DrugBank ID: db09140
DrugCentral: oxygen
Synonymous :dioxygen | molecular oxygen | oxigeno gaseoso | oxygen usp | pure oxygen

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of oxygen gene in 1538 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32031570 Of the 36 cases in the ICU, 4 (11.1%) received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 (41.7%) received noninvasive ventilation, and 17 (47.2%) received invasive ventilation (4 were switched to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation).
32053470 Patients with severe respiratory distress and/ or oxygen requirement at any time during the disease course were excluded.
32096367 Conservative oxygen therapy was preferred and noninvasive ventilation was not recommended.
32105680 Principles of management of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy include early isolation, aggressive infection control procedures, oxygen therapy, avoidance of fluid overload, consideration of empiric antibiotics (secondary to bacterial infection risk), laboratory testing for the virus and coinfection, fetal and uterine contraction monitoring, early mechanical ventilation for progressive respiratory failure, individualized delivery planning, and a team-based approach with multispecialty consultations.
32112884 Fever, cough and expectoration were the most common symptoms, 14 patients had decreased oxygen saturation, 33 had leukopenia, 53 had lymphopenia, and 82 had elevated C-reactive protein.
32125362 Clinical course was summarized, including requirement for supplemental oxygen and intensive care and use of empirical treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir. […] Six individuals (33%) required supplemental oxygen; of these, 2 required intensive care. […] Five individuals requiring supplemental oxygen were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir. […] For 3 of the 5 patients, fever resolved and supplemental oxygen requirement was reduced within 3 days, whereas 2 deteriorated with progressive respiratory failure. […] Some patients required supplemental oxygen and had variable clinical outcomes following treatment with an antiretroviral agent.
32171866 The Lopinavir and Ritonavir Tablets, Chinese medicine, oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation were statistically different in the elderly group and the young and middle-aged group, and the P values were all <0.05.
32173725 Refractory COVID-19 patients were more likely to receive oxygen, mechanical ventilation, expectorant, and adjunctive treatment including corticosteroid, antiviral drugs and immune enhancer (P<0.05). […] After adjustment, those with refractory COVID-19 were also more likely to have a male sex and manifestations of anorexia and fever on admission, and receive oxygen, expectorant and adjunctive agents (P<0.05) when considering the factors of disease severity on admission, mechanical ventilation, and ICU transfer.
32186172 Close monitoring of oxygenation, reducing patients’ oxygen consumption, active psychological intervention, and rapidly dealing with severe hypoxemia events are the key factors for the successful treatment of NIV.
32187464 We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label trial involving hospitalized adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, which causes the respiratory illness Covid-19, and an oxygen saturation (Sao2) of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or a ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) of less than 300 mm Hg.
32195704 So far, actions have been taken including but not limited to nationwide actions and online education regarding special procedures of airway management, oxygen therapy, ventilation support, hemodynamic management, sedation, and analgesia.
32195705 Timely, but not premature, intubation is crucial to counter a progressively enlarging oxygen debt despite high-flow oxygen therapy and bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation.
32196707 All patients were given antiviral therapy (including oseltamivir), oxygen inhalation, and antibiotics.
32202343 Suggested treatment included providing oxygen, inhalations, nutritional support and maintaining fluids and electrolyte balances.
32204751 Approaching to treat severe respiratory disease in infants and children, the risks related to the development of atelectasis starting invasive or non-invasive ventilation support and the risk of oxygen toxicity must be taken into serious consideration.
32209890 The blood oxygen saturation was significantly lower in the death group (85 [77, 91]% vs. […] Compared to the recovered group, more patients in the death group exhibited characteristics of advanced age, pre-existing comorbidities, dyspnea, oxygen saturation decrease, increased WBC count, decreased lymphocytes, and elevated CRP levels.
32216961 Data were gathered regarding the presence of chest computed tomography (CT) abnormalities; the distribution, morphology, density, location, and stage of abnormal shadows on chest CT; and observing the correlation between the severity of chest infection and lymphocyte ratio and blood oxygen saturation (SPO2) in patients.
32220650 All children received interferon alfa by aerosolisation twice a day, 14 (39%) received lopinavir-ritonavir syrup twice a day, and six (17%) needed oxygen inhalation.
32221973 In particular, we describe key elements of clinical management, including: safe oxygen therapy; airway management; personal protective equipment; and non-technical aspects of caring for patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019.
32226287 Four patients required oxygen therapy but none of them needed machinal ventilation.
32226695 Both COVID-19 and HAPE exhibit a decreased ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen with concomitant hypoxia and tachypnea.
32228825 One of the COVID-19 treatments involves inhaling a mixture of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen, obtaining better results than with oxygen alone. […] In addition, germicidal UV radiation “breaks down” the oxygen O2 which then aggregate into O3 (ozone) molecules creating the ozone layer, capable of inhibiting viral replication and improving lung respiration.
32232685 Most of the critically ill patients received high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy.
32234250 Forty-nine patients with COVID-19 requiring supplementary oxygen before surgery had spinal anaesthesia (ropivacaine 0.75%), chiefly for Caesarean section (45/49 [91%]).
32239757 During our preparedness for the COVID-19 pandemic we identified that our GE Healthcare anaesthetic machines (GE Healthcare, Amersham Place, Little Chalfont, UK) had a ventilator which was gas-driven, using oxygen. […] This resulted in a large amount of wasted oxygen.
32242348 Six patients (21.4%) required supplemental oxygen therapy, but no one needed mechanical ventilation.
32246843 One of the key decisions faced by healthcare systems is in selecting the appropriate devices for oxygen administration. […] The use of high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) in COVID-19 is the subject of much debate, relating to the benefits and harms that may result for patients and healthcare workers alike.
32248146 Healthcare workers are at high risk of contracting the infection particularly when applying respiratory devices such as oxygen cannulas or noninvasive ventilation.
32248675 Only one of the survivors (14%) still required oxygen at 28 days.
32259129 Furthermore, the drug could decrease neutrophil-generated reactive oxygen species during inflammation.
32259899 However some individuals develop a more fulminant syndrome including viral pneumonia, respiratory failure requiring oxygen, acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation, and in substantial fractions leading to death attributable to COVID-19.
32267987 In worldwide, the incubation period of COVID-19 was 3 to 7 days and approximately 80% of infections are mild or asymptomatic, 15% are severe, requiring oxygen, and 5% are critical infections, requiring ventilation.
32268019 We applied HFNC for oxygen therapy in severe and critical COVID-19 patients and summarized the following experiences. […] Thirdly, to avoid hypoxia or hypoxemia, the treatment goal of HFNC should be maintained the oxygen saturation (SpO2) above 95% for patients without chronic pulmonary disease.
32271454 Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis demonstrated that the biological processes altered within the body after taking MXSGD were closely related to the regulation of such processes as the acute inflammatory response, chemokine production, vascular permeability, response to oxygen radicals, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, T cell differentiation involved in the immune response, immunoglobulin secretion, and extracellular matrix disassembly.
32275753 Levels of their lung lesions, oxygen saturation and heart rates were compared before and after treatment by CT scanning images and patient monitor. […] Improvements of oxygen saturation were observed in 6 clinically severe patients. […] In the 2 patients with critical conditions, the oxygen levels have significantly increased from 79-82% to 91% just about 1 hour after the first inhalation.
32275812 Patients were those with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who had an oxygen saturation of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or who were receiving oxygen support. […] During a median follow-up of 18 days, 36 patients (68%) had an improvement in oxygen-support class, including 17 of 30 patients (57%) receiving mechanical ventilation who were extubated.
32279418 Initial symptoms were fatigue, dry cough and coryza; she never had fever nor oxygen supplementation.
32286679 A significant number of patients with pneumonia require passive oxygen therapy. […] Non-invasive ventilation and high-flow nasal oxygen therapy can be applied in mild and moderate non-hypercapnia cases.
32289472 Management is predominantly focused on the provision of supportive care, with oxygen therapy representing the major treatment intervention.
32290644 One patient required supplemental oxygen.
32292626 The COS-COVID includes one outcome for the mild type (time to 2019-nCoV reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negativity), four outcomes for the ordinary type (length of hospital stay, composite events, score of clinical symptoms, and time to 2019-nCoV RT-PCR negativity), five outcomes for the severe type (composite events, length of hospital stay, arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), duration of mechanical ventilation, and time to 2019-nCoV RT-PCR negativity), one outcome for critical type (all-cause mortality), and one outcome for rehabilitation period (pulmonary function).
32292634 This consensus included nursing assessment, nursing priorities, nursing goals, and thirteen key points of nursing procedures such as nursing of oxygen therapy and respiratory nursing.
32292847 Fulminant myocarditis due to direct viral infection can certainly occur, but patients with increased oxygen demands due to tachycardia and fever, and reduced oxygen delivery due to hypotension and hypoxemia can cause myocardial injury indirectly.
32292866 This latter stage is characterized by the development of progressive lung involvement with increasing oxygen requirements and occasionally signs of the haemophagocitic syndrome.
32292903 Of the other 29 (67.4%) patients who presented with symptomatic COVID-19 infection, three women ultimately required antenatal admission for viral symptoms, and an additional patient represented six days postpartum after a successful labor induction with worsening respiratory status that required oxygen supplementation.
32293020 Based on the evidence to date, there are several treatment options to consider for the relief of fever (acetaminophen, NSAID, oral glucocorticoids), cough (morphine), breathlessness (morphine, oxygen, fan), anxiety (benzodiazepines) and pain (NSAID, morphine).
32294289 The definition of severe COVID-19 was the presence of at least one of following: respiratory rate ≥30 breaths /min; arterial oxygen saturation ≤93% at rest; PaO2/FiO2 ≤300 mmHg.
32298146 The protocols developed focused on clinical decisions regarding intubation, the use of high-flow oxygen, engagement with infectious disease consultants, and cardiac arrest.
32301647 Clinical parameters included demographics, comorbidities, symptoms and symptom duration, oxygen saturation and laboratory values.
32302459 During viral outbreaks, pregnancy poses a uniquely increased risk to women due to changes to immune function, alongside physiological adaptive alterations, such as increased oxygen consumption and edema of the respiratory tract.
32307151 While most people with COVID-19 develop only mild or uncomplicated illness, approximately 14% develop severe disease that requires hospitalization and oxygen support, and 5% require admission to an intensive care unit. […] The document provides clinical recommendations for the noninvasive respiratory support (noninvasive ventilation, high flow oxygen therapy with nasal cannula) in any patient with suspected or confirmed presentation of COVID-19 with acute respiratory failure.
32307265 Ventilation must be optimized during the procedure, to limit patient oxygen desaturation.
32312600 While most people with COVID-19 develop only mild or uncomplicated illness, approximately 14% develop severe disease that requires hospitalization and oxygen support, and 5% require admission to an intensive care unit. […] The document provides clinical recommendations for the noninvasive respiratory support (noninvasive ventilation, high flow oxygen therapy with nasal cannula) in any patient with suspected or confirmed presentation of COVID-19 with acute respiratory failure.
32313660 In addition to supportive treatment, such as oxygen supply in moderate cases and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in critically ill patients, unique medications for this condition are also under investigation.
32315386 Despite active treatment, he deteriorated with oxygen desaturation and tachypnoea.
32319118 Both patients developed interstitial pneumonia characterized by fever, cough, and anorexia and associated with elevation of CRP and ferritin, but have never required oxygen ventilation or intensive care.
32319424 Key messages include that supplemental oxygen is a first essential step for the treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with hypoxemia and should be a primary focus in resource-limited settings where capacity for invasive ventilation is limited. […] Oxygen delivery can be increased by using a non-rebreathing mask and prone positioning.
32320003 At triage, 30.7% of patients were febrile, 17.3% had a respiratory rate greater than 24 breaths/minute, and 27.8% received supplemental oxygen.
32320506 Proning has become a standard treatment in the management of patients with ARDS who have difficulty achieving adequate oxygen saturation. […] After application of supplemental oxygen was given to patients on room air it was 84% (IQR 75 to 90). […] Thirteen patients (24%) failed to improve or maintain their oxygen saturations and required endotracheal intubation within 24 hours of arrival to the ED. […] Awake early self-proning in the emergency department demonstrated improved oxygen saturation in our COVID-19 positive patients.
32321232 He developed irreversible respiratory failure with hypoxia without hypercapnia despite substantial oxygen support.
32322478 No published treatment to date has been shown to adequately control the inflammation and respiratory symptoms associated with COVID-19, apart from oxygen therapy and assisted ventilation.
32323287 Oxygen insufflation, high-flow oxygen, non-invasive ventilation and invasive ventilation with special consideration of infectious aerosol formation4. […] This distinction can be taken into consideration in the differential instrumentation in the therapy of ARI.The assessment of the extent of ARI should be carried out by an arterial or capillary blood gas analysis under room air conditions and must include the calculation of the oxygen supply (measured from the variables of oxygen saturation, the Hb value, the corrected values of the Hüfner number and the cardiac output). […] A significant proportion of patients with respiratory failure presents with relevant hypoxemia, often also caused by a high inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) including NHF, and this hypoxemia cannot be not completely corrected. […] If CPAP/NIV leads to further progression of ARI, intubation and subsequent invasive ventilation should be carried out without delay if no DNI order is in place.In the case of patients in whom invasive ventilation, after exhausting all guideline-based measures, is not sufficient, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation procedure (ECMO) should be considered to ensure sufficient oxygen supply and to remove CO2.
32327405 We explore the evidence base for COVID-19-specific recommendations and exercise interventions to ‘precondition’ patients prior to infection and appraise the role of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) as a risk-stratifying triage tool.
32331217 A precocious respiratory support with non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen should be avoided to limit the droplets’ air-dispersion and the healthcare workers’ contamination.
32333024 Modern transport ventilators are mainly for bridging purposes as they can only be used with 100% oxygen in contaminated surroundings.
32335281 This brief article discusses the therapeutic potential of glycyrrhizin for the treatment of COVID-19 from the perspective of its pharmacological action, including binding angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), downregulating proinflammatory cytokines, inhibiting the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting thrombin, inhibiting the hyperproduction of airway exudates, and inducing endogenous interferon.
32335366 Also, it reduces oxygen consumption in tissues and causes the use of glucose in the aerobic pathway, thereby reducing lactate production.
32336563 While most people with COVID-19 develop only mild or uncomplicated illness, approximately 14% develop severe disease that requires hospitalization and oxygen support, and 5% require admission to an intensive care unit. […] The document provides clinical recommendations for the noninvasive respiratory support (noninvasive ventilation, high flow oxygen therapy with nasal cannula) in any patient with suspected or confirmed presentation of COVID-19 with acute respiratory failure.
32338224 It is well known that ANG II via activation of the AT1R promotes detrimental effects on the host, such as, vasoconstriction, reactive oxygen species generation, inflammation and matrix remodelling [38].
32338347 An early intubation is preferred over non-invasive ventilation or heated, humidified, high flow nasal cannula oxygen, as these may generate aerosols increasing the risk of infection in health care personnel.
32338605 In some cases, this develops into a life-threatening condition whereby the lungs cannot provide the body’s vital organs with enough oxygen.
32339382 Pneumonia was diagnosed in 19/42 (45.2%, 95% CI 29.8-61.3) cases: of these, 7/19 (36.8%, 95% CI 16.3-61.6) required oxygen support and 4/19 (21.1%, 95% CI 6.1-45.6) were admitted to a critical care unit.
32342479 Of the 43 severely ill patients, 6 (14%) received high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, and 1 (2.3%) received invasive mechanical ventilation.
32344011 While the clinical status, in particular peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels, and concurrent comorbidities of COVID-19 patients largely determine the need for their admittance to ICUs, several laboratory parameters may facilitate the assessment of disease severity.
32344310 Alternate treatment strategies utilizing clinically available treatments such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusions, or erthropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy were hypothesized to increase oxygenation of tissues by alternative means than standard respiratory and ventilator treatments. […] It was also revealed that alternative treatments currently being considered for COVID-19 such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine by increasing hemoglobin production and increasing hemoglobin availability for oxygen binding and acetazolamine (for the treatment of altitude sickness) by causing hyperventilation with associated increasing levels of oxygen and decreasing levels of carbon dioxide in the blood may significantly ameliorate COVID-19 respiratory symptoms.
32344313 Despite the immense and ongoing global effort, no efficacious drugs to fight this plague have been identified and patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICU), for respiratory distress, are managed mostly by means of supportive care based on oxygen maintenance.
32344456 These recommendations focus on seven specific domains including: planning of resources and staffing; modifying the clinical environment; preparing equipment, supplies and drugs; selecting appropriate personal protective equipment; providing adequate oxygen therapy; assessing for and safely performing regional anaesthesia procedures; and monitoring during the conduct of anaesthesia and post-anaesthetic care.
  1. Oxygen saturation ≤93%.
32347747 Viruses induce an explosion of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, and melatonin is the best natural antioxidant that is lost with age.
32350134 Within 5 d after tocilizumab, 15 of the 20 patients (75.0%) had lowered their oxygen intake, and 1 patient needed no oxygen therapy.
32350543 Home respirators are turbine respirators, so they can usually be operated without high-pressure oxygen connections and can therefore also be used in areas outside the classical intensive care medical infrastructure.
32352224 First, patients with chronic liver disease may be more vulnerable to the severe clinical consequences of COVID-19, including oxygen desaturation and hypoxemia due to severe pneumonia or the cytokine storm 1;2 .
32352401 Low oxygen saturation was present in 38% of patients, whilst 31% were hypotensive on admission.
32353223 Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22; P = 0.004) and hypertension (OR, 6.15; 95% CI, 1.75-29.11; P = 0.009) were associated with mortality, while early improvement in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio was associated with being discharged alive from the ICU (P = 0.002 for interaction).
32354369 We provided oxygen supply to him using BIPAP ventilator and high-flow humidification oxygen therapy instrument to facilitate respiration.
32354634 During a median follow-up of seven days, 87% experienced a radiological progression and among those 73% required escalation of oxygen therapy. […] These preliminary findings describe a rapid clinical deterioration associated with chest radiographic deterioration and escalating oxygen requirement in renal transplant recipients with SARS-Cov2 pneumonia.
32356672 In addition to oxygen saturation for severity classification, stethoscope, chest X-ray and lung computer tomography are routinely used.
32356900 Early intubation should be considered to prevent the additional risk to staff of emergency intubation and to avoid prolonged use of high flow nasal oxygen or non-invasive ventilation.
32358406 The patients continued to be given oxygen by mask and received antitussive, phlegm-dispelling treatment.
32359035 The ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen (Pa02) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (Fi02) improved (mean±SD Pa02/Fi02 at admission: 152±53; at day 7: 283.73±115.9, at day 14: 302.2±126, p<0.05).
32360083 The paper describes the critical role of the oxygen affinity in hypoxemic COVID-19 patients and the potential positive effect of 5-HMF, a compound shown to increase the Hb-O2 affinity.
32361723 The laboratory model developed with age, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2), neutrophil and lymphocyte count, D-dimer, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) had a significantly stronger discriminatory power than the clinical model (p=0.0157), with AUC of 0.98 (95% CI, 0.92-0.99); threshold, -2.998; sensitivity, 100.00%; specificity, 92.82% and NPV, 100.00%.
32362344 ARDS was defined as an oxygenation index (arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen) ≤300 mm Hg.
32363221 This may progress on to respiratory distress, hypoxia, need for oxygen supplementation and ventilator support as seen in patients in the SARS-CoV-1 epidemic (2003) in Guangdong, China.
32363336 We suggest an echocardiogram in pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia, in particular those necessitating oxygen, or those who are critically ill, and we recommend the use of handheld, point-of-care devices where possible to minimize contamination of staff and traditional large echocardiogram machines.
32366580 We also discuss oxygen support modalities, proning, safe working practices and a new approach to multi-professional working.
32368483 His oxygen saturation improved drastically and eventually was taken off of nasal cannula and discharged within span of one day of proning.
32369205 The risk factors for the requirement of oxygen support in mild COVID-19 were explored using multivariate logistic regression. […] A total of 344 patients with mild COVID-19 were included in the final analysis, 45 of whom progressed and needed high-flow oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation after admission. […] In conclusion, two models comprised common symptoms (fever and sputum), underlying diseases (diabetes and coronary heart disease) and blood routine test are developed for predicting the future requirement of oxygen support in mild COVID-19 cases.
32371066 Wards and rooms must be carefully checked to ensure an ample supply of medical air and oxygen.
32371823 She was easily extubated and transferred to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) with oxygen saturation (SpO2) of 96%. […] About 30 minutes after arrival in the PACU, she developed dyspnea with SpO2 of 84% and promptly received oxygen with bilevel positive airway pressure in conjunction with low-dose corticosteroid.
32373789 Various modifications were put in place during the awake tracheal intubation and surgical tracheostomy procedures to minimise aerosol generation from the patient, such as avoiding high-flow nasal oxygen, establishing conscious sedation with remifentanil before commencing airway topicalisation and avoiding transtracheal local anaesthetic infiltration.
32374538 Diagnosis is based on PCR from a nasopharyngeal swab and emergency treatment rely on oxygen therapy.
32375488 We summarise the evidence existing in the literature of oxygen and positive pressure treatments in patients at different stages of respiratory failure and over the course of the disease, including environment and ethical issues related to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 infection.
32376101 A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 140 patients with moderate to critical COVID-19-associated pneumonia requiring oxygen supplementation admitted to the hospital from January 28, 2020, through February 28, 2020, and followed up through March 13, 2020, in Union Hospital, Wuhan, China. […] Oxygen saturation (SpO2) and other measures were tested as predictors of in-hospital mortality in survival analysis. […] Higher SpO2 levels after oxygen supplementation were associated with reduced mortality independently of age and sex (hazard ratio per 1-U SpO2, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.91 to 0.95; P<.001).
32378314 The patient clinically improved with decreasing oxygen requirements and was discharged home.
32378774 Among 42 affected women, 19 developed pneumonia, of whom seven required oxygen and four critical care.
32379955 Hydroxychloroquine-treated patients were more severely ill at baseline than those who did not receive hydroxychloroquine (median ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen, 223 vs. 
32380026 On admission, 78 (78%) required oxygen supplementation.
32380908 Overall, after one treatment, patients’ clinical status and oxygenation improved with an average pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) increase of 192% (P < 0.001).
32387014 Our hypothesis is that CPZ could decrease the unfavorable evolution of COVID-19 infection in oxygen-requiring patients without the need for intensive care, but also reduce the contagiousness of SARS-CoV-2.
32387320 Patients with TCZ (n=20) had a higher Charlson comorbidity index (5.3 [±2.4] vs 3.4 [±2.6], P=0.014), presented with more severe forms (higher level of oxygen therapy at 13L/min vs 6L/min, P<0.001), and had poorer biological findings (severe lymphopenia: 676/mm3 vs 914/mm3, P=0.037 and higher CRP level: 158mg/L vs 105mg/L, P=0.017) than patients without TCZ (n=25).
32387333 Paranasal sinuses continually produce nitric oxide (NO), a reactive oxygen species that diffuses to the bronchi and lungs to produce bronchodilatory and vasodilatory effects.
32391519 Severe infection was defined according to published criteria by patient reported dyspnea, respiratory rate > 30 per minute, blood oxygen saturation ≤ 93% on room air, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen <300 and/or lung infiltrates >50% within 24 to 48 hours on chest imaging. […] Secondary outcomes included need for supplemental oxygen, intubation, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrest, death, and timing of delivery.
32391657 For severe and critical ill cases, the oxygen therapy, antiviral drugs, antibacterial drugs, glucocorticoids, mechanical ventilation or even extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be adopted, and the treatment plan should be adjusted timely through multi-disciplinary cooperation.
32391658 Conservative oxygen therapy was preferred and noninvasive ventilation was not recommended.
32391670 We applied HFNC for oxygen therapy in severe and critical ill COVID-19 patients and summarized the following experiences. […] Thirdly, to avoid hypoxia or hypoxemia, the treatment goal of HFNC should be maintained the oxygen saturation (SpO2) above 95% for patients without chronic pulmonary disease.
32391671 All patients were treated with antiviral, antitussive, oxygen inhalation; case 3 received glucocorticoids, case 2 with severe illness received glucocorticoids and additionally gamma globulin.
32392389 Two patients required intubation for hypoxemic respiratory failure, whereas one required significant supplemental oxygen.
32395418 Current clinical management includes infection prevention and control measures and supportive care including supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilatory support.
32398183 Her vital signs include T 38.3° C, HR 108, BP 118/70 mm Hg, RR 26 breaths per minute, and oxygen saturation 67% on room air.
32400074 The first patient always maintained excellent oxygen saturation throughout hospitalization with no need for additional oxygen therapy.
32401359 Both patients were treated with anti-viral, antibiotics, oxygen treatment and supportive care and recovered from severe pneumonia.
32402088 Finally, we discuss measures to implement augmented care in care homes, including treatment with oxygen and subcutaneous fluids, and the frameworks which will be required if these are to be sustainable.
32404787 Only one of them needed oxygen; the others were hospitalized for surveillance but did not need specific care.
32405160 This study aims to evaluate if tocilizumab, an anti-soluble IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, reduces patients’ mortality. 85 consecutive patients admitted to the Montichiari Hospital (Italy) with COVID-19 related pneumonia and respiratory failure, not needing mechanical ventilation, were included if satisfying at least one among: respiratory rate ≥ 30 breaths/min, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation ≤ 93% or PaO2/FiO2<=300 mmHg.
32405226 Artemisinins can regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), promote cell cycle arrest, drive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and induce Bak or Bax-dependent or independent apoptosis.
32405411 Management is supportive with oxygen supplementation, broad-spectrum antibiotics as well as careful fluid balancing.
32405454 The patient is still under ventilator with a Fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) of 60% and Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of eight.
32407959 This prospective (compassionate), open-label study of remdesivir, which was conducted at Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy, between February 23 and March 20, 2020, involved patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia aged ≥18 years undergoing mechanical ventilation or with an oxygen saturation level of ≤94 % in air or a National Early Warning Score 2 of ≥4.
32408155 On the intensive care unit, non-invasive ventilation was used to provide oxygen and ventilation support regularly.
32409443 The management of patients with COVID-19-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome focuses on identifying the causes for respiratory failure and on following best practices for supportive care with oxygen supplementation and mechanical ventilation.
32409486 To assess the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine in patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pneumonia who require oxygen. […] Four French tertiary care centres providing care to patients with covid-19 pneumonia between 12 March and 31 March 2020. 181 patients aged 18-80 years with documented severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia who required oxygen but not intensive care. […] Secondary outcomes were overall survival, survival without acute respiratory distress syndrome, weaning from oxygen, and discharge from hospital to home or rehabilitation (all at day 21). […] At day 21, 82% of patients in the treatment group had been weaned from oxygen compared with 76% in the control group (weighted risk ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.3). […] However, the results of this study do not support its use in patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 who require oxygen.
32412511 Although artificial ventilator is one of the last resources for the most severely ill patients, there are patients who are on the verge of not meeting the criteria for intubation; if they are directly intubated, the opportunity for them to overcome the severe phase with high concentration supplemental oxygen would be be missed.
32412515 Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and high-flow oxygen therapy are not recommended due to the generation of aerosol (associated with risk of viral spread among health personnel), and neither is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or the use of steroids.
32412544 Benzylidenechromanones, naturally occurring oxygen heterocyclic compounds, having capability to inhibit various protein and receptors, have been designed here to block mutant variety of coronavirus main protease enzyme (SARC-CoV-2 Mpro) isolated from 2019-nCoV with the assistance of molecular docking, bioinformatics and molecular electrostatic potential. (Z)-3-(4’-chlorobenzylidene)-thiochroman-4-one showed highest binding affinity to the protein.
32412891 COVID-19 positive patients (n=5) at a single institution received hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) between 13 and 20 April 2020. […] All the patients had tachypnoea and low oxygen saturation despite receiving high FiO2. […] Following HBOT, oxygen saturation increased, tachypnoea resolved and inflammatory markers fell.
32423368 Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified age, sex, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, history of diabetes, and shortness of breath as factors predictive of intubation.
32423584 Eligible patients were adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, with an interval from symptom onset to enrolment of 12 days or less, oxygen saturation of 94% or less on room air or a ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen of 300 mm Hg or less, and radiologically confirmed pneumonia.
32423911 On presentation he was hypoxaemic, with an SpO2 of 88% on 15 L/min oxygen, tachycardic and had no audible breath sounds on auscultation of the left hemithorax.
32425184 In this setting, myocardial injury is mainly secondary to type 2 myocardial infarction (mismatch in myocardial oxygen supply and demand during respiratory failure); other causes include myocarditis, coronary thrombosis, sepsis or septic shock.
  1. Provide supplemental oxygen following usual treatment principles for hypoxic respiratory failure. […] (3) High flow nasal oxygen is preferred for patients with higher oxygen support requirements.
32427774 This is a case-series of five COVID-19 positive patients who demonstrated severe hypoxemia, declining respiratory performance, and escalating oxygen requirements. […] Patients met the following criteria: COVID-19 positivity, worsening respiratory performance, severe hypoxemia (PaO2<80) despite traditional supportive measures, escalating supplemental oxygen requirements and D-dimer greater than 1.5μg/mL. […] These patients each required significant oxygen supplementation trending toward intubation. […] Administration of thrombolytics was followed by overall improvement in patients’ oxygen requirements, and in three cases, prevented progression to mechanical ventilation, without deleterious effects.
32428957 Recovery of the female patient under conventional oxygen therapy.
32429235 Emerging evidence suggests that AMPK facilitates central and peripheral reflexes that coordinate breathing and oxygen supply, and contributes to the central regulation of feeding and food choice. […] We propose, therefore, that oxygen supply to the body is aligned with not only the quantity we eat, but also nutrient-based diet selection, and that the cell-specific expression pattern of AMPK subunit isoforms is critical to appropriate system alignment in this respect. […] Currently available information on how oxygen supply may be aligned with feeding and food choice, or vice versa, through our motivation to breathe and select particular nutrients is sparse, fragmented and lacks any integrated understanding.
32431134 Remodelled tasks in charge of RPTs were: oxygen therapy daily monitoring, non invasive ventilation (NIV) and continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) delivery, pronation and postural changes to improve oxygenation, reconditioning with leg/arm cranking and exercises, initial and final patients’ functional assessment by short-physical performance battery (SPPB) and 1-minute sit-to-stand test (1-STS) to evaluate motor conditions and exercise-induced oxygen desaturation. […] Three “what-to-do” algorithms were developed to guide: i) oxygen de-escalation by reducing inhaled fraction of oxygen (FiO2); ii) oxygenation improvement through the use of Venturi mask; iii) reconditioning and physical activity. […] As main topics, RPTs have been involved in oxygen therapy management in almost a third of the admitted patients, reconditioning exercises in 60% of the cases, and initial and final functional motor capacity assessment in all patients.
32432162 Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of STEMI in COVID-19 patients has not been clearly established, we hypothesize that interrelated pathogenetic factors, that we highlight in this report, can play a role in the development of STEMI, including plaque rupture secondary to systemic inflammation, increased pro-coagulants, endothelial dysfunction, impaired fibrinolysis and impaired oxygen utilization leading to demand/supply mismatch and myocardial ischemia.
32434289 The patient was transported to operating theatre with supplemental oxygen over a face mask and plastic covering over the trolley.
32435879 None required oxygen therapy, and 7 could be managed as outpatients.
32437770 Among the 36 patients, 18 had worsening of their clinical status, as defined by severe hypoxia with oxygen therapy requirements greater than 4 Liters/minute and radiological worsening.
32438425 One other woman received home oxygen.
32439306 In the absence of a vaccine, the management of COVID-19 included antivirals, high-flow oxygen, mechanical ventilation, corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, interferons, intravenous immunoglobulin, and convalescent plasma infusions.
32442035 Two systematic reviews suggest a large reduction in mortality with NIV compared with conventional oxygen therapy.
32442105 These data indicate that auranofin could be a useful drug to limit SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated lung injury due to its antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-reactive oxygen species (ROS) properties.
32442562 Fecal samples were collected 2 or 3 times per week from time of hospitalization until discharge; disease was categorized as mild (no radiographic evidence of pneumonia), moderate (pneumonia was present), severe (respiratory rate ≥30/min, or oxygen saturation ≤93% when breathing ambient air), or critical (respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, shock, or organ failure requiring intensive care).
32443911 Unfortunately, there is still not a single proven effective drug available, and therefore, current therapeutic guidelines recommend supportive care including oxygen administration and treatment with antibiotics.
32444366 Admission oxygen saturation of <88% (3.7, 2.8 to 4.8), troponin level >1 (4.8, 2.1 to 10.9), C reactive protein level >200 (5.1, 2.8 to 9.2), and D-dimer level >2500 (3.9, 2.6 to 6.0) were, however, more strongly associated with critical illness than age or comorbidities. […] Age and comorbidities were found to be strong predictors of hospital admission and to a lesser extent of critical illness and mortality in people with covid-19; however, impairment of oxygen on admission and markers of inflammation were most strongly associated with critical illness and mortality.
32446312 There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age, underlying diseases, clinical severity, and oxygen-support category at admission.
32448770 All patients had elevated IL-6 plasma level (>40 pg/mL) and oxygen saturation <93% in ambient air. […] Clinical outcomes, oxygen support, laboratory data and adverse events were collected over a follow-up of 30 days. […] Forty-five patients (88%) were on high-flow oxygen supplementation, six of whom with invasive ventilation. […] The mortality rate was significantly associated with mechanical ventilation at baseline (83.3% vs 20% of patients on non-invasive oxygen support; p=0.0001).
32451366 There will be an estimated 4.6 (3.6-5.5) million COVID-19 hospitalisations, of which 139 521 (81 876-167 044) would be severe cases requiring oxygen, and 89 043 (52 253-106 599) critical cases requiring breathing support.
32452889 Despite the same severity of illness and level of hypoxemia at admission, coronavirus disease 2019 patients failed more high flow oxygen via nasal cannula challenges (n = 16, 100% vs n = 5, 45% in controls; p = 0.002), were more often intubated (n = 44, 100% vs n = 22, 56% in controls; p < 0.001) and paralyzed (n = 34, 77% vs n = 3, 14% in controls; p < 0.001), required higher level of positive end-expiratory pressure (15 vs 8 cm H2O in controls; p < 0.001), more prone positioning (n = 33, 75% vs n = 6, 27% in controls; p < 0.001), more dialysis (n = 16, 36% vs n = 3, 8% in controls; p = 0.003), more hemodynamic support by vasopressors (n = 36, 82% vs n = 22, 56% in controls; p = 0.001), and had more often a prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation (n = 28, 64% vs n = 10, 26% in controls; p < 0.01) resulting in a more frequent resort to tracheostomy (n = 18, 40.9% vs n = 2, 9% in controls; p = 0.01).
32453889 A recent theoretical study suggested a direct interaction between COVID-19 viral proteins and haemoglobin (Hb) that could lead to a loss of oxygen carrying capacity.
32454031 Of the remaining nine who continued to need respiratory support, seven (77.8%) had iatrogenic preterm deliveries (six by cesarean delivery) for maternal respiratory distress (needing increasing levels of respiratory support without improved oxygen saturation), one had an early term delivery due to PROM, and one, now 30 weeks, has required intensive care with high-flow nasal cannula for three weeks. […] Delivery did not worsen the respiratory status of women with persistent oxygen desaturation and the need for increasing respiratory support.
32454157 Viral infections including SARS-CoV are associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, disturbances of Ca++ caused by unfolded protein response (UPR) mediated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and is due to the exploitation of virus’s own protein i.e., viroporins into the host cells.
32459701 Of 15 hospitalized women with moderate or severe disease, 10 received respiratory support with supplemental oxygen and one required intubation.
32459790 All patients needed oxygen therapy through a nasal cannula; five patients received high-flow nasal cannula therapy, which was later substituted with noninvasive ventilation in four.
32459919 We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial involving hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, oxygen saturation of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air, and radiologic evidence of pneumonia.
32461141 COVID-19-associated tissue injury is not primarily mediated by viral infection, but rather is a result of the inflammatory host immune response, which drives hypercytokinemia and aggressive inflammation that affect lung parenchymal cells, diminishing oxygen uptake but also endothelial cells, resulting in endotheliitis and thrombotic events and intravascular coagulation.
32461911 We present a case report of a 68-year-old patient with confirmed COVID-19 and a prolonged course of admission, receiving nasal and humidified oxygen, non-invasive and then mechanical ventilation. […] She self-extubated, but remained stable on nasal oxygen only and was transferred for rehabilitation.
32462858 The aim of the multicentre study promoted by Nuova FIO is to evaluate the beneficial effects of the systemic Oxygen-Ozone (O2O3) therapy in patients suffering from SARS COV-2 disease in the early phases of the disease, before worsening, up to the need of tracheal intubation. […] The study is based on the rationale on that the systemic oxygen-ozone treatment could be effective, positively influencing the disease evolution and/or being able to mitigate the onset of the cytokine storm syndrome at least partially.
32463545 A higher need for assisted ventilation beyond pure oxygen support (Invasive Mechanical Ventilation or Non-Invasive Ventilation) and a higher admission to intensive or semi-intensive care units was observed in patients with overweight and obesity (p<0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) even after adjusting for sex, age and comorbidities (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively), or when patients with dementia or advanced cancer were removed from the analysis (p<0.05).
32467466 Availability of oxygen cylinders for mechanically ventilated patient may be difficult in such a context. […] A solution to ventilate patients requiring high fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) is to use a ventilator able to be supplied by a low-pressure oxygen source connected with two oxygen concentrators (OCs). […] The ventilators were attached to a test lung, OC flow was adjusted with a Certifier FA ventilator test systems from 2 to 10 L/min and injected into the oxygen inlet port of the Elisée 350. […] However, modifications of the ventilator settings such as an increase in minute ventilation affect delivered FiO2 even if oxygen flow is constant on the OC. […] The ability of two OCs to deliver high FiO2 when used with a turbine ventilator makes this method of oxygen delivery a viable alternative to cylinders to ventilate patients requiring an FiO2 of ≥80% in austere place or during disaster response.
32469614 All five patients were hospitalized, two required supplemental oxygen, and none required mechanical ventilation.
32470186 Severe case was confirmed when one of the following criteria occurred: 1) dyspnea, respiratory rate ≥30 breaths/min, 2) blood oxygen saturation ≤93%, and 3) PaO2 /FiO2 ≤300 mmHg.
32470515 Admission and oxygen supply was required in 4.9% (2 patients in the Ramipril and 3 in control), and 4 of them died (two in each randomized group).
32470602 We report three cases of COVID-19 pneumonia who progressed while using antiviral drugs and needed supplementary oxygen therapy, improved after treatment with nafamostat. […] These preliminary findings show the possibility that Nafamostat can be considered to be used in elderly patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who need oxygen therapy.
32471203 As SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted through droplets and aerosols, we cannot ignore the risk of transmission during hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). […] Our hyperbaric oxygen therapy center prioritizes preventing the spread of COVID-19 and maintaining operation for the patients during the pandemic. […] The aim of this article is to share the protocol that we have adopted in our hyperbaric oxygen therapy center to help prevent the spread of COVID-19.
32471650 Clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism patients was usually characterized by persistence or worsening of respiratory symptoms, with increasing oxygen requirement.
32471783 We present a case of a 72-year-old male with COVID-19 syndrome who presented to the emergency department with minimal symptoms but low peripheral oxygen saturation readings. […] This case highlights the utility of peripheral oxygen measurements in the evaluation of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32471930 The role of percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen (oxygen saturation), blood pressure and early use of point-of-care ultrasound in differential diagnosis and specific management is detailed.
32472676 In multivariable logistic regression analysis, risk factors for severe infection included pre-existing renal disease (odds ratio [OR], 7.4; 95% CI 2.5-22.0), oxygen requirement at hospitalization (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.7), acute renal injury (OR, 2.7; 95% CI 1.3-5.6) and initial CRP (OR,1.006; 95% CI, 1.001-1.01). […] Acute or pre-existing renal disease, supplemental oxygen at the time of hospitalization and initial CRP were independent predictors for the development of severe COVID-19 infections.
32473964 While the best option in terms of non-invasive systems of oxygen delivery is still a matter of debate, it also remains unclear as to whether or not the optimal in-bed positioning of patients might also help to improve their oxygen saturation levels. […] On the basis of three representative cases, it is possible to propose the following hypotheses: (i) how patients are positioned has a strong influence on their oxygen saturation levels; (ii) saturation-optimalised positions are patient-specific; (iii) prone positions require ergonomic devices; and (iv) saturation-optimalised positions should aim to place the most affected part(s) of the lung(s) on top.
32475761 If dexmedetomidine can improve compliance with non-invasive oxygen support (the current recommended first-line therapy) while promoting better oxygenation, it may also decrease the need for mechanical ventilation and thus improve mortality.
32476080 The following variables were extracted for this study: age, gender, temperature, and saturation of oxygen on admission, treatment with heparin, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, steroids, tocilizumab, a combination of lopinavir with ritonavir, and oseltamivir, together with data on mortality. […] This association remained significant when saturation of oxygen < 90%, and temperature > 37 °C were added to de model with OR 0.54 (0.36-0.82) p = 0.003, and also when all the other drugs were included as covariates OR 0.42 (0.26-0.66) p < 0.001.
32479771 A risk score was developed incorporating twelve characteristics: age>40, male, non-white ethnicity, oxygen saturations<93%, radiological severity score>3, neutrophil count>8.0 x109/L, CRP>40 mg/L, albumin<34 g/L, creatinine>100 µmol/L, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and chronic lung disease.
32481322 Frequency of requiring supplemental oxygen or non-invasive ventilation; 5.
32481340 All patients had oxygen treatment with HFNC, as well as regular treatment of antivirals and traditional Chinese medicine. […] HFNC treatment has its advantages in providing oxygen therapy in COVID-19, but healthcare professionals should still pay close attention to changes in patients’ oxygenation rates and respiratory frequency.
32481381 After the operation, we routinely give symptomatic treatments such as anti-infection, nebulization and oxygen inhalation.
32482597 At baseline, all patients were on high-flow supplemental oxygen and most (78% of TCZ patients and 61% of standard treatment patients) were on non-invasive ventilation.
32484930 While arterial oxygen saturations (87.58±3.12%) dropped in room air in the pre-tocilizumab period, post-tocilizumab they normalized in all patients (94.42±1%).
32489666 A 55-year-old male COVID-19-positive patient with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), diabetes, and obesity presented with cough and shortness of breath, escalating to requiring high-flow oxygen therapy by high-velocity nasal insufflation. […] The patient’s flow rate and oxygen fraction remained labile throughout much of the hospitalization. […] The patient was alert and oriented and was instructed on the operation of the high-flow system, specifically the adjustment of both flow rate and oxygen percentage. […] The patient was instructed to modify oxygen to maintain an SpO2 (peripheral capillary oxygen saturation) target range, and flow rate to address dyspnoea as well as reduction of flow as tolerated when other staff entered the room.
32492530 Severe pneumonia was defined as an oxygen saturation ≤ 93% at room air.
32493441 Only adult (≥18y old) patients will be recruited with recent (≤16 days) COVID-19 infection and acute hypoxia (defined as PaO2/FiO2 below 350mmHg or PaO2/FiO2 below 280 on supplemental oxygen and immediately requiring high flow oxygen device or mechanical ventilation) and signs of systemic cytokine release syndrome characterized by high serum ferritin, or high D-dimers, or high LDH or deep lymphopenia or a combination of those, who have not been on mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours before randomisation. […] This ordinal scale is composed of (1) Death; (2) Hospitalized, on invasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO; (3) Hospitalized, on non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen devices; (4) Hospitalized, requiring supplemental oxygen; (5) Hospitalized, not requiring supplemental oxygen; (6) Not hospitalized.
32493468 Patients will be randomly assigned to the intervention groups or the control group with the following eligibility criteria: ≥ 18 years of age AND (oxygen saturation (SPO2) ≤ 93% OR respiratory rate ≥ 24) AND at least one of the following: Contactless infrared forehead thermometer temperature of ≥37.8, cough, sputum production, nasal discharge, myalgia, headache or fatigue on admission, and time of onset of the symptoms should be acute (Days ≤ 14).
32495226 In the absence of a vaccine and specifically designed antivirals, the medical community has proposed the use of various previously available medications in order to reduce the number of patients requiring prolonged hospitalizations, oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation and to decrease mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32498065 All 3 had ill contacts in the home or had been to the pediatrician and presented with mild to moderate symptoms including fever, rhinorrhea, and hypoxia, requiring supplemental oxygen during their hospital stay.
32499303 Data on demographics, COVID-19 diagnosis, famotidine use, drug-related side effects, temperature measurements, oxygen saturations and symptom scores were obtained using questionnaires and telephone interviews. […] The combined symptom score improved significantly within 24 hours of starting famotidine and peripheral oxygen saturation (n=2) and device recorded activity (n=1) increased.
32500773 On computed tomography scans, she had extensive interstitial lung fibrosis in addition to a positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction test requiring 6 L of oxygen via nasal cannula on admission. […] After administration of methylprednisolone, the patient improved and was weaned off her oxygen requirements and was discharged home.
32503620 Secondary: 14 days after treatment - C-Reactive Protein test x Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio , Interleukin-6, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels reduction - Percentage of patients who require supplemental Oxygen - Mean hospital stay length RANDOMISATION: Patients will be allocated to each group (ratio 1:1) by using an online randomization tool: http://www.graphpad.com/quickcalcs/index.cfm BLINDING (MASKING): This will be a double-blind study in which participants and those assessing the final outcomes will be blinded to group assignment.
32503657 Routine treatment for patients with the corona virus will be administered, this includes oxygen therapy, drugs that reduced phlegm and relieve cough, including thymosin, proprietary Chinese medicine, etc.
32503662 Secondary endpoints include change in NEWS2 at 96 hours after randomisation, admission to intensive care unit, mortality (in-hospital, and at 30 and 90 days), duration of hospital admission, clinical status on a 7-point ordinal scale 14 days after randomization ([1] Death [2] Hospitalised, on invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [3] Hospitalised, on non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen devices [4] Hospitalized, requiring supplemental oxygen [5] Hospitalised, not requiring supplemental oxygen [6] Not hospitalized, but unable to resume normal activities [7] Not hospitalised, with resumption of normal activities), and improvement in protein biomarker profiles (C-reactive protein, markers of renal and hepatic injury, and established cardiac biomarkers like cardiac troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide) at 96 hours after randomization.
32503663 Patients aged 18-80 years admitted to specialized COVID-19 wards in 5 Belgian hospitals with recent (< 2 weeks prior to randomization) confirmed COVID-19 infection and acute respiratory failure defined as a PaO2/FiO2 below 350 mmHg or SpO2 below 93% on minimal 2 L/min supplemental oxygen. […] The primary endpoint of this intervention is measuring oxygenation after 5 days of inhaled (and intravenous) treatment through assessment of a change in pretreatment and post-treatment ratio of PaO2/FiO2 and through measurement of the P(A-a)O2 gradient (PAO2= Partial alveolar pressure of oxygen, PaO2=Partial arterial pressure of oxygen; FiO2= Fraction of inspired oxygen).
32503877 Acalabrutinib, a selective BTK inhibitor, was administered off-label to 19 patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 (11 on supplemental oxygen; 8 on mechanical ventilation), 18 of whom had increasing oxygen requirements at baseline. […] At the end of acalabrutinib treatment, 8/11 (72.7%) patients in the supplemental oxygen cohort had been discharged on room air, and 4/8 (50%) patients in the mechanical ventilation cohort had been successfully extubated, with 2/8 (25%) discharged on room air.
32505805 The primary outcome measures were COVID-19 requiring oxygen (oxygen therapy or noninvasive ventilation) and critical COVID-19 (requiring invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ECMO). […] By April 14, among the 617 pregnant women with COVID-19, 93 women (15.1 %; 95 %CI 12.3-18.1) had required oxygen therapy and 35 others (5.7 %; 95 %CI 4.0-7.8) had had a critical form of COVID-19. […] Among the women who gave birth, rates of preterm birth in women with non-severe, oxygen-requiring, and critical COVID-19 were 13/123 (10.6 %), 14/29 (48.3 %), and 23/29 (79.3 %) before 37 weeks and 3/123 (2.4 %), 4/29 (13.8 %), and 14/29 (48.3 %) before 32 weeks, respectively.
32506055 Close monitoring for temperature and oxygen saturation during hemodialysis sessions may be reasonable.
32507619 Most participants referred absence of training on the use of personal protective equipment, oxygen ventilation systems and COVID-19 therapies.
32508022 Although no effective treatment is formally approved for COVID-19 infection, support of ventilation with oxygen therapy and sometimes mechanical ventilation is often required.
32509258 We speculated that in COVID-19, beyond the classical pulmonary immune-inflammation view, the occurrence of an oxygen-deprived blood disease, with iron metabolism dysregulation, should be taken in consideration.
32510978 While the majority of patients mount an appropriate antiviral response and recover at home, others progress to respiratory distress requiring hospital admission for supplemental oxygen.
32511678 There was no statistical difference between ACEIs and ARBs groups in terms of hospital admission rate, oxygen therapy and need for non-invasive ventilation.
32512089 Currently, approved treatment modalities consist of only supportive care and oxygen supplementation.
32512491 This little-known information should be deemed as crucial as the SARS-CoV-2 relationships with oxygen saturation and the Renine Angiotensin System but it currently remains unexploited. […] We theorized that the Angiotensin II clearance by the red blood cells could trigger the release of its oxygen content in the bloodstream.
32512988 We hereby report a case of a 44-year-old COVID-19 positive male patient suffering from hypoxic respiratory failure that was successfully treated with high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in a negative pressure intensive care room.
32513308 Eligible participants include adults (≥ 18 years) with evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR test of nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab within 14 days of randomization, evidence of infiltrates on chest radiography, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤ 94% on room air, and/or need for supplemental oxygen, non-invasive mechanical ventilation, or invasive mechanical ventilation, who are willing and able to provide written informed consent prior to performing study procedures or who have a legally authorized representative available to do so. […] Hospitalized, not requiring supplemental oxygen 4. […] Hospitalized, requiring supplemental oxygen 5. […] Hospitalized, requiring high-flow oxygen therapy or non-invasive mechanical ventilation 6.
32513515 These measures include the addition of long-acting inhaler therapies, pulmonary rehabilitation, oral therapies, oxygen and lung transplantation.
32513808 Approaches to procedural sedation can be modified to reduce the risk of droplet or aerosol transmission by decreasing nasal cannula oxygen supplementation flows. […] Decreasing the need for oxygen supplement can be accomplished by opioid and sedative sparing strategies, including the use of multimodal analgesia and non-pharmacologic analgesic and anxiolytic interventions.
32515699 Thus, hemoglobin loses the capability for transporting oxygen, which aggravates hypoxia and worsens the prognosis.
32516107 Dyspnea was the patient’s main complaint at the time of admission in this center and the oxygen saturation was 84%. […] The patient’s felt relieved immediately after the procedure; however, the oxygen saturation did not raise above 85% despite the oxygen therapy.
32516861 Severe COVID-19, as expressed by elevated lactate dehydrogenase and low oxygen saturation at emergency department admission, is associated with a rapid progression to death in these patients.
32519786 Our patients were treated by oxygen via face mask in one case and mechanical ventilation as supportive treatment in the other patient.
32519842 First, nanoparticles (NPs) can offer alternative methods to classical disinfection protocols used in healthcare settings, thanks to their intrinsic antipathogenic properties and/or their ability to inactivate viruses, bacteria, fungi, or yeasts either photothermally or via photocatalysis-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.
32519944 A comparative presentation of the clinical features of the first 50 COVID-19 patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who were hospitalized in the University Hospital Aachen. 24 intubated patients were treated in the intensive care unit for ARDS of varying degrees of severity, while 26 patients who were breathing spontaneously without ARDS, but nevertheless needed supplemental oxygen, were treated in a separate isolation ward. […] Patients without ARDS had persistently elevated inflammatory parameters and fever for at least one week, with an accompanying need for supplemental oxygen. […] COVID-19 patients without ARDS may likewise require prolonged hospitalization because of persistently elevated inflammatory values with a simultaneous need for supplemental oxygen.
32521167 Recognition of these issues and careful counseling of patients about the proper means for measuring their oxygen saturation and when to seek assistance can help ensure successful implementation of needed monitoring programs.
32522574 This article compares the symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) with those of SARS-CoV-2 infection and explores overlapping patho-physiological mechanisms of the respiratory system including impaired oxygen transport, pulmonary gas exchange and brainstem circuits controlling respiration. […] In this context, we also discuss the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on oxygen sensing in the carotid body.
32523928 The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is challenging in symptomatic COVID-19 patients since shortness of breath, chest pain, tachycardia, tachypnoea, fever, oxygen desaturation and high D-dimer blood levels might be features of both diseases.
32526061 PDE5 inhibition favors an anti-inflammatory response by modulating activated T cells, reducing cytokine release, lowering fibrosis, increasing oxygen diffusion, stimulating vascular repair.
32527136 The patient received antiviral therapy, antibacterial therapy, recombinant human interferon-α2a, vitamin C and oxygen inhalation.
  1. Compared with normal group, patients in severe group were older, and with higher proportion of basic diseases, higher body mass index (BMI), higher incidence of tachypnea, persistent high fever, peripheral blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) < 0.95, while the white blood cell count (WBC), CD4+T lymphocyte, CD8+T lymphocyte, lymphocyte count (LYM) were decreased obviously, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid a protein (SAA), and CT showed higher incidence of multi-pulmonary lobe lesions.
32527347 Clinical data of patients with severe H1N1 influenza virus pneumonia implemented by ECMO in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College from October 2018 to December 2019 were retrospective analyzed, including general information, ECMO transport distance, time, clinical parameters before and after ECMO, including the patients’ oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2), respiratory rate (RR), pulse blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), arterial blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), and pH value, various complications during transport, mechanical ventilation time, patients’ prognosis and other indicators.
32530822 Oxygen saturation values taken before and after the 4-hour wear test confirmed that well-fitted facial protection did not compromise the mask seal, but rather improved it.
32531257 The results were correlated with patients’ respiratory function evaluated by the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2).
32532356 Twenty serious COVID-19 cases will be enrolled in the trial from April 6th to December 31st 2020. hospitalised patients at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University satisfy all criteria as below: 1)Adults aged 18-65 years;2)Voluntarily participate in this clinical trial and sign the “informed consent form” or have consent from a legal representative.3)Diagnosed with severe pneumonia of COVID-19: nucleic acid test SARS-CoV-2 positive; respiratory distress (respiratory rate > 30 times / min); hypoxia (resting oxygen saturation < 93% or arterial partial pressure of oxygen / oxygen concentration < 300 mmHg).4)COVID-19 featured lung lesions in chest X-ray image. […] Six grades of ordered variables: GradeDescriptionGrade 1:Discharged of patient;Grade 2:Hospitalized without oxygen supplement;Grade 3:Hospitalized, oxygen supplement is required, but NIV / HFNC is not required;Grade 4:Hospitalized in intensive care unit, and NIV / HFNC treatment is required;Grade 5:Hospitalized in intensive care unit, requiring ECMO and/or IMV;Grade 6:Death.
32532449 This respiratory tract infection is nefarious in how it targets the most distal and highly vulnerable aspect of the human bronchopulmonary tree, specifically, the delicate yet irreplaceable alveoli that are responsible for the loading of oxygen upon red cell hemoglobin for use by all of the body’s tissues.
32532948 A 71-year old gentleman with history of arterial hypertension treated with valsartan presented on was hospitalized at the Infectious Diseases Unit, University of Bologna (Italy) for severe acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and received treatment with hydroxychloroquine 200mg bid (400 mg bid the first day), azithromycin 400 mg qd, thrombotic prophylaxis with enoxaparin 4000 UI qd and Venturi mask oxygen delivering FiO2 of 31%.
32534175 The use of acetazolamide with or without sildenafil also needs to be explored with or without heparin, since increased oxygen delivery to vital organs through prevention of thrombosis/pulmonary emboli along with carbonic anhydrase inhibition may help increase oxygenation and prevent adverse clinical outcomes.
32534848 OB group showed a worse pulmonary clinical picture, with lower PaO2 (57 ± 15 vs. 68 ± 14 mmHg, p = 0.042), and SaO2 (88 ± 6 vs. 92 ± 5%, p = 0.049) at admission consequently requiring higher volumes of oxygen (Fi02: 38 ± 15 vs. 29 ± 19%, p = 0.047) and a longer period to achieve oxygen weaning (10 ± 6 vs. 15 ± 7 days, p = 0.03). […] Subjects with obesity affected by COVID-19 require longer hospitalization, more intensive and longer oxygen treatment, and they may have longer SARS-COV-2 shedding.
32535147 Primary outcomes were mortality and the need for respiratory support, including oxygen administration and mechanical ventilation.
32535188 Median oxygen saturation (SpO2) was 93% (range 60-99), with median PaO2/FiO2 ratio, 267 (IQR 184-314).
32536150 The median duration of symptoms before treatment was 7 days and 26 patients (40%) required oxygen support at baseline.
32537954 Diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 19.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90-193.42; P = 0.012), body temperature ≥ 37.8°C (OR, 10.91; 95% CI, 1.35-88.36; P = 0.025), peripheral oxygen saturation < 92% (OR, 33.31; 95% CI, 2.45-452.22; P = 0.008), and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) > 6.3 (OR, 56.84; 95% CI, 2.64-1,223.78, P = 0.010) at admission were associated with higher risk of severe COVID-19. […] In conclusion, we found that diabetes mellitus, body temperature ≥ 37.8°C, peripheral oxygen saturation < 92%, and CK-MB > 6.3 are independent predictors of severe disease in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
32538995 Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and high-flow oxygen therapy are not recommended due to the generation of aerosol (associated with risk of viral spread among health personnel), and neither is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or the use of steroids.
32539257 The recommendations mainly cover the following aspects: (1) lung ultrasound in patients with COVID-19 is mainly manifested by thickened and irregular pleural lines, different types of B-lines, shred signs, and other consolidation like dynamic air bronchogram; (2) Echocardiography may show right heart dysfunction, diffuse cardiac function enhancement, stress cardiomyopathy, diffuse cardiac depression and other multiple abnormalities; (3) Critical ultrasonography helps with initiating early treatment in the suspect patient, screening confirmed patients after intensive care unit admission, early assessment of sudden critical events, rapid grading assessment and treatment based on it; (4) Critical ultrasonography helps to quickly screen for the etiology of respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19, make oxygen therapeutic strategy, guide the implementation of lung protective ventilation, graded management and precise off-ventilator; (5) Critical ultrasonography is helpful for assessing the circulatory status of patients with COVID-19, finding chronic cardiopulmonary diseases and guiding extracorporeal membrane oxygenation management; (6) Critical ultrasonography Contributes to the management of organs besides based on cardiopulmonary oxygen transport; (7) Critical ultrasonography can help to improve the success of operation; (8) Critical ultrasonography can help to improve the safety and quality of nursing; (9) When performing critical ultrasonography for patients with COVID-19, it needs to implement three-level protection standard, pay attention to disinfect the machine and strictly obey the rules from nosocomial infection.
32539273 Second, cardiorespiratory variables (heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension, and inspired fraction of carbon dioxide) were measured at rest and during moderate exercise.
32539537 Patients with COVID-19 are described as exhibiting oxygen levels incompatible with life without dyspnea. […] It is possible that coronavirus has an idiosyncratic action on receptors involved in chemosensitivity to oxygen, but well-established pathophysiological mechanisms can account for most, if not all, cases of silent hypoxemia. […] These mechanisms include how dyspnea and the respiratory centers respond to low levels of oxygen, how prevailing carbon dioxide tensions (PaCO2) blunt the brain’s response to hypoxia, effects of disease and age on control of breathing, inaccuracy of pulse oximetry at low oxygen saturations, and temperature-induced shifts in the oxygen dissociation curve.
32539988 We defined asymptomatic infection as SARS-CoV-2 infection with no history of clinical signs and symptoms, severe COVID-19 as clinical symptoms of pneumonia (dyspnoea, tachypnoea, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation <93%, and need for oxygen therapy), and mild COVID-19 as all other symptoms.
32541352 Pulmonary rehabilitation during the acute management of COVID-19 should be considered when possible and safe and may include nutrition, airway, posture, clearance technique, oxygen supplementation, breathing exercises, stretching, manual therapy, and physical activity.
32541972 Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors for death were old age, low non oxygen saturation, low lymphocyte count, myocardial injury, abnormal increase of IL 2R, IL-6, and IL-10. […] Multivariate regression showed that old age (OR=1.11, 95%CI=1.03-1.19, P=0.026), low non oxygen saturation(OR=0.85, 95%CI=0.72-0.99, P=0.041), and abnormal increase of IL-10(>9.1 ng/L, OR=101.93, 95%CI=4.74-2190.71, P=0.003)were independent risk factors for COVID-19 patients combined with hypertension, coronary heart disease or diabetes. […] In COVID-19 patients combined with hypertension, coronary heart disease or diabetes, the risk factors for death were old age, low non oxygen saturation, low lymphocyte count, myocardial injury, and abnormal increase of IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-10. […] Old age, low non oxygen saturation and abnormal increase of IL-10 were independent risk factors.
32542464 Review 1: we synthesized results from randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HFNC to conventional oxygen therapy (COT) in critically ill patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. […] Review 1: 12 RCTs (n = 1,989 patients) provided low-certainty evidence that HFNC may reduce invasive ventilation (relative risk [RR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 0.99) and escalation of oxygen therapy (RR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.98) in patients with respiratory failure.
32544034 Inclusion criteria were: (i) positive nasopharyngeal or lower respiratory tract reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays; (ii) severe COVID infection defined as requirement for hospitalization and oxygen therapy; (iii) neurologic manifestations; (iv) abnormal brain MRI.
32545714 This paper addresses several key biological processes of reactive oxygen, halogen and nitrogen species (ROS, RHS and RNS) that play crucial physiological roles in organisms from plants to humans.
32548163 On the 8th d of admission, the patient’s highest temperature was 40.7 °C, and oxygen saturation was 83% despite high-flow oxygen inhalation. […] In addition to nasal catheter oxygen inhalation and symptomatic support, antiviral drugs were used throughout the treatment.
32549025 He had hypoxic respiratory failure and required oxygen therapy.
32549692 Five out of the 10 patients - including the patients who presented with hypoxia - subsequently required supplemental oxygen postoperatively. […] Two patients had persistently elevated oxygen demands requiring prolonged administration of supplemental oxygen therapy beyond postoperative day 3. […] Our findings suggest that hip fracture patients who present with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 infection may have temporarily increased oxygen demands postoperatively, but they can safely undergo early surgical intervention after appropriate medical optimization.
32550056 Supportive treatment such as oxygen therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and ventilator support can also be used.
32553536 Survival and mechanical ventilation (MV) outcomes were reported for 14 days and stratified by disease severity designated at admission (severe, ≥3L supplemental oxygen to maintain oxygen saturation >93%).
32553908 Oxygen support was required for 24.1% (13/54), including high flow oxygen (n=2), noninvasive (n=1) and invasive (n=3) mechanical ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=1).
32554029 Moreover, some other disrupting factors such as patient distance from the sampler, using protective or oxygen masks by patients, patient activities, coughing and sneezing during sampling time, air movement, air conditioning, sampler type, sampling conditions, storage and transferring conditions, can affect the results.
32554861 Severe and critical patients received glucocorticoid, Gamma-globulin and oxygen inhalation.
32555674 The systolic blood pressure (median, 130 mmHg vs 120 mmHg) was higher and the oxygen saturation (median, 98.3% vs 92.0%) was significantly lower in severe patients than nonsevere patients. […] Our study revealed that older patients with high levels of C-reactive protein, myoglobin, troponin I, and neutrophil and high systolic blood pressure as well as low levels of lymphocytes, and albumin and a low creatinine clearance rate and oxygen saturation were more likely to have severe disease.
32557889 His temperature was 38°C, he was dyspneic despite oxygen.
32559309 Resting energy expenditure (REE), carbon dioxide production (VCO2) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured by indirect calorimetry on seven critically ill patients with COVID-19.
32560658 Four levels of thromboembolic risk were defined according to the severity of COVID-19 reflected by oxygen requirement and treatment, the body mass index, and other risk factors.
32560744 We will include both severe and mild-moderate patients defined as follows: Group A (severe disease) - patients with WHO Working Group on the Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 infection 9-point ordinal scale of Grades 4 (hospitalised, oxygen by mask or nasal prongs), 5 (hospitalised, non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen), 6 (hospitalised, intubation and mechanical ventilation) or 7 (hospitalised, ventilation and additional organ support); Group B (mild-moderate disease) - ambulant or hospitalised patients with peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) >94% RA. […] But may include; time to clinical improvement of at least 2 points on the WHO 9-point category ordinal scale [measured up to 29 days from randomisation], progression of disease (oxygen saturation (SaO2) <92%) or hospitalization or death, or change in time-weighted viral load [measured up to 29 days from randomisation].
32560745 They will be hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 who have positive RT-PCR test and have blood oxygen saturation levels (SpO2) less than 90% and respiratory rate higher than 24 per minute or have involvement of more than 50% of their lung when viewed using computed tomography (CT)-scan.
32562159 The oxygen saturation (SpO2) and temperature were positively changed in patients receiving regimen I compared to regimen II (P = 0.013 and P = 0.012, respectively).
32562915 In the absence of a therapy of proven efficacy, current management consists of off-label or compassionate use therapies based on antivirals, antiparasitic agents in both oral and parenteral formulation, anti-inflammatory drugs, oxygen therapy and heparin support and convalescent plasma.
32563584 Within 24 hours, he showed significant improvement in symptoms, oxygen requirements, radiological findings, and inflammatory markers.
32563601 Testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and lower oxygen saturations were associated with need for ICU and invasive mechanical ventilation, and with death. […] For every 100 admitted persons under investigation, 9 will require ICU stay, invasive mechanical ventilation, or both on arrival and another 12 within 2 to 3 days of hospital admission, especially persons under investigation with lower oxygen saturations and positive SARS-CoV-2 swab results.
32564028 The assessment of the extent of ARF should be based on arterial or capillary blood gas analysis under room air conditions, and it needs to include the calculation of oxygen supply (measured from the variables of oxygen saturation, hemoglobin level, the corrected values of Hüfner’s factor, and cardiac output). […] A significant proportion of patients with ARF present with relevant hypoxemia, which often cannot be fully corrected, even with a high inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) under NHF. […] In this situation, the oxygen therapy can be escalated to CPAP or NIV when the criteria for endotracheal intubation are not met.
32565097 More SARS patients required oxygen supplementation than COVID-19 patients (18.6 vs. 
32565364 Similarly, the role of oxygen therapy as an anti-inflammatory strategy is evident and access to oxygen therapy should be prioritized to avoid the aggravation of COVID-19 infection.
32565512 KL-6 was also found to be significantly correlated with oxygenation index and oxygen partial pressure difference of alveolar artery (PA-aDO2) (Both P < 0.01).
32569363 Disease severity was defined based on the amount of oxygen supplementation required.
32569585 In this prospective, feasibility, cohort study, patients aged 18-75 years with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19-related pneumonia receiving supplemental oxygen or non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure were recruited from San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy. […] The main study outcome was the variation in oxygenation (partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2]/fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired air [FiO2]) between baseline and resupination, as an index of pulmonary recruitment. […] Prone positioning was feasible and effective in rapidly ameliorating blood oxygenation in awake patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia requiring oxygen supplementation.
32570265 LUS score was significantly correlated with CT visual scoring (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and oxygen saturation in room air (r = -0.66, p < 0.001).
32572707 Past medical history of diabetes and hypertension, initial oxygen saturation, COVID-19 testing results, intubation, and outcome were also collected. […] Oxygen saturation and X-ray grade were both significantly associated with the length of stay in hospital, the hazard ratio (HR) of discharge was 1.05 (95% CI [1.01, 1.09], p = 0.017) and 0.61 (95% CI [0.51, 0.73], p < 0.001), respectively. […] In addition, oxygen saturation and X-ray grade were significant predictors of intubation (odds ratio (OR) of intubation is 0.88 (95% CI [0.81, 0.96], p = 0.004) and 3.69 (95% CI [2.25, 6.07], p < 0.001).
32572809 The correct sentence should be “In this retrospective study, we included 550 critically ill COVID-19 patients who need mechanical ventilation (63.5%) and oxygen therapy (35.6%) in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, from February 1, 2020 to April 4, 2020.” 2.
32573353 Half required oxygen therapy and 7.1% high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO); median time from onset to oxygen therapy and HFNO was 7 and 9 days. […] The case fatality rate was 0.92% with median time from onset to death of 16 days. Conclusion COVID-19 cases in Shanghai were imported, presenting as viral pneumonia with half of cases needing oxygen therapy.
32573724 2.4% and 5.1% of patients in the CPT and the standard-treatment group have been admitted to ICU eventually. 70% of the patients who had severe respiratory symptoms got improved and removed oxygen supports within 7 days after CPT.
32573895 The critical evaluation of all cases suggests that the timing of the administration of tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 receptor antagonist, could be associated with a better efficacy when administered in concomitance to the drop of the oxygen saturation. […] Thus, in SARS-CoV-2 affected KTRs a close biochemical and clinical monitoring should be set up to allow physicians to hit the virus in the right moment such as a sudden reduction of the oxygen saturation and/or a significant increase of the laboratory values such as D-Dimer.
32574235 The COS included clinical outcomes (recovery/improvement/progression/death), etiology (SARS-CoV-2 nucleic-acid tests, viral load), inflammatory factor (C-reactive protein), vital signs (temperature, respiration), blood and lymphatic-system parameters (lymphocytes, virus antibody), respiratory outcomes (pulmonary imaging, blood oxygen saturation, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, arterial blood gas analysis, mechanical ventilation, oxygen intake, pneumonia severity index), clinical efficacy (prevalence of preventing patients with mild-to-moderate disease progressing to severe disease), and symptoms (clinical symptom score).
32574262 Serial SARS-CoV-2 testing along with hematological measurements, including cell counts, blood biochemistry and serum cytokine levels, and temperature and blood oxygen saturation levels, were recorded for each patient during their hospital stay.
32574309 The percentage of patients in which the partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired O2(FiO2) ratio exceeded 200 was 60%.
32574337 After comprehensive treatment including high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, plasma exchange, antiviral and anti-infection therapies, immune regulation, liquid volume management, glucocorticoid, enteral nutrition support, analgesia and sedation, blood glucose control, anticoagulation and thrombus prevention, and electrolyte balance maintenance, the patient was finally cured, and discharged.
32574432 Recently the internet has been abuzz with new ideas to treat COVID-19, including hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy, undoubtedly driven by the fact that until recently there have been few therapeutic options for this highly contagious and often lethal infection. . . . […] Refractory hypoxemia is certainly treatable with hyperbaric oxygen due to the obvious effect of increasing inspired oxygen partial pressure (PO2), the major reason for using HBO2 for its established indications. […] However, the length of time during which patients can safely be administered HBO2 inside a chamber is limited, due to practical issues of confinement and isolation from other necessary medical interventions, but also because of oxygen toxicity.
32574433 To determine whether hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy be effective to improve hypoxemia for severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients. […] Each met at least one of the following criteria: shortness of breath; respiratory rate (RR) ≥30 breaths/minute; finger pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤93% at rest; and oxygen index (P/F ratio: PaO2/FiO2 ≤300 mmHg). […] Patients were treated with 1.5 atmospheres absolute HBO2 with an oxygen concentration of more than 95% for 60 minutes per treatment, once a day for one week.
32574446 There have been numerous recent inquiries regarding use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) for patients with COVID-19. […] The UHMS Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Committee, UHMS Executive Committee, with collaborative input from multiple senior UHMS members and researchers have drafted this position statement.
32574708 Iron dysregulation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and promotes oxidative stress.
32574789 Mean age was 75.3, mean oxygen (O2) requirements 10.4 l/min.
32575124 All patients had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and oxygen saturations <90% on oxygen support with most intubated. […] We examined clinical and laboratory parameters including oxygen and vasopressor requirements, cytokine profiles, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels pre- and post-tocilizumab treatment. […] Oxygen and vasopressor requirements diminished over the first week post-tocilizumab. […] Compared to published reports on the morbidity and mortality associated with SARS-CoV-2, tocilizumab appears to offer benefits in reducing inflammation, oxygen requirements, vasopressor support, and mortality.
32575366 Respiratory safety was evaluated by measuring end-tidal CO2 and oxygen saturation while wearing the masks in rest and during physical exercise.
32576347 Linear regression analysis showed that D-dimer level was negatively related with pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) and platelet count (PLT) with β values of -0.493, -11.615, and -0.018, respectively (all P < 0.05).
32578070 They include self-monitoring of oxygen saturation (SpO2) from home, continuous wireless SpO2 monitoring on hospital wards, and the integration of SpO2 as the input variable for closed-loop oxygen administration systems.
32578324 More than half of these patients presented with hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen, 39% were intubated within 48 hours and 53% developed acute kidney injury but did not require dialysis.
32578747 Although the lungs are one of the target organs, the hypoxia mechanism is systemic and other organs begin to suffer both through lack of oxygen and through deregulation of inflammation control mechanisms.
32578785 Approximately 5% of the patients will require intensive care unit treatment with oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation.
32578825 On the basis of the opinions of front-line experts and a review of the relevant literature on several topics, we proposed clinical practice recommendations on the following aspects for physiotherapists facing challenges in treating patients and containing virus spread: 1. personal protective equipment, 2. conventional chest physiotherapy, 3. exercise and early mobilization, 4. oxygen therapy, 5. nebulizer treatment, 6. non-invasive ventilation and high-flow nasal oxygen, 7. endotracheal intubation, 8. protective mechanical ventilation, 9. management of mechanical ventilation in severe and refractory cases of hypoxemia, 10. prone positioning, 11. cuff pressure, 12. tube and nasotracheal suction, 13. humidifier use for ventilated patients, 14. methods of weaning ventilated patients and extubation, and 15. equipment and hand hygiene.
32579049 According to the theory of electron excitation in photosensitive molecules, similar to hemoglobin heme, after the photon absorption there would be an increase in the stability of the iron ion bond with the center of the pyrrole ring, preventing the losses of heme function oxygen transport (HbO2). […] The light is also absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase in the R-NIR region, with a consequent increase in electron transport, regulating enzyme activity and resulting in a significant increase of oxygen rate consumption by mitochondria, increasing ATP production. Conclusions: The most favorable range of optical radiation to operate in this system is between R-NIR region, in which cytochrome c oxidase and porphyrin present absorption peaks centered at 640 nm and HbO2 with absorption peak centered at 900 nm.
32582740 Most patients (23/29; 79.8%) received supplemental oxygen therapy and antibiotics (23/29; 79.8%) in addition to traditional Chinese medicines (26/29; 89.7%). […] Need of oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, intravascular immunoglobulin, and duration of antibiotic therapy were increased in those with severe disease. Conclusions: Significant differences in demographical and clinical characteristics were observed in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19.
32583671 However, dedicated devices and repeated tracheal toilettes may be needed to deal with oxygen-therapy-related tracheal crusting.
32584326 ICU patients had higher BMIs, higher respiratory rates, and lower room-air capillary oxygen saturations.
32585765 High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy was required on day 4-5 of hospitalization. […] Symptoms of pneumonia were improved which no oxygen treatment required from day 10 of hospitalization.
32586394 Need of either: a.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (Cpap) or Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) orb.IMV in patients who at randomisation were receiving standard oxygen therapy5. […] Severe pneumonia defined by the presence of at least one of the following criteria: a.Respiratory Rate ≥25 breaths /minb.Arterial oxygen saturation≤93% at rest on ambient airc.PaO2/FiO2 ≤300 mmHg 4. […] Need of either: a.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (Cpap) or Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) orb.IMV in patients who at randomisation were in standard oxygen therapy by delivery interfaces5. […] Need of either: a.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (Cpap) or Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) orb.IMV in patients who at randomisation were in standard oxygen therapy by delivery interfaces5.
32586395 Secondary Objectives: • To evaluate cytokine trends / Prevent cytokine storms • To evaluate supplemental oxygen requirements • To decrease mortality of CoViD-19 patients • Delay onset of ventilation TRIAL DESIGN: The study is a single centre, 2-arm, prospective, randomized (ratio 1:1), controlled trial with parallel groups design to compare the reduction of respiratory distress in a CoViD-19 population, using the intervention of the gammaCore®-Sapphire device plus standard of care (active) vs. standard of care alone (SoC) - the control group. […] On home/therapy oxygen (i.e. for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) at baseline prior to development of CoViD-193. […] Max doses per day is 9 or 18 stimulations.Plus standard of care Control: Standard of care: oxygen therapy, antibiotics and ventilatory support if necessary depending on the clinic MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary Endpoint: Initiation of mechanical ventilation, from randomization until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first Secondary Endpoints: Safety; ascertainment of Adverse Effects/Serious Adverse Events, from randomisation to ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs firstCytokine Storm measured by: Tumor necrosis factor α, Interleukin 6, Interleukin 1β. […] Days 1,3,5,10,15 and/or at hospital dischargeMortality and/or need for Critical Care admission, from randomisation until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first,O2 saturation levels , from randomization until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs firstNeed for supplemental oxygen, from randomisation until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first RANDOMISATION: The patients are classified according to their oxygen levels as mild, moderate and severe and randomized according to their classification to the intervention and control in a ratio of 1:1.
32589189 The main outcome was COVID-19 severity assessed on a 7-point ordinal scale (ranging from 1 [not hospitalized with no limitations on activities] to 7 [death]) with a cutoff at 3 (hospitalized and not requiring supplemental oxygen).
32589691 Additionally, patients who underwent at least one of the following treatments were assigned to the severe group: continuous renal replacement therapy, high-flow oxygen absorption, noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
32590322 Exercising with facemasks may reduce available Oxygen and increase air trapping preventing substantial carbon dioxide exchange.
32590779 The results of blood gas analysis indicated that the partial pressure of oxygen was 84 mm Hg with oxygen 8 L/min, and the oxygenation index was less than 200 mm Hg.
32590819 Nine patients required high flow oxygen.
32591667 The following sequence was also suggested as early supportive therapy and monitoring: intravenous fluid administration, oxygen therapy, and application of corticosteroids.
32593060 In the patient side, prioritisation is performed using a contracted patient decision matrix constructed between ‘serological/protein biomarkers and the ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to fractional inspired oxygen criteria’ and ‘patient list based on novel MCDM method known as subjective and objective decision by opinion score method’.
32593202 On admission, he was tachypnoeic and in severe hypoxic respiratory failure with dangerously low peripheral oxygen saturations (SpO2 ) 83% on 15L oxygen.
32594085 The patient’s O2 saturation was 80% using an oxygen mask, which was gradually declining. […] Punctual and early use of HP and CRRT in the treatment of ARDS in patients with COVID-19 prevented the progression of ARDS and patient intubation, reduced respiratory distress and the patient’s dependence on oxygen, prevented other complications such as AKI and septic shock in the patient, and reduced mortality and hospital length of stay.
32596244 Therefore, in this review, we summarize the mounting evidence obtained from preclinical studies using animal models of lethal pneumonia where curcumin exerts protective effects by regulating the expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory factors such as IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and COX-2, promoting the apoptosis of PMN cells, and scavenging the reactive oxygen species (ROS), which exacerbates the inflammatory response.
32596641 Ten cases (38.5%) demonstrated moderate to severe sleep apnoea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) when using an oxygen desaturation index ≥15 times/hour as the cut-off value.
32597503 However, sustaining redox homeostasis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in neutrophils are critical during chemotaxis, oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation.
32597954 Illness severity correlated directly with plasma MPO-DNA complexes (P = .0360), whereas Pao2/fraction of inspired oxygen correlated inversely (P = .0340).
32599101 In 5 of the 28 cases, sampling of the patient’s environment yielded SARS-CoV-2; index cases who required supplemental oxygen had higher odds of environmental contamination (P = .01).
32599285 This paper discussed nocturnal oxygen therapy as a new option for people with COVID-19 under home quarantine. […] It suggested that nocturnal oxygen therapy in the early stages may be helpful in preventing disease progression by inhibiting the rapid replication of the virus and improving the body’s antiviral ability.
32600316 Activating the cholinergic antiinflammatory path might be considered to alleviate severe COVID-19 with or without concurrent oxygen-induced lung injury.
32600350 At presentation, his oxygen saturation was 94.2% on room air and body temperature was 37.3 °C (99.0 °F) with some moist rales.
32601006 Eventually, the endotracheal tube was feasibly removed after intubation for 18 days and subsequently replaced with noninvasive ventilation and a high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy.
32601125 ACE2 could be implicated in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by endothelial dysfunction due to viral damage. […] This implies a pivotal role played by oxygen in the pathogenetic mechanism of COVID-19 disease, in that its availability would tune the oxidant state and consequent damage.
32602262 AHRF was defined as requiring 15L of supplemental oxygen via non-rebreather mask combined with 6L nasal cannula or use of ≥95% oxygen by high flow nasal cannula.
32602676 The patients who met the primary outcome were older in age (56.5 years vs 50 years), had significantly higher SOFA scores (6 vs 3.5), were in shock (41.7% vs 5%), in higher respiratory distress (66.7% vs 10%), had lower mean arterial oxygen saturation (85% vs 89.5%), had higher CK-MB values (66 vs 26)U/L [6(54.5%) vs 2(9.5%)], had hypoalbuminemia (100% vs 50%) and acute kidney injury 8(72.7%) vs 5(23.8%) on admission.
32603572 He was commenced on broad-spectrum antimicrobials and oxygen therapy.
32603901 We found no significant difference between patients with and without asthma in terms of severity (length of stay, maximal oxygen flow needed, noninvasive ventilation requirement, and intensive care unit transfer); 52.2% of the patients with asthma had Global INitiative for Asthma step 1 asthma.
32604593 The aim of our study is to propose a remote patient monitoring solution through a smart phone application (Smart Patient) collecting health data to support diagnosis, monitoring and predicting poor outcome in asymptomatic/mild cases of COVID-19, including signs and symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, medications and vital signs such as body temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate and oxygen saturation.
32605182 We studied the potential mechanisms of e-cig vape cartridge aerosol induced inflammatory response by evaluating the generation of reactive oxygen species by MCT, VEA, and cartridges and their effects on the inflammatory state of pulmonary epithelium and immune cells both in vitro and in vivo. […] Cells exposed to these aerosols generated reactive oxygen species, caused cytotoxicity, induced epithelial barrier dysfunction, and elicited an inflammatory response.
32607928 Cox proportional hazard regression modeling showed an increased risk of in-hospital mortality associated with age older than 50 years (hazard ratio [HR] 2.34, CI 1.47-3.71), systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg (HR 1.38, CI 1.06-1.80), a respiratory rate greater than 24 per min (HR 1.43, CI 1.13-1.83), peripheral oxygen saturation less than 92% (HR 2.12, CI 1.56-2.88), estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73m2 (HR 1.80, CI 1.60-2.02), IL-6 greater than 100 pg/mL (HR 1.50, CI 1.12-2.03), D-dimer greater than 2 mcg/mL (HR 1.19, CI 1.02-1.39), and troponin greater than 0.03 ng/mL (HR 1.40, CI 1.23-1.62).
32609284 It is recommended to confirm pregnancy and disease early on, to use technological resources for screening and providing guidance and support to pregnant women. recommendations emphasize isolation, proper rest, sleep, nutrition, hydration, medications, and in the more severe cases, oxygen support, monitoring of vital signs, emotional support, and multiprofessional and individualized care.
32609464 At baseline, muscle function was consistent with intensive care unit-acquired weakness and the patient still needed mechanical ventilation (MV) and oxygen support.
32610262 RECOVERY trial is the only randomized controlled trial that has shown a significant reduction of death by 35% in ventilated patients and by 20% amongst patients on supplemental oxygen therapy with the dexamethasone, although no benefit was observed in mild cases.
32610859 All 4 patients in the severe category had raised FDP, D-Dimer levels and they needed oxygen support. […] Patients with older age and associated comorbid conditions (COPD and diabetes) seem to have greater risk for lung injury thereby requiring oxygen support during the course of disease and these patients also had greater derangement in their biochemical profile.
32612430 Safety issues related to infection spread limit the use of high flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in hypoxic patients.
32615317 Meanwhile, we revealed that metabolic, glucocorticoid, and reactive oxygen species-associated networks were enriched in both short- and long-term infection models.
32616134 Methods Totally 63 discharged patients in Wuhan,China,who underwent both chest CT and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)from February 1 to February 29,2020,were included.With RT-PCR as a gold standard,the performance of chest CT in diagnosing COVID-19 was assessed.Patients were divided into mild/moderate and severe/critical groups according to the disease conditions,and clinical features such as sex,age,symptoms,hospital stay,comorbidities,and oxygen therapy were collected.CT images in the recovery phase were reviewed in terms of time from onset,CT features,location of lesions,lobe score,and total CT score. […] 53.85%; χ2=18.90, P<0.001), lower nasal oxygen therapy ratio (81.08% vs. 
32617244 This case highlights the risk of delayed thromboembolic complications in patients with COVID-19 infection and the need to identify the subgroup of patients with a higher risk of thromboembolism, such as discharges to nursing homes and those in need of oxygen requirement; and those with underlying comorbid conditions that may require anticoagulation for a longer duration.
32617738 Patients with ODs less frequently needed oxygen therapy.
32618262 The CXR score showed a significant positive correlation with C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and fever duration, and a negative correlation with oxygen saturation.
32618463 In the emergency department, it is included the management of suspicious cases and, if it any risk factor is found, complementary tests are carried out for precise diagnosis and admission assessment; In case of oxygen saturation <95% and poor general condition, valuation is requested for admission to the ICU.
32618497 Multivariate analysis showed that oxygen requirement and fever during admission were the only clinical factors independently associated with higher NAb titers.
32618794 On hospital day 3, owing to increased dyspnea and oxygen requirement, the patient was treated with tocilizumab followed by 5 days of remdesivir.
32619764 Among the five patients treated, two needed mechanical ventilation and one needed high-flow cannula oxygen.
32620311 Every patient sent a daily clinical questionnaire with temperature and oxygen saturation 3 times a day.
32622450 Medical management is mostly supportive with antipyretics, hydration, oxygen supplementation, and other measures as dictated by clinical need.
32624494 In a substantial number of patients, adequate arterial oxygenation cannot be achieved with supplementary oxygen therapy alone.
32628003 Outcomes, including clinical improvement, mortality and changes in oxygen-support at 24, 48, and 72 hours, and 7, 14, and 28 days post-tocilizumab, are reported.
32628931 Herein, we investigate associations between VL and parameters, such as severity of symptoms, disposition (admission versus direct discharge), length of hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit, length of oxygen support, and overall survival in 205 patients from a tertiary care center in New York City. […] No significant association was noted between VL, admission to intensive care unit, length of oxygen support, and overall survival.
32629703 He was treated with oxygen, broad-spectrum antibiotics, antiviral drugs, and methylprednisolone.
32631405 Percentage of oxygen saturation (SpO2 level) 5.
32632417 Supplemental oxygen therapy was required in 18 patients (56·3%), with high-flow requirements in six (18·7%). […] Severe cases of pneumonia requiring supplemental oxygen were more likely to exhibit bilateral alveolar or interstitial infiltrates on chest X-ray (55·6% vs. […] 0·0%; P-value = 0·05) at admission than those with no oxygen requirements.
32632667 The effect was reversible upon release of the ulnar artery. (c) To test for collateral perfusion undetectable by pulse-oximetry, we measured regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) of the thenar muscle by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).
32633068 Seventy-two patients (85.7%) had respiratory insufficiency, required oxygen supplementation, and had reduced mobility or were bedridden. […] Significant differences between subjects with and without DVT were D-dimer > 3000 µg/L (P < .05), current or previous cancer (P < .05), and need of high flow nasal oxygen therapy and/or non-invasive ventilation (P < .01).
32633712 All women requiring oxygen >5 L/min were intubated.
32633856 Symptoms such as fever or cough, and signs such as oxygen saturation or lung auscultation findings, are the first and most readily available diagnostic information.
32634734 Unlike patients with other forms of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, these patients do not exhibit increased lung stiffness or dramatic dyspnea., even in the presence of arterial blood oxygen levels lower than that seen normally in mixed venous blood. […] Urgent intubation and mechanical ventilation with high inflation pressures and raised inhaled oxygen concentration have proved unhelpful or worse, but why? […] Search for an open PFO after a large drop in arterial oxygen saturation can be performed at the bedside with a variety of well-established techniques including bedside echocardiography, nitrogen washout test, and imaging studies.
32635353 We present the case of a 48-year-old male with severe COVID-19, on the verge of meeting intubation requirements, who needed progressive oxygen support for respiratory distress.
32637278 Poor clinical outcomes of critically ill patients are most likely due to the impaired gaseous exchange in the lungs in addition to the decreased oxygen-carrying capacity caused by the destruction of red blood cells.
32639236 Patients were matched on positive end-expiratory pressure, fractional inspired oxygen tension, and respiratory rate.
32639466 Critical illness was associated with older age (p = 0.017), longer duration of symptoms (p = 0.036), and lower oxygen saturation on presentation (p = 0.016); with more thrombocytopenia (p = 0.015); higher C-reactive protein (p = 0.031); and lower WBC count (p = 0.039).
32641037 Muscle satellite cell (MuSC) oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate was measured.
32643529 Interestingly, among the identified NLPs, four bis([1,3]dioxolo)pyran-5-carboxamide derivatives showed ΔGbinding > -56.0 kcal/mol, forming essential short hydrogen bonds with HIS163 and GLY143 amino acids via dioxolane oxygen atoms.
32644215 For parameters to be measured at the hospital entrance, age, clinical history, National Early Warning Score2 (NEWS2, a multiparametric score system), partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F ratio), C-reactive protein, and blood cell count were selected.
32644254 TCZ was administered followed by methylprednisolone to patients with >3L oxygen requirement and pneumonia severity index score ≤130 with computed tomography scan changes.
32645044 Due to the overwhelming of our system, a total of 14 patients (17.1%) were treated in the ICU, 83% of deaths never received Critical Care Support, only 40% had mechanical ventilation support despite 100% needing oxygen and the leading cause of death being pulmonary.
32645300 She was tachycardic, febrile, and had an oxygen saturation of 88% on room air. […] On Day 2, she became hypoxic requiring 6 L oxygen. […] Inflammatory markers subsequently improved and she was weaned off oxygen.
32645630 Type I interferons seem to improve respiratory distress, relieve lung abnormalities, present better saturation, reduce needs for supplemental oxygen support.
32646502 Patients will be followed-up by specialist physicians and Primary Health Care professionals. - Men and women. - Age between 18 and 75 years old. - Diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection, by PCR and/or IgM+ antibody test and/or antigen test. - Clinical diagnosis of lung involvement: (respiratory symptoms +/- pathological auscultation +/- O2 desaturation) - Chest X-ray with mild-moderate alterations or normal. - Patients who give their verbal informed consent in front of witnesses, which will be reflected in the patients’ medical records. - Oxygen desaturation below 93% or P02 < 62. - Moderate-severe dyspnea or significant respiratory or general deterioration that makes admission advisable. - Chest X-ray with multifocal infiltrates. - Insulin-dependent diabetes with poor control or glycaemia in the emergency room test greater than 300 mg/ml (fasting or not). - Other significant comorbidities: Severe renal failure (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min); cirrhosis or chronic liver disease, poorly controlled hypertension. - Heart rhythm disturbances (including prolonged QT). - Severe immunosuppression (HIV infection, long-term use of immunosuppressive agents); cancer. - Pregnant or breast-feeding women. - Patients under use of glucocorticoids for other diseases. - History of allergy or intolerance to any of the drugs in the study (prednisone, azithromycin or hydroxychloroquine). - Patients who took one or more of the study drugs in the 7 days prior to study inclusion. - Patients taking non-suppressible drugs with risk of QT prolongation or significant interactions. - Patients unwilling or unable to participate until study completion. - Participation in another study.
32647324 Of 190 patients with CLL and confirmed COVID-19 diagnosed between 28/03/2020 and 22/05/2020, 151 (79%) presented with severe COVID-19 (need of oxygen and/or intensive care admission).
32648899 More than 75% of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 require supplemental oxygen. […] Emerging data indicate that dexamethasone therapy reduces 28-day mortality in patients requiring supplemental oxygen compared with usual care (21.6% vs 24.6%; age-adjusted rate ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.74-0.92]) and that remdesivir improves time to recovery (hospital discharge or no supplemental oxygen requirement) from 15 to 11 days.
32653511 In contrast, some studies have reported that EPA and DHA can make cell membranes more susceptible to non-enzymatic oxidation mediated by reactive oxygen species, leading to the formation of potentially toxic oxidation products and increasing the oxidative stress.
32654557 When comparing exposure to RAAS inhibitors and nonexposure to RAAS inhibitors for intensive care unit admission, high-flow oxygen therapy, and death, the adjusted odds ratios (95% CIs) were 1.515 (0.402-5.701), 0.663 (0.272-1.619), and 1.363 (0.513-3.662), respectively.
32654656 Methodology: Although the dominant approach for these asymptomatic/paucisymptomatic patients is to monitor oxygen saturation, we suggest additionally considering the potential merits and utility of home-based imaging.
32654921 Automatic recording was made of demographic variables, severity parameters, laboratory data, assisted ventilation (HFO: high-flow oxygen therapy and IMV: invasive mechanical ventilation), oxygenation (PaO2, PaO2/FiO2) and complications. […] High-flow oxygen therapy was used in 62.7% of the patients, with failure in 85%.
32654963 Compared with patients in the highest RVLS tertile, those in the lowest tertile were more likely to have higher heart rate; elevated levels of D-dimer and C-reactive protein; more high-flow oxygen and invasive mechanical ventilation therapy; higher incidence of acute heart injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and deep vein thrombosis; and higher mortality.
32658884 Sixty-five patients adhere the televideoconsultation completely and were cured, also with home oxygen therapy and other treatments additional to the standard anti-inflammatory and antibiotic drugs.
32660611 Secondary Objectives • Number of days free of mechanical ventilation at Day 29 • Duration of intensive care unit stay at Day 29 • Change from baseline in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at Day 29 • Change from baseline in peripheral capillary oxygen saturation/ fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2 /FiO2) at Day 29 • Duration of hospitalization at Day 29 • Survival (based on all-cause mortality) at Day 60 and Day 90 Safety • Incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events and treatment-emergent serious adverse events.
32661507 In addition to routine care and measures-such as oxygen therapy, antiviral therapy, and respiratory support-treatment of underlying disease, nutritional support, sputum expectoration complication prevention, and psychological support should also be considered for elderly patients.
32666316 Oxygen saturation level, CRP, LDH, and blood cell counts were collected and compared between CT/RT-PCR classes.
32667150 Outcome measures evaluated at the admission in Rehabilitation Unit were: type of respiratory supports needed, fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), FIO2/PaO2, Barthel Index (BI), modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) Dyspnoea Scale, and 6-Minute Walking Test (6-MWT).
32667669 Independent risk factors associated with mortality included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.60-1.92), male sex (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.31-1.88), high fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), high positive end-expiratory pressure (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06) or low Pao2:Fio2 ratio (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74-0.87) on ICU admission, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.28-2.19), hypercholesterolemia (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), and type 2 diabetes (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.39).
32668763 Meta-analysis of treatment approaches indicated that three modalities of treatment were predominantly used in the majority of patients with a similar prevalence, including antiviral agents (79%), antibiotics (78%), and oxygen therapy (77%). […] Moreover, treatments such as antiviral agents, antibiotics, and oxygen therapy which are used in over three quarters of patients are also analyzed.
32670524 Six patients had pneumonia, and 4 needed oxygen therapy. […] A rapid clinical improvement of tachypnea/dyspnea and oxygen saturation was observed, after red blood cell exchange transfusion, in a young girl with SCD and worsening of anemia (Hb level from 9.2 g/dl to 6.1g/dl).
32671348 To design and test a ventilator circuit that can be used for ventilation of two or more patients with a single ventilator, while allowing individualization of tidal volume, fractional concentration of oxygen, and positive end-expiratory pressure to each patient, irrespective of the other patient’s respiratory system mechanics.
32672430 For each patient, as gas exchange index through the alveolocapillary membrane, we determined the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (AaDO⁠2) and the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient augmentation (AaDO⁠2 augmentation). […] For each patient, as measurement of hypoxemia, we determined oxygen saturation (SpO2), partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO⁠2), PaO⁠2 deficit and the ratio between arterial partial pressure of oxygen by blood gas analysis and fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F). […] Patients of ICU Group had lower oxygen saturation, PaO⁠2, P/F and higher heart rate, respiratory rate, AaDO⁠2, AaDO⁠2 augmentation and lactate than patients of Non-ICU Group.
32672840 During a median follow-up of 20 days, 30 (13.8%) patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for high-flow nasal cannula or higher-level oxygen support measures to correct hypoxemia.
32672860 Lymphocyte count and pulse oximetry oxygen saturation/FiO2 ratio increased by days 3 and 5, whereas C-reactive protein levels dropped by day 2.
32674190 CT of the lung showed extensive bilateral ground glass opacities.The patient was treated according to a predefined standard, including oxygen supplementation and, after intermittent worsening, with CPAP-ventilation.
32674191 The patient was initially treated with highflow oxygen via nasal cannula (HFNC) and CPAP for two days but had to be intubated and mechanically ventilated. […] After discontinuation of ECMO and 11 days of intermittent assisted ventilation via tracheostoma and low dose oxygen (1 l/min), the patient could be transferred to rehabilitation.
32676371 Disease severity was determined by the need for supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation. […] Patients who needed supplemental oxygen (n=19, 17.4%) were significantly older (P<0.001) and significantly more of them had co-morbidities (P=0.011). […] CRSinitial ≥5 had a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 92% in predicting the need for oxygen, and 73% sensitivity and 88% specificity in predicting the need for mechanical ventilation. […] CRS between the 6th and 10th day from the onset of symptoms (CRSD6-10) ≥5 had a sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 95% in predicting the need for oxygen, and 100% sensitivity and 86% specificity in predicting the need for mechanical ventilation.
32678530 41.4%; rate ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.81) and among those receiving oxygen without invasive mechanical ventilation (23.3% vs. […] In patients hospitalized with Covid-19, the use of dexamethasone resulted in lower 28-day mortality among those who were receiving either invasive mechanical ventilation or oxygen alone at randomization but not among those receiving no respiratory support.
32678799 In Montgomery County, Maryland, measurements of oxygen saturation (SpO2) by pulse oximetry obtained by the emergency medical service (EMS) were added to these traditional metrics to enhance the public health picture for decision makers.
32679582 Supportive and symptomatic treatments (oxygen therapy and antibiotics for preventing/treating bacterial coinfections) are recommended in these patients.
32680760 Included are the first 3 weeks of screening by our physicians for potential exposure to COVID-19, common symptoms, temperature, blood oxygen saturation, and heart rate.
32680896 Physical examination, bedside echocardiography, hemodynamic monitoring, lactate and venous oxygen saturation are important components of the patient evaluation.
32681847 Accordingly, at many health-care facilities, patients who had increasing oxygen requirements were emergently intubated and mechanically ventilated to avoid exposure to aerosol-generating procedures.
32684211 Ramsay score, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) before sedation and at 1, 12, 24 hours after sedation, sleep time were collected, and the side effects such as excessive sedation, fall of tongue, abdominal distension, aspiration, bradycardia, escalation to invasive mechanical ventilation during 24 hours were also collected.
32685081 The patient was afebrile, had an oxygen saturation of 100%, and denied chest pain as well as shortness of breath.
32685300 Within a short period after they were administered tocilizumab, their oxygen saturation improved and other inflammatory markers such as D-dimer levels, lactate dehydrogenase, and ferritin levels decreased.
32685326 The symptoms started to resolve on pharmacological treatment and supplemental noninvasive oxygen supply over the next weeks.
32686375 In our case, we performed tracheostomy for a 70-year-old man with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who had required more oxygen with gradual weakness of respiratory muscle to maintain his arterial oxygen saturation.
32687485 CASE REPORT A 46-year-old female with past medical history of diabetes mellites, hypertension, and asthma presented in the emergency department (ED) with dyspnea requiring 6 liters per minute of oxygen on presentation.
32687538 The capacity of Kenyan hospitals to absorb increases in caseload due to COVID-19 is constrained by the availability of oxygen, with only 58% of hospital beds in hospitals with oxygen supply. […] Additional investments will however need to be strategically prioritized to focus on strengthening essential services first, such as oxygen availability before higher cost investments such as ICU beds and ventilators.
32687823 Patients were evaluated for ECMO support based on a partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio of less than 150 mm Hg or pH of less than 7.25 with a partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide exceeding 60 mm Hg with no life-limiting comorbidities.
32690096 The treatment of patients includes supportive treatment, antiviral treatment, and oxygen therapy.
32690324 The process described was equivalent to the oxygen transport system.
32690356 There are significant logistical challenges to providing respiratory support devices, beyond simple oxygen flow, when centres run out of supplies or do not have these devices at all, such as in low resource settings.
32690444 Ten patients (58.8%) received intranasal oxygen, while 3 (17.6%) received non-invasive mechanical ventilation, and 4 (23.5%) received high-flow oxygen.
32690572 The patient was admitted for 1 day; immunosuppressive therapy with tacrolimus and low-dose prednisolone was continued; and the patient recovered successfully without the use of antiviral agents or oxygen therapy.
32690998 We present a case of a young veteran who presented with e-cigarette vaping associated lung injury (EVALI) to a primary care clinic and who required subsequent inpatient admission and home oxygen therapy after discharge.
32692228 However, a technical standard for oxygen therapy nursing, as well as how this would improve clinical outcomes and symptoms, is yet to be explored. […] Fifteen patients who did not receive oxygen therapy and 13 patients who were transferred from other hospitals were excluded. […] The rest of the 30 patients that received standardized oxygen therapy in our unit were included in the study. […] Baseline characteristics, symptoms, and finger pulse oxygen saturation were collected during hospitalization. […] The fingertip oxygen saturation was 94.80%±3.49% at ICU admission and 97.8%±1.27% when transferred out of ICU after standardized oxygen therapy (P<0.005). […] The standardized oxygen therapy nursing strategy for patients with COVID-19 emphasizes the nursing measurement, which focuses on the patient’s oxygenation. […] It is led by nurses and starts oxygen therapy at an earlier stage.
32693650 This retrospective study included patients with severe COVID-19 requiring oxygen therapy who received tocilizumab in seven centers across Poland. […] Sixteen patients (57%) no longer needed oxygen therapy within a week (p < 0.001).
32695322 Four of seven (57%) received oxygen therapy, one (14%) received noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation, five (71%) received antiviral and antibacterial drugs, three (43%) recieved glucocorticoid therapy and one (14%) received continuous renal replacement therapy.
32695323 Eighty percent of patients received supplemental oxygen; none received non-invasive ventilation, one was intubated.
32696108 Dexamethasone 6 mg once daily (either by mouth or by intravenous injection) for 10 days may result in a reduction in mortality in COVID-19 patients by one-third for patients on ventilators, and by one-fifth for those receiving oxygen.
32696443 Therefore, several empirical oxygenation support initiatives have been initiated with intermittent hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy to overcome the unrelenting and progressive hypoxemia during maximum ventilator support in intubated patients, despite high FiO2.
32697030 Following this, the patients’ saturation improved, later to be weaned from oxygen support.
32698822 Oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (SpO2/FiO2) has been described as potential predictor of poor outcome for COVID-19, without considering its time-varying behavior though.
32699094 Severe cases of COVID-19 can result in lung damage, low blood oxygen levels, and even death.
32699149 Around the tenth day after diagnosis, ∼20% of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pneumonia evolve toward severe oxygen dependence (stage 2b) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (stage 3) associated with systemic inflammation often termed a “cytokine storm.” […] All of the patients treated with anakinra improved clinically (P < 0.01), with no deaths, significant decreases in oxygen requirements (P < 0.05), and more days without invasive mechanical ventilation (P < 0.06), compared with the control group.
32699167 In addition to fever and symptom surveillance in the control group, subjects in the intervention group will wear wearable biosensors on their arms to continuously monitor skin temperature, respiratory rate, blood pressure, pulse rate, blood oxygen saturation and daily activities.
32700604 This hyperinflammation leads to worsening of oxygen saturation due to pulmonary infiltration and exudation, organ damage, and dysfunction of coagulation pathway and may lead to multi-organ failure.
32701913 The multidisciplinary assessment comprises a complete physical examination, respiratory evaluation (peripheral oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, dyspnoea assessment, lung ultrasound and pulmonary function), cardiovascular assessment (electrocardiography, echocardiography), nutritional assessment (anthropometrics, mini Nutritional Assessment screening tool), neurological examination including cognitive tests, and mental health assessment.
32701969 Thirty-one percent of patients who were receiving mechanical ventilation at the time of HCQ initiation died during their hospitalization, compared to 18% of patients who were receiving supplemental oxygen but not requiring mechanical ventilation, and 8% of patients who were not requiring supplemental oxygen.
32702153 68.3% received oxygen support; all patients received antiviral therapy, and 15 (36.6%) recipients were additionally treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and interferon-α.
32702930 These women began to exhibit fever or reduced blood oxygen saturation again.
32706108 In some patients, conventional (passive) oxygen therapy alone is sufficient. […] In patients with worsening respiratory failure high flow nasal oxygen therapy (HFNOT) may be effective.
32706407 However, dead spaces would not be sensible to oxygen supplementation, and also, enlargement of pulmonary vessels it has been evidenced. […] Shunt mechanism by vasodilatation, instead, could explain decubitus dependence in oxygenation by blood redistribution as observed in these patients, and moreover, would be more sensible to oxygen supplementation than dead spaces.
32706769 CASE REPORT A 48-year-old man with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus presented to the Emergency Department with acute-onset pleuritic chest pain that had developed 1 day earlier and was found to be hypoxemic, requiring supplemental oxygen. […] The patient’s pleuritic pain and oxygen requirements improved with supportive management over the next several days.
32706859 Inclusion criteria were similar between studies: patients had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, were hospitalized, had oxygen saturation 94% or lower on room air or required supplemental oxygen, and had pulmonary infiltrates.
32706953 We conducted a multicenter, randomized, open-label, three-group, controlled trial involving hospitalized patients with suspected or confirmed Covid-19 who were receiving either no supplemental oxygen or a maximum of 4 liters per minute of supplemental oxygen.
32707264 In this clinical trial, conducted in Iran, we enrolled patients with COVID-19 who were older than 60 years and hospitalized to receive supplementary oxygen for their documented pneumonia. […] With a response rate of 80%, whole-lung irradiation in a single fraction of 0.5 Gy had encouraging results in oxygen-dependent patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
32707480 This position paper of the Respiratory Support and Chronic Care Group of the French Society of Respiratory Diseases is intended to help respiratory clinicians involved in care of COVID-19 pandemic in the rational use of non-invasive techniques such as oxygen therapy, CPAP, non-invasive ventilation and high flow oxygen therapy in managing patients outside intensive care unit (ICU).
32707945 It seems that the stimulation of a proinflammatory cascade and the production of large amounts of reactive oxygen species culminates in the subsequent loss of host eubiosis.
32708430 The inflammatory response manifested by increased cytokine levels and reactive oxygen species results in inhibition of heme oxygenase (HO-1), with a subsequent loss of cytoprotection.
32708578 A common denominator in all conditions associated with COVID-19 appears to be the impaired redox homeostasis responsible for reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation; therefore, levels of glutathione (GSH), the key anti-oxidant guardian in all tissues, could be critical in extinguishing the exacerbated inflammation that triggers organ failure in COVID-19.
32709637 Outcome measures were level of oxygen therapy, discharge and death.
32709838 Her vital signs were normal except for oxygen saturation of 87% and bilateral rhonchi on lung auscultation.
32710297 Such programs include diagnostic procedures (spirometry, ECG, blood tests) and treatments like respiratory physio-kinesiotherapy and postural drainage of the lungs; mechanical pulmonary ventilation for rehabilitative purposes, with or without drugs, along with standard medical and, when required, oxygen therapy; inhalation therapies with mineral waters; physical activity and psychological support.
32710975 High IL-6 level, C-reactive protein level, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, ferritin level, d-dimer level, neutrophil count, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were all predictive of mortality (area under the curve >0.70), as were low albumin level, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, and ratio of peripheral blood oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2).
32712235 He was tachypneic and presented severe hypoxemia (75% percutaneous oxygen saturation).
32713377 During the peak of COVID-19 attendance, the ED faced an extraordinary increase in: patients needing oxygen (+239%) or NIV (+725%), transfers to the intensive care unit (+57%), and in-hospital mortality (+309%), as compared to the same period in 2019.
32714705 His PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) was under 100, even with tracheal intubation with 100% oxygen.
32715804 Given the persistent hypoxemia despite oxygen therapy via non rebreather face mask (FiO2:80%), convalescent plasma transfusion was administered that led to a mild clinical improvement as well as decrease in inflammatory markers.
32717853 Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promoting molecules such as peroxides are detrimental to many viruses, including coronaviruses.
32720612 Shortness of breath considerably decreased; oxygen saturation increased, and the NEWS-2 clinical status scale scores decreased.
32721528 IL6ri were initially reserved for critically ill patients, but after review, treatment was liberalized to patients with lower oxygen requirements. […] Patients were divided into two groups: those requiring ≤45% fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (termed stage IIB) and those requiring >45% FiO2 (termed stage III) at the time of IL6ri administration.
32723327 Preserved oxygen saturation despite low partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood samples occur, due to leftward shift of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve induced by hypoxemia-driven hyperventilation as well as possible direct viral interactions with hemoglobin.
32723435 The overall outcome was severe, with high frequencies of hospitalisation (69.8%), respiratory support oxygen (55.7%), non-invasive ventilation (20.9%) or mechanical ventilation (7.5%), and 19% of deaths.
32723449 Supplemental oxygen, high flow nasal canula, non-invasive ventilation and endotracheal intubation are the most commonly suggested methods to improve oxygenation.
32726724 Thoracic computed tomography (CT) was performed on admission, when oxygen support was necessary, and seven days after TCZ started. […] The median duration of oxygen support before the onset of TCZ was shorter among the severe patient group than the critical patient group (1 vs. 4 days, p < 0.001). […] Earlier use of TCZ in COVID-19 infection was beneficial for survival, length of hospitalization and duration of oxygen support. […] The recommendation for administration of TCZ was based on an increase in requirement of oxygen support, progression in thoracic CT, and elevation of inflammation markers, including IL-6, CRP, ferritin, and d-dimer, and decrease in % lymphocytes.
32727624 The trial objective is to determine if Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) or High-Flow Nasal Oxygen (HFNO) is clinically effective compared to standard oxygen therapy in patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19. […] 1) Adults ≥ 18 years; 2) Admitted to hospital with suspected or proven COVID-19; 3) Receiving oxygen with fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ≥0.4 and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤94%; and 4) Plan for escalation to tracheal intubation if needed. […] Intervention two: High-flow nasal oxygen delivered by any device. […] Comparator group: Standard care- oxygen delivered by face mask or nasal cannula (excluding the use of continuous positive airway pressure or high-flow nasal oxygen). […] Participants are randomised in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive either continuous positive airway pressure, high-flow nasal oxygen or standard care.
32728438 Adverse outcomes analysed included supplemental oxygen use, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation and mortality, with the primary endpoint a composite of any of these.
32728966 Secondary objectives were to test the association between LUS score and location of the patient, use of mechanical ventilation, and the pulse oximetry (SpO2)/fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio.
32730358 Five significant variables predicting ICU admission were lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, pulse oxygen saturation, smoking history, and lymphocyte count. […] Seven significant variables predicting mortality were heart failure, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulse oxygen saturation, heart rate, and age.
32730678 All patients had a high C-reactive protein value. 64% of patients required oxygen support and 32% intensive care. 28% developed a secondary infection. 76% (19/25) of the patients has been discharged with cure and 20% (5/25) died. […] Secondary infection development was significantly associated with oxygen demand (P = 0.027) and need for intensive care (P = 0.001).
32731283 Poor oxygen saturation (< 88 %) and increased signs of inflammation (CRP > 97 mg/l and/or IL-6 > 80 pg/ml) indicate a critical course and should be determined in symptomatic patients.
32733907 All the patients had fever, required non-invasive oxygen therapy and presented a CT lung involvement on imaging more than 50%. […] Results: The two cohorts of patients were comparable for age, sex, laboratory values, concomitant pathologies, and the modality of oxygen support.
32736596 The study will include hospitalised adult patients (≥18 years) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, the virus that causes COVID-19, that clinically meet Grades 3 (hospitalised - mild disease, no oxygen therapy), Grades 4 (hospitalised, oxygen by mask or nasal prongs) and 5 (hospitalised, non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen) of the WHO Working Group on the Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 9-point category ordinal scale.
32738287 We collected sociodemographic information, clinical data, baseline inflammatory markers and follow-up oxygen saturation levels.
32738843 One patient needed oxygen support while hospital course was uncomplicated in the rest.
32739471 Activated vascular endothelial cells become a source of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contribute to the development of coagulopathy, systemic sepsis, a cytokine storm and ARDS.
32740128 Gas blender attached to ECMO is used to allow precise adjustment of characteristics of fresh gas flow, i.e. blood oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal. […] In order to cope with the gas blender shortage, we describe a back-up system set up in our French tertiary referral ECMO center using air and oxygen flowmeters.
32743995 Disease severity scores were defined as: 1) no limitation of daily activities; 2) limitation of daily activities but no need for supplemental oxygen; 3) supplemental oxygen via nasal cannula; 4) supplemental oxygen via facial mask; 5) non-invasive mechanical ventilation; 6) invasive mechanical ventilation; 7) multi-organ failure or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy; and 8) death. […] In Korea, almost all patients of < 50 years of age with COVID-19 recovered without supplemental oxygen.
32745862 Singlet oxygen (1O2) is a reactive oxygen species that plays important role in bacteria/virus inactivation and pollutant degradation. […] It was confirmed that irradiation of the RB filter under oxygen gas stream produced 1O2, which was measured using furfuryl alcohol trapping method followed by HPLC analysis.
32745895 PaO2/FIO2 ratio and oxygen saturation (SaO2) were decreased in critically ill patients.
32747596 A 60-year-old man with swab-positive COVID-19 and extensive ground-glass change seen on CT imaging was successfully managed on our COVID-19 high-dependency unit with only low-flow oxygen and strict awake proning instructions. […] He was successfully weaned off oxygen entirely without any requirement for non-invasive or invasive ventilation and made a recovery to be discharged home after an 18-day hospital stay.
32752010 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the corona virus disease-19 which is accompanied by severe pneumonia, pulmonary alveolar collapses and which stops oxygen exchange.
32753516 Review of the records revealed 138 (92%) patients had pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography, and 146 (97%) required oxygen therapy.
32754041 Cellular therapy, along with organ support systems such as oxygen therapy, artificial ventilation, extra corporeal membrane oxygenation and dialysis, as well as antiviral therapy, are required.
32755117 HFNC provides higher concentration and flow of oxygen, resulting in decreasing anatomic dead space by preventing rebreathing and ensure positive end-expiratory. […] The available reports suggest that HFNC provides high concentrations of oxygen to the patients, who can not reach with conventional devices. […] Besides that, the use of high-flow oxygen cannulas can produce aerosols.
32755653 Pulmonary computerized tomography (CT)-scans were performed significantly more often with time (from 50% to 90%, P<0.0001), and oxygen-dependency (53% vs 80%, P=0.001) and prescription of AZI±HCQ (from 25% to 76%, P<0.0001) were also greater over time. […] The present study showed a significant decrease in admission to ICU over time, which was probably related to multiple factors, including a better indication of pulmonary CT-scan, oxygen therapy, and a suitable prescription of anti-infective agents.
32755777 The Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand values reduced by 42.83% and 39.25%, respectively, compared to the pre-lockdown phase, while Faecal Coliform declined by over 40%.
32756215 The patient was treated with a moderate dose of intravenous corticosteroids and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy.
32757500 Five patients required supplemental oxygen and one required mechanical ventilation.
32758659 Seventeen factors were independently associated with an increased hazard of death, the strongest among them including advanced age, liver cirrhosis, low age-adjusted oxygen saturation, higher concentrations of C-reactive protein and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate.
32758842 The impact could be seen in terms of increased dissolved oxygen (DO) and reduced biological oxygen demand (BOD), Faecal coliform, Total coliform and nitrate (NO3-) concentration.
32758897 We observed too, the markedly reduced local inflammation in the airways after administering NIH lays on its ability to inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase and to markedly diminish reactive oxygen species (ROS).
32758904 N-acetylcysteine is one such drug with potency to scavenge Reactive Oxygen Species, least side effects, and an effective precursor of glutathione.
32761491 With MSC transplantation, the fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) of the two patients gradually decreased while the oxygen saturation (SaO2) and partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) improved.
32762665 Patients with severe/critically ill COVID-19 were more likely to be older, to be single onset (i.e. not belong to a cluster of cases in a family/community, etc.), to have a medical history of hypertension and diabetes; had higher temperature, faster respiratory rates, lower peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2), and higher computer tomography (CT) image quadrant scores and pulmonary opacity percentage; had increased C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and D-dimer on admission; and had lower white blood cells, lymphocyte, and platelet counts and albumin on admission than asymptomatic/mild/moderate cases.
32762737 Daily body temperature and oxygen saturation were recorded as markers of disease severity alongside need for hospitalisation. […] The correlation between chemosensitive scores and oxygen saturation was significant only for taste at T2 (p < 0.001).
32762885 Multiple pathways have been suggested to explain this finding and the related clinical scenarios, encompassing local and systemic inflammatory responses and oxygen supply-demand imbalance.
32763089 Anesthesia nurses have their own professional specialties, such as airway management, the use and maintenance of life support equipment, including ventilators, and the use of high-flow oxygen equipment.
32763101 He had rapidly evolving ARDS [partial arterial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspired concentration of oxygen ratio: 175], and sepsis.
32763657 Human Coronavirus (HCoV) infection causes infiltration of inflammatory cells that cause excessive production of cytokines, proteases, coagulation factors, oxygen radicals and vasoactive molecules causing endothelial damage, disruption of fibrous cap and initiation of formation of thrombus.
32764134 We calculated oxygen consumption (OC). […] There was no significant increase in oxygen during ship transport and no major respiratory complication. […] There was no significant increase in arterial oxygen pressure to fractional inspired oxygen ratio among ventilated patients during ship transport.
32765959 Roughly 71.4% of the older adults require supplementary oxygen, while invasive mechanical ventilation was required in almost a third of the reported hospitalized older individuals. […] Risk for mortality is evident, and attention to the need for supplementary oxygen and possible mechanical ventilation is advised.
32766535 Seven patients received high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy and five received non-invasive mechanical ventilation for lung complications of COVID-19.
32766565 Patients treated with oxygen were assigned to the moderate group (n = 13).
32766567 The strongest combination of clinical, chest radiograph, and lung ultrasound factors for diagnosis was nondependent bilateral pulmonary edema pattern with temperature and oxygen saturation (area under the curve, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.94; sensitivity = 77% [58-93%]; specificity = 76% [53-94%] at the ideal cutoff), which was superior to chest radiograph alone.
32767353 Outcome indicators were death or LOS, and laboratory parameters, e.g., variations in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2, mmHg) to fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) (PaO2/FiO2), and leucocyte count.
32768701 Clinical characteristics and outcomes were retrospectively analysed of patients - with laboratory-confirmed bilateral COVID-19 pneumonia, hyperinflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) ≥20 mg/dL), no hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation >90%), and no contraindications to TCZ - who were treated with subcutaneous TCZ (324 mg) administered within 48 h from hospitalization on top of standard of care (SOC). […] TCZ resulted in a parallel improvement in oxygenation, as assessed by the ratio of partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F) ratio, which increased at day 1 (+11%, IQR +6 to +16; p = 0.005 for within-group and p = 0.006 for between-group comparisons), and day 3 (+23%, IQR +16 to +34; p = 0.005 for within-group and p = 0.003 for between-group comparisons). […] None of the TCZ-treated patients had disease progression, defined as requirement of oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, whereas progression occurred in five (50%) patients among the SOC group.
32768971 The clinical management of COVID-19 has been limited to infection prevention and control measures associated with supportive care such as supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation.
32769659 Recent evidence supports the use of an early, short course of glucocorticoids in patients with COVID-19 who require mechanical ventilation or oxygen support.
32770858 The viral infection leads to severe lack of oxygen, lung oxidative stress because of reactive oxygen species generation, and overactivation of the immune system by activating immune mediators.
32771461 Therapeutic approaches based on these principles include 1) reduction of reinoculation, 2) combination antiviral therapy, 3) immunomodulation, 4) antiplatelet/antithrombotic therapy, and 5) administration of oxygen, monitoring, and telemedicine.
32771635 Patients with anosmia had pneumonia less often (10/37 vs 17/33, p = 0.036), were hospitalized less often (13/37 vs 20/33, p = 0.033), and needed oxygen therapy less often (6/37 vs 17/33, p = 0.002) than patients without anosmia.
32771883 Factors predicting survival were a female sex (OR 0.271; 0.128-0.575, p = 0.001), previous treatment with RAAS inhibitors (OR 0.459; 0.222-0.949, p = 0.036), a higher oxygen saturation at admission (OR 0.901; 0.842-0.963 per percentage point increase, p = 0.002), and a greater platelet count (OR 0.995; 0.991-0.999 per 106/L, p = 0.025).
32772283 Additionally, preexisting cardiovascular disease, malignancy, blood oxygen saturation < 90%, leukocytosis, and lymphopenia at presentation were independently associated with a greater risk of developing cardiac injury.
32773102 In this review, we suggest that the overwhelming production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in oxidative stress is a major cause of local or systemic tissue damage that leads to severe COVID-19.
32773414 Only five (3.5%) patients required oxygen supplementation, four (2.8%) patients had severe disease requiring intensive care, one required mechanical ventilation and mortality occurred in two (1.4%) patients.
32773848 High flow nasal oxygen, face mask ventilation, nebulisation, small bore cannula cricothyroidotomy with jet ventilation should be avoided.
32774178 At present, COVID-19 is managed by available antiviral drugs to improve the symptoms, and in severe cases, supportive care including oxygen and mechanical ventilation is used for infected patients.
32775071 Awake proning delays the use of mechanical ventilation and facilitates the patients with severe ARDS or severe pneumonia in maintaining the supply of oxygen to the body tissues.
32775986 Hydroxychloroquine was administered to 15 patients. 11 patients required supplemental oxygen; 2 of them were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with mechanical ventilation.
32776298 Hospitalized patients ≥18 years old with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were treated with either HCQ or LPV/RTV if they had either respiratory insufficiency (SpO2 ≤ 93% on room air or the need for oxygen insufflation) or bilateral consolidations on chest X‑ray and at least 2 comorbidities associated with poor COVID-19 prognosis.
32776617 Once SARS-CoV-2 enters the blood stream, a cascade of events (Steps 1-8) unfolds including accumulation of angiotensin II, reactive oxygen species, endothelial dysfunction, oxidation of beta 2 glycoprotein 1, formation of antiphospholipid antibody complexes promoting platelet aggregation, coagulation cascade, and formation of cross-linked fibrin blood clots, leading to pulmonary emboli (PE) and large vessel strokes seen on angiographic imaging studies.
32777054 The five double-elite enhancer/promoters that are known to be operational, and shared read-through lncRNA transcripts, imply that ongoing SARS-CoV-2 infection will reduce host defences to reactive oxygen species, directly generate superoxide O2 - and H2O2 (a “ROS storm”), and impair pulmonary endothelial homeostasis.
32777268 Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by orthostatic oxygen desaturation and positional dyspnea from supine to an upright position. […] POS was first observed during physiotherapy sessions; median oxygen desaturation was 8 % (range: 8-12 %).
32779309 Insufficiency of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 in pregnant women and the effects of hypoxia on the placental oxygen supply will cause severe perinatal complications.
32779728 We will allocate 1000 adult patients with COVID-19 receiving ≥10 L/min of oxygen or on mechanical ventilation to intravenous hydrocortisone 200 mg daily vs placebo (0.9% saline) for 7 days.
32779828 Our objective was to evaluate patient-reported oxygen saturation (SpO2) using pulse oximetry as a home monitoring tool for patients with initially non-severe COVID-19 to identify need for hospitalization.
32779925 Data were collected on diagnostic status (COVID-19: confirmed/excluded (using the RT-PCR test)), symptomatology (typical/atypical and other symptoms, body temperature and oxygen saturation) and, in the case of confirmed COVID-19, on disease course (recovered/clinically improved/deteriorated, deceased).
32781167 Venous oxygen saturation was frequently measured (79%), mostly from a CVC blood sample (94%).
32784238 On initial assessment the patient was hypoxic (arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) of 86% on room air), requiring 10 L/min of oxygen to maintain 98% SaO2 Examination demonstrated left-sided tracheal deviation and absent breath sounds in the right lung field on auscultation.
32784240 However, with the patient requiring an increasing fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), a prompt CT pulmonary angiogram scan was performed to exclude an acute pulmonary embolism.
32785285 Multivariate regression identified the amount of supplemental oxygen required at admission (OR: 1.208, 95% CI: 1.011-1.443, p = .037), sputum production (OR: 6.734, 95% CI: 1.630-27.812, p = .008), insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (OR: 11.873, 95% CI: 2.218-63.555, p = .004) and chronic kidney disease (OR: 4.793, 95% CI: 1.528-15.037, p = .007) as significant risk factors for intensive care unit admission or death. […] Patients with increased sputum production and higher supplemental oxygen requirements at admission, and insulin dependent diabetes or chronic kidney disease may be at increased risk for severe illness.
32787397 The treatment of severely ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has brought the worldwide shortage of oxygen and ventilator-related resources to public attention. […] Most patients need oxygen and supportive therapy. […] In Africa, the shortage of oxygen is even more severe and needs equipment that is simpler to use than a ventilator. […] Different models of generating oxygen locally at hospitals, including at provincial and district levels, are required. […] In some countries, hospitals have established small oxygen production plants to supply themselves and neighbouring hospitals. […] Oxygen concentrators have also been explored but require dependable power supply and are influenced by local factors such as ambient temperature and humidity. […] The local and regional energy unleashed in the citizens to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic should now be directed towards developing appropriate infrastructure for oxygen and critical care.
32788008 All patients had a positive nucleic acid test for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and were discharged after clinical treatment with oxygen therapy, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and nutritional support.
32788025 To make a new simple respirator and observe the oxygen therapy effect of the respirator on patients with severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Based on the infectivity and hospital requirements of COVID-19, a new simple respirator was designed by the medical staff of the Department of Anesthesiology of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, which was applied on the 22 patients with severe and critical COVID-19 who needed oxygen therapy admitted to the Cancer Center of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology from February 15th to March 15th in 2020. […] The new simple respirator contained two National Utility Model Patents (a respirator: ZL 2015 2 0410623.6, a fluid switch and oxygen suction device: ZL 2017 2 0873509.6), which was mainly composed of anesthesia mask and filter, L-shaped connecting tube, soft breathing bladder, connecting tube and elastic fixing belt. […] When in use, the anesthesia mask was fixed to the patient’s mouth and nose with elastic straps, the connecting tube was inserted into the oxygen meter interface, the oxygen flow was adjusted to 6-10 L/min, and the L-shaped connecting tube was opened immediately after the soft breathing bag was full. […] The carbon dioxide and excess oxygen in the body was discharged from exhaust port. […] The oxygen flow was lowered to 2-3 L/min, the patient’s respiratory rate (RR) was observed through the soft breathing bag fluctuations, and the oxygen flow was adjusted at any time. […] The changes of pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), RR and heart rate (HR) before and after application of new simple respirator were observed, and the blood gas test results of part of the patients were collected. […] The new simple respirator can significantly improve the oxygen therapy effect of patients with severe and critical COVID-19.
32789084 Sore throat (25%), fatigue (25%), and low oxygen saturation (25%) were present in one patient which prompted us to get the COVID-19 test.
32789988 In this ICU readmitted group, the mean oxygen index, FiO2 , and mortality rate were higher and the PaO2 /FiO2 ratio was lower than those of the nonreadmitted patients.
32793725 Clinical symptoms, including fever, heart rate, and oxygen levels, improved after Tocilizumab use.
32794245 However, her oxygen saturation gradually declined, and she died 10 days after hospitalization.
32794415 High body mass index, previous history of coronary heart disease, lactic acid accumulation, and a decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen were associated with death.
32795828 Adverse pregnancy outcomes were associated with infection acquired at early gestational ages, more symptomatic presentation, myalgia symptom at presentation, and use of oxygen support therapy.
32795898 This study evaluated the potential efficacy of a novel approach to treat COVID-19 patients, using an oxygen-ozone (O2-O3) mixture, via a process called Oxygen-Ozone- Immunoceutical Therapy.
32796809 On admission, he had no dyspnea and his oxygen saturation (SpO₂) level was normal.
32798339 All the patients were given oxygen by non invasive technique, in 46(12.3%) intubation and invasive ventilation required. […] “Happy Hypoxia”, hyperglycemia, high inflammatory markers (IL-6, ferritin), and ARDS were hallmark of critical COVID-19, early detection of factors associated with severity and mortality and starting the multipronged management with oxygen in prone position, hydroxychloroquin, antiviral, methylprednisolone, anticoagulants, tocilizumab early may help in halting the worsening of COVID and reduce morbidity and mortality.
32798340 To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in Central India and to evaluate risk factors leading to requirement of oxygen, mechanical ventilation and mortality. […] During hospitalization, 14.52% adults (median age, 50 years; 49.05% male) were on oxygen support, and 13% received mechanical ventilation (median age, 54 years; 63.26% male). […] Presence of Lymphopenia, and Comorbid condition were identified as risk factors for requirement of oxygen, mechanical Ventilation and death.
32798660 TCZ was used in patients in critical condition (oxygen therapy flow at TCZ onset was 10.5 L/min and 14/30 patients had ≥ 50% lung involvement on CT scan) as a rescue treatment (8/30 patients who died were not admitted in USC in regard to their comorbidities).
32800073 At admission, 55 (50%) patients had a fever, 29 (26%) had a respiratory rate exceeding 24 breaths/minute, and 78 (70%) received supplemental oxygen.
32801291 Ringer’s lactate infusion was administered at a controlled rate to treat the rhabdomyolysis along with boluses of normal saline, with close monitoring of her oxygen saturation and kidney function.
32802622 Main outcomes and measures Assessed measures were patients’ characteristics, fever, shortness of breath (SOB), cough, oxygen saturation/pulse oximetry (POX), radiologic improvements, laboratory tests, DOXY side effects, hospital transfers, and death. […] Higher pre- and post-treatment POX is associated with lower mortality (oxygen saturation (Spo2) vs. 
32802627 Additionally, AKI was significantly associated with a lower PaO2/FiO2 (partial pressure of arterial oxygen/percentage of inspired oxygen) ratio (P < 0.001) and a greater number of medications for COVID-19 pneumonia (P = 0.003).
32803468 The duration of prone positioning was 75 (30-480) min, and the peripheral oxygen saturation was 91% (84-95) supine and 98% (92-100) prone.
32803484 The presence of cardiac injury, D-dimer, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), LV-GLS (OR 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.47; p = 0.010) and RV-LS (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.07-2.25; p = 0.019) were identified as independent predictors of mortality via multivariate analysis.
32804395 Key difficulties that needed to be overcome in planning COVID-19 medical care delivery in a non-traditional space included oxygen delivery, unknown future patient populations, and staffing.
32804682 Patients that received a high dose of vitamin D supplementation achieved normalization of vitamin D levels and improved clinical recovery evidenced by shorter lengths of stay, lower oxygen requirements, and a reduction in inflammatory marker status.
32804789 Lung function, lung scarring, sepsis, shortness of breath, and oxygen level in the blood were common to the top 10 outcomes across all three groups (mean > 7.5, median ≥ 8, and > 70% of respondents rated the outcome as critically important).
32804917 Ozone therapy consists of administration of a mixture of oxygen and ozone (a molecule consisting of 3 oxygen atoms). […] CASE REPORT We report rapidly improved hypoxia with associated decreases in inflammatory markers and D-dimer immediately after 1-4 sessions of oxygen-ozone (O₂-O₃) therapy in 3 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who presented with respiratory failure.
32805728 Bioinformatics findings indicate that the mechanisms of action of VA against SARS-CoV-2 include enrichment of immunoreaction, inhibition of inflammatory reaction, and biological processes related to reactive oxygen species.
32808513 Patients were classified into mild and non-mild groups on initial admission according to oxygen demand and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, and the mild group was followed up and subgrouped into non-aggravation and aggravation groups.
32808941 Metabolic rates, carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption were measured by indirect calorimetry. […] Mild hypothermia decreased the REE on average of 27.0% with resultant declines in CO2 production (VCO2) and oxygen consumption (VO2) by 29.2% and 25.7%, respectively.
32809050 In stable patients with oxygen treatment (stage I) HCQ (18.3%), azithromycin (16.9%) and Ig (9.9%) were most frequently used.
32809207 Fraction of inspired oxygen, P/F ratio, respiratory rate, heparin administration, D-dimer, IL-6, ferritin and CRP showed correlation with DVT.
32809969 We provided evidences that baricitinib-treated patients have a marked reduction in serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a rapid recovery in circulating T and B cell frequencies, and increased antibody production against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which were clinically associated with a reduction in oxygen flow need and progressive increase in the P/F.
32810081 Thus, oxygen supplementation without aggressive pulmonary hygiene management may be suboptimal.
32811531 Clinical symptoms of weakness and fatigue, shortness of breath, and low oxygen saturation obviously improved beginning on the third day of stem cell infusion and reached a significant difference on day 7.
32811801 The proportions (95% confidence interval) of patients requiring any form of oxygen therapy, oxygen therapy by high-flow nasal cannula and invasive mechanical ventilation were 77, 21.7 and 25.5 per cent, respectively, within 24 h of hospital admission. […] Nearly half of the patients presented with severe and critical disease and required high-flow nasal oxygen or invasive mechanical ventilation at admission.
32812204 Patients with severe COVID-19 at admission, based on low oxygen saturation, low partial arterial oxygen pressure, were excluded. […] The most contributory variables to the models were APACHE II score, white blood cell count, time from symptoms to admission, oxygen saturation and blood lymphocytes count.
32814566 The current target oxygen saturation range for patients with COVID-19 recommended by the National Institutes of Health is 92-96%. […] This article critically examines the evidence guiding current target oxygen saturation recommendation for COVID-19 patients, and raises important concerns in the extrapolation of data from the two studies stated to be guiding the recommendation. […] Finally, it discusses potential implications of specific clinical observations and considerations in COVID-19 patients on target oxygen saturation, such as diffuse systemic endothelitis and microthrombi playing an important pathogenic role in the wide range of systemic manifestations, exacerbation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in the setting of pulmonary vascular endothelitis/microthrombi, the phenomenon of “silent hypoxemia” with some patients presenting to the hospital with severe hypoxemia disproportional to symptoms, and overburdened health systems and public health resources in many parts of the world with adverse implications on outpatient monitoring and early institution of oxygen supplementation. […] The above factors and analyses, put together, call for an urgent exploration and re-evaluation of target oxygen saturation in COVID-19 patients, both in the inpatient and outpatient settings. […] Until data from such trials become available, where possible, it may be prudent to target an oxygen saturation at least at the upper end of the recommended 92-96% range in COVID-19 patients both in the inpatient and outpatient settings (in patients that are normoxemic at pre-COVID baseline). […] Home pulse oximetry, tele-monitoring, and earlier institution of oxygen supplementation for hypoxemic COVID-19 outpatients could be beneficial, where public health resources allow for their implementation.
32814839 Patients had severe pulmonary disease defined by pulmonary infiltrates on imaging and an oxygen saturation ≤ 93% in air and/or PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 300 mmHg. […] Clinical improvement was not affected by low-flow versus high-flow oxygen support but was less frequent in patients with PaO2/FiO2 < 200 mmHg.
32815344 The patients were categorised in three groups on the basis of the treatment they received for respiratory failure (oxygen alone, supplemental non-invasive ventilation (NIV), and intubation/ventilator) and described using descriptive statistics. […] Eleven patients received ventilator treatment, seven oxygen by mask, and four supplemental NIV. […] All patients treated with oxygen and NIV were alive and had been discharged from hospital. […] For many patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure and need for intensive care, increased oxygen and NIV are sufficient, but the need for intubation must be continuously assessed.
32815354 A total of 49 patients (67 %) had hypoxaemia and required oxygen therapy for an average of 10.1 days. […] The majority of the patients hospitalised with COVID-19 needed prolonged oxygen therapy, and there was a high incidence of severe complications.
32815513 The acute respiratory phase in both patients was treated with supplemental oxygen.
32815745 Background: Since partial oxygen pressure decreases as altitude increases, environmental hypoxia could worsen Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient’s hypoxemia.
32816059 Compassionate treatment with a single 1‑Gy dose to the bilateral whole-lung volume was administered, with gradual daily improvement of ventilatory function and decrease in serum inflammatory markers and oxygen support needs, including intubation.
32816615 Various scientific studies demonstrated that Sumac had a free oxygen radical-scavenging effect, a protective effect against liver damage, antihemolytic, leukopenia, and antifibrogenic effects, along with its antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties.
32816941 Patient initially had poor endurance and was only able to ambulate with a front wheel walker for 150 feet, and also had tachycardia and decreased oxygen saturation after ambulation. […] Patient also showed improvement in gait speed, heart rate, oxygen saturation after ambulation and incentive spirometer volume.
32817258 It advocates for assessment of oxygen needs at discharge and more comprehensive assessment of rehabilitation needs including physical as well as mental aspects 6-8 weeks after discharge.
32819292 Peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) changed after each session.
32820143 We stabilized clinical parameters related to the patient’s main underlying health conditions (blood glucose and pain levels and oxygen saturation).
32821939 Randomized, open-label trial of hospitalized patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and moderate COVID-19 pneumonia (pulmonary infiltrates and room-air oxygen saturation >94%) enrolled from March 15 through April 18, 2020, at 105 hospitals in the United States, Europe, and Asia.
32822208 Rationale: Aerosol generation with modes of oxygen therapy such as high-flow nasal cannula and noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation is a concern for healthcare workers during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. […] The amount of aerosol generation from the respiratory tract with these various oxygen modalities is unknown.Objectives: To measure the size and number concentration of particles and droplets generated from the respiratory tract of humans exposed to various oxygen delivery modalities.Methods: Ten healthy participants with no active pulmonary disease were enrolled. […] Oxygen modalities tested included nonhumidified nasal cannula, face mask, heated and humidified high-flow nasal cannula, and noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. […] Aerosol generation was measured with each oxygen mode while participants performed maneuvers of normal breathing, talking, deep breathing, and coughing. […] This was the case during normal breathing, talking, deep breathing, and coughing.Conclusions: Oxygen delivery modalities of humidified high-flow nasal cannula and noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation do not increase aerosol generation from the respiratory tract in healthy human participants with no active pulmonary disease measured in a negative-pressure room.
32822564 Exact logistic regression was used to examine the association between the infection groups and the development of hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen (an indicator of severe COVID-19, the primary endpoint). […] Development of hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen was less frequent in the ∆382 variant group (0 [0%] of 29 patients) than in the wild-type only group (26 [28%] of 92; absolute difference 28% [95% CI 14-28]). […] After adjusting for age and presence of comorbidities, infection with the ∆382 variant only was associated with lower odds of developing hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen (adjusted odds ratio 0·07 [95% CI 0·00-0·48]) compared with infection with wild-type virus only.
32823497 Furthermore, both hesperidin and ascorbic acid counteract the cell damaging effects of the oxygen free radicals triggered by virus infection and inflammation.
32826432 However, the clinical effectiveness of early high-flow nasal oxygen treatment in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure has not been explored. […] This study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of high-flow nasal oxygen treatment and to identify the variables predicting high-flow nasal oxygen treatment failure in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. […] Forty-three confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 adult patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure treated with high-flow nasal oxygen. […] High-flow nasal oxygen failure (defined as upgrading respiratory support to positive pressure ventilation or death) was observed in 20 patients (46.5%), of which 13 (30.2%) required endotracheal intubation. […] Patients with high-flow nasal oxygen success had a higher median oxygen saturation (96.0% vs 93.0%; p < 0.001) at admission than those with high-flow nasal oxygen failure. […] High-flow nasal oxygen failure was more likely in patients who were older (p = 0.030) and male (p = 0.037), had a significant increase in respiratory rate and a significant decrease in the ratio of oxygen saturation/FIO2 to respiratory rate index within 3 days of high-flow nasal oxygen treatment. […] In a multivariate logistic regression analysis model, male and lower oxygen saturation at admission remained independent predictors of high-flow nasal oxygen failure. […] The hospital mortality rate of the cohort was 32.5%; however, the hospital mortality rate in patients with high-flow nasal oxygen failure was 65%. […] High-flow nasal oxygen may be effective for treating coronavirus disease 2019 patients with mild to moderate acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. […] However, high-flow nasal oxygen failure was associated with a poor prognosis. […] Male and lower oxygenation at admission were the two strong predictors of high-flow nasal oxygen failure.
32828864 To investigate environmental SARS-CoV-2 contamination in the isolation rooms of severe COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen therapy. […] Patients 1 and 2 received mechanical ventilation with a closed suction system, while patient 3 received high-flow oxygen therapy and non-invasive ventilation.
32831319 Since maybe not all COVID-19 neurological manifestations are due to SARS-CoV-2 direct effects, it is important to monitor the rest of the clinical parameters such as, for example, oxygen saturation.
32832735 His pulse was 54 beats/min, oxygen saturation was 99%, arterial blood pressure was 122/82 mmHg, and fever was 36.5°C.
32833671 One-hundred(91.7%) patients required oxygen therapy, which improved percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2). […] Our findings suggest that oxygen plays an important role in the treatment of COVID-19 patients and that age and underlying diseases are significant risk factors for COVID-19.
32833773 Respiratory failure due to the virus should be managed by providing supplemental oxygen and early intubation.
32835245 The other inclusion criteria were either laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 or typical lung infiltrates on a lung CT scan, and either an oxygen saturation of 93% or less under oxygen 6 L/min or more, or aggravation (saturation ≤93% under oxygen 3 L/min) with a loss of 3% of oxygen saturation in ambient air over the previous 24 h.
32835257 All patients were treated with the standard of care (ie, supplemental oxygen, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, antiretrovirals, and low molecular weight heparin), and a non-randomly selected subset of patients also received tocilizumab.
32835272 Coronary angiography was performed with the patient in prone (face down) position, owing to the necessity to maintain a reasonable oxygen saturation during the examination.
32836648 I organize these directions and considerations into two sets of five each: focal groups that should be studied-i.e., underprivileged populations, different countries and cultural contexts, women (vs. men), workers in healthcare (frontline workers), elderly and at-risk-and five general issues and special considerations-i.e., role of technology as the oxygen, pre- vs. mid- vs. post-COVID studies, constraints on data collection/research due to COVID, evolution of COVID, and focus on contextualization (generalizability is irrelevant).
32837057 Takuo Aoyagi who invented pulse oximetry to measure the oxygen saturation in the blood in 1974.
32837300 The majority of patients have respiratory symptoms (e.g., cough and reduced peripheral oxygen saturation) and fever.
32837409 Based on the algorithm, COVID-19 inpatients were selected to receive telerehabilitation if they could ambulate independently, could use technology, had stable vital signs, required minimal supplemental oxygen, and were cognitively intact. […] They demonstrated independence with their individualized home exercise programs in one to two sessions, did not require an in-person rehabilitation consultation, did not require increased oxygen, experienced no exacerbation of symptoms, and were discharged home.
32837497 Its efficiency relies on the photocatalytic generation of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon UV illumination, and on a particularly high dielectric constant of TiO2, which is of paramount importance for enhanced wettability by the water droplets carrying the germs.
32837666 He had severe respiratory failure with a partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fraction of inspiratory oxygen ratio (P/F ratio) of 203.
32837669 The authors present the case of a young man victim of a traffic accident during the SARS-CoV-2 confinement, having presented a fracture of the femoral shaft that was soon complicated by respiratory failure with oxygen desaturation.
32838082 Thirty-three (75%) patients required oxygen therapy, including 15 (45.5%) who were referred to the intensive care unit.
32838142 In our hospital, we have instituted strategies to rationalise drug and oxygen usage.
32838144 On day 4, rapid clinical deterioration associated to a high respiratory rate and increased oxygen requirements was noted. […] Oxygen was administered at a rate of 15 litres per minute via a Boussignac valve, which initially restored normal oxygen saturation, but this treatment was poorly tolerated and the patient withdrew it after 2 h. […] We would like to encourage the use of CPAP, better tolerated for extended hours with lower oxygen flows, in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, where acute respiratory distress all too often leads to patient intubation and the genesis of deleterious lung lesions.
32838170 The objective of this review is to enhance the awareness regarding the safety aspects towards infection prevention practices and to offer solutions for safe patient care practices including side effects of disinfectants and precaution in specific medical facilities especially in hemodialysis rooms, intensive care unit, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) chambers, or patient transport vehicle.
32838181 The patients improved oxygen saturation, as observed by the lower number of desaturations and the lower supply of O2.
32838199 According to regression analysis, older age (OR = 1.06; P < 0.001), blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) < 88% (OR = 2.88; P = 0.03), and higher chest CT total score (OR = 1.10; P = 0.03) were significant predictors for in-hospital death.
32838244 Among those discharged alive (n = 213), 70 (32.9%) were discharged to a post-acute facility, 31 (14.6%) newly required supplemental oxygen, 19 (8.9%) newly required tube feeding, and 34 (16%) required new prescriptions for antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, methadone, or opioids.
32838293 This patient, who had risk factors for deterioration (male, pancytopaenic), did not develop an oxygen requirement and clinically and biochemically improved rapidly on Anakinra with no adverse events.
32838373 High Velocity Nasal Insufflation (HVNI) and High Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC) deliver High Flow Oxygen (HFO) therapy, established as a competent means of supporting oxygenation for acute respiratory distress patients, including that precipitated by COVID-19. […] Here, we present a subsequent high-resolution simulation (higher complexity/reliability) to provide a more accurate and precise particle characterization on the effect of surgical masks on patients during HVNI, Low-Flow Oxygen therapy (LFO2), and tidal breathing.
32839287 For all patients, we suggest a holistic package of care to address breathlessness, anxiety, oxygen requirement, palliative care and rehabilitation.
32839534 Of the patients, 48 were treated in the ICU with a high flow oxygen/noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV, n = 12) or mechanical ventilation (n = 36).
32840387 In MA-induced OA rat, the tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factors, reactive oxygen species, as well as all the mitochondrial markers such as mitochondria membrane potential, swelling mitochondria, cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), and serum oxidative/antioxidant status (malondialdehyde level and activities of myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase) are elevated.
32841212 Interestingly, higher frequency of cTFH-EM cells correlated with lower number of recorded admission blood oxygen level in convalescent patients.
32842058 Among clinical variables, the combination of peripheral capillary oxygen saturation on hospital admission, duration of symptoms, platelet counts, and patient age provided an AUC of 0.81 for predicting patient outcomes.
32842269 Results: There was statistical significance in age, respiratory frequency, systolic blood pressure, symptoms of dyspnea, previous chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease history, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, C-reactive protein, platelet counting, aspartate transaminase, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, urea, estimated glomerular filtration rate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, D-dimer, CD3+, CD4+, partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure of CO2, blood oxygen saturation, other organ injury, clinical outcome and prognosis between patients with myocardial injury and without myocardial injury (all P<0.05).
32842957 He progressed to ARF requiring high-flow-nasal-cannula (flow: 60 L/minute, fraction of inspired oxygen: 40%). […] His ratio of partial arterial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspired concentration of oxygen was < 120.
32843381 The only evidence of respiratory symptoms on admission was a 2 L oxygen requirement, maintaining oxygen saturations between 88% and 92%. […] In a matter of hours this patient developed a greater oxygen requirement, alongside reduced levels of consciousness.
32844131 Hypercoagulability and hyperinflammation were observed in COVID-19 patients, especially in men with high oxygen demand.
32844958 Similarly, the frequencies of oxygen therapy (100% vs. 33%, p=0.003), intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (67% vs. 2%, p<0.001), aspirin therapy (50% vs. 0%, p<0.001), and current acute renal replacement therapy (50% vs. 2%, p=0.002) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C.
32848446 Antiviral medication (lopinavir, darunavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, ribavirin, oseltamivir, tocilizumab, and umifenovir), ACE inhibitors, interferon-α2b, co-therapy with azithromycin, inhaling iNO, and oxygen therapy can be used for treatment.
32850082 Despite initiation of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin along with supplemental oxygen therapy, rapid disease progression consistent with cytokine release syndrome ensued, leading to initiation of mechanical ventilatory support.
32850921 Already after 48 h of ruxolitinib treatment 16/18 patients showed evident clinical improvement, and after 7 days of treatment 11/18 patients showed fully recovered respiratory function (pO2 > 98% in spontaneous breathing), 4/18 patients had minimal oxygen requirement (2-4 L/m), 1/18 patient showed stable disease, and 2/18 patient showed progressive disease.
32850926 Compared with the good outcome group, 20 (17.5%) patients in the poor outcome group more frequently exhibited lymphopenia, and lower levels of albumin, partial arterial oxygen pressure, higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, hypersensitive troponin I, C-reactive protein, ferritin, blood urea nitrogen, and D-dimer, as well as markedly higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10.
32851093 Compared with nondiabetics, patients with diabetes had an older age, high levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), D-dimer, white blood cell, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total bilirubin (TBIL), lower levels of lymphocyte, albumin and oxygen saturation (SaO2), and higher mortality (P < 0.05).
32851697 Pathway analysis revealed associations to morphogenesis of branching structure, extracellular matrix interaction, oxygen binding and antioxidant activity in ACE2+TMPRSS2+ EVT_24W cells.
32852405 Acute kidney injury occurred in 19% of patients, and 45% required supplementary oxygen.
32854630 We found that remarkably decreased ventilatory efficiency (e.g., the ratio of dead space to tidal volume 70-80%, arterial to end-tidal CO2 difference 18-23 mmHg and ventilatory ratio 3-4) and hypermetabolism (oxygen consumption 300-400 ml/min, CO2 elimination 200-300 ml/min) may explain why these patients experienced more severe respiratory distress and CO2 retention in the late phase of ARDS caused by COVID-19.
32854921 In addition, the ultrasound score correlated positively with supplemental oxygen therapy (r=0.45, p=0.041) and negatively with minimal oxygen saturation at ambient air (r=-0.652, p<0.01). […] The present study suggests that among COVID-19 patients, lung ultrasound and HRCT findings agree in quantifying lung involvement and oxygen parameters.
32856707 Disease severity was correlated with results from viral culture, serologic testing, and immune markers. 57 (57%) patients developed viral pneumonia, of whom 20 (20%) required supplemental oxygen including 12 (12%) invasive mechanical ventilation.
32857301 The disease was categorized to moderate and severe based on the severity of pneumonia and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2).
32860101 The severity of the symptoms was mild-moderate in the majority with a predominance of febrile syndrome, with mild radiological involvement and in some cases with mild respiratory distress that required oxygen therapy.
32860325 In our study, non ICU-subjects with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) more frequently required oxygen supplementation (100.0 % vs 83.7 %) and high flow nasal oxygen therapy or non-invasive ventilation (NIV) (60.0% vs 8.1%) compared to those who had no DVT (2).
32860431 Consequently, 1 (5.9%) patient was receiving low-flow oxygen supply, 3 (17.6%) patients needed no longer oxygen supply and 10 (58.8%) patients were discharged from hospital.
32860432 The primary outcome was de-escalation in oxygen therapy. […] Early treatment with TCB in patients admitted for COVID-19 led to an improvement in their oxygen status during hospitalization.
32860509 HCoV infection frequently required hospitalization (18%), oxygen administration (13%) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (3%).
32860649 85.71%) to inhale oxygen.
32861275 Median ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired air (PaO2/FiO2) was 18 kpa (IQR 15-21) and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score was 12 (10-16). 17 (44%) of 39 patients had died by day 28 of the study.
32861276 Static respiratory system compliance, the ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired air, ventilatory ratio (a surrogate of dead space), and D-dimer concentrations were measured within 24 h of ICU admission.
32861734 Adverse clinical events were defined as in-hospital mortality, admission to intensive care unit, need for high-flow oxygen and/or intubation.
32861887 Seven days later after admission, the endotracheal intubation was successfully removed, after extubation, High-Flow nasal cannula(HFNC) oxygen therapy was used as a sequential strategy to prevent reintubation.
32862472 Before treatment with TCZ, 3 patients were receiving high-flow oxygen, 4 patients low-flow oxygen and 1 case non-invasive ventilation.
32863339 Amongvital signs, systolic blood pressure (119 vs. 125 mmHg, p = 0.02), oxygen saturation (98% vs. 97%, p < 0.001), and body temperature (36.6 vs. 
32863637 Early warning scores (EWS), oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate, can facilitate categorizing COVID-19 patients as stable, unstable, and end of life.
32864341 He had unfavorable prognostic factors such as moderate oxygen impairment, positive D-dimer, increased lactate dehydrogenase and ferritin.
32864388 More patients without HIV required a higher level of supplemental oxygen on presentation than PWH.
32864514 Oxygen saturations progressively decreased over the first 3 dialysis sessions in the cohorts who progressed to future hospital admission or death.
32864608 C-reactive protein level, oxygen requirement and positive cultures were associated with prolonged duration of therapy.
32864628 Respiratory support was categorised as oxygen only, non-invasive ventilation, and intubation.
32864934 The authors of this review appeal to the necessity of paying closer attention to assess microhemodynamic repercussion, by monitoring central venous oxygen saturation during strategies of IMV.
32865072 All patients received low-molecular-weight heparin during their hospital stay and required supplementary oxygen therapy either by a nasal cannula or continuous positive airway pressure.
32865522 The patient was evaluated before and after treatment via radiological assessment of lung edema (RALE) by CXR, pulmonary severity indices, blood tests, oxygen requirements, and patient questionnaires. […] Oxygen saturation (SpO₂) increased from 93-94% to 97-100%, while the oxygen requirement decreased from 2-4 L/min to 1 L/min. […] Respiratory indices, radiological findings, oxygen requirements, and patient outcomes improved over several days and without need for a ventilator.
32866314 This article provides an overview of BioMeTs available for collecting vital signs (temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate) and discusses the strengths and limitations of continuous monitoring.
32866898 While most of the infected individuals show minimal or no symptoms and recover spontaneously, a small proportion of the patients exhibit severe symptoms characterized by extreme dyspnea and low tissue oxygen levels, with extensive damage to the lungs referred to as acute respiratory distress symptom (ARDS).
32868092 Non medication based interventions including hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), aggressive dialysis, and other interventions, all with various degrees of clinical success, and will be discussed in this section.
32868974 Oxygen saturation at rest was 93%.
32868978 The preprint of day-7 interim results by the investigators concluded, "In a small pilot trial of 5 oxygen-dependent patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, low-dose whole-lung radiation led to rapid improvement in clinical status, encephalopathy, and radiographic infiltrates without acute toxicity or worsening the cytokine storm.
32869227 CRP was moderately elevated and oxygen saturation was slightly reduced.
32870512 Supplemental oxygen is frequently administered to patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), including ARDS secondary to viral illness such as coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). […] An up-to-date understanding of how best to target this therapy (e.g. arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) or peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) aim) in these patients is urgently required. […] To address how oxygen therapy should be targeted in adults with ARDS (particularly ARDS secondary to COVID-19 or other respiratory viruses) and requiring mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit, and the impact oxygen therapy has on mortality, days ventilated, days of catecholamine use, requirement for renal replacement therapy, and quality of life. […] We included RCTs comparing supplemental oxygen administration (i.e. different target PaO2 or SpO2 ranges) in adults with ARDS and receiving mechanical ventilation in an intensive care setting. […] We excluded studies exploring oxygen administration in patients with different underlying diagnoses or those receiving non-invasive ventilation, high-flow nasal oxygen, or oxygen via facemask. […] We identified one completed RCT evaluating oxygen targets in patients with ARDS receiving mechanical ventilation in an intensive care setting. […] The study randomized 205 mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS to either conservative (PaO2 55 to 70 mmHg, or SpO2 88% to 92%) or liberal (PaO2 90 to 105 mmHg, or SpO2 ≥ 96%) oxygen therapy for seven days. […] The available data suggested that mortality at 90 days may be higher in those participants receiving a lower oxygen target (odds ratio (OR) 1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03 to 3.27). […] We are very uncertain as to whether a higher or lower oxygen target is more beneficial in patients with ARDS and receiving mechanical ventilation in an intensive care setting.
32871002 In addition to abovementioned risk factors, in patients aged between 60-79 years, coronary artery disease, oxygen support need, total number of drugs, and cerebrovascular disease during hospitalization, and in patients 80 years of age and older acute coronary syndrome during hospitalization were also associated with increased risk of mortality.
32871014 Data were collected on age, sex, physical ability, rehabilitation modality (remote/direct), need for intubation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, degree of pneumonia, oxygen therapy from the start of rehabilitation, D-dimer and C-reactive protein levels, and rehabilitation-related complications.
32871424 Demographics (age, gender, smoking status, comorbid conditions, and body-mass index), clinical variables (temperature, oxygen saturation, and symptoms), and laboratory values (white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and peak interleukin-6) were collected.
32872310 The non-invasive estimation of blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) by pulse oximetry is of vital importance clinically, from the detection of sleep apnea to the recent ambulatory monitoring of hypoxemia in the delayed post-infective phase of COVID-19. […] During resting blood oxygen saturation estimation, we found a root mean square difference of 1.47% between the two measurement sites, with a mean difference of 0.23% higher SpO2 in the right ear canal.
32872607 A risk tool was developed using a combination of machine learning methods and utilized BMI, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation.
32874907 This has led to questions regarding the most efficacious and least harmful oxygen delivery strategies that minimize exposure to health care workers. […] In this case series, we present the hospital course of 4 patients that were managed with a multi-component oxygen delivery method in a COVID-19 step down unit.
32874986 After withdrawal of MV, the patients were transitioned through NIV and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen support.
32876623 His respiratory status rapidly worsened to the point of requiring supplemental oxygen by high flow nasal cannula with FiO2 of 80%. […] The patients oxygenation improved significantly over the following days and he was discharged home with no oxygen supplementation and saturating 96% on room air.
32876689 The primary outcome, treatment failure on day 21, was defined as death or persistent dependency on mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen therapy.
32878480 Patients with severe COVID-19 are managed with oxygen support, as are at-risk individuals with chronic lung disease. […] To date, no study has examined whether an increased fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) may affect the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors and co-receptors, including ACE2 and the transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS1, TMPRSS2, and TMPRSS11D. […] Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 receptor expression was assessed in primary human nasal, tracheal, esophageal, bronchial, and alveolar epithelial cells, as well as primary mouse alveolar type II cells exposed to elevated oxygen concentrations. […] These data highlight the need for further studies that examine the relative contribution of the various viral co-receptors on the infection cycle, and point to oxygen supplementation as a potential risk factor for COVID-19.
32879035 Medical-grade oxygen supplies, reliable electricity, bioengineering support, and consumables are all needed for ventilators to save lives.
32879103 Among them, laboratory tests included white blood cell (WBC), lymphocytes (LYM), neutrophil (NEU), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (PLT), prothrombin time (PT), plasma fibrinogen (Fib), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), D-dimer, total bilirubin (TBIL), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and oxygen partial pressure in arterial blood. […] Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fractional concentration of inspiratory oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) was calculated.
32879108 Moreover, for the experimental group, the dynamic changes of blood oxygen saturation before and after the transfusion, the changes of lymphocyte absolute value 48 hours after the transfusion, and the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid were analyzed. […] For the experimental group, before, during and after the convalescent plasma transfusion, the blood oxygen saturation of all 6 patients at all time (1, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h) was more than 90%, and there was no significant fluctuation.
32880993 And alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (A-aDO2) and oxygenation index were correlated with IgA and IgG.
32881304 The association between baseline CRP, aPTT ratio, PT ratio, D-dimers, fibrinogen, FVIII, VWF:Ag and FVIII/VWF:Ag ratio levels and adverse outcomes (increased oxygen requirements, thrombosis and death at day-30) was assessed by regression analysis after adjustment on age, sex, body mass index, diabetes and hypertension. […] In univariable regression analysis increased CRP (SHR, 1.68; 95%CI, 1.26 to 2.23), increased fibrinogen (SHR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.68) and decreased FVIII/VWF:Ag ratio (SHR, 0.70 ; 95% CI, 0.52-0.96) levels at admission were significantly associated with the risk of increased oxygen requirement during follow-up. […] Coagulation biomarkers are early and independent predictors of increased oxygen requirement in COVID-19 patients.
32881350 Oxygen therapy has been ceased in three patients. […] The time from first tocilizumab administration to improvement in ventilation, defined as a 25% reduction in fraction of inspired oxygen required to maintain peripheral oxygen saturation greater than 92%, ranged from 7 hours to 4.6 days.
32881359 There were suggestions of BRH advantage over placebo in improved chest computed tomography, need for oxygen therapy, and discharge rate within 20 days.
32881982 As primary outcomes, we studied the evolution of SAFI ratio (oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen) in the first 48 hours of treatment and the time to discharge.
32884251 In addition to video telephony, electrocardiography and assessment of vitals such as pulse, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and auscultation of heart and lungs were applied frequently.
32884965 Patient age and initial oxygen requirement, but not race (adjusted proportional odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.70-1.20), were associated with worse day 14 outcomes.
32887660 The most common treatment options used were hydroxychloroquine (79.7%), ribavirin (65.2%), and oxygen therapy (78.8%).
32889236 Improvement after Tocilizumab was defined as improvement in oxygen requirement and inflammatory parameters. […] 29 (77.5%) patients showed significant improvement in oxygen requirement, inflammatory parameters and chest x-rays, out of which 28 patients were discharged home.
32889638 Oxygen delivered by ventilators is already in extensive use to provide life support for patients with severe COVID-19. […] Two articles propose to advance the use of oxygen to the level of a therapeutic treatment early in the detection of the virus in infected patients by delivering oxygen under elevated pressure in hyperbaric chambers. […] At elevated blood plasma concentrations, hyperbaric oxygen is capable of achieving results far beyond the capability of ventilators as it promotes the activation of transcription factors that control the establishment of inducible cellular defense systems.
32892061 The suggestions for mild (green)category: symptomatic treatment in ward, in moderate (yellow) category: active treatment, semi critical care and oxygen supplementation, in severe (red) category: critical care and intensive care.
32892893 Those not in respiratory failure are sent home, often with phone monitoring and/or respiratory rate and oxygen saturation monitoring.
32893160 All cases were severe and patients required oxygen administration or had a blood oxygen saturation ≤93% on room air. […] All were treated with favipiravir and methylprednisolone, and 10 of 11 patients responded well and required no further oxygen supplementation or ventilator management.
32894167 The artificial manual breathing unit (AMBU) bag connected to wall oxygen source using a flow meter was used as air reservoir.
32894436 Twenty-two percent were admitted to the ICU for mechanical ventilation, 11% had non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen, and 67% did not have specialist respiratory support.
32894566 The degradation of hemoglobin results in the impairment of oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, and the accumulation of free iron enhances the production of reactive oxygen species.
32895247 The use of PP alongside CPAP significantly increased both the ROX index and arterial oxygen pressure:fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2:FiO2) ratio from baseline values (ROX index: 7.0±2.5 baseline vs 11.4±3.7 CPAP+PP, p<0.0001; PaO2:FiO2 ratio: 143±73 mm Hg baseline vs 252±87 mm Hg CPAP+PP, p<0.01), and the changes to both the ROX index and PaO2:FiO2 ratio remained significant 1 hour after cessation of proning.
32895645 Key selection criteria included evidence of hyperinflammation, most notably elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin, and an increasing oxygen requirement. […] Clinical responses to anti-IL-6/IL-6-R therapy were accompanied by significant decreases in temperature, oxygen requirement, CRP, IL-6, and IL-10 levels.
32896292 We enrolled patients admitted to hospital with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and at least one additional severity criteria as follows: use of oxygen supplementation of more than 4 L/min flow; use of high-flow nasal cannula; use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation; or use of invasive mechanical ventilation.
32897668 Data on demography, comorbidities, vital signs, mental status, oxygen saturation, and use of supplemental oxygen at admission to the ward were collected from medical records and used to score National Early Warning Score, National Early Warning Score 2, Rapid Emergency Medicine Score, Confusion, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, Age 65 score, and quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment. […] Among the parameters of National Early Warning Score, the oxygen saturation score was found to be the most significant predictor of in-hospital death. […] The area under the receiver operating characteristic (95% CI) for oxygen saturation score was 0.875 (0.834-0.916). […] Peripheral oxygen saturation could independently predict in-hospital death in these patients.
32897885 Clinical variables significantly associated with the composite endpoint of non-rebreather or higher oxygen requirement and death (n events = 25/77) included number of co-morbidities (HR 5.41, P = 0.004), infiltrates (HR 3.08, P = 0.032), and neutropenia (HR 1.15, P = 0.04).
32899009 At the end of treatment, on day 7, patient reported resolution of fever, normalization of respiratory rate (14 breaths/min), and improved oxygen arterial pressure with a FiO2 of 30%.
32900168 She was confirmed as Sars-CoV-2-positive and experienced a steady decrease in oxygen saturation (SaO2), despite being given increasing amounts of supplemental oxygen.
32900326 Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22; P = 0.004) and hypertension (OR, 6.15; 95% CI, 1.75-29.11; P = 0.009) were associated with mortality, while early improvement in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio was associated with being discharged alive from the ICU (P = 0.002 for interaction).
32900659 He was admitted to the hospital and started to receive oxygen and favipiravir.
32900744 We present a case of a 56-year-old man with COVID-19 who presented to the fever clinic of our institution with fever and cough without any respiratory distress but low oxygen saturation. […] This case demonstrates ‘silent hypoxia’ as a possible presentation in COVID-19 and emphasises the importance of meticulous clinical examination including oxygen saturation measurements in suspected or confirmed patients.
32905265 Vital parameters including blood oxygen level, respiratory rate, pulse rate, and body temperature are crucial for triaging patients to appropriate medical care.
32905897 Both 2D:4D and the ACE I/D polymorphism are covariates of oxygen metabolism. […] COVID-19 leads to lung damage and a reduction in oxygen saturation of the blood. […] Low 2D:4D and ACE II individuals show efficient oxygen metabolism.
32907540 We reported a case of 66-year-old man infected with COVID-19, presenting with fever, cough and myalgia; The patient received supportive and empirical treatment including antiviral treatment, anti-inflammatory treatment, oxygen supply and inhalation therapy; The symptoms, CT images, laboratory results got improved after the treatments, and a throat swab was negative for COVID-19 PCR test; However, on the hospital day 30, the patient presented with a sudden chest pain and dyspnea.
32907638 Hospitalised, requiring non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen devices; 4. […] Hospitalised, requiring supplemental oxygen; 5. […] Hospitalised, not requiring supplemental oxygen - but in need of ongoing medical care (COVID-19 related or otherwise) 6. […] Hospitalised, not requiring supplemental oxygen - no longer requires ongoing medical care (independent) 7.
32907855 The final 4C Mortality Score included eight variables readily available at initial hospital assessment: age, sex, number of comorbidities, respiratory rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, level of consciousness, urea level, and C reactive protein (score range 0-21 points).
32907873 A 71-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with low oxygen saturations and symptoms consistent with COVID-19 infection.
32907890 Among all (n=349) patients hospitalised for COVID-19 in a university hospital in a French region with a high rate of COVID-19, we analysed patients who underwent CTPA for clinical signs of severe disease (oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry ≤93% or breathing rate ≥30 breaths·min-1) or rapid clinical worsening.
32908046 Furthermore, the median duration from oxygen therapy initiation to death or intubation was significantly shorter in the patients with hematological disease (5 days [range, 1-17 days] vs. 10 days [1-24 days], respectively; P<0.05).
32908840 Symptomatic treatment with oxygen supplementation and pulmonary physical therapy was initiated, and hydroxyurea was discontinued. […] Over 14 days, the patient’s blood counts slowly recovered, and his clinical condition gradually improved, such that supplemental oxygen was no longer necessary and he could be discharged.
32909713 Methemoglobin impairs hemoglobin’s ability to transport oxygen, produces functional anemia, and leads to tissue hypoxia.
32910106 Data from debriefings and observations demonstrated the following categories of latent safety threats: inadequate preparedness on infection control, uncertainty of guidelines on oxygen supplementation and intubation protocols, lack of leadership and communication, overall panic, and others.
32911986 The patient was discharged home after 47 days of hospitalization without any supplemental oxygen and was able to undergo active physical rehabilitation.
32912049 High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a widely used modality of delivering high concentrations of oxygen and airflow to patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure, but its use in patients with SARS-CoV-2 is poorly described.
32912329 Our patient was a 27-year-old Caucasian woman with a past medical history of asthma transferred from a community hospital to our medical intensive care unit for acute hypoxic respiratory failure due to bilateral pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation (ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen, 180).
32912961 SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with the development of cytokine storm (including interleukin 6 (IL-6)), which can cause lung damage and lack of oxygen. […] Respiratory rate and oxygen supplementation as well as laboratory parameters (such as C-reactive protein (CRP), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) were collected at baseline and during 14 days of follow-up. […] In each group, 10 patients no longer required oxygen therapy. […] The same number of patients were weaned off oxygen on day 14 in the two groups, while the patients in the TCZ group had more severe impairment at inclusion.
32913866 The patient was treated with supplementary oxygen by nasal cannula and gamma globulin.
32918548 For children with severe illness, defined as a supplemental oxygen requirement without need for non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation or extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), remdesivir is suggested, preferably as part of a clinical trial if available.
32918761 Eligible patients were hospitalized and required to have positive nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, be at least 18 years old, and have either dyspnea, blood oxygen saturation ≤ 93% on ambient air, respiratory frequency ≥ 30 breaths/min, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio < 300, or lung infiltrates > 50%.
32920232 NI/I-VS was defined as the need for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) (non-invasive ventilation) or mechanical ventilation, not including low-flow systems of oxygen therapy such as the Venturi mask or nasal cannula. […] Thirty-five of the 97 patients (36%) required ICU admission and 94.8% (92/97) were prescribed oxygen therapy: 10.8% (10/92) by nasal cannula, 44.5% (41/92) by Venturi mask, 31.5% (29/92) by CPAP, 2.2% (2/92) by BPAP, and 10.8% (10/92) by mechanical ventilation following intubation.
32921708 They had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, longer duration of hospitalization, ICU stay, mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. […] CRP was correlated significantly with the duration of stay in the ICU and the duration for oxygen supplementation (r = 0.37 and 0.42 respectively; p: <0.01). […] Diabetic patients had more comorbidities and more aggressive course of the disease with higher rate of ICU admission and longer need for hospitalization and oxygen use.
32922210 These three ‘Recovery’ RCTs concluded definitely: (a) that treatment with hydroxychloroquine provides no benefits in patients hospitalized with COVID-19; (b) that treatment with dexamethasone reduced deaths by one-third in COVID-19 patients that were mechanically ventilated, and by one-fifth in patients receiving oxygen only; (c) that the combination of Lopinavir and Ritonavir is not effective in reducing mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients.
32922409 Patients with evidence of progressive disease after 24 h including an oxygen saturation <93% at rest in ambient air were included at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland in April 2020. […] Immediate defervescence occurred, and inflammatory markers and oxygen supplementation decreased or stabilized in 4 patients (e.g., median C-reactive protein 203 (range 31-235) mg/L before vs. 32 (12-72) mg/L on day 5).
32922804 We followed clinical improvement in the radiological analysis (two of three cases), oxygen saturation (Spo2), respiratory rate, disappearance of dyspnoea, coughing and a decrease in NET formation and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load after the treatment.
32923016 The primary outcome was set as the time to clinical improvement, defined as normalization of body temperature, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, cough, and absorption of pulmonary infection by chest computed tomography (CT) until 28 d after randomization.
32924219 Herein it is a therapeutic based on catalase, an antioxidant enzyme that can effectively breakdown hydrogen peroxide and minimize the downstream reactive oxygen species, which are excessively produced resulting from the infection and inflammatory process, is reported.
32925581 The median period from the non-invasive mechanic ventilation (NIV) or high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) to intubation was 7 hours (IQR 2-42) in IMV survivors and 54 hours (IQR 28-143) in IMV non-survivors.
32926678 His initial oxygen saturation registered at SpO2 (blood oxygenation saturation) 55% on room air.
32926931 A negative correlation with tissue oxygen consumption (delta pO2) and compartmental fluid shift was seen in Group 1 only.
32927092 To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new treatment for COVID-19 vs. standard care, certain key endpoints are related to the duration of a specific event, such as hospitalization, ICU stay, or receipt of supplemental oxygen. […] For the analysis of ICU stay or oxygen usage, where the initiating event is potentially an outcome of treatment, standard survival analysis techniques may not be appropriate.
32928122 Secondary endpoints include the number of attempts at intubation, lowest oxygen saturation during induction, and the need for bag-mask ventilation.
32928157 At ICU admission the patient had fever and severe acute respiratory failure requiring high flow oxygen therapy.
32928319 Decreased oxygen saturation at admission was associated with increased odds of mortality (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.06-1.12; P < .001) as was diabetes (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.21-2.03; P < .001).
32928787 This single-centre retrospective study aimed to assess whether successful awake proning of patients with COVID-19, requiring respiratory support (continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) or high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO)) on a respiratory high-dependency unit (HDU), is associated with improved outcomes.
32930099 Of 2634 patients who died of COVID-19, 1478 (56.1%) had oxygen saturation levels ≥90% on presentation and required no respiratory support. […] Before the RRT/CA call, the most recent oxygen saturation levels for 852/1112 (76.6%) of these non-ICU patients were at least 90%. […] At the time the RRT/CA was called, 479/1112 patients (43.1%) had an oxygen saturation of <80%. […] Patients admitted at a non-ICU level of care suffered rapid clinical deterioration, often with a sudden decrease in oxygen saturation.
32931666 Given the high mortality and prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation of COVID-19 patients, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen for COVID-19 patients with respiratory distress. […] Patients in this trial received hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 2.0 atmospheres of pressure in monoplace hyperbaric chambers for 90 minutes daily for a maximum of five total treatments. […] We treated 20 COVID-19 patients with hyperbaric oxygen. […] Ages ranged from 30 to 79 years with an oxygen requirement ranging from 2 to 15 liters on hospital days 0 to 14. […] Among 60 propensity-matched controls based on age, sex, body mass index, coronary artery disease, troponin, D-dimer, hospital day, and oxygen requirement, 18 (30%) were intubated, 13 (22%) have died, and three (5%) remain hospitalized (with one still requiring mechanical ventilation). […] Though limited by its study design, our results demonstrate the safety of hyperbaric oxygen among COVID-19 patients and strongly suggests the need for a well-designed, multicenter randomized control trial.
32932327 The remaining patients, with late infection, were all discharged home without oxygen support, at a median of 25 days after symptom onset.
32932329 Oxygen administration (41%) and noninvasive ventilation (16%) were frequently required; however, mechanical ventilation (3%) was rarely needed. […] C-reactive protein (CRP) and prothrombin time (PT) levels were found to be higher in patients who needed supplemental oxygen (0.9 [0.1-8.6] vs. 
32932951 The main COVID-19 symptoms included benign upper respiratory infection signs (N = 9, 81.8%), diarrhea (N = 7, 63.6%), fatigue (N = 7, 63.6%), and respiratory signs (N = 5, 45.5%), including one patient who needed oxygen therapy.
32933914 We saw a reduction in oxygen requirement and improvements in inflammatory markers and ferritin.
32934000 Composite poor outcomes include intensive care unit admission, oxygen saturation <90%, invasive mechanical ventilation utilisation, severe disease, in-hospital admission and mortality.
32934372 Oxygen requirements on day 14 after transfusion worsened in 17.9% of plasma recipients versus 28.2% of propensity score-matched controls who were hospitalized with COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-0.98; chi-square test P value = 0.025).
32934903 The patient had no predisposing risk factors for pneumothorax, such as a history of trauma, smoking, past intubations, asthma, high pressure oxygen delivery, or a history of prior pneumothorax.
32935329 Patients receiving IMV were characterized by a moderately decreased median [IQR] partial pressure of oxygen:fraction of inspired oxygen (day 1 PaO2:FiO2 = 177 [138-276]; day 10 = 173 [147-227]) and compliance (day 1 = 48 [38-58] mL/cmH2O; day 10 = 34 [28-42] mL/cmH2O) and very elevated estimated dead space fraction (day 1 = 0.60 [0.53-0.67]; day 10 = 0.72 [0.69-0.79]).
32935808 Patients with room air oxygen saturation < 90% were considered as severe COVID-19, and patients with ≥90% were considered moderate COVID-19. […] According to oxygen saturation, 81 patients had moderate and 134 had severe COVID-19. […] Our findings revealed that oxygen saturation at admission and the MPV difference between the first and third days of hospitalization were significant parameters in COVID-19 patients for predicting mortality. […] While mortality was 8.4 times higher in patients who had oxygen saturation under 90 % at hospital admission, 1 unit increase in MPV increased mortality 1.76 times.
32935928 SARS-CoV-2 can cause CVD by inducing cytokine storms, creating an imbalance in the oxygen supply and demand and disrupting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; SARS-CoV-2 infection can also lead to the development of CVD through the side effects of therapeutic drugs, psychological factors, and aggravation of underlying CVD.
32936491 The total LS showed a strong correlation (r = -0.765) with the oxygen pressure-to-fraction of inspired oxygen ratio; by lung region, those with a higher correlation were the LS of the anterior region (r = -0.823) and the LS of the upper region (r = -0.731).
32937800 Secondary endpoints included favorable change in the Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement on days 14 and 28 versus baseline, proportion of patients not requiring supplemental oxygen on days 14 and 28, and proportion of patients discharged by day 28.
32938496 They will be hospitalized patients, of at least 18 years of age, with severe COVID-19 who have positive RT-PCR test and have radiographic evidence of pulmonary infiltrates by imaging or rales/crackles on exam and SpO2 ≤ 94% on room air that requires supplemental oxygen. […] Patients must present elevation of inflammatory parameters (IL-6 > 40 pg/mL or d-dimer >1.0 mcg/ml) or, alternatively, progressive worsening in at least two of these inflammatory parameters in the prior 24-48h: CRP, LDH, serum ferritin, lymphopenia, or d-dimer. high oxygen requirements (including face mask with reservoir, non-invasive mechanical ventilation or high flow nasal cannula, or mechanical ventilation), admission to ICU, pregnancy or lactation, allergy or hypersensitivity to sarilumab or corticoesteroids, immunosuppressive antibody therapy within the past 5 months, AST/ALT values > 10 x ULN, neutropenia (< 0.5 x 109/L), severe thrombocytopenia (< 50 x 109/L), sepsis caused by an alternative pathogen, diverticulitis with risk of perforation or ongoing infectious dermatitis.
32938758 Risk factors for COVID-19 patients with poorer outcomes include pre-existing conditions: obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart failure, hypertension, low oxygen saturation capacity, cancer, elevated: ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer. […] Hyperinsulinaemia mediates thrombi development via: fibrinolysis inhibition, anticoagulation production dysregulation, increasing reactive oxygen species, decreased antioxidant capacity via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide depletion, haem oxidation and catabolism, producing carbon monoxide, increasing deep vein thrombosis risk and pulmonary emboli. […] Increased haem-synthesis demand upregulates carbon dioxide production, decreasing oxygen saturation capacity.
32938838 During the first week after tracheal intubation, non-survivors displayed lower values for minimum ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspiratory oxygen concentration (P/F ratio) (44 mmHg vs. 122 mmHg, p < 0.01) and poor response to intensive therapy compared with survivors.
32943538 Logistic regression showed increasing odds of respiratory failure with sC5b-9 (odds ratio 31.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 746, P = 0.03) and need for oxygen therapy with C4d (11.7, 1.1 to 130, P = 0.045).
32943872 Specifically, through an inter-professional and collaborative approach to care delivery, we provide rationale and guidance on prone positioning, oxygen strategies, early mobilization, identifying and treating co-infections, anticoagulation and ensuring appropriate psychological support for patients and their families.
32945149 Oxygen requirements and clinical outcomes of interests were captured as well as laboratory parameters at baseline and 3 days after treatment.
32945644 Pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, bronchiectasis and cysts are probably underrated complications of COVID-19 that can worsen prognosis, in terms of prolonged hospitalization and need of oxygen therapy.
32945710 Approximately 14% of UK hospital in-patients receive supplemental oxygen therapy, only 57% have valid prescriptions. […] Oxygen must be optimally prescribed to ensure maximal therapeutic response whilst minimizing adverse outcomes (including fatality). […] Of the 636 patients admitted, 66 (10%) were receiving oxygen therapy. […] The prescription was not documented in the oxygen section of the drug chart (n = 37, 56.1%, p = 0.389), nor did it have the physicians signature (n = 40, 60.6%, p = 0.110) nor date (n = 46, 69.7%, p = 0.002). […] Target oxygen saturation (SpO2) range had been documented for 30 (45.5%) patients.
32946668 Among patients who received tocilizumab, there was also no difference in mortality based on the level of oxygen support (intubated vs not intubated) at the time of tocilizumab initiation.
32947292 The ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) significantly increased during PP (change from baseline and CI 97.5%: 110 [19; 202]) and after PP, albeit not significantly (change from baseline and CI 97.5%: 38 [-9.2; 85]) compared with previous supine position.
32947927 The proposed pathophysiological mechanisms of myocardial impairment include invasion of SARS-CoV-2 virus via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 to cardiovascular cells/tissue, which leads to endothelial inflammation and dysfunction, de-stabilization of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, stent thrombosis, cardiac stress due to diminish oxygen supply and cardiac muscle damage, and myocardial infarction.
32948531 This case suggests that a high index of suspicion should be taken into consideration for thromboembolic events, when treating patients with COVID-19 with breathing difficulty and low oxygen saturation levels, especially in those who have underlying predisposing conditions for coagulopathy.
32949098 No patient required supplemental oxygen, intubation, or ECMO.
32949777 Hospitalization rate was 11.6%, 1.3% required supplemental oxygen, 0.6% needed intensive care unit admission, and 0.3% required mechanical ventilation.
32950458 Rapid deterioration of these cases with septic shock, accompanying with lung CT images enlarged rapidly, decrease of blood oxygen, heart rate drop (with asynchrony of hypoxemia) accompanied with SARS-CoV-2 viremia.
32951346 Cavalli et al. defined severe respiratory distress as partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to the fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired air ≤ 100 mmHg in the setting of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and a positive end-expiratory pressure ≥ 5 cm H2 O.
32952981 None of the patients required oxygen supplementation nor mechanical ventilation.
32953091 Results: Compared with the baseline, treatment contributed to and exacerbated the deterioration of pulmonary pathology by reducing lung compliance and the arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO 2/FiO 2) ratio. […] The oxygen extraction index changes mirrored those of the PaO 2/FiO 2 ratio.
32953947 Analysis of existing data revealed that HA natives do possess certain physiological advantages such as (1) improved hypoxic ventilatory response, (2) higher concentration of oxygen carrying molecules, haemoglobin, (3) increased production of Vitamin D, due to intense solar radiation, (4) lower rates of comorbidities such as lung infections, obesity etc. and (5) most importantly reduced production of angiotensin converting enzyme 2, a carrier molecule for SARS-CoV-2 virus entry into the host cell; all of which can collectively account for improved tolerance to SARS-CoV-2 infection in HA natives.
32953968 Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that obesity (OR 2.029, 95% CI 1.039-3.961; p = 0.038), arterial oxygen saturation <90% (OR 2.250, 95% CI 1.216-3.560; p = 0.025), and systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg (OR 2.636, 95% CI 1.530-4.343; p = 0.042), were directly related to higher levels of troponins.
32958495 DisCoVeRy is a phase III, open-label, adaptive, controlled, multicentre clinical trial in which hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in need of oxygen therapy are randomised between five arms: (1) a control group managed with SoC and four therapeutic arms with re-purposed antiviral agents: (2) remdesivir + SoC, (3) lopinavir/ritonavir + SoC, (4) lopinavir/ritonavir associated with interferon (IFN)-β-1a + SoC and (5) hydroxychloroquine + SoC.
32959547 Demographic and epidemiological information, comorbidities, clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory and radiologic findings, medications, treatments, outcomes, and main durations of patients with COVID-19 were compared according to supplemental oxygen requirement. […] Six (15%) patients required supplemental oxygen. […] Sputum production, chest discomfort, a large number of symptoms, abnormal procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels, and abnormal chest X-ray or chest computed tomography findings were more common in patients requiring supplemental oxygen than in those not requiring supplemental oxygen.
32959951 There are numerous proposed mechanisms of cardiac injury, including direct cellular injury, pro-inflammatory cytokine storm, myocardial oxygen-demand mismatch, and systemic inflammation causing multi-organ failure.
32962092 We noted a less severe clinical presentation in the PCR- group (lower respiratory rate, lower oxygen need and mechanical ventilation requirement).
32963432 The most common reason for ICU admission in our series of 24 patients with severe COVID-19 was hypoxemic respiratory failure, which responded well to conservative measures such as awake proning and oxygen supplementation.
32963439 Noninvasive ventilation (NIV), high-flow oxygen via nasal cannula, supplementary oxygen with venturi face mask, or nasal cannula were used variedly in these patients. […] Mechanical ventilatory support is offered to patients with AHRF when other methods, such as NIV and oxygen via high-flow nasal cannula, fail.
32964179 All four patients showed evidence of deterioration, with hyperferritinaemia and increasing oxygen requirements and with superadded bacterial infections.
32964483 This association remained significant after correction for age (OR = 1.16, 95%CI 1.01-1.34, P = .029 for RV free wall LS and OR = 1.20, 95%CI 1.01-1.42, P = .033 for RV-GLS), for oxygen partial pressure at arterial gas analysis/fraction of inspired oxygen (OR = 1.28, 95%CI 1.04-1.57, P = .021 for RV free wall-LS and OR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.04-1.62, P = .020 for RV-GLS) and for the severity of pulmonary involvement measured by a computed tomography lung score (OR = 1.27, 95%CI 1.02-1.19, P = .034 for RV free wall LS and OR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.04-1.63, P = .022 for RV-GLS).
32966582 RNA sequencing confirmed a transcriptional response to viral infection as demonstrated by the up-regulation of genes associated with pathways related to viral response and interferon signalling, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen stress.
32967165 CQ/HCQ-induced alterations in proton fluxes influence the type and chemical reactivity of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
32969531 Heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and time to exhaustion did not differ significantly.
32970246 In multivariable analysis, older age, admission respiratory status including elevated respiratory rate and oxygen saturation ≤ 88%, and initial laboratory derangements of creatinine > 1.33 mg/dL, alanine aminotransferase > 40 U/L, procalcitonin > 0.5 ng/mL, and lactic acid ≥ 2 mmol/L increased risk of in-hospital death. […] Older age, low oxygen saturation and elevated respiratory rate on admission, and initial lab derangements including renal and hepatic dysfunction and elevated procalcitonin and lactic acid are risk factors for in-hospital death.
32970733 A two-factor logistic model using patient age and oxygen saturation was created, which demonstrates 89% accuracy and area under the ROC curve of 0.86 (p<0.0001).
32971109 Our major findings were as follows: (1) severe clinical outcome (ICU treatment) was associated with high plasma levels of sTIM-3 and myeloperoxidase, suggesting activated and potentially exhausted T cells and activated neutrophils, respectively; (2) in contrast, sCD14 and sCD163 showed no association with need for ICU treatment; and (3) levels of sCD25, sTIM-3, and myeloperoxidase were inversely correlated with degree of respiratory failure, as assessed by the ratio of Pao2 to fraction of inspired oxygen, and were positively correlated with the cardiac marker N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide.
32971254 We included consecutive adult patients with severe COVID-19, defined as respiratory rate ≥30 breath per minute, oxygen saturation ≤93% on ambient air or arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ≤300 mm Hg.
32972411 The authors review well-known mechanisms that contribute to development of hypoxemia in patients with pneumonia, but are less clear as to why patients should be free of respiratory discomfort despite arterial oxygen levels commonly regarded as life threatening.
32972430 Clinical improvement, negative conversion of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), adverse effects, and oxygen requirements were studied. […] The meta-analysis showed no significant differences between the two groups on viral clearance (day 14: RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.84-1.33), non-invasive ventilation or oxygen requirement (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.42-1.39), and adverse effects (OR 0.69, 0.13-3.57). […] There is a significant clinical and radiological improvement following treatment with FVP in comparison to the standard of care with no significant differences on viral clearance, oxygen support requirement and side effect profiles.
32974111 In contrast, among younger people, men had higher odds of severe pneumonia, need for high oxygen support, acute kidney injury and acute liver injury when compared to women.
32975205 At logistic regression analysis, gestational age at diagnosis (OR: 0.85, 95% CI 0.8-0.9 per week increase; p<0.001), birthweight (OR: 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.12.7 per 100 g decrease; p=0.012) and maternal ventilatory support, including either need for oxygen or CPAP (OR: 4.12, 95% CI 2.3-7.9; p=0.001) were independently associated with composite adverse fetal outcome.
32975814 Adverse outcomes defined as intensive care units, oxygen saturation less than 90%, invasive mechanical ventilation, severe disease, and in-hospital mortality.
32976364 Overall, one-third of patients had an oxygen saturation of bellow 90% on admission.
32977101 Arterial blood gas analysis showed low pO2, pCO2, and ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) indicating hypocapnic hypoxemia.
32977137 We evaluated the gas exchange over time through the ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) at baseline, 7, and 14 days after randomization, the time until successful liberation from mechanical ventilation, and the ventilator-free days.
32977606 Our final model identified nine key features: age, oxygen saturation, smoking, serum creatinine, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, C-reactive protein, and sodium at admission.
32978307 The most discriminating univariable predictors were admission oxygen saturation on room air for in-hospital deterioration (AUROC 0.76; 0.71-0.81), and age for in-hospital mortality (AUROC 0.76; 0.71-0.81). […] Admission oxygen saturation on room air and patient age are strong predictors of deterioration and mortality among hospitalised adults with COVID-19, respectively.
32978920 This retrospective study was undertaken to explore the physiotherapy practices that could be implemented in patients admitted with COVID 19 in the ICU and its effect on mobility and oxygen requirement as an outcome. […] Demographic characteristics, disease severity, oxygen requirement, mobility status, physiotherapy intervention were studied. 278 record sheets (110 ICU and 168 SDU) were retrospectively analysed for demographics. […] Descriptive analysis showed a definitive reduction in oxygen support requirement.
32978927 Most can be managed with home isolation under telemedicine supervision with oxygen saturation screening by a simple six minute walk test. […] Hospitalised cases have emerging evidence in different therapies from antivirals, steroids, immunologic to heparins but high flow oxygen, prone position and supportive care remains the cornerstone in critical care with nursing and nutrition.
32979425 Laboratory results including myocardial biomarkers, oxygen saturation, inflammatory indicators and coagulation function were compared between survivors and non-survivors.
32980424 Ten were asymptomatic, 25 were treated as outpatients, 28 required admission without intensive care or ventilation, 13 required non-invasive ventilation or oxygen administration, 18 were admitted to intensive care units, 12 requiring invasive ventilation, and 3 extra corporeal membrane oxygenation.
32980556 Six patients with SCD had COVID-19 (1.6%): three remained asymptomatic, two had mild symptoms and one required oxygen therapy.
32981508 Oxygen transport physiology, SARSCov-2 characteristics, and its transmission, lung imaging in COVID-19, and HAPE, as well as the causes of clinical signs and symptoms, are discussed. […] High-altitude oxygen transport physiology has been systematically ignored. […] COVID-19 signs and symptoms indicate a progressive and irreversible failure in the oxygen transport system, secondary to pneumolysis produced by SARS-Cov-2’s alveolar-capillary membrane “attack”.
32983456 High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) has been shown to be a useful therapy in the treatment of patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), but its efficacy is still unknown in patients with COVID-19.
32984400 Proteolytic knockdown of GPX1 is highly consistent with previously documented effects of recombinant SARS-CoV Mpro in transfected cells, including increased reactive oxygen species and NF-κB activation.
32984797 This model was based on three clinical features: patient’s age, minimum oxygen saturation over the course of their medical encounter, and type of patient encounter (inpatient vs outpatient and telehealth visits).
32984838 Among 948 patients, 122 (12.87%) received invasive ventilation, 637 (67.19%) received supplemental oxygen only, and 189 (19.94%) received no respiratory support. […] The rate of in-hospital death for invasive ventilation recipients was 22.95%, 12.87% for supplemental oxygen recipients, and 7.41% for those who received neither (p = 0.0004). […] A sensitivity analysis of the 770 patients less than 80 years old revealed a lower, but similar mortality trend (18.02%, 8.10%, 5.23%; p = 0.0008) among the 14.42%, 65.71%, and 19.87% of patients treated with mechanical ventilation, supplemental oxygen only, or neither.
32985211 In addition, Resveratrol was demonstrated to be a stimulator of fetal hemoglobin and a potent antioxidant, by trapping reactive oxygen species (ROS).
32986274 Eligible patients were hospitalized, had radiographic consolidation, required supplemental oxygen, and were clinically deteriorating. […] Within 24 hours of radiation, 3 patients (60%) were weaned from supplemental oxygen to ambient air, 4 (80%) exhibited radiographic improvement, and the median Glasgow Coma Scale score improved from 10 to 14. […] A fourth patient (80% overall recovery) was weaned from oxygen at hour 96. […] In a pilot trial of 5 oxygen-dependent elderly patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, low-dose whole-lung radiation led to rapid improvements in clinical status, encephalopathy, and radiographic consolidation without acute toxicity. […] Each had pneumonia visible on a chest x-ray, required supplemental oxygen, and experienced a clinical decline in mental status or in work of breathing or a prolonged or escalating supplemental oxygen requirement.
32986793 The respiratory support during hospitalization includes those who received no oxygen support (61.6%, 1623/2636), followed by those who received supplemental oxygen (29.9%, 788/2636), and IMV/ECMO (mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) (8.5%, 225/2636).
32986989 The primary outcomes included (1) a composite of adverse maternal outcome, defined as preeclampsia, venous thromboembolism, antepartum admission, maternal intensive care unit admission, need for mechanical ventilation, supplemental oxygen, or maternal death, and (2) a composite of adverse neonatal outcome, defined as respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, 5-minute Apgar score of <5, persistent category 2 fetal heart rate tracing despite intrauterine resuscitation, or neonatal death.
32987177 Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the adjusted odds of survival for patients receiving oxygen therapy or convalescent plasma, based on therapeutic effectiveness observed for other respiratory illnesses. […] After adjustment for sex, age, and underlying conditions in the synthetic case population, the odds of mortality for cases not receiving oxygen therapy was significantly higher than those receiving oxygen, such as due to disruptions to standard care (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.56 - 2.75). […] Investment in sustainable production and maintenance of supplies for oxygen therapy, along with messaging around early and appropriate use for healthcare providers, caregivers, and patients could reduce COVID-19 deaths in SSA.
32987701 Mitochondria are the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), most of them deriving from the mitochondrial respiratory chain.
32990580 With ASD closed, the atrial shunts disappeared, the peripheral artery pressure of oxygen(PaO2): 141.2±21.4mmHg, the oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2): 353.0±53.5, the mean blood pressure (MAP): 49.3±13.5 mmHg, the heart was full; with ASD opened, the left-to-right shunt was observed, PaO2: 169.3±18.9mmHg, PaO2/FiO2: 423.3±47.3, MAP: 68.2±16.1 mmHg, the range of cardiac motion significantly increased, heart beat was powerful, and systemic circulation significantly improved.
32992843 We found: (i) In SP-A2 mice, the redox alteration of AM in response to O3 showed sex-dependence with AM from males being significantly more oxidized and having a higher level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species than females; (ii) AM from KO mice were more oxidized after O3 exposure and showed no sex differences; (iii) AM from female KO mice were more oxidized than female SP-A2 mice; and (iv) Two distinct subpopulations characterized by size and redox status were observed in a mouse AM sample.
32992875 For example, a viral infection can switch energy metabolism from respiration to widely anaerobic glycolysis even if plenty of oxygen is available (the Warburg effect) when the host cell cannot generate acetyl-coenzyme A, a metabolite required for melatonin biosynthesis.
32993451 Paired analysis of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen(PaO2): fraction of inspired oxygen(FiO2) ratio (PF ratio) (n = 89) and FiO2 (n = 129) was recorded within 3 hours of both the initiation and termination of PP and differences were assessed with the paired Student’s t-test and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. […] In summary, PP improved arterial oxygenation and reduced oxygen requirements in most Covid-19 patients in this single- center, retrospective analysis.
32993479 The fraction of inspired oxygen requirements was reduced for all five patients after initiating dornase alfa administration.
32994187 All patients had pneumonia and exhibited oxygen saturation <95% when breathing ambient air or when receiving oxygen support.
32997237 The following variables were extracted for this study: age, gender, temperature, and saturation of oxygen on admission, treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, heparin, steroids, tocilizumab, a combination of lopinavir with ritonavir, and oseltamivir, together with data on mortality. […] This association remained significant when saturation of oxygen < 90% and temperature > 37 °C were added to de model with OR 0.45 (0.30-0.68) p < 0.001, and also when all the other drugs, and time of admission, were included as covariates.
32999777 Overall, 39% of the subjects did not need respiratory support, while 13% were on a ventilator, 16% on bilevel positive airway pressure/continuous positive airway pressure (BiPAP/CPAP), and 31% on supplemental oxygen therapy.
33000107 Inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein, D-dimer, ferritin, fibrin degradation product and interleukin-6 were significantly elevated (P <0.05) in patients who required oxygen therapy than those who did not require it, suggesting the potential role such markers could play in predicting prognosis in patients.
33003134 Men were more likely to receive oxygen therapy (144 [6.46%] vs 131 [4.63%], P = 0.004), be admitted to the intensive care unit (60 [2.69%] vs 53 [1.87%], P = 0.049), and have a longer length of stay after admission to the intensive care unit (19.70 ± 11.80 vs 14.75 ± 9.23, P = 0.016).
33004712 Ozone therapy consists in the administration of a mixture of ozone and oxygen, called medical ozone, which has been used for over a century as an unconventional medicine practice for several diseases.
33005276 The proportion of patients received oxygen therapy was 22.7% in the asymptomatic group and 99.1% in symptomatic patients (p < 0.001).
33005428 On day 23, lung opacity on the chest X-ray cleared and the patient’s oxygen saturation improved significantly.
33005518 Phosphorus levels remained elevated, and sevelamer was added on discharge after he was weaned off oxygen and cleared by physical therapy.
33006317 Among patients that were almost 100% certain which person infected them, only 14 out of 38 overall, and 9 out of 25 hospitalized patients requiring supplemental oxygen, were infected by someone who coughed, which did not support our hypothesis.
33006440 High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I levels were significantly associated with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, creatinine, d-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, and inflammatory cytokines and negatively associated with oxygen saturation.
33007478 When patients received corticosteroids before they required nasal high-flow oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, the in-hospital death rate was lower than that in patients who were not administered corticosteroids (17/86, 19.8% vs. 
33008453 She received steroids, anticoagulation, and convalescent plasma, and within 48 h she was off oxygen.
33010257 Multivariable logistic and linear regressions, and survival analysis were performed depending on outcomes: need for IMV, evolution of arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) or mortality.
33011717 The Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, hemodynamic status, and PF ratio (arterial oxygen partial pressure [PaO2]/fractional inspired oxygen [FiO2]) determined that on admission, an elevated blood urea nitrogen (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-2.48), a low eGFR (HR 1.43; CI 1.1-2.03), AKI stage 1 (HR 1.14; CI 0.64-2.03), AKI stage 2 (HR 1.86; CI 1.03-3.56), and AKI stage 3 (HR 2.1; CI 1.3-2.81) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality.
33012378 This was an observational, retrospective, cohort study from a 9-ED health system of admitted adult patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) and an oxygen requirement less than or equal to 6 L/min. […] We sought to predict respiratory failure within 24 hours of admission as defined by oxygen requirement of greater than 10 L/min by low-flow device, high-flow device, noninvasive or invasive ventilation, or death.
33012857 The COVID 19 pandemic is exposing an important weakness in health systems: medical oxygen production and delivery.
33014275 During a virus-induced cytokine storm, metabolic flexibility is compromised due to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that damage, downregulate, or inactivate many enzymes of central metabolism including the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC).
33014499 Treatment provided to the child included intranasal oxygen, antibiotics, and a dietary program with therapeutic milk.
33014697 We should note that, respiration process is the movement of oxygen from external atmosphere to the cells within tissue and the transport of carbon dioxide outside.
33014804 The extent of COVID-19 pneumonia was correlated with inpatient management (p = 0.003) and oxygen therapy requirements (p < 0.001).
33015423 ATMO-Vent is capable of adjusting the Fraction of Inspiratory Oxygen (FiO2) levels, Tidal Volume (TV), frequency of breaths, Inspiratory/Expiratory ratio (I/E), Peak Inspiratory Pressure (PIP) and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP).
33015428 Following the inflammatory response, BSs induce the production of cationic proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lysozyme, and thus can be utilized for therapeutic purposes.
33015643 Eligibility criteria were age 18 years or older; severe pneumonia with pulmonary infiltrates consistent with pneumonia, a clinical history of severe shortness of breath within the past 14 days, or a need for non-invasive or invasive ventilation; severe disease defined as a ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired air (PaO2/FiO2) between 100 mm Hg and 250 mm Hg in the supine position; and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection confirmed by RT-PCR.
33015645 In the multistate model, using daily cHIS score as a time-dependent variable, the cHIS hazard ratio for worsening from low to moderate oxygen requirement was 1·4 (95% CI 1·2-1·6), from moderate oxygen to high-flow oxygen 2·2 (1·1-4·4), and to mechanical ventilation 4·0 (1·9-8·2).
33019838 Antiviral photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is based on the reaction between a photo-sensitive agent and a light source in the presence of oxygen which can produce oxidative and free radical agents to damage the virus’ structures.
33020140 It included personal history, antigen swabs, blood tests, spirometry, resting/stress-test ECG with oxygen saturation monitoring, echocardiogram, Holter and chest CT. […] In this small cohort of athletes with previous asymptomatic/mild SARS-CoV-2 infection, a comprehensive screening protocol including blood tests, spirometry, resting ECG, stress-test ECG with oxygen saturation monitoring and echocardiogram did not identify relevant anomalies.
33020762 Lung ultrasound may better correlate with the oxygen requirement and overall condition of the patient than chest radiographs - a pertinent consideration given the imminent advance of the pandemic into resource-poor zones where timely access to roentgenological imaging may be sparse.
33020836 This observational study enrolled patients with moderate to severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia [arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) <200 mmHg] who received lopinavir/ritonavir and HCQ plus either corticosteroids (CS group, n = 50) or corticosteroids and baricitinib (BCT-CS group, n = 62). […] The primary end point was the change in oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2)/FiO2 from hospitalization to discharge. […] Secondary end points included the proportion of patients requiring supplemental oxygen at discharge and 1 month later. […] A higher proportion of patients required supplemental oxygen both at discharge (62.0% vs 25.8%; reduction of the risk by 82%, OR adjusted for IPSW, 0.18; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.43; P < 0.001) and 1 month later (28.0% vs 12.9%, reduction of the risk by 69%, OR adjusted for IPSW, 0.31; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.86; P = 0.024) in the CS vs BCT-CS group. .
33021102 Heavier charged particles have potential advantages over protons by delivering more dose in the Bragg peak, with a sharper penumbra, lower oxygen dependence and increased biological effectiveness. […] Discussion followed on the scale and features, including which ions should be included, from protons through helium, boron, and lithium to carbon, and even oxygen.
33022818 Moreover, lower oxygen delivery to kidney may cause an ischaemic injury.
33023669 We aimed to examine whether the combination of high-flow nasal oxygen therapy (HFNO) with awake-PP prevents the need for intubation when compared to HFNO alone.
33023671 High-risk is defined as SARS-CoV-2 positive infection with Oxygen saturation at ≤ 94% at ambient air with additional risk features as categorised in 4 groups: • Group 1, pre-existing or concurrent hematological malignancy and/or active cancer therapy (incl. chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery) within the last 24 months or less.
33024082 Following CP transfusion, six out of eight patients showed improved oxygen support status; chest CT indicated varying degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions in six patients within 8 days; the viral load was decreased to a negative level in five patients who had the previous viremia; other laboratory parameters also tended to improve, including increased lymphocyte counts, decreased C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and indicators for liver function.
33024388 The ventilators require oxygen supply and manpower to function which are deficient in these countries. […] These countries might do well only by procurement of oxygen delivery machinery, as most of the patients of COVID require oxygen only.
33025500 Respiratory symptoms, including cough and oxygen desaturation, appeared after those initial symptoms or as the first sign in 36.8% and 52.2%, respectively.
33025502 Patients with COVID-19 experienced more likely dyspnea (p=0.04), had lower arterial oxygen saturation (p<0.001), higher C-reactive protein and white blood cell (WBC) count (p<0.0001 and p=0.001, respectively), and a significantly higher in-hospital mortality (14% versus 3.4%, p=0.04). […] COVID-19 patients with diagnosis of PE during hospitalization (n=13) had significantly more dyspnea (p=0.04), lower arterial oxygen saturation (p=0.01), less proximal PE (p=0.02), and higher heart rate (p=0.009), CT severity score (p=0.001), C-reactive protein (p=0.006) and WBC count (p=0.04).
33026573 The incidence of liver injury was much higher in male [192/303 (63.4%)] than female [111/303 (36.6%)], and in severe/critical patients [148/303 (48.8%)] with percutaneous oxygen saturation ≤ 93% [89/279 (31.9%)] or peak body temperature ≥ 38.5 °C [185/301 (61.5%)] on admission.
33028398 Both patients had multiple comorbidities, received a combination of antibiotics, steroids and supportive oxygen therapy, and underwent routine laboratory workup.
33028562 Participants will undergo the measurement of vital parameters (oxygen saturation measured by oximeter, respiratory rate and body temperature detected by laser thermometer), the administration of a COVID-19-related symptoms questionnaire, the collection of a blood sample and a nasopharyngeal swab.
33028914 A COVID-19 severity score ranging from 0 to 10, consisting of age, oxygen saturation, mean arterial pressure, blood urea nitrogen, C-Reactive protein, and the international normalized ratio was developed.
33029105 However, these proteins can cause blood clotting, which can clog blood vessels in the heart and other organs; as a result, the organs are deprived of oxygen and nutrients which could ultimately lead to multiorgan failure and consequent progression to acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and often death.
33029275 An oxygen mask was placed over the nasal cannula to administer oxygen while minimizing H2 leakage, and a catheter was inserted into the carotid artery to monitor the arterial blood H2 concentration. […] The combination of a nasal cannula and an oxygen mask is a convenient way to reduce H2 leakage while maintaining oxygenation.
33031409 Considering the severity of the disease and the lack of active treatments, 14 patients with Covid-19 and severe lung inflammation received inhaled adenosine in the attempt to therapeutically compensate for the oxygen-related loss of the endogenous adenosine→A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR)-mediated mitigation of the lung-destructing inflammatory damage.
33031500 Reported data span March 21 to June 16, 2020 for hospitalized pregnant women with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and room air oxygen saturation ≤94% whose clinicians requested remdesivir through the compassionate use program. […] By Day 28 of follow-up, the level of oxygen requirement decreased in 96% and 89% of pregnant and postpartum women, respectively.
33031955 This multicentre study project includes a single-arm phase 2 study and a further parallel cohort, enrolling hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and oxygen saturation at rest in ambient air ≤93% or requiring respiratory support.
33032841 She showed shorter hospitalization time, similar clinical outcome with fewer oxygen needs.
33033687 Patients were separated into two groups: Non-severe patients were those with mild or moderate forms of COVID-19, and severe patients were those admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) who had one of the following signs-respiratory rate > 30 breaths/min; oxygen saturation < 93% on room air; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); or required mechanical ventilation.
33035409 Compared with patients with HbA1C < 6.5, patients with HbA1C ≥ 6.5 showed higher heart rate (101 vs. 89 beats per min, P=0.012), lower percutaneous oxygen saturation (93% vs. 
33035991 Co-primary outcomes were death or composite outcomes of severe illness from COVID-19 such as hospitalisation, supplemental oxygen, intensive-care unit (ICU) admission and/or mechanical ventilation.
33037620 We performed a retrospective, observational study of blood gas analyses (n = 3518) obtained from patients with COVID-19 to investigate changes in haemoglobin oxygen (Hb-O2) affinity. […] Calculated oxygen tension at half-saturation (p50) was on average (±SD) 3·3 (3·13) mmHg lower than the normal p50 value (23·4 vs. 26·7 mmHg; P < 0·0001).
33038530 Glutathione (GSH) is essential and protects the body from the harmful effects of oxidative damage from excess reactive oxygen radicals.
33039144 Oxygen therapy was given for a single night, and the patient gradually recovered with supportive care only.
33039952 We hypothesized that fewer patients administered this combination would require oxygen therapy, intensive care support, or a combination of both than those who did not. […] After this date, patients were administered 1000 IU/d oral vitamin D3, 150 mg/d oral magnesium, and 500 mcg/d oral vitamin B12 upon admission if they did not require oxygen therapy. […] Primary outcome was deterioration leading to any form of oxygen therapy, intensive care support, or both. […] Fewer treated patients than controls required initiation of oxygen therapy during hospitalization (17.6 vs 61.5%, P = 0.006). […] DMB exposure was associated with odds ratios of 0.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.59) and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.04-0.93) for oxygen therapy, intensive care support, or both on univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. […] A vitamin D / magnesium / vitamin B12 combination in older COVID-19 patients was associated with a significant reduction in the proportion of patients with clinical deterioration requiring oxygen support, intensive care support, or both.
33040020 Anthropometrical, clinical characteristics and blood biomarkers were assessed within the first 24 hours from admission. hARF was graded as follows: severe (partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) <100 mm Hg); moderate (PaO2/FiO2 101-200 mm Hg); mild (PaO2/FiO2 201-300 mm Hg) and normal (PaO2/FiO2 >300 mm Hg).
33040021 Procedures classified as aerosol-generating or possibly aerosol-generating by ≥90% of documents included autopsy, surgery/postmortem procedures with high-speed devices, intubation and extubation procedures, bronchoscopy, sputum induction, manual ventilation, airway suctioning, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, tracheostomy and tracheostomy procedures, non-invasive ventilation, high-flow oxygen therapy, breaking closed ventilation systems, nebulised or aerosol therapy, and high frequency oscillatory ventilation.
33041811 Predictors of long hospital stays were older age (P = 0.002), low oxygen saturation (P = 0.001) and bilateral radiological findings at admission (P = 0.023). […] Predictors of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission were the previous use of calcium-channel blockers (P = 0.005), proton pump inhibitors (P = 0.017), low oxygen saturation (P = 0.002), high leukocyte count (P = 0.011), and high D-dimer values (P = 0.005).
33042826 High-oxygen requirements were needed in 39% of patients, but only 1 pt was admitted for invasive MV and was discharged 42 days after admission.
33043131 The circuit is controlled by a pneumatic signal with electronic microcontroller input, using air and oxygen sources found in standard patient rooms.
33043132 The patient was evaluated before and after LLLT by radiological assessment of lung edema (RALE) on chest X-ray, oxygen requirements and saturation, pneumonia severity indices (SMART-COP and Brescia-COVID), blood inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, ferritin, and C-Reactive protein (CRP)). […] Prior to treatment, oxygen saturation (SpO2) via pulse oximetry was 88%-93% on 5-6 L oxygen. […] Following LLLT, SpO2 increased to 97%-99% on 1-3 L oxygen.
33043172 We have validated the prototype of PROPER unit for air flow, ISO class cleanliness level, oxygen and carbon-dioxide gas concentrations during exhalation, and present here these results for illustration.
33043284 At 19 days median follow-up, 89·7% of medical inpatients significantly improved (46·1% after 24 h, 61·5% after 3 days), 70·6% were discharged from the hospital and 85·7% no longer needed oxygen therapy.
33043285 The utility of heated and humidified high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) for severe COVID-19-related hypoxaemic respiratory failure (HRF), particularly in settings with limited access to intensive care unit (ICU) resources, remains unclear, and predictors of outcome have been poorly studied. […] The median (IQR) arterial oxygen partial pressure to fraction inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) was 68 (54-92) in 293 enroled patients. […] A higher ratio of oxygen saturation/FiO2 to respiratory rate within 6 h (ROX-6 score) after HFNO commencement was associated with HFNO success (ROX-6; AHR 0.43, 0.31-0.60), as was use of steroids (AHR 0.35, 95%CI 0.19-0.64).
33045281 We evaluated the accuracy of clinical signs and these biomarkers in predicting 30-day intubation/mortality, and oxygen requirement by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and by classification and regression tree analysis. […] Of 76 COVID-19 patients included, 24 were outpatients or hospitalized without oxygen requirement, 35 hospitalized with oxygen requirement and 17 intubated/died. […] We found that soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (sTREM-1) had the best prognostic accuracy for 30-day intubation/mortality (AUROC 0.86; 95% CI 0.77-0.95) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) measured at presentation to the ED had the best accuracy for 30-day oxygen requirement (AUROC 0.84; 95% CI 0.74-0.94) . […] An IL-6-based algorithm had 98% sensitivity and 0.04 negative likelihood ratio (NLR) for 30-day oxygen requirement. sTREM-1 and IL-6 concentrations in COVID-19 in the ED have good predictive accuracy for intubation/mortality and oxygen requirement. sTREM-1- and IL-6-based algorithms are highly sensitive to identify patients with adverse outcome and could serve as early triage tools.
33045577 In Iran and China, some reports showed a positive effect of Tocilizumab on Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen (SPO2) but results of CT scan in patients in different.
33045772 They showed lower initial oxygen saturation (92.8 vs. 
33045775 Pneumonia diagnosed in chest computed tomography improved without oxygen supplementation.
33046288 A structured approach to respiratory failure in these patients includes the use of exogenous oxygen via nasal cannula or non-rebreather, as well as titrated high-flow nasal cannula and non-invasive ventilation.
33046291 After adjusting for multiple comparisons and controlling numerous confounders, quantile regression revealed that the laboratory indexes of non-survivors were significantly higher in C-reactive protein (CRP; QS = 0.835, p < .001), white blood cell counts (WBC; QS = 0.743, p < .001), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST; QS = 0.735, p < .001), blood glucose (BG; QS = 0.608, p = .059), fibrin degradation product (FDP; QS = 0.730, p = .080), and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), and lower in oxygen saturation (SO2; QS = 0.312, p < .001), calcium (Ca2+; QS = 0.306, p = .073), and pH.
33046303 On 72-h return, 91 (65.5%) subjects required oxygen, and 7 (5.0%) required mechanical ventilation in the ED.
33046316 Our study suggests that patients who demonstrate acute deterioration, a protracted course of illness with non-resolving symptoms, worsening dyspnoea, persistent oxygen requirements or significantly raised D-dimer levels should be investigated for PE, particularly in the context of COVID-19 infection.
33046370 To investigate the validity of CT quantification in the management of COVID-19, we built random forest (RF) models for the purpose of classification and regression to assess the disease severity (Moderate, Severe, and Critical) and to predict the need and length of ICU stay, the duration of oxygen inhalation, hospitalization, sputum NAT-positive, and patient prognosis. […] The median values of ICU stay were 0, 0, and 12 days, the duration of oxygen inhalation 10, 15, and 28 days, the hospitalization 12, 16, and 28 days, and the sputum NAT-positive 8, 9, and 13 days, in three severity groups, respectively. […] The root-mean-square errors of RF regressors were 0.88 weeks for prediction of duration of hospitalization (mean: 2.60 ± 1.01 weeks), 0.92 weeks for duration of oxygen inhalation (mean: 2.44 ± 1.08 weeks), 0.90 weeks for duration of sputum NAT-positive (mean: 1.59 ± 0.98 weeks), and 0.69 weeks for stay of ICU (mean: 1.32 ± 0.67 weeks), respectively.
33048783 Patients were stratified int o 4 subgroups: admission to the ward with pneumonia and/or oxygen requirement (WARD; n = 100); ICU admission (ICU; n = 87); ICU admission with requirement of mechanical ventilation (ICU-MV; n = 56), and ICU-MV plus septic shock (ICU-MV-SS; N = 29).
33048824 The primary outcome was requiring an oxygen supplement. […] The outcome of the model for the patient’s application was the length of time from the date of hospitalization to the date of the first usage of an oxygen supplement.
33050737 Oxygen is the most commonly used therapy in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. […] In those patients who develop worsening pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), high concentrations of oxygen may need to be administered for prolonged time periods, often together with mechanical ventilation.
33050945 Patients’ temperature, respiration rate, oxygen saturation, lung infiltration, lactate dehydrogenase and complete blood count were measured at the baseline (before the intervention) and on day 14 after the intervention or on the discharge day.
33050972 Percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2), lymphocyte counts, C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-10 were found closely associated with severe COVID-19.
33052147 In the immediate post-operative period, rapid deterioration of chest imaging, higher oxygen requirement and early pulmonary complications can serve as warning signs and predicting factors for higher mortality.
33052531 Despite maximal supportive care with oxygen therapy, antibiotics, intensive respiratory physiotherapy and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, all three patients eventually died due to COVID-19.
33052814 Escalating oxygen therapy seems to be a safe and effective therapy; delaying intubation for only the most severe cases in which respiratory muscle fatigue or mental status demands this. […] With current guidelines in mind, we propose a succinct flow sheet for both the escalation of oxygen therapy as well as ED management and disposition of these patients.
33052820 We evaluated patient outcomes among ED patients with a documented ambulatory oxygen saturation measurement. […] We identified ED patients who had a documented ambulatory oxygen saturation. […] We studied the outcomes of high oxygen requirement (defined as >4 liters per minute) and mechanical ventilation among admitted patients and bounceback admissions among discharged patients. […] We also performed logistic regression and compared the performance of different ambulatory oxygen saturation cutoffs in predicting these outcomes. […] Of these patients, 648 (11%) had a documented ambulatory oxygen saturation, of which 165 (24%) were admitted. […] However, the average ambulatory oxygen saturation among admitted patients was significantly lower at 89% compared to 96% among discharged patients (p<0.01). […] Among admitted patients with an ambulatory oxygen saturation, 30% had high oxygen requirements and 8% required mechanical ventilation. […] These rates were predicted by low ambulatory oxygen saturation (p<0.01). […] Although bounceback admissions were predicted by ambulatory oxygen saturation at the first ED visit (p<0.01), our analysis of cutoffs suggested that this association may not be clinically useful. […] Measuring ambulatory oxygen saturation can help ED clinicians identify patients who may require high levels of oxygen or mechanical ventilation during admission.
33052920 At regression tree analysis, the ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) and body mass index (BMI) at ED presentation, and age emerged as independent predictors of the need of follow-up.
33052960 Variables highly predictive of mortality included geographic location of the hospital (OR = 2.2 for Northeast region, OR = 2.1 for North region); renal (OR = 2.0) and liver (OR = 1.7) chronic disease; immunosuppression (OR = 1.7); obesity (OR = 1.7); neurological (OR = 1.6), cardiovascular (OR = 1.5), and hematologic (OR = 1.2) disease; diabetes (OR = 1.4); chronic pneumopathy (OR = 1.4); immunosuppression (OR = 1.3); respiratory symptoms, ranging from respiratory discomfort (OR = 1.4) and dyspnea (OR = 1.3) to oxygen saturation less than 95% (OR = 1.7); hospitalization in a public hospital (OR = 1.2); and self-reported patient illiteracy (OR = 1.1).
33052968 From 27th March to 23rd April, consecutive patients who had respiratory failure or were unable to maintain an SpO2 > 90%, despite receiving 10-15 l/min of oxygen with a non-rebreather mask, were treated by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) unless the ICU physician judged that immediate intubation was indicated. […] Median respiratory rate before CPAP was 36 (30-40) and median SpO2 was 92% (90-95) under 10 to 15 L/min oxygen flow.
33053932 Compared to patients without liver cirrhosis, a higher proportion of patients with liver cirrhosis required oxygen therapy; were admitted to the intensive care unit; had septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or acute kidney injury; and died (P<0.05).
33054129 We compared clinical data from 21 critically ill COVID-19 patients to 21 non-COVID-19 ARDS patient controls, generating hemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curves from venous blood gases. […] This curve generated from the COVID-19 cohort matched the idealized oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve well (Pearson correlation, R2 = 0.97, P.
33054603 The primary outcome was the reduction in inpatient days as a result of the intervention that included provision of at-home oxygen supplementation therapy, expanded home care services, and tele-management sessions.
33055231 Remdesivir reduces the time to recovery of hospitalized patients who require supplemental oxygen and may have a positive impact on mortality outcomes while having a favorable safety profile.
33055501 Ninety-two (22.5%) patients required oxygen support: 8 (2%) were started on continuous positive airway pressure and 29 (7%) on mechanical ventilation.
33057443 As primary outcomes, severe disease (need for oxygen therapy via nonrebreather mask or mechanical ventilation) and death were studied. […] Low oxygen saturation in the emergency room, elevated CRP in the emergency room and initial radiological involvement were all related to worse prognosis.
33059095 At hospitalization, 31.3% needed oxygen supplementation and the median National Early Warning Score was four.
33059400 Moreover, viral spreading to health-care workers and other hospitalized patients is an issue for any device used to administer oxygen.
33060704 Clinical outcomes of interest were oxygen saturation ≤ 94% requiring supplemental oxygen, intensive-care unit (ICU) admission, invasive mechanical-ventilation and death.
33062496 Conclusions Patients with ESRD-HD had a milder course of illness with a lower likelihood of severe pneumonia and a lesser need for aggressive oxygen supplementation when compared to patients not on chronic dialysis.
33062543 In the current case report, we detail how a patient was able to successfully be self-proned with proper tolerance to HFNC and NIPPV while using dexmedetomidine, leading to discharge without the need for further oxygen supplementation at home.
33062720 Nevertheless, CQ triggers the production of reactive oxygen species.
33063037 All patients made a full recovery and were discharged home off of oxygen support.
33063053 We described the most recent developed breathing aid devices such as oxygen therapy devices, ventilator, and CPAP throughout the review.
33063058 The goal of this paper is to discuss the different existing wearable monitoring devices (respiration rate, heart rate, temperature, and oxygen saturation) and respiratory support systems (ventilators, CPAP devices, and oxygen therapy) which are frequently used to assist the coronavirus affected people.
33064253 In addition, hyponatremia patients required extensive treatment with oxygen, antibiotics, and corticosteroids.
33064422 In hospitalized patients, remdesivir should be considered to reduce time to recovery, and low-dose dexamethasone should be considered in patients who require supplemental oxygen. […] Predictors of severe disease include increasing age, comorbidities, lymphopenia, neutrophilia, leukocytosis, low oxygen saturation, and increased levels of C-reactive protein, d-dimer, transaminases, and lactate dehydrogenase.
33067060 On multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found that hypoxia defined as room-air oxygen saturation < 95% (OR 3.11, CI 1.23-7.88) and bilateral infiltrates on chest radiography (OR 5.57, CI 1.66-18.96) were independently associated with hospital admission, after adjusting for age.
33067568 More critical patients received treatment including antibiotics, anticoagulation, corticosteroid, and oxygen therapy than non-critical ones.
33068263 Based on current evidence, recent guidelines of the National Institute of Health, USA indicated the use of remdesivir and dexamethasone for the treatment of COVID-19 patients with mild-moderate disease, not requiring high-flow oxygen.
33068293 This study aimed to investigate the value of high-flow nasal cannula (HNFC) oxygen therapy in treating patients with severe novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). ) at 0, 6, 24 and 72 hours after treatment were compared between the HFNC oxygen therapy group and the conventional oxygen therapy (COT) group. […] In addition, the white blood cell (WBC) count, lymphocyte (L) count, C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) were compared before and at 72 hours after oxygen therapy treatment. was better at 24 and 72 hours. […] After 72 hours, L and CRP had improved in the HFNC oxygen therapy group compared with the COT group, but the differences in WBC and PCT were not statistically significant. […] The length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the total length of hospitalization was shorter in the HFNC oxygen therapy group than in the COT group. […] Compared with COT, early application of HFNC oxygen therapy in patients with severe COVID-19 can improve oxygenation and RR, and HFNC oxygen therapy can improve the infection indexes of patients and reduce the length of stay in the ICU of patients.
33068588 In this perspective, we propose to leverage reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction as a potential therapeutic measure against viral infections.
33071521 This paper reports for the first time, the outcomes of Ayurvedic intervention in a COVID-19 patient with severe hypoxia requiring supportive oxygen therapy. […] The patient sought Ayurvedic treatment voluntarily when her SPO2 remained at 80% even after being given oxygen support. […] The patient was administered Ayurvedic medicines while undergoing oxygen therapy at the hospital. […] In the next two days, she was asymptomatic without oxygen support and was discharged from the hospital in the following week.
33072417 Rates of oxygen support (10.1% vs 4.8%; p≤0.001), intensive care unit admission (3.2% vs 0.6%; p=0.009), presence of fever (12.8% vs 4.4%; p<0.001), tachypnea (7.0% vs 2.4%; p=0.003) and tachycardia (16.0% vs 1.9%; p<0.001) were significantly more frequent in pregnant women compared with non-pregnant women. […] Pregnancy was strongly associated with the need for oxygen support [relative risk (RR), 2.125; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25-3.60] and admission to the intensive care unit (RR, 5.1; 95% CI: 1.57-16.53) compared with non-pregnant women.
33073058 We argue that SARS-CoV-2 could have triggered the hemolytic process, which led to retinal hemorrhages due to endothelial anoxia from the low oxygen carrying capacity.
33073355 To link COVID-19 therapies to pathogenic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2, we performed a comprehensive search through MEDLINE, PubMed, medRxiv, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science using the following keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, novel 2019 coronavirus, pathology, pathologic, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, coronavirus pneumonia, coronavirus infection, coronavirus pulmonary infection, coronavirus cardiovascular infection, coronavirus gastroenteritis, coronavirus autopsy findings, viral sepsis, endotheliitis, thrombosis, coagulation abnormalities, immunology, humeral immunity, cellular immunity, inflammation, cytokine storm, superantigen, therapy, treatment, therapeutics, immune-based therapeutics, antiviral agents, respiratory therapy, oxygen therapy, anticoagulation therapy, adjuvant therapy, and preventative therapy. […] This is best accomplished with a COVID-19 molecular test from symptomatic patients as well as determining the oxygen saturation in such patients with a pulse oximeter. […] Whether a symptomatic respiratory illness is COVID-19, influenza, or another respiratory pathogen, an oxygen saturation less than 90% means that the patient requires medical assistance. […] This goal generally requires hospitalization for oxygen therapy; other respiratory-directed therapies such as prone positioning or mechanical ventilation are often used in the attempt to correct hypoxemia due to COVID-19.
33073571 and exposed AuNRs by after the stimulation of reactive oxygen species has superior antiviral activity to ensure long-term inhibition of the PEDV replication cycle.
33073676 Blood oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, and heart rate remained stable during sputum induction and no staff were infected.
33075578 Adverse outcomes were defined as admission to intensive care unit (ICU), oxygen saturation <90%, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), severe disease and in-hospital mortality.
33075713 The study endpoints were all-cause mortality rate, changes in oxygen-support level, oxygen saturation, body temperature, respiratory rate, and laboratory variables during the study, and drug safety. […] By the end, 6.98% (6/86) of severe patients and 60.00% (24/40) of critical patients died.Outcomes concerning three additional endpoints (oral temperature, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate)were significantly improved as early as three days after tocilizumab administration in both groups of subjects, more considerably in severe patients.
33075714 Upon recognition of MAMPs and DAMPs, TLRs activate downstream signaling pathways releasing several pro-inflammatory mediators [cytokines, chemokines, interferons, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS or RNS)], which cause acute inflammation meant to control the pathogen and repair the damage.
33077708 Supplemental oxygen was required by 47 and 55% of MM and noncancer patients, respectively, and 21%/9% vs 8%/6% required noninvasive/invasive ventilation.
33078604 Over a half of the patients harbored an oxygen saturation of less than 90 despite of a continuous 5 L/min support of O2.
33079180 At baseline, 22/23 were receiving supplemental oxygen (3/23 high flow, 7/23 mechanical ventilation). […] Of the 7 intubated at baseline, 4/7 were fully recovered off oxygen, 2/7 were still hospitalized, and 1/7 had died.
33080002 Patients treated with tocilizumab were younger (median age, 58 [IQR, 48-65] vs 63 [IQR, 52-72] years) and had a higher prevalence of hypoxemia on ICU admission (205 of 433 [47.3%] vs 1322 of 3491 [37.9%] with mechanical ventilation and a ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen of <200 mm Hg) than patients not treated with tocilizumab.
33080005 Eligibility criteria included COVID-19 pneumonia documented by radiologic imaging, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (Pao2/Fio2) ratio between 200 and 300 mm Hg, and an inflammatory phenotype defined by fever and elevated C-reactive protein.
33080017 This cohort-embedded, investigator-initiated, multicenter, open-label, bayesian randomized clinical trial investigating patients with COVID-19 and moderate or severe pneumonia requiring at least 3 L/min of oxygen but without ventilation or admission to the intensive care unit was conducted between March 31, 2020, to April 18, 2020, with follow-up through 28 days. […] Secondary outcomes were clinical status assessed with the WHO-CPS scores at day 7 and day 14, overall survival, time to discharge, time to oxygen supply independency, biological factors such as C-reactive protein level, and adverse events. […] In this randomized clinical trial of patients with COVID-19 and pneumonia requiring oxygen support but not admitted to the intensive care unit, TCZ did not reduce WHO-CPS scores lower than 5 at day 4 but might have reduced the risk of NIV, MV, or death by day 14.
33081849 Standard Treatment for severe patients (STs): Strict Isolation, Standard Precautions (Hand hygiene, Cough Etiquette, Wear surgical mask), Fluid Therapy, Supportive Pharmacotherapy (Antipyretic, Antiallergic, Cough Suppressant), Oxygen supplementation (As required), Invasive ventilation (As required), Antibiotic agents for other associated infections (according to 2019 ATS/IDSA guidelines for non-ICU and ICU patients), Vasopressor support, Renal-replacement therapy, Treatment of Comorbid Diseases, Oseltamivir (75 mg BD) for patients who are tested positive for H1N1. […] Primary endpoints: (1) Time to Clinical recovery (TTCR) defined as the time (in hours) from initiation of study treatment (active or placebo) until normalisation of fever, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and alleviation of cough, sustained for at least 72 hours. […] Secondary Endpoints: All causes mortality, Frequency of respiratory progression (defined as SPO2≤ 94% on room air or PaO2/FiO2 <300mmHg and requirement for supplemental oxygen or more advanced ventilator support), time to defervescence (in those with fever at enrolment), frequency of requirement for supplemental oxygen or non-invasive ventilation, frequency of requirement for mechanical ventilation, frequency of serious adverse events as per DAIDS table grade of severity.
33081858 The use of mechanical ventilation or high-flow nasal oxygen was not associated with greater surface contamination, supporting their use and safety from an infection control perspective.
33083164 She was hypoxic to an oxygen saturation of 60% in the emergency department, requiring bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) to maintain saturations. […] The patient’s oxygen requirements and mental status continued to worsen.
33083565 Here, we use 3345 retrospective and 474 prospective hospitalizations to develop and validate a parsimonious model to identify patients with favorable outcomes within 96 h of a prediction, based on real-time lab values, vital signs, and oxygen support variables.
33085857 We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, hyperinflammatory states, and at least two of the following signs: fever (body temperature >38°C), pulmonary infiltrates, or the need for supplemental oxygen in order to maintain an oxygen saturation greater than 92%. […] The secondary efficacy outcomes were clinical worsening and discontinuation of supplemental oxygen among patients who had been receiving it at baseline, both assessed in time-to-event analyses. […] The median time to discontinuation of supplemental oxygen was 5.0 days (95% CI, 3.8 to 7.6) in the tocilizumab group and 4.9 days (95% CI, 3.8 to 7.8) in the placebo group (P = 0.69). […] At 14 days, 24.6% of the patients in the tocilizumab group and 21.2% of the patients in the placebo group were still receiving supplemental oxygen.
33088084 Ten patients were managed with oxygen therapy.
33088398 Two of the non-COVID-19 patients were having below 92% oxygen saturation and low systolic blood pressure.
33089047 The patient was successfully discharged home on 2 L of oxygen via nasal cannula, and continues to improve at follow-up with his cardiologist and primary care physician.
33089648 Thirty-seven (84%) patients required some degree of respiratory support and/or oxygen therapy, and 13 (30%) were admitted to intermediate or intensive critical care units.
33090435 Aggressive oxygen therapy for the treatment of hypoxia is important in saving these patients. […] We have summarized the mechanisms, efficacy, and side effects of various oxygen therapy techniques and their status or the potential to treat hypoxia in COVID-19 patients. […] The benefit to risk ratio of each oxygen therapy technique and strategy to use them in COVID-19 patients are discussed. […] High flow nasal cannula oxygen (HFNO) should be considered a better choice as an early stage oxygen therapy.
33093056 Open label, parallel arm, phase II, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. 39 public and private hospitals across India. ) ratio between 200 mm Hg and 300 mm Hg or a respiratory rate of more than 24/min with oxygen saturation 93% or less on room air): 235 were assigned to convalescent plasma with best standard of care (intervention arm) and 229 to best standard of care only (control arm).
33095853 We used Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression to describe the association between HIV status and day-28 mortality, after separate adjustment for sex, ethnicity, age, hospital acquisition of COVID-19 (definite hospital acquisition excluded), presentation date, ten individual comorbidities, and disease severity at presentation (as defined by hypoxia or oxygen therapy).
33096185 The primary outcome was death or severe COVID-19, defined as requiring supplementary oxygen or higher ventilatory support. was a risk factor in women (aOR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.71-7.01) and patients aged < 70 years.
33098398 Inpatient management criteria include moderate to severe symptoms and the target level of oxygen saturation is 92 to 95% in different guidelines.
33098401 In addition, randomized trials have demonstrated that dexamethasone improves outcomes in patients on mechanical ventilators or on oxygen.
33098643 Among 30 predictors, the top 5 were age, diastolic blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, COVID-19 testing status, and respiratory rate.
33098673 Oxygen was the major driver for women with severe COVID-19 (48%). […] Regulation of personal protective equipment and medical oxygen supply chains and expansion of advocacy for health insurance enrollments are needed in order to minimize catastrophic health expenditure.
33098974 Oxygen uptake and minute ventilation were highly consistent when evaluated with and without use of an electrostatic filter with a >99.9% viral efficiency.
33100531 To date, there are no approved treatments for SARS-CoV-2, and current management is focused on supplemental oxygen and supportive care.
33100642 Symptomatic hypoxic patients are initially treated with oxygen supplementation, but those with severe hypoxia need mechanical ventilation support.
33102272 Utilizing available evidence-based resources and extensive front-line experience, the authors have suggested a pragmatic pathway for providing safe and effective home oxygen therapy in the community setting.
33103442 A higher pH and lower partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood on arterial blood gas analysis were significantly associated with survival.
33103907 Because they transport oxygen, red blood cells (RBCs) may play a role in the severity of hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients. […] Increases in RBC glycolytic metabolites are consistent with a theoretically improved capacity of hemoglobin to off-load oxygen as a function of allosteric modulation by high-energy phosphate compounds, perhaps to counteract COVID-19-induced hypoxia. […] Conversely, because the N-terminus of AE1 stabilizes deoxyhemoglobin and finely tunes oxygen off-loading and metabolic rewiring toward the hexose monophosphate shunt, RBCs from COVID-19 patients may be less capable of responding to environmental variations in hemoglobin oxygen saturation/oxidant stress when traveling from the lungs to peripheral capillaries and vice versa.
33106167 The secondary outcome would be improvement of laboratory parameters after therapy (neutrophil, lymphocyte ratio, CRP, serum ferritin, SGPT, SGOT, serum creatinine and radiology), length of hospital stay, length of ICU stay, reduction in proportion of deaths, requirement of ventilator and duration of oxygen and ventilator support. […] However, the primary and secondary outcome (oxygen saturations, PaO2/FiO2, BP, day specific laboratory tests) will be recorded using an objective automated method; the study staff will not be able to influence the recording of these data.
33106171 The primary outcomes are the recovery rate of clinical symptoms and oxygen saturation as well as improvement of serum inflammatory parameters, including C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-ɑ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 within seven days of randomization.
33106183 The eligibility criteria in this study is: age ≥ 18 years, oxygen saturation (SPO2) ≤ 93% or respiratory rate ≥ 24, at least one of the following manifestation: radiation contactless body temperature ≥37.8, Cough, shortness of breath, nasal congestion/ discharge, myalgia/arthralgia, diarrhea/vomiting, headache or fatigue on admission. […] Both groups will receive standard care consisting of the necessary oxygen support, non-invasive, or invasive mechanical ventilation.
33107280 Effective oxygen therapy should be given immediately in presence of hypoxia. […] Nasal high-flow oxygen therapy, non-invasive ventilation, lung-protective ventilation strategies and prone position, should be undertaken when necessary under appropriate conditions.
33107607 ) > 0.40, the hazard ratio (HR) for death or ICU admission, between the corticosteroids and non-corticosteroids group, was 0.07 (95% CI 0.01-0.4), p = .002, and for patients requiring low-flow oxygen, the HR was 0.70 (95% CI 0.13-3.8), p = .68. […] A significant reduction in mortality and ICU admission frequency was observed among patients requiring high-flow oxygen or NIV, but not among those requiring low-flow oxygen.
33107664 We retrieved data from all admitted patients in need of oxygen supplementation (>3 L/min) and tachypnea (>24 ipm) from March 1 to April 30, 2020, excluding those who had any contraindication to the prone position or who had an immediate need for intubation.
33108622 This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2/3 trial to determine the safety and efficacy of DSTAT added to standard of care in hospitalized adults with COVID-19 who require supplemental oxygen.
33109676 Significant risk factors for mortality included age (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.06; p=1.15e-32), oxygen saturation (HR 0.985, 95% CI 0.982 to 0.988; p=1.57e-17), care in intensive care unit areas (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.92; p=7.81e-6) and elevated creatinine (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.10; p=7.48e-10), white cell count (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.04; p=8.4e-3) and body mass index (BMI) (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.03; p=1.09e-2).
33111132 Neurological symptoms during infection, diarrhea and oxygen therapy were risk factors for neurocognitive impairment.
33111866 In the univariate analysis, in addition to TnT and BNP, age, presence of coronary disease, oxygen saturation, lymphocytes, D-dimer, t-CRP and creatinine, were different between groups with and without outcomes.
33111980 To evaluate the adjuvant use of systemic oxygen-ozone administration in the early control of disease progression in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. […] The procedure consisted in a daily double-treatment with systemic Oxygen-ozone administration for 7 days.
33113285 Oxygen delivery index in this group resulted supranormal.
33113325 Ten patients presented with severe to critical disease (dyspnoea, hypoxia, respiratory rate > 30/min, peripheral oxygen saturation < 90%, or > 50% lung involvement on X-ray imaging).
33115212 Hospitalization, oxygen treatment, ventilator application, and mortality were assessed as severity outcomes. […] The number of patients who were hospitalized, who received oxygen, who required ventilator support, and who died was 4,986 (94.0%), 884 (16.7%), 121 (2.3%), and 211 (4.0%), respectively. […] In multivariate analyses, diabetes was associated with worse outcomes, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.349 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.099 to 1.656; P=0.004) for oxygen treatment, an aOR of 1.930 (95% CI, 1.276 to 2.915; P<0.001) for ventilator use, and an aOR of 2.659 (95% CI, 1.896 to 3.729; P<0.001) for mortality.
33115543 The scale is as follows: 1) Not hospitalized, no limitations on activities; 2) Not hospitalized, limitation on activities and/or requiring home oxygen; 3) Hospitalized, not requiring supplemental oxygen - no longer requires ongoing medical care; 4) Hospitalized, not requiring supplemental oxygen - requiring ongoing medical care (COVID-19 related or otherwise); 5) Hospitalized, requiring supplemental oxygen; 6) Hospitalized, on non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen devices; 7) Hospitalized, on invasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO; 8) Death. […] The exploratory endpoints include: Determine the impact of treatment arms on IL-6 levels, Obtain blood/peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) for storage to look at transcriptomics in severe disease, Association of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) with severity of illness, Mean change in the ordinal scale from baseline, Time to an improvement of one category from admission using an ordinal scale, Duration of hospitalization, Duration of new oxygen use, Number of oxygenation free days, Duration of new mechanical ventilation, Number of ventilator free days. <300 mmHg, and requires supplemental oxygen administration by nasal cannula, simple face mask, or other similar oxygen delivery device; 2) Critical disease: requires supplemental oxygen delivered by non-rebreather mask or high flow cannula OR use of invasive or non-invasive ventilation OR requiring treatment in an intensive care unit, use of vasopressors, extracorporeal life support, or renal replacement therapy.
33115641 Last but not least, we get to enjoy the tale of the cellular oxygen-sensing system as well as the role of the host complement system during Leptospira infection, and learn that SARS-CoV-2 can sometimes come with a pathogenic plus one.
33115670 Some data suggest the possible role of ozone therapy in SARS, either as a monotherapy or, more realistically, as an adjunct to standard treatment regimens; therefore, there is increasing interest in the role of ozone therapy in COVID-19 treatment The PubMed and Scopus databases and the Italian Scientific Society of Oxygen Ozone Therapy website were used to identify articles focused on ozone therapy.
33115682 We administered TCZ on a compassionate-use basis to patients with SSP who were hospitalized (excluding intensive care and intubated cases) and who required oxygen support to have a saturation >93%. […] Prognostic factors of death were older age, higher IL-6, d-dimer and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP), lower total lymphocytes, and severe disease that requires additional oxygen support. […] The primary endpoint (intubation or death) was significantly worst (37% vs 13%, p < 0·001) in those receiving the drug when the oxygen support was high (FiO2 >0.5%). […] TCZ is well tolerated in patients with SSP, but it has a limited effect on the evolution of cases with high oxygen support needs.
33117850 Although this trend remained the same after adjusting for age, sex, race, and oxygen requirements on admission (adjusted HR [aHR], 0.49; 95% CI, 0.19-1.28), as well as chronic comorbidities and use of corticosteroids (aHR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.16-1.23), it did not reach statistical significance.
33120193 6MWT distance was reduced in most patients without oxygen desaturation.
33121750 In the retrospective cohort study, duration of surgery, oxygen therapy and hospital stay were longer in suspected or confirmed patients than negative patients, but there were no differences in neonatal outcomes.
33122234 He was tachypnoeic with a respiratory rate of 24 breaths/min, oxygen saturations on room air of 91%. […] After a day of observation on a COVID-19 ward (and a repeat radiograph with a stable appearance), he was discharged with a 2-week follow-up with the respiratory team, safety netting advice and ambulatory oxygen.
33126325 Patients in the severe/critical group received mechanical ventilation (n = 22, 16.7%) or high-flow nasal can-nula oxygen therapy (n = 6, 4.5%). […] Relative to the mild group, the severe/critical group had higher levels of leukocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), D-dimer, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), liver enzymes, and myocardial enzymes (P < .05), and decreased levels of lymphocytes and blood oxygen partial pressure (P < .05). […] Disease severity correlated with increased leukocytes, CRP, PCT, BNP, D-dimer, liver enzymes, and myocardial enzymes, and with decreased lymphocytes and blood oxygen partial pressure.
33126860 Mechanical ventilation, in combination with supraphysiological concentrations of oxygen (i.e., hyperoxia), is routinely used to treat patients with respiratory distress, such as COVID-19.
33128800 Of the 163 patients treated with supplemental oxygen, eight (5%) died.
33128927 They showed that the PBM could significantly decrease the pulmonary edema, neutrophil influx, and generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), reactive oxygen species (ROS), isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2)).
33129008 Here, it is proposed that a combination of cool air therapy (CAT) and purified air technology (PAT) in an oxygen species cool air respirator (OSCAR) could be used to reduce viral (SARS-CoV-2) load and severity of illness in COVID-19 patients through the individual dose-response relationship.
33129363 • Moderate or Severe COVID-19, defined as oxygen saturation (Sao2) of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or significant clinical symptoms that require hospital admission. • patients had to be enrolled within 10 days of disease onset. […] Standard care comprised of, as necessary, supplemental oxygen, noninvasive and invasive ventilation, antibiotic agents, vasopressor support, renal-replacement therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and antiviral therapy except Favipiravir.
33129511 To analyze whether there is an association between the use glucocorticoids at high doses, and the evolution of saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SAFI) or time to discharge, in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
33130200 We selected data from patients who at admission, had a low dose CT scanner, dyspnea status, and oxygen saturation available.
33132330 Significant differences were seen in age, the frequency of fever, tachycardia, desaturation (peripheral oxygen saturation ≤95%), any comorbidity, neutrocyte count and fraction, lymphocyte count and fraction, platelet count, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen between the patients with and without pneumonia.
33132569 Currently, we are using barrier enclosure boxes on all patients who are on noninvasive support (noninvasive ventilation or high-flow oxygen therapy).
33133098 We describe two moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with WHO score 4/5 at the time of hospitalization, pneumonia, and oxygen saturation <94% and with a strong discrepancy between viral RNA and antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.
33133825 His oxygen requirements increased, mental status deteriorated, and platelets began falling, raising concern for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia versus DIC.
33134417 There were no significant differences in COVID-19 clinical scores, number of oxygen-free days, SARS-CoV-2 clearance, or adverse events between HCQ and placebo.
33134947 Limited evidence is available regarding the role of high-flow nasal oxygen in the management of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to coronavirus disease 2019. […] Our objective was to characterize outcomes associated with high-flow nasal oxygen use in critically ill adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019-associated acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. […] We observed an overall high usage of high-flow nasal oxygen in our cohort of critically ill patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to coronavirus disease 2019. […] These findings should prompt further considerations regarding the use of high-flow nasal oxygen in the management algorithm for coronavirus disease 2019-associated acute hypoxemic respiratory failure.
33134951 Patients 18 to 70 years old who met Chinese criteria for severe coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and required supplemental oxygen but not on mechanical ventilator at screening. […] Inhalation of DAS181 was well tolerated and potential clinical benefit of DAS181 on hypoxic coronavirus disease 2019 is the reduction of supplemental oxygen need.
33135113 Information on NSAID use was collected through a telephone questionnaire, and patients were followed up for COVID-19 infection outcomes, including death, admission, severity, time to clinical improvement, oxygen requirement and length of stay.
33136164 The mean (95% CI) length of stay for patients who received remdesivir was 10.09 days (8.6-11.6) and the mean (95% CI) duration of oxygen therapy was 9.42 days (8.0-10.8). […] No significant difference was seen amongst sexes for duration of oxygen therapy (men, 8.0 days [6.2-9.8] vs women, 10.76 days [8.8-12.8]; P=.051) or length of stay (men, 8.61 days [6.7-10.5] vs women, 11.43 days [9.3-13.5]; P=.058). […] There was no statistically significant difference in pooled racial groups (White vs nonWhite) for in-hospital mortality, number admitted to the ICU, days spent in the ICU, duration of oxygen use, or length of stay.
33136555 We used the score obtained with the index we created to assess for LUS diagnostic performance as compared to lung CT chest scan and to predict for oxygen requirements. […] LUS was 89% sensitive and 100% specific in predicting CT chest scan abnormalities, and 95% sensitive and 67% specific in detecting oxygen requirements. […] This is the first report on the diagnostic performance of LUS as compared to CT chest scan for the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia and assessments of oxygen requirements by LUS.
33136591 Gas blender attached to ECMO is used to allow precise adjustment of characteristics of fresh gas flow, that is, blood oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal. […] To cope with the gas blender shortage, we describe a back-up system set up in our French tertiary referral ECMO center using air and oxygen flowmeters.
33138936 Similarly, they had a higher prevalence of heart failure (P = .044), peripheral artery disease (P = .009), crackles at clinical status (P < .001), respiratory rate (P = .005), oxygen support needs (P < .001), C-reactive protein (P < .001), bilateral and peripheral infiltrates on chest radiographs (P = .001), and a lower prevalence of headache (P = .009). […] A multivariable Cox model showed that male sex (HR 4.00, 95% CI 2.08-7.71, P < .001), increased fraction of inspired oxygen (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.09, P < .001), and crackles (HR 2.42, 95% CI 1.15-6.06, P = .019) were the best predictors of mortality, while better functional status was protective (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99, P = .001). […] In older patients hospitalized for COVID-19, male sex, crackles, a higher fraction of inspired oxygen, and functionality were independent risk factors of mortality.
33139142 During the transport, patients continued receiving 2 l per minute oxygen with nasal cannula. […] The primary outcome of the study is the increase of partial oxygen value in the arterial blood gas of patients after transport. […] Transports more than 15 min, prone position may be recommended because the partial oxygen pressure of the patients increases.
33142266 Secondary endpoints included death, shock, need for mechanical ventilation, need for supplemental oxygen, arrhythmia, venous thromboembolism, encephalopathy, abnormal troponin level, and length of stay.
33146552 Managing acute respiratory failure should include appropriate oxygen supplementation, prone positioning, noninvasive ventilation, and protective lung strategy in patients with COPD and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. […] Patients who developed moderate or worse COVID-19 should be monitored more frequently and accurately than the usual patients with COPD, with particular attention to the need for oxygen therapy.
33147132 Variables of interest were examined in relation to a composite event rate of death, ICU transfer, or increased oxygen requirement to high-flow nasal cannula, noninvasive ventilation, or mechanical ventilation. […] Among 350 patients (age, 64 ± 16 years; 55% male), most (73%) required 3 L/min or less of supplemental oxygen during admission. […] Adverse events occurred in 62 patients (18%), including 22 deaths (6%), 48 ICU transfers (14%), and 49 patients with increased oxygen requirement (14%) and were independently associated with elevated C-reactive protein (odds ratio, 1.09 per 1 mg/dL; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18; P = .04) and lactate dehydrogenase (OR, 1.006 per 1U/L; 95% CI, 1.001-1.012; P = .03) in multivariable analysis.
33150974 At the conclusion of the study, rates of detectable infection were determined and intraoperative and postoperative events (unexpected admissions, length of PACU stay, rates of laryngospasm/bronchospasm, oxygen desaturation, bradycardia, and postoperative presentation to an emergency department) were compared between infected and uninfected patients. […] There were no significant differences in admission rates, length of PACU stay, rates of laryngospasm/bronchospasm, oxygen desaturation, bradycardia, or postoperative presentation to an emergency department between positive and negative patients.
33151482 We defined five levels of COVID-19 severity at hospital admission: (1) hospitalized but not requiring supplemental oxygen; (2-4) hospitalized and requiring oxygen ≤ 2, 3-4, and ≥ 5 L per minute, respectively; and (5) intubated or admitted to an intensive care unit. […] Other predictors of treatment were fever, low oxygen saturation, presence of co-morbidities, and elevated inflammatory biomarkers.
33151983 The Cox Proportional-Hazards Model for PCEP indicated the following significant risk factors: Oxygen saturation < 80% (HR = 6.3; [CI 95%: 2.5,15.5]), lymphopenia (HR = 3.5; [CI 95%: 2.2,5.5]), Oxygen saturation 80%-90% (HR = 2.5; [CI 95%: 1.1,5.8]), and thrombocytopenia (HR = 1.6; [CI 95%: 1.1,2.5]).
33153145 When expressed relative to peak exercise performance, no differences were evident between wearing or not wearing a mask for arterial oxygen saturation, tissue oxygenation index, rating of perceived exertion, or heart rate at any time during the exercise tests.
33153629 Similarly, the proportion of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen<315 mm Hg) was significantly reduced over time when treated with lenzilumab compared with untreated (P<.001> </.001>
33153974 From analysis of 203 samples, CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and LDH were most strongly correlated with the WHO ordinal scale of illness severity, the fraction of inspired oxygen delivery, radiological evidence of ARDS and level of respiratory support (p ≤ 0.001).
33154646 The etiology of this fibrosis is under discussion: we suppose that it could be due to either a possible outcome of natural history of lung damage produced by ARDS, or to the lung injury related to high oxygen level or to the lung damage directly induced by viral infection or finally to the autoimmune response.
33154656 All severe patients received oxygen support. […] In addition to antivirals and oxygen support, timely interventions including corticosteroids, immunoglobulin, and antibiotics, contribute to improving the prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients.
33155689 We investigated the association between the LUS score and clinical worsening, defined as a combination of high-flow oxygen support, intensive care unit admission, or 30-day mortality as the primary end point. ), the association between the LUS score and worsening (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.29; P = .003) was confirmed, with good discrimination of the model (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.82).
33158175 The predictive model for a negative test result included the monocyte count, LDH level and no need for oxygen therapy. […] The monocyte count, LDH level and no need for oxygen therapy were the factors that were more related to a negative test result in this group.
33159639 In multivariate analysis predictors of mortality or need for mechanical ventilation in survivors were obesity, low oxygen saturation and elevated troponin levels measured on admission.
33160030 Also, there were no significant differences in rates of use of inotropes, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, conventional oxygen therapy, high-flow nasal cannulas or mechanical ventilators, nor in the rates of acute kidney injury or cardiac events across all study groups.
33160999 Hemodynamic parameters were monitored using a sphygmomanometer for HR and blood pressure and a pulse oximeter for oxygen saturation.
33161002 Despite major study limitations, improvement of alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient as well as vascular radiologic score after one week may account for improved pulmonary vascular perfusion and could explain the more rapid recovery of COVID-19 patients receiving tocilizumab compared to controls.
33163103 In-hospital management includes oxygen supply when needed and prevention of thromboembolic disease. […] Remdesivir might reduce the time to recovery in hospitalized patients needing an oxygen supply.
33163955 Day fourteen of admission heralded the start of progressive clinical deterioration with rapid increase in oxygen demands.
33164022 All children had a mild disease course and none required oxygen supplementation or intensive care.
33165238 High-level oxygen support was required in 7 and intensive care in 5; 1 participant opted for palliative care instead of transfer to the intensive care unit.
33165621 Among 479 patients who were randomized (median age, 57 years; 44.3% female; 37.2% Hispanic/Latinx; 23.4% Black; 20.1% in the intensive care unit; 46.8% receiving supplemental oxygen without positive pressure; 11.5% receiving noninvasive ventilation or nasal high-flow oxygen; and 6.7% receiving invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), 433 (90.4%) completed the primary outcome assessment at 14 days and the remainder had clinical status imputed.
33166287 There was no association between COVID-19 severity (need for inpatient admission, supplemental oxygen or critical care) and fatigue following COVID-19.
33167955 Renal recovery during hospitalization was identified among 16 patients with AKI (17.4%), who had a significantly shorter time from admission to AKI diagnosis, lower incidence of right heart failure and higher ratio of partial pressure of oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen. […] AKI stage 3, critical disease, greater Age and the lowest ratio of partial pressure of oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen being < 150 mmHg were independently associated with death.
33169088 A case-series of 61 patients admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) between August 12 and September 12, 2020 with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia and rapidly evolving ARF requiring oxygen support therapy and/or mechanical ventilation was retrospectively analyzed. […] On admission, twenty nine patients (47.5%) were mechanically ventilated, and thirty two patients (52.5%) were receiving oxygen therapy.
33169089 A 66 year old female with multiple comorbidities initially presented with a cough, fever and an oxygen saturation of 70% on room air in the absence of respiratory distress or altered mentation. […] She subsequently tested positive for COVID-19 and was admitted to the intensive care unit; received oxygen via high flow nasal cannula and continuous positive pressure mask. […] The patient remained in the intensive care unit for 40 days under close observation and exhibited multiple episodes of silent hypoxia on weaning oxygen. […] She was discharged on room air with an oxygen saturation >90% after 56 days.
33169599 Nearly half of the patients (51%) required supplementary oxygen on presentation.
33170175 An oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay was performed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the spray.
33170927 Children less than 1 year of age hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 in Cape Town frequently required respiratory support, the access to oxygen may be limited in some LMICs which could potentially drive morbidity and mortality.
33172748 COVID-19 can cause cardiovascular complications or deterioration of coexisting CVD through direct or indirect mechanisms, including viral toxicity, dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), endothelial cell damage and thromboinflammation, cytokine storm, and oxygen supply-demand mismatch.
33173853 Patients treated with eculizumab experienced a significantly more rapid decrease in lactate, blood urea nitrogen, total and conjugated bilirubin levels and a significantly more rapid increase in platelet count, prothrombin time, and in the ratio of arterial oxygen tension over fraction of inspired oxygen versus patients treated without eculizumab.
33174406 Therefore, beside close monitoring with electrocardiography, biomarkers and, in case of demonstrated cardiac involvement, echocardiography, strategies to improve myocardial oxygen delivery should be promptly applied.
33175297 We aimed to describe the clinical course, treatment and outcome of a cohort of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, with special attention to oxygen delivery and ventilator support. […] With respect to oxygen delivery: 22 patients did not need any oxygen support (8.0%), 151 patients were treated with oxygen only (54.7%), and 49 (17.8%) were intubated. 90 patients (32.6%) were treated with CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) or NIV (Non Invasive Ventilation); in this group, 27 patients had a Do Not Intubate (DNI) order and were treated with CPAP/NIV as an upper threshold therapy, showing high mortality rate (88.9%).
33175567 Patient demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, treatments administered (intravenous fluids, antibiotics, supplemental oxygen, and respiratory medications), transfer to inpatient care, and hospital outcomes (length of stay, intensive care unit [ICU] admission, mechanical ventilation, and death) were collected from electronic health record data. 1477 patients received care in either the AH-HaH VOU or VACU or both settings, with a median length of stay of 11 days. […] In total, 184 (12%) patients were ever admitted to the VACU, during which 21 patients (11%) required intravenous fluids, 16 (9%) received antibiotics, 40 (22%) required respiratory inhaler or nebulizer treatments, 41 (22%) used supplemental oxygen, and 24 (13%) were admitted as an inpatient to a conventional hospital.
33176412 On the other hand, there is a net dissociation of the scientific resonance concerning systemic oxygen/ozone treatments.
33176886 Physiological data collected by the day of CRRT start will be vital signs, the arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) index, and serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, white blood cell count levels and Peak D-dimer levels.
33180097 Participants were community-living, nonhospitalized adults with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, with COVID-19 symptom onset within 7 days and oxygen saturation of 92% or greater. […] The primary outcome was clinical deterioration within 15 days of randomization defined by meeting both criteria of (1) shortness of breath or hospitalization for shortness of breath or pneumonia and (2) oxygen saturation less than 92% on room air or need for supplemental oxygen to achieve oxygen saturation of 92% or greater.
33181508 Currently, there are no approved treatments for CoronaVirus Disease 19 (COVID-19); however, therapeutic strategies based on the preclinical evidence include supportive measures, such as oxygen supplementation, antiviral, and anticoagulant agents.
33181759 Patients without any suspicious findings on thorax tomography and having oxygen saturation above 90% at the time of presentation were included as the first group. […] Patients with suspicious tomography findings but having oxygen saturation above 90% were designed as the second group, and patients with both suspicious tomography findings for COVID-19 and low oxygen saturation levels (<90%) at the time of admission were taken as the third group. […] Patients with oxygen desaturation were significantly older than the patients with normal oxygen saturations (P = 0.001). […] Patients with oxygen desaturation were having significantly higher D-dimer levels than the patients with normal oxygen saturations (P = 0.001). […] There was a significant negative correlation between oxygen saturation and D-dimer levels in all patients with and without tomography findings (r = -0.301, P = 0.016). […] Similarly, there was a significant positive correlation between the oxygen saturation and the lymphocyte count (r = 0.300, P < 0.017). […] It should be kept in mind that patients with low oxygen saturation and high D-dimer levels may have serious lung involvement.
33181872 In an extraordinary feat of engineering, the conference centre floor was transformed within a matter of weeks into wards with piped oxygen at each bed.
33182847 Nineteen were hospitalized (including 11 out of the 12 post-lung transplant patients), seven required oxygen therapy, and four (3 post-lung transplant patients) were admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU).
33184506 Our findings indicated that this process is associated with increased levels of intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in neutrophils.
33184730 Respiratory support was needed in 60 neonates (7.6%), with 14 babies needing mechanical ventilation (1.8%), 25 needing non-invasive ventilation and 21 needing nasal oxygen.
33186991 We analyzed 3,625 COVID-19+ inpatients, controlling for age, gender, glomerular filtration rate, oxygen saturation, ventilation requirement, intensive care unit admission, and time period, all determined during the first 48 hours.
33187475 The patients were treated mainly by oxygen therapy and antiviral drugs.
33188232 Notably, 62.6% (95% CI 39.9-85.4%) and 20.2% (95% CI 14.6-25.9%) of in-patients received oxygen therapy and non-invasive mechanical ventilation, respectively.
33188624 The TOCICOVID study included a prospective cohort of patients aged 16-80 years with severe (requiring > 6 L/min of oxygen therapy to obtain Sp02 > 94%) rapidly deteriorating (increase by ≥ 3 L/min of oxygen flow within the previous 12 h) COVID-19 pneumonia with ≥ 5 days of symptoms and C-reactive protein levels > 40 mg/L. […] Among the 85 (89%) patients still alive at D28, patients treated with tocilizumab had a higher rate of oxygen withdrawal (82% vs. […] 73.5%, wHR = 1.66 [1.17-2.37], p = 0.005), with a shorter delay before being weaned of oxygen therapy (mean 11 vs. 16 days; p < 0.001).
33189161 Between March 30 and May 30, 2020, 101 patients were randomly assigned to SNG001 (n=50) or placebo (n=51). 48 received SNG001 and 50 received placebo and were included in the intention-to-treat population. 66 (67%) patients required oxygen supplementation at baseline: 29 in the placebo group and 37 in the SNG001 group.
33189452 Previous evidence has shown the presence of early endothelial dysfunction in healthy subjects but with a family history of type 2 diabetes (FH-DM2), where glucose metabolism, the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as expression of genes involved with their synthesis are impaired.
33189613 The present review highlights the current potential therapies viz., vaccines, immunotherapies, convulsant plasma therapies, corticosteroids, antithrombotic, intravenous immunoglobulins, nocturnal oxygen therapy etc. that may prove beneficial in attenuating the pandemic situation.
33189890 15.6%, OR = 2.43, P = 0.041) and receiving oxygen therapy (39.0% vs. 
33190086 Supplemental oxygen requirements were tracked daily for non-ventilated patients. […] Non-ventilated patients were liberated from supplemental oxygen after TPE.
33190816 Using oxygen saturation, radiologic findings, and need for advanced respiratory therapies, patients were classified into mild, moderate, or severe categories of COVID-19 infection.
33191263 The aim of the SARICOR study is to demonstrate that early administration of sarilumab (an IL-6 receptor inhibitor) in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, pulmonary infiltrates and a high IL-6 or D-dimer serum level could reduce the progression of ARDS requiring high-flow nasal oxygen or mechanical ventilation (non-invasive or invasive).
33191372 Both his oxygen demand and fever gradually improved after admission; however, his fever relapsed, and the C-reactive protein (CRP) levels increased on day 7.
33191908 According to the current literature we reviewed, we suggest that IFN-α and arbidol can be retained in the treatment regimen for pregnant women and that to reduce maternal mortality, appropriate doses of dexamethasone can be given to those who are predicted to have low premature survival and to receive mechanical ventilation or oxygen.
33191989 The proposed treatment is based on the improvement of the Tolerance to Hypoxia (Hemoglobin factor), oxygen therapy, inflammation reduction, antibiotics, antitussives, rehydration & anticoagulation if required.
33194116 : ACE-i: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB: Angiotensin receptor blocker; ARDS: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; BiPAP: Bilevel positive airway pressure; CABG: Coronary artery bypass graft; CFR: Case fatality rate; COVID-19: Coronavirus disease 19; CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure; CRP: C - Reactive Protein; CT: Computed tomography; DVT: Deep vein thrombosis; ECMO: Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation; ESICM: European Society of Intensive Care Medicine; FiO2: Fraction of inspired O2; HFNC: High Flow Nasal Cannula; HITF: Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Factor; IBM: International Business Machines; ICU: Intensive Care Unit; IL: Interleukin; IMV: Invasive Mechanical Ventilation; IQR: Interquartile Range; ISTH: International Society of Thrombosis Hemostasis; NIV: Non Invasive Ventilation; NY: New York; PAI: Plasminogen activator inhibitor; PaO2: partial pressure of arterial oxygen; PCV: Pressure Control Ventilation; PEEP: Positive End Expiratory Pressure; RGH: Rochester General Hospital; RRH: Rochester Regional Health; RT-PCR: Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; RSV: Respiratory Syncytial virus; SARS-CoV-2: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2; SD: Standard Deviation; STEMI: ST segment elevation myocardial infarction; TNF: Tumor necrosis factor; USA: USA; VTE: Venous thromboembolism.
33194152 Since, so far, a vaccine is not available, prevention of the infection is based on the avoiding people affected and the spreading of the virus; the treatment, in the absence of an effective antiviral agent, is symptomatic, and, in addition to oxygen support, finds in the anti-inflammatory drugs and anticoagulation fundamental therapeutic lines.
33194257 After admission, fever and oxygen demand occurred but she recovered from COVID-19.
33194455 The top ICU predictors were procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, ferritin and oxygen saturation. […] The top mortality predictors were age, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, cardiac troponin, C-reactive protein and oxygen saturation.
33194477 While 45.06% of the participants stated that they provided oxygen support to the patient with the mask belonging to the circuit after extubation, 14.8% preferred the nasal cannula, and 33.1% used an oxygen mask.
33195318 Inhibiting CRS by agents suppressing IL-6 may relieve symptoms, shorten the hospital stay and reduce the need for oxygen therapy.
  1. Outcome: 1 patient without endotracheal intubation was continuously given nasal high-flow oxygen therapy, and the condition was stable.
33198859 The patient was successfully cured one month later following anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and high-flow oxygen therapies, homeostasis maintenance of the body, psychological counseling, etc. […] In respiratory system, the timing of high-flow oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation should be seized.
33199018 /DOC) over the dissolved oxygen (DO) as the parameter with the highest correlation with viral copies.
33200031 As outcome measure, patients in both the groups showed marked improvement in temperature, oxygen requirement and C-reactive protein (CRP) on day 5.
33200108 We have presented the case of a patient previously hospitalized with COVID-19 for oxygen supplementation who had presented after discharge with delayed stroke from a right common carotid artery and internal carotid artery thrombosis.
33200121 The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 associated ACS was 11% (n=26) and 11 patients had severe hypoxemia on presentation (mechanical ventilation or nasal oxygen >6L/min).
33200828 We conducted a retrospective study of patients admitted to the University of Washington Hospital system with COVID-19 and requiring supplemental oxygen. […] Patients receiving tocilizumab were younger with fewer comorbidities but higher baseline oxygen requirements.
33201181 In the overall cohort, multivariable analysis demonstrated age ≥75 (OR 3.54), chronic kidney disease (OR 3.36), dementia (OR 8,06), peripheral oxygen saturation at admission <92% (OR 5.85), severe lymphopenia (<500/mm3) (OR 3.36) and qSOFA (Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score) >1 (OR 8.31) to be independent predictors of mortality. […] Age ≥75 years, dementia, peripheral oxygen saturation <92%, severe lymphopenia and qSOFA scale >1 were independent predictors of mortality in this population.
33201863 CASE REPORT A 54-year-old man with recent COVID-19 exposure presented with fever, cough, dyspnea, and syncope and was found to be in hypoxic respiratory failure requiring supplemental oxygen.
33202203 Induction of NETosis depends on reactive oxygen species (ROS), the main source of which is NADPH oxidase.
33202598 This review summarizes data from several laboratories that have demonstrated a role of the Na/K-ATPase, specifically its α1 subunit, in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the negative regulator of Src.
33203362 All of P2 patients (100%) received oxygen therapy, and in contrast, 19 of P4 patients (41.3%) received oxygen therapy.
33204429 Twenty-three patients (32.9%) required oxygen therapy 6.7 (±4.1 [1-13]) days from illness onset.
33205000 When stratifying inpatients in a low- and high oxygen demand group serum iron levels differed significantly between these two groups and showed a high negative correlation with the inflammatory parameters IL-6, procalcitonin, and CRP. […] The differences in serum iron availability observed between the low and high oxygen demand group suggest that disturbed iron metabolism likely plays a causal role in the pathophysiology leading to lung injury.
33205723 The extraordinary pace of clinical research, and particularly the surge in adaptive trials of new and repurposed treatments, have provided rapid answers to questions of whether such treatments work, and has resulted in corticosteroids taking centre stage in the management of hospitalised patients requiring oxygen support. […] Some treatment modalities, such as the role of anticoagulation to prevent and treat potential thromboembolic complications, remain controversial, as does the use of high-level oxygen support, outside of an intensive care unit setting.
33205724 Mortality was associated with older age (mean (standard deviation) 55 (12) years v. 46 (14) years; p<0.01); the presence of hypertension or hypertension along with diabetes and/or obesity; lower partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio; and higher urea level, white cell count, neutrophil count, and C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase and ferritin levels, and high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio.
33206248 Compared with the patients in the negative troponin group, those in the positive troponin group were more likely to have a higher age; higher levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein and ferritin; higher need for high-flow oxygen, invasive mechanical ventilation therapy or both; and a higher number of intensive care unit admissions.
33206653 We defined the main outcome as the presence vs. the absence of signs of pneumonia, represented by dyspnea, the requirement for oxygen therapy or intubation.
33206843 Case 1, female, 10-month-old child, pre-existing chronic disease, hospitalized since birth, mechanical ventilation dependency via tracheotomy, progressed with hypoxemia, requiring oxygen therapy, and increased ventilator parameters, and a diagnosis of COVID-19 was confirmed.
33209159 Diabetic patients required more oxygen therapy (60% versus 26.9%), more mechanical ventilation (20% versus 8.3%) and more frequent admission to the intensive care unit (60% versus 27.8%).
33209547 Subsequent morbidity (increased vasopressor requirements - 67%, acute kidney injury - 67%, increased oxygen requirements - 44%) and mortality (78%) were high.
33211849 Oxygen management in such context is crucial. […] Oxygen management was compliant with international guidelines as well as aeronautical constraints and monitored throughout the flights. […] Oxygen intake was 1,650 L per patient per flight (1,350-1,950 L patient per flight) and 564 L per patient per hour (482-675 L per patient-1 per hour) and surpassed our anticipation. […] The estimations of oxygen consumptions were frequently overshot, and only two hypoxemia episodes occurred. […] Oxygen consumption was higher than expected, despite anticipation and predefined oxygen management measures, and encourages to a great caution in the processing of such collective medevac missions.
33212828 Three patients required oxygen at the time of diagnosis.
33213364 Standard oxygen therapy through nasal cannula was also recommended. […] Two weeks later from the initial consultation the patient presents marked improvement in her symptoms, as well as in her CT scan, which prompted in discontinuation of the medications and the oxygen therapy.
33213529 This is a phase 2 academic, prospective, 2:1 randomized, open-label, multi-center interventional study. below 350 mmHg or SpO2 below 93% on minimal 2 L/min supplemental oxygen). d. […] =Fraction of inspired oxygen).
33213530 (Asymptomatic with positive valid COVID-19 test, Symptomatic Independent, Symptomatic assistance needed, Hospitalized, with no oxygen therapy) 5.
33215171 We designed a pathway for the triage and assessment of patients based on their resting oxygen saturations and response to a 30 metre rapid walking test. […] Median oxygen saturation at presentation was 97 % (IQR 96-98%) and following a 30 metre walk test 96% (IQR 94-97%).
33215172 Severity, as assessed by POCUS, showed good discriminatory performance to predict all-cause inpatient mortality, death or critical care admission, and escalated oxygen requirements (AUC .80, .80, 82). […] POCUS assessed severity correlated with length of stay and duration of supplemental oxygen therapy.
33216875 Those with sBSI were more likely to have altered mental status, lower mean percent oxygen saturation on room air, have septic shock and be admitted to the intensive care unit compared to the controls.
33217576 The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of anakinra in patients who were admitted to hospital for severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring oxygen therapy. […] Secondary outcomes included successful weaning from supplemental oxygen and change in inflammatory biomarkers. […] Successful weaning from supplemental oxygen to ambient air was attained in 25 (63%) of the anakinra-treated group compared with 6 (27%) of the historical cohort (p = 0.008). […] In patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and high oxygen requirement, anakinra could represent an effective treatment option and may confer clinical benefit.
33217886 Oxygen therapy, high nasal flow oxygen, non-invasive ventilator, invasive ventilator and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) were used symptomatically in different patients.
33218161 Comorbidities and medications used were identified using HIRA codes, and severe COVID-19 was defined as that requiring oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilator, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
33219200 The clinical spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is wide, with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) occurring in 15% of patients affected, requiring high oxygen support. […] CASE REPORT All patients were female and had no significant previous respiratory disease or history of smoke exposure, and none had received high-flow oxygen support during treatment of the disease.
33219572 In this article, we discuss anticoagulation, suppression of inflammatory response, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the context of severe COVID-19 and livedoid vasculopathy.
33221355 Admissions were older, more unwell on admission and throughout their stay, more often required supplementary oxygen, spent longer in hospital and had a higher in-hospital mortality compared to one or more of the control periods.
33224450 Target oxygen saturation should be between 92% and 96% in patients without chronic lung diseases. […] Treatment with >5 L oxygen/min should be in close collaboration with intensive care colleagues and >15 l/min preferably in intensive care units. […] High-flow nasal canula (HFNC) and long-term Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) are recommended for patients not responding to conventional oxygen therapy.
33225304 Conventional oxygen therapy and awake proning are options, but the use of high-flow nasal cannula and continuous positive airway pressure are controversial. […] Coronavirus disease 2019 patients at high risk for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure with worsening symptoms despite use of supplemental oxygen and/or awake proning.
33225960 Secondary outcomes include improvement or worsening in a clinical severity score measured on a 7-point ordinal scale (including transfer to intensive care unit and death), oxygen- and ventilator-free days, mortality, changes in pulmonary computed tomography severity score, hospital stay duration, reduction of viral load measured on nasopharyngeal swabs, number of serious adverse events, and changes in biochemical markers of organ dysfunction.
33225990 All patients admitted to the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara and Hospital General de Occidente in Mexico for COVID-19 associated acute respiratory failure and in need of supplementary oxygen through high-flow nasal cannula are screened for eligibility. all adult patients admitted to the COVID-19 unit who test positive for COVID-19 by PCR-test and in need for oxygen are eligible for inclusion. […] Randomization starts upon identification of requirement of a fraction of inspired oxygen ≥30% for an oxygen capillary saturation of ≥90% Exclusion criteria: less than 18 years-old, pregnancy, patients with immediate need of invasive mechanical ventilation (altered mental status, fatigue), vasopressor requirement to maintain median arterial pressure >65 mmHg, contraindications for prone positioning therapy (recent abdominal or thoracic surgery or trauma, facial, pelvic or spine fracture, untreated pneumothorax, do-not-resuscitate or do-not-intubate order, refusal or inability of the patient to enroll in the study. […] Inspired fraction of oxygen will be titrated to maintain a capillary saturation of 92%-95%.
33226011 The center was provided with the necessary means to administer the medication (oral and intravenous) and oxygen therapy necessary to care for patients with the disease.
33226958 Nevertheless, pulmonary ventilation dysfunction and oxygen inhalation insufficiency were not the main causes of cardiac injury in patients with COVID-19. -percentile of the upper reference limit.
33227019 Primary analyses were conducted among those requiring supplemental oxygen (n = 270); half of these patients (135) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).
33227435 Sequential diving by wild marine mammals results in a lifetime of rapid physiological transitions between lung collapse-reinflation, bradycardia-tachycardia, vasoconstriction-vasodilation, and oxygen store depletion-restoration. […] The result is a cycle of normoxia and hypoxia in which blood oxygen partial pressures can decline to <20-30 mmHg during a dive, a level considered injurious to oxygen-dependent human tissues (i.e., brain, heart). […] Safeguards in the form of enhanced on-board oxygen stores, selective oxygen transport, and unique tissue buffering capacities enable marine-adapted mammals to maintain physiological homeostasis and energy metabolism even when breathing and pulmonary gas exchange cease. […] This stands in stark contrast to the vulnerability of oxygen-sensitive tissues in humans that may undergo irreversible damage within minutes of ischemia and tissue hypoxia. […] Built across evolutionary time, these solutions provide a natural template for identifying the potential for tissue damage when oxygen is lacking, and for guiding management decisions to support oxygen-deprived tissues in other mammalian species, including humans, challenged by hypoxia.
33228475 The results revealed a surge in mitochondrial respiration, cytokines, neurodegenerative mechanisms and deprived oxygen, iron, copper, and glucose transport.
33229502 As to respiratory support, 94 patients were treated with oxygen only (at different volumes) and 45 with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP).
33230502 After 10 days, he developed dyspnea, and his blood oxygen levels decreased. […] Subsequently, low-dose methylprednisolone (40 mg/day) was administered for 4 days and his C-reactive protein and blood oxygen levels increased and improved, respectively.
33230506 We sought to determine the accuracy of the LOW-HARM score (Lymphopenia, Oxygen saturation, White blood cells, Hypertension, Age, Renal injury, and Myocardial injury) for predicting death from coronavirus disease 2019) COVID-19.
33230989 One-fifth of patients in group 50-84 received oxygen support, while no patients in group aged 0-17 years received oxygen support.
33231148 Oxygen therapy, invasive (IMV) and non-invasive (NIV) ventilation were the most frequent addressed interventions. […] In the context of oxygen therapy, the nasal catheter was the most recommended strategy for hypoxemia, followed by the high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). […] In conclusion, oxygen therapy seems to be essential in the treatment of hypoxemia.
33233817 The physiological action of MP1032 is based on a multi-target mechanism including localized, self-limiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities that were demonstrated in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced joint inflammation.
33233826 This new methodology has been tested experimentally, producing positive results so far from the viewpoint of time reduction in the detection of a blood oxygen saturation deficit condition, thus implicitly improving the consequent treatment options and reducing the potential adverse effects on the patient’s health.
  1. That they sign the informed consent for participation in the study. (1) pregnant or breastfeeding women; (2) known allergy to ivermectin or some of the components of ivermectin tablets or placebo; (3) current use of home oxygen; (4) require hospitalization due to COVID-19 at the time of diagnosis or history of hospitalization for COVID-19; (5) presence of mal-absorptive syndrome; (6) presence of any other concomitant acute infectious disease; (7) known history of severe liver disease, for example liver cirrhosis; (8) need or use of antiviral drugs at the time of admission for another viral pathology other than COVID-19; (9) need or use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine; (10) use of ivermectin up to 7 days prior to randomization; (11) patients on dialysis or who have required it in the last 2 months or who plan to do it in the next 2 months; and (12) current participation or in the last 30 days in a research study that has included the administration of a drug (Table 1). […] Current use of home oxygen 4. […] X - - - - Basal laboratory X - - - - PCR swab - X X - - Assessment of adverse events - X X X - Final objective evaluation - X X X X Randomization X - - - - Adherence to treatment X X - - - *Includes heart rate, temperature, and oxygen saturation by a digital saturometer ^Includes weight and height BLINDING (MASKING): The participants, investigators, care providers, and outcome assessors will be blinded.
33234239 In this brief review we describe three such human defense mechanisms, the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like proteins (APOBEC), adenosine deaminase acting on RNA proteins (ADAR), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and discuss their potential implications on SARS-CoV-2 evolution.
33234656 Severity of infection will be evaluated by occurrence and duration of hospitalisation, admission and duration of stay in intensive care units or equivalent structures, provision of and duration of supplemental oxygen and ventilation therapy, transfer to another hospital, as well as the impact of infection on daily activities following hospital discharge.
33234760 The patient was treated symptomatically with fluid replacement, optimization of electrolyte balance and oxygen supplementation.
33235220 ACI (OR = 2.34, P = 0.009), male gender (OR = 2.58, P = 0.001), oximeter oxygen saturation (OR = 0.90, P < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (OR = 3.26, P < 0.001), interleukin-6 (IL-6) (OR = 8.59, P < 0.001), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (OR = 3.29, P = 0.016), N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (OR = 2.94, P = 0.001) were independent risk factors for the in-hospital mortality in severe patients.
33235826 A check of arterial blood gas revealed normal partial pressure of oxygen and follow-up tests confirmed a methemoglobinemia diagnosis.
33237927 In addition to lung mechanics or estimation of CO2 and pH expected for set ventilation parameters (considerations of lung physiology alone), full physiological simulation provides estimates of additional values for oxyhemoglobin saturation, arterial oxygen tension, and other patient parameters. […] These simulations show patient outcome during multi-patient ventilation is most closely correlated to lung compliance, oxygenation index, oxygen saturation index, and end-tidal carbon dioxide of individual patients. […] The simulated patient outcome metrics were satisfactory when the lung compliance difference between two patients was less than 12 mL/cmH2O, and the oxygen saturation index difference was less than 2 mmHg.
33238745 This case highlights that MIS associated with COVID-19 may present in patients above the age of 21 years and can occur with a delayed onset after mild illness in those with no previous oxygen requirement or hospitalization during SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33239247 A statistically significant improvement in the variable oxygen saturation / fraction inspired by oxygen is observed in patients who used alternative CPAP (p = 0.040) CONCLUSION: The use of these devices has helped the ventilatory work of several patients by improving their oxygenation parameters.
33239507 Sheep were instrumented with pulmonary and renal artery flow-probes, and laser-Doppler and oxygen-sensing probes in the kidney.
33240711 The patient was hemodynamically stable with normal respiratory effort and oxygen saturation.
33240787 The initial examination indicated a body temperature of 37.9 °C, oxygen saturation (SPO2) 91%, partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2) was 25 mm Hg, respiratory rate (RR) of 20 breaths/minute (b/m), blood pressure of 100/60 mmHg, and pulse of 80 bpm (beat/minute) and fetal heart rate (FHR) = 167/min.
33242934 After 48 hours of HFNC oxygen therapy (day 3), mean PaO2/FiO2 increased to 396 ± 83.5 mm Hg.
33243440 Initial anticoagulant treatment with low molecular weight heparin has been shown to reduce mortality by 48% at 7 days and 37% at 28 days and achieve a significant improvement in the arterial oxygen pressure/inspired fraction of O2 (PaO2/FiO2) by mitigating the formation of microthrombi and associated pulmonary coagulopathy.
33243665 Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by the interaction with environmental ionizing radiation contained in pollution is pointed out as a critical mechanism that predispose mainly to elder population, but not excluding young subjects, presenting previous chronic conditions of lung inflammation or neuroinflammation, which can lead to the most serious consequences.
33243801 Several respondents remained at home and did not seek formal medical attention despite reporting severe breathlessness and measuring hypoxia (n=5/9, 55.6%). 2 patients required hospital admission but recovered following oxygen therapy. 84 respondents (41.2%) required greater than the obligated 7 days off work and 9 required greater than 3 weeks off.
33244256 Baseline observations showed that increased oxygen requirement was predictive for mortality.
33244856 Oxygen supplementation is indicated to maintain peripheral blood oxygenation over 90%-96%.
33247978 Multifocal opacities on initial chest x-ray were seen in 52% patients and 44% of patients had a presenting oxygen saturation of less than or equal to 94%.
33249142 We conducted a prospective, single-arm, phase 1/2 clinical trial enrolling patients aged ≥50 years, who were coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) positive, at phase 2 or 3 with lung involvement at imaging study and oxygen requirement. […] Secondary outcomes were toxicity using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.5.0, duration of hospitalization, blood work evolution, and oxygen requirements using SatO2/FiO2 index (SAFI), at days 3 and 7 after LD-RT.
33249285 Hypoxia is defined by low oxygen concentration in organs, tissues, and cells. […] Maintaining oxygen homeostasis represents the essential cellular metabolic process for the structural integrity of tissues in different pathological conditions, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.
33250670 •Nurse Practitioner -led intervention•COVID -19 pandemic in community•Deterioration Report•Integration of clinical laboratory data•Prioritization of Care•High Flow Oxygen and proning to avoid intubation.
33251008 Vital signs showed blood pressure 130/75 mmHg, pulse 84x/minute, respiratory rate (RR) 21x/minute, body temperature 36.5C, and oxygen saturation (SpO2) 75% on room air. […] On third day, he complained of worsening of breath shortness, but his RR was still normal (22x/minute) with SpO2 of 98% on 3 L/minute oxygen via nasal cannula.
33251090 We used oxygen therapy, broad spectrum antibiotics since the diagnosis of COVID-19.
33251108 The performance of various pilot/full-scale studies have been evaluated in terms of removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), PhACs, pathogens, etc.
33251512 Despite adequate pre-oxygenation a sudden, unexpected fall in arterial oxygen saturations was observed in both patients after administration of a priming dose of 2 mg of rocuronium.
33254379 In patients who test positive for SARS-CoV-2, disconnecting the patient from the ventilator and introducing high flow oxygen into the endotracheal tube increases the risk for aerosolization of airway secretions and exposure of the examiner.
33254484 This medication may abort effects of Bradykinin by inhibition of Nitric Oxide synthase inhibitor and promote oxygen saturation while it is inexpensive and ubiquitously accessible.
33254534 In this setting, Hb may be incapacitated and unable to respond to environmental variations, compromising RBCs and oxygen delivery to tissues.
33254550 We show the possibility of miRNA-like inhibitions by the SARS-CoV-2 concerning for example the hemoglobin and type I interferons syntheses, hence highly perturbing oxygen distribution in vital organs and immune response as described by clinicians; (2) Hypothesis: We hypothesize that short RNA sequences (about 20 nucleotides in length) from the SARS-CoV-2 virus genome can inhibit the translation of human proteins involved in oxygen metabolism, olfactory perception and immune system. […] (3) Methods: We compare RNA subsequences of SARS-CoV-2 protein S and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes to mRNA sequences of beta-globin and type I interferons; (4) Results: RNA subsequences longer than eight nucleotides from SARS-CoV-2 genome could hybridize subsequences of the mRNA of beta-globin and of type I interferons; (5) Conclusions: Beyond viral protein production, COVID-19 might affect vital processes like host oxygen transport and immune response.
33257623 Adverse outcomes were defined as admission to intensive care units (ICUs), oxygen saturation <90%, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), and in-hospital mortality.
33257911 Modality of oxygen support is not associated with risk of environmental contamination.
33257915 Lung ultrasound findings did not correlate with arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction ratio, fluid balance or dynamic compliance.
33258333 The 121 (23.4%) needed nasal oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation (n = 38; 7.3%), and 49 patients (9.4%) were admitted to an intensive care unit.
33260201 On June 18, 2020, we identified frequently used eligibility criteria from all the interventional COVID-19 trials in ClinicalTrials.gov (n = 288), including age, pregnancy, oxygen saturation, alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, platelets, and estimated glomerular filtration rate.
33260236 All patients used different methods of oxygen therapy before the occurrence of spontaneous pneumothorax according to the severity of the COVID-19, including 18 patients with ventilator-assisted breathing, 2 patients with bilevel positive airway pressure assisted breathing, and 1 patient with mask oxygen inhalation.
33262415 Four of the controlled observational studies assessed corticosteroids’ effect on other outcomes, demonstrating that they were associated with reduced risk of intubation in patients requiring oxygen and with longer hospitalization and viral shedding in mild or moderate cases.
33262589 Silver-based nanomaterials (AgNMs) demonstrate antimicrobial and disinfectant effects mostly by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are presently considered as a versatile tool for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.
33262803 Considering the lack of improvement in oxygen saturation, teleconsultation was performed, suggesting prone-position ventilation (PPV). […] Significant improvements were observed in oxygen saturation.
33262964 This pattern of hyaline membrane formation might explain the poor response to oxygen therapy.
33263054 SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from 49 children with asthma of whom 29 required no treatment, 19 needed supplemental oxygen and four children required mechanical ventilation. […] Among the nine children with BPD and COVID-19, two required no treatment, five required inpatient care and oxygen and two were admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) requiring invasive ventilation. […] Data were available from 33 children with other conditions and SARS-CoV-2 of whom 20 required supplemental oxygen and 11 needed noninvasive or invasive ventilation.
33263084 To analyze whether there is an association between the use glucocorticoids at high doses, and the evolution of saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SAFI) or time to discharge, in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
33263697 In hospitalized patients, a higher frequency of irritability, dyspnea, drowsiness, respiratory distress, low oxygen saturation, and hepatomegaly was observed.
33263706 The most commonly reported symptoms were coughing (42.39%), fever (38.03%) and dyspnea/respiratory distress with oxygen saturation < 95% (30.98%). […] Coughing, fever and dyspnea/respiratory distress with oxygen saturation < 95% were the commonest symptoms.
33264366 For all enrolled patients, longer duration from diagnosis to admission (odds ratio [OR] 1.108, 95% CI 1.022-1.202; P = 0.013), pulse oxygen saturation at admission <93% (OR 5.775, 95% CI 1.257-26.535; P = 0.024), higher neutrophil count (OR 1.495, 95% CI 1.177-1.899; P = 0.001) and higher creatine kinase-MB level at admission (OR 2.449, 95% CI 1.089-5.511; P = 0.030) were associated with a higher risk, whereas higher lymphocyte count at admission (OR 0.149, 95% CI 0.026-0.852; P = 0.032) was associated with a lower risk of critical illness development.
33264816 Oxygen saturation ≤93% on room air, neutrophilia, D-dimer >0.5 μg/mL, creatinine >1.5 mg/dL, lactate dehydrogenase ≥250 U/L and elevation of creatine kinase were higher in the older adult groups. […] Oxygen saturation ≤93% on room air on admission was a predictor of mortality (odds ratio 11.65, 95% confidence interval 3.26-41.66, P < 0.001) in patients aged >70 years. […] Oxygen saturation ≤93% on room air on admission is a predictive factor of death.
33268419 The end of study analyses will evaluate the reduction of impact of oxygen saturations or requirement of oxygen supplementation. for ventilated patients.
33269116 Secondary outcomes assessed were oxygen requirements, need for mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, and hospital length of stay.
33269255 The seriousness of the disease (as indicated by blood oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, oxygenation index, blood lymphocyte count, and lesions shown in lung CT) is related to history of living in or traveling to Wuhan, underlying diseases, admittance to intensive care unit, and mechanical ventilation.
33269880 The maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was assessed using an incremental exercise test (IET) (July 2019 and May 2020).
33270902 Most common findings on presentation included cough (55%), fever (52%) and dyspnea (45%), and 32 (44%) patients showed oxygen saturation levels below 95%.
33272285 Oxygen supply, nasogastric with, or without endotracheal tubes are considered.
33272319 Patients with COVID-19 and hypoxaemia despite conventional low-flow oxygen therapy are often treated with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in line with international guidelines. […] Oxygen delivery by helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a feasible option that enables a higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and may theoretically reduce the need for intubation compared to HFNC but direct comparative evidence is lacking.
33273023 There was strong association between days on oxygen supplementation during the acute phase of COVID-19 and both DLCO-% (diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide) predicted and total CT score.
33273026 However, clinically significant abnormalities in chest radiograph, exercise tests, blood tests and spirometry were less frequent (35%), especially in patients not requiring supplementary oxygen during their acute infection (7%).
33273040 Measurement of post-exertion oxygen saturation has been proposed to assess illness severity in suspected COVID-19 infection. […] We aimed to determine the accuracy of post-exertional oxygen saturation for predicting adverse outcome in suspected COVID-19. […] Patients with post-exertion oxygen saturation recorded were selected for this analysis. […] We analysed data from 817 patients with post-exertion oxygen saturation recorded after excluding 54 in whom measurement appeared unfeasible. […] The c-statistic for post-exertion change in oxygen saturation was 0.589 (95% CI 0.465 to 0.713), and the positive and negative likelihood ratios of a 3% or more desaturation were, respectively, 1.78 (1.25 to 2.53) and 0.67 (0.46 to 0.98). […] Multivariable analysis showed that post-exertion oxygen saturation was not a significant predictor of adverse outcome when baseline clinical assessment was taken into account (p=0.368). […] Post-exertion oxygen saturation provides modest prognostic information in the assessment of selected patients attending the emergency department with suspected COVID-19.
33274176 Since there are no specific drugs or vaccines available to cure or prevent COVID-19 infection and COVID-19-related ARDS, a new therapeutic agent which will support oxygen supply and, at the same time, efficiently alleviate SARS-CoV-2-induced lung inflammation is urgently needed. […] Due to their potent immuno- and angiomodulatory characteristics, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may increase oxygen supply in the lungs and may efficiently alleviate ongoing lung inflammation, including SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS.
33274414 Variables associated with suitability for discharge were age, oxygen saturation, and albumin level, yielding a risk score between 0 and 55. […] A 3-item risk score for patients with COVID-19 consisting of age, oxygen saturation, and an acute phase reactant (albumin) using point of care data predicts suitability for discharge and may optimize scarce resources.
33275270 During the hospitalization the weaning difficulties from oxygen led us to the repetition of autoimmunity pattern which became positive (both during hospitalization then after two months from dismission) with marked positivity for specific antibodies for myositis even after the patient’s infectious healing.
33278624 The main objective was to investigate the relation of low serum calcium with adverse outcome, measured by the requirement of high oxygen support - defined as high flow nasal cannula oxygen, non-invasive mechanical ventilation and/or invasive ventilation - intensive care unit admission or death. […] A higher number of patients in the hypocalcemia group required high oxygen support during hospitalization (49% vs 32%; p=0,01) and were admitted to the ICU (42% vs 26%; p=0,005).
33280066 These results show that survival of patients with severe COVID-19 is higher in those treated with tocilizumab than in those not treated and that tocilizumab’s effect adds to that of steroids administered to non-intubated patients with COVID-19 during the first 48 h of presenting with respiratory failure despite oxygen therapy.
33281309 Role of Noninvasive Oxygen Therapy Strategies in COVID-19 Patients: Where are We Going?
33281314 Hence, we conducted a retrospective case study to look for benefits of awake proning with oxygen therapy in non-intubated COVID patients. > 95% and P/f > 200 mm Hg. […] Prone position ventilation improves oxygenation by reducing V/Q mismatch.Awake prone positioning has been used along with high-flow oxygen therapy in recent pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 virus for management of mild to moderate cases.
33281316 About 5% of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients will need intensive care unit (ICU) admission for hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring oxygen support. […] The choice between early mechanical ventilation and noninvasive oxygen therapies, such as, high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) and/or noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) has to balance the contradictory priorities of protecting healthcare workers by minimizing aerosol-generation and optimizing resource management. […] This survey over two timeframes aimed to explore the controversial issue of location and noninvasive oxygen therapy in non-intubated ICU patients using a clinical vignette. […] The resource optimal private hospital intensivists/anesthetists were less comfortable using noninvasive oxygen therapies in managing COVID-19 patients. […] Noninvasive Oxygen Strategies to Manage Confirmed COVID-19 Patients in Indian Intensive Care Units: A Survey.
33282282 These patients were treated with non-invasive respiratory support 40% with CPAP, 38% with BPAP, 3% with HFNC, 11% with standard oxygen therapy or with IMV through tracheostomy (patients in step down from ICU, 8%).
33282284 This review will summarize the state-of-the-art of COVID-19 current treatment options and those potentially available in the future, as well as high flow oxygen therapy and non-invasive mechanical ventilation approaches.
33282650 Although azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine were promptly administered, she had a worsening of dyspnea even with a high-flow oxygen mask.
33285283 Compared to the control group, oxygen saturation improved within 3 days of CCP transfusion, and lymphocyte counts improved from day 7 in patients with moderate COVID-19 disease and day 11 in patients with severe disease.
33291120 Management included supportive treatment (intravenous fluid therapy, monitoring renal function, and symptomatic treatment with or without ward-based oxygen therapy depending on oxygen saturation) and discontinuation of the antiproliferative immunosuppressive drugs.
33291238 Treatment of ARDS remains largely supportive, and consists of incremental respiratory support (high flow nasal oxygen, non-invasive respiratory support, and invasive mechanical ventilation), and avoidance of iatrogenic complications, all of which improve clinical outcomes.
33291769 The latter captures the superoxide electron, releasing molecular oxygen, and is the feature of interest that correlates with the mechanism of COVID-19 inhibition.
33292365 Further steps to home monitoring of COVID-19 clinical course have been taken with the development of remote Wi-Fi connected digital devices for the detection of early signs of respiratory distress, including heart rate and oxygen saturation.In conclusion cancer care has been performed and continued safely also during COVID-19 pandemic and further remote home strategies are in progress to ensure the appropriate monitoring of cancer patients.
33293627 Gene Ontologies revealed regulation of viral life cycle, immune responses, pro-inflammatory responses- several interleukins such as IL6, IL1, IL20 and IL33, IFI16 regulating the interferon response to a virus, chemo-attraction of macrophages, and cellular stress resulting from activated Reactive Oxygen Species.
33294848 Major adverse events in transport, defined as severe hypoxemia (oxygen saturation < 80% or an absolute decrease in oxygen saturation > 10%), hypotension (mean arterial pressure < 65 mm Hg) not responsive to vasopressors or inotropes, endotracheal tube or vascular catheter dislodgement, and cardiac arrest, were recorded. = 19) were on vasopressors. […] Fourteen patients (56%) had hypotension with at least one episode of mean arterial pressure less than 65 mm Hg en route, and seven (28%) had an episode of oxygen desaturation less than 88%. […] Only one major adverse event of severe hypoxemia (oxygen saturation < 80%) was noted.
33296045 In surge situations such as COVID-19 pandemic, transport ventilators may be used to accurately control delivered volumes in locations, where only oxygen pressure supply is available.
33296405 Increased age, decreased oxygen saturation (≤ 93%), elevated levels of C-reactive protein (≥ 130 mg/L), blood urea nitrogen (≥ 18 mg/dL), and blood creatinine (≥ 1.2 mg/dL) were identified as primary risk factors, validating clinical findings.
33296409 The 7 features associated with a positive COVID-19 test on multivariable analysis were: COVID-19 patient exposure or international travel, Myalgia/malaise, Anosmia or ageusia, Temperature, Coryza/sore throat, Hypoxia-oxygen saturation < 97%, 65 years or older-summarized in the mnemonic COVID-MATCH65.
33296498 All patients with severe ARDS had higher partial pressures of oxygen and reduced pulmonary vascular resistance.
33297603 However, there was no significant difference between patients with and without type 2 diabetes in ventilator, oxygen therapy, antibiotics, antiviral drugs, antipyretics, and the incidence of pneumonia after adjustment.
33297703 CP is indicated mainly in severe cases of COVID-19, which require oxygen support, ideally within 2-3 days after diagnosis, but our and foreign experience shows a beneficial effect of CP even in moderately severe cases that do not need oxygen treatment.
33298124 Results were correlated with the patients’ respiratory function, defined through their pulse oximetric saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2) ratio. : 274.7-323.1) when they did not develop the syndrome (p = 0.015).
33298370 Remarkably, corticosteroids increased mortality in the subgroup of patients not requiring oxygen (17% v 13%, RR = 1.23 [95% CI 1.00-1.62], p = 0.05 number needed to harm {NNH} = 29). […] Tests for comparison between mechanically ventilated subgroups and those not requiring oxygen confirmed that treatment with corticosteroids had a statistically significant different effect on survival. […] Corticosteroids may be considered in severe critically ill patients with COVID-19 but must be discouraged in patients not requiring oxygen therapy.
33298991 Logistic regression identified older age (OR, 1.69 [95% CI 1.66-1.92]), male sex (OR, 1.57 [95% CI 1.30-1.90]), higher BMI (OR, 1.03 [95% CI 1.102-1.05]), higher heart rate (OR, 1.01 [95% CI 1.00-1.01]), higher respiratory rate (OR, 1.05 [95% CI 1.03-1.07]), lower oxygen saturation (OR, 0.94 [95% CI 0.93-0.96]), and chronic kidney disease (OR, 1.53 [95% CI 1.20-1.95]) were associated with COVID-19 mortality.
33299342 There were no significant differences in oxygen levels measured at admission and discharge by pulse oximetry intra-subject or between the groups.
33299605 PEPP sessions were associated with a reduction in median oxygen requirements, patient respiratory rate, and reintubation rate.
33301928 To assess the effectiveness of corticosteroids on outcomes of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring oxygen without mechanical ventilation. […] We used routine care data from 51 hospitals in France and Luxembourg to assess the effectiveness of corticosteroids at 0.8 mg/kg/day eq. prednisone (CTC group) versus standard of care (no-CTC group) among adults 18 to 80 years old with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia requiring oxygen without mechanical ventilation. […] However, use of corticosteroids was associated with reduced risk of intubation or death by day 28 in the prespecified subgroups of patients requiring oxygen ≥ 3 L/min (wHR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.85) or C-reactive protein level ≥ 100 mg/L (wHR 0.44, 95%CI 0.23 to 0.85). […] However, the treatment was associated with reduced risk of intubation or death for patients with ≥ 3 L/min oxygen or C-reactive protein level ≥ 100 mg/L at baseline. […] Further research need to confirm the right timing of corticosteroids for patients with COVID-19 requiring oxygen only.
33302889 In addition, Oxygen support, early treatment with low doses of glucocorticoids and artificial liver therapy, when necessary, may help reduce mortality in critically ill patients.
33304701 The CALL score and proposed factors of RAS model, namely respiratory rate, oxygen saturation at rest, alveolar arterial gradient and minimal exercise desaturation test, were calculated on the day of admission. […] Some 10 feet oxygen desaturation test (HR: 0.99, 95%CI: 0.95-1.04, p–value: 0.706) was not a powerful predictor of the progression of disease. […] However, respiratory rate of more than 30 breaths/minute (b/m) (HR: 3.03, 95%CI: 1.77-5.19), resting oxygen saturation of less than 90% (HR: 2.41, 95%CI: 1.15-5.06), and an elevated alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (HR: 2.14, 95%CI: 1.04-4.39) were considered statistically significant high-risk predictors of disease progression and death, in the formed RAS model.
33305553 Patients with older age and associated comorbidities (COPD, hypertension and diabetes) seem to have greater risk for lung injury, thereby requiring oxygen support during the course of disease.
33305555 The assessment and identification of different phenotypes can guide therapy configurations such as oxygen therapy, non-invasive ventilation, airway management, and tracheal intubation.
33306283 Patients receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation at enrollment had a time to recovery of 10 days with combination treatment and 18 days with control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.08). […] Baricitinib plus remdesivir was superior to remdesivir alone in reducing recovery time and accelerating improvement in clinical status among patients with Covid-19, notably among those receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation.
33307658 Evaluation method: spirometry using a spirographMIR (Italy), chest excursion, rehabilitation routing scale (RRM), quality of life questionnaire (EQ-5D), Borg scale for patient assessment of exercise tolerance, ECG, oxygen saturation in the blood.
33307933 In Cox regression analysis, lower oxygen saturation, anemia and hypoalbuminemia at admission were associated with increased mortality. […] Anemia, lower serum albumin and lower basal oxygen saturation at admission were factors associated with poor prognosis.
33308935 Furthermore, SarsCov2 creates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which are toxic and generate endothelial dysfunction. […] It would increase arterial oxygen content despite lung failure and allow better tissue oxygenation control. […] This extracellular hemoglobin has an oxygen capacity 40 times greater than the hemoglobin of vertebrates. […] The expected benefits of HEMO2Life® for COVID-19 patients are improved survival, avoidance of tracheal intubation, shorter oxygen supplementation, and the possibility of treating a larger number of patients as molecular respirator without to use an invasive machine.
33309057 Out of 24 children admitted to hospital, six required supplementary oxygen and two non-invasive ventilation.
33309396 Because of the risk of his being infected with COVID-19, he was transported to our hospital not by air evacuation but via ground ambulance staff while receiving a drip infusion of fluid and oxygen. […] The patient received high-concentration oxygen, infusion therapy, and observational admission.
33309507 We calculated change in oxygenation by comparing the oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (SpO2:FiO2) during the five minutes prior to proning and first 30 min of proning.
33310024 To investigate the use of oxygen metabolism markers as predictors of mortality in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] The optimal cut-off point for each oxygen metabolism marker in the prediction of mortality was determined based on the maximum value of the Youden Index in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.
33310665 Each treatment involved administration of 200 mL autologous whole blood enriched with 200 mL of oxygen-ozone mixture with a 40 μg/mL ozone concentration.
33311551 Oxygen-support requirements improved and overall mortality was 13.6%.
33312774 The study aimed to develop a novel predictor called cumulative oxygen deficit (COD) for the risk stratification. […] A higher value of COD indicated more oxygen deficit.
33312856 Six weeks post-discharge, the patient was evaluated for continued dyspnea, hypoxia, and continued oxygen dependence.
33315929 Overall, 28.9% required supportive oxygen beyond nasal cannula. […] Nasal cannula oxygen alone was required for 71.1%, who all lived.
33316227 Clinical trials of thermoheliox application (inhalation with a high-temperature mixture of oxygen and helium, 90 °C) in the treatment of the acute phase of coronavirus infection were conducted.
33316758 The median partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio on the day of tracheostomy was 142.8 (interquartile range 104.5-224.4).
33317461 Peripheral oxygen saturation rate was significantly different after 7 days of admission across two groups (94% versus 92% in ARB and KALETRA groups respectively) (P = 0.02). […] Based on multiple linear regression analysis, IHD, Na level, and oxygen saturation at the time of admission and type of therapy were the independent adjusted variables that determined the duration of hospitalization in patients with COVID-19. […] Our findings showed that Arbidol, compared to KALETRA, significantly contributes to clinical and laboratory improvements, including peripheral oxygen saturation, requiring ICU admissions, duration of hospitalization, chest CT involvements, WBC, and ESR.
33317589 In the recent RECOVERY trial, evaluating the effect of dexamethasone, a reduced 28-day mortality in patients requiring oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation was shown. […] Secondary outcomes were: need for mechanical ventilation, need for other oxygen therapy, length of hospital stay and secondary infections.
33318918 Both patients recovered rapidly and were successfully extubated and discharged from the hospital without need for supplemental oxygen shortly thereafter, and their clinical improvement correlated with response in interleukin-6 levels.
33318924 All cases could successfully discontinue oxygen therapy without any severe adverse events after this pulse therapy in the late phase of COVID-19.
33319213 The median lowest procedural oxygen saturation was 95%.
33321015 While oxygen saturations on admission (p=0.019) and discharge (p=0.011) were lower in the high lipase group than the controls, amylase (p<0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) (p=0.002) and D-dimer (p=0.004) levels were found higher.
33325084 Twelve SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with partial pressure of arterial oxygen/percentage of inspired oxygen (P/F) ratio < 300 were treated with PMX-DHP on two consecutive days each during hospitalization.
33326318 Oxygen therapy and ventilatory support was the most common non-pharmacological supportive care.
33326457 Patients with a ≥5-day evolution since symptoms onset, with hyper-inflammation (CRP≥50mg/L), requiring 3-5 L/min oxygen, received methylprednisolone alone.
33326604 Importantly, plasma VWFpp levels also correlated with clinical severity indices including the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Sepsis-Induced Coagulopathy (SIC) score and the ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (P/F ratio).
33326636 The proposed NIV-CPAP circuit, reshaped in closed-loop configuration with the blower outside of the circuit, has the advantages of minimizing aerosol generation, environmental contamination, oxygen consumption, and noise to the patient.
33329130 Results showed that gender, age, oxygen saturation, and social support were associated with anxiety for COVID-19 patients.
33330787 Based on review of our cases, among patients over 50 years of age with underlying diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and those who required oxygen administration tended to deteriorate.
33331718 Cardiorespiratory fitness was very poor with a median peak oxygen uptake of 15.0 [10.1-21.4] mlO2/kg/min (57% of predicted values).
33332437 In addition, severe patients were more likely to be accompanied by an increase in cystatin C, mean hemoglobin level and a decrease in oxygen saturation.
33333085 Four patients (0.5%) needed readmission for oxygen requirements.
33334457 To date, there is only randomized controlled trial evidence to support the use of dexamethasone in patients requiring oxygen therapy and remdesivir for shortening the time to recovery, with no specific treatment for COVID-19-associated AKI.
33335724 Antibiotic prescription practices were also reviewed. = 12) of patients developed hypoxia and required oxygen therapy, no mortality was observed.
33335817 At admission, oxygen saturation was 80% on room air; hence, he was immediately put on non-invasive ventilation.
33337902 Forty-two uncooperative patients, attending primary and secondary schools, were submitted to emergency dental treatments with inhalation conscious sedation using nitrous oxide and oxygen during COVID-19 pandemic.
33338306 Most experienced mild disease, 28 required inpatient management, 25 needed oxygen support, and seven required mechanical ventilation.
33338559 Lower white blood cell count and lactate dehydrogenase at the time of drug administration as well as shorter time from supplemental oxygen initiation to dosing were significantly associated with clinical improvement in the univariate analysis.
33338697 Sixty seven patients (52%) needed oxygen For treatment of COVID-19 infection, half(n = 66) received antivirals.
33340275 In healthy individuals, they may optimize oxygen supply and increase mitochondrial, antioxidant, and immune system function.
33340603 Eligible patients were hospitalized, SARS-CoV-2 positive, had radiographic consolidations, and required supplemental oxygen but had not rapidly declined on admission or prior to drug therapy or LD-RT. […] Average hospital days on supplemental oxygen of any duration was 13.1 versus 14.7 days (p=0.69).
33341032 The relatively poor efficacy of anti-cytokine drugs is explained by the fact that they act on one or a few of the dozens of cytokines involved, and because other mediators of inflammation - reactive oxygen and nitrogen species - are not targeted.
33341772 For urban area A, with the larger number of daily inward commuters (110,000, compared to 53,000 for B), lockdown was observed to have an effect on the monthly load averages of chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total suspended solids and total phosphorus, all of which decreased (confidence level of 95%).
33343792 He had an oxygen saturation of 87% in room air.
33343904 After this treatment, his blood oxygen levels, chest high-resolution computed tomography findings, and clinical parameters significantly improved.
33344572 Under the support of pure oxygen in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, the patients’ oxygen levels were still poor, indicating that they were in the terminal stage of viral pneumonia.
33344687 Ozone being an unstable molecule can breakup into its split products namely reactive oxygen species and ozonides creating a toxic environment for these viruses.
33345622 HIF1α is a master transcription factor involved in the cellular response to oxygen levels.
33350752 HCQ was independently associated with time to negativity test after adjustment for potential confounders (symptoms, comorbidities, antiviral drugs, pneumonia, or oxygen therapy) in multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis (hazard ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval: 0.13-0.9, P = .024).
33352102 The patient was successfully treated in the pulmonology ward according to official guidelines about COVID-19 along with antifibrotic treatment and required only a short course of oxygen therapy.
33352565 One of the mechanisms of COVID-19 appears to be an oxygen species (ROS)-mediated process in synergy with TRP channels, modulated by Nrf2 pathways.
33354330 Multivariate analysis showed that oxygen therapy on diagnosis and a decrease in lymphocyte count were independent risk factors associated with disease severity and with mortality.
33354381 The patient’s course of hospitalization was complicated by acute respiratory distress which necessitated intensive unit care and required up to 20 L/min oxygen supplementation via a humidified high flow generator. […] The patient was discharged to home after forty-two days of hospitalization with oxygen supplementation only during ambulation and a complete resolution of diarrhea.
33354441 He had tachycardia, fever, and had an oxygen saturation of 88% on room air.
33354635 Liver function tests (LFT), Inflammatory markers such as serum C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, oxygen requirement before and after remdesivir treatment were compared. […] 68.57% of patients showed an improvement in oxygen requirement.
33355054 The autonomic control seen in these three disease states matches blood flow with oxygen supply in each pNVU to maintain physiological blood oxygen saturation level.
33355217 Within 3 days of admission, three (15.79%) patients received noninvasive ventilation, and 16 (84.21%) patients received high-flow oxygen support.
33355520 Currently, palliative care, ranging from outpatient management to intensive care, including oxygen administration, ventilator support, intravenous fluids therapy, with some repurposed drugs, are the primary weapons to fight against COVID-19.
33355656 Skeletal muscle depletion is common in the elderly and individuals with chronic comorbidities, who have an increased risk of developing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is defined by hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen.
33355857 Therefore, this study was conducted to determine whether oxygen saturation (SpO2) and SpO2/fraction of inhaled oxygen (FiO2) (SF ratio) predicts ARDS and mortality. […] This was a retrospective cohort study that enrolled COVID-19 pneumonia patients requiring oxygen therapy from Feb 2020 to May 2020. […] Of 100 COVID-19 pneumonia cases, we compared 59 cases of pneumonia requiring oxygen, divided into ARDS and non-ARDS pneumonia requiring oxygen. […] At the time of admission, the SpO2, FiO2, and SF ratios of the ARDS group were significantly different from those of the non-ARDS pneumonia requiring oxygen support group (P <0.001, respectively).
33356051 In addition, all the patients received high-quality supportive care as background therapy, including the antiviral drug remdesivir and, when indicated, supplemental oxygen and glucocorticoids.
33356661 Because of discrepancies between clinical symptoms, oxygen saturation or radiological signs on CT scans, pulse oximetry, and radiological investigation should be systematic. […] Therapeutic options include antivirals, oxygen therapy, immunomodulators, anticoagulants and prolonged mechanical treatment.
33356977 Included patients had positive SARS-CoV-2 testing or suspected COVID-19 pneumonia and oxygen saturation less than 93% or new oxygen requirement of 3 liters per minute or greater and no contraindications to prone positioning. […] Oxygenation measures were collected within 48 hours of eligibility and included nadir oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (S/F) and time spent with S/F ratio less than 315.
33357616 The treatment of this syndrome, which causes hypoxemia, requires urgent oxygen therapy.
33357617 It is based on symptomatic treatments including oxygen therapy, physiotherapy and anticoagulation therapy.
33358868 Approximately 15%-20% of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) progress beyond mild and self-limited disease to require supplemental oxygen for severe pneumonia; 5% of COVID-19-infected patients further develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiorgan failure.
33360081 The group with diabetes had a higher proportion of severe cases (20.1% vs 9%, p-0.002), mortality (6.3 vs 1.4%, p-0.015), ICU admission (24.3 vs 12.3%, p-0.002), and oxygen requirement (53.4 vs 28.3%, p < 0.001). […] Hypertension was associated with a higher proportion of severe cases, mortality, ICU admission and oxygen administration.
33361248 Oxygen therapy is an essential medicine and core component of effective hospital systems. […] However, many hospitals in low- and middle-income countries lack reliable oxygen access-a deficiency highlighted and exacerbated by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. […] Oxygen access can be challenged by equipment that is low quality and poorly maintained, lack of clinical and technical training and protocols, and deficiencies in local infrastructure and policy environment. […] We share learnings from 2 decades of oxygen systems work with hospitals in Africa and the Asia-Pacific regions, highlighting practical actions that hospitals can take to immediately expand oxygen access. […] These include strategies to: (1) improve pulse oximetry and oxygen use, (2) support biomedical engineers to optimize existing oxygen supplies, and (3) expand on existing oxygen systems with robust equipment and smart design.
33361399 A prospective observational study was conducted to monitor the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infections among HCWs and investigate the relation between the infection rate and hours of exposure or number and characteristics of procedures, including nasopharyngeal swab, high-flow oxygen delivery, suctioning of airway secretions, sputum induction, and nebulizer administration.
33361650 Despite a lack of known risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 infection, the patient’s dyspnea worsened and her respiratory condition deteriorated, as indicated by the need for 7 L/min oxygen supply by mask to maintain her oxygen saturation at >90%.
33361672 In this case report, we emphasize that some patients need to be carefully monitored, even if their respiratory condition is stable at the initial presentation, as their respiratory status may deteriorate rapidly within a few days after oxygen administration begins.
33361751 No association with sex, public health insurance, history of heart disease, oxygen saturation upon admission, or D-dimer was found.
33364571 Besides, those in mechanical ventilation and post-PICS COVID-19 cases, oxygen therapy, early mobilization, airway clearance, aerobic exercise, gradual-graded limb muscle resistance exercise, nutritional and psychological interventions should be consideration.
33364877 Adverse clinical events were defined as in-hospital mortality, admission to intensive care unit, need for high-flow oxygen and intubation. […] 27 (18.2%), p=0.34), need for high-flow oxygen (97 (48.3%) vs. 
33368699 In this study, we review the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in fatigue and the antioxidant effects of the intake of molecular hydrogen.
33368796 Overall, patients who died were older, had very significantly lower Oxygen saturation (SpO2) on admission, required a higher inspired Oxygen concentration (IpO2) and higher CRP as evidenced by a Bonferroni-corrected (P < 0.0056).
33370247 This is especially important during the COVID-19 pandemic, as patients with diabetes are at a higher risk of mortality.1 Reviewed in a 2018 installment of Evidence Corner,2 a double-blind, randomized clinical trial (RCT) reported that topical oxygen continuously diffused to DFU tissue resulted in nonhealing DFUs healing more than 20 days faster than those that were similarly treated with standard therapy and a sham device.3 More than twice the DFUs closed in patients receiving continuously diffused topical oxygen in comparison with the sham arm completely healed in 12 weeks (P = .02). […] It has been hypothesized that intervals of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO)-breathing 100% oxygen at atmosphere absolute (ATA) greater than the 1.0 normal at sea level-may similarly improve lower extremity ulcer healing outcomes.
33370364 By multiple Cox regression, oxygen saturation (SaO2) values of less than 90% on admission correlated with mortality, presenting 1.86 (95%CI: 1.02-3.39), 4.44 (95%CI: 2.46-8.02) and 7.74 (95%CI: 4.54-13.19) times greater risk of death for SaO2 of 89-85%, 84-80% and <80%, respectively, when compared to patients with SaO2 >90%. […] Oxygen saturation below 90% on admission is a strong predictor of in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19.
33370397 Two models to identify the patients who required high-flow-oxygen-support were generated, one using baseline data and another with also follow-up analytical results. […] Overall, 135 (31.4%) required high-flow-oxygen-support. […] SpO2/FiO2 and chest x-ray on admission or changes on inflammatory parameters as IL-6 and ferritin allow us early identification of COVID-19 patients at risk of high-flow-oxygen-support that may benefit from a more intensive disease management.
33370769 Significant factors were days of hospitalization, days of fever and need of oxygen therapy. […] Patients who hospitalized more than 10 days, particularly in isolation negative pressure rooms, with persistent fever more than 7 days and need of oxygen therapy had more anxiety, worries for their clinical condition and fear of stigma.
33372179 People who were born preterm may be at greater risk for COVID-19 because their early exposure to oxygen (hyperoxia) at birth increases the severity of respiratory viral infections. […] Increased expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptors was blocked by mitoTEMPO, a mitochondrial superoxide scavenger that reduced oxidative stress and DNA damage seen in oxygen-exposed mice.
33372426 Severe clinical outcomes were defined as the use of inotropics, conventional oxygen therapy, high-flow nasal cannula, mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the development of AKI, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, or acute heart failure after the diagnosis of COVID-19.
33373324 The studies found that clinical management, for patients who presented with symptoms, included supportive care and control measures that comprised mechanical ventilator support and supplementary oxygen.
33373925 Comparing to nonsevere cases with stroke, severe patients with stroke were likely to be older, susceptible to receiving oxygen inhalation, and had more complications (p < 0.05). […] All patients (100%) received antiviral treatment, 12 (44.4%) received antibiotics treatment, 26 (96.3%) received Traditional Chinese Medicine (Lung cleansing & detoxifying decoction), and oxygen inhalation was in 18 (66.7%).
33374333 Plasma efficacy was inferior to remdesivir in endpoints such as the necessity and duration of oxygen therapy, the duration of hospitalization, and mortality rate, and inferior to other drugs in the case of the duration of hospitalization and the necessity of constant oxygen therapy, but comparable in most other measured endpoints.
33374452 The clinical outcomes noted were: hospitalization, the use of inotropics, high flow nasal cannula, conventional oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, development of acute kidney injury, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, and disseminated intravascular coagulation after the diagnosis of COVID-19.
33376949 No patients required oxygen therapy.
33377451 We recommend using oral or intravenous low-dose dexamethasone in adults with COVID-19 disease who require oxygen or mechanical ventilation. […] We recommend against using dexamethasone in patients with COVID-19 who do not require supplemental oxygen.
33377529 At admission, dead patients were more dyspneic (57% vs. 38%, p = .014), had more often an oxygen saturation less than 94% (70% vs. 47%, p < .01) and had more often a heart rate faster than 90/min (70% vs. 42%, p < .001).
33378060 The univariate comparison showed that dyspnea, acute physiologic assessment, chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) score, and the ratio between arterial blood oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and oxygen concentration (FiO2) (P/F) were statistically different between the MV group and the non-MV group (p < 0.05).
33378277 The patient stayed in hospital for 18 days, recovered from oxygen intake, and eventually discharged from hospital.
33378401 Key inclusion criteria include BP > 130/80 and a requirement of supplemental oxygen with FiO2 of 25% or higher to maintain SpO2 > 92%.
33380588 Furthermore, the design principles of a hydrogen inhaler which generates mixture of hydrogen (~66%) with oxygen (~34%) for medical purpose are proposed. […] Moreover, a nebulizer is provided to selectively atomize the water into vapor which is then mixed with the filtered hydrogen-oxygen mix gas, such that the static electricity of a substance hardly occurs to reduce the risk of the explosion. […] Result shows that the hydrogen inhaler implementing the aforesaid design rules could effectively inhibit the explosion, even ignition at the outset of the hydrogen inhaler which outputs hydrogen-oxygen gas (approximately 66% hydrogen: 34% oxygen).
33381273 The phenomenon of oxidative stress, characterized as an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant responses, is a well-known inflammatory mechanism and constitutes an important cellular process. […] Therefore, the aim of this review is to report studies showing how reactive oxygen species may positively or negatively affect the pathophysiology of viral infection.
33381464 Cellular reductants are important as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers and to power enzymatic repair mechanisms, but they also may help generate toxic ROS.
33381955 Some travelers may experience hypoxia at sea level but may not need supplemental oxygen during air travel in a hypobaric hypoxic environment. […] With adequate screening, patients at risk can be identified, therapeutic solutions can be proposed for the flight, and most can travel can continue safely with supplemental oxygen and other preventive measures.
33382796 Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ventilation may be used as a potential bridge to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), or as a ceiling-of-care for persistent hypoxaemia despite standard oxygen therapy, according to UK guidelines. […] Two hundred and fifteen patients (73.1%) maximally received air/standard oxygen therapy, and 45 (15.3%) patients maximally received CPAP. […] Overall, there was strong evidence for higher mortality among patients who required CPAP or IMV, compared to those who required only air/oxygen (aOR 5.24 95%CI: 1.38, 19.81 and aOR 46.47 95%CI: 7.52, 287.08, respectively; p<0.001), and among patients with early ceiling-of-care compared to those without a ceiling (aOR 41.81 95%CI: 8.28, 211.17; p<0.001). […] Among patients without a ceiling of care (N = 137), 10 patients required prompt intubation following failed oxygen therapy, but 44 patients received CPAP. […] In contrast, among patients with a ceiling-of care, CPAP seems to offer little additional survival benefit beyond oxygen therapy alone.
33383393 Seventy-five patients (24.2%) required any home service including home health and home oxygen therapy.
33384398 All residents were taught to use a chat assistant to self-report their temperature, heart rate and oxygen saturations.
33384519 Monoclonal antibodies showed decreased C-reactive protein, decreased oxygen, and ventilator requirements.
33385581 This study aimed to evaluate the reduction in duration of hospitalisation with adequate oxygen status. […] Treatment with canakinumab in patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia rapidly restored normal oxygen status, decreased the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, and was associated with earlier hospital discharge and favourable prognosis versus standard of care.
33386559 Of 370 patients, positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), 39 patients (mean age 62.3 ± 15 years, 56% male) underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), due to increasing oxygen requirements or refractory hypoxia, not improving on oxygen, very elevated D-dimer or tachycardia disproportionate to clinical condition.
33387997 A multipronged therapeutic approach includes 1) adjuvant nutraceuticals, 2) combination intracellular anti-infective therapy, 3) inhaled/oral corticosteroids, 4) antiplatelet agents/anticoagulants, 5) supportive care including supplemental oxygen, monitoring, and telemedicine.
33388603 Seven patients (1.1%) required hospitalization for oxygen therapy, of which 5 were admitted to the intensive care for intubation and mechanical ventilation.
33390490 An 85-year-old man with Sjögren’s syndrome developed a severe COVID-19 infection that required oxygen supplementation.
33392548 A convenience sample of 200 emergency department (ED) patients with chief complaints of cardiopulmonary origin or a peripheral capillary oxygen saturation ≤ 94 percent were enrolled. […] Consumer-grade portable pulse oximeters may be useful if overwhelming numbers of patients require oxygen saturation monitoring, such as during the COVID-19 pandemic.
33393657 Therapy with oxygen, antibiotics, low-molecular-weight heparin in a prophylactic dose, and dexamethasone resulted in marked clinical improvement.
33394134 Besides, NF-κB has been known to potentiate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to apoptosis in various tissues in many diseases and viral infections.
33394906 It is postulated that the cause may be direct CNS injury through blood and neuronal pathways or indirectly because of an immune-mediated response, hypoxia caused by decreased oxygen saturation, or by the binding of subacute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 to the host angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptors.
33397449 All patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospitalization for at least 3 calendar days for severe COVID-19 will be screened for study eligibility. - Signed informed consent - Age 18-85 years - Evidence of pulmonary involvement on CT scan or X-ray of the chest - Duration of symptoms associated with COVID-19 ≤ 10 days - At least one of the following risk factors for progression to mechanical ventilation on the day of enrolment: 1) Arterial hypertension 2) ≥ 50 years 3) Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 4) History of cardiovascular disease 5) Chronic pulmonary disease 6) Chronic renal disease 7) C-reactive protein > 35mg/L 8) Oxygen saturation at rest of ≤ 94% when breathing ambient air Exclusion criteria: - Incapacity or inability to provide informed consent - Contraindications to the class of drugs under investigation (C1 esterase inhibitor) - Treatment with tocilizumab or another IL-6R or IL-6 inhibitor before enrolment - History or suspicion of allergy to rabbits - Pregnancy or breast feeding - Active or anticipated treatment with any other complement inhibitor - Liver cirrhosis (any Child-Pugh score) - Admission to an ICU on the day or anticipated within the next 24 hours of enrolment - Invasive or non-invasive ventilation - Participation in another study with any investigational drug within the 30 days prior to enrolment - Enrolment of the study investigators, their family members, employees and other closely related or dependent persons INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients randomized to the experimental arm will receive conestat alfa in addition to standard of care (SOC). […] SOC treatment will be administered according to local institutional guidelines, including supplemental oxygen, antibiotics, corticosteroids, remdesivir, and anticoagulation. ratio of ≤300mmHg) within 14 days after enrolment.
33401345 The worsening oxygenation group was defined as those with SpO2 ≤ 94%, or received oxygen or mechanical ventilation (MV) throughout the clinical course versus the non-worsening group who were without any respiratory event.
33402303 In this retrospective single-center retrospective study, we aimed to assess the correlations of the A-DROP, CURB-65, and expanded CURB-65 scores on admission with an increase in oxygen requirement in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. […] In addition, we assessed whether there were any associations between an increase in oxygen requirement and known risk factors for critical illness in COVID-19, including elevation of liver enzymes and C-reactive protein (CRP), lymphocytopenia, high D-dimer levels and the chest computed tomography (CT) score. […] The areas under the curve for the ability of CURB-65, A-DROP, and the expanded CURB-65 scores to predict an increase in oxygen requirement were 0.6961, 0.6980 and 0.8327, respectively, and the differences between the three groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001). […] Comorbid cardiovascular disease, lymphocytopenia, elevated CRP, liver enzyme and D-dimer levels, and higher chest CT score were significantly associated with an increase in oxygen requirement CONCLUSIONS: The expanded CURB-65 score can be a better predictor of an increase in oxygen requirement in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.
33402610 CT chest is also indicated in COVID-19-positive patients with associated co-morbidities (age> 65 yr, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, immune-compromise, etc.) who, despite having mild symptoms and normal/indeterminate CXR, record oxygen saturation of < 93 per cent at rest while breathing room air or de-saturate on six-minute walk test.
33402657 The walls have two types of openings, large ones to allow passage of hands to examine the baby, small ones to enable passage of oxygen tubing when required.
33403367 The ratio of arterial oxygen tension to inspiratory oxygen fraction (P/F-ratio) was also calculated.
33403775 In patients hospitalized for COVID-19, compassionate-use of ruxolitinib determined a significant reduction of biomarkers of inflammation, which was associated with a more effective ventilation and reduced need for oxygen support.
33403959 The COVID-19 pandemic has placed significant strain on the oxygen delivery infrastructure of health facilities in resource-constrained health systems. […] In this case report, we describe a patient with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who was managed with high-flow nasal oxygen for 40 days, with an eventual successful outcome. […] We discuss the oxygen delivery infrastructure needed to offer this intervention, as well as the psychosocial impact on those undergoing treatment.
33404197 The mean oxygen saturation was 98.8 ± 1.0% in ambient air in the ED and no patient needed oxygen therapy during hospitalization.
33405410 The response of the microcirculation to coronavirus disease 2019-induced hypoxemia seems to be to increase its oxygen-extraction capacity by increasing RBC availability.
33406076 The timing of oxygen therapy was considered to have a great influence on the symptomatic relief of hypoxemia and seeking medical intervention, especially in situations with insufficient medical resources, but the evidence on the timing of oxygen therapy is limited. […] In this study, the appropriate timing of oxygen therapy and risk factors associated with severe and fatal illness were identified and the effectiveness of antivirus on disease progression was assessed. […] In multivariable analyses, the risk of death increased significantly when oxygen therapy was started more than 2 days after hypoxia symptoms onset among critical patients (OR, 1.92; 95%CI, 1.20 to 3.10). […] Early initiation of oxygen therapy was associated with lower mortality among critical patients. […] This study highlighted the importance of early oxygen therapy after the onset of hypoxia symptoms.
33406353 The primary end point was severe respiratory disease, defined as a respiratory rate of 30 breaths per minute or more, an oxygen saturation of less than 93% while the patient was breathing ambient air, or both.
33407777 Secondary endpoints: - All-cause mortality on days 7, 14, and 28 after treatment. - PaO2/FiO2 ratio at baseline and days 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 after treatment. - Oxygen saturation (by standardized measurement) at baseline, daily until day 14, and on day 28 after treatment. - Time to PaO2/FiO2 ratio greater than 200 mmHg. - Subjects’ clinical status on the WHO 7-point ordinal scale at baseline, daily until day 14, and on day 28 after treatment. - Time to an improvement of one category from admission on the WHO 7-point ordinal scale. - Percentage of patients that worsen at least one category on the WHO 7-point ordinal scale. - Percentage of patients that improve at least one category (maintained 48h) on the WHO 7-point ordinal scale. - Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scale at baseline and days 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 after treatment. - Duration of hospitalization (days). - Duration of ICU stay (days). - Oxygen therapy-free days in the first 28 days after treatment. - Duration of supplemental oxygen. - Incidence of and duration of non-invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation in the first 28 days after treatment. - Mechanical ventilation-free days in the first 28 days after treatment. - Ventilation parameters. - Incidence of new onset pulmonary fibrosis at 3 and 12 months after treatment, based on CT scan and pulmonary function tests. - Survival at 3 and 12 months. - Cumulative incidence of Serious Adverse events (SAEs) and Grade 3 and 4 Adverse Events (AEs). - Cumulative incidence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) in the experimental treatment arm. - Cumulative incidence of AEs of special interest. - Levels of analytical markers (C-Reactive Protein, lymphocyte and neutrophil counts, lymphocyte subpopulations, LDH, ferritin, D-dimer, coagulation tests and cytokines…) at baseline and days 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 after treatment. - Other soluble and cellular biomarkers that might be involved in the course of the disease and the response to MSC.
33408529 The hospitalized patients were classified according to the maximum level of respiratory support: oxygen supplementation (Oxygen group), non-invasive ventilation (NIV-only group), invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV-only group), and IMV after an NIV trial (IMV-after-NIV group). […] Overall 60-day mortality was 24.2% (Oxygen: 23.0%; NIV-only: 19.6%; IMV-after-NIV: 32.0%; IMV-only: 36.6%; p=0.165). […] Compared with the Oxygen group, the adjusted 60-day mortality risk significantly increased in the IMV-after-NIV (HR 2.776; p=0.024) and IMV-only groups (HR 2.966; p=0.001).
33409769 Significant predictors of ICU admission included having a saturated oxygen level less than 90%, hypertension, dementia, rheumatologic disease, having a respiratory rate greater than 24 breaths per minute. […] Having an oxygen saturation less than 90% and an underlying neurological disorder were associated with an increased likelihood of death.
33412813 to explore clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with an imaging feature of COVID-19 pneumonia at disease onset, in order to identify factors that may be evaluable by general practitioners at patient’s home, and which may lead to identify a more severe disease, needing hospitalization. this is a retrospective/prospective observational hospital cohort. the study population includes all patients consecutively admitted to the emergency department of Città della salute e della scienza University Hospital from 01.03 to 31.05.2020 with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. patients were classified in two groups according to the findings of X-ray imaging, lung ultrasound and chest computer tomography, as pneumonia or not pneumonia patients. in multivariable analysis, factors most strongly associated with emergency department admission with pneumonia were age, oxygen saturation <90% (adj OR 4.16 ;95%CI 1.44-12.07), respiratory rate >24 breaths/min (adj OR 6.50; 95%CI 2.36-17.87), fever ≥38° (adj OR 3.05; 95%CI 1.53-6.08) and the presence of gastroenteric symptoms (vomiting and diarrhea).
33415646 This review aims to present the pathophysiology of COVID-19, especially in relation to reproductive function; the role of zinc in the COVID-19 disease process; and how zinc depletion in concert with cytokine storm and reactive oxygen species production could affect reproduction.
33417082 Hemoglobin concentration was not related to overall survival that was, on the contrary, influenced by red blood cell distribution width, age, lactate dehydrogenase and the ratio of arterial partial oxygen pressure to inspired oxygen fraction.
33417660 A color-coding schema was applied to produce a red highlight for patients whose condition is deteriorating, whether due to increasing oxygen demand or worsening laboratory values.
33419456 Although aerosolization of droplets may occur with aerosol-generating medical procedures (AGMP), including high flow nasal oxygen and non-invasive ventilation, the risk of using these AGMP is outweighed by the benefit in carefully selected patients, particularly if care is taken to mitigate risk of viral transmission.
33421506 The occurrence of a serious event was defined as a high-debit oxygen requirement over 6 L/min, admission into the intensive care unit, or death.
33422238 He was treated with hydroxychloroquine, up to 7 L/min oxygen, and self-proning. […] After 8 days of hospitalization, he was discharged on 4 L/min oxygen.
33423874 Variables independently associated with all-cause mortality risk in patients with lung diseases were oxygen saturation less than 92% on admission (HR, 4.35; 95% CI 3.08-6.15) and elevated D-dimer (HR, 1.84; 95% CI 1.27-2.67). […] Older age, male gender, home oxygen therapy, and respiratory failure on admission were associated with an increased mortality.
33423931 The transition metal Cu is an essential micronutrient that serves as a co-factor for numerous enzymes involved in redox and oxygen chemistry.
33425138 Survival was decreased with the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, low blood oxygen saturation (BOS), severe or critical stage disease.
33425277 The patient received no specific treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection and only needed oxygen therapy support for 7 days.
33425312 The oxygen transfer characteristics of a specific hollow fiber membrane dialyser was investigated with a view to repurposing the device as a low-cost, readily available blood oxygenator. […] Oxygen transfer in a low-flux hollow fiber dialyser with a polysulfone membrane was studied by passing first water and then blood through the dialyser in countercurrent to high-purity oxygen. […] Oxygen transfer rates of about 15% of the nominal 250 ml (STP)/min of a typical adult oxygen consumption rate were achieved for blood flow rates of 500 ml/min. […] Using two such dialysis devices in parallel could provide up to 30% of the nominal oxygen consumption.
33426262 Increment in SAFI (inspired oxygen fraction / saturation) 48 h after the start of treatment, and time to discharge, were the primary outcomes.
33428834 Patients whose disease progressed to mechanical ventilation had, on admission, more dyspnea, higher heart and respiratory rates, and lower oxygen saturation than other patients.
33429305 Regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection, the most common symptom was fever (100%) followed by gastrointestinal disturbances (67%), fatigue (55%) and cough (55%). 5 patients were hospitalized and 2 required oxygen support. […] Despite significant comorbidities, the outcome was good since our patient was hospitalized but he did not require oxygen supplementation nor intensive care and was able to return at home after only 10 days.
33430129 Among all the analyzed variables, basal oxygen saturation was found to have the highest relative importance with a value of 20.3%, followed by age (17.7%), lymphocyte/leukocyte ratio (14.4%), CRP value (12.5%), comorbidities (12.5%), and leukocyte count (8.9%).
33430924 Arterial oxygen saturation ≤92% c. […] Participant on invasive mechanical ventilation via an endotracheal tube, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), or high-flow Oxygen (delivery of oxygen at a flow of ≥16 L/min.). […] Requiring high-flow oxygen defined as delivery of oxygen at a flow of ≥16 L/min.
33432296 Patients with DM admitted with lower oxygen saturation, elevated temperature, and higher urea are more susceptible to progress to more severe COVID-19 and poor prognosis.
33433137 During COVID-19 pandemic, Dexamethasone given to patients who required oxygen or ventilation therapy showed improved life efficacy.
33436033 We report three patients with critical respiratory failure due to Covid-19, in which all presented with severe hypoxemia refractory to supplemental oxygen therapy.
33437070 Supportive measures such as oxygen therapy with nasal cannula, face mask, noninvasive ventilation, mechanical ventilation and even extreme measures such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) fail to improve oxygenation in some patients. […] Hence, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been proposed as a supportive strategy to improve oxygenation in COVID-19 patients. […] HBOT is known to increase tissue oxygenation by increasing the amount of dissolved oxygen in plasma.
33439304 Retrospective chart review was performed in hospitalized patients with COVID19 pneumonia needing supplemental oxygen. […] • Retrospective chart review in hospitalized patients with COVID19 pneumonia needing supplemental oxygen shows differences between the two groups (Normal and G6PDd) in hematological indices; the G6PDdgroup demonstrated prolonged PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and longer days on mechanical ventilation indicating the severity of the pneumonia.
33439387 Despite lung conditions, most of our PD patients had mild symptoms: 7 patients were clinically asymptomatic (58.3%); 3 patients had fever, cough, and myalgia (25%) and 2 patients had dyspnoea (16%) that needed high-flow oxygen therapy.
33439949 Descriptive statistics, such as relative and absolute frequencies, was used to analyze data. prone positioning was mainly adopted in Intensive Care Units, lasted from a minimum of 12 up to 16 hours, and its prescription was based on specific criteria, such as PaO2/FiO2 ratio, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate.
33440207 Multivariate analysis showed that heart rate (Hazard Ratio [HR], 1.04), room-air oxygen saturation (spO2) (HR, 0.87), D-dimer (HR, 1.02), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (HR, 1.01) at the time of admission were independent predictors of incident PE during hospitalization.
33440681 Further, we analyzed the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 core proteins, i.e., S and RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase), to elucidate how the virus infection can utilize hemoglobin to decrease the blood oxygen level.
33441578 The addition of patients’ age, gender, WBC count, and peripheral oxygen saturation increased the outcome prediction from 0.87 to 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.97) for RALE scores and from 0.82 to 0.91 (95% CI 0.87-0.95) for the AI scores.
33442553 No patient with a false negative LUS required supplemental oxygen or admission.
33443016 To further understand the disease pathogenesis and, consequently, to develop an additional tool for clinicians to evaluate patients for presumptive intervention, we sought to compare plasma cytokine levels between a range of donor and patient samples grouped by a COVID-19 Severity Score (CSS) based on the need for hospitalization and oxygen requirement.
33443475 However, subgroup analysis of ACTT-1 Study Group showed an apparent reduction in mortality for patients who required non‑high-flow oxygen. […] This structured interpretation of subgroup analysis suggested too much uncertainty in hypothesis about remdesivir could reduce mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 who required non-high- flow oxygen. […] Therefore, a randomized clinical trial about effect of remdesivir in mortality in patients with COVID‑19 and non-high-flow oxygen is essential.
33443699 Characteristics of the 409 patients discharged home were mean (SD) age 57.3 (16.6) years; 245 (59.9%) male; 27 (6.6%) with temperature ≥ 100.4 °F; and 154 (37.7%) with oxygen saturation < 95% on day of discharge.
33443703 This was a prospective single health system observational cohort study of patients ≥ 18 years hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 disease who required at least 6 l of oxygen during admission, had intact baseline cognitive and functional status, and were discharged alive. […] A total of 52/148 (35.1%) patients without pre-COVID oxygen requirements needed home oxygen after hospital discharge; 20/148 (13.5%) reported still using oxygen at time of survey.
33444415 The primary endpoint was defined as hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen, and CXR features were assessed for association with this endpoint to identify high-risk features. […] In the initial analysis of 40 patients (36.7%) with abnormal baseline CXR, presence of bilateral opacities, multifocal opacities, or any upper or middle zone opacity were associated with supplemental oxygen requirement. […] Having a high-risk baseline CXR was significantly associated with requiring supplemental oxygen in univariate (odds ratio 14.0, 95% confidence interval 3.90-55.60) and multivariate (adjusted odds ratio 8.38, 95% CI 2.43-28.97, P = 0.001) analyses.
33444752 /L, oxygen saturation <90%, supplementary oxygen requirement and invasive mechanical ventilation at admission were independently associated with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality.
33446968 The study shows higher association for age (>47 years) [odds ratio (OR) 4.52], male gender (OR 1.78), shortness of breath (OR 2.02), oxygen saturation <93% (OR 9.32), respiratory rate >24 (OR 5.31), comorbidities like diabetes (OR 2.70), hypertension (OR 2.12), and coronary artery disease (OR 3.18) toward overall mortality. […] Age above 47 years, associated with comorbidities like hypertension and diabetes, with oxygen saturation below 93%, tachycardia, and deranged laboratory variables like lymphopenia and raised CRP, LDH, and ferritin are important predictors of in-hospital mortality.
33447376 It has rapidly recruited and demonstrated that hydroxychloroquine is ineffective in reducing mortality for hospitalised patients, whilst dexamethasone significantly reduces mortality among those patients using supplemental oxygen or on a ventilator.
33447642 Exposure to patients receiving high-flow oxygen therapy and hemodialysis was significantly associated with 45% and 57% higher odds for seropositive status, respectively.
33448741 Acute deterioration with rapid oxygen desaturation or palpation of crepitation over thorax and neck in a COVID-19 patient should prompt a search for pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum.
33449537 COVID-19 patients had lower peripheral capillary oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (Spo2) nadirs during intubation (Spo2, 73% [72%-77%] vs 89% [86%-94%], P = .024), and a greater percentage experienced severe hypoxemia defined as Spo2 ≤80% (89% vs 25%, P = .008).
33451069 Treatment centers around symptom management, including oxygen therapy or invasive mechanical ventilation.
33451296 Data extracted from the each patient record included age, sex, comorbidities, symptoms at onset, the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), the ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) to the inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) (P/F) on admission, laboratory tests, radiological findings on computer tomography (CT), length of hospital stay (LOS), mortality rate and the viral shedding.
33452066 He had raised temperature, tachycardia, tachypnoea, reduced oxygen saturation and swollen tender left leg on examination.
33452767 Male sex, respiratory manifestation, oxygen saturation <94% at admission, mechanical ventilation, inotrope, hospital stay of <10 days were independent predictors of mortality. […] Oxygen saturation <94% at admission (OR 35.9, 95% CI 1.5-856) and hospital stay <10 days (OR 9.1, 95% CI 1.04-99.1) were significant. […] Association of mortality with oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter <94% on admission, and hospital stay <10 days, needs further evaluation.
33454595 Although iron is essential for all living cells, free unbound iron, resulting from iron dysregulation and overload, is very reactive and potentially toxic due to its role in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
33455620 This, together with data that suggest that a large cohort of coronavirus disease 2019 patients have better outcomes if we can avoid intubating them, creates a need for a safe method of NIV or high-flow oxygen delivery during transport.
33456398 There are no published data evaluating lowest recorded pre-hospital oxygen saturation or pre-hospital National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) as a predictor of outcome in patients with COVID-19. […] The lowest recorded pre-hospital oxygen saturation was an independent predictor of mortality when controlling for age, gender and history of COPD. […] A 1% reduction in pre-hospital oxygen saturation increased the odds of death by 13% (OR 1.13, p < 0.001). […] Lower pre-hospital oxygen saturation predicted mortality after adjusting for the pre-hospital NEWS2 (OR for a 1% reduction in pre-hospital oxygen saturation 1.09, p = 0.02). […] This service evaluation suggests that the lowest recorded pre-hospital oxygen saturation may be an independent predictor of mortality in COVID-19 patients. […] Lowest pre-hospital oxygen saturation should be recorded and used in the assessment of patients with suspected COVID-19 in pre-hospital and emergency department triage settings.
33456652 The children were asymptomatic or only had mild illnesses and none required intranasal oxygen or ventilatory support.
33459964 Disease severity was based on maximum oxygen requirement during hospital stay to maintain SpO2 > 93% (moderate, 0-3 L NC; severe, 4-6 L NC or non-rebreather; critical, HFNC, NIPPV, or MV).
33461602 This condition may result in hypoxemia and low arterial blood oxygen pressure and saturation presented with some degree of dyspnoea and shortness of breath. […] We aim to investigate if inhaled magnesium sulphate as adjuvant therapy to standard treatment can reduce ventilation-perfusion mismatch in the respiratory tract and subsequently improve arterial oxygen saturation in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. […] Presenting with moderate or severe COVID-19 lung involvement confirmed with chest CT scan and arterial oxygen saturation below 93% 3. […] Improvement of respiratory function and symptoms including arterial blood oxygen saturation, dyspnoea (according to NYHA functional classification), and cough within the first five days of randomization.
33461939 Severity of the disease (requirement of oxygen and/or mechanical ventilation) was associated with advanced age, and all the patients who died during admission were over 60 years old.
33462701 There, the particles are absorbed by the blood vessels where they stimulate the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vascular wall.
33463659 Secondly, oxygen supply of the entire hospital is a major determinant of the number of ventilators it can support, including those on non-invasive forms of oxygen therapy.
33464336 The median time from symptom onset to hospital admission was 6 days (IQR, 4-9 days) and 27.2% of patients had an oxygen saturation of less than 94% of room air at baseline.
33465045 To prevent disruption in care and to minimize risk to the patient, the lesion was treated with bi-weekly self-application of a continuous topical oxygen therapy (cTOT) device paired with weekly telemedicine visits. […] The wound completely resolved after 9 weeks of topical oxygen therapy with no complications or device malfunctions. […] Topical oxygen therapy may be a beneficial adjunctive therapy in the treatment of wounds caused by calciphylaxis.
33465283 We collected data about oxygen supports and laboratory parameters such as inflammation indices and hemogasanalysis. […] We reported a significant reduction in oxygen flow in patients treated with canakinumab (-28.6% at T1 vs. […] Conversely, the standard group increased the supply of high oxygen at T1 versus T0 (+66.7%), but reduced oxygen flows at T2 versus T1 (-40.0%).
33467642 A common observation in age-related metabolic diseases is an increment in systemic inflammation (the so-called inflammaging) where mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may have a key role.
33468250 Measurments of lung histopathological changes and neutrophil infiltration, blood oxygen saturation, and bronchoalveolar lavge fluid (BALF) proinflammatory cytokines and coagulation related factors were performed.
33468445 Secondary outcome was to correlate TT and hospitalization time and oxygen saturation on hospital admission (SpO2) of patients.
33469819 Those who are moderately to severely ill with COVID-19 are likely to develop acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and require administration of supplemental oxygen. […] Assessing the need to initiate or titrate oxygen therapy is largely dependent on evaluating the patient’s existing blood oxygenation status, either by direct arterial blood sampling or by transcutaneous arterial oxygen saturation monitoring, also referred to as pulse oximetry. […] Pulse oximetry allows for non-invasive, real-time, continuous monitoring of the percent of hemoglobin molecules that are saturated with oxygen, and usually closely predicts the arterial oxygen content. […] As such, it was particularly concerning when patients with severe COVID-19 requiring endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation within one of our intensive care units were observed to have significant discordance between their predicted arterial oxygen content via pulse oximetry and their actual measured oxygen content. […] Additionally, it would appear that conventional two-wavelength pulse oximetry may not accurately predict the arterial oxygen content of blood in these patients.
33471350 ROX is a simple noninvasive promising tool for predicting discontinuation of high-flow oxygen therapy and could be used in the assessment of progress and the risk of intubation in COVID-19 patients with pneumonia.
33472631 A supplemented model adding eight routinely collected blood and physiological parameters (supplemental oxygen flow rate, urea, age, oxygen saturation, C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, neutrophil count, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio) improved discrimination (AUC = 0.735; 95% CI 0.715, 0.757), and these improvements were replicated across seven UK and non-UK sites.
33472675 One hundred eighty eligible patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive either the inhibitor of C1e/kallikrein 20 U/kg intravenously on day 1 and day 4 plus standard care; or icatibant 30 mg subcutaneously, three doses/day for 4 days plus standard care; or standard care alone, as recommended in the clinical trials published to date, which includes supplemental oxygen, non-invasive and invasive ventilation, antibiotic agents, anti-inflammatory agents, prophylactic antithrombotic therapy, vasopressor support, and renal replacement therapy.
33472855 Adults with confirmed covid-19 who were receiving supplemental oxygen or mechanical ventilation and had abnormal levels of at least two serum biomarkers (C reactive protein, D dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, or ferritin).
33476281 Important predictor variables included the type of oxygen delivery used in the emergency department, patient age, Emergency Severity Index level, respiratory rate, serum lactate, and demographic characteristics.
33476300 Matching criteria for controls were age, sex, body mass index, race, ethnicity, comorbidities, week of admission, oxygen requirement, D-dimer, lymphocyte counts, corticosteroids, and anticoagulation use.
33481077 Multivariate analysis method revealed that cognitive deterioration (odds ratio [OR]: 8.330; p = 0.004), lymphocytopenia (OR: 4.229; p = 0.049), renal function deterioration (OR: 4.841; p = 0.028), peripheral oxygen saturation < 93% (OR: 17.871; p = 0.002), age > 75 years (OR: 2.925; p = 0.032), elevated C‑reactive protein (OR: 6.504; p = 0.005), low monocyte count (OR: 0.504; p = 0.004), and comorbidity (OR 5.862; p = 0.019) were associated with 30-day mortality.
33481727 Plasma was administered to 55 (63%) on spontaneous breathing with oxygen supplementation (mainly oxygen mask with reservoir bag in 80%), and to 32 patients (37%) on mechanical ventilation.
33481739 Coronary involvement in COVID-19 infection usually presents as type 2 acute myocardial infarction (AMI), due to increased 02 consumption and reduction of oxygen supply, and less frequently as type 1 (STEMI).
33481902 In particular, CTPA was performed in case of inadequate response to high-flow oxygen therapy (Fi02≥0.4 to maintain Sp02≥92%), elevated D-dimer (>0.5μg/mL), or echocardiographic signs of right ventricular dysfunction. […] Despite a low rate of risk factors for venous thromboembolism, PE is present in about 1 out 3 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia undergoing CTPA for inadequate response to oxygen therapy, elevated D-dimer level, or echocardiographic signs of right ventricular dysfunction.
33481912 Risk factors associated with oxygen therapy were explored. […] Oxygen therapy was required in 63.1% of these patients, and the mortality was 2.9% among the oxygen therapy patients. […] Fever (odds ratio [OR] 2.072, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.312-3.271, p = 0.002), dyspnea (OR 2.522, 95% CI 1.213-5.243, p = 0.013), chest distress (OR 2.278, 95% CI 1.160-4.473, p = 0.017), elevated respiratory rate (OR 1.114, 95% CI 1.010-1.228, p = 0.031), and decreased albumin (OR 0.932, 95% CI 0.880-0.987, p = 0.016) and globulin levels (OR 0.929, 95% 0.881-0.980, p = 0.007) were independent factors related to oxygen therapy. […] Oxygen therapy is highly required in COVID-19 patients under 65 years old who are admitted to the hospital, but the success rate is high. […] Respiratory failure-related symptoms, elevated respiratory rate, low albumin and globulin levels, and fever at admission are independent risk factors related to the requirement of oxygen.
33481930 Multivariable analysis identified that age, sex, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation/inspired oxygen ratio, performance status, consciousness, history of renal impairment, and respiratory distress were retained in analyses restricted to the ten or fewer predictors.
33483192 Besides, positive RT-PCR test results (43%, 95% CI 33-53%), low oxygen saturation (38%, 95% CI 25-51%), and elevated D-dimer levels (36%, 95% CI 16-56%) were the most common laboratory findings.
33484708 Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) - MTT assay and cell stress by assessing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO).
33485116 The clinical data including the requirement for oxygen support, assisted ventilation, ICU admission and outcome was assessed, and patients were clinically subdivided depending on clinical severity.
33487146 More than 30 EchoCG parameters were analyzed, and baseline data (comorbidities, oxygen saturation, laboratory data, complications, outcomes, etc.) were evaluated.
33487533 Disease severity was defined as: no, mild, moderate oxygen demand, or severe (requiring mechanical ventilation).
33487628 Because of their need for constant high metabolism, cerebral tissues require an immediate and constant supply of oxygen. […] In hypoxic conditions, neurons with the highest oxygen demand become dysfunctional.
33490094 Here, we examine the compromised oxygen strategy that many nations followed. […] We explore the evidence related to such strategies and discuss the potential mortality impact of delaying oxygen treatment in COVID-19 pneumonia.
33490999 Most patients who were admitted from the ED were tachypneic with elevated inflammatory markers, and the following factors were associated with ICU admission: elevated hsCRP, LDH, and troponin as well as lower oxygen saturation and increased respiratory rate.
33491261 Ten variables previously identified by GRAM, days from symptom onset, LUS findings, and peripheral oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F) ratio were analyzed.
33492565 If there is not enough oxygen supply the lungs and other tissues, such as the heart or brain, are affected.
33493450 In this multicentre, open-label, Bayesian randomised clinical trial (CORIMUNO-ANA-1), nested within the CORIMUNO-19 cohort, we recruited patients from 16 University hospitals in France with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection confirmed by real-time RT-PCR, requiring at least 3 L/min of oxygen by mask or nasal cannula but without ventilation assistance, a score of 5 on the WHO Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS), and a C-reactive protein serum concentration of more than 25 mg/L not requiring admission to the intensive care unit at admission to hospital. […] The two coprimary outcomes were the proportion of patients who had died or needed non-invasive or mechanical ventilation by day 4 (ie, a score of >5 on the WHO-CPS) and survival without need for mechanical or non-invasive ventilation (including high-flow oxygen) at day 14.
33494117 The virus produces bilateral lung infiltrates causing significant oxygen depletion and respiratory failure thus increasing the need for ventilators.
33494567 Of these patients with ventilation support 52 (44.1%) received oxygen via nasal cannula, oxygen mask or an oxygen mask with a reservoir, 48 (40.7%) were on a continuous positive airway pressure device (CPAP) and 18 (15,3%) on non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV). […] No statistical differences were found for CRP levels (P=0.834) among the three type of oxygen support.
33495685 The early diagnosis of COVID-19 based on detection of reactive oxygen species overproduction because of virus-induced dysfunctioning of lung cells has also been highlighted.
33495710 Although, around 80% of the cases had mild infection but still remaining 20% had developed respiratory failure and dysfunction of other organs that necessitate urgent oxygen therapy or specific interventions.
33495726 The EDs should be equipped with pulse oximeters and functioning oxygen systems and have the necessary resources and skills to perform endotracheal intubation to manage COVID-19-induced respiratory distress and hypoxia.
33495763 Respiratory features were often severe as 48% needed oxygen support upon admission. […] Thirty-two patients presented respiratory distress requiring oxygen support ≥6 liters/minute.
33496362 Between April 23 and November 12, 2020, hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 (oxygen demand ≥4 L/min) were included consecutively. […] Clinical parameters and lung ultrasound findings were compared between groups, at intubation (IMV-group) and highest oxygen demand (non-IMV-group). […] A reference group with oxygen demand <4 L/min was examined at hospital admission. )/respiratory rate) ≥4.88 identified no requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation with a positive predictive value of 87% and negative predictive value of 100%.
33497039 Factors associated with mortality were dialysis vintage (P = 0.01), chest X-ray infiltrates (P = 0.032), serum C-reactive protein (P = 0.05), and lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.02) at 1 week, oxygen therapy requirement (P = 0.02) and anticoagulation (P < 0.01).
33497654 A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted using maternal symptoms, maternal serology levels, and maternal use of oxygen support to determine the predictors of neonatal immunoglobulin G levels. […] The maternal immunoglobulin G levels and maternal use of oxygen support were predictive of the neonatal immunoglobulin G levels. […] The maternal immunoglobulin G levels and maternal use of oxygen support, a marker of disease severity, predicted the neonatal immunoglobulin G levels.
33498051 Clinical response was defined as improvement in symptoms (fever, dyspnea, and cough as well as blood oxygen saturation), and patients who met these criteria after 1 week of admission were classified as early responders; others who survived and finally discharged from the hospital were classified as late responders and patients who died were categorized as nonresponders.
33499798 The disease subsequently spread rapidly, leading to a global pandemic.1 The predominant modes of transmission for COVID-19 are through direct or close contact with an infected person via respiratory droplets, or indirectly via contact with contaminated fomites.2 The median incubation period of COVID-19 is 5-6 days, ranging from 1 to 14 days.3,4 The infectious period remains uncertain; however, it is estimated to be from 48 hours before symptoms develop until two weeks after symptom onset.3,5 The predominant symptoms reported in COVID-19 cases are cough, sore throat, fatigue, runny nose and fever.6 The majority of cases recover from the disease without clinical intervention; however, approximately 20% of global cases result in more severe outcomes, such as shortness of breath and pneumonia, necessitating hospitalisation and the requirement of additional oxygen or ventilation.7,8 Severe or fatal outcomes are generally more common among elderly cases or those with comorbid conditions.8 A visual depiction of the severity spectrum of COVID-19, and of the data sources that we use in this report to measure aspects of severity, is provided in Figure 1.
33499887 The setting for the trial is the Hospital Santiago Oriente which is a secondary level hospital with an emergency room, intensive care, and all basic specialties of medicine. 18 years or more COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR Oxygen requirements up to 35% by venturi mask or 5 liters per minute by nasal cannula (approximately FiO2 40%) Consent form signed Exclusion Criteria: Previous steroid use for more than 48 hours.
33500292 The most common treatment was oxygen (41%) and only 0.8% were intubated and ventilated.
33500377 His partial pressure of O2 to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) was 156.
33500431 Patients without ARDS but in need of supplementary oxygen have received much less attention. […] This study describes the diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 needing oxygen support during their stay on regular ward. […] This analysis includes all 57 patients requiring supplemental oxygen not admitted to the ICU. 57 patients needing supplemental oxygen and being treated outside the ICU were analyzed. […] Of note, hypoxic patients mostly did not suffer from clinically relevant dyspnea despite oxygen saturations below 92%. […] Patients had fever for 7 [2-11] days and needed supplemental oxygen for 8 [5-13] days resulting in an overall hospitalization time of 12 [7-20] days. […] This description of COVID-19 patients requiring oxygen therapy should be taken into account when planning treatment capacity. […] Patients on oxygen need long-term inpatient care.
33503018 Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of ICU hospitalization with temperature (OR, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.06-2.28] per degree Celsius increase), oxygen saturation <90% (OR, 12.45 [95% CI, 5.27-29.4]), abnormal lung auscultation on admission (OR, 3.58 [95% CI, 1.58-8.11]), elevated level of CRP (OR, 2.7 [95% CI, 1.29-5.66for CRP>100mg/L vs CRP<10mg/L). and monocytopenia (OR, 3.28 [95% CI, 1.4-7.68]) were also associated with increasing odds of ICU hospitalization.
33503627 Asymptomatic patients had laboratory evidence of milder disease such as higher lymphocyte counts and oxygen saturation and lower troponin I and interleukin-6 levels than symptomatic patients.
33505722 The oxygen requirements and length of hospital stay were increasing with the increase in scan severity. […] Our data suggest that chest CT scoring system can aid in predicting COVID-19 disease outcome and significantly correlates with lab tests and oxygen requirements.
33506312 Mortality, peaking in April 2020, was correlated with symptoms, comorbidities, dyspnea, fatigue, stupor/coma, high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, pro-calcitonin, and high oxygen need (p ≤ 0.001 for all).
33508500 As a result of the urgent need to design and implement early detection devices and applications for the COVID-19 pandemic, we propose building a non-invasive custom optical imaging system to assist with phlebotomy and vascular approach to survey the reliability of blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels recovered from spectral images. […] HSI is a prospective technique to assist with phlebotomy and non-contact oxygen saturation approach.
33509065 We report a case of COVID-19 in a pediatric patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who presented with respiratory distress marked by increased work of breathing and low oxygen saturation.
33509206 Oxygen saturation ranged from 82 to 99 %, with the lowest value observed in a two-year-old girl.
33509841 Further, limited access to PPE was associated with symptom duration greater than 2 weeks and the presence of moderate to severe symptoms such as difficulty breathing, abnormal chest X-ray, low oxygen saturations, respiratory distress and acute lung injury.
33510247 Swab-negative clinical COVID-19 patients had better outcomes, with shorter length of hospital stay, reduced need for > 60% supplementary oxygen and reduced mortality.
33511068 The mean oxygen saturation was 83%.
33511686 A total of 46 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia needing of oxygen therapy to maintain SO2 > 93% and with recent worsening of lung function received a single infusion of tocilizumab.
33513240 Ninety percent of MIS-C cases required oxygen supplementation with odds ratio (OR) 18 (3.22-100.48), whereas 65% required mechanical ventilation with OR 37.14 (4.08-338.10).
33513822 A possible mechanism of the effects of the two drugs together with polyP on mucin expression is proposed based on the scavenging of free oxygen species and the generation of ADP/ATP from the polyP, which is needed for the organization of the protective mucin-based mucus layer.
33514998 Parameters indicating presence of frailty (CFS 6-9) were associated with more co-morbidities, shorter symptom duration upon presentation (median 4 vs. 7 days), lower oxygen demand and lower levels of CRP.
33516668 COVID-19 related Acute Respiratory Failure, may be successfully treated with Conventional Oxygen therapy, High Flow Nasal Cannula, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure or Bi-level Positive-Pressure ventilation.
33516744 Blood oxygen saturation, heart rate and heart rate variability, mental fatigue and reaction time were measured before and immediately after both lectures. […] We found how both lesson produced an increase in mental fatigue, reaction time and autonomous sympathetic modulation, being heart rate significantly higher (77.7±18.2 vs.89.3±11.2 bpm, mask, not mask respectively) and blood oxygen saturation significantly lower (98.4±0.5 vs. […] The use of surgical mask during a 150 min university lesson produced an increased heart rate and a decrease in blood oxygen saturation, not significantly affecting the mental fatigue perception, reaction time and time, frequency and nonlinear hear rate variability domains of students.
33518858 hybridized Oxygen atoms within seven bonds from aromatic Carbon atoms, the presence of Carbon and Nitrogen atoms at a topological distance of 3 and other interrelations of atom pairs as important pharmacophoric features.
33519510 In endothelial cells, mitochondria regulate these inflammatory pathways via redox signaling, which is primarily achieved through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS).
33519949 The death rate is undoubtedly correlated with the cytokine storm and other pathological pulmonary characteristics, as a result of which the lungs cannot provide sufficient oxygen to the body’s vital organs.
33520082 Charts were evaluated for history of atopic disease, as were the need for ICU admission, requirement for supplemental oxygen and/or intubation, and in hospital mortality. […] No significant differences in outcomes for patients (n = 275) based on atopic disease were noted: ICU admission, 43% versus 44.7% (atopic versus no atopic disease, respectively; p = 0.84); supplemental oxygen use, 79.1% versus 73.6% (p = 0.36); intubation rate, 35.8% versus 36.5% (p = 0.92); and mortality rate, 13.4% versus 20.7% (p = 0.19).
33520336 Mass spectrometry analysis and theoretical calculations indicate that the reactive oxygen species generated on the anode can oxidize the peptide chains and induce cleavage of the peptide backbone of the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, and thereby disables the virus.
33520673 Special attention is drawn to both the import and local manufacture of medical oxygen gas to ensure its uninterrupted supply to designated COVID-hospitals identified by the local administration. […] The paper apprises on the administrative and regulatory orders to control the supply and transportation of medical oxygen gas by examining its implementation in India in general and the State of Andhra Pradesh in particular. […] The observations and findings from the research work can be vital inputs to Governmental institutions, regulatory bodies, the industry, and various other stakeholders dealing with medical oxygen gas so that policy and process flow can be improvised.
33521312 A statistically significant improvement in the variable oxygen saturation / fraction inspired by oxygen is observed in patients who used alternative CPAP (p = 0.040).
33521585 We planned a prospective proof-of-concept feasibility and design pilot study to test 5 discrete medical tasks in a simulated ICU room of a COVID-19 patient using a collaborative robot: push a button on intravenous pole machine when alert occurs for downstream occlusion, adjust ventilator knob, push button on ICU monitor to silence false alerts, increase oxygen flow on wall-mounted flow meter to allow the patient to walk to the bathroom and back (dial-up and dial-down oxygen flow), and push wall-mounted nurse call button.
33521646 Opinions differ on whether invasive mechanical ventilation should be used as first-line therapy over noninvasive oxygen support.
33522466 Hospitalized patients with moderately severe COVID-19 (n=3) were treated with oxygen inhalation through nasal cannula and prone position with a positive effect.Conclusion Remote counseling of patients after CT and consistency of the outpatient treatment with recommendations of managing transplant physicians provided timely diagnosis of IC, early administration of treatment, and the absence of COVID-19 complications.
33522493 She was treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, third generation cephalosporin, anticoagulant, daily high-dose calcium acetate, vitamin D3, fresh frozen plasma and oxygen therapy.
33522946 Participants of either gender admitted to general adult wards in 21 hospital sites located in four provinces of Argentina are invited to participate in the study if they meet the following inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria SARS-CoV-2 confirmed infection by RT-PCR; Hospital admission at least 24 hours before; Expected hospitalization in the same site ≥24 hours; Oxygen saturation ≥90% (measured by pulse oximetry) breathing ambient air; Age ≥45 years or at least one of the following conditions: ○ Hypertension; ○ Diabetes; ○ At least moderate COPD or asthma; ○ Cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting or valve replacement surgery); ○ Body mass index ≥30; Willingness to sign informed consent (online supplementary material 1 and 2). […] Age <18 years; Women in childbearing age; >= 72 hs since current admission; Requirement for a high dose of oxygen (>5 litres/minute) or mechanical ventilation (non-invasive or invasive); History of chronic kidney disease requiring haemodialysis or chronic liver failure; Inability for oral intake.
33523290 The levels of changes in leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, platelets, hemoglobin levels, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) are overall associated with lung involvement, oxygen demand, and disease activity.
33523608 They range from early, low blood oxygen levels (hypoxemia) without breathlessness (“silent hypoxia”), delirium, rashes, and loss of smell (anosmia), to persisting chest pain, muscle weakness and -pain, fatigue, confusion, memory problems and difficulty to concentrate (“brain fog”), mood changes, and unexpected onset of hypertension or diabetes. […] Undetectable by current diagnostic methods, capillary flow disturbances limit oxygen diffusion exchange in lungs and tissue and may therefore cause hypoxemia and tissue hypoxia. […] Finally, the review addresses the effects of low oxygen and high cytokine levels in brain tissue on neurotransmitter synthesis and mood.
33525211 Furthermore, a longer duration of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy versus normotensive patients was also observed. […] CRP was correlated significantly with the duration of stay in the ICU and the duration for oxygen supplementation (r=0.56 and 0.61, respectively; p<0.01). […] Hypertensive patients with COVID-19 had a higher inflammatory response (higher CRP levels), a significant increase of comorbidities, and a more aggressive course of the disease necessitating a higher rate of ICU admission, longer requirement for hospitalization and oxygen use compared to normotensive patients.
33525219 They also had a lower requirement for a hospital stay, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and oxygen supplementation versus patients without eosinophilia (p: <0.05). […] The eosinophils count was correlated negatively with the duration of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and oxygen supplementation and with CRP level (r: - 0.34, -0.32, -0.61 and - 0.39, respectively) (p: < 0.01).
33525220 The severity and outcome of the disease included: intensive care unit admission, need for oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation. and mortality rate.
33525860 Unless the patients have confirmed COVID-19 and severe pneumonia or a high oxygen demand, medical treatment should be continued during the pandemic, except for the use of high-dose corticosteroids.
33527804 Clinical parameters (oxygen requirement) and laboratory parameters (ferritin, interleukin [IL]-6, C-reactive protein [CRP] and absolute lymphocyte count [ALC]) were studied preand post-treatment. […] Average total length of stay in hospital and ICU, percentage of patients requiring ICU admission and average time taken for weaning off oxygen for all patients were also reported. […] Median oxygen saturation improved from 88 % (pre-dose) to 96 % (post-dose). […] All patients were weaned off oxygen within Avg + SD : 6.53 ± 2.09 days post-Itolizumab treatment. […] The clinical improvement was demonstrated by reduction in inflammatory markers, weaning off oxygen, reduced length of hospital stay and improvement of ordinal score.
33528832 The treatment of patients was focused on monitoring their clinical condition, and supporting respiratory inefficiency with passive oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation.
33529157 Furthermore, 12 (5.4%) patients were admitted to hospital, of which 4 (33.3%) required supplemental oxygen and 2 (16.7%) required mechanical ventilation.
33529638 In addition, patients in both groups received routine supportive treatment, including oxygen inhalation, symptomatic therapy, and/or human intravenous immunoglobulin, and/or serum albumin, and therapy for underlying diseases.
33531113 Determination of the indication for the admission of COVID-19 patients to the hospital should involve consideration of age, comorbidities, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation. […] It is recommended that any COVID-19 patient with hypoxemia (SpO2 <90%) despite being given oxygen, dyspnea, or a high respiratory rate be admitted to intensive care. […] In the case of hypoxemic respiratory insufficiency, an attempt at treatment with high-flow oxygen or non-invasive ventilation is suggested, while patients with severe hypoxemia/high respiratory rate should undergo intubation and invasive ventilation.
33532003 To date, only dexamethasone has shown to be an effective treatment in the subgroup of patients requiring oxygen supplementation; however, countless trials including novel therapeutic approaches are ongoing.
33532070 We were informed almost twice daily in morning and evening about body temperature, symptoms (cough, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, fatigue, muscle of body aches, headache, loss of taste or smell, sore throat, congestion or runny nose, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea), oxygen saturation measured by digital pulse oximetry and blood pressure. […] Our protocol of treatment was based on early use of prednisone (25 mg in the morning and 12.5 mg in the afternoon) and low molecular weight heparin (4000 UI one or two times daily) initiated just after the positivity of molecular nasopharyngeal test (about 3-4 days as mean time after initiation of symptomatology and not after 7-8 days as suggested by other protocols) and oxygen therapy when necessary.
33532160 On day 5, he required 1 liter per minute of oxygen and dexamethasone therapy was initiated. […] Following rehabilitation, he did not require oxygen on day 19.
33532963 Retrospective chart reviews were performed to record laboratory values, temperature, and oxygen requirements of 99 adult inpatients with COVID-19. […] Ferritin, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, procalcitonin, white blood cell count, absolute lymphocyte count, temperature, and oxygen requirement were noted. […] Fever within 24 h of discharge, oxygen requirement, and laboratory abnormalities were not associated with need for ED visit or readmission within 30 days of discharge after admission for COVID-19. […] Our data suggest that neither persistent fever, oxygen requirement, nor laboratory marker derangement was associated with need for acute care in the 30-day period after discharge for severe COVID-19. […] These findings suggest that physicians need not await the normalization of laboratory markers, resolution of fever, or discontinuation of oxygen prior to discharging a stable or improving patient with COVID-19.
33533746 Respiratory symptoms improved with steroids, awake proning, high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy and antibiotics. […] Perioperative focus should be on infection prevention, maintenance of hemodynamics, and optimization of oxygenation with preoperative high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy.
33534047 The study was a multicentric open-label trial of COVID-19 patients who were aged ≥ 18 years, receiving oxygen without mechanical ventilation, and with evidence of systemic inflammatory response who were assigned to standard of care (SOC) or SOC plus intravenous MP (40 mg bid for 3 days followed by 20 mg bid for 3 days).
33534659 Patients with severe COVID-19 require supplemental oxygen and ventilatory support. […] A simulated intensive care unit room with a breathing patient simulator exhaling nebulized bacteriophage from the lower respiratory tract with various respiratory support modalities: invasive ventilation (through an endotracheal tube with inflated cuff connected to a mechanical ventilator); helmet ventilation with PEEP valve; non-invasive bilevel positive pressure ventilation; non-rebreather face mask; high-flow nasal oxygen; and nasal prongs. […] Invasive ventilation and helmet ventilation with a PEEP valve were associated with the lowest bacteriophage concentrations in the air, and high-flow nasal oxygen and nasal prongs the highest. […] At the intubating position, bacteriophage concentrations associated with high-flow nasal oxygen (2.66 × 104 PFU/L of air sampled), nasal prongs (1.60 × 104 PFU/L of air sampled), non-rebreather facemask (7.87 × 102 PFU/L of air sampled), and BiPAP (1.91 × 102 PFU/L of air sampled) were significantly higher when compared to invasive ventilation (each P < 0.05).
33534724 Important predictors included demographic information (age), vital signs (oxygen saturation), and laboratory values (white blood count, cardiac troponin, albumin, etc.).
33534774 We suggest starting supplementary oxygen when SpO2 is persistently lower than 94%. […] We recommend supplemental oxygen to keep SpO2 at 88-95% and suggest higher targets in settings where continuous pulse oximetry is not available but intermittent pulse oximetry is.
33534813 The main risk factors associated with in-hospital death were male sex (RR 2.05, 95% CI 1.34-3.12), obesity (RR 1.62, 95% CI 1.14-2.32)-in particular morbid obesity (RR 3.38, 95%CI 1.63-7.00)-and oxygen saturation < 80% on admission (RR 4.8, 95%CI 3.26-7.31).
33536316 In line with scarce previous clinical and experimental findings, this study indicates that HFNC itself does not result in overall increased aerosol formation as compared to conventional oxygen therapy.
33540040 WHO guidelines for COVID-19 clinical management includes infection control and prevention, social distancing and supportive care using supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilator support.
33540128 For both drugs, we calculated the posterior probabilities of an absolute decrease in mortality versus control patients by subgroups based on oxygen requirements. […] For patients requiring supplemental oxygen, the probability of 1% or greater survival benefit was 81% for remdesivir compared to 93% for dexamethasone. […] Finally, for patients without oxygen requirements, the probabilities of 1% or greater mortality benefit were 29% for remdesivir and 4% for dexamethasone. […] Using a Bayesian analytic approach, remdesivir had a low probability of achieving a clinically meaningful reduction in mortality, except for patients requiring supplemental oxygen. […] Corticosteroids were more promising for populations requiring oxygen support, especially ventilation.
33541042 Data regarding comorbidity, rehabilitation course; swabs; procedures in acute phase; nonrespiratory manifestations; dysphagia, mental confusion; PaO2/FiO2; oxygen supplementation have been collected to admission and discharge. […] The change in PaO2/FiO2 and the reduction of the oxygen supplementation testify a good recovery of pulmonary function.
33541971 He demanded oxygen and declared as severe COVID.
33542047 The primary endpoints were the need for supplemental oxygen, time of hospitalisation, need for admission and length of stay in intensive care unit and death rate. […] Median (and IQR) time of need for supplemental oxygen was 4.0 (2.0-6.0) days for the colchicine group and 6.5 (4.0-9.0) days for the placebo group (p<0.001). […] At day 2, 67% versus 86% of patients maintained the need for supplemental oxygen, while at day 7, the values were 9% versus 42%, in the colchicine and the placebo groups, respectively (log rank; p=0.001). […] Colchicine reduced the length of both, supplemental oxygen therapy and hospitalisation.
33544533 Our aim was to evaluate the effect of standard surgical and N-95 respiratory mask use on maternal oxygen saturation, vital signs and result on non-stress tests in term pregnancies. […] Oxygen saturation, systolic, and diastolic arterial blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, and temperature of pregnant women using surgical masks and respiratory masks were measured before and after the non-stress test. […] The effect of mask type on oxygen saturation before and after the non-stress test was found to be significant (97.1±1.8 corresponds to 95.3±2.6 for the surgical mask, p=0.0001; 97.8±1.7 corresponds to 93.7±2.0 for the respiratory mask, p=0.0001). […] Surgical mask and respiratory mask usage decreased significantly in oxygen saturation in term pregnancies.
33545499 Patients with respiratory distress on oxygen masks initiated CPAP.
33546111 Medicinal oxygen plays an important role in healthcare, being essential for the existence and maintenance of the health of millions of people, who depend on medicinal oxygen every day, both in hospitals and at home. […] Medicinal oxygen is the primary treatment administrated to the majority of patients suffering from respiratory problems and low levels of oxygen in the blood, and in the context of the actual health crisis caused by the new COVID-19, the challenge is represented by increasing the supply of medicinal oxygen while reducing cost so that it is accessible where it is needed most, free at the point of use. […] It will take increased investment and commitment to put oxygen at the center of strategies for universal health coverage. […] In this context, it becomes essential to investigate the main characteristics of the Romanian market of medicinal oxygen, highlighting top key players, market development, key driving factors, types of products, market perspectives as well as shedding light on the segmentation of this particular market based on considerations regarding regions, hospital competence class and hospital specialization. […] Also, the research aims to explore the regional disparities in the decision of using O93%medicinal oxygen, revealing the main factors related to the usage of this type of product among Romanian public hospitals. […] The research relies on the first quantitative survey regarding medicinal oxygen usage among 121 public hospital units from a total of 461 public hospitals in 2018, which meet the specific requirements: includes the entire population according to the list published on the website of the Ministry of Health, is the most recent data and does not show repetition. […] In order to analyze the main characteristics of the Romanian oxygen market, the following methods have been used: analysis of variance (ANOVA) together with Kruskal-Wallis, Pearson correlation coefficient as well as Goodman and Kruskal gamma, Kendall’s tau-b and Cramer’s V, as well as multilevel logistic regression analysis using hierarchical data (hospitals grouped in regions). […] The Romanian market of medicinal oxygen is rather an oligopoly market characterized by the existence of a small number of producers and two types of products currently used for the same medical purpose and having a substitutable character: medicinal oxygen O99.5%, and medicinal oxygen O93%. […] An overwhelming proportion of public hospitals agree that both types of medicinal oxygen serve the same therapeutic purpose. […] The Romanian market of medicinal oxygen highlighted a significant segmentation on considerations based on regions, hospital competence class and hospital specialization. […] Regarding the main perspectives, the Romanian market of medical oxygen keeps the growth trend registered globally, with development perspectives for competitors. […] Exploring the regional disparities in the decision of using O93 medicinal oxygen, the empirical results acknowledged the important role of unitary price, hospital capacity and the relevance of this product seen as a medicine. […] Medicinal oxygen is vital in sustaining life, proving its utility mainly in the context of the actual health crisis.
33546639 The elder age, certain comorbidities (cancer, heart failure, chronic renal failure), dyspnea, lower levels of oxygen saturation and hematocrit, higher levels of C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase and ferritin were independent risk factors for mortality.
33546739 The primary objective of the randomized phase (baricitinib cohort versus standard of care cohort) is to evaluate the number of patients who did not require mechanical oxygen support since start of therapy until day +14 or discharge (whichever it comes first). […] Removal from the study will apply in case of unacceptable adverse event(s), development of an intercurrent illness, condition or procedural complication, which could interfere with the patient’s continued participation and voluntary patient withdrawal from study treatment (all patients are free to withdraw from participation in this study at any time, for any reasons, specified or unspecified, and without prejudice). <94%) with less than 7 days of onset of symptoms and with supplemental oxygen requirements but not using high-flow nasal cannula, non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). […] The use of corticosteroids will be recommended in patients who have had symptoms for more than 7 days and who meet all the following criteria: need for oxygen support, non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation, acute respiratory failure or rapid deterioration of gas exchange, appearance or worsening of bilateral alveolar-interstitial infiltrates at the radiological level. […] Phase 2 part: to describe the number of patients in the experimental arm that will not require mechanical oxygen support compared to the standard of care arm until day +14 or discharge (whichever it comes first).
33546745 As blood oxygen saturation decayed and lung abnormalities were not responsive to large spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroids, patient was placed on mechanical ventilation and compassionate-use of approved COVID-19 convalescent donor plasma was introduced. […] There was rapid improvement of clinical status, with interruption of supplemental oxygen therapy after 6 days and reduction of lung abnormalities as evidence by sequential computed tomography scans.
33547007 A 70-year-old Japanese man contracted severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and required oxygen to maintain oxygen saturation (>90%), 5 weeks after onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms.
33547062 There was evidence supporting the use of glucocorticoids, especially dexamethasone, in COVID-19 cases requiring oxygen therapy. […] The efficacy of glucocorticoids in cases requiring oxygen therapy suggests that immunomodulatory treatment might be effective in COVID-19 subsets.
33547300 By day 28, 24 (92%) patients show improvement in oxygen-support status, 17 (65%) patients are discharged, and none show worsen oxygen-support status nor die. […] Relative to comparable controls, bevacizumab shows clinical efficacy by improving oxygenation and shortening oxygen-support duration.
33547620 In patients receiving oxygen therapy, corticosteroids reduced risk of death in mechanically ventilated patients (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.24-0.60; p < 0.001) but not in patients on high-flow or other oxygen therapy (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.20-1.07; p = 0.07) and (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.35-2.00; p = 0.69), respectively. […] Hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen therapy should not be a trigger for initiation of corticosteroids unless the timing is appropriate.
33548937 Among these, 61.5% were asymptomatic, 34.1% were symptomatic, and 4.4% required oxygen support. […] Patients appear to be at increased risk for more severe infection requiring oxygen support later in pregnancy. […] · The majority of pregnant patients with COVID-19 are asymptomatic and <1 in 20 require oxygen support..
33549565 At initial presentation, about two-thirds of SARS-CoV-2-positive residents had an abnormal vital sign or change in oxygen status. […] Most (90.2%) symptomatic residents had elevated temperature, change in mental status, lethargy, change in oxygen status, or cough; 9 (11.0%) did not have fever, cough, or shortness of breath during their clinical course. […] Those with change in oxygen status had an increased relative risk (RR) of 30-day mortality [51.1% vs 29.7%, RR 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-3.0]. […] SNFs should ensure they have a systematic approach for responding to abnormal vital signs and oxygen saturation and consider ensuring common signs and symptoms identified in Facility A are among those they monitor.
33549577 The results showed that remdesivir administration was associated with a significant improvement in the 28-day recovery (RR=1.09, 95%CI, 1.04-1.15), low flow oxygen support through days one to 14 (RR=2.88, 95%CI, 1.80-4.60), and invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation requirement through days 14 to 28 of the follow-up time (RR=5.34, 95%CI, 2.37-12.05).
33550100 Covariates for the model were age, sex, qSOFA score ≥ 2, presenting oxygen saturation, vasopressor use, and greater than three comorbidities.
33550104 We conducted a meta-analysis of the literature to assess the intubation rate among patients with COVID-19 requiring oxygen or noninvasive ventilatory support who underwent awake PP.
33550984 The main clinical outcomes will be clinical severity in obese patients with COVID-19 as tachypnea (respiratory rate, ≥ 30 breaths per minute), hypoxemia (oxygen saturation, ≤ 93%), the ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (< 300), lung infiltrate (> 50% of the lung field involved within 24-48 h), diagnosis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome, need of invasive mechanical ventilation, and mortality.
33551979 He received supportive and empirical treatment including anticoagulant treatment, anti-inflammatory treatment, oxygen supply, and inhalation therapy.
33552378 Both patients were put on high flow nasal oxygen therapy: Optiflow without the need for mechanical ventilation.
33552406 Out of the 183 patients, 117 were in the ward, 66 were in ICU, 148 of them recovered, while 35 deaths were reported, 89 patients were having persisting hypoxemia (despite oxygen therapy) during the hospital stay, and the remaining 94 were non-hypoxemic with or without supplemental oxygen therapy.
33552408 The factors that made it possible to adequately face the stress due to patients’ hospitalization were human resources and innovative elements to provide oxygen therapy.
33552410 She was admitted to ICU and was started on high flow oxygen.
33552773 However, the recommendations for their use include COVID-19 confirmed patients requiring supplemental oxygen or other forms of respiratory support. […] In this case report, we describe in detail a unique case of severe COVID-19 infection that did not require any form of oxygen support but was treated successfully with antiviral medications and steroids.
33552890 Pulmonary infection of 2019-nCoV can frequently induce acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (pO2/FiO2) of less than 300 mmHg.
33552980 We performed a meta-analysis to understand the survival and associated complications in pediatric cancer patients as well as their hospitalization, intensive care, and ventilation care (supplemental oxygen/endotracheal intubation) needs. test.
33554049 Patient deteriorated on day 5, requiring high flow oxygen support.
33554209 Oxygen therapy is required in hypoxic children (saturation <92%).
33556127 Data were divided in 4 groups according to the respiratory assistance in the acute phase: Group1 (orotracheal intubation), Group2 (non-invasive ventilation using Biphasic Positive Airway Pressure), Group3 (Venturi Masks), Group4 (no oxygen therapy).
33556918 The need for oxygen (p < 0.001) and mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001) was also significantly higher in delirium patients, as well as in patients who received other psychiatric diagnoses.
33557778 A decrease in lymphocyte counts paralleled worsening parenchymal extension, along with reduced arterial oxygen partial pressure and saturation. […] After correcting for parenchymal extension, ground-glass opacities were associated with reduced platelets and increased procalcitonin, consolidation with increased CRP and reduced oxygen saturation.
33558073 The primary outcome was the change in pulse oximetry associated with prone positioning, measured on room air, with supplemental oxygen, and approximately 30 minutes after initiating prone positioning. […] Median pulse oximetry increased as 83% (interquartile range, 75%-86%) on room air, 90% (interquartile range, 89%-93%) with supplemental oxygen, and 96% (interquartile range, 94%-98%) with prone positioning (z = -4.48, P < .001).
33558801 The water quality, in several polluted areas, has also been remarkably enhanced, for example, the dissolved oxygen content in the Ganga River, India, has increased by about 80%.
33558835 Severe forms of COVID-19 were defined as requiring oxygen therapy, admission in an intensive care unit or death.
33558860 Most important findings for rehabilitation: in the first week after discharge to the rehabilitation centre 38.3% of all patients experienced exercise-induced oxygen desaturation, in 72.7% muscle weakness was present in all major muscle groups and 21.7% had a reduced mobility in one or both shoulders.
33559561 We recommend that the patient selection criteria for achieving a favourable outcome should be based on fraction of inspired oxygen together with prone-position ventilation.
33559885 Out of the 23 patients without typical COVID-19 symptoms on presentation, 10 went on to develop typical symptoms with 8 needing supplemental oxygen and one requiring mechanical ventilation.
33560044 Cardiorespiratory fitness was directly measured as peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) during progressive exercise testing to volitional fatigue, and categorized into tertiles.
33560753 Patients were subsequently monitored via electronic health record once every 12-hour shift for the following indicators: oxygen modality and flow, increase in oxygen requirements, sustained tachypnea, and hemodynamic instability.
33563218 In-hospital death, days of mechanical ventilation or oxygen supplementation, days of ICU or hospital stay were followed until May 26, 2020.
33563452 A 53-year-old man presented to the ED at a time of low severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), prevalence and reported 2 weeks of progressive shortness of breath, dry cough, headache, myalgias, diarrhea, and recurrent low-grade fevers to 39°C for 1 week with several days of recorded peripheral capillary oxygen saturation of 80% to 90% (room air) on home pulse oximeter.
33564532 His room air oxygen saturation was 95%.
33564671 As a potential mediator of disease aggravation and multiple organ injuries that are triggered by continuing inflammation and oxygen deficits, HBP warrants further study as a disease biomarker and potential therapeutic target.
33564852 The NYC’s cohort had shorter hospital stays (4.1 versus 7.2 days, P < .001) but more African American patients (23% versus 12%, P = .02) and higher prevalence of abnormal alanine (>60U/L; 39.0% versus 5.9%, P < .001) and aspartate (>40U/L; 58.4% versus 42.4%, P = .012) aminotransferase, oxygen saturation <90% (20.4% versus 7.2%, P = .004), and mortality (21% versus 1.4%, P < .001).
33565392 The main progress in international critical care medicine in 2020 are: the reflections on the mandatory of implementation of the 1-hour cluster treatment strategy for sepsis are still continuing; the “metabolic resuscitation” therapy, represented by large dose of vitamin C, failed to yield positive results; the global epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread, with evidences indicating Dexamethasone, Remdesivir or interferon β-1b (IFNβ-1b), Lopinavir/Ritonavir and ribavirin as promising therapy; conservative oxygen therapy did not exert positive effects neither for mechanical ventilated patients nor for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patient; the concept of lung- and diaphragm-protective mechanical ventilation illuminates a new opportunity to potentially improve clinical outcomes for critically ill patients; there was no positive evidence for stress ulcer prophylaxis and timing of endoscopy for severe acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding; early initiation of renal-replacement therapy (RRT) for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) has not shown positive effect.
33566908 All patients received supportive treatment; 2 patients required supplemental oxygen.
33566953 The evidence described the myocardial injury as the most common cardiac complication reported in Covid-19, reported in approximately 8% to 12% of all severe individuals, with indications for oxygen therapy interventions, thrombotic disorders prevention and treatment, hemodynamic monitoring and assessment tests of cardiac function’s performance, along with biochemical markers of myocardial injury, yet not addressing nursing interventions.
33567251 The patients were treated with a high dose of corticosteroids (prednisone 1 mg/kg PO), showing marked clinical improvement, and decreasing oxygen flow ratio demand.
33567446 TRPA1 can be activated by reactive oxygen species and may therefore be up-regulated in COVID-19.
33568665 Dexamethasone can reduce mortality in hospitalised COVID-19 patients needing oxygen and ventilation by 18% and 36%, respectively. […] Assuming that dexamethasone has a similar effect size in settings where access to oxygen therapies is limited, this would translate into approximately 650,000 (240,000 - 1,400,000) lives saved globally over the same time period. […] To estimate the full potential of dexamethasone in the global fight against COVID-19, it is essential to perform clinical research in settings with limited access to oxygen and/or ventilators, for example in low- and middle-income countries.
33568921 No statistically significant differences among age, sex, oxygen saturation, fever status, or number of severe bronchospasm episodes were found.
33569547 Treatment of the hCMEC/D3 cells with Hsp90 inhibitors counteracted those events, and reduced the generation of the hydrogen peroxide - induced reactive oxygen species.
33569904 Conversely, we have shown that the activation of general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2)-dependent amino acid starvation sensing pathway suppresses intestinal inflammation by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β).
33570033 As her condition worsened over the next few days with increasing respiratory distress and oxygen needs, it was decided to perform a subacute caesarean delivery.
33573494 Although wound care remains an essential service during the COVID-19 pandemic, the financial consequences and infectious disease ramifications of the pandemic have resulted in closure or limitation of hours in many outpatient wound and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) centers.
33573680 Whether the use of high-flow nasal oxygen in adult patients with COVID-19 associated acute respiratory failure improves clinically relevant outcomes remains unclear. […] We thus sought to assess the effect of high-flow nasal oxygen on ventilator-free days, compared to early initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation, on adult patients with COVID-19. […] Main exposure was the use of high-flow nasal oxygen (conservative group), while early invasive mechanical ventilation (within the first day of ICU admission; early intubation group) served as the comparator. […] When compared to early intubation, the use of high-flow nasal oxygen was associated with an increase in ventilator-free days (mean difference: 8.0 days; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.4 to 11.7 days) and a reduction in ICU length of stay (mean difference: - 8.2 days; 95% CI - 12.7 to - 3.6 days). […] The use of high-flow nasal oxygen upon ICU admission in adult patients with COVID-19 related acute hypoxemic respiratory failure may lead to an increase in ventilator-free days and a reduction in ICU length of stay, when compared to early initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation.
33573928 Venovenous or venoarterial ECMO. /fraction of inspired oxygen ratio was 77 ± 50 mmHg.
33573999 Age, number of comorbidities, respiratory rate-oxygenation index (ratio of pulse oximetry oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen to respiratory rate), Glasgow coma scale score, and use of vasopressors on the first day of NIRS in the training cohort were independent risk factors for NIRS failure.
33574074 Total length of hospital stay, increase of oxygen flow or escalate medical treatment during the first 72 h, were secondary endpoints. 20 points [16-27] at 72 h; p=0.183).
33575153 He was found to be hypoxic, requiring supplemental oxygen.
33575158 The patient had developed a rash, and oxygen support was required in addition to her baseline medication (furosemide and captopril).
33575160 A 63-year-old male with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia presented to the emergency department, supplementary oxygen is delivered via nasal cannula, and invasive ventilation was not needed; there was significant pneumoperitoneum on radiologic control.
33575312 Patients hospitalised with severe COVID-19 pneumonia (admission duration ≥48 h and oxygen requirement ≥40% or critical care admission) underwent face-to-face assessment at 4-6 weeks post-discharge.
33575961 Note: Nitrogen atoms are shown in blue, oxygen atoms - in red, carbon atoms - in gray, hydrogen atoms - in white, and phosphorus atoms - in yellow.
33575962 Thereon, the exacerbated activation of blood immune cells amplifies the inflammatory state observed in COVID-19 patients, specially through the continuous release of reactive oxygen species and extracellular neutrophil traps (NETs). […] Considering the modulation of neutrophil recruitment of extreme relevance for respiratory distress and lung failure prevention, we propose that P2Y14 receptor inhibition by its selective antagonist PPTN could limit neutrophil recruitment and NETosis, hence limiting excessive formation of oxygen reactive species and proteolytic activation of the kallikrein-kinin system and subsequent bradykinin storm in the alveolar septa of COVID-19 patients.
33576150 Patients requiring oxygen therapy, hospitalization, and those who had initial neurological manifestations were excluded.
33576431 Severe disease was defined as dyspnea, respiratory frequency ≥30/min, blood oxygen saturation ≤93% on ambient air, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio <300, or lung infiltrates involving >50% of lung fields within 24-48 hours.
33580251 Patients were classified into mild/moderate, severe/very severe, and critical disease (intubated) based on oxygen requirements.
33581838 The multivariable Cox regression showed increasing odds of the primary composite endpoint associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio 7.76, 95% CI 2.67-22.59; p < 0.001), acute cardiac injury (odds ratio 3.14, 95% CI 1.26-7.99; p = 0.016), high flow oxygen therapy (odds ratio 2.43, 95% CI 1.05-5.62; p = 0.037) and QRS duration longer than >120 ms (odds ratio 3.62, 95% CI 1.39-9.380; p = 0.008) Patients with a wide QRS complex (>120 ms) had significantly higher median level of troponin T and pro-BNP than those without it.
33585031 Total 10 (10.8%) patients died, out of which 6 (6.5%) belonged to the TCZ group and 4 (4.3%) belonged to the CS group The median Oxygen requirement with IQR was 8 (9) in both the groups and in total as well, p-value (0.714). […] Tocilizumab is a quite effective treatment option for critically sick patients of Covid-19 by reducing their oxygen requirement drastically and so the ICU stay, median hospital stay and so the mortality as well.
33585047 An ambulance was called, and he was taken to a tertiary hospital’s paediatric emergency department, where his condition and oxygen saturation fluctuated.
33585674 Oxygenation was started using an adapted snorkel mask with a PEEP valve with an alveolar recruitment function and double oxygen flow.
33585890 Duration for normalization of body temperature, oxygen saturation and mechanical ventilation were significantly shorter in IVIG compared to SOC.
33588779 Laboratory findings showed that patients with PE had higher levels of white blood cells, neutrophils, lactic dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein and D-dimer, and lower levels of lymphocytes, platelets, hemoglobin, partial pressure of oxygen and oxygen saturation.
33590575 The women began to exhibit fever, reduced blood oxygen saturation, and despite the interventions, she could not be saved and succumbed to death.
33590664 Her breathing condition worsened daily, and she required oxygen administration.
33592340 Cases and controls were matched by age, comorbidities, pulse oximetry oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2) ratio at baseline and time elapsed since the initiation of treatment with tocilizumab.
33592854 Forty-five (93.8%) patients received antiviral treatments, 22 (45.8%) patients received antibacterial treatments, 6 (12.5%) patients received glucocorticoid treatments, 2 (4.2%) patients received high flow oxygen inhalation treatments, and 6 (12.5%) patients received noninvasive ventilation treatments.
33593415 Drug usage, immunotherapy, blood transfusion, and need for oxygen support were collected as the treatment indexes.
33593634 Macular OCTA parameters were analyzed and correlated with clinical (severity and hypoxemia- oxygen saturation<92%) and laboratory parameters during hospital stay (D-Dimer-DD, lactate dehydrogenase-LDH and C-reactive protein-CRP). 80 patients were included, mean age 55(SD9) years old; 46.3% male.