (mean difference -4.5 days, low certainty), remdesivir (-2.6 days, moderate certainty), and lopinavir-ritonavir (-1.2 days, low certainty). […] Hydroxychloroquine might increase the risk of adverse events compared with the other interventions, and remdesivir probably does not substantially increase the risk of adverse effects leading to drug discontinuation.
32732352 What is the role of remdesivir in the treatment of severe covid-19? […] Remdesivir has received worldwide attention as a potentially effective treatment for severe covid-19. […] After rapid market approval in the US, remdesivir is already being used in clinical practice. […] The guideline panel makes a weak recommendation for the use of remdesivir in severe covid-19 while recommending continuation of active enrolment of patients into ongoing randomised controlled trials examining remdesivir. […] The linked systematic review (published 31 Jul 2020) identified two randomised trials with 1300 participants, showing low certainty evidence that remdesivir may be effective in reducing time to clinical improvement and may decrease mortality in patients with severe covid-19. […] Remdesivir probably has no important effect on need for invasive mechanical ventilation. […] Remdesivir may have little or no effect on hospital length of stay. […] Most patients with severe covid-19 would likely choose treatment with remdesivir given the potential reduction in time to clinical improvement. […] However, given the low certainty evidence for critical outcomes and the fact that different perspectives, values, and preferences may alter decisions regarding remdesivir, the panel issued a weak recommendation with strong support for continued recruitment in randomised trials.
32735546 The top 10 candidates according to our algorithm are hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, chloroquine, ritonavir, losartan, remdesivir, favipiravir, methylprednisolone, rapamycin, and tilorone dihydrochloride.
32735768 Supportive care and management of the complications that are caused mainly by inflammation might be the key to greater survival rates and shorter hospitalization (e.g., the use of remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, umifenovir (arbidol), oseltamivir, ganciclovir, favipiravir, darunavir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, colchicine, azithromycin, anakinra, canakinumab, tocilizumab, siltuximab, sarilumab, Type 1 interferon, interferon β-1a, interferon α- 2b, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, fedratinib, methylprednisolone and dexamethasone).
32740858 To date, only remdesivir and dexamethasone have demonstrated a positive response in a prospective, randomized trial for the treatment of patients with COVID-19.
32741697 US FDA has authorized the emergency use of Remdesivir looking at the increasing number of cases of COVID-19, however there is still no drug approved to treat COVID-19.
32743771 The complete title should be “Remdesivir for Treatment of COVID-19: Combination of Pulmonary and IV Administration May Offer Additional Benefit”.
32745502 The predicted top 3 antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 are remdesivir, oseltamivir, and zanamivir.
32746653 Here, we summarized and evaluated the current treatment drugs and regimens, and put forward the treatment recommendations, including using the potential repurposed or experimental drugs against COVID-19, e.g. chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), remdesivir (RDV), and favipiravir (FPV).
32750019 The efficacy and tolerability of hidroxychloroquin remains to be also questionable; enroll patients into clinical trial with remdesivir or favipiravir if available.
32750190 Those three medicines are, namely, favilavir, chloroquine phosphate and remdesivir.
32752944 Therefore, this review focuses on the current use of various drugs as single agents (hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, azithromycin, favipiravir, remdesivir, umifenovir, teicoplanin, nitazoxanide, doxycycline, and dexamethasone) or in combinations with immunomodulators additionally.
32753375 A short-cut review of the available medical literature was carried out to establish whether remdesivir was an effective treatment for patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection.
32754388 In this article, we have compiled comprehensive data on many candidate drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, umifenovir, arbidol, lopinavir, ritonavir, baricitinib, hydroxychloroquine, nitazoxanide, azithromycin, baloxavir, oseltamivir, losartan, and tocilizumab.
32754599 However, remdesivir, an inhibitor of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), has appeared as an auspicious antiviral drug. […] Currently, a large-scale study on remdesivir (i.e., 200 mg on first day, then 100 mg once/day) is ongoing to evaluate its clinical efficacy to treat nCOVID-19.
32756480 The most promising therapy to date is remdesivir, which is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for emergency use in adults and children hospitalized with severe suspected or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19.
32757352 Phosphoramidates composed of an amino acid and a nucleotide analogue are critical metabolites of prodrugs, such as remdesivir.
32757500 A novel antiviral agent, remdesivir (RDV), is a promising candidate treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the absence of any proven therapy.
32758342 Gilead Science’s remdesivir has been introduced to China through special approval procedures, and was directly conducting the Phase III clinical trial. […] However, we must pay attention to the patent competition, generic drug competition and other unfair competition that remdesivir may face in China. […] China also needs to strengthen the innovation ability and international cooperation ability of local pharmaceutical companies by taking advantages of the opportunity to introduce remdesivir.
32758569 The docking was done with most discussed drugs for SARS-CoV-2 like Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Remdesivir, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), routine antiviral drugs like Oseltamivir and Ribavirin. […] The generated data confirms the potential of Ritonavir, Lopinavir and Remdesivir as a therapeutic candidate against SARS-CoV-2. […] Molecular interactions of Ritonavir, Lopinavir and Remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 proteins enhanced their potential as a candidate drug for treatment of COVID-19.
32763313 Remdesivir was shown to inhibit RNA-dependent RNA-polymerases (RdRp) from distinct viral families such as from Filoviridae (Ebola) and Coronaviridae (SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, MERS). […] In this study, we tested the ability of remdesivir to inhibit RdRps from the Flaviviridae family. […] Instead of remdesivir, we used the active species that is produced in cells from remdesivir, the appropriate triphosphate, which could be directly tested in vitro using recombinant flaviviral polymerases. […] Our results show that remdesivir can efficiently inhibit RdRps from viruses causing severe illnesses such as Yellow fever, West Nile fever, Japanese and Tick-borne encephalitis, Zika and Dengue. […] Taken together, this study demonstrates that remdesivir or its derivatives have the potential to become a broad-spectrum antiviral agent effective against many RNA viruses.
32768505 These include anti-viral agents (remdesivir, ribavirin, lopinavir-ritonavir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, oseltamivir, umifenovir), immunomodulatory agents (tocilizumab, interferons, plasma transfusions), and adjunctive agents (azithromycin, corticosteroids), among other miscellaneous agents.
32768971 These include different classes of drugs such as antiviral agents (chloroquine, ivermectin, nitazoxanide, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, remdesivir, tocilizumab), supporting agents (Vitamin C, Vitamin D, azithromycin, corticosteroids) and promising investigational vaccines.
32771797 In this review, we summarized the real-time information of 2019-nCoV treatment methods and mainly focused on the chemical drugs including lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir and other potential innovative active molecules.
32773212 Short term therapy of remdesivir claimed to be beneficial. […] Food and Drug administration issued only emergency use authorization to remdesivir for the treatment of suspected or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in adults and children hospitalized with severe disease.
32773440 The antiviral agent remdesivir has become a viable option and is now available in the United States for hospitalized patients through an emergency use authorization. […] This article describes remdesivir’s historical background, pharmacology, key trials, adverse events, and issues regarding accessibility.
32777318 The skin reactions of antimalarials (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine), antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin with or without interferon, oseltamivir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and darunavir), and treatments for complications (imatinib, tocilizumab, anakinra, immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, colchicine and low molecular weight heparins) are analyzed.
32784922 Despite the lack of definitive evidence, remdesivir remains the only antiviral with encouraging effects in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
32786401 The only current FDA-approved treatment, which directly targets the virus, is the ProTide prodrug remdesivir. […] In its activated form, remdesivir prevents viral replication by inhibiting the essential RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. […] Like other ProTide prodrugs, remdesivir contains a chiral phosphorus center. […] The initial selection of the (SP)-diastereomer for remdesivir was reportedly due to the difficulty in producing the pure (RP)-diastereomer of the required precursor. […] However, the two currently known enzymes responsible for the initial activation step of remdesivir are each stereoselective and show differential tissue distribution. […] To help overcome the challenge of obtaining the pure (RP)-diastereomer of remdesivir, we have developed a novel chemoenzymatic strategy that utilizes a stereoselective variant of the phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta to enable the facile isolation of the pure (RP)-diastereomer of the chiral precursor for the chemical synthesis of the (RP)-diastereomer of remdesivir.
32787752 Through this review, several drugs were highlighted that can be evolved in vivo and clinical trials as possible used against these pathogens showed that remdesivir represent potential treatments against CoV.
32788913 Remdesivir may be the most promising therapy up till now. […] Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted emergency use authorization (EUA) for the investigational Remdesivir as a potential antiviral for COVID-19 treatment. […] On May 7, 2020, Gilead Sciences, announced that the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) has granted regulatory approval of Veklury® (Remdesivir) as a treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection, the virus that causes COVID-19 acute respiratory syndrome, under an exceptional approval pathway.
32792942 Remdesivir (RDV, GS-5734), a broad-spectrum antiviral drug in the class of nucleotide analogs, has been particularly tailored for treatment of coronavirus infections.
32794463 Currently, there are several experimental therapies with demonstrated in vitro activity against COVID-19 used in clinical practice, including hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, interleukin-6 pathway inhibitors, and convalescent plasma; however, to date no agent has proven efficacy against COVID-19.
32803479 Certain medications, for example, dexamethasone, antimalarials (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine), antiviral (remdesivir), and IL-6 receptor blocking monoclonal antibodies (tocilizumab), are used in various combinations as off-label medications to treat COVID-19.
32809050 In cases of early signs (stage II) or a manifest cytokine storm (stage III) anakinra (40.8% for stage II and 46.5% for stage III), tocilizumab (26.8% and 40.8%, respectively), steroids (25.4% and 33.8%, respectively) and remdesivir (29.6% and 38.0%, respectively) were most frequently used.
32809210 Based on our study, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, either alone or in combination with azithromycin, remdesivir, corticosteroids, convalescent sera, ritonavir/lopinavir, tocilizumab and arbidol were evaluated as therapeutic options. […] Based on this early evidence, various national guidelines recommend remdesivir, convalescent sera, corticosteroids and hydroxychloroquine in different subsets of patients.
32810285 Lopinavir-ritonavir was significantly associated with shorter mean time to clinical recovery (SMD -0.32; 95% CI -0.57 to -0.06), remdesivir was significantly associated with better overall clinical recovery (RR 1.17; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.29), and tocilizumab was associated with less all-cause mortality (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.93). […] Lopinavir-ritonavir, remdesivir and tocilizumab may have some benefits, while hydroxychloroquine administration may cause harm in nCOV-2019 patients.
32813283 Several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that investigated the effectiveness of remdesivir for the treatment of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have generated inconsistent evidence. […] Both blinded and open-label RCTs in PubMed database from inception to 7 June 2020 that contained “remdesivir”, “Covid-19”, and “trial” in the abstracts conducted on hospitalized COVID-19 persons were identified and screened. […] The studies must have at least one remdesivir arm and evaluated one of the pre-specified outcomes. […] Both 10-day and 5-day remdesivir regimens were associated with higher odds of clinical improvement (odds ratio [OR] of 10-day regimen: 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.67); OR of 5-day regimen: 1.81, 95% CI, 1.32-2.45, and higher probabilities of clinical recovery (relative risk [RR] of 10-day regimen: 1.24, 95% CI, 1.07-1.43; RR of 5-day regimen: 1.47, 95% CI, 1.16-1.87 compared with placebo. […] Remdesivir may have clinical benefits among hospitalized COVID-19 persons.
32820005 While GRL-0820 and the nucleotide analog remdesivir blocked SARS-CoV-2 infection, viral breakthrough occurred. […] While GRL-0820 and remdesivir blocked SARS-CoV-2 infection, viral breakthrough occurred as examined with immunocytochemistry.
32821086 In different clinical trials, efficacy of remdesivir (GS-5734) against Ebola virus has been demonstrated. […] Moreover, remdesivir may be an effective therapy in vitro and in animal models infected by SARS and MERS coronaviruses. […] Remdesivir is a phosphoramidate prodrug of an adenosine C-nucleoside. […] Knowledge about the potential efficacy of remdesivir against coronaviruses has been restricted to in vitro studies and animal models. […] Several clinical trials are ongoing for the management of COVID-19 using remdesivir. […] In this study, characteristics of remdesivir and its usage for treatment of COVID-19 are reviewed based on an electronic search using PubMed and Google Scholar.
32821882 The recent emergency use authorization of the antiviral remdesivir for COVID-19 exemplifies a new approach for delivery of phosphate prodrugs by parenteral dosing, which minimizes payload release during transit and maximizes tissue payload distribution. […] Through examining prior structure-activity studies on prodrug forms and the choices that led to development of remdesivir and other clinical drugs and drug candidates, a better understanding of their ability to distribute to the planned site of action, such as the liver, plasma, PBMCs, or peripheral tissues, can be gained.
32821939 Remdesivir demonstrated clinical benefit in a placebo-controlled trial in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its effect in patients with moderate disease is unknown. […] To determine the efficacy of 5 or 10 days of remdesivir treatment compared with standard care on clinical status on day 11 after initiation of treatment. […] Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive a 10-day course of remdesivir (n = 197), a 5-day course of remdesivir (n = 199), or standard care (n = 200). […] Remdesivir was dosed intravenously at 200 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg/d. […] Differences between remdesivir treatment groups and standard care were calculated using proportional odds models and expressed as odds ratios. […] An odds ratio greater than 1 indicates difference in clinical status distribution toward category 7 for the remdesivir group vs the standard care group. […] Among 596 patients who were randomized, 584 began the study and received remdesivir or continued standard care (median age, 57 [interquartile range, 46-66] years; 227 [39%] women; 56% had cardiovascular disease, 42% hypertension, and 40% diabetes), and 533 (91%) completed the trial. […] Median length of treatment was 5 days for patients in the 5-day remdesivir group and 6 days for patients in the 10-day remdesivir group. […] On day 11, patients in the 5-day remdesivir group had statistically significantly higher odds of a better clinical status distribution than those receiving standard care (odds ratio, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.09-2.48; P = .02). […] The clinical status distribution on day 11 between the 10-day remdesivir and standard care groups was not significantly different (P = .18 by Wilcoxon rank sum test). […] By day 28, 9 patients had died: 2 (1%) in the 5-day remdesivir group, 3 (2%) in the 10-day remdesivir group, and 4 (2%) in the standard care group. […] Nausea (10% vs 3%), hypokalemia (6% vs 2%), and headache (5% vs 3%) were more frequent among remdesivir-treated patients compared with standard care. […] Among patients with moderate COVID-19, those randomized to a 10-day course of remdesivir did not have a statistically significant difference in clinical status compared with standard care at 11 days after initiation of treatment. […] Patients randomized to a 5-day course of remdesivir had a statistically significant difference in clinical status compared with standard care, but the difference was of uncertain clinical importance.
32827400 Repurposing of drugs from different pharmacological groups including antivirals like remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, arbidol, oseltamivir, penciclovir, favipiravir, ganciclovir, and ribavirin; other antibiotics like azithromycin, ivermectin, eravacycline, valrubicin, streptomycin, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, caspofungin, and colistin; and other agents like hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, tocilizumab, camostat, nafamostat, carfilzomib, interferon, aprepitant, and dexamethasone can be considered for COVID-19 therapy.
32827627 Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted to investigate the effect of remdesivir for patients with COVID-19, but their results were conflicting. […] Thus, we conducted a network meta-analysis comparing the rate of clinical improvement among patients with COVID-19 who received 5-day course of remdesivir versus 10-day course of remdesivir versus standard care. […] Our network meta-analysis of 4 randomized controlled trials demonstrated that the rate of clinical improvement was significantly higher in the 5-day remdesivir group and 10-day remdesivir group compared to standard care group (OR [95% confidence interval [CI]] =1.89 [1.40-2.56], P <0.001, OR [95% CI] =1.38 [1.15-1.66], P <0.001, respectively). […] In addition, the rate of clinical improvement was significantly higher in the 5-day remdesivir group compared to the 10-day remdesivir group (OR [95% confidence interval [CI]] =1.37 [1.01-1.85], P =0.041). […] Our analysis demonstrated that the use of remdesivir for patients with COVID-19 was associated with the significantly higher clinical improvement rate compared with standard care alone.
32828120 Data further show that none of the medicines like remdesivir, hydroxy chloroquin, dexamethasone, or azithromycin improves survival and response to Covid in cancer patients.
32829390 Remdesivir is a prodrug with in vitro activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] During this period, remdesivir was provided on a compassionate use basis. […] Clinical characteristics and outcome of patients treated with remdesivir were collected retrospectively and compared with those of patients hospitalized in the same time period. […] A total of 51 patients were considered, of which 25 were treated with remdesivir. […] At baseline, there was no significant difference in demographic characteristics, comorbidities and laboratory values between patients treated and not treated with remdesivir. […] Kaplan-Meier curves showed significantly lower mortality among patients who had been treated with remdesivir (56% versus 92%, P < 0.001). […] Cox regression analysis showed that the Charlson Comorbidity Index was the only factor that had a significant association with higher mortality (OR 1.184; 95% CI 1.027-1.365; P = 0.020), while the use of remdesivir was associated with better survival (OR 3.506; 95% CI 1.768-6.954; P < 0.001). […] The use of remdesivir was associated with a significant beneficial effect on survival.
32834942 A number of antiviral drugs such as Ribavirin, Remdesivir, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Azithromycin and Doxycycline have been recommended or are being used to treat COVID-19 patients.
32835306 Most important, we provide evidence in human-derived tissues on the antiviral efficacy of remdesivir monotherapy and explore the potential of the remdesivir-diltiazem combination as an option worthy of further investigation to respond to the still-unmet COVID-19 medical need.
32836709 Among known inhibitors, remdesivir was found to have the highest affinity for the active site of the RdRp.
32837097 Remdesivir has been shown to have modest benefits in moderate to severe disease, if administered early.
32837727 Here we review evidence of the 8 most recent reports including 3 randomized controlled trials on the clinical efficacy of remdesivir in treating COVID-19 patient. […] We conclude that it is far too premature to identify remdesivir as a curative or life-saving intervention.
32837982 While nicotine and ivermectin may be blocking transport abilities of the virus or its components, famotidine, remdesivir and chloroquine in combination with zinc ions can deactivate important enzymes needed for the replication of the virus.
32837984 Although FDA has fast approved remdesivir for treating COVID-19, it only speeds up recovery from COVID-19 with mildly reduced mortality.
32838027 Treatment options addressing COVID-19 included drug repurposing, investigational therapies such as remdesivir, and vaccine development.
32838064 The aim of this study was to summarize the antiviral activities of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. […] Remdesivir inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication, reduces viral load, and exerts protective effects in SARS-CoV-2 infected animals. […] Remdesivir also reduces the pathological process, alleviates mild symptoms, and improves pulmonary lesions in SARS-CoV-2-infecetd animals. […] Remdesivir has been used as a compassionate drug for treating COVID-19 patients. […] Although remdesivir has shown potent antiviral activities, more efficacy assessments are urgently warranted in clinical trials.
32838169 Review of literature showed no significant clinical improvement with lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, hydroxychloroquine, or remdesivir.
32838192 Total confirmed cases were more than 80,000 on March 1, 2020, but less than 84,000, and deaths were more than 3000 on March 4, 2020, but less than 4640, totally, thanks for the right public measures for COVID-19 in China, such as the Wuhan City lockdown and travel restrictions for isolation; positive screening and testing; and establishing a Huoshenshan hospital, a Leishenshan hospital, and a number of Fangcang shelter hospitals, traditional Chinese medicine and a combination of Chinese and western medicine, and the launch of the clinical trials of antiviral drugs (Lianhua Qingwen, remdesivir, and chloroquine).
32838264 Regarding remdesivir, there are no data in pregnant women.
32838282 Remdesivir combination with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine are promising drug repositioning for the treatment of COVID-19, and mRNA-1273 targeting spike protein is the promising vaccine.
32838367 This review summarizes the existing evidence for medications currently under investigation for treatment of COVID-19, including remdesivir, chloroquine/hydroxychlorquine, convalescent plasma, lopinavir/ritonavir, IL-6 inhibitors, corticosteroids, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
32838716 This method of repurposing and the use of existing molecules like Remdesivir (GS-5734), Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, etc. has proven to be a landmark in the field of drug rediscovery.
32841640 A number of multi clinical studies have repurposed combined cocktail (remdesivir + chloroquine and favipiravir + chloroquine) to be effective against COVID-19. […] Deep structural analysis of target molecules exposed key binding residues and structural twists involved in binding with important pharmacophore features of existing drugs [(7-chloro-N-[5-(diethylamino)pentan-2-yl]quinolin-4-amine (chloroquine),N-[[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]methyl]-1,2-oxazole-5-carboxamide N-[[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]methyl]-1,2-oxazole-5-carboxamide) (SSAA09E2), 2-ethylbutyl (2S)-2-{[(S)-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-{4-aminopyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-7-yl}-5-cyano-3 (remdesivir) and 6-Fluor-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2-pyrazincarboxamid (favipiravir)]. […] It is evident from this structural informatics study that combo of chloroquine + SSAA09E2 with remdesivir or favipiravir could significantly restrain the virus at the entry and replication stage.
32843534 At this time, only one FDA approved anti-SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drug, remdesivir, is available and unfortunately, its efficacy appears to be limited.
32845145 Among these, the clinical efficacies of some accessible drugs such as remdesivir (RDV) and favipiravir (FPV) for COVID-19 are emphatically summarized.
32848446 Antiviral medication (lopinavir, darunavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, ribavirin, oseltamivir, tocilizumab, and umifenovir), ACE inhibitors, interferon-α2b, co-therapy with azithromycin, inhaling iNO, and oxygen therapy can be used for treatment.
32848776 Initial candidate interventions include prophylaxis to augment epithelial defense (e.g., AT1 receptor blockade, type III and type I interferons, melatonin, calcitriol, camostat, and lopinavir) and to reduce viral load (e.g., remdesivir, ivermectin, emetine, Abelson kinase inhibitors, dopamine D2 antagonists, and selective estrogen receptor modulators).
32848795 Two compounds, remdesivir, and dexamethasone have been so far shown to reduce COVID-19-associated death.
32848802 Results from early clinical trials have revealed two treatments (remdesivir, dexamethasone) that mitigate disease progression but clearly, there is much room for improvement.
32849448 These drugs include the broad spectrum antivirals such as umifenovir, protease inhibitors such as lopinavir/ritonavir as well as the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, remdesivir, and favipiravir.
32849934 We conclude from the evidence generated so far that interferon combined with antivirals, remdesivir, umifenovir and favipiravir were mostly associated with better clinical outcomes.
32856034 Many patients received investigational medications for treatment of COVID-19, including 48 patients on remdesivir and 4,232 on hydroxychloroquine.
32861338 On May 1, 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to allow use of the antiviral drug remdesivir to treat patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). […] Remdesivir is an investigational drug studied in clinical trials for COVID-19 and is available to children and pregnant women through compassionate-use access but is not yet FDA approved. […] In early May, the US Department of Health and Human Services began to distribute remdesivir, donated by Gilead Sciences, Inc., to hospitals and state health departments for emergency use; multiple shipments have since been distributed. […] This process has raised questions of how remdesivir should be allocated. […] The Minnesota Department of Health has collaborated with the Minnesota COVID Ethics Collaborative and multiple clinical experts to issue an Ethical Framework for May 2020 Allocation of Remdesivir in the COVID-19 Pandemic. […] The Minnesota remdesivir allocation framework specifies an ethical approach to distributing the drug to facilities across the state and then among COVID-19 patients within each facility. […] Sharing this framework and the development process can encourage transparency and may be useful to other states formulating and refining their approach to remdesivir EUA allocation.
32861965 The widespread clinical use and existing knowledge on antiviral mechanisms of remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of previous epidemic diseases, namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), may be helpful in the combat with novel SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Available data identifies remdesivir as an adenosine analogue that can target the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and block viral RNA synthesis. […] Numerous studies demonstrated the ability of remdesivir to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication but future research would be needed to understand the exact mode of action of lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells and to use this knowledge in the treatment of the current COVID-19.
32863273 The intravenous antiviral drug remdesivir has in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 and now studies have reported its clinical efficacy, demonstrating shorter time to recovery in hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19. […] Adverse event rates were low and remdesivir has now received conditional marketing authorisation from the European Medicines Agency. […] These studies make remdesivir the first antiviral drug able to alter the natural history of severe COVID-19, and a benchmark for the comparison of new therapies in the future. […] Ongoing studies are investigating its use in early mild/moderate COVID-19, alternative formulations, and the combination of remdesivir with immunomodulatory agents.
32864162 In this review, we summarized the pharmacogenomic literature available for COVID-19 drug therapies including hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, lopinavir/ritonavir, darunavir/cobicistat, interferon beta-1b, tocilizumab, ruxolitinib, baricitinib, and corticosteroids.
32864571 In this letter, we discuss the potential interactions of remdesivir, the newly approved Covid-19 drug with pulmonary medications. […] While remdesivir has proven to be a safe medication generally, we here have enlisted the potential interactions of remdesivir that a clinician needs to be mindful of while prescribing the medication.
32865809 Two phase-III, double-blind, randomized clinical trials of remdesivir plus SOC (standard of care) versus placebo plus SOC have been conducted in Wuhan hospitals by Chinese investigators during the urgent COVID-19 epidemic [ClincalTrials.gov NCT04257656 and NCT04252664]. […] Having monitored data sequentially from 237 patients, we comment on the strength and weakness of the study design and suggest the treatment effect of remdesivir on severe COVID-19 cases.
32868327 Remdesivir has reported efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro and in vivo Drug-drug interactions limit therapeutic options in transplant patients. […] Remdesivir and its metabolite GS-441524 are excreted principally in urine. […] In intensive care unit (ICU) settings, in which multiple-organ dysfunctions can occur rapidly, hemodialysis may be a viable option for maintaining remdesivir treatment, while improving tolerance, by removing both remdesivir’s metabolite (GS-441524) and sulfobutylether β-cyclodextrin sodium (SEBCD).
32869558 Coronaviruses have caused serious Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks, and only remdesivir has been recently indicated for the treatment of COVID-19.
32870481 The antiviral agent remdesivir (Veklury®; Gilead Sciences), nucleotide analogue prodrug, has broad-spectrum activity against viruses from several families. […] Having demonstrated potent antiviral activity against coronaviruses in preclinical studies, remdesivir emerged as a candidate drug for the treatment of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, during the current global pandemic. […] Phase III evaluation of remdesivir in the treatment of COVID-19 commenced in early 2020 and has thus far yielded promising results. […] In late May 2020, Taiwan conditionally approved the use of remdesivir in patients with severe COVID-19. […] Preceding these conditional approvals, an emergency use authorization for remdesivir had been granted in the USA (on 1 May 2020) and a special approval for emergency use was granted in Japan (on 7 May 2020). […] This article summarizes the milestones in the development of remdesivir leading to its first conditional approval for the treatment of COVID-19.
32870563 The catalytic asymmetric synthesis of the anti-COVID-19 drug remdesivir has been realized via the coupling of the P-racemic phosphoryl chloride with protected nucleoside GS441524.
32873175 For early stages of mild to moderate disease, care is entirely supportive.Antiviral drugs such as remdesivir may be of some benefit but are reserved for severe cases given limited availability and potential toxicity.
32876229 SOLIDARITY is a mega clinical trial that recruited thousands of subjects with moderate to severe disease, who were randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups under evaluation, including hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir associated or not with interferon; or remdesivir compared to standard therapy.
32876623 To date, Remdesivir has been the only antiviral authorized by FDA as therapy for emergency use. […] He was started on hydroxychloroquine, which was switched to Remdesivir when it became available. […] Our case illustrates the role of Remdesivir for the treatment of severe COVID-19 pneumonia.
32878932 In a proof-of-concept screen, we found that E64D, apilimod, EIPA, and remdesivir can substantially impede SARS-Cov-2 replication, providing novel insight into viral entry and replication mechanisms.
32879113 Hot anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs include interferon α, ribavirin, lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine phosphate, abidol, as well as hydroxychloroquine sulfate and remdesivir.
32881315 Patients received hydroxychloroquine (84%), azithromycin (75%), augmented steroids (44%), tocilizumab (19%), and remdesivir (9%). 11 patients (34%) died at a median time of 14 days from admission.
32881656 The most common under trial drugs for COVID-19 are Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin along with adjunct drugs like Amantadine with some monoclonal antibodies.
32882638 The antiviral remdesivir has shown some effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in a recent animal study. […] We use data from a study of remdesivir in rhesus macaques to fit a viral kinetics model in an effort to determine the most appropriate mathematical descripton of the effect of remdesivir. […] We find statistically significant differences in the viral decay rate and use this to inform a possible mathematical formulation of the effect of remdesivir. […] Unfortunately, this model formulation suggests that the application of remdesivir will lengthen SARS-CoV-2 infections, putting into question its potential clinical benefit.
32883116 We propose combination of mAbs with remdesivir and/or favipiravir in severe COVID-19 cases, such as septic shock, acute respiratory deficiency syndrome, and/or multiple organ failure.
32887670 They covered topics of chemoprophylaxis (including agents and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) agents), diagnosis (including clinical manifestations, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respiratory tract specimens, IgM and IgG antibody tests, chest computed tomography, chest x-ray, and CT features of asymptomatic infections), treatments (including lopinavir-ritonavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, interferon, remdesivir, combination of antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, glucocorticoid, qingfei paidu decoction, lianhua qingwen granules/capsules, convalescent plasma, lung transplantation, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)), and discharge management (including discharge criteria and management plan in patients whose RT-PCR retesting shows SARS-CoV-2 positive after discharge).
32887884 Moreover, combined application of GC376 with Remdesivir, a nucleotide analogue that inhibits viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), results in sterilizing additive effect.
32888379 A thorough literature search was conducted to source information on the pharmacological properties of 5 drugs and 1 combination (azithromycin, chloroquine, favipiravir, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir) repurposed to treat COVID-19.
32889701 Number of drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, lopinavir, ritonavir, darunavir, arbidol, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab and interferons have shown inhibitory effects against the SARS-CoV2 in-vitro as well as in clinical conditions.
32891697 Among these pharmaceuticals, antiretrovirals such as lopinavir/ritonavir and remdesivir, antibiotics and antifungal agents can induce drug-induced liver injury (DILI), whose mechanisms are not always understood.
32896184 In clinical trial for the Ebola virus, the broad-spectrum anti-viral agent remdesivir was shown to have a good safety profile. […] Remdesivir is now being tested in severe COVID-19. […] The Gilead Sciences SIMPLE trial suggests that the short-term use of remdesivir probably does not increase mortality dramatically or have serious short-term toxicity when used to treat severe COVID-19. […] The Adaptive COVID-19 treatment trials (ACTT1) trial showed that remdesivir may shorten recovery and decrease mortality in severe COVID-19 without increasing adverse effects. […] There was an indication that remdesivir may be reducing mortality, but this was no statistical significance. […] The trial is continuing, and the final data are eagerly awaited to determine whether remdesivir is a game-changing remedy or a ripple in the ongoing search for a medicine for the treatment of COVID-19.
32902940 Remdesivir is an antiviral medication targeting ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis that has clinical improvement in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. […] Remdesivir is safe in pregnancy.
32903640 Besides, the treatment regime involves drugs like losartan, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, Remdesivir, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, etc. may modulate the severity of the comorbidities.
32904625 The efficiency of the ligands has been compared with the FDA approved and clinically trial drugs such as remdesivir, Chloroquin and Hydroxychloroquin and native ligand N3 of main protease 6LU7 to ascertain the inhibitory potential of the studied ligands (L1-L4) against the protein 6LU7.
32904710 Based on the preliminary data from clinical trials and considering the NIH and FDA recommendation, remdesivir and convalescent blood products are the most promising potential for COVID-19 treatment.
32905553 For instance, remdesivir, a potent SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drug based on studies in vitro, if administered orally would be poorly effective because low drug levels would reach the lungs due to its high first pass destruction in the liver. […] This is the reason remdesivir can only be administered intravenously, a requirement that clearly limits its use as a prophylactic agent for COVID-19, although novel formulations for its easier administration are under development.
32908736 However, after administration of another antiviral drug, remdesivir, we were able to terminate invasive interventions, including ECMO, and subsequently obtained negative polymerase chain reaction results. […] Although further validation is needed, remdesivir might be effective in treating COVID-19.
32909843 We compare the first regulatory approvals for remdesivir, through emergency pathways available to three of the main regulators in the world, the U.S., Japan, and the EU. […] Based only on topline data available as of 29 April 2020, regulators granted approvals to remdesivir based on very limited but robust data and waiting for more safety and efficacy data.
32913653 Using the example of the drug remdesivir, we demonstrate how the divergence of private incentives from public health needs has led to such outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic.
32918548 For children with severe illness, defined as a supplemental oxygen requirement without need for non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation or extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), remdesivir is suggested, preferably as part of a clinical trial if available. […] Remdesivir should also be considered for critically ill children requiring invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO. […] For children with severe or critical disease, this guidance offers an approach for decision-making regarding use of remdesivir.
32921965 However, healthcare professionals are using chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, convalescent plasma and some other options of treatments. […] This study aims to compare the biological, molecular, pharmacological, and clinical characteristics of these three treatment modalities for SARS-COV-2 infections, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Convalescent Plasma, and Remdesivir. […] The search was based on keywords “COVID-19” SARS-COV-2, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, convalescent plasma, remdesivir and treatment modalities. […] We selected 17 relevant published original articles and clinical trials: 05 for chloroquine and/or hydroxychloroquine with total sample size (n = 220), 05 for Remdesivir (n = 1,781), and 07 for Convalescent Plasma therapy (n = 398), with a combined total sample size (n = 2,399).
32922210 Recently, four large Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) have been performed in record time delivering reliable data: (1) the National Institutes of Health (NIH) RCT included 60 hospitals participating all over the world and showed the efficacy of remdesivir in reducing the recovery time in hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia; (2) three large RCTs already completed, for hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone and Lopinavir and Ritonavir respectively.
32923230 Given the extraordinary risk, he was treated with remdesivir and convalescent plasma for COVID-19.
32923472 While vaccines are being developed, the antiviral agent Remdesivir (RDV, GS-5734) is being repurposed for use in human clinical trials but this is being done without acknowledging the significant efforts that went into development for treating cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a highly fatal immune-mediated vasculitis in cats which is caused by a feline coronavirus.
32924650 The narrative synthesis revealed three key themes (1) Use of antivirals only (such as lopinavir, umifenovir, and remdesivir), (2) Use of lopinavir-ritonavir alongside other treatments, and (3) Use of other antivirals in combination with other treatments.
32925547 Remdesivir and convalescent plasma were the least commonly utilized therapies.
32926918 Based on early experience, different treatment such as anti-viral drugs (remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir), corticosteroids (methylprednisolone, dexamethasone) or convalescent plasma therapy are recommended in addition to supportive care and symptomatic therapy.
32934969 We report a case of COVID-19 in third-trimester pregnancy, who required support in an intensive care unit and received remdesivir.
32941437 Meta-analysis showed no evidence of a difference between remdesivir versus placebo on all-cause mortality (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.40-1.37; p = 0.34, I2 = 58%; 2 trials; very low certainty) or nonserious adverse events (RR 0.94; 95% CI 0.80-1.11; p = 0.48, I2 = 29%; 2 trials; low certainty). […] Meta-analysis showed evidence of a beneficial effect of remdesivir versus placebo on serious adverse events (RR 0.77; 95% CI 0.63-0.94; p = 0.009, I2 = 0%; 2 trials; very low certainty) mainly driven by respiratory failure in one trial. […] Our results show that dexamethasone and remdesivir might be beneficial for COVID-19 patients, but the certainty of the evidence was low to very low, so more trials are needed.
32942296 In this study, we use the ligand-protein docking program and molecular dynamic simulation to ab initio investigate the binding mechanism and inhibitory ability of seven clinically approved drugs (Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Ritonavir, Beclabuvir, Indinavir and Favipiravir) and a recently designed α-ketoamide inhibitor (13b) at the molecular level.
32942923 In this report, we consolidate and review the available clinically and preclinically relevant results emanating from in vitro animal models and clinical studies of drugs approved for emergency use as a treatment for COVID-19, including remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir-ritonavir combinations.
32943188 Although great efforts have been made to develop effective therapeutic interventions, only the nucleotide analog remdesivir was approved for emergency use against COVID-19. […] Remdesivir targets the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), an essential enzyme for viral RNA replication and a promising drug target for COVID-19. […] Recently, several structures of RdRp in complex with substrate RNA and remdesivir were reported, providing insights into the mechanisms of RNA recognition by RdRp.
32944012 Whether radiotherapy, in conjunction with remdesivir and/or macrolides can reduce the dramatic death rates related to COVID-19 is an open challenge, under the absence of an alternative solution.
32945638 Using the example of remdesivir, one of the most promising COVID-19 treatments, this paper traces back public contributions to different stages of the innovation process. […] Applying the Risk-Reward Nexus framework to the R&D of remdesivir, we analyse the role of the public in risk-taking and reward and address inequities in the biomedical innovation system. […] Despite the significant public transnational contributions to the R&D of remdesivir, the rewards are extracted by few actors and the return to the public in the form of equitable access and affordable pricing is limited. […] Beyond the necessity to treat remdesivir as a global public good, we argue that biomedical innovation needs to be viewed in the broader concept of public value to prevent the same equity issues currently seen in the COVID-19 pandemic.
32947136 Remdesivir, an RdRp inhibitor, exhibited potent activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
32953365 Since newer interventions would take months to years to develop, by looking at the pool of existing therapeutic options, including remdesivir (RDV), plasma exchange or cytapheresis, hydroxychloroquine, baricitinib, and lopinavir (LPV), we have tried to detail the principles behind their use to treat COVID-19, current application, and adverse effects.
32958495 DisCoVeRy is a phase III, open-label, adaptive, controlled, multicentre clinical trial in which hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in need of oxygen therapy are randomised between five arms: (1) a control group managed with SoC and four therapeutic arms with re-purposed antiviral agents: (2) remdesivir + SoC, (3) lopinavir/ritonavir + SoC, (4) lopinavir/ritonavir associated with interferon (IFN)-β-1a + SoC and (5) hydroxychloroquine + SoC.
32958501 Remdesivir treatment reduced the 14-day mortality rate of patients with severe COVID-19 (RR=0.64; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.94). […] Remdesivir and CP might be the potential treatments for patients with severe COVID-19.
32958580 In human cells, LA supplementation synergizes with the COVID-19 drug remdesivir, suppressing SARS-CoV-2 replication.
32962867 Though drugs like remdesivir, favipiravir, and dexamethasone found beneficial for COVID-19 management, they have limitations clinically, and vaccine development takes a long time.
32963442 Remdesivir has emerged as a promising molecule, based on results of clinical trials and observational studies and has receieved marketing approval for COVID-19 treatment under “emergency use authorization” in countries such as United States. […] Remdesivir is a newer antiviral drug that acts as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitor targeting the viral genome replication process. […] Past, Present, and Future of Remdesivir: An Overview of the Antiviral in Recent Times.
32964827 Few of them are in the advanced stage of clinical trials including Remdesivir. […] Compound 12 was found to possess similar binding affinity as Remdesivir with comparable pharmacokinetics. […] However, the in-silico toxicity prediction indicates compound 12 may be a superior molecule which can be explored further due to its excellent safety-profile with LD50 (12,000mg/kg) as opposed to Remdesivir (LD50 =1000mg/kg).
32965013 There are several potential medications available for COVID-19, such as Interferon α (IFN-α), Teicoplanin, Ribavirin, Galidesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Chloroquine phosphate, Arbidol, Velpatasvir, Favipiravir, Ledipasvir, Remdesivir, Sofosbuvir, Darunavir, Qingfei Paidu Decoction (QPD), and Imatinib.
32965016 We summarized antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2, such as remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine and favipiravir.
32966582 Infection of iPS-CMs was dependent on cathepsins and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and was blocked by remdesivir. […] SARS-CoV-2 infection of cardiomyocytes is inhibited by the antiviral drug remdesivir.
32967116 The drugs studied include chloroquine, ivermectin, remdesivir, sofosbuvir, boceprevir, and α-difluoromethylornithine (DMFO).
32967965 Remdesivir (RDV) is a direct-acting antiviral agent that is used to treat patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32968487 With a scientific background from filoviruses, paramyxoviruses, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV, remdesivir entered into the COVID-19 battle to become one of the favorable therapeutic candidates with potential antiviral activity in the treatment of this disease. […] Globally, remdesivir was accessed and investigated through clinical research (clinical trials) and clinical practice (compassionate use, expanded access, early access scheme, and emergency use). […] Currently, remdesivir approval status differs between states. […] This paper aims to review and analyze regulatory approaches for accessing and investigating remdesivir, by communicating regulatory variability between countries in terms of terminology, modalities, and protocols.
32969369 There are ongoing clinical trials on potential drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids tocilizumab, azithromycin, anakinra, etc. and other therapeutic modalities like convalescent plasma therapy.
32970259 A variety of drugs, such as remdesivir and favipiravir, are currently undergoing clinical trials to evaluate for the management of COVID-19.
32970329 Moreover, mutation hotspots neighboring and at the catalytic site of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase were found that might challenge the binding and effectivity of remdesivir.
32972027 Repositioning existing drugs such as Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Ivermectin and Baricitinib shows good potential for COVID-19 treatment.
32978702 Numerous drugs have been repurposed and investigated for therapeutic effectiveness in the disease, including those from “Solidarity,” an international clinical trial (azithromycin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, the fixed combination lopinavir/ritonavir, and remdesivir).
32979316 Drug testing confirms the efficacy of remdesivir as well as TMPRSS2 protease inhibition, validating a putative mechanism used for viral entry in alveolar cells.
32982720 So far COVID-19 therapies have targeted various pathogenic mechanisms, namely the neutralization of ACE2 receptors or SARS-CoV-2 spike protein epitopes, the disruption of the endocytic pathways using hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, or anti-Janus kinase inhibitors, the inhibition of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase using nucleotide analogues such as remdesivir, immunosuppressive drugs or molecules acting on the immune response (corticoids, interferons, monoclonal antibodies against inflammatory cytokines, mesenchymal stem cells) and convalescent plasma administration together with numerous drugs with unproven effect against SARS-CoV-2 but with potential antiviral activities (antiretrovirals, antimalarial drugs, antibiotics, etc.).
32985113 Finally, one of the most promising therapeutic compounds against FIP, GS-441524, is the active form of Remdesivir, which is being used as one therapeutic option for COVID-19.
32986807 SARS-CoV-2 is a new pandemic virus for which Remdesivir is the only antiviral available. […] We report the occurrence of a mutation in the RdRP (D484Y) following failure of remdesivir in a 76-year-old woman with a post-rituximab B-cell immunodeficiency and persistent SARS-CoV-2 viremia.
32987828 With the treatment of antiviral remdesivir, the selected BCoV variant with an altered genome structure developed resistance, but its pathogenicity was not increased in comparison to that of wild type (wt) BCoV.
32988821 A recent paper published by Le and colleagues in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy describes the use of remdesivir (GS-5734) in a patient with a double lung transplant and afflicted with COVID-19 (1).
32989996 Several new antivirals such as remdesivir are studied in ongoing clinical trials.
32991900 Antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, darunavir, lopinavir, zanamivir, peramivir, and oseltamivir, have also been tested as treatments for COVID-19.
32993173 Initial encouraging results have been realized using remdesivir and dexamethasone.
32997322 Among all these drugs, we focus on the most promising drugs (such as favipiravir, tocilizumab, SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma, hydroxychloroquine, Lianhua Qingwen, interferon beta-1a, remdesivir, etc.) that have or will enter the final stage of human testing-phase III-IV clinical trials.
32998618 The inhibitory effect of all studied compounds was studied with compared to some proposed antiviral drugs which currently used in COVID-19 treatment such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, baloxvir, lopinavir, and favipiravir.
33001051 Several clinical trials are ongoing with hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, and low molecular weight heparins.
33002954 Recent clinical trials suggested remdesivir, IFN-β-1b and favipiravir have potential clinical and/or virological benefits on patients with COVID-19.
33004837 Progeny virus titers of single-dose treatment of DIG, OUA and remdesivir were approximately 103-, 104- and 103-fold lower (> 99% inhibition), respectively, than that of non-treated control or chloroquine at 48 h post-infection (hpi).
33006138 Remdesivir is a direct-acting nucleoside RNA polymerase inhibitor with activity against the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus used in the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia. […] Here we present two cases of suspected remdesivir-associated acute liver failure (ALF) in which the liver failure improved following continuous infusion acetylcysteine and withdrawal of remdesivir. […] Both patients had significant increases in transaminases between day 3 and day 10 of remdesivir therapy accompanied by coagulopathy and encephalopathy. […] Due to its novel nature and only recent widespread use, there is very little data on the risk of ALF from remdesivir. […] It is important to consider the risk of remdesivir-associated ALF when weighing the risk vs. benefits of use, and acetylcysteine may have a role in its management.
33008960 Therapies focus on blocking viral entry (remdesivir, umifenovir, among others) and blocking of immune system for cytokine storm control (IL-1 and IL-6 inhibitors, glucocorticoids, convalescent plasma, among others).
33009760 Remdesivir appears to have a favorable clinical and safety profile, as reported in a case involving patients with severe COVID-19 through a compassionate use programme. […] The overall probability of clinical improvement observed in 36 of 53 COVID-19 patients received intravenous remdesivir as part of a compassionate use programme was 68% (95% CI 40% to 80%).
33011363 Taking curcumin as a reference compound, we identified a new commercially available cyclohexanone compound, ZINC07333416 with binding energy (-8.72 kcal/mol) better than that of popularly devised anti-Covid-19 drugs like viral protease inhibitor Lopinavir, nucleoside analogue Remdesivir and the repurposed drug hydroxychloroquine when targeted to the active-site of SARS-CoV-2 Main protease (Mpro) through docking studies.
33012543 Among those with mortality, an increased concentration of inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) was noted with a lack of response to interleukin-6 blockade, remdesivir, and/or convalescent plasma.
33014379 These fluctuations have been tentatively related to communications, publications or leaks about Remdesivir or hydroxychloroquine/azithromicin treatment.
33014380 This review aims to collect and summarize a list of drugs used to treat COVID-19, including dexamethasone, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, tociluzimab, nitazoxanide and ivermectin.
33015546 The most encouraging treatment to date is suggested to be with the help of remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and many such repurposed drugs. […] Remdesivir has a strong in vitro activity for SARS-CoV-2, yet it is not the drug of choice as affirmed by the US Food and Drug Administration and presently is being tried in progressing randomized preliminaries.
33015819 Remdesivir is a nucleotide analogue prodrug that inhibits viral RNA polymerases. […] We aimed at determining which drugs used in dentistry interact with Remdesivir in order to avoid adverse reactions that may worsen the condition of patients with COVID-19. […] A literature review was conducted to identify potential drug interactions between remdesivir (used in the treatment of COVID-19) and drugs prescribed in dentistry. […] The search was made in the databases PubMed and MEDLINE and official websites using key terms remdesivir, drug interactions and dentistry for articles published up to 31st July 2020. […] According to the articles reviewed, a total of 279 drugs interact with Remdesivir. […] It is clinically necessary for oral health professionals to be aware of possible drug interactions that may occur between remdesivir and drugs commonly prescribed in dentistry in order to prevent adverse reactions that may even endanger the life of a patient with COVID-19.
33015938 The nucleoside analog remdesivir, which is known for its potent in vitro activity against Ebolavirus and other RNA viruses was recently shown to reduce the time to recovery in patients with severe COVID-19. […] Here, we provide a mechanism and evidence based comparative review of remdesivir and other repurposed drugs with proven in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2.
33017170 To evaluate the effectiveness and harms of remdesivir for COVID-19. […] English-language, randomized trials of remdesivir treatments for adults with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. […] In adults with severe COVID-19, remdesivir compared with placebo probably improves recovery by a large amount (absolute risk difference [ARD] range, 7% to 10%) and may result in a small reduction in mortality (ARD range, -4% to 1%) and a shorter time to recovery or clinical improvement. […] Remdesivir may have little to no effect on hospital length of stay. […] Remdesivir probably reduces serious adverse events by a moderate amount (ARD range, -6% to -8%). […] Compared with a 10-day remdesivir course, a 5-day course may reduce mortality, increase recovery or clinical improvement by small to moderate amounts, reduce time to recovery, and reduce serious adverse events among hospitalized patients not requiring mechanical ventilation. […] Recovery due to remdesivir may not vary by age, sex, symptom duration, or disease severity. […] In hospitalized adults with COVID-19, remdesivir probably improves recovery and reduces serious adverse events and may reduce mortality and time to clinical improvement. […] For adults not receiving mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, a 5-day course of remdesivir may provide similar benefits to and fewer harms than a 10-day course.
33017386 Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, interferon-2b, and oseltamivir are some pharmacological options evaluated in clinical trials for prophylaxis of COVID-19.
33020069 The Task Force made consensus suggestions to treat patients with acute COVID-19 pneumonia with remdesivir and dexamethasone but suggested against hydroxychloroquine except in the context of a clinical trial; these are revisions of prior suggestions resulting from the interim publication of several randomised trials.
33023033 In addition, some medicines (i.e., remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) have received emergency use authorisation from the FDA.
33023432 Anti-retroviral, Remdesivir, as well as different repurposed drugs like chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have shown promising effects in vitro.
33024223 We report here that Sofosbuvir terminated RNA resists removal by the exonuclease to a substantially higher extent than RNA terminated by Remdesivir, another drug being used as a COVID-19 therapeutic.
33025225 Comparison of antiviral strategies (none, hydroxychloroquine (OHQ), lopinavir/ritonavir (L/R), others (combination or remdesivir) in an observational multicentre cohort of patients with moderate-to-severe Covid-19 ARDS.
33028676 Remdesivir is a broad-spectrum antiviral nucleotide prodrug that has been clinically evaluated in Ebola virus patients and recently received emergency use authorization (EUA) for treatment of COVID-19. […] With approvals from the Federal Select Agent Program and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Institutional Biosecurity Board, we characterized the resistance profile of remdesivir by serially passaging Ebola virus under remdesivir selection; we generated lineages with low-level reduced susceptibility to remdesivir after 35 passages. […] We found that a single amino acid substitution, F548S, in the Ebola virus polymerase conferred low-level reduced susceptibility to remdesivir. […] The F548 residue is highly conserved in filoviruses but should be subject to specific surveillance among novel filoviruses, in newly emerging variants in ongoing outbreaks, and also in Ebola virus patients undergoing remdesivir therapy. […] Our data suggest that molecular surveillance of this region of the polymerase in remdesivir-treated COVID-19 patients is also warranted.
33029451 Based on available evidence, antivirals like lopinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir specific medication like chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, corticosteroids, and intravenous gamma globulin, are not recommended, so early detection and supportive treatment is needed for an optimal outcome.
33029696 The repurposed drugs like Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Tenofovir, Remdesivir, Ribavirin, Darunavir, Oseltamivir, Arbidol (Umifenovir), Favipiravir, Anakinra, and Baricitinib are already being used in clinical trials to treat the COVID-19 patients.
33031500 Remdesivir is efficacious for severe COVID-19 in adults, but data in pregnant women are limited. […] We describe outcomes in the first 86 pregnant women with severe COVID-19 who were treated with remdesivir. […] Reported data span March 21 to June 16, 2020 for hospitalized pregnant women with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and room air oxygen saturation ≤94% whose clinicians requested remdesivir through the compassionate use program. […] The intended remdesivir treatment course was 10 days (200mg on Day 1, followed by 100mg for Days 2-10, given intravenously). […] Remdesivir was well tolerated, with a low incidence of serious adverse events (16%). […] Among 86 pregnant and postpartum women with severe COVID-19 who received compassionate use remdesivir, recovery rates were high, with a low rate of serious adverse events.
33031623 The therapeutic effect of two drugs that are regarded to show therapeutic potential [i.e., remdesivir (RDV) and favipiravir (FPV)] against COVID-19 are discussed based on the current published data.
33031797 So far, chloroquine, lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, favipiravir, ribavirin, darunavir, remdesivir, and umifenovir have been tested in COVID-19 clinical trials. […] Conversely, drugs with poor lung distributions, including lopinavir/ritonavir, umifenovir and remdesivir, were insufficient to inhibit viral replication.
33033595 A computer program for retrosynthetic planning helps develop multiple “synthetic contingency” plans for hydroxychloroquine and also routes leading to remdesivir, both promising but yet unproven medications against COVID-19.
33038433 To date, with the exception of intravenous Remdesivir and dexamethasone, which have modest effects in moderate to severe COVID-19, no strong clinical evidence supports the efficacy and safety of any other drugs against SARS-CoV-2.
33040483 The management of COVID has evolved with remdesivir emerging as a new potential option for transplant recipients.
33041111 According to level 1 evidence reviewed here, the most effective SARS-Co-V-2 pharmacologic treatments include remdesivir for mild to severe disease, and a triple regimen therapy consisting of lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin and interferon beta-1b for mild to moderate disease.
33041326 Remdesivir (RDV) exerts anti-severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 activity following metabolic activation in the target tissues.
33041712 Though data are limited, antiviral therapies such as remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and other drugs like hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine have been used for severe COVID-19 cases, with remdesivir showing the greatest promise.
33041830 These include antivirals (remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, umifenovir, and favipiravir), interferon, antimalarials (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine), antiparasitic drugs (ivermectin and nitazoxanide), biologics (monoclonal antibodies and interleukin receptor antagonist), cellular therapies (mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells), convalescent plasma, and cytokine adsorber.
33043163 Not surprisingly, remdesivir attracted worldwide attention. […] In a trial published online ahead of print, of 1063 patients, 541 were assigned at random to remdesivir and 522 to placebo. […] The primary prespecified endpoint was mean recovery time and patients assigned to remdesivir had a mean recovery time of 11 days versus 15 days for those assigned a random to placebo. (p < 0.001). […] With respect to mortality, the prespecfied secondary endpoint, 34/538 patients in remdesivir and 54/521 in placebo died after 28 days, yielding a possible 31% reduction that approached but did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.059). […] The only other published trial of remdesivir randomized 237 patients in China. […] In that trial, 178 patients were assigned at random to remdesivir compared to 79 assigned to placebo. […] Those assigned at random to remdesivir experienced a possible but nonsignificant 23% faster time to clinical improvement of 21 days compared with 23 for those assigned to placebo [hazard ratio 1.23 [95% CI, 0·87-1.75)]. […] In fact, the mortality rate in those receiving remdesivir was 15% (22/150) compared with 13% (10/77) for those assigned to placebo.
33046644 Importantly, remdesivir, a broad-spectrum nucleoside analog that is effective against other group 1 and 2 coronaviruses, efficiently blocked rSADS-CoV replication in vitro. rSADS-CoV demonstrated little, if any, replicative capacity in either immune-competent or immunodeficient mice, indicating a critical need for improved animal models.
33049737 Chloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravi, lopinavir, ribavirin or ritonavir have shown efficacy to inhibit coronavirus in vitro.