PROTHROMBIN


DrugBank ID: db11311
DrugCentral: prothrombin
Synonymous :coagulation factor ii (human) | coagulation factor ii human | factor ii | factor ii (prothrombin) | human coagulation factor ii



Drug Sentece Context


Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of prothrombin gene in 119 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32031570 Lymphopenia (lymphocyte count, 0.8 × 109/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 0.6-1.1]) occurred in 97 patients (70.3%), prolonged prothrombin time (13.0 seconds [IQR, 12.3-13.7]) in 80 patients (58%), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (261 U/L [IQR, 182-403]) in 55 patients (39.9%).
32073213 The overall mortality was 11.5%, the non-survivors revealed significantly higher D-dimer and fibrin degradation product (FDP) levels, longer prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time compared to survivors on admission (P < .05); 71.4% of non-survivors and 0.6% survivors met the criteria of disseminated intravascular coagulation during their hospital stay.
32153170 Three cases had prothrombin activity (PTA) of ≤ 50%, 10 cases had elevated FDP, and 13 cases had elevated D-dimer, all of whom were severe or critically ill.
32164424 Common presentations of confirmed cases include fever, fatigue, dry cough, upper airway congestion, sputum production, shortness of breath, myalgia/arthralgia with lymphopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, elevated C-reactive protein, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase.
32172226 Compared with healthy controls, prothrombin time activity (PT-act) was lower in SARS-CoV-2 patients.
32220112 The D-dimer, prothrombin time and age were positively, and platelet count was negatively, correlated with 28-day mortality in multivariate analysis.
32220276 Prothrombin time (PT) were prolonged in 4 patients.
32287140 Patients with digestive symptoms had higher mean liver enzyme levels, lower monocyte count, longer prothrombin time, and received more antimicrobial treatment than those without digestive symptoms.
32291094 Age (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.05/per year, 95%CI 1.004-1.01) and coagulopathy, defined as spontaneous prolongation of the prothrombin time > 3 s or activated partial thromboplastin time > 5 s (aHR 4.1, 95%CI 1.9-9.1), were independent predictors of thrombotic complications.
32297828 Moreover, there were significant differences in prothrombin time, D-dimer, and fibrinogen levels between the mild group and the severe group (p = 0.029, 0.006, and <0.001, respectively), and in lactate dehydrogenase and troponin (p < 0.001 and p = 0.007, respectively). […] SARS-CoV-2 RNA load was positively correlated with IL-2R, prothrombin time, lactate dehydrogenase, and hypersensitive troponin T (p = 0.002, p = 0.009, and p < 0.001, respectively).
32302438 Platelet count was normal or increased, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were near(normal).
32302459 In addition to routine measurements of D-dimers, prothrombin time, and platelet count in all patients presenting with COVID-19 as per International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) guidance, monitoring of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrinogen levels should be considered in pregnancy, as highlighted in this report.
32302954 We compared critically ill and noncritically ill patients: p-values for age, C-reactive protein, high-sensitivity troponin T, prothrombin time, fibrin degradation products, D-Dimer, and CD4+ count were p < 0.001; and p-values for hospital days, white blood cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte, creatine kinase isoenzyme, myoglobin, N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide, and CD8+ count were p < 0.05.
32305883 Preliminary reports on COVID-19 patients’ clinical and laboratory findings include thrombocytopenia, elevated D-dimer, prolonged prothrombin time, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
32339221 The initial coagulopathy of COVID-19 presents with prominent elevation of D-dimer and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products, while abnormalities in prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and platelet counts are relatively uncommon in initial presentations.
32341519 Prolongation of prothrombin times (PT) and elevation of fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs) and D-dimers (D-Ds) were detected in coagulation function tests, and more significant changes were observed in critical-type patients compared to severe-type patients.
32350161 1.01), prothrombin time (13.8 vs.
32391669 The C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6 levels were significantly decreased and the lymphocyte and prothrombin time were improved in 3 patients after treatment with plasma exchange; while inflammation level was not significantly decreased, and lymphocyte and prothrombin time did not improve in 3 patients treated with tocilizumab.
32392741 For all patients, platelet count (PLT), prothrombin time (PT), activated thromboplastin time (aPTT), C-reactive protein (PCR), fibrinogen, and D-dimer were determined.
32394236 On ICU admission, prothrombin time was slightly reduced and it increased significantly at T10 (T0 = 65.1 ± 9.8 vs T10 = 85.7 ± 1.5, p = 0.002), while activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen values were higher at T0 than T10 (32.2 ± 2.9 vs 27.2 ± 2.1, p = 0.017 and 895.1 ± 110 vs 332.5 ± 50, p = 0.002, respectively); moreover, whole blood thromboelastometry profiles were consistent with hypercoagulability characterized by an acceleration of the propagation phase of blood clot formation [i.e., CFT below the lower limit in INTEM 16/40 patients (40%) and EXTEM 20/40 patients (50%)] and significant higher clot strength [MCF above the upper limit in INTEM 20/40 patients (50%), in EXTEM 28/40 patients (70%) and in FIBTEM 29/40 patients (72.5%)]; however, this hypercoagulable state persists in the first five days, but it decreases ten day after, without returning to normal values.
32397915 Several studies have identified a link between severe COVID-19 patients and specific coagulation index, in particular, high D-dimer level, prolonged prothrombin time, and low PLT count.
32403255 Liver anomalies were predominantly mild to moderately elevated transaminases, hypoalbuminemia and prolongation of prothrombin time.
32408391 Most severe manifestations of COVID-19 cases, such as multiple organ failure and death, have been linked to coagulation dysfunction markers, such as platelet reduction and increases in prothrombin time, fibrin degradation products and, mainly, D-dimer [1].
32425003 The prothrombin time was increased and the levels of platelet, hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and IL-6 were higher in IMV cases compared with NIV cases during hospitalization. […] Data showed that the rates of complications, dynamics of lymphocytopenia, and changes in levels of platelet, hemoglobin, BUN, D-dimer, LDH and IL-6, and prothrombin time in these ICU patients were significantly different between IMV and NIV cases.
32445489 Meta-analysis of 20 retrospective studies (3428 patients), identified that patients with a severe manifestation of COVID-19 exhibited significantly higher levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and bilirubin values with prolonged prothrombin time.
32447934 Prothrombin time was prolonged in 4 patients.
32453702 This condition is characterized by high levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen, prolonged prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time.
32467443 In the initial phase of the infection, D-dimer and fibrinogen levels are increased, while activated partial prothrombin time, prothrombin time, and platelet counts are often relatively normal.
32474561 The median prothrombin time (PT) and the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were longer in old-old patients than young-old patients (PT median 12.3 vs.
32490891 However, as the disease spread globally and the number of hospitalizations increased exponentially, it was noted that most serious patients hospitalized by COVID-19 have laboratory changes worthy of attention, such as lymphopenia, neutrophilia, increased time of prothrombin and increased levels of D-dimer.
32495027 The activation of monocyte-macrophage system aggravates the immune damage of lung and other tissues, which leads to the increase of D-dimer, prothrombin time, and platelet consumption.
32513290 Plasma is replaced with albumin 5% or fresh frozen plasma in patients with coagulopathy (prothrombin time >37 seconds; international normalized ratio >3; activated partial thromboplastin time >100 or fibrinogen level <100 mg/d).
32522278 Additionally, elevations in ferritin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, procalcitonin, prothrombin time, interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were observed in cancer patients.
32526252 Serum albumin significantly decreased, while bilirubin, creatinine and prothrombin time significantly increased at COVID-19 diagnosis compared to last available data.
32536672 High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI), creatinine, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, prothrombin time, and D-dimer levels in the severe COVID-19 with CVD group were higher than in the non-severe COVID-19 with CVD group (P<0.05).
32552865 However, the characteristics of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC) are distinct from those seen with bacterial sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), with CAC usually showing increased D-dimer and fibrinogen levels but initially minimal abnormalities in prothrombin time and platelet count.
32558075 In comparison with bacterial-sepsis-associated coagulopathy/DIC, prolongation of prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time, and decrease in antithrombin activity is less frequent and thrombocytopenia is relatively uncommon in COVID-19.
32573995 Results Compared to patients who could be finally discharged, those who died during hospital stay displayed significantly higher values of serum glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, creatinine, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hscTnI), prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), D-dimer, C reactive protein (CRP), ferritin and leukocytes (especially neutrophils), whilst values of albumin, hemoglobin and lymphocytes were significantly decreased.
32576359 According to Western medicine, the increase of D-dimer is related to the hyperactivity of fibrinolytic system and the shortening of prothrombin time (PT), resulting in excessive production and degradation of plasma fibrin and hypercoagulable state of blood, while traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) believes that the above syndromes belong to the pathogenesis of “blood stasis” according to TCM theories.
32581015 Thrombin Time (TT), Prothrombin Time (PT), Fibrinogen (FIB), Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APPT), and D-Dimer have been detected as parameters to study in every COVID-19 patient.
32582749 Compared with the short-term group, patients in the long-term group had significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein (P = 0.000), troponin I (P = 0.002), myoglobin (P = 0.037), aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.005), lactic dehydrogenase (P = 0.000), prothrombin time (P = 0.030), fibrinogen (P = 0.000), and D-dimer (P = 0.006), but had significantly lower levels of lymphocyte count (P = 0.001), platelet count (P = 0.017), albumin (P = 0.001), and calcium (P = 0.000).
32596339 To investigate the value of coagulation indicators D-dimer (DD), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), and fibrinogen (Fg) in predicting the severity and prognosis of COVID-19.
32599018 We conducted a literature review around venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) transfusion practices for platelets, packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, prothrombin complex concentrate, and antithrombin.
32602200 Sera collected from 66 COVID-19 patients who were critically ill and 13 COVID-19 patients who were not critically ill were tested by chemiluminescence immunoassay for anticardiolipin antibodies (aCLs), anti-β2 -glycoprotein I (anti-β2 GPI) (IgG, IgM, and IgA), and IgG anti-β2 GPI-domain 1 (anti-β2 GPI-D1) and IgM and IgG anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (anti-PS/PT) antibodies were detected in the serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
32603535 Several independent predictors of ICU transfer in COVID-19 patients were identified including older age (≥65 years) (hazard ratio [HR]=4.02), hypertension (HR=2.65), neutrophil count (HR=1.11), procalcitonin level (HR=3.67), prothrombin time (HR=1.28), and d-dimer level (HR=1.25).
32613308 In the peripheral blood system of non-severe symptom COVID-19 patients, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, osteocalcin N-terminal, thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 significantly decreased, and total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, fibrinogen, D-dimer, fibrinogen degradation products, human epididymal protein 4, serum ferritin, and C-reactive protein were elevated.
32618700 The mean activated partial thromboplastin time ratio was higher in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 group than in the influenza group and the community-acquired pneumonia group (1.91 vs 1.48 vs 1.53; p = 0.001), which was also found in regard to the percentage of patients with an activated partial thromboplastin time ratio greater than 1.8 (47.8% vs 20% vs 20.9%; p = 0.003) and the mean prothrombin ratio (86.3 vs 61.6 vs 67.1; p = 0.003).
32619328 To illustrate the incidence of criteria (lupus anticoagulant [LAC], anticardiolipin [aCL] immunoglobulin G [IgG]/IgM, antibeta2-glycoprotein I antibodies [aβ2GPI] IgG/IgM) and noncriteria (anti-phosphatidyl serine/prothrombin [aPS/PT], aCL, and aβ2GPI IgA) aPL in a consecutive cohort of critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients, their association with thrombosis, antibody profile and titers of aPL.
32626680 Older age, elevated aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, serum lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, prothrombin time, D-dimer, Procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein levels, decreased albumin, elevated serum cytokines (IL2R, IL6, IL8, IL10, and TNF-α) levels, and a decreased lymphocyte count indicated poor outcome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
32648093 The common abnormalities of routine coagulation tests included evelated D-Dimer level (100%), prolonged prothrombin time (73.7%) and hyperfibrinogenemia (73.7%).
32659214 The numbers of lymphocytes and eosinophils were significantly lower in patients with critical disease than those with severe or moderate disease (p<0·0001), and prothrombin time, D-dimer, and fibrin degradation products significantly increased with increasing disease severity (p<0·0001). […] In multivariate analyses, death was associated with increased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (≥9·13; odds ratio [OR] 5·39 [95% CI 1·70-17·13], p=0·0042), thrombocytopenia (platelet count <100 × 109 per L; OR 8·33 [2·56-27·15], p=0·00045), prolonged prothrombin time (>16 s; OR 4·94 [1·50-16·25], p=0·0094), and increased D-dimer (>2 mg/L; OR 4·41 [1·06-18·30], p=0·041). […] Rapid blood tests, including platelet count, prothrombin time, D-dimer, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio can help clinicians to assess severity and prognosis of patients with COVID-19.
32676257 Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and international normalized ratio (INR) were all found to be normal.
32679593 Severe patients had significantly higher D-dimer levels and prolonged prothrombin time (PT) compared with nonsevere patients.
32679766 Data on prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), D-Dimer, platelets (PLT), or fibrinogen in severe versus mild COVID-19 patients, and/or in non-survivors to COVID-19 versus survivors were systematically searched.
32692462 The trough lopinavir concentration was negatively correlated with body mass index, while the trough ritonavir concentration was positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with prothrombin activity.
32692464 More severe/critically ill cases were associated with leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, elevated creatinine kinase, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and elevated prothrombin time (PT).
32692894 Consolidated reports regarding the clinical and laboratory findings in COVID-19 patients reveal thrombocytopenia, elevated D-dimer, prolonged prothrombin time, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and pulmonary intravascular coagulation (PIC).
32695551 Severe group also had significantly abnormal coagulation parameters than non-severe group: prothrombin time (PT) 14.55 (13.40-16.53) s vs.
32702930 Neither infant was infected with COVID-19, but both had increased prothrombin time and fibrinogen, lactate dehydrogenase, phosphocreatine kinase, and creatine kinase isoenzyme contents.
32706396 Meta-analysis showed that patients with severe disease showed significantly lower platelet count (weighted mean differences [WMD]: -16.29 × 109 /L; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -25.34 to -7.23) and shorter activated partial thromboplastin time (WMD: -0.81 seconds; 95% CI: -1.94 to 0.33) but higher D-dimer levels (WMD: 0.44 μg/mL; 95% CI: 0.29-0.58), higher fibrinogen levels (WMD: 0.51 g/L; 95% CI: 0.33-0.69) and longer prothrombin time (PT; WMD: 0.65 seconds; 95% CI: 0.44-0.86).
32706426 The meta-analysis revealed that no correlation was evident between an increased severity risk of COVID-19 and activated partial thromboplastin time (WMD = -1.56, 95% CI: -5.77 to 2.64; P = .468) or prothrombin time (WMD = 0.19, 95% CI: -0.13 to 0.51; P = .243).
32745466 Furthermore, cancer patients had significantly lower platelet levels and higher D-dimer levels, C-reactive protein levels, and prothrombin time.
32746929 Our meta-analyses showed a significant decrease in lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil, hemoglobin, platelet, albumin, serum sodium, lymphocyte to C-reactive protein ratio (LCR), leukocyte to C-reactive protein ratio (LeCR), leukocyte to IL-6 ratio (LeIR), and an increase in the neutrophil, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), Procalcitonin (PCT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), fibrinogen, prothrombin time (PT), D-dimer, glucose level, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in the severe group compared with the non-severe group.
32749643 Transaminases were abnormal in approximately 25%, bilirubin in 9%, prothrombin time (PT) in 7%, and low albumin in 60%.
32755217 In multivariable analysis, intubation (p<0.001) and prolonged prothrombin time (p=0.04) showed a significant association with undergoing imaging; no patient variable was significantly associated with imaging positive for coagulopathy (p>0.05).
32756189 D-dimer surge was accompanied with prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and reduced platelet count (PLT) and fibrinogen level.
32758876 This report describes the presence of two unique motifs in the SARS CoV-2 nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N-protein) that can potentially interact with fibrinogen and possibly prothrombin.
32762118 COVID-19 patients had a mildly prolonged prothrombin time, high von Willebrand factor levels and low ADAMTS13 activity.
32774121 For now, it has been shown that useful biomarkers can include general biomarkers of inflammation (parameters of complete blood count, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, procalcitonin), biomarkers of myocardial damage (high sensitivity troponin I/T, B-type natriuretic peptide, and N-terminal B type natriuretic peptide), and vascular biomarkers (D-dimer, prothrombin time, fibrinogen).
32780525 The D-dimer is frequently elevated in COVID-19, but other markers of coagulation activation, including the prothrombin fragment 1.2 (PF1.2) are poorly described.
32782109 Older age, lower albumin levels, higher serum Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, higher D-D levels, longer prothrombin time (PT), higher IL-6 levels, lower T cells indicated poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
32793616 Therefore, we compared the serum liver chemistries such as hepatic transaminases, total bilirubin, albumin, and prothrombin time to evaluate whether they can predict severity and mortality in COVID-19.
32801798 Basophil count, the proportion of basophils, prothrombin time, prothrombin time activity, and international normalized ratio were the five most discriminant biomarkers.
32805623 Coagulopathy in Coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) has been demonstrated by an increase in D-dimer, prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen and factor VIII.
32807764 This patient also had prolonged prothrombin time on preoperative labs, which was not corrected with mixing study. […] In patients with elevated prothrombin time, lupus anticoagulant/anti-cardiolipin antibody-positivity should be suspected, and anticoagulation prophylaxis should be continued perioperatively for better outcomes.
32811801 The 24 h ICU mortality was 8.5 per cent, and non-survivors had higher respiratory rate (P <0.01, n=198) and lower baseline oxyhaemoglobin saturation (P <0.001, n=198) at presentation and higher baseline serum lactate (P <0.01, n=122), total leucocyte count (P <0.001, n=186), absolute neutrophil count (P <0.001, n=132), prothrombin time (P <0.05, n=54) and INR (P <0.05, n=54) compared to survivors.
32820210 Seven laboratory features selected in the model were: prothrombin activity, urea, white blood cell, interleukin-2 receptor, indirect bilirubin, myoglobin, and fibrinogen degradation products.
32822430 Cohorts with elevated levels of white blood cells (WBCs) (OR = 1.75), neutrophil count (OR = 2.62), D-dimer (OR = 3.97), prolonged prothrombin time (PT) (OR = 1.82), fibrinogen (OR = 3.14), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (OR = 1.60), procalcitonin (OR = 4.76), IL-6 (OR = 2.10), and IL-10 (OR = 4.93) had higher odds of progression to severe phenotype.
32828653 In addition, laboratory values of D-dimer and C-reactive protein and standard measurements of prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time were collected on all patients.
32837053 Common coagulation tests such as prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time are only mildly prolonged while most patients have normal to increased fibrinogen and marginal thrombocytopenia.
32838104 Compared with the patients discharged alive, those who died tended to have lower albumin levels but longer prothrombin time and higher international standardized ratio.
32838744 The case patient displayed D-Dimer elevations beyond what is typically observed among this hospital’s COVID-positive peripartum population and displayed significantly more oozing than expected intraoperatively, despite normal prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, fibrinogen, and platelets.
32839751 She was treated with venous infusion of three-factor prothrombin complex concentrate and vitamin K until PT-INR reduction.
32841919 Several hematology abnormalities have been observed in COVID-19 patients, including lymphopenia, neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia (usually mild), thrombocytosis, elevated prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin times (the latter abnormality often indicating lupus anticoagulant phenomenon), hyperfibrinogenemia, elevated von Willebrand factor levels, and elevated fibrin d-dimer.
32844987 These studies have shown that a portion of the patients affected by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), elevated D-dimer levels and other fibrinolytic products, antithrombin (AT) activity reduced and decrease of platelet count.
32846825 Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had depressed white blood cell (WBC), neutrocytes, lymphocytes, and prolonged prothrombin time (PT).
32852539 Inactive vitamin K-dependent MGP (dp-ucMGP) and prothrombin (PIVKA-II) were measured, inversely related to extrahepatic and hepatic vitamin K status, respectively.
32860672 Similarly, patients with prolonged prothrombin time (PT) had an increased risk of ICU and increased risk of death (SMD 1.338 (0.551-2.125), P = 0.001, I2 = 92.7%).
32864934 Moreover, COVID-19 leads to high D-dimer levels and prothrombin time, which indicates a substantial coagulation disorder.
32870735 Global data correlates severe VDD with COVID-19 associated coagulopathy, disrupted immune response and mortality, reduced platelet count, and prolonged prothrombin time, suggesting benefits from supplementation. […] Global data correlates severe VDD with COVID-19 associated coagulopathy, disrupted immune response and mortality, reduced platelet count, and prolonged prothrombin time, together suggesting benefits from supplementation.
32871887 The risk factors of in-hospital mortality were explored by univariable and multivariable logistic regression to construct a clinical prediction model, the prediction efficiency of which was verified by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve.A total of 118 patients (49 males and 69 females) were included in this study; the results revealed that the following factors associated with in-hospital mortality: older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.175, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.073-1.287, P = .001), neutrophil count greater than 6.3 × 10 cells/L (OR 7.174, (95% CI 2.295-22.432, P = .001), lymphocytopenia (OR 0.069, 95% CI 0.007-0.722, P = .026), prothrombin time >13 seconds (OR 11.869, 95% CI 1.433-98.278, P = .022), D-dimer >1 mg/L (OR 22.811, 95% CI 2.224-233.910, P = .008) and procalcitonin (PCT) >0.1 ng/mL (OR 23.022, 95% CI 3.108-170.532, P = .002). […] In conclusion, older age, increased neutrophil count, prothrombin time, D-dimer, PCT, and decreased lymphocyte count at admission were risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality of COVID-19.
32877961 These include markers of acute phase reaction (elevated C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell count, fibrinogen, procalcitonin, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor), signs of tissue injury (elevated lactic dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, cardiac troponins), changes in hemostasis and coagulation (elevated D-dimer, prolonged prothrombin time, decreased platelets, decreased antithrombin, elevated factor VIII and von Willebrand factor), and decreased lymphocytes.
32879103 Among them, laboratory tests included white blood cell (WBC), lymphocytes (LYM), neutrophil (NEU), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (PLT), prothrombin time (PT), plasma fibrinogen (Fib), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), D-dimer, total bilirubin (TBIL), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and oxygen partial pressure in arterial blood.
32879731 Meta-analysis of standardized mean difference (SMD) between severe and non-severe COVID-19 cases showed that CK-MB (SMD = 0.68,95%CI: 0.48;0.87; P-value:< 0.001), troponin I (SMD = 0.71, 95%CI:0.42;1.00; P-value:< 0.001), D-dimer (SMD = 0.54,95%CI:0.31;0.77; P-value:< 0.001), prothrombin time (SMD = 0.48, 95%CI:0.23;0.73; P-value: < 0.001), procalcitonin (SMD = 0.72, 95%CI: 0.34;1,11; P-value:< 0.001), interleukin-6 (SMD = 0.93, 95%CI: 0.25;1.61;P-value: 0.007),C-reactive protein (CRP) (SMD = 1.34, 95%CI:0.83;1.86; P-value:< 0.001), ALAT (SMD = 0.53, 95%CI: 0.34;0,71; P-value:< 0.001), ASAT (SMD = 0.96, 95%CI: 0.58;1.34; P-value: < 0.001), LDH (SMD = 1.36, 95%CI: 0.75;1.98; P-value:< 0.001), CK (SMD = 0.48, 95%CI: 0.10;0.87; P-value:0.01), total bilirubin (SMD = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.18;0.47;P-value: < 0.001), γ-GT (SMD = 1.03, 95%CI: 0.83;1.22; P-value: < 0.001), myoglobin (SMD = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.81;1.47; P-value:< 0.001), blood urea nitrogen (SMD = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.18;0.47;P-value:< 0.001) and Creatininemia (SMD = 0.18, 95%CI: 0.01;0.35; P-value:0.04) were significantly more elevated in severe cases, in opposition to lymphocyte count (SMD = -0.57, 95%CI:-0.71; - 0.42; P-value: < 0.001) and proportion of lymphocytes (SMD = -0.81, 95%CI: - 1.12; - 0.49; P-value:< 0.001) which were found to be significantly lower in severe patients with other biomarker such as thrombocytes (SMD = -0.26, 95%CI: - 0.48; - 0.04; P-value:0.02), eosinophils (SMD = - 0.28, 95%CI:-0.50; - 0.06; P-value:0.01), haemoglobin (SMD = -0.20, 95%CI: - 0.37,-0.03; P-value:0.02), albuminemia (SMD-1.67,95%CI -2.40; - 0.94; P-value:< 0.001), which were also lower.
32881209 Alongside its potential to cause severe respiratory illness, studies have reported a distinct COVID-19-associated coagulopathy that is characterized by elevated D-dimer levels, hyperfibrinogenemia, mild thrombocytopenia, and slight prolongation of the prothrombin time.
32892505 Importantly, disease severity did not increase thrombin generation (including thrombin-antithrombin complexes and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2) when comparing both cohorts; counter-intuitively critical patients were hypocoaguable. tPA, TFPI and VEGF were increased in critical patients, which are hypothesized to reflect endothelial dysfunction and/or contribution of heparin (which may cause endothelial TFPI/tPA release).
32895171 Compared with the severe patients, the critically ill patients had higher proportions of patients over 60 years old with elevated white blood cell count, increased prothrombin time, and higher levels of hsCRP, PCT, D-dimer, ALT, LDH, cTnI and NT-proBNP. […] Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that an age over 60 years, leukocytosis, hs-CRP elevation, prolonged prothrombin time, and increased levels of D-dimer, NT-proBNP and cTnI were associated with severe COVID-19. […] Multivariate logistic regression showed that an age over 60 years (OR=8.165, 95% CI: 1.483-45.576, P=0.017), prolonged prothrombin time (OR=7.516, 95% CI: 2.568-21.998, P=0.006) and elevated NT-proBNP (OR=6.194, 95% CI: 1.305-29.404, P=0.022) were independent risk factors for critical type of COVID-19. […] An age over 60 years, a prolonged prothrombin time and elevated NT-proBNP level are important clinical features of critically ill patients with COVID-19, and can be deemed as early warning signals for critical conditions of the disease.
32899532 Platelet count, antithrombin activity, and prothrombin time in the COVID-19 group were almost within normal range and time series alterations of these markers were significantly milder than the non-COVID-19 group (p = 0.052, 0.037, and 0.005, respectively).
32901762 This review has also covered the laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19, passing through the imaging diagnosis made by the chest tomography revealing ground glass patching opacities, and results of non-specific exams such as the total blood with lymphopenia, the coagulation tests with increased prothrombin times, as well as marked increments of the D-dimer, troponin and proinflammatory cytokines.
32912404 The alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBil) and prothrombin time (PT) of 30 patients were increased to various degrees within 1 week after ICU admission, and albumin (ALB) was decreased.
32916371 As the infection worsens, extreme D-dimer elevations, significant thrombocytopenia, decreasing fibrinogen, and prolongation of prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time occur, often associated with deep vein thrombosis, in situ pulmonary thrombi, and/or pulmonary embolism.
32918208 FXa is known to activate prothrombin to thrombin, which eventually leads to the formation of cross-linked blood clots.
32921249 In the recurrent group, white blood cell, Neutrophils, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, CD3, CD4, CD8, ratio of CD4/CD8, IgG and C4 complement were of significant difference among the baseline, negative and turn-positive time points.
32922211 First-line hemostasis tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, fibrinogen and D-dimers are proposed for assessing thrombotic risk and monitoring hemostasis, but are vulnerable to many drawbacks affecting their reliability and clinical relevance.
32932329 C-reactive protein (CRP) and prothrombin time (PT) levels were found to be higher in patients who needed supplemental oxygen (0.9 [0.1-8.6] vs.
32933613 They also showed higher counts of lymphocytes, T lymphocyte CD8, and platelets and levels of cholinesterase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactic acid, but lower serum amyloid, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and shorter prothrombin time.
32947052 Platelet count (PLT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), D-dimer (D-D), and fibrinogen (FIB) were collected and analyzed.
32961572 All patients were routinely evaluated for full blood count, prothrombin time, fibrinogen, D-dimers, antithrombin (AT), and protein C activity. […] The COMPASS-COVID-19 score was derived from multivariate analyses and includes obesity, gender, hemoglobin, lymphocyte, and the cDIC-ISTH score (including platelet count, prothrombin time, D-dimers, AT, and protein C levels).
32968624 There were significant differences between the two groups in the following factors: history of coronary heart disease (CHD), age, lymphocyte count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), myoglobin (MYO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and albumin (all P<0.05).
33019920 Laboratory changes are relevant to evaluate the coagulation state - D-dimer, prothrombin time (PT), Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT), platelet count and fibrinogen.
33023050 Several changes in the coagulation system, such as lower platelet numbers or increased prothrombin time, as well as increased D-dimer and fibrinogen, were observed.
33023942 Non-survivors were significantly older, and the percentage of patients with pathological values of creatinine, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C reactive protein, prothrombin time, D-dimer, and arterial blood gas, PaO2/FIO2 and satO2/FIO2 indices were significantly higher among the patients with COVID-19 who died than those who survived.
33026344 Routine laboratory tests - activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time, Clauss fibrinogen and D-dimers levels measurement - are used for the evaluation of the thrombotic risk and the monitoring of hemostasis, but are subject to several drawbacks that may affect the reliability and clinical relevance of the delivered results.
33030047 We found the prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), D-dimer were significantly higher in the severe group (P < 0.05), and the highest area under the curve (AUC) is 0.91 for D-dimer, while the AUC of PT and TT were 0.80 and 0.61 respectively.
33035175 Layer-by-layer screening of 100 potential risk factors finallyrevealed 8 important risk factors that were included in the risk prediction model: lymphocyte percentage (LYM%), prothrombin time (PT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total bilirubin (T-Bil), percentage of eosinophils (EOS%), creatinine(Cr), neutrophil percentage (NEUT%), albumin (ALB) level.
33039218 Hematological presentations of COVID-19 include laboratory abnormalities such as decreased total lymphocyte count, prolonged prothrombin time (PT), elevated d-dimer, and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).
33046316 All patients had significantly raised D-dimer levels, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin and prothrombin times.
33047789 Forty-two percent of patients had abnormal prothrombin time and international normalized ratio.
33049115 Compared with the non-RP group (n = 24), the RP group (n = 14) had more family cluster infections, relatively higher white blood cell (WBC) count and longer plasma prothrombin time (PT), while age and gender were insignificant.