OXYGEN


DrugBank ID: db09140
DrugCentral: oxygen
Synonymous :dioxygen | molecular oxygen | oxigeno gaseoso | oxygen usp | pure oxygen



Drug Sentece Context


Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of oxygen gene in 309 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32031570 Of the 36 cases in the ICU, 4 (11.1%) received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 (41.7%) received noninvasive ventilation, and 17 (47.2%) received invasive ventilation (4 were switched to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation).
32053470 Patients with severe respiratory distress and/ or oxygen requirement at any time during the disease course were excluded.
32096367 Conservative oxygen therapy was preferred and noninvasive ventilation was not recommended.
32105680 Principles of management of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy include early isolation, aggressive infection control procedures, oxygen therapy, avoidance of fluid overload, consideration of empiric antibiotics (secondary to bacterial infection risk), laboratory testing for the virus and coinfection, fetal and uterine contraction monitoring, early mechanical ventilation for progressive respiratory failure, individualized delivery planning, and a team-based approach with multispecialty consultations.
32112884 Fever, cough and expectoration were the most common symptoms, 14 patients had decreased oxygen saturation, 33 had leukopenia, 53 had lymphopenia, and 82 had elevated C-reactive protein.
32125362 Clinical course was summarized, including requirement for supplemental oxygen and intensive care and use of empirical treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir. […] Six individuals (33%) required supplemental oxygen; of these, 2 required intensive care. […] Five individuals requiring supplemental oxygen were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir. […] For 3 of the 5 patients, fever resolved and supplemental oxygen requirement was reduced within 3 days, whereas 2 deteriorated with progressive respiratory failure. […] Some patients required supplemental oxygen and had variable clinical outcomes following treatment with an antiretroviral agent.
32171866 The Lopinavir and Ritonavir Tablets, Chinese medicine, oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation were statistically different in the elderly group and the young and middle-aged group, and the P values were all <0.05.
32173725 Refractory COVID-19 patients were more likely to receive oxygen, mechanical ventilation, expectorant, and adjunctive treatment including corticosteroid, antiviral drugs and immune enhancer (P<0.05). […] After adjustment, those with refractory COVID-19 were also more likely to have a male sex and manifestations of anorexia and fever on admission, and receive oxygen, expectorant and adjunctive agents (P<0.05) when considering the factors of disease severity on admission, mechanical ventilation, and ICU transfer.
32186172 Close monitoring of oxygenation, reducing patients’ oxygen consumption, active psychological intervention, and rapidly dealing with severe hypoxemia events are the key factors for the successful treatment of NIV.
32187464 We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label trial involving hospitalized adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, which causes the respiratory illness Covid-19, and an oxygen saturation (Sao2) of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or a ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) of less than 300 mm Hg.
32195704 So far, actions have been taken including but not limited to nationwide actions and online education regarding special procedures of airway management, oxygen therapy, ventilation support, hemodynamic management, sedation, and analgesia.
32195705 Timely, but not premature, intubation is crucial to counter a progressively enlarging oxygen debt despite high-flow oxygen therapy and bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation.
32196707 All patients were given antiviral therapy (including oseltamivir), oxygen inhalation, and antibiotics.
32202343 Suggested treatment included providing oxygen, inhalations, nutritional support and maintaining fluids and electrolyte balances.
32204751 Approaching to treat severe respiratory disease in infants and children, the risks related to the development of atelectasis starting invasive or non-invasive ventilation support and the risk of oxygen toxicity must be taken into serious consideration.
32209890 The blood oxygen saturation was significantly lower in the death group (85 [77, 91]% vs. […] Compared to the recovered group, more patients in the death group exhibited characteristics of advanced age, pre-existing comorbidities, dyspnea, oxygen saturation decrease, increased WBC count, decreased lymphocytes, and elevated CRP levels.
32216961 Data were gathered regarding the presence of chest computed tomography (CT) abnormalities; the distribution, morphology, density, location, and stage of abnormal shadows on chest CT; and observing the correlation between the severity of chest infection and lymphocyte ratio and blood oxygen saturation (SPO2) in patients.
32220650 All children received interferon alfa by aerosolisation twice a day, 14 (39%) received lopinavir-ritonavir syrup twice a day, and six (17%) needed oxygen inhalation.
32221973 In particular, we describe key elements of clinical management, including: safe oxygen therapy; airway management; personal protective equipment; and non-technical aspects of caring for patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019.
32226287 Four patients required oxygen therapy but none of them needed machinal ventilation.
32226695 Both COVID-19 and HAPE exhibit a decreased ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen with concomitant hypoxia and tachypnea.
32228825 One of the COVID-19 treatments involves inhaling a mixture of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen, obtaining better results than with oxygen alone. […] In addition, germicidal UV radiation “breaks down” the oxygen O2 which then aggregate into O3 (ozone) molecules creating the ozone layer, capable of inhibiting viral replication and improving lung respiration.
32232685 Most of the critically ill patients received high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy.
32234250 Forty-nine patients with COVID-19 requiring supplementary oxygen before surgery had spinal anaesthesia (ropivacaine 0.75%), chiefly for Caesarean section (45/49 [91%]).
32239757 During our preparedness for the COVID-19 pandemic we identified that our GE Healthcare anaesthetic machines (GE Healthcare, Amersham Place, Little Chalfont, UK) had a ventilator which was gas-driven, using oxygen. […] This resulted in a large amount of wasted oxygen.
32242348 Six patients (21.4%) required supplemental oxygen therapy, but no one needed mechanical ventilation.
32246843 One of the key decisions faced by healthcare systems is in selecting the appropriate devices for oxygen administration. […] The use of high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) in COVID-19 is the subject of much debate, relating to the benefits and harms that may result for patients and healthcare workers alike.
32248146 Healthcare workers are at high risk of contracting the infection particularly when applying respiratory devices such as oxygen cannulas or noninvasive ventilation.
32248675 Only one of the survivors (14%) still required oxygen at 28 days.
32259129 Furthermore, the drug could decrease neutrophil-generated reactive oxygen species during inflammation.
32259899 However some individuals develop a more fulminant syndrome including viral pneumonia, respiratory failure requiring oxygen, acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation, and in substantial fractions leading to death attributable to COVID-19.
32267987 In worldwide, the incubation period of COVID-19 was 3 to 7 days and approximately 80% of infections are mild or asymptomatic, 15% are severe, requiring oxygen, and 5% are critical infections, requiring ventilation.
32268019 We applied HFNC for oxygen therapy in severe and critical COVID-19 patients and summarized the following experiences. […] Thirdly, to avoid hypoxia or hypoxemia, the treatment goal of HFNC should be maintained the oxygen saturation (SpO2) above 95% for patients without chronic pulmonary disease.
32271454 Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis demonstrated that the biological processes altered within the body after taking MXSGD were closely related to the regulation of such processes as the acute inflammatory response, chemokine production, vascular permeability, response to oxygen radicals, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, T cell differentiation involved in the immune response, immunoglobulin secretion, and extracellular matrix disassembly.
32275753 Levels of their lung lesions, oxygen saturation and heart rates were compared before and after treatment by CT scanning images and patient monitor. […] Improvements of oxygen saturation were observed in 6 clinically severe patients. […] In the 2 patients with critical conditions, the oxygen levels have significantly increased from 79-82% to 91% just about 1 hour after the first inhalation.
32275812 Patients were those with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who had an oxygen saturation of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or who were receiving oxygen support. […] During a median follow-up of 18 days, 36 patients (68%) had an improvement in oxygen-support class, including 17 of 30 patients (57%) receiving mechanical ventilation who were extubated.
32279418 Initial symptoms were fatigue, dry cough and coryza; she never had fever nor oxygen supplementation.
32286679 A significant number of patients with pneumonia require passive oxygen therapy. […] Non-invasive ventilation and high-flow nasal oxygen therapy can be applied in mild and moderate non-hypercapnia cases.
32289472 Management is predominantly focused on the provision of supportive care, with oxygen therapy representing the major treatment intervention.
32290644 One patient required supplemental oxygen.
32292626 The COS-COVID includes one outcome for the mild type (time to 2019-nCoV reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negativity), four outcomes for the ordinary type (length of hospital stay, composite events, score of clinical symptoms, and time to 2019-nCoV RT-PCR negativity), five outcomes for the severe type (composite events, length of hospital stay, arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), duration of mechanical ventilation, and time to 2019-nCoV RT-PCR negativity), one outcome for critical type (all-cause mortality), and one outcome for rehabilitation period (pulmonary function).
32292634 This consensus included nursing assessment, nursing priorities, nursing goals, and thirteen key points of nursing procedures such as nursing of oxygen therapy and respiratory nursing.
32292847 Fulminant myocarditis due to direct viral infection can certainly occur, but patients with increased oxygen demands due to tachycardia and fever, and reduced oxygen delivery due to hypotension and hypoxemia can cause myocardial injury indirectly.
32292866 This latter stage is characterized by the development of progressive lung involvement with increasing oxygen requirements and occasionally signs of the haemophagocitic syndrome.
32292903 Of the other 29 (67.4%) patients who presented with symptomatic COVID-19 infection, three women ultimately required antenatal admission for viral symptoms, and an additional patient represented six days postpartum after a successful labor induction with worsening respiratory status that required oxygen supplementation.
32293020 Based on the evidence to date, there are several treatment options to consider for the relief of fever (acetaminophen, NSAID, oral glucocorticoids), cough (morphine), breathlessness (morphine, oxygen, fan), anxiety (benzodiazepines) and pain (NSAID, morphine).
32294289 The definition of severe COVID-19 was the presence of at least one of following: respiratory rate ≥30 breaths /min; arterial oxygen saturation ≤93% at rest; PaO2/FiO2 ≤300 mmHg.
32298146 The protocols developed focused on clinical decisions regarding intubation, the use of high-flow oxygen, engagement with infectious disease consultants, and cardiac arrest.
32301647 Clinical parameters included demographics, comorbidities, symptoms and symptom duration, oxygen saturation and laboratory values.
32302459 During viral outbreaks, pregnancy poses a uniquely increased risk to women due to changes to immune function, alongside physiological adaptive alterations, such as increased oxygen consumption and edema of the respiratory tract.
32307151 While most people with COVID-19 develop only mild or uncomplicated illness, approximately 14% develop severe disease that requires hospitalization and oxygen support, and 5% require admission to an intensive care unit. […] The document provides clinical recommendations for the noninvasive respiratory support (noninvasive ventilation, high flow oxygen therapy with nasal cannula) in any patient with suspected or confirmed presentation of COVID-19 with acute respiratory failure.
32307265 Ventilation must be optimized during the procedure, to limit patient oxygen desaturation.
32312600 While most people with COVID-19 develop only mild or uncomplicated illness, approximately 14% develop severe disease that requires hospitalization and oxygen support, and 5% require admission to an intensive care unit. […] The document provides clinical recommendations for the noninvasive respiratory support (noninvasive ventilation, high flow oxygen therapy with nasal cannula) in any patient with suspected or confirmed presentation of COVID-19 with acute respiratory failure.
32313660 In addition to supportive treatment, such as oxygen supply in moderate cases and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in critically ill patients, unique medications for this condition are also under investigation.
32315386 Despite active treatment, he deteriorated with oxygen desaturation and tachypnoea.
32319118 Both patients developed interstitial pneumonia characterized by fever, cough, and anorexia and associated with elevation of CRP and ferritin, but have never required oxygen ventilation or intensive care.
32319424 Key messages include that supplemental oxygen is a first essential step for the treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with hypoxemia and should be a primary focus in resource-limited settings where capacity for invasive ventilation is limited. […] Oxygen delivery can be increased by using a non-rebreathing mask and prone positioning.
32320003 At triage, 30.7% of patients were febrile, 17.3% had a respiratory rate greater than 24 breaths/minute, and 27.8% received supplemental oxygen.
32320506 Proning has become a standard treatment in the management of patients with ARDS who have difficulty achieving adequate oxygen saturation. […] After application of supplemental oxygen was given to patients on room air it was 84% (IQR 75 to 90). […] Thirteen patients (24%) failed to improve or maintain their oxygen saturations and required endotracheal intubation within 24 hours of arrival to the ED. […] Awake early self-proning in the emergency department demonstrated improved oxygen saturation in our COVID-19 positive patients.
32321232 He developed irreversible respiratory failure with hypoxia without hypercapnia despite substantial oxygen support.
32322478 No published treatment to date has been shown to adequately control the inflammation and respiratory symptoms associated with COVID-19, apart from oxygen therapy and assisted ventilation.
32323287 Oxygen insufflation, high-flow oxygen, non-invasive ventilation and invasive ventilation with special consideration of infectious aerosol formation4. […] This distinction can be taken into consideration in the differential instrumentation in the therapy of ARI.The assessment of the extent of ARI should be carried out by an arterial or capillary blood gas analysis under room air conditions and must include the calculation of the oxygen supply (measured from the variables of oxygen saturation, the Hb value, the corrected values of the Hüfner number and the cardiac output). […] A significant proportion of patients with respiratory failure presents with relevant hypoxemia, often also caused by a high inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) including NHF, and this hypoxemia cannot be not completely corrected. […] If CPAP/NIV leads to further progression of ARI, intubation and subsequent invasive ventilation should be carried out without delay if no DNI order is in place.In the case of patients in whom invasive ventilation, after exhausting all guideline-based measures, is not sufficient, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation procedure (ECMO) should be considered to ensure sufficient oxygen supply and to remove CO2.
32327405 We explore the evidence base for COVID-19-specific recommendations and exercise interventions to ‘precondition’ patients prior to infection and appraise the role of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) as a risk-stratifying triage tool.
32331217 A precocious respiratory support with non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen should be avoided to limit the droplets’ air-dispersion and the healthcare workers’ contamination.
32333024 Modern transport ventilators are mainly for bridging purposes as they can only be used with 100% oxygen in contaminated surroundings.
32335281 This brief article discusses the therapeutic potential of glycyrrhizin for the treatment of COVID-19 from the perspective of its pharmacological action, including binding angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), downregulating proinflammatory cytokines, inhibiting the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting thrombin, inhibiting the hyperproduction of airway exudates, and inducing endogenous interferon.
32335366 Also, it reduces oxygen consumption in tissues and causes the use of glucose in the aerobic pathway, thereby reducing lactate production.
32336563 While most people with COVID-19 develop only mild or uncomplicated illness, approximately 14% develop severe disease that requires hospitalization and oxygen support, and 5% require admission to an intensive care unit. […] The document provides clinical recommendations for the noninvasive respiratory support (noninvasive ventilation, high flow oxygen therapy with nasal cannula) in any patient with suspected or confirmed presentation of COVID-19 with acute respiratory failure.
32338224 It is well known that ANG II via activation of the AT1R promotes detrimental effects on the host, such as, vasoconstriction, reactive oxygen species generation, inflammation and matrix remodelling [38].
32338347 An early intubation is preferred over non-invasive ventilation or heated, humidified, high flow nasal cannula oxygen, as these may generate aerosols increasing the risk of infection in health care personnel.
32338605 In some cases, this develops into a life-threatening condition whereby the lungs cannot provide the body’s vital organs with enough oxygen.
32339382 Pneumonia was diagnosed in 19/42 (45.2%, 95% CI 29.8-61.3) cases: of these, 7/19 (36.8%, 95% CI 16.3-61.6) required oxygen support and 4/19 (21.1%, 95% CI 6.1-45.6) were admitted to a critical care unit.
32342479 Of the 43 severely ill patients, 6 (14%) received high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, and 1 (2.3%) received invasive mechanical ventilation.
32344011 While the clinical status, in particular peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels, and concurrent comorbidities of COVID-19 patients largely determine the need for their admittance to ICUs, several laboratory parameters may facilitate the assessment of disease severity.
32344310 Alternate treatment strategies utilizing clinically available treatments such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusions, or erthropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy were hypothesized to increase oxygenation of tissues by alternative means than standard respiratory and ventilator treatments. […] It was also revealed that alternative treatments currently being considered for COVID-19 such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine by increasing hemoglobin production and increasing hemoglobin availability for oxygen binding and acetazolamine (for the treatment of altitude sickness) by causing hyperventilation with associated increasing levels of oxygen and decreasing levels of carbon dioxide in the blood may significantly ameliorate COVID-19 respiratory symptoms.
32344313 Despite the immense and ongoing global effort, no efficacious drugs to fight this plague have been identified and patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICU), for respiratory distress, are managed mostly by means of supportive care based on oxygen maintenance.
32344456 These recommendations focus on seven specific domains including: planning of resources and staffing; modifying the clinical environment; preparing equipment, supplies and drugs; selecting appropriate personal protective equipment; providing adequate oxygen therapy; assessing for and safely performing regional anaesthesia procedures; and monitoring during the conduct of anaesthesia and post-anaesthetic care.
32345579
  1. Oxygen saturation ≤93%.
32347747 Viruses induce an explosion of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, and melatonin is the best natural antioxidant that is lost with age.
32350134 Within 5 d after tocilizumab, 15 of the 20 patients (75.0%) had lowered their oxygen intake, and 1 patient needed no oxygen therapy.
32350543 Home respirators are turbine respirators, so they can usually be operated without high-pressure oxygen connections and can therefore also be used in areas outside the classical intensive care medical infrastructure.
32352224 First, patients with chronic liver disease may be more vulnerable to the severe clinical consequences of COVID-19, including oxygen desaturation and hypoxemia due to severe pneumonia or the cytokine storm 1;2 .
32352401 Low oxygen saturation was present in 38% of patients, whilst 31% were hypotensive on admission.
32353223 Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22; P = 0.004) and hypertension (OR, 6.15; 95% CI, 1.75-29.11; P = 0.009) were associated with mortality, while early improvement in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio was associated with being discharged alive from the ICU (P = 0.002 for interaction).
32354369 We provided oxygen supply to him using BIPAP ventilator and high-flow humidification oxygen therapy instrument to facilitate respiration.
32354634 During a median follow-up of seven days, 87% experienced a radiological progression and among those 73% required escalation of oxygen therapy. […] These preliminary findings describe a rapid clinical deterioration associated with chest radiographic deterioration and escalating oxygen requirement in renal transplant recipients with SARS-Cov2 pneumonia.
32356672 In addition to oxygen saturation for severity classification, stethoscope, chest X-ray and lung computer tomography are routinely used.
32356900 Early intubation should be considered to prevent the additional risk to staff of emergency intubation and to avoid prolonged use of high flow nasal oxygen or non-invasive ventilation.
32358406 The patients continued to be given oxygen by mask and received antitussive, phlegm-dispelling treatment.
32359035 The ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen (Pa02) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (Fi02) improved (mean±SD Pa02/Fi02 at admission: 152±53; at day 7: 283.73±115.9, at day 14: 302.2±126, p<0.05).
32360083 The paper describes the critical role of the oxygen affinity in hypoxemic COVID-19 patients and the potential positive effect of 5-HMF, a compound shown to increase the Hb-O2 affinity.
32361723 The laboratory model developed with age, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2), neutrophil and lymphocyte count, D-dimer, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) had a significantly stronger discriminatory power than the clinical model (p=0.0157), with AUC of 0.98 (95% CI, 0.92-0.99); threshold, -2.998; sensitivity, 100.00%; specificity, 92.82% and NPV, 100.00%.
32362344 ARDS was defined as an oxygenation index (arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen) ≤300 mm Hg.
32363221 This may progress on to respiratory distress, hypoxia, need for oxygen supplementation and ventilator support as seen in patients in the SARS-CoV-1 epidemic (2003) in Guangdong, China.
32363336 We suggest an echocardiogram in pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia, in particular those necessitating oxygen, or those who are critically ill, and we recommend the use of handheld, point-of-care devices where possible to minimize contamination of staff and traditional large echocardiogram machines.
32366580 We also discuss oxygen support modalities, proning, safe working practices and a new approach to multi-professional working.
32368483 His oxygen saturation improved drastically and eventually was taken off of nasal cannula and discharged within span of one day of proning.
32369205 The risk factors for the requirement of oxygen support in mild COVID-19 were explored using multivariate logistic regression. […] A total of 344 patients with mild COVID-19 were included in the final analysis, 45 of whom progressed and needed high-flow oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation after admission. […] In conclusion, two models comprised common symptoms (fever and sputum), underlying diseases (diabetes and coronary heart disease) and blood routine test are developed for predicting the future requirement of oxygen support in mild COVID-19 cases.
32371066 Wards and rooms must be carefully checked to ensure an ample supply of medical air and oxygen.
32371823 She was easily extubated and transferred to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) with oxygen saturation (SpO2) of 96%. […] About 30 minutes after arrival in the PACU, she developed dyspnea with SpO2 of 84% and promptly received oxygen with bilevel positive airway pressure in conjunction with low-dose corticosteroid.
32373789 Various modifications were put in place during the awake tracheal intubation and surgical tracheostomy procedures to minimise aerosol generation from the patient, such as avoiding high-flow nasal oxygen, establishing conscious sedation with remifentanil before commencing airway topicalisation and avoiding transtracheal local anaesthetic infiltration.
32374538 Diagnosis is based on PCR from a nasopharyngeal swab and emergency treatment rely on oxygen therapy.
32375488 We summarise the evidence existing in the literature of oxygen and positive pressure treatments in patients at different stages of respiratory failure and over the course of the disease, including environment and ethical issues related to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 infection.
32376101 A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 140 patients with moderate to critical COVID-19-associated pneumonia requiring oxygen supplementation admitted to the hospital from January 28, 2020, through February 28, 2020, and followed up through March 13, 2020, in Union Hospital, Wuhan, China. […] Oxygen saturation (SpO2) and other measures were tested as predictors of in-hospital mortality in survival analysis. […] Higher SpO2 levels after oxygen supplementation were associated with reduced mortality independently of age and sex (hazard ratio per 1-U SpO2, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.91 to 0.95; P<.001).
32378314 The patient clinically improved with decreasing oxygen requirements and was discharged home.
32378774 Among 42 affected women, 19 developed pneumonia, of whom seven required oxygen and four critical care.
32379955 Hydroxychloroquine-treated patients were more severely ill at baseline than those who did not receive hydroxychloroquine (median ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen, 223 vs.
32380026 On admission, 78 (78%) required oxygen supplementation.
32380908 Overall, after one treatment, patients’ clinical status and oxygenation improved with an average pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) increase of 192% (P < 0.001).
32387014 Our hypothesis is that CPZ could decrease the unfavorable evolution of COVID-19 infection in oxygen-requiring patients without the need for intensive care, but also reduce the contagiousness of SARS-CoV-2.
32387320 Patients with TCZ (n=20) had a higher Charlson comorbidity index (5.3 [±2.4] vs 3.4 [±2.6], P=0.014), presented with more severe forms (higher level of oxygen therapy at 13L/min vs 6L/min, P<0.001), and had poorer biological findings (severe lymphopenia: 676/mm3 vs 914/mm3, P=0.037 and higher CRP level: 158mg/L vs 105mg/L, P=0.017) than patients without TCZ (n=25).
32387333 Paranasal sinuses continually produce nitric oxide (NO), a reactive oxygen species that diffuses to the bronchi and lungs to produce bronchodilatory and vasodilatory effects.
32391519 Severe infection was defined according to published criteria by patient reported dyspnea, respiratory rate > 30 per minute, blood oxygen saturation ≤ 93% on room air, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen <300 and/or lung infiltrates >50% within 24 to 48 hours on chest imaging. […] Secondary outcomes included need for supplemental oxygen, intubation, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrest, death, and timing of delivery.
32391657 For severe and critical ill cases, the oxygen therapy, antiviral drugs, antibacterial drugs, glucocorticoids, mechanical ventilation or even extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be adopted, and the treatment plan should be adjusted timely through multi-disciplinary cooperation.
32391658 Conservative oxygen therapy was preferred and noninvasive ventilation was not recommended.
32391670 We applied HFNC for oxygen therapy in severe and critical ill COVID-19 patients and summarized the following experiences. […] Thirdly, to avoid hypoxia or hypoxemia, the treatment goal of HFNC should be maintained the oxygen saturation (SpO2) above 95% for patients without chronic pulmonary disease.
32391671 All patients were treated with antiviral, antitussive, oxygen inhalation; case 3 received glucocorticoids, case 2 with severe illness received glucocorticoids and additionally gamma globulin.
32392389 Two patients required intubation for hypoxemic respiratory failure, whereas one required significant supplemental oxygen.
32395418 Current clinical management includes infection prevention and control measures and supportive care including supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilatory support.
32398183 Her vital signs include T 38.3° C, HR 108, BP 118/70 mm Hg, RR 26 breaths per minute, and oxygen saturation 67% on room air.
32400074 The first patient always maintained excellent oxygen saturation throughout hospitalization with no need for additional oxygen therapy.
32401359 Both patients were treated with anti-viral, antibiotics, oxygen treatment and supportive care and recovered from severe pneumonia.
32402088 Finally, we discuss measures to implement augmented care in care homes, including treatment with oxygen and subcutaneous fluids, and the frameworks which will be required if these are to be sustainable.
32404787 Only one of them needed oxygen; the others were hospitalized for surveillance but did not need specific care.
32405160 This study aims to evaluate if tocilizumab, an anti-soluble IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, reduces patients’ mortality. 85 consecutive patients admitted to the Montichiari Hospital (Italy) with COVID-19 related pneumonia and respiratory failure, not needing mechanical ventilation, were included if satisfying at least one among: respiratory rate ≥ 30 breaths/min, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation ≤ 93% or PaO2/FiO2<=300 mmHg.
32405226 Artemisinins can regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), promote cell cycle arrest, drive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and induce Bak or Bax-dependent or independent apoptosis.
32405411 Management is supportive with oxygen supplementation, broad-spectrum antibiotics as well as careful fluid balancing.
32405454 The patient is still under ventilator with a Fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) of 60% and Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of eight.
32407959 This prospective (compassionate), open-label study of remdesivir, which was conducted at Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy, between February 23 and March 20, 2020, involved patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia aged ≥18 years undergoing mechanical ventilation or with an oxygen saturation level of ≤94 % in air or a National Early Warning Score 2 of ≥4.
32408155 On the intensive care unit, non-invasive ventilation was used to provide oxygen and ventilation support regularly.
32409443 The management of patients with COVID-19-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome focuses on identifying the causes for respiratory failure and on following best practices for supportive care with oxygen supplementation and mechanical ventilation.
32409486 To assess the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine in patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pneumonia who require oxygen. […] Four French tertiary care centres providing care to patients with covid-19 pneumonia between 12 March and 31 March 2020. 181 patients aged 18-80 years with documented severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia who required oxygen but not intensive care. […] Secondary outcomes were overall survival, survival without acute respiratory distress syndrome, weaning from oxygen, and discharge from hospital to home or rehabilitation (all at day 21). […] At day 21, 82% of patients in the treatment group had been weaned from oxygen compared with 76% in the control group (weighted risk ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.3). […] However, the results of this study do not support its use in patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 who require oxygen.
32412511 Although artificial ventilator is one of the last resources for the most severely ill patients, there are patients who are on the verge of not meeting the criteria for intubation; if they are directly intubated, the opportunity for them to overcome the severe phase with high concentration supplemental oxygen would be be missed.
32412515 Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and high-flow oxygen therapy are not recommended due to the generation of aerosol (associated with risk of viral spread among health personnel), and neither is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or the use of steroids.
32412544 Benzylidenechromanones, naturally occurring oxygen heterocyclic compounds, having capability to inhibit various protein and receptors, have been designed here to block mutant variety of coronavirus main protease enzyme (SARC-CoV-2 Mpro) isolated from 2019-nCoV with the assistance of molecular docking, bioinformatics and molecular electrostatic potential. (Z)-3-(4’-chlorobenzylidene)-thiochroman-4-one showed highest binding affinity to the protein.
32423368 Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified age, sex, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, history of diabetes, and shortness of breath as factors predictive of intubation.
32423584 Eligible patients were adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, with an interval from symptom onset to enrolment of 12 days or less, oxygen saturation of 94% or less on room air or a ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen of 300 mm Hg or less, and radiologically confirmed pneumonia.
32423911 On presentation he was hypoxaemic, with an SpO2 of 88% on 15 L/min oxygen, tachycardic and had no audible breath sounds on auscultation of the left hemithorax.
32425184 In this setting, myocardial injury is mainly secondary to type 2 myocardial infarction (mismatch in myocardial oxygen supply and demand during respiratory failure); other causes include myocarditis, coronary thrombosis, sepsis or septic shock.
32427171
  1. Provide supplemental oxygen following usual treatment principles for hypoxic respiratory failure. […] (3) High flow nasal oxygen is preferred for patients with higher oxygen support requirements.
32427774 This is a case-series of five COVID-19 positive patients who demonstrated severe hypoxemia, declining respiratory performance, and escalating oxygen requirements. […] Patients met the following criteria: COVID-19 positivity, worsening respiratory performance, severe hypoxemia (PaO2<80) despite traditional supportive measures, escalating supplemental oxygen requirements and D-dimer greater than 1.5μg/mL. […] These patients each required significant oxygen supplementation trending toward intubation. […] Administration of thrombolytics was followed by overall improvement in patients’ oxygen requirements, and in three cases, prevented progression to mechanical ventilation, without deleterious effects.
32428957 Recovery of the female patient under conventional oxygen therapy.
32429235 Emerging evidence suggests that AMPK facilitates central and peripheral reflexes that coordinate breathing and oxygen supply, and contributes to the central regulation of feeding and food choice. […] We propose, therefore, that oxygen supply to the body is aligned with not only the quantity we eat, but also nutrient-based diet selection, and that the cell-specific expression pattern of AMPK subunit isoforms is critical to appropriate system alignment in this respect. […] Currently available information on how oxygen supply may be aligned with feeding and food choice, or vice versa, through our motivation to breathe and select particular nutrients is sparse, fragmented and lacks any integrated understanding.
32431134 Remodelled tasks in charge of RPTs were: oxygen therapy daily monitoring, non invasive ventilation (NIV) and continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) delivery, pronation and postural changes to improve oxygenation, reconditioning with leg/arm cranking and exercises, initial and final patients’ functional assessment by short-physical performance battery (SPPB) and 1-minute sit-to-stand test (1-STS) to evaluate motor conditions and exercise-induced oxygen desaturation. […] Three “what-to-do” algorithms were developed to guide: i) oxygen de-escalation by reducing inhaled fraction of oxygen (FiO2); ii) oxygenation improvement through the use of Venturi mask; iii) reconditioning and physical activity. […] As main topics, RPTs have been involved in oxygen therapy management in almost a third of the admitted patients, reconditioning exercises in 60% of the cases, and initial and final functional motor capacity assessment in all patients.
32432162 Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of STEMI in COVID-19 patients has not been clearly established, we hypothesize that interrelated pathogenetic factors, that we highlight in this report, can play a role in the development of STEMI, including plaque rupture secondary to systemic inflammation, increased pro-coagulants, endothelial dysfunction, impaired fibrinolysis and impaired oxygen utilization leading to demand/supply mismatch and myocardial ischemia.
32434289 The patient was transported to operating theatre with supplemental oxygen over a face mask and plastic covering over the trolley.
32435879 None required oxygen therapy, and 7 could be managed as outpatients.
32437770 Among the 36 patients, 18 had worsening of their clinical status, as defined by severe hypoxia with oxygen therapy requirements greater than 4 Liters/minute and radiological worsening.
32438425 One other woman received home oxygen.
32439306 In the absence of a vaccine, the management of COVID-19 included antivirals, high-flow oxygen, mechanical ventilation, corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, interferons, intravenous immunoglobulin, and convalescent plasma infusions.
32442035 Two systematic reviews suggest a large reduction in mortality with NIV compared with conventional oxygen therapy.
32442105 These data indicate that auranofin could be a useful drug to limit SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated lung injury due to its antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-reactive oxygen species (ROS) properties.
32442562 Fecal samples were collected 2 or 3 times per week from time of hospitalization until discharge; disease was categorized as mild (no radiographic evidence of pneumonia), moderate (pneumonia was present), severe (respiratory rate ≥30/min, or oxygen saturation ≤93% when breathing ambient air), or critical (respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, shock, or organ failure requiring intensive care).
32443911 Unfortunately, there is still not a single proven effective drug available, and therefore, current therapeutic guidelines recommend supportive care including oxygen administration and treatment with antibiotics.
32444366 Admission oxygen saturation of <88% (3.7, 2.8 to 4.8), troponin level >1 (4.8, 2.1 to 10.9), C reactive protein level >200 (5.1, 2.8 to 9.2), and D-dimer level >2500 (3.9, 2.6 to 6.0) were, however, more strongly associated with critical illness than age or comorbidities. […] Age and comorbidities were found to be strong predictors of hospital admission and to a lesser extent of critical illness and mortality in people with covid-19; however, impairment of oxygen on admission and markers of inflammation were most strongly associated with critical illness and mortality.
32446312 There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age, underlying diseases, clinical severity, and oxygen-support category at admission.
32448770 All patients had elevated IL-6 plasma level (>40 pg/mL) and oxygen saturation <93% in ambient air. […] Clinical outcomes, oxygen support, laboratory data and adverse events were collected over a follow-up of 30 days. […] Forty-five patients (88%) were on high-flow oxygen supplementation, six of whom with invasive ventilation. […] The mortality rate was significantly associated with mechanical ventilation at baseline (83.3% vs 20% of patients on non-invasive oxygen support; p=0.0001).
32451366 There will be an estimated 4.6 (3.6-5.5) million COVID-19 hospitalisations, of which 139 521 (81 876-167 044) would be severe cases requiring oxygen, and 89 043 (52 253-106 599) critical cases requiring breathing support.
32452889 Despite the same severity of illness and level of hypoxemia at admission, coronavirus disease 2019 patients failed more high flow oxygen via nasal cannula challenges (n = 16, 100% vs n = 5, 45% in controls; p = 0.002), were more often intubated (n = 44, 100% vs n = 22, 56% in controls; p < 0.001) and paralyzed (n = 34, 77% vs n = 3, 14% in controls; p < 0.001), required higher level of positive end-expiratory pressure (15 vs 8 cm H2O in controls; p < 0.001), more prone positioning (n = 33, 75% vs n = 6, 27% in controls; p < 0.001), more dialysis (n = 16, 36% vs n = 3, 8% in controls; p = 0.003), more hemodynamic support by vasopressors (n = 36, 82% vs n = 22, 56% in controls; p = 0.001), and had more often a prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation (n = 28, 64% vs n = 10, 26% in controls; p < 0.01) resulting in a more frequent resort to tracheostomy (n = 18, 40.9% vs n = 2, 9% in controls; p = 0.01).
32453889 A recent theoretical study suggested a direct interaction between COVID-19 viral proteins and haemoglobin (Hb) that could lead to a loss of oxygen carrying capacity.
32454031 Of the remaining nine who continued to need respiratory support, seven (77.8%) had iatrogenic preterm deliveries (six by cesarean delivery) for maternal respiratory distress (needing increasing levels of respiratory support without improved oxygen saturation), one had an early term delivery due to PROM, and one, now 30 weeks, has required intensive care with high-flow nasal cannula for three weeks. […] Delivery did not worsen the respiratory status of women with persistent oxygen desaturation and the need for increasing respiratory support.
32454157 Viral infections including SARS-CoV are associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, disturbances of Ca++ caused by unfolded protein response (UPR) mediated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and is due to the exploitation of virus’s own protein i.e., viroporins into the host cells.
32459701 Of 15 hospitalized women with moderate or severe disease, 10 received respiratory support with supplemental oxygen and one required intubation.
32459790 All patients needed oxygen therapy through a nasal cannula; five patients received high-flow nasal cannula therapy, which was later substituted with noninvasive ventilation in four.
32459919 We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial involving hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, oxygen saturation of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air, and radiologic evidence of pneumonia.
32461141 COVID-19-associated tissue injury is not primarily mediated by viral infection, but rather is a result of the inflammatory host immune response, which drives hypercytokinemia and aggressive inflammation that affect lung parenchymal cells, diminishing oxygen uptake but also endothelial cells, resulting in endotheliitis and thrombotic events and intravascular coagulation.
32461911 We present a case report of a 68-year-old patient with confirmed COVID-19 and a prolonged course of admission, receiving nasal and humidified oxygen, non-invasive and then mechanical ventilation. […] She self-extubated, but remained stable on nasal oxygen only and was transferred for rehabilitation.
32462858 The aim of the multicentre study promoted by Nuova FIO is to evaluate the beneficial effects of the systemic Oxygen-Ozone (O2O3) therapy in patients suffering from SARS COV-2 disease in the early phases of the disease, before worsening, up to the need of tracheal intubation. […] The study is based on the rationale on that the systemic oxygen-ozone treatment could be effective, positively influencing the disease evolution and/or being able to mitigate the onset of the cytokine storm syndrome at least partially.
32463545 A higher need for assisted ventilation beyond pure oxygen support (Invasive Mechanical Ventilation or Non-Invasive Ventilation) and a higher admission to intensive or semi-intensive care units was observed in patients with overweight and obesity (p<0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) even after adjusting for sex, age and comorbidities (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively), or when patients with dementia or advanced cancer were removed from the analysis (p<0.05).
32469614 All five patients were hospitalized, two required supplemental oxygen, and none required mechanical ventilation.
32470186 Severe case was confirmed when one of the following criteria occurred: 1) dyspnea, respiratory rate ≥30 breaths/min, 2) blood oxygen saturation ≤93%, and 3) PaO2 /FiO2 ≤300 mmHg.
32471203 As SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted through droplets and aerosols, we cannot ignore the risk of transmission during hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). […] Our hyperbaric oxygen therapy center prioritizes preventing the spread of COVID-19 and maintaining operation for the patients during the pandemic. […] The aim of this article is to share the protocol that we have adopted in our hyperbaric oxygen therapy center to help prevent the spread of COVID-19.
32471650 Clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism patients was usually characterized by persistence or worsening of respiratory symptoms, with increasing oxygen requirement.
32471783 We present a case of a 72-year-old male with COVID-19 syndrome who presented to the emergency department with minimal symptoms but low peripheral oxygen saturation readings. […] This case highlights the utility of peripheral oxygen measurements in the evaluation of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32471930 The role of percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen (oxygen saturation), blood pressure and early use of point-of-care ultrasound in differential diagnosis and specific management is detailed.
32472676 In multivariable logistic regression analysis, risk factors for severe infection included pre-existing renal disease (odds ratio [OR], 7.4; 95% CI 2.5-22.0), oxygen requirement at hospitalization (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.7), acute renal injury (OR, 2.7; 95% CI 1.3-5.6) and initial CRP (OR,1.006; 95% CI, 1.001-1.01). […] Acute or pre-existing renal disease, supplemental oxygen at the time of hospitalization and initial CRP were independent predictors for the development of severe COVID-19 infections.
32470515 Admission and oxygen supply was required in 4.9% (2 patients in the Ramipril and 3 in control), and 4 of them died (two in each randomized group).
32470602 We report three cases of COVID-19 pneumonia who progressed while using antiviral drugs and needed supplementary oxygen therapy, improved after treatment with nafamostat. […] These preliminary findings show the possibility that Nafamostat can be considered to be used in elderly patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who need oxygen therapy.
32473964 While the best option in terms of non-invasive systems of oxygen delivery is still a matter of debate, it also remains unclear as to whether or not the optimal in-bed positioning of patients might also help to improve their oxygen saturation levels. […] On the basis of three representative cases, it is possible to propose the following hypotheses: (i) how patients are positioned has a strong influence on their oxygen saturation levels; (ii) saturation-optimalised positions are patient-specific; (iii) prone positions require ergonomic devices; and (iv) saturation-optimalised positions should aim to place the most affected part(s) of the lung(s) on top.
32475761 If dexmedetomidine can improve compliance with non-invasive oxygen support (the current recommended first-line therapy) while promoting better oxygenation, it may also decrease the need for mechanical ventilation and thus improve mortality.
32476080 The following variables were extracted for this study: age, gender, temperature, and saturation of oxygen on admission, treatment with heparin, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, steroids, tocilizumab, a combination of lopinavir with ritonavir, and oseltamivir, together with data on mortality. […] This association remained significant when saturation of oxygen < 90%, and temperature > 37 °C were added to de model with OR 0.54 (0.36-0.82) p = 0.003, and also when all the other drugs were included as covariates OR 0.42 (0.26-0.66) p < 0.001.
32479771 A risk score was developed incorporating twelve characteristics: age>40, male, non-white ethnicity, oxygen saturations<93%, radiological severity score>3, neutrophil count>8.0 x109/L, CRP>40 mg/L, albumin<34 g/L, creatinine>100 µmol/L, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and chronic lung disease.
32481322 Frequency of requiring supplemental oxygen or non-invasive ventilation; 5.
32481340 All patients had oxygen treatment with HFNC, as well as regular treatment of antivirals and traditional Chinese medicine. […] HFNC treatment has its advantages in providing oxygen therapy in COVID-19, but healthcare professionals should still pay close attention to changes in patients’ oxygenation rates and respiratory frequency.
32481381 After the operation, we routinely give symptomatic treatments such as anti-infection, nebulization and oxygen inhalation.
32482597 At baseline, all patients were on high-flow supplemental oxygen and most (78% of TCZ patients and 61% of standard treatment patients) were on non-invasive ventilation.
32484930 While arterial oxygen saturations (87.58±3.12%) dropped in room air in the pre-tocilizumab period, post-tocilizumab they normalized in all patients (94.42±1%).
32489666 A 55-year-old male COVID-19-positive patient with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), diabetes, and obesity presented with cough and shortness of breath, escalating to requiring high-flow oxygen therapy by high-velocity nasal insufflation. […] The patient’s flow rate and oxygen fraction remained labile throughout much of the hospitalization. […] The patient was alert and oriented and was instructed on the operation of the high-flow system, specifically the adjustment of both flow rate and oxygen percentage. […] The patient was instructed to modify oxygen to maintain an SpO2 (peripheral capillary oxygen saturation) target range, and flow rate to address dyspnoea as well as reduction of flow as tolerated when other staff entered the room.
32492530 Severe pneumonia was defined as an oxygen saturation ≤ 93% at room air.
32493441 Only adult (≥18y old) patients will be recruited with recent (≤16 days) COVID-19 infection and acute hypoxia (defined as PaO2/FiO2 below 350mmHg or PaO2/FiO2 below 280 on supplemental oxygen and immediately requiring high flow oxygen device or mechanical ventilation) and signs of systemic cytokine release syndrome characterized by high serum ferritin, or high D-dimers, or high LDH or deep lymphopenia or a combination of those, who have not been on mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours before randomisation. […] This ordinal scale is composed of (1) Death; (2) Hospitalized, on invasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO; (3) Hospitalized, on non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen devices; (4) Hospitalized, requiring supplemental oxygen; (5) Hospitalized, not requiring supplemental oxygen; (6) Not hospitalized.
32493468 Patients will be randomly assigned to the intervention groups or the control group with the following eligibility criteria: ≥ 18 years of age AND (oxygen saturation (SPO2) ≤ 93% OR respiratory rate ≥ 24) AND at least one of the following: Contactless infrared forehead thermometer temperature of ≥37.8, cough, sputum production, nasal discharge, myalgia, headache or fatigue on admission, and time of onset of the symptoms should be acute (Days ≤ 14).
32495226 In the absence of a vaccine and specifically designed antivirals, the medical community has proposed the use of various previously available medications in order to reduce the number of patients requiring prolonged hospitalizations, oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation and to decrease mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32498065 All 3 had ill contacts in the home or had been to the pediatrician and presented with mild to moderate symptoms including fever, rhinorrhea, and hypoxia, requiring supplemental oxygen during their hospital stay.
32499303 Data on demographics, COVID-19 diagnosis, famotidine use, drug-related side effects, temperature measurements, oxygen saturations and symptom scores were obtained using questionnaires and telephone interviews. […] The combined symptom score improved significantly within 24 hours of starting famotidine and peripheral oxygen saturation (n=2) and device recorded activity (n=1) increased.
32500773 On computed tomography scans, she had extensive interstitial lung fibrosis in addition to a positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction test requiring 6 L of oxygen via nasal cannula on admission. […] After administration of methylprednisolone, the patient improved and was weaned off her oxygen requirements and was discharged home.
32503620 Secondary: 14 days after treatment - C-Reactive Protein test x Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio , Interleukin-6, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels reduction - Percentage of patients who require supplemental Oxygen - Mean hospital stay length RANDOMISATION: Patients will be allocated to each group (ratio 1:1) by using an online randomization tool: http://www.graphpad.com/quickcalcs/index.cfm BLINDING (MASKING): This will be a double-blind study in which participants and those assessing the final outcomes will be blinded to group assignment.
32503657 Routine treatment for patients with the corona virus will be administered, this includes oxygen therapy, drugs that reduced phlegm and relieve cough, including thymosin, proprietary Chinese medicine, etc.
32503662 Secondary endpoints include change in NEWS2 at 96 hours after randomisation, admission to intensive care unit, mortality (in-hospital, and at 30 and 90 days), duration of hospital admission, clinical status on a 7-point ordinal scale 14 days after randomization ([1] Death [2] Hospitalised, on invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [3] Hospitalised, on non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen devices [4] Hospitalized, requiring supplemental oxygen [5] Hospitalised, not requiring supplemental oxygen [6] Not hospitalized, but unable to resume normal activities [7] Not hospitalised, with resumption of normal activities), and improvement in protein biomarker profiles (C-reactive protein, markers of renal and hepatic injury, and established cardiac biomarkers like cardiac troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide) at 96 hours after randomization.
32503663 Patients aged 18-80 years admitted to specialized COVID-19 wards in 5 Belgian hospitals with recent (< 2 weeks prior to randomization) confirmed COVID-19 infection and acute respiratory failure defined as a PaO2/FiO2 below 350 mmHg or SpO2 below 93% on minimal 2 L/min supplemental oxygen. […] The primary endpoint of this intervention is measuring oxygenation after 5 days of inhaled (and intravenous) treatment through assessment of a change in pretreatment and post-treatment ratio of PaO2/FiO2 and through measurement of the P(A-a)O2 gradient (PAO2= Partial alveolar pressure of oxygen, PaO2=Partial arterial pressure of oxygen; FiO2= Fraction of inspired oxygen).
32503877 Acalabrutinib, a selective BTK inhibitor, was administered off-label to 19 patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 (11 on supplemental oxygen; 8 on mechanical ventilation), 18 of whom had increasing oxygen requirements at baseline. […] At the end of acalabrutinib treatment, 8/11 (72.7%) patients in the supplemental oxygen cohort had been discharged on room air, and 4/8 (50%) patients in the mechanical ventilation cohort had been successfully extubated, with 2/8 (25%) discharged on room air.
32505805 The primary outcome measures were COVID-19 requiring oxygen (oxygen therapy or noninvasive ventilation) and critical COVID-19 (requiring invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ECMO). […] By April 14, among the 617 pregnant women with COVID-19, 93 women (15.1 %; 95 %CI 12.3-18.1) had required oxygen therapy and 35 others (5.7 %; 95 %CI 4.0-7.8) had had a critical form of COVID-19. […] Among the women who gave birth, rates of preterm birth in women with non-severe, oxygen-requiring, and critical COVID-19 were 13/123 (10.6 %), 14/29 (48.3 %), and 23/29 (79.3 %) before 37 weeks and 3/123 (2.4 %), 4/29 (13.8 %), and 14/29 (48.3 %) before 32 weeks, respectively.
32506055 Close monitoring for temperature and oxygen saturation during hemodialysis sessions may be reasonable.
32507619 Most participants referred absence of training on the use of personal protective equipment, oxygen ventilation systems and COVID-19 therapies.
32508022 Although no effective treatment is formally approved for COVID-19 infection, support of ventilation with oxygen therapy and sometimes mechanical ventilation is often required.
32509258 We speculated that in COVID-19, beyond the classical pulmonary immune-inflammation view, the occurrence of an oxygen-deprived blood disease, with iron metabolism dysregulation, should be taken in consideration.
32510978 While the majority of patients mount an appropriate antiviral response and recover at home, others progress to respiratory distress requiring hospital admission for supplemental oxygen.
32511678 There was no statistical difference between ACEIs and ARBs groups in terms of hospital admission rate, oxygen therapy and need for non-invasive ventilation.
32512089 Currently, approved treatment modalities consist of only supportive care and oxygen supplementation.
32512491 This little-known information should be deemed as crucial as the SARS-CoV-2 relationships with oxygen saturation and the Renine Angiotensin System but it currently remains unexploited. […] We theorized that the Angiotensin II clearance by the red blood cells could trigger the release of its oxygen content in the bloodstream.
32512988 We hereby report a case of a 44-year-old COVID-19 positive male patient suffering from hypoxic respiratory failure that was successfully treated with high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in a negative pressure intensive care room.
32513308 Eligible participants include adults (≥ 18 years) with evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR test of nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab within 14 days of randomization, evidence of infiltrates on chest radiography, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤ 94% on room air, and/or need for supplemental oxygen, non-invasive mechanical ventilation, or invasive mechanical ventilation, who are willing and able to provide written informed consent prior to performing study procedures or who have a legally authorized representative available to do so. […] Hospitalized, not requiring supplemental oxygen 4. […] Hospitalized, requiring supplemental oxygen 5. […] Hospitalized, requiring high-flow oxygen therapy or non-invasive mechanical ventilation 6.
32513515 These measures include the addition of long-acting inhaler therapies, pulmonary rehabilitation, oral therapies, oxygen and lung transplantation.
32513808 Approaches to procedural sedation can be modified to reduce the risk of droplet or aerosol transmission by decreasing nasal cannula oxygen supplementation flows. […] Decreasing the need for oxygen supplement can be accomplished by opioid and sedative sparing strategies, including the use of multimodal analgesia and non-pharmacologic analgesic and anxiolytic interventions.
32515699 Thus, hemoglobin loses the capability for transporting oxygen, which aggravates hypoxia and worsens the prognosis.
32516107 Dyspnea was the patient’s main complaint at the time of admission in this center and the oxygen saturation was 84%. […] The patient’s felt relieved immediately after the procedure; however, the oxygen saturation did not raise above 85% despite the oxygen therapy.
32516861 Severe COVID-19, as expressed by elevated lactate dehydrogenase and low oxygen saturation at emergency department admission, is associated with a rapid progression to death in these patients.
32519786 Our patients were treated by oxygen via face mask in one case and mechanical ventilation as supportive treatment in the other patient.
32519842 First, nanoparticles (NPs) can offer alternative methods to classical disinfection protocols used in healthcare settings, thanks to their intrinsic antipathogenic properties and/or their ability to inactivate viruses, bacteria, fungi, or yeasts either photothermally or via photocatalysis-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.
32519944 A comparative presentation of the clinical features of the first 50 COVID-19 patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who were hospitalized in the University Hospital Aachen. 24 intubated patients were treated in the intensive care unit for ARDS of varying degrees of severity, while 26 patients who were breathing spontaneously without ARDS, but nevertheless needed supplemental oxygen, were treated in a separate isolation ward. […] Patients without ARDS had persistently elevated inflammatory parameters and fever for at least one week, with an accompanying need for supplemental oxygen. […] COVID-19 patients without ARDS may likewise require prolonged hospitalization because of persistently elevated inflammatory values with a simultaneous need for supplemental oxygen.
32521167 Recognition of these issues and careful counseling of patients about the proper means for measuring their oxygen saturation and when to seek assistance can help ensure successful implementation of needed monitoring programs.
32522574 This article compares the symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) with those of SARS-CoV-2 infection and explores overlapping patho-physiological mechanisms of the respiratory system including impaired oxygen transport, pulmonary gas exchange and brainstem circuits controlling respiration. […] In this context, we also discuss the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on oxygen sensing in the carotid body.
32523928 The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is challenging in symptomatic COVID-19 patients since shortness of breath, chest pain, tachycardia, tachypnoea, fever, oxygen desaturation and high D-dimer blood levels might be features of both diseases.
32526061 PDE5 inhibition favors an anti-inflammatory response by modulating activated T cells, reducing cytokine release, lowering fibrosis, increasing oxygen diffusion, stimulating vascular repair.
32527136 The patient received antiviral therapy, antibacterial therapy, recombinant human interferon-α2a, vitamin C and oxygen inhalation.
32527341
  1. Compared with normal group, patients in severe group were older, and with higher proportion of basic diseases, higher body mass index (BMI), higher incidence of tachypnea, persistent high fever, peripheral blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) < 0.95, while the white blood cell count (WBC), CD4+T lymphocyte, CD8+T lymphocyte, lymphocyte count (LYM) were decreased obviously, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid a protein (SAA), and CT showed higher incidence of multi-pulmonary lobe lesions.
32527347 Clinical data of patients with severe H1N1 influenza virus pneumonia implemented by ECMO in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College from October 2018 to December 2019 were retrospective analyzed, including general information, ECMO transport distance, time, clinical parameters before and after ECMO, including the patients’ oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2), respiratory rate (RR), pulse blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), arterial blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), and pH value, various complications during transport, mechanical ventilation time, patients’ prognosis and other indicators.
32530822 Oxygen saturation values taken before and after the 4-hour wear test confirmed that well-fitted facial protection did not compromise the mask seal, but rather improved it.
32531257 The results were correlated with patients’ respiratory function evaluated by the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2).
32532356 Twenty serious COVID-19 cases will be enrolled in the trial from April 6th to December 31st 2020. hospitalised patients at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University satisfy all criteria as below: 1)Adults aged 18-65 years;2)Voluntarily participate in this clinical trial and sign the “informed consent form” or have consent from a legal representative.3)Diagnosed with severe pneumonia of COVID-19: nucleic acid test SARS-CoV-2 positive; respiratory distress (respiratory rate > 30 times / min); hypoxia (resting oxygen saturation < 93% or arterial partial pressure of oxygen / oxygen concentration < 300 mmHg).4)COVID-19 featured lung lesions in chest X-ray image. […] Six grades of ordered variables: GradeDescriptionGrade 1:Discharged of patient;Grade 2:Hospitalized without oxygen supplement;Grade 3:Hospitalized, oxygen supplement is required, but NIV / HFNC is not required;Grade 4:Hospitalized in intensive care unit, and NIV / HFNC treatment is required;Grade 5:Hospitalized in intensive care unit, requiring ECMO and/or IMV;Grade 6:Death.
32532449 This respiratory tract infection is nefarious in how it targets the most distal and highly vulnerable aspect of the human bronchopulmonary tree, specifically, the delicate yet irreplaceable alveoli that are responsible for the loading of oxygen upon red cell hemoglobin for use by all of the body’s tissues.
32532948 A 71-year old gentleman with history of arterial hypertension treated with valsartan presented on was hospitalized at the Infectious Diseases Unit, University of Bologna (Italy) for severe acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and received treatment with hydroxychloroquine 200mg bid (400 mg bid the first day), azithromycin 400 mg qd, thrombotic prophylaxis with enoxaparin 4000 UI qd and Venturi mask oxygen delivering FiO2 of 31%.
32534175 The use of acetazolamide with or without sildenafil also needs to be explored with or without heparin, since increased oxygen delivery to vital organs through prevention of thrombosis/pulmonary emboli along with carbonic anhydrase inhibition may help increase oxygenation and prevent adverse clinical outcomes.
32534848 OB group showed a worse pulmonary clinical picture, with lower PaO2 (57 ± 15 vs. 68 ± 14 mmHg, p = 0.042), and SaO2 (88 ± 6 vs. 92 ± 5%, p = 0.049) at admission consequently requiring higher volumes of oxygen (Fi02: 38 ± 15 vs. 29 ± 19%, p = 0.047) and a longer period to achieve oxygen weaning (10 ± 6 vs. 15 ± 7 days, p = 0.03). […] Subjects with obesity affected by COVID-19 require longer hospitalization, more intensive and longer oxygen treatment, and they may have longer SARS-COV-2 shedding.
32535147 Primary outcomes were mortality and the need for respiratory support, including oxygen administration and mechanical ventilation.
32535188 Median oxygen saturation (SpO2) was 93% (range 60-99), with median PaO2/FiO2 ratio, 267 (IQR 184-314).
32536150 The median duration of symptoms before treatment was 7 days and 26 patients (40%) required oxygen support at baseline.
32537954 Diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 19.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90-193.42; P = 0.012), body temperature ≥ 37.8°C (OR, 10.91; 95% CI, 1.35-88.36; P = 0.025), peripheral oxygen saturation < 92% (OR, 33.31; 95% CI, 2.45-452.22; P = 0.008), and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) > 6.3 (OR, 56.84; 95% CI, 2.64-1,223.78, P = 0.010) at admission were associated with higher risk of severe COVID-19. […] In conclusion, we found that diabetes mellitus, body temperature ≥ 37.8°C, peripheral oxygen saturation < 92%, and CK-MB > 6.3 are independent predictors of severe disease in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
32538995 Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and high-flow oxygen therapy are not recommended due to the generation of aerosol (associated with risk of viral spread among health personnel), and neither is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or the use of steroids.
32539257 The recommendations mainly cover the following aspects: (1) lung ultrasound in patients with COVID-19 is mainly manifested by thickened and irregular pleural lines, different types of B-lines, shred signs, and other consolidation like dynamic air bronchogram; (2) Echocardiography may show right heart dysfunction, diffuse cardiac function enhancement, stress cardiomyopathy, diffuse cardiac depression and other multiple abnormalities; (3) Critical ultrasonography helps with initiating early treatment in the suspect patient, screening confirmed patients after intensive care unit admission, early assessment of sudden critical events, rapid grading assessment and treatment based on it; (4) Critical ultrasonography helps to quickly screen for the etiology of respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19, make oxygen therapeutic strategy, guide the implementation of lung protective ventilation, graded management and precise off-ventilator; (5) Critical ultrasonography is helpful for assessing the circulatory status of patients with COVID-19, finding chronic cardiopulmonary diseases and guiding extracorporeal membrane oxygenation management; (6) Critical ultrasonography Contributes to the management of organs besides based on cardiopulmonary oxygen transport; (7) Critical ultrasonography can help to improve the success of operation; (8) Critical ultrasonography can help to improve the safety and quality of nursing; (9) When performing critical ultrasonography for patients with COVID-19, it needs to implement three-level protection standard, pay attention to disinfect the machine and strictly obey the rules from nosocomial infection.
32539273 Second, cardiorespiratory variables (heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension, and inspired fraction of carbon dioxide) were measured at rest and during moderate exercise.
32539537 Patients with COVID-19 are described as exhibiting oxygen levels incompatible with life without dyspnea. […] It is possible that coronavirus has an idiosyncratic action on receptors involved in chemosensitivity to oxygen, but well-established pathophysiological mechanisms can account for most, if not all, cases of silent hypoxemia. […] These mechanisms include how dyspnea and the respiratory centers respond to low levels of oxygen, how prevailing carbon dioxide tensions (PaCO2) blunt the brain’s response to hypoxia, effects of disease and age on control of breathing, inaccuracy of pulse oximetry at low oxygen saturations, and temperature-induced shifts in the oxygen dissociation curve.
32539988 We defined asymptomatic infection as SARS-CoV-2 infection with no history of clinical signs and symptoms, severe COVID-19 as clinical symptoms of pneumonia (dyspnoea, tachypnoea, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation <93%, and need for oxygen therapy), and mild COVID-19 as all other symptoms.
32541352 Pulmonary rehabilitation during the acute management of COVID-19 should be considered when possible and safe and may include nutrition, airway, posture, clearance technique, oxygen supplementation, breathing exercises, stretching, manual therapy, and physical activity.
32541972 Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors for death were old age, low non oxygen saturation, low lymphocyte count, myocardial injury, abnormal increase of IL 2R, IL-6, and IL-10. […] Multivariate regression showed that old age (OR=1.11, 95%CI=1.03-1.19, P=0.026), low non oxygen saturation(OR=0.85, 95%CI=0.72-0.99, P=0.041), and abnormal increase of IL-10(>9.1 ng/L, OR=101.93, 95%CI=4.74-2190.71, P=0.003)were independent risk factors for COVID-19 patients combined with hypertension, coronary heart disease or diabetes. […] In COVID-19 patients combined with hypertension, coronary heart disease or diabetes, the risk factors for death were old age, low non oxygen saturation, low lymphocyte count, myocardial injury, and abnormal increase of IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-10. […] Old age, low non oxygen saturation and abnormal increase of IL-10 were independent risk factors.
32542464 Review 1: we synthesized results from randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HFNC to conventional oxygen therapy (COT) in critically ill patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. […] Review 1: 12 RCTs (n = 1,989 patients) provided low-certainty evidence that HFNC may reduce invasive ventilation (relative risk [RR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 0.99) and escalation of oxygen therapy (RR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.98) in patients with respiratory failure.
32544034 Inclusion criteria were: (i) positive nasopharyngeal or lower respiratory tract reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays; (ii) severe COVID infection defined as requirement for hospitalization and oxygen therapy; (iii) neurologic manifestations; (iv) abnormal brain MRI.
32545714 This paper addresses several key biological processes of reactive oxygen, halogen and nitrogen species (ROS, RHS and RNS) that play crucial physiological roles in organisms from plants to humans.
32548163 On the 8th d of admission, the patient’s highest temperature was 40.7 °C, and oxygen saturation was 83% despite high-flow oxygen inhalation. […] In addition to nasal catheter oxygen inhalation and symptomatic support, antiviral drugs were used throughout the treatment.
32549025 He had hypoxic respiratory failure and required oxygen therapy.
32549692 Five out of the 10 patients - including the patients who presented with hypoxia - subsequently required supplemental oxygen postoperatively. […] Two patients had persistently elevated oxygen demands requiring prolonged administration of supplemental oxygen therapy beyond postoperative day 3. […] Our findings suggest that hip fracture patients who present with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 infection may have temporarily increased oxygen demands postoperatively, but they can safely undergo early surgical intervention after appropriate medical optimization.
32550056 Supportive treatment such as oxygen therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and ventilator support can also be used.
32553536 Survival and mechanical ventilation (MV) outcomes were reported for 14 days and stratified by disease severity designated at admission (severe, ≥3L supplemental oxygen to maintain oxygen saturation >93%).
32553908 Oxygen support was required for 24.1% (13/54), including high flow oxygen (n=2), noninvasive (n=1) and invasive (n=3) mechanical ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=1).
32554029 Moreover, some other disrupting factors such as patient distance from the sampler, using protective or oxygen masks by patients, patient activities, coughing and sneezing during sampling time, air movement, air conditioning, sampler type, sampling conditions, storage and transferring conditions, can affect the results.
32554861 Severe and critical patients received glucocorticoid, Gamma-globulin and oxygen inhalation.
32555674 The systolic blood pressure (median, 130 mmHg vs 120 mmHg) was higher and the oxygen saturation (median, 98.3% vs 92.0%) was significantly lower in severe patients than nonsevere patients. […] Our study revealed that older patients with high levels of C-reactive protein, myoglobin, troponin I, and neutrophil and high systolic blood pressure as well as low levels of lymphocytes, and albumin and a low creatinine clearance rate and oxygen saturation were more likely to have severe disease.
32557889 His temperature was 38°C, he was dyspneic despite oxygen.
32559309 Resting energy expenditure (REE), carbon dioxide production (VCO2) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured by indirect calorimetry on seven critically ill patients with COVID-19.
32560658 Four levels of thromboembolic risk were defined according to the severity of COVID-19 reflected by oxygen requirement and treatment, the body mass index, and other risk factors.
32560744 We will include both severe and mild-moderate patients defined as follows: Group A (severe disease) - patients with WHO Working Group on the Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 infection 9-point ordinal scale of Grades 4 (hospitalised, oxygen by mask or nasal prongs), 5 (hospitalised, non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen), 6 (hospitalised, intubation and mechanical ventilation) or 7 (hospitalised, ventilation and additional organ support); Group B (mild-moderate disease) - ambulant or hospitalised patients with peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) >94% RA. […] But may include; time to clinical improvement of at least 2 points on the WHO 9-point category ordinal scale [measured up to 29 days from randomisation], progression of disease (oxygen saturation (SaO2) <92%) or hospitalization or death, or change in time-weighted viral load [measured up to 29 days from randomisation].
32560745 They will be hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 who have positive RT-PCR test and have blood oxygen saturation levels (SpO2) less than 90% and respiratory rate higher than 24 per minute or have involvement of more than 50% of their lung when viewed using computed tomography (CT)-scan.
32562159 The oxygen saturation (SpO2) and temperature were positively changed in patients receiving regimen I compared to regimen II (P = 0.013 and P = 0.012, respectively).
32562915 In the absence of a therapy of proven efficacy, current management consists of off-label or compassionate use therapies based on antivirals, antiparasitic agents in both oral and parenteral formulation, anti-inflammatory drugs, oxygen therapy and heparin support and convalescent plasma.
32563584 Within 24 hours, he showed significant improvement in symptoms, oxygen requirements, radiological findings, and inflammatory markers.
32563601 Testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and lower oxygen saturations were associated with need for ICU and invasive mechanical ventilation, and with death. […] For every 100 admitted persons under investigation, 9 will require ICU stay, invasive mechanical ventilation, or both on arrival and another 12 within 2 to 3 days of hospital admission, especially persons under investigation with lower oxygen saturations and positive SARS-CoV-2 swab results.
32564028 The assessment of the extent of ARF should be based on arterial or capillary blood gas analysis under room air conditions, and it needs to include the calculation of oxygen supply (measured from the variables of oxygen saturation, hemoglobin level, the corrected values of Hüfner’s factor, and cardiac output). […] A significant proportion of patients with ARF present with relevant hypoxemia, which often cannot be fully corrected, even with a high inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) under NHF. […] In this situation, the oxygen therapy can be escalated to CPAP or NIV when the criteria for endotracheal intubation are not met.
32565097 More SARS patients required oxygen supplementation than COVID-19 patients (18.6 vs.
32565364 Similarly, the role of oxygen therapy as an anti-inflammatory strategy is evident and access to oxygen therapy should be prioritized to avoid the aggravation of COVID-19 infection.
32565512 KL-6 was also found to be significantly correlated with oxygenation index and oxygen partial pressure difference of alveolar artery (PA-aDO2) (Both P < 0.01).
32569363 Disease severity was defined based on the amount of oxygen supplementation required.
32569585 In this prospective, feasibility, cohort study, patients aged 18-75 years with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19-related pneumonia receiving supplemental oxygen or non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure were recruited from San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy. […] The main study outcome was the variation in oxygenation (partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2]/fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired air [FiO2]) between baseline and resupination, as an index of pulmonary recruitment. […] Prone positioning was feasible and effective in rapidly ameliorating blood oxygenation in awake patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia requiring oxygen supplementation.
32570265 LUS score was significantly correlated with CT visual scoring (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and oxygen saturation in room air (r = -0.66, p < 0.001).
32572707 Past medical history of diabetes and hypertension, initial oxygen saturation, COVID-19 testing results, intubation, and outcome were also collected. […] Oxygen saturation and X-ray grade were both significantly associated with the length of stay in hospital, the hazard ratio (HR) of discharge was 1.05 (95% CI [1.01, 1.09], p = 0.017) and 0.61 (95% CI [0.51, 0.73], p < 0.001), respectively. […] In addition, oxygen saturation and X-ray grade were significant predictors of intubation (odds ratio (OR) of intubation is 0.88 (95% CI [0.81, 0.96], p = 0.004) and 3.69 (95% CI [2.25, 6.07], p < 0.001).
32572809 The correct sentence should be “In this retrospective study, we included 550 critically ill COVID-19 patients who need mechanical ventilation (63.5%) and oxygen therapy (35.6%) in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, from February 1, 2020 to April 4, 2020.” 2.
32573353 Half required oxygen therapy and 7.1% high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO); median time from onset to oxygen therapy and HFNO was 7 and 9 days. […] The case fatality rate was 0.92% with median time from onset to death of 16 days. Conclusion COVID-19 cases in Shanghai were imported, presenting as viral pneumonia with half of cases needing oxygen therapy.
32573724 2.4% and 5.1% of patients in the CPT and the standard-treatment group have been admitted to ICU eventually. 70% of the patients who had severe respiratory symptoms got improved and removed oxygen supports within 7 days after CPT.
32573895 The critical evaluation of all cases suggests that the timing of the administration of tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 receptor antagonist, could be associated with a better efficacy when administered in concomitance to the drop of the oxygen saturation. […] Thus, in SARS-CoV-2 affected KTRs a close biochemical and clinical monitoring should be set up to allow physicians to hit the virus in the right moment such as a sudden reduction of the oxygen saturation and/or a significant increase of the laboratory values such as D-Dimer.
32574235 The COS included clinical outcomes (recovery/improvement/progression/death), etiology (SARS-CoV-2 nucleic-acid tests, viral load), inflammatory factor (C-reactive protein), vital signs (temperature, respiration), blood and lymphatic-system parameters (lymphocytes, virus antibody), respiratory outcomes (pulmonary imaging, blood oxygen saturation, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, arterial blood gas analysis, mechanical ventilation, oxygen intake, pneumonia severity index), clinical efficacy (prevalence of preventing patients with mild-to-moderate disease progressing to severe disease), and symptoms (clinical symptom score).
32574262 Serial SARS-CoV-2 testing along with hematological measurements, including cell counts, blood biochemistry and serum cytokine levels, and temperature and blood oxygen saturation levels, were recorded for each patient during their hospital stay.
32574309 The percentage of patients in which the partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired O2(FiO2) ratio exceeded 200 was 60%.
32574337 After comprehensive treatment including high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, plasma exchange, antiviral and anti-infection therapies, immune regulation, liquid volume management, glucocorticoid, enteral nutrition support, analgesia and sedation, blood glucose control, anticoagulation and thrombus prevention, and electrolyte balance maintenance, the patient was finally cured, and discharged.
32574432 Recently the internet has been abuzz with new ideas to treat COVID-19, including hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy, undoubtedly driven by the fact that until recently there have been few therapeutic options for this highly contagious and often lethal infection. . . . […] Refractory hypoxemia is certainly treatable with hyperbaric oxygen due to the obvious effect of increasing inspired oxygen partial pressure (PO2), the major reason for using HBO2 for its established indications. […] However, the length of time during which patients can safely be administered HBO2 inside a chamber is limited, due to practical issues of confinement and isolation from other necessary medical interventions, but also because of oxygen toxicity.
32574433 To determine whether hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy be effective to improve hypoxemia for severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients. […] Each met at least one of the following criteria: shortness of breath; respiratory rate (RR) ≥30 breaths/minute; finger pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤93% at rest; and oxygen index (P/F ratio: PaO2/FiO2 ≤300 mmHg). […] Patients were treated with 1.5 atmospheres absolute HBO2 with an oxygen concentration of more than 95% for 60 minutes per treatment, once a day for one week.
32574446 There have been numerous recent inquiries regarding use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) for patients with COVID-19. […] The UHMS Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Committee, UHMS Executive Committee, with collaborative input from multiple senior UHMS members and researchers have drafted this position statement.
32574708 Iron dysregulation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and promotes oxidative stress.
32574789 Mean age was 75.3, mean oxygen (O2) requirements 10.4 l/min.
32575124 All patients had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and oxygen saturations <90% on oxygen support with most intubated. […] We examined clinical and laboratory parameters including oxygen and vasopressor requirements, cytokine profiles, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels pre- and post-tocilizumab treatment. […] Oxygen and vasopressor requirements diminished over the first week post-tocilizumab. […] Compared to published reports on the morbidity and mortality associated with SARS-CoV-2, tocilizumab appears to offer benefits in reducing inflammation, oxygen requirements, vasopressor support, and mortality.
32575366 Respiratory safety was evaluated by measuring end-tidal CO2 and oxygen saturation while wearing the masks in rest and during physical exercise.
32576347 Linear regression analysis showed that D-dimer level was negatively related with pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) and platelet count (PLT) with β values of -0.493, -11.615, and -0.018, respectively (all P < 0.05).
32578070 They include self-monitoring of oxygen saturation (SpO2) from home, continuous wireless SpO2 monitoring on hospital wards, and the integration of SpO2 as the input variable for closed-loop oxygen administration systems.
32578324 More than half of these patients presented with hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen, 39% were intubated within 48 hours and 53% developed acute kidney injury but did not require dialysis.
32578747 Although the lungs are one of the target organs, the hypoxia mechanism is systemic and other organs begin to suffer both through lack of oxygen and through deregulation of inflammation control mechanisms.
32578785 Approximately 5% of the patients will require intensive care unit treatment with oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation.
32578825 On the basis of the opinions of front-line experts and a review of the relevant literature on several topics, we proposed clinical practice recommendations on the following aspects for physiotherapists facing challenges in treating patients and containing virus spread: 1. personal protective equipment, 2. conventional chest physiotherapy, 3. exercise and early mobilization, 4. oxygen therapy, 5. nebulizer treatment, 6. non-invasive ventilation and high-flow nasal oxygen, 7. endotracheal intubation, 8. protective mechanical ventilation, 9. management of mechanical ventilation in severe and refractory cases of hypoxemia, 10. prone positioning, 11. cuff pressure, 12. tube and nasotracheal suction, 13. humidifier use for ventilated patients, 14. methods of weaning ventilated patients and extubation, and 15. equipment and hand hygiene.
32579049 According to the theory of electron excitation in photosensitive molecules, similar to hemoglobin heme, after the photon absorption there would be an increase in the stability of the iron ion bond with the center of the pyrrole ring, preventing the losses of heme function oxygen transport (HbO2). […] The light is also absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase in the R-NIR region, with a consequent increase in electron transport, regulating enzyme activity and resulting in a significant increase of oxygen rate consumption by mitochondria, increasing ATP production. Conclusions: The most favorable range of optical radiation to operate in this system is between R-NIR region, in which cytochrome c oxidase and porphyrin present absorption peaks centered at 640 nm and HbO2 with absorption peak centered at 900 nm.
32582740 Most patients (23/29; 79.8%) received supplemental oxygen therapy and antibiotics (23/29; 79.8%) in addition to traditional Chinese medicines (26/29; 89.7%). […] Need of oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, intravascular immunoglobulin, and duration of antibiotic therapy were increased in those with severe disease. Conclusions: Significant differences in demographical and clinical characteristics were observed in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19.
32583671 However, dedicated devices and repeated tracheal toilettes may be needed to deal with oxygen-therapy-related tracheal crusting.
32584326 ICU patients had higher BMIs, higher respiratory rates, and lower room-air capillary oxygen saturations.
32585765 High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy was required on day 4-5 of hospitalization. […] Symptoms of pneumonia were improved which no oxygen treatment required from day 10 of hospitalization.
32586394 Need of either: a.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (Cpap) or Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) orb.IMV in patients who at randomisation were receiving standard oxygen therapy5. […] Severe pneumonia defined by the presence of at least one of the following criteria: a.Respiratory Rate ≥25 breaths /minb.Arterial oxygen saturation≤93% at rest on ambient airc.PaO2/FiO2 ≤300 mmHg 4. […] Need of either: a.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (Cpap) or Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) orb.IMV in patients who at randomisation were in standard oxygen therapy by delivery interfaces5. […] Need of either: a.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (Cpap) or Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) orb.IMV in patients who at randomisation were in standard oxygen therapy by delivery interfaces5.
32586395 Secondary Objectives: • To evaluate cytokine trends / Prevent cytokine storms • To evaluate supplemental oxygen requirements • To decrease mortality of CoViD-19 patients • Delay onset of ventilation TRIAL DESIGN: The study is a single centre, 2-arm, prospective, randomized (ratio 1:1), controlled trial with parallel groups design to compare the reduction of respiratory distress in a CoViD-19 population, using the intervention of the gammaCore®-Sapphire device plus standard of care (active) vs. standard of care alone (SoC) - the control group. […] On home/therapy oxygen (i.e. for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) at baseline prior to development of CoViD-193. […] Max doses per day is 9 or 18 stimulations.Plus standard of care Control: Standard of care: oxygen therapy, antibiotics and ventilatory support if necessary depending on the clinic MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary Endpoint: Initiation of mechanical ventilation, from randomization until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first Secondary Endpoints: Safety; ascertainment of Adverse Effects/Serious Adverse Events, from randomisation to ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs firstCytokine Storm measured by: Tumor necrosis factor α, Interleukin 6, Interleukin 1β. […] Days 1,3,5,10,15 and/or at hospital dischargeMortality and/or need for Critical Care admission, from randomisation until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first,O2 saturation levels , from randomization until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs firstNeed for supplemental oxygen, from randomisation until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first RANDOMISATION: The patients are classified according to their oxygen levels as mild, moderate and severe and randomized according to their classification to the intervention and control in a ratio of 1:1.
32589189 The main outcome was COVID-19 severity assessed on a 7-point ordinal scale (ranging from 1 [not hospitalized with no limitations on activities] to 7 [death]) with a cutoff at 3 (hospitalized and not requiring supplemental oxygen).
32589691 Additionally, patients who underwent at least one of the following treatments were assigned to the severe group: continuous renal replacement therapy, high-flow oxygen absorption, noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
32590322 Exercising with facemasks may reduce available Oxygen and increase air trapping preventing substantial carbon dioxide exchange.
32590779 The results of blood gas analysis indicated that the partial pressure of oxygen was 84 mm Hg with oxygen 8 L/min, and the oxygenation index was less than 200 mm Hg.
32590819 Nine patients required high flow oxygen.
32591667 The following sequence was also suggested as early supportive therapy and monitoring: intravenous fluid administration, oxygen therapy, and application of corticosteroids.
32593060 In the patient side, prioritisation is performed using a contracted patient decision matrix constructed between ‘serological/protein biomarkers and the ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to fractional inspired oxygen criteria’ and ‘patient list based on novel MCDM method known as subjective and objective decision by opinion score method’.
32593202 On admission, he was tachypnoeic and in severe hypoxic respiratory failure with dangerously low peripheral oxygen saturations (SpO2 ) 83% on 15L oxygen.