DrugBank ID: db14812
DrugCentral: procalcitonin
Synonymous : None

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of procalcitonin gene in 216 abstracts.

pmid sentence
  1. The blood test of the patients showed normal or decreased white blood cell count (23/29), decreased lymphocyte count (20/29), increased hypersensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) (27/29), and normal procalcitonin.
32061066 The median of CRP was 16.3 mg/L, including 5 patients with slightly elevated (5/9) , 4 patients with normal values (4/9) . the results of procalcitonin test were negative in5 patients.
32062875 Elevated procalcitonin was found in 1 case and D-Dimer in 3 cases.
32077115 Significantly higher levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were associated with severe patients compared to nonsevere patients (all P < .001).
32091414 Correlation analysis showed that the pulmonary inflammation index value was significantly correlated with the values of lymphocyte count, monocyte count, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, days from illness onset, and body temperature (P < 0.05).
32096367 Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be prescribed rationally and was not recommended except for patients with long course of disease, repeated fever and elevated procalcitonin (PCT), meanwhile secondary fungal infection should be concerned.Some patients with COVID-19 showed intestinal microbialdysbiosis with decreasedprobiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium.
32118389 Elevation of C-reactive protein (10%, 3/30), erythrocyte sedimentation rate(19%,4/21), procalcitonin(4%,1/28), liver enzyme(22%, 6/27) and muscle enzyme (15%, 4/27) occurred in different proportions.
32120458 The observation indicators included total blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP), arterial blood gas analysis, myocardial injury markers, coagulation function, liver and kidney function, electrolyte, procalcitonin (PCT), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), blood lipid, pulmonary CT and pathogen detection. Results: Compared with the general group, the lymphocyte count (0.74×10(9) (0.34×10(9), 0.94×10(9))/L vs.
32134205 For laboratory findings, procalcitonin elevation (16/20, 80%) should be pay attention to, which is not common in adults. […] Procalcitonin elevation and consolidation with surrounding halo signs were common in pediatric patients which were different from adults.
32193831 Laboratory findings revealed normal or increased whole blood counts (7/8), increased C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and lactate dehydrogenase (6/8), and abnormal liver function (4/8).
32211816 A total of 82 patients (19.7%) had cardiac injury, and compared with patients without cardiac injury, these patients were older (median [range] age, 74 [34-95] vs 60 [21-90] years; P < .001); had more comorbidities (eg, hypertension in 49 of 82 [59.8%] vs 78 of 334 [23.4%]; P < .001); had higher leukocyte counts (median [interquartile range (IQR)], 9400 [6900-13 800] vs 5500 [4200-7400] cells/μL) and levels of C-reactive protein (median [IQR], 10.2 [6.4-17.0] vs 3.7 [1.0-7.3] mg/dL), procalcitonin (median [IQR], 0.27 [0.10-1.22] vs 0.06 [0.03-0.10] ng/mL), creatinine kinase-myocardial band (median [IQR], 3.2 [1.8-6.2] vs 0.9 [0.6-1.3] ng/mL), myohemoglobin (median [IQR], 128 [68-305] vs 39 [27-65] μg/L), high-sensitivity troponin I (median [IQR], 0.19 [0.08-1.12] vs <0.006 [<0.006-0.009] μg/L), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (median [IQR], 1689 [698-3327] vs 139 [51-335] pg/mL), aspartate aminotransferase (median [IQR], 40 [27-60] vs 29 [21-40] U/L), and creatinine (median [IQR], 1.15 [0.72-1.92] vs 0.64 [0.54-0.78] mg/dL); and had a higher proportion of multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity in radiographic findings (53 of 82 patients [64.6%] vs 15 of 334 patients [4.5%]).
32220650 Typical abnormal laboratory findings were elevated creatine kinase MB (11 [31%]), decreased lymphocytes (11 [31%]), leucopenia (seven [19%]), and elevated procalcitonin (six [17%]). […] Besides radiographic presentations, variables that were associated significantly with severity of COVID-19 were decreased lymphocytes, elevated body temperature, and high levels of procalcitonin, D-dimer, and creatine kinase MB.
32232433 By univariate analysis, patients with ocular symptoms were more likely to have higher white blood cell and neutrophil counts and higher levels of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase than patients without ocular symptoms.
32237148 There were 38.5% of control patients had higher procalcitonin (PCT) levels than 0.5ng/ml, which was significantly higher than that percentage of COVID-19 patients (X2 =22.636, P <0.05), and COVID-19 patients were also more likely to have decreased or normal urea and creatinine levels than control patients (X2 =24.930, 8.480, P <0.05).
32268454 On post injury day (PID) 1, 3, 6, and 9, vein blood of patients were collected for determination of white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil, lymphocyte absolute value. and level of procalcitonin (PCT).
32278670 Procalcitonin plasma above 0.5 µg/L was associated with 16% vs. 19% (p = 0.78) risk of death after 7 days.
32279081 Through a multivariate analysis of the causes of death in older patients, we found that males, comorbidities, time from disease onset to hospitalization, abnormal kidney function, and elevated procalcitonin levels were all significantly associated with death.
32282949 Biomarkers, such high serum procalcitonin and ferritin have also emerged as poor prognostic factors.
32283325 Patients with abnormal liver function were more likely to be male, and had higher levels of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein.
32293716 Other findings included leukocytosis (12.6%) and elevated procalcitonin (17.5%).
32304772 Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age ≥ 75 years (hazard ratio [HR], 7.86; 95% CI, 2.44-25.35), age between 65 and 74 years (HR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.24-9.5), coronary heart disease (HR, 4.28; 95% CI, 1.14-16.13), cerebrovascular disease (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.07-8.94), dyspnea (HR, 3.96; 95% CI, 1.42-11), procalcitonin level > 0.5 ng/mL (HR, 8.72; 95% CI, 3.42-22.28), and aspartate aminotransferase level > 40 U/L (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-6.73) were independent risk factors associated with fatal outcome.
32311650 Patients with elder age, chronic comorbidities, blood leukocyte/lymphocyte count, procalcitonin level, co-infection and severe complications might increase the risk of poor clinical outcomes.
32328954 Elevated D-dimer, procalcitonin, and CRP levels may correlate with disease severity.
32335169 Laboratory examination such as aspartate amino transferase(AST) > 40U/L, creatinine(Cr) ≥ 133mol/L, hypersensitive cardiac troponin I(hs-cTnI) > 28pg/mL, procalcitonin(PCT) > 0.5ng/mL, lactatede hydrogenase(LDH) > 245U/L, and D-dimer > 0.5mg/L predicted the deterioration of disease while white blood cells(WBC)<4 × 109/L meant a better clinical status[AST > 40U/L:OR=4.00, 95% CI (2.46, 6.52), P < 0.00001; Cr ≥ 133μmol/L: OR = 5.30, 95% CI (2.19, 12.83), P = 0.0002; hs-cTnI > 28 pg/mL: OR = 43.24, 95% CI (9.92, 188.49), P < 0.00001; PCT > 0.5 ng/mL: OR = 43.24, 95% CI (9.92, 188.49), P < 0.00001;LDH > 245U/L: OR = 43.24, 95% CI (9.92, 188.49), P < 0.00001; D-dimer > 0.5mg/L: OR = 43.24, 95% CI (9.92, 188.49), P < 0.00001; WBC < 4 × 109/L: OR = 0.30, 95% CI (0.17, 0.51), P < 0.00001].
32341111 Phenotype 5 is often associated with high plasma procalcitonin and has low pulmonary compliance, Which is a result of co-infection or acute lung injury after noninvasive ventilation.
32344321 To investigate the ability of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin (PCT) to predict mild and severe cases of COVID-19.
32345579 In addition, patients with severe covid-19 with diabetes had higher levels of leukocyte count, neutrophil count, high-sensitivity C reaction protein, procalcitonin, ferritin, interleukin (IL) 2 receptor, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor α, D-dimer, fibrinogen, lactic dehydrogenase and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide.
32348166 However, ARBs/ACEIs group had significantly lower concentrations of CRP (p=0.049) and procalcitonin (PCT, p=0.008).
32357072 ICU patients had a higher respiratory rate, higher levels of random blood glucose, aspartate transaminase, bilirubin, creatine, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, troponin I, D-dimers, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, ferritin, interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, and IL-8 than non-ICU patients.
32365221 The leukocytes, neutrophils, infection biomarkers [such as C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and ferritin] and the concentrations of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] were significantly increased, while lymphocytes were significantly decreased with increased severity of illness.
32369209 Median levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein(CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) were 2.8 mg/L, 70.5 mg/L, 0.3 ng/mL, and 318 U/L respectively, which increased significantly in severe/critical patients compared to the mild patients.
32371463 Other findings included leucopenia (23.5%), elevated D-dimer (20.4%), elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (20.4%), leucocytosis (9.9%), elevated procalcitonin (16.7%) and abnormal renal function (10.9%).
32388472 Procalcitonin did not increase and D-dimer increased slightly.
32391658 Antimicrobial prophylaxis was not recommended except for patients with long course of disease, repeated fever and elevated procalcitonin (PCT), meanwhile secondary fungal infection should be concerned.Some patients with COVID-19 showed intestinal microbial dysbiosis with decreased probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, so nutritional and gastrointestinal function should be assessed for all patients.Nutritional support and application of prebiotics or probiotics were suggested to regulate the balance of intestinal microbiota and reduce the risk of secondary infection due to bacterial translocation.
32395487 The prediction model included five variables of procalcitonin, heart rate, epidemiological history, lymphocyte count and cough.
32399620 CT score of the progressive stage was correlated with neutrophil count (r = 0.502, P < 0.001), white blood cell count (r = 0.414, P = 0.001), C-reactive protein (r = 0.511, P < 0.001), procalcitonin (r = 0.423, P = 0.004), and lactose dehydrogenase (r = 0.369, P = 0.010).
32403153 Pulmonary auscultation showed basal soft crackling noises of the left lung FINDINGS AND DIAGNOSIS: Laboratory examination showed increased values for LDH, pro-BNP and CRP and normal values for leucocytes and procalcitonin. […] Laborchemisch präsentierten sich erhöhte Werte für LDH sowie pro-BNP und CRP bei normwertigen Leukozyten und normwertigem Procalcitonin.
32407459 On meta-regression, ICU admission was predicted by raised leukocyte count (p<0.0001), raised alanine aminotransferase (p=0.024), raised aspartate transaminase (p=0.0040), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p<0.0001) and increased procalcitonin (p<0.0001).
32407719 Admission to the PICU was significantly associated with higher C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and pro-B type natriuretic peptide levels and platelet counts (p<0.05 for all).
32407836 Non-survivors kept high level or showed an upward trend for neutrophils, IL-6, procalcitonin, D-dimer, amyloid A protein and C-reactive protein, which were kept stable or shown downward trend in survivors.
32410245 The inflammatory factors like procalcitonin and interleukin 6 were normal.
32417675 Lymphopenia and increased Procalcitonin were recorded in (21%, 95% CI: 12 - 30%) and (28%, 95% CI: 18 - 37%) respectively.
32433216 H2S was measured in sera by monobromobimane derivation (MBB) followed by high performance liquid chromatography and correlated to other markers like procalcitonin (PCT) and C- reactive protein (CRP).
32434337 Characteristic laboratory findings are normal white blood cell count or mild leukopenia, marked lymphopenia, in severe cases elevated CRP, procalcitonin, LDH, and D-dimer are commonly found.
32436355 Several biochemical risk factors (i.e., blood count and leucocyte formula, C- Reactive Protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH), Ferritin, D-Dimer, Fibrinogen, Interleukin 6 (IL-6)) as well as total testosterone (TT), calculated free T (cFT), Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG), and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) were determined.
32436996 The differences in gender, age, the proportion of patients with combined heart disease, leukocyte, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet, D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase and albumin on admission between the two groups were statistically significant (p<0.05).
32443899 Age; increased respiratory rate; abnormal blood gas parameters and imaging findings; coexisting coronary heart disease; leukocytosis; lymphocytopenia; and several laboratory parameters (elevated procalcitonin; interleukin-6; serum ferritin; C-reactive protein; aspartate aminotransferase; lactate dehydrogenase; creatinine; fibrinogen; troponin-I; and D-dimer) were significant predictors of clinical deterioration.
32444393 Comparing patients on hemodialysis with controls, creatine kinase-muscle and brain type, myoglobin, hypersensitive troponin I, B-type natriuretic peptide, and procalcitonin were increased, and the percentage of abnormalities in bilateral lung was higher in computed tomographic scan (82% versus 69%, P=0.15) and unilateral lung was lower (10% versus 27%, P=0.03).
32445579 Compared to survivors, non-survivors showed significantly elevated white blood cell and neutrophil count, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), systemic immune-inflammation index (SII, defined by platelet count multiply by NLR), CRP, procalcitonin, and D-dimer, and decreased red blood cell, lymphocyte, and platelet count.
32449224 Compared with those in the M group, lymphocyte count (LYM) decreased significantly in the SC group, while the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), creatinine (Cre), D-dimer, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), myoglobin (MB) and troponin I (cTnl) increased significantly in the SC group (P < .05).
32450346 We recommend using both IL-10 and IL-6 as the indicators of cytokine storm, and monitoring the elevation of procalcitonin (PCT) as an alert for initiating antibacterial agents.
32459916 In adjusted time-to-event analyses, variables that were associated with higher in-hospital mortality were increasing age and presentation with an elevated respiratory rate; elevated levels of venous lactate, creatinine, or procalcitonin; or low platelet or lymphocyte counts.
32467457 Laboratory testing revealed lymphopenia and high levels of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin with D-dimer, ferritin and interleukin-6 usually elevated.
32470153 The characteristics of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin and procalcitonin (PCT), and lymphocyte subsets of these patients were retrospectively compared before and after treatment.
32470186 Age, heart rate, chlorine, ALT, AST, procalcitonin, creatine kinase, pH, CD3 counts, and CD4 counts showed moderate distinguishing power (each AUC between 0.7-0.8).
32473151 In severe disease, c-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were frequently elevated.
32479790 Risk factors previously reported in patients without cancer, such as older age; elevated interleukin 6, procalcitonin, and D-dimer; and reduced lymphocytes were validated in patients with cancer.
32488505 All children had highly elevated C-reactive protein (> 94 mg/L) and procalcitonin (> 1.6 ng/mL) without microbial cause.
32490641 Patients in ICU had statistically higher, pulse rate, respiratory rate, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, c-reactive protein, d-dimer, fibrinogen, activated partial thromboplastin time, troponin and procalcitonin compared to patients followed in clinics.
32490853 Here, an integrated point-of-care COVID-19 Severity Score and clinical decision support system is presented using biomarker measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP), N-terminus pro B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), myoglobin (MYO), D-dimer, procalcitonin (PCT), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB), and cardiac troponin I (cTnI).
32492092 Those with severe disease had significantly higher C-reactive protein (median, 8.978 mg/dL [to convert to milligrams per liter, multiply by 10] vs 0.64 mg/dL) and procalcitonin levels (median, 0.31 ng/mL vs 0.17 ng/mL) at admission (P < .001), as well as elevated peak interleukin 6, ferritin, and D-dimer levels during hospitalization.
32492712 ESR, CRP, fibrinogen, ferritin, and procalcitonin were higher in patients with thrombotic complications than those without.
32503382 The following biomarkers have been identified: hematological (lymphocyte count, neutrophil count, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR)), inflammatory (C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), procalcitonin (PCT)), immunological (interleukin (IL)-6 and biochemical (D-dimer, troponin, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), especially those related to coagulation cascades in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
32504360 Increased C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase and D-dimer were observed in 19.44, 67.74, 47.22, 19.44, 22.22 and 20.69% of infants, respectively.
32510169 Various indexes in the two groups before and after treatment were observed and recorded, including fever, cough, hypodynamia, nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, diarrhea, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), blood routine indexes, blood biochemical indexes, time to achieve negative virus nucleic acid, and so on.
32510581 Laboratory test results showed that levels of inflammation markers such as white blood cell count, neutrophil count and percentage, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and D-dimer were significantly higher in pregnant women, whereas mean lymphocyte percentage was significantly lower compared with nonpregnant women.
32522278 Additionally, elevations in ferritin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, procalcitonin, prothrombin time, interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were observed in cancer patients.
32524611 Compared to children without pneumonia(manifested as asymptomatic and acute upper respiratory infection), children with pneumonia were associated with higher percentages of the comorbidity history, symptoms of fever and cough, and increased levels of serum procalcitonin, alkaline phosphatase and serum interleukins (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α.There were no differences of treatments, duration of hospitalization, time from first positive to first negative nucleic acid testing and outcomes between children with mild pneumonia and without pneumonia. […] Allergic patients showed less increase in acute phase reactants, procalcitonin, D-dimer and aspartate aminotransferase levels compared to all patients.
32524786 Patients in the severe group had higher baseline neutrophil percentage, increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and procalcitonin levels, and lower baseline lymphocyte count and lymphocyte percentage (p < 0.001). […] These CT quantitative parameters were significantly correlated with laboratory inflammatory marker levels, including neutrophil percentage, lymphocyte count, lymphocyte percentage, hs-CRP level, and procalcitonin level (p < 0.05).
32526275 Elevated procalcitonin (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.02-2.90), urea nitrogen (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.21-2.43), α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HR 3.02, 95% CI 1.26-7.21) and D-dimer (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.12-3.58) at baseline were also associated with risk for disease progression.
32526372 Many laboratory indicators, such as neutrophils, AST, γ-GT, ALP, LDH, NT-proBNP, Hs-cTnT, PT, APTT, D-dimer, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, CRP, ferritin and procalcitonin, were all significantly increased in deceased patients compared with recovered patients on admission. […] Some indicators such as neutrophils and procalcitonin, others such as lymphocytes and platelets, continuously increased or decreased from admission to death in deceased patients respectively.
32527342 In addition to the difference of serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil count (NEU), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer, procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reaction protein (CRP) in AKI group were significantly higher than those in non-AKI group [WBC (×109/L): 5.75 (4.13, 7.83) vs.
32531620 Median lab values including those for WBC, lymphocyte count and CRP, were within the reference ranges with the exception of procalcitonin levels, which were slightly elevated in children with COVID-19 (median procalcitonin levels ranged from 0.07 to 0.5 ng/mL.
32534186 The results showed that the mean serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels were over four times higher in severe patients than in moderate patients and were over eight times higher in critical patients than in moderate patients.
32535301 15.1mg/L, P=0.001) and procalcitonin (PCT; 0.09 vs.
32538597 Abnormal white blood cell counts have poor sensitivity for invasive bacterial infections; procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels, when available, are more informative.
32540370 We found significant differences between the two groups for fever, dyspnea, decreased lymphocyte and platelet counts, and increased leukocyte count, C-creative protein, procalcitonin, lactose dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine kinase, and creatinine levels (P<0.05).
32540837 Pertinent and statistically significant results in the Intubated (I-T) versus Non Intubated (NI-T) SARS-CoV-2 confirmed patients for the following parameters with P values were: Age P=.01, BMI P= .07, African American Ethnicity P< .001, Hispanic Ethnicity P=.02, DM P=.001, Cr P=0.29, BUN P=.001, Procalcitonin P=.03, CRP P=.007, LDH P= .001, Glucose P=.01, Temperature P=.004, bilateral (B/L) pulmonary infiltrates in CXR P<.001, B/L patchy opacity P=.02. […] Those intubated exhibited increased disease severity with significantly elevated levels of serum Procalcitonin, C reactive protein (CRP), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Mean glucose, Creatinine, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN).
32543756 In non-intensive care unit patients, 48.8% and 22.4% of patients had increased levels of procalcitonin and hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) respectively. […] These patients had decreased levels of globulin (odds ratio [OR] 3.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-6.93, P=0.005), IgA (OR 4.00, 95% CI 1.13-14.18, P=0.032), and increased levels of hs-CRP (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.34-7.36, P=0.008), procalcitonin (OR 3.83, 95% CI 2.03-7.24, P<0.001), IL-10 (OR 7.0, 95% CI 1.59-30.80, P=0.010), and CD4+CD25+ T lymphocyte < 5.0 % (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.04-3.61, P=0.038). […] Decreased IgA and CD4+CD25+ T lymphocyte percentage, and increased hs-CRP, procalcitonin and IL-10 were associated with pneumonia, suggesting that the immune-related factors may participate in the pathogenesis of pneumonia in children with COVID-19.
32547323 Sex, SpO2, breath rate, diastolic pressure, neutrophil, lymphocyte, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and D-dimer were significantly correlated with death events identified using bivariate logistic regression.
32550140 The majority of patients had normal procalcitonin.
32550702 Lymphopenia, elevated serum markers (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, IL-6, D-dimer), and chest-X-ray findings consistent with pneumonia are linked to worse prognosis.
32553861 C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, D-dimer, and pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels were elevated in all patients.
32556293 The signature of COVID-19 was combined with five indicators, namely neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, procalcitonin, older age, and C-reactive protein.
32564974 Multivariable regression showed that increased odds of COVID-19 mortality was associated with older age (OR=2.15, 95% CI=1.35, 3.43), male sex (OR=1.97, 95% CI=1.29, 2.99), history of diabetes (OR=2.34, 95% CI=1.45, 3.76), lymphopenia (OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.03, 2.46), and increased procalcitonin (OR=3.91, 95% CI=2.22, 6.91, per SD increase) on admission. […] Spline regression analysis indicated that the correlation between procalcitonin levels and COVID-19 mortality was nonlinear (p=0.0004 for nonlinearity). […] The independent risk factors for COVID-19 mortality included older age, male sex, history of diabetes, lymphopenia, and increased procalcitonin, which could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an earlier stage.
32566603 Severe patents were older and more common in dyspnea, vomiting or diarrhea, creatinine >104 µmol/L, procalcitonin ≥0.05 ng/mL, lymphocyte count <1.5×109/L and bilateral involvement of chest CT.
32571605 The most attracting and reliable markers of COVID-19 in patients were: normal C-reactive protein (CRP) and very different and conflicting laboratory results regardless of clinical symptoms in neonates, normal or temporary elevated CRP, conflicting WBC count results and procalcitonin elevation in children, lymphopenia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in adult patients, lymphopenia and elevated CRP and LDH in the elderly people, leukocytosis and elevated neutrophil ratio in pregnant women.
32574309 Differences in shortness of breath, insomnia, inappetence, the procalcitonin (PCT) levels, FiO2 and PaO2/FiO2 among the three groups were statistically significant (p < 0.05).
32574334 With the deterioration of disease, most patients experienced consecutive changes in biochemical parameters, including lymphopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, hypoproteinemia, as well as elevated D-dimer and procalcitonin.
32575078 Besides, abnormal laboratory tests were more prevalent in severe patients than in mild cases, such as elevated levels of white blood cell counts, liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin, as well as decreased levels of lymphocytes and albumin.
32576345 The level of procalcitonin (PCT) in the severe and critical patients was higher than that in the mild and ordinary patients [μg/L: 0.17 (0.12, 0.26), 0.13 (0.09, 0.24) vs.
32576347 54.0±13.1), and the levels of white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil count (NEU), procalcitonin (PCT), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukins (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10), IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at admission were significantly higher [WBC (×109/L): 7.16 (5.55, 9.75) vs.
32582743 The results demonstrated that severe patients tend to present with increased white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), procalcitonin (PCT), C-reaction protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and a decreased number of total lymphocyte and lymphocyte subtypes, such as CD4+ T lymphocyte and CD8+ T lymphocyte, compared to the non-severe patients.
32583620 The two cases with severe illness had profound lymphopenia with markedly elevated C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and ferritin.
32584326 ICU patients showed a more severe inflammatory response as assessed by white blood cell count, neutrophil and platelet count, C-reactive protein, ferritin, procalcitonin, and albumin levels.
32586396 All patients aged 18- 80 with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2, a C-reactive protein (CRP) ≥ 100 mg/l, a Procalcitonin (PCT) < 2 ng/l, and suspected cytokine storm defined via a vasoplegic shock (Norepinephrine > 0.2 μg/min/kg to achieve a Mean Arterial Pressure ≥ 65mmHg).
32586670 Studies were collected until March 2020, and retrieved parameters include leukocyte, neutrophil, thrombocyte, and lymphocyte counts in addition to C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and D-dimer levels.
32591180 Procalcitonin showed to be not sensitive enough to detect pneumococcal infection.
  1. The blood test of the patients showed normal or decreased white blood cell count (23/29), decreased lymphocyte count (20/29), increased hypersensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) (27/29), and normal procalcitonin.
32164091 The median of CRP was 16.3 mg/L, including 5 patients with slightly elevated (5/9) , 4 patients with normal values (4/9) . the results of procalcitonin test were negative in5 patients.
32597047 The abnormal laboratory findings in these cases were decreased lymphocytes (2.5%, n = 2), leucopenia (5%, n = 4), and increased lactate dehydrogenase (17.2%, n = 14), C-reactive protein (16%, n = 13), procalcitonin (3.7%, n = 3), and D-dimer (12.3%, n = 10).
32603535 Several independent predictors of ICU transfer in COVID-19 patients were identified including older age (≥65 years) (hazard ratio [HR]=4.02), hypertension (HR=2.65), neutrophil count (HR=1.11), procalcitonin level (HR=3.67), prothrombin time (HR=1.28), and d-dimer level (HR=1.25).
32615866 We aimed to investigate the association between several biomarkers, including serum C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), D-dimer, and serum ferritin, and COVID-19 severity.
32617223 It also emphasizes the potential role of checking procalcitonin levels as a part of routine laboratory investigation at initial presentation in all suspected as well as confirmed COVID-19 cases to rule out an on-going bacterial infection that can prove fatal in the course of the disease.
32622796 In hypocalcemia group, leukocytes, c-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), and D-dimer levels was higher, while lymphocytes and albumin (ALB) levels was lower.
32626680 Older age, elevated aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, serum lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, prothrombin time, D-dimer, Procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein levels, decreased albumin, elevated serum cytokines (IL2R, IL6, IL8, IL10, and TNF-α) levels, and a decreased lymphocyte count indicated poor outcome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
32642164 Patients were likely had normal procalcitonin, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels at diagnosis.
32644254 IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer, and procalcitonin were monitored on days 0, 3, and 6 of therapy.
32649791 The 44 patients who died were older, had lower lymphocyte counts and eGFR, higher serum lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin and IL-6 levels.
32652252 First measured d-dimer >575.5 ng/mL, procalcitonin > 0.24 ng/mL, lactate dehydrogenase >445.6 units/L, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) >104.75 pg/mL had odds ratios of 10.5, 5, 4.5 and 2.9, respectively for MV (P < .05 for all). […] D-dimer, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase and BNP may serve as early indicators of disease trajectory.
32653423 Compared with nondiabetic patients, diabetic patients had higher levels of neutrophils (P = .014), C-reactive protein (P = .008), procalcitonin (P < .01), and D-dimer (P = .033), and lower levels of lymphocytes (P = .032) and albumin (P = .035).
32656638 Compared with regular patients, severe and critically ill patients had significantly lower lymphocyte count (p < 0.01), decreased red blood cell and hemoglobin (p < 0.01), low levels of immunoglobulin G (p < 0.05) and significantly higher in D-dimer (p < 0.0001), fibrinogen (p < 0.01), white blood cell count (p < 0.01), neutrophil count (p < 0.0001), interleukin-6 (p < 0.05), C-reactive protein (p < 0.01), procalcitonin (p < 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p < 0.05), ferritin (p < 0.01) and lactate dehydrogenase (p < 0.0001).
32657550 Clinical severity scales, kidney function biomarkers, white blood cell count parameters, the total neutrophils / total lymphocytes ratio and procalcitonin are early risk factors for mortality.
32662525 Elder age, underlying comorbidities, and increased laboratory variables, such as leukocyte count, neutrophil count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) on admission, were found in survived severe cases compared to nonsevere cases.
32664991 All patients exhibited signs of significant systemic inflammation, including increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), procalcitonin, chest CT score, and a decreased lymphocyte (LY) count. […] Chest CT score had positive associations with white blood cell (WBC) count, CRP, ESR, procalcitonin, and abnormal coagulation function, and a negative association with LY count.
32668007 Baseline characteristics with the highest prognostic value for the primary endpoint by means of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were male gender (0.63) and initial laboratory values including shock markers (lactate on ambient air 0.67; lactate with O2 supply 0.70), markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein 0.72, procalcitonin 0.80) and markers of compromised oxygenation (pO2 0.75 on ambient air), whereas age and comorbidities provided little prognostic information.
32669467 In regard to the hematological parameters, COVID-19 patients showed decreased erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, lymphocyte count, eosinophil count, and complement C1q, whereas neutrophils, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were significantly increased, especially in severe cases.
32677918 Significantly, disease severity was associated with age (r = 0.458, P < 0.001), comorbidities (r = 0.445, P < 0.001), white cell count (r = 0.229, P = 0.006), neutrophil count (r = 0.238, P = 0.004), lymphocyte count (r = - 0.295, P < 0.001), albumin (r = - 0.603, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = - 0.362, P < 0.001), serum potassium (r = - 0.237, P = 0.004), plasma glucose (r = 0.383, P < 0.001), total bilirubin (r = 0.340, P < 0.001), serum amyloid A (r = 0.58, P < 0.001), procalcitonin (r = 0.345, P < 0.001), C-reactive protein (r = 0.477, P < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.548, P < 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.342, P < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.264, P = 0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.284, P = 0.001) and D-dimer (r = 0.477, P < 0.001) . […] Lymphocyte count, serum potassium, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and procalcitonin may also be a prognostic indicator.
32682360 Age, D-Dimer, troponin, creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB, ferritin, procalcitonin, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio were statistically significantly higher in deceased patients than survivor patients.
32693650 The serum concentrations of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and fibrinogen decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.001).
32695322 Common laboratory features included lymphocytopenia [6/7 (86%)], elevated lactate dehydrogenase [3/4 (75%)], D-dimer [5/6 (83%)], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [4/4 (100%)] and procalcitonin [5/5 (100%)].
32709280 White blood cell counts decreased in 45.0% of patients, lymphopenia in 63.3%, thrombocytopenia in 13.3% and procalcitonin levels in 88.3% of the patients were less than 0.5 ng/mL.
32710646 Body mass index, elevated ferritin, elevated d-dimer, and elevated procalcitonin predicted need for ICU care, and these along with vascular disease at baseline predicted need for mechanical ventilation.
32713118 Among patients with abnormal liver functions, patients with grade 2 liver damage (with both abnormal alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase levels and abnormal alkaline phosphatase or gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels) had a higher ratio of male patients, elevated neutrophil count, procalcitonin, D-dimer levels and mortality rate.
32719214 The clinical characteristics and imaging/laboratory findings including chest computed tomography (CT), initial blood count, C-reactive protein [CRP]), procalcitonin (PCT) and serum total IgE were captured and analysed.
32722020 Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin were significantly higher in ICU patients compared to non-ICU (p < 0.001).
32723996 The procalcitonin level was normal while elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, platelet and C-reactive protein were common.
32726724 All patients were followed up in the hospital with daily interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, d-dimer, full blood count, and procalcitonin. […] The levels of IL-6, CRP, ferritin, d-dimer, and procalcitonin were significantly lower in the severe cases group than the critical cases group (p = 0.025, p = 0.002, p = 0.008, p = 0.002, and p = 0.001, respectively).
32726868 Among those, a history of CVD (odds ratio (OR) = 3.15, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 2.26-4.41), acute cardiac (OR = 10.58, 5.00-22.40) or kidney (OR = 5.13, 1.78-14.83) injury, increased procalcitonin (OR = 4.8, 2.034-11.31) or D-dimer (OR = 3.7, 1.74-7.89), and thrombocytopenia (OR = 6.23, 1.031-37.67) conveyed the highest odds for the adverse composite endpoint.
32727465 Correlation analysis showed that CT severity score and PaO2/FiO2 were significantly correlated with age, presence of any coexisting disorder, lymphocyte count, procalcitonin, IL-2R, and IL-6.
32730358 Five significant variables predicting ICU admission were lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, pulse oxygen saturation, smoking history, and lymphocyte count. […] Seven significant variables predicting mortality were heart failure, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulse oxygen saturation, heart rate, and age.
32733373 Frequency of laboratory abnormalities was similar, except for procalcitonin and INR.
32735885 Our meta-analyses with random-effect models showed a significant decrease in lymphocytes, monocyte, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD3 cells, CD19 cells, and natural killer (NK) cells and an increase in the white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP)/hs-CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), ferritin, procalcitonin (PCT), and serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-2R, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interferon-gamma (INF-γ) in the severe group compared to the non-severe group.
32745308 Higher levels of bacterial infection indices (e.g. white blood cell count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin) were observed in the elevated group.
32746929 Our meta-analyses showed a significant decrease in lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil, hemoglobin, platelet, albumin, serum sodium, lymphocyte to C-reactive protein ratio (LCR), leukocyte to C-reactive protein ratio (LeCR), leukocyte to IL-6 ratio (LeIR), and an increase in the neutrophil, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), Procalcitonin (PCT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), fibrinogen, prothrombin time (PT), D-dimer, glucose level, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in the severe group compared with the non-severe group.
32746940 Compared with survivors, non-survivors had higher white blood cell (WBC) count (7.85 vs 5.07 × 109/L), more elevated neutrophil count (6.41 vs 3.08 × 109/L), smaller lymphocyte count (0.69 vs 1.20 × 109/L) and lower platelet count (172 vs 211 × 109/L), raised concentrations of procalcitonin (0.21 vs 0.06 ng/mL) and CRP (70.5 vs 7.2 mg/L) (P < 0.001).
32750010 Tier 2 predicts the probability of mortality using biomarker measurements (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, D-dimer) and age.
32758298 ◦ To evaluate if the use of IVM is associated with a decreased systemic inflammatory response assessed by plasma levels of ferritin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and interleukin-6.
32766268 Survival curve analysis showed that age, procalcitonin, D-dimer, serum C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, lymphocytes, neutrophils, CD4%, and CD4/CD8 ratio were significant predictors of progression to severe disease. […] Conclusions: Lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, etc. are early warning indicators of severe COVID-19.
32766541 Age, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), percentage of lymphocytes (LYM%), procalcitonin (PCT), serum urea, C reactive protein and D-dimer (DD), were identified associated with mortality by LASSO binary logistic regression.
32766542 Coinfections were observed in 5.6% of children and abnormal laboratory markers included serum D-dimer, procalcitonin, creatine kinase, and interleukin-6.
32766546 On multivariable analysis, the risk factors found to be significantly associated with admission to intensive care were age above 50 years old, a qSOFA score above 0, smoking, elevated CRP and elevated procalcitonin levels. […] Asthma, smoking and elevated procalcitonin levels correlated significantly with mortality in our cohort.
32766566 Patients who died were significantly older, with higher severity scores at admission, had higher levels of d-dimers, plasma creatinine, high-sensitive troponin T, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin, and required more frequent prone sessions.
32768938 A radioimmunoassay method was adopted to detect the content of IL-6, IL-8,IL-2R,TNF-α, procalcitonin (PCT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in sera.
32769892 The items for laboratory tests included blood routine examination, liver function, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, markers of myocardial injury, B-type natriuretic peptide, D-dimer, and so forth. […] Of the inflammatory indexes, procalcitonin was 0.69 (0.24, 2.73) ng/mL; C reactive protein was 17.2 (5.2, 181.6) mg/L, which was higher than normal.
32773471 Several laboratory markers (lower O2 saturation and platelets, and higher leukocytes, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, C reactive protein, procalcitonin, and ferritin) were associated with COVID-19 severity.
32774121 For now, it has been shown that useful biomarkers can include general biomarkers of inflammation (parameters of complete blood count, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, procalcitonin), biomarkers of myocardial damage (high sensitivity troponin I/T, B-type natriuretic peptide, and N-terminal B type natriuretic peptide), and vascular biomarkers (D-dimer, prothrombin time, fibrinogen).
32775377 Procalcitonin and hs-CRP were both significantly higher in the GS group than in the PS group.
32778631 Here, we reported a-49-year-old-woman that was confirmed for COVID-19 by clinical manifestation, radiology profile, high procalcitonin concentration, and positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test.
32779737 Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), oxygenation index (PaO2 /FiO2), renal function, C-reactive protein (CRP), cytokines, procalcitonin (PCT), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), sequential organ failure score (SOFA), and prognosis were compared after CRRT.
32782035 Patients with severe disease showed significantly lower platelet count (WMD = -18.63, 95%CI -30.86 to -6.40) and lymphocyte count (WMD = -0.35, 95%CI -0.41 to -0.30) but higher C-reactive protein (CRP; WMD = 42.7, 95%CI 31.12-54.28), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; WMD = 137.4, 95%CI 105.5-169.3), white blood cell count(WBC), procalcitonin(PCT), D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatinine(Cr).
32794415 Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, and C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and fibrinogen, and d-dimer levels at admission were significantly increased in the critical group.
32796765 The PaO2/FiO2 increased within 12 days, while the inflammatory parameters C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and interleukin-6 decreased.
32802926 When deciding the optimal timing for total hip arthroplasty in patients with COVID-19, we recommend using inflammatory markers, such as procalcitonin and interleukin-6, as indicators of disease resolution and caution operative intervention when patients are nearing the 7-10th day of COVID-19 symptoms.
32813298 More patients demonstrated elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and creatinine in anaemia group.
32818235 While non-specific, acute phase reactants including CRP, ferritin, SAA, and procalcitonin were reported as sensitive markers of acute COVID-19 disease. […] Trends observed by serial laboratory measurements during hospitalization including progressive decrease of lymphocyte count, thrombocytopenia, elevated CRP, procalcitonin, increased liver enzymes, decreased renal function, and coagulation derangements were more common in critically ill patient groups and associated with a high incidence of clinical complications.
32822430 Cohorts with elevated levels of white blood cells (WBCs) (OR = 1.75), neutrophil count (OR = 2.62), D-dimer (OR = 3.97), prolonged prothrombin time (PT) (OR = 1.82), fibrinogen (OR = 3.14), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (OR = 1.60), procalcitonin (OR = 4.76), IL-6 (OR = 2.10), and IL-10 (OR = 4.93) had higher odds of progression to severe phenotype.
32836394 The laboratory results were compatible with a viral infection except for a slightly elevated procalcitonin level.
32838230 The commonest laboratory abnormalities were raised CRP or procalcitonin (54.0%), lymphopenia (34.2%) and elevated transaminases (16.0%).
32838352 The severity and outcome of COVID-19 cases has been associated with the percentage of circulating lymphocytes (LYM%), levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT), lactic acid (LA), and viral load (ORF1ab Ct).
32840917 The concentrations of serum urea, Uric Acid (UA), Creatinine (CREA), Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and urine protein (Pro) have been tested in this study.
32846825 Moreover, higher plasma levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), alanine aminotransferase (ALA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), creatinine (CREA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were detected in the ICU group.
32850917 Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of COVID-19-related AKI associated with COVID-19 clinical classification (OR = 8.155, 95% CI = 1.848-35.983, ref = non-critical, p = 0.06), procalcitonin more than 0.1 ng/mL (OR = 4.822, 95% CI = 1.095-21.228, p = 0.037), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (OR = 13.451, 95% CI = 1.617-111.891, p = 0.016). […] The potential risk factors of COVID-19 clinical classification, procalcitonin more than 0.1 ng/mL, and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 could help clinicians to identify patients with kidney injury at an early stage.
32852338 In addition, patients receiving famotidine displayed lower levels of serum markers for severe disease including lower median peak C-reactive protein levels (9.4 vs 12.7 mg/dL, P = 0.002), lower median procalcitonin levels (0.16 vs 0.30 ng/mL, P = 0.004), and a nonsignificant trend to lower median mean ferritin levels (797.5 vs 964.0 ng/mL, P = 0.076).
32854750 Within 24 h of admission, the critically ill patients showed higher concentrations of inflammatory markers including serum soluble interleukin (IL)-2 receptor, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), ferritin, procalcitonin, LDH, hsCRP, and hsCRP/L than patients with severe or moderate disease. […] Compared with female patients, male cases showed higher serum concentrations of soluble IL-2R, IL-6, ferritin, procalcitonin, LDH, and hsCRP.
32858231 The initial and peak concentrations of serum troponin I (cTnI), D-dimer (D-D), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT), initial and peak neutrophil counts and initial and trough lymphocyte counts were compared between two groups.
32860457 Furthermore, increased procalcitonin (OR: 8.21, 95% CI 4.48-15.07), increased D-Dimer (OR: 5.67, 95% CI 1.45-22.16) and thrombocytopenia (OR: 3.61, 95% CI 2.62-4.97) predicted severe infection.
32861733 Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to adjust for demographics, baseline comorbidities, and laboratory parameters including D-dimer, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein.
32864456 Studies were collected until March 2020, and retrieved parameters include leukocyte, neutrophil, thrombocyte, and lymphocyte counts in addition to C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and D-dimer levels.
32865077 Patients with severe disease had significantly more prominent laboratory abnormalities, including an abnormal lymphocyte count and abnormal C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, D-dimer, and albumin levels.
32871887 The risk factors of in-hospital mortality were explored by univariable and multivariable logistic regression to construct a clinical prediction model, the prediction efficiency of which was verified by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve.A total of 118 patients (49 males and 69 females) were included in this study; the results revealed that the following factors associated with in-hospital mortality: older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.175, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.073-1.287, P = .001), neutrophil count greater than 6.3 × 10 cells/L (OR 7.174, (95% CI 2.295-22.432, P = .001), lymphocytopenia (OR 0.069, 95% CI 0.007-0.722, P = .026), prothrombin time >13 seconds (OR 11.869, 95% CI 1.433-98.278, P = .022), D-dimer >1 mg/L (OR 22.811, 95% CI 2.224-233.910, P = .008) and procalcitonin (PCT) >0.1 ng/mL (OR 23.022, 95% CI 3.108-170.532, P = .002).
32876226 Laboratory findings are nonspecific; lymphopenia, elevation of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin have been described.
32876571 Clinical and laboratory findings included myalgia or fatigue (76%), fever (64.8%), dry cough (60.8%), elevated levels of C-reactive protein (86.4%), procalcitonin (62%), and D-dimer (58.2%), increased neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (54.8%), and lymphopenia (34%).
32877961 These include markers of acute phase reaction (elevated C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell count, fibrinogen, procalcitonin, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor), signs of tissue injury (elevated lactic dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, cardiac troponins), changes in hemostasis and coagulation (elevated D-dimer, prolonged prothrombin time, decreased platelets, decreased antithrombin, elevated factor VIII and von Willebrand factor), and decreased lymphocytes.
32878654 Non-survivors tend to develop more severe lymphopaenia, with higher C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, procalcitonin, D-dimer levels and gradually increased with time.
32879082 There were 41 (57.7%), 38 (53.5%), 32 (45.1%), 26(36.6%), 22 (31.0%), 20 (28.2%), 14 (19.7%), 14 (19.7%), and 9 (12.7%) patients with the increased levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, procalcitonin, fibrinogen,interleukin 6, lactate dehydrogenase,D-dimer,alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase, respectively. […] The onset age, gender, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negative time, lymphocyte count, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, calcium ion, CD4+ T cell count, CD8+ T cell count, calcitonin, procalcitonin, and troponin were significantly different between the severe group and the non-severe group (all P<0.05).
32879107 There were 14 patients (87.5%) with normal or decreased white blood cell count, 11 patients (68.75%) with decreased lymphocyte count, 15 patients (93.75%) with increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 13 patients (81.25%) with increased hypersensitivity C-reactive protein, 5 patients (31.25%) with increased procalcitonin, and 8 patients (50%) with increased serum ferritin in peripheral blood, and stool routine was basically normal. […] Compared with the common type, there was significant difference in the white blood cell and lymphocyte counts in the severe type (P<0.01); the infection indicators, such as hypersensitivity C-reactive protein and serum ferritin, were significantly increased, with significant difference (all P<0.01); but the procalcitonin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was not significantly different (both P>0.05).
32879731 Meta-analysis of standardized mean difference (SMD) between severe and non-severe COVID-19 cases showed that CK-MB (SMD = 0.68,95%CI: 0.48;0.87; P-value:< 0.001), troponin I (SMD = 0.71, 95%CI:0.42;1.00; P-value:< 0.001), D-dimer (SMD = 0.54,95%CI:0.31;0.77; P-value:< 0.001), prothrombin time (SMD = 0.48, 95%CI:0.23;0.73; P-value: < 0.001), procalcitonin (SMD = 0.72, 95%CI: 0.34;1,11; P-value:< 0.001), interleukin-6 (SMD = 0.93, 95%CI: 0.25;1.61;P-value: 0.007),C-reactive protein (CRP) (SMD = 1.34, 95%CI:0.83;1.86; P-value:< 0.001), ALAT (SMD = 0.53, 95%CI: 0.34;0,71; P-value:< 0.001), ASAT (SMD = 0.96, 95%CI: 0.58;1.34; P-value: < 0.001), LDH (SMD = 1.36, 95%CI: 0.75;1.98; P-value:< 0.001), CK (SMD = 0.48, 95%CI: 0.10;0.87; P-value:0.01), total bilirubin (SMD = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.18;0.47;P-value: < 0.001), γ-GT (SMD = 1.03, 95%CI: 0.83;1.22; P-value: < 0.001), myoglobin (SMD = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.81;1.47; P-value:< 0.001), blood urea nitrogen (SMD = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.18;0.47;P-value:< 0.001) and Creatininemia (SMD = 0.18, 95%CI: 0.01;0.35; P-value:0.04) were significantly more elevated in severe cases, in opposition to lymphocyte count (SMD = -0.57, 95%CI:-0.71; - 0.42; P-value: < 0.001) and proportion of lymphocytes (SMD = -0.81, 95%CI: - 1.12; - 0.49; P-value:< 0.001) which were found to be significantly lower in severe patients with other biomarker such as thrombocytes (SMD = -0.26, 95%CI: - 0.48; - 0.04; P-value:0.02), eosinophils (SMD = - 0.28, 95%CI:-0.50; - 0.06; P-value:0.01), haemoglobin (SMD = -0.20, 95%CI: - 0.37,-0.03; P-value:0.02), albuminemia (SMD-1.67,95%CI -2.40; - 0.94; P-value:< 0.001), which were also lower. […] Furthermore, severe COVID-19 cases had a higher risk to have lymphopenia (RR =1.66, 95%CI: 1.26;2.20; P-value:0.002), thrombocytopenia (RR = 1.86, 95%CI: 1.59;2.17; P-value: < 0.001), elevated procalcitonin level (RR = 2.94, 95%CI: 2.09-4.15; P-value:< 0.001), CRP (RR =1.41,95%CI: 1.17-1.70; P-value:0.003), ASAT(RR =2.27, 95%CI: 1.76;2.94; P-value:< 0.001), CK(RR = 2.61, 95%CI: 1.35;5.05; P-value: 0.01), Creatininemia (RR = 3.66, 95%CI: 1.53;8.81; P-value: 0.02) and LDH blood level (RR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.42;290; P-value: 0.003). […] Some inflammatory (procalcitonin, CRP), haematologic (lymphocyte, Thrombocytes), and biochemical (CK-MB, Troponin I, D-dimer, ASAT, ALAT, LDH, γ-GT) biomarkers are significantly associated with severe COVID-19.
32882235 Laboratory tests such as complete blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, clotting tests, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, and procalcitonin identify risk of disease with greater severity, thromboembolic complications, myocardial damage, and/or worse prognosis.
32883169 CRP, procalcitonin, creatine kinase (CK) and troponin I levels on 7th day of admission were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors. […] The peak and minimum CRP, procalcitonin and levels were significantly higher in non-survivors than survivors.
32883943 Leukocyte and neutrophil counts, as well as the concentrations of NT-proBNP, hemoglobin, D-dimer, hsCRP, ferritin, IL-2R, TNF-alpha and procalcitonin were higher, whereas lymphocyte and monocyte counts were lower, in patients with than without COPD.
32913530 For example, the patients were older, and had higher levels of inflammatory indicators [i.e., levels of CRP, SAA, procalcitonin (PCT), and interleukin-6; CRP-to-PCT ratio; SAA-to-CRP ratio; and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR)], higher inflammatory cell counts (i.e., white blood cell count and neutrophil count), and lower lymphocyte counts compared with patients without ARDS.
32913691 This study aims to identify the most effective predictive biomarker such as C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), procalcitonin (PCT), and D-dimer, among others, in predicting the clinical outcome of the disease.
32916744 Laboratory examination showed increased values for LDH, pro-BNP and CRP and normal values for leucocytes and procalcitonin.
32918858 COVID-19 patients with CPAP therapy were older and had higher levels of white blood cells (WBC), procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), D-dimer, but had lymphopenia. […] The older age, tachypnea, and gastrointestinal infections showing as diarrhea, elevated ALT, and elevated white blood cells, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein were risk factors for COVID-19 inpatients with assisted ventilation.
32929124 Inflammation factors are important for COVID-19 mortality, and we aim to explore whether the baseline levels of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reaction protein (CRP) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) are associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19.
32934000 Studies having biomarkers, including lymphocyte, platelets, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C reactive protein (CRP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, procalcitonin (PCT) and creatine kinase (CK), and describing outcomes were selected with the consensus of three independent reviewers.
32935644 Procalcitonin and LDH appeared as the most accurate variables according to receiver operating characteristic curves. […] Abbreviations: COVID-19: coronavirus disease 2019; ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; DIC: disseminated intravascular coagulopathy; MOF: multi-organ failure; RT-PCR: real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; UFE: unfavorable evolution; ICU: intensive care unit; EDTA: ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid; WBC: white blood cell count; Hb: hemoglobin level; PCT: procalcitonin; Na: sodium; K: potassium; PT: total protein, CRP: c-reactive protein; Cr: creatinine; ALAT: alanine aminotransferase; ALAT: aspartate aminotransferase; TB: total bilirubin, LDH: lactate dehydrogenase, FERR: ferritin; hs-Tnt: high sensitive-troponin T; cGFR: corrected glomerular filtration rate; QR: quick ratio; DDIM: D-dimer; FIB: fibrinogen; SD: standard deviation; IQR: interquartile ranges; ROC: receiver operating characteristics; ECMO: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; NLR: neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio; AUC: area under the curve; BMI: body mass index.
32935813 A high level of procalcitonin may indicate bacterial co-infection, leading to a worse prognosis.
32946466 We hypothesized that an elevated plasma procalcitonin level (>0.1 ng/ml) would be associated with the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation. […] Demographics, comorbidities, components of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, and procalcitonin levels on admission were obtained from the electronic health record. […] A multiple linear regression was fitted to assess the association between procalcitonin levels and the duration of mechanical ventilation. […] Patients with an initial procalcitonin level >0.1 ng/ml required a significantly longer duration of mechanical ventilation than patients with a level of ≤0.1 ng/ml (p = 0.021) in the univariate analysis. […] After adjusted analysis using multivariable linear regression, the duration of mechanical ventilation was, on average, 5.6 (p = 0.016) days longer in patients with an initial procalcitonin level >0.1 ng/ml. […] In this cohort of 93 mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients, we found an association between an initial plasma procalcitonin level >0.1 ng/ml and the duration of mechanical ventilation.
32946851 Non-survivors had higher C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, IL-8 and, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, while lower lymphocyte counts as compared with those of survivors (all P<0.05).
32950045 Baseline ferritin, procalcitonin levels and CRP/albumin rates higher and neutrophil/lymphocyte levels lower in patient who died.
32950434 They also showed greater lymphopenia (p = 0.001), elevated neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (p = 0.001), C-reactive protein (p < 0.001), procalcitonin (p = 0.001), D-dimer (p < 0.001), and ferritin (p < 0.001).
32953967 Patients with QTc ≥ 500 ms were significantly older (66.7 ± 14.65 vs 76.6 ± 8.77 years p: 0.004), with higher Tisdale score (low 56 (31.8%) vs 0; intermediate 95 (54.0%) vs 14 (70.0%); high 25 (14.2%) vs 6 (30.0%); p: 0.007) and with higher prognostic lab values (d-dimer 1819 ± 2815 vs 11486 ± 38554 ng/ml p: 0.010; BNP 212.5 ± 288.4 vs 951.3 ± 816.7 pg/ml p < 0.001; procalcitonin 0.27 ± 0.74 vs 1.33 ± 4.04 ng/ml p: 0.003).
32954480 Statistically significant differences were observed in age, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) on admission (P < 0.05). […] Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the values of AUC of CRP, neutrophil count, LDH, white blood cell count, albumin, and procalcitonin were 0.895, 0.813, 0.758, 0.757, 0.743, and 0.728, respectively. […] Laboratory parameters including CRP, neutrophil count, LDH, white blood cell count, albumin, and procalcitonin were predictive on the prognosis of maintenance hemodialysis patients with COVID-19.
32954712 Late presentation with severe disease, an abnormal chest X-ray, lymphopenia, high inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, ferritin, and procalcitonin), and end organ damage (high creatinine or high aspartate aminotransferase) were predictors for admission to critical care unit or died.
32959547 Sputum production, chest discomfort, a large number of symptoms, abnormal procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels, and abnormal chest X-ray or chest computed tomography findings were more common in patients requiring supplemental oxygen than in those not requiring supplemental oxygen.
32962639 Laboratory analyses showed the lymphocytopenia in 69(83%) deaths, hypoalbuminemia in 77(93%) deaths, the elevation of lactate dehydrogenase in 79(95%) deaths, procalcitonin in 69(83%) deaths and C-reactive protein in 79(95%) deaths.
32966166 Introduction: Procalcitonin (PCT) is an emerging prognostic marker in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32969605 Ten independent risk factors associated with cardiovascular complications were identified in training set: male (odds ratio [OR]: 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18, 2.85), age ≥ 60 years old (OR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.3, 3.2), cough (OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.16, 3), chronic heart disease (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.19, 4.46), lymphocyte count ≤1.1 × 109 /L at admission (OR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.47), blood urea nitrogen ≥7 mmol/L at admission (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.27, 3.62), estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤90 ml/min/1.73 m2 at admission (OR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.13, 3.83), activated partial thromboplastin time ≥37 s (OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.37, 6.86), D-dimer ≥ 0.5 mg/L (OR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.33, 3.36) and procalcitonin ≥0.5 μg/L (OR: 3.58; 95% CI: 1.40, 9.14).
32970246 In multivariable analysis, older age, admission respiratory status including elevated respiratory rate and oxygen saturation ≤ 88%, and initial laboratory derangements of creatinine > 1.33 mg/dL, alanine aminotransferase > 40 U/L, procalcitonin > 0.5 ng/mL, and lactic acid ≥ 2 mmol/L increased risk of in-hospital death. […] Older age, low oxygen saturation and elevated respiratory rate on admission, and initial lab derangements including renal and hepatic dysfunction and elevated procalcitonin and lactic acid are risk factors for in-hospital death.
32970757 On admission, lymphopenia, decreased albumin, and elevated fibrinogen, lactate dehydrogenase, transaminases, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were observed in Group S.
32977223 In COVID-19 patients, elevated procalcitonin was associated with a higher risk of death.
32983157 In the late stage of COVID-19, severe cases had extremely low CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, but unusually high neutrophils [6.5 × 109/L (IQR, 4.8-9.6)], procalcitonin [0.27 ng/mL (IQR, 0.14-1.94)], C-reactive protein [66 mg/L (IQR, 25-114)] and an extremely high level of interleukin-6.
32986475 Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia had lower levels of abnormal laboratory parameters (white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, procalcitonin level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level) and more extensive radiographic involvement.
32990479 Biomarkers including CRP, ferritin, D-dimer and procalcitonin may provide early clues about progression to CRS and help identify thrombotic and infectious complications of COVID-19.
32999777 Procalcitonin (PCT) was significantly associated with invasive ventilation as opposed to the non-invasive group.
33002740 Data on demographic and clinical characteristics, and laboratory values of CRP, ferritin, d-dimer and procalcitonin were measured on admission.
33019984 Patients with severe infection had significantly higher ferritin (median 1163.0 vs 624.0 ng/mL, p < 0.01), procalcitonin (median 0.8 vs 0.2 ng/mL, p < 0.01), and C-reactive protein (median 142.0 vs 62.3 mg/L, p = 0.02) levels compared to those with moderate infection. […] The inflammatory markers ferritin, procalcitonin, and CRP were associated with COVID-19 severity in gynecologic cancer patients and may be used as prognostic markers at the time of admission.
33024082 Following CP transfusion, six out of eight patients showed improved oxygen support status; chest CT indicated varying degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions in six patients within 8 days; the viral load was decreased to a negative level in five patients who had the previous viremia; other laboratory parameters also tended to improve, including increased lymphocyte counts, decreased C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and indicators for liver function.
33029089 Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were generated to explore the relationship between procalcitonin (PCT) level and the progression and prognosis of COVID-19.
33040051 However, patients with comorbid CVD had higher levels of Interleukin-10 (22.22% vs 0%, P=0.034), procalcitonin (22.6% vs 3.13%, P<0.001), high-sensitivity troponin I (20 pg/mL vs 16.05 pg/mL, P=0.019), and lactic dehydrogenase (437 U/L vs 310 U/L, P=0.015).
33041972 Both groups had similar D-dimer levels although other acute phase reactants/disease severity markers (Ferritin, CRP, procalcitonin) were higher in the LVO group.
33044171 The relationship of these VCs with disease symptoms (fever, cough, shortness of breath), comorbid conditions (diabetes, hypertension, asthma), smoking habit, disease-specific laboratory changes (white blood cell-lymphocyte count, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein [CRP], D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], ferritin, procalcitonin), lung parenchymal infiltration pattern (ground-glass opacity, crazy-paving pattern, consolidation) and its distribution (peripheral, central, mixed, upper lobes, lower lobes, right middle lobe) on CT were investigated by comparison of these variables between patients with and without VCs in chest CT.
33048116 Laboratory findings based on 75 deceased and 357 discharged patients revealed that, at the acute stage, fatality could be predicted by older age and abnormal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, lymphocyte count, and procalcitonin (PCT) level.
33049563 As a result, various inflammatory markers have been reported to be closely associated with this infection such as C-reactive proteins, interleukin-6, procalcitonin and ferritin.