OXYGEN


DrugBank ID: db09140
DrugCentral: oxygen
Synonymous :dioxygen | molecular oxygen | oxigeno gaseoso | oxygen usp | pure oxygen



Drug Sentece Context


Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of oxygen gene in 867 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32031570 Of the 36 cases in the ICU, 4 (11.1%) received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 (41.7%) received noninvasive ventilation, and 17 (47.2%) received invasive ventilation (4 were switched to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation).
32053470 Patients with severe respiratory distress and/ or oxygen requirement at any time during the disease course were excluded.
32096367 Conservative oxygen therapy was preferred and noninvasive ventilation was not recommended.
32105680 Principles of management of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy include early isolation, aggressive infection control procedures, oxygen therapy, avoidance of fluid overload, consideration of empiric antibiotics (secondary to bacterial infection risk), laboratory testing for the virus and coinfection, fetal and uterine contraction monitoring, early mechanical ventilation for progressive respiratory failure, individualized delivery planning, and a team-based approach with multispecialty consultations.
32112884 Fever, cough and expectoration were the most common symptoms, 14 patients had decreased oxygen saturation, 33 had leukopenia, 53 had lymphopenia, and 82 had elevated C-reactive protein.
32125362 Clinical course was summarized, including requirement for supplemental oxygen and intensive care and use of empirical treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir. […] Six individuals (33%) required supplemental oxygen; of these, 2 required intensive care. […] Five individuals requiring supplemental oxygen were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir. […] For 3 of the 5 patients, fever resolved and supplemental oxygen requirement was reduced within 3 days, whereas 2 deteriorated with progressive respiratory failure. […] Some patients required supplemental oxygen and had variable clinical outcomes following treatment with an antiretroviral agent.
32171866 The Lopinavir and Ritonavir Tablets, Chinese medicine, oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation were statistically different in the elderly group and the young and middle-aged group, and the P values were all <0.05.
32173725 Refractory COVID-19 patients were more likely to receive oxygen, mechanical ventilation, expectorant, and adjunctive treatment including corticosteroid, antiviral drugs and immune enhancer (P<0.05). […] After adjustment, those with refractory COVID-19 were also more likely to have a male sex and manifestations of anorexia and fever on admission, and receive oxygen, expectorant and adjunctive agents (P<0.05) when considering the factors of disease severity on admission, mechanical ventilation, and ICU transfer.
32186172 Close monitoring of oxygenation, reducing patients’ oxygen consumption, active psychological intervention, and rapidly dealing with severe hypoxemia events are the key factors for the successful treatment of NIV.
32187464 We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label trial involving hospitalized adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, which causes the respiratory illness Covid-19, and an oxygen saturation (Sao2) of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or a ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) of less than 300 mm Hg.
32195704 So far, actions have been taken including but not limited to nationwide actions and online education regarding special procedures of airway management, oxygen therapy, ventilation support, hemodynamic management, sedation, and analgesia.
32195705 Timely, but not premature, intubation is crucial to counter a progressively enlarging oxygen debt despite high-flow oxygen therapy and bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation.
32196707 All patients were given antiviral therapy (including oseltamivir), oxygen inhalation, and antibiotics.
32202343 Suggested treatment included providing oxygen, inhalations, nutritional support and maintaining fluids and electrolyte balances.
32204751 Approaching to treat severe respiratory disease in infants and children, the risks related to the development of atelectasis starting invasive or non-invasive ventilation support and the risk of oxygen toxicity must be taken into serious consideration.
32209890 The blood oxygen saturation was significantly lower in the death group (85 [77, 91]% vs. […] Compared to the recovered group, more patients in the death group exhibited characteristics of advanced age, pre-existing comorbidities, dyspnea, oxygen saturation decrease, increased WBC count, decreased lymphocytes, and elevated CRP levels.
32216961 Data were gathered regarding the presence of chest computed tomography (CT) abnormalities; the distribution, morphology, density, location, and stage of abnormal shadows on chest CT; and observing the correlation between the severity of chest infection and lymphocyte ratio and blood oxygen saturation (SPO2) in patients.
32220650 All children received interferon alfa by aerosolisation twice a day, 14 (39%) received lopinavir-ritonavir syrup twice a day, and six (17%) needed oxygen inhalation.
32221973 In particular, we describe key elements of clinical management, including: safe oxygen therapy; airway management; personal protective equipment; and non-technical aspects of caring for patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019.
32226287 Four patients required oxygen therapy but none of them needed machinal ventilation.
32226695 Both COVID-19 and HAPE exhibit a decreased ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen with concomitant hypoxia and tachypnea.
32228825 One of the COVID-19 treatments involves inhaling a mixture of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen, obtaining better results than with oxygen alone. […] In addition, germicidal UV radiation “breaks down” the oxygen O2 which then aggregate into O3 (ozone) molecules creating the ozone layer, capable of inhibiting viral replication and improving lung respiration.
32232685 Most of the critically ill patients received high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy.
32234250 Forty-nine patients with COVID-19 requiring supplementary oxygen before surgery had spinal anaesthesia (ropivacaine 0.75%), chiefly for Caesarean section (45/49 [91%]).
32239757 During our preparedness for the COVID-19 pandemic we identified that our GE Healthcare anaesthetic machines (GE Healthcare, Amersham Place, Little Chalfont, UK) had a ventilator which was gas-driven, using oxygen. […] This resulted in a large amount of wasted oxygen.
32242348 Six patients (21.4%) required supplemental oxygen therapy, but no one needed mechanical ventilation.
32246843 One of the key decisions faced by healthcare systems is in selecting the appropriate devices for oxygen administration. […] The use of high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) in COVID-19 is the subject of much debate, relating to the benefits and harms that may result for patients and healthcare workers alike.
32248146 Healthcare workers are at high risk of contracting the infection particularly when applying respiratory devices such as oxygen cannulas or noninvasive ventilation.
32248675 Only one of the survivors (14%) still required oxygen at 28 days.
32259129 Furthermore, the drug could decrease neutrophil-generated reactive oxygen species during inflammation.
32259899 However some individuals develop a more fulminant syndrome including viral pneumonia, respiratory failure requiring oxygen, acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation, and in substantial fractions leading to death attributable to COVID-19.
32267987 In worldwide, the incubation period of COVID-19 was 3 to 7 days and approximately 80% of infections are mild or asymptomatic, 15% are severe, requiring oxygen, and 5% are critical infections, requiring ventilation.
32268019 We applied HFNC for oxygen therapy in severe and critical COVID-19 patients and summarized the following experiences. […] Thirdly, to avoid hypoxia or hypoxemia, the treatment goal of HFNC should be maintained the oxygen saturation (SpO2) above 95% for patients without chronic pulmonary disease.
32271454 Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis demonstrated that the biological processes altered within the body after taking MXSGD were closely related to the regulation of such processes as the acute inflammatory response, chemokine production, vascular permeability, response to oxygen radicals, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, T cell differentiation involved in the immune response, immunoglobulin secretion, and extracellular matrix disassembly.
32275753 Levels of their lung lesions, oxygen saturation and heart rates were compared before and after treatment by CT scanning images and patient monitor. […] Improvements of oxygen saturation were observed in 6 clinically severe patients. […] In the 2 patients with critical conditions, the oxygen levels have significantly increased from 79-82% to 91% just about 1 hour after the first inhalation.
32275812 Patients were those with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who had an oxygen saturation of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or who were receiving oxygen support. […] During a median follow-up of 18 days, 36 patients (68%) had an improvement in oxygen-support class, including 17 of 30 patients (57%) receiving mechanical ventilation who were extubated.
32279418 Initial symptoms were fatigue, dry cough and coryza; she never had fever nor oxygen supplementation.
32286679 A significant number of patients with pneumonia require passive oxygen therapy. […] Non-invasive ventilation and high-flow nasal oxygen therapy can be applied in mild and moderate non-hypercapnia cases.
32289472 Management is predominantly focused on the provision of supportive care, with oxygen therapy representing the major treatment intervention.
32290644 One patient required supplemental oxygen.
32292626 The COS-COVID includes one outcome for the mild type (time to 2019-nCoV reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negativity), four outcomes for the ordinary type (length of hospital stay, composite events, score of clinical symptoms, and time to 2019-nCoV RT-PCR negativity), five outcomes for the severe type (composite events, length of hospital stay, arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), duration of mechanical ventilation, and time to 2019-nCoV RT-PCR negativity), one outcome for critical type (all-cause mortality), and one outcome for rehabilitation period (pulmonary function).
32292634 This consensus included nursing assessment, nursing priorities, nursing goals, and thirteen key points of nursing procedures such as nursing of oxygen therapy and respiratory nursing.
32292847 Fulminant myocarditis due to direct viral infection can certainly occur, but patients with increased oxygen demands due to tachycardia and fever, and reduced oxygen delivery due to hypotension and hypoxemia can cause myocardial injury indirectly.
32292866 This latter stage is characterized by the development of progressive lung involvement with increasing oxygen requirements and occasionally signs of the haemophagocitic syndrome.
32292903 Of the other 29 (67.4%) patients who presented with symptomatic COVID-19 infection, three women ultimately required antenatal admission for viral symptoms, and an additional patient represented six days postpartum after a successful labor induction with worsening respiratory status that required oxygen supplementation.
32293020 Based on the evidence to date, there are several treatment options to consider for the relief of fever (acetaminophen, NSAID, oral glucocorticoids), cough (morphine), breathlessness (morphine, oxygen, fan), anxiety (benzodiazepines) and pain (NSAID, morphine).
32294289 The definition of severe COVID-19 was the presence of at least one of following: respiratory rate ≥30 breaths /min; arterial oxygen saturation ≤93% at rest; PaO2/FiO2 ≤300 mmHg.
32298146 The protocols developed focused on clinical decisions regarding intubation, the use of high-flow oxygen, engagement with infectious disease consultants, and cardiac arrest.
32301647 Clinical parameters included demographics, comorbidities, symptoms and symptom duration, oxygen saturation and laboratory values.
32302459 During viral outbreaks, pregnancy poses a uniquely increased risk to women due to changes to immune function, alongside physiological adaptive alterations, such as increased oxygen consumption and edema of the respiratory tract.
32307151 While most people with COVID-19 develop only mild or uncomplicated illness, approximately 14% develop severe disease that requires hospitalization and oxygen support, and 5% require admission to an intensive care unit. […] The document provides clinical recommendations for the noninvasive respiratory support (noninvasive ventilation, high flow oxygen therapy with nasal cannula) in any patient with suspected or confirmed presentation of COVID-19 with acute respiratory failure.
32307265 Ventilation must be optimized during the procedure, to limit patient oxygen desaturation.
32312600 While most people with COVID-19 develop only mild or uncomplicated illness, approximately 14% develop severe disease that requires hospitalization and oxygen support, and 5% require admission to an intensive care unit. […] The document provides clinical recommendations for the noninvasive respiratory support (noninvasive ventilation, high flow oxygen therapy with nasal cannula) in any patient with suspected or confirmed presentation of COVID-19 with acute respiratory failure.
32313660 In addition to supportive treatment, such as oxygen supply in moderate cases and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in critically ill patients, unique medications for this condition are also under investigation.
32315386 Despite active treatment, he deteriorated with oxygen desaturation and tachypnoea.
32319118 Both patients developed interstitial pneumonia characterized by fever, cough, and anorexia and associated with elevation of CRP and ferritin, but have never required oxygen ventilation or intensive care.
32319424 Key messages include that supplemental oxygen is a first essential step for the treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with hypoxemia and should be a primary focus in resource-limited settings where capacity for invasive ventilation is limited. […] Oxygen delivery can be increased by using a non-rebreathing mask and prone positioning.
32320003 At triage, 30.7% of patients were febrile, 17.3% had a respiratory rate greater than 24 breaths/minute, and 27.8% received supplemental oxygen.
32320506 Proning has become a standard treatment in the management of patients with ARDS who have difficulty achieving adequate oxygen saturation. […] After application of supplemental oxygen was given to patients on room air it was 84% (IQR 75 to 90). […] Thirteen patients (24%) failed to improve or maintain their oxygen saturations and required endotracheal intubation within 24 hours of arrival to the ED. […] Awake early self-proning in the emergency department demonstrated improved oxygen saturation in our COVID-19 positive patients.
32321232 He developed irreversible respiratory failure with hypoxia without hypercapnia despite substantial oxygen support.
32322478 No published treatment to date has been shown to adequately control the inflammation and respiratory symptoms associated with COVID-19, apart from oxygen therapy and assisted ventilation.
32323287 Oxygen insufflation, high-flow oxygen, non-invasive ventilation and invasive ventilation with special consideration of infectious aerosol formation4. […] This distinction can be taken into consideration in the differential instrumentation in the therapy of ARI.The assessment of the extent of ARI should be carried out by an arterial or capillary blood gas analysis under room air conditions and must include the calculation of the oxygen supply (measured from the variables of oxygen saturation, the Hb value, the corrected values of the Hüfner number and the cardiac output). […] A significant proportion of patients with respiratory failure presents with relevant hypoxemia, often also caused by a high inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) including NHF, and this hypoxemia cannot be not completely corrected. […] If CPAP/NIV leads to further progression of ARI, intubation and subsequent invasive ventilation should be carried out without delay if no DNI order is in place.In the case of patients in whom invasive ventilation, after exhausting all guideline-based measures, is not sufficient, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation procedure (ECMO) should be considered to ensure sufficient oxygen supply and to remove CO2.
32327405 We explore the evidence base for COVID-19-specific recommendations and exercise interventions to ‘precondition’ patients prior to infection and appraise the role of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) as a risk-stratifying triage tool.
32331217 A precocious respiratory support with non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen should be avoided to limit the droplets’ air-dispersion and the healthcare workers’ contamination.
32333024 Modern transport ventilators are mainly for bridging purposes as they can only be used with 100% oxygen in contaminated surroundings.
32335281 This brief article discusses the therapeutic potential of glycyrrhizin for the treatment of COVID-19 from the perspective of its pharmacological action, including binding angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), downregulating proinflammatory cytokines, inhibiting the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting thrombin, inhibiting the hyperproduction of airway exudates, and inducing endogenous interferon.
32335366 Also, it reduces oxygen consumption in tissues and causes the use of glucose in the aerobic pathway, thereby reducing lactate production.
32336563 While most people with COVID-19 develop only mild or uncomplicated illness, approximately 14% develop severe disease that requires hospitalization and oxygen support, and 5% require admission to an intensive care unit. […] The document provides clinical recommendations for the noninvasive respiratory support (noninvasive ventilation, high flow oxygen therapy with nasal cannula) in any patient with suspected or confirmed presentation of COVID-19 with acute respiratory failure.
32338224 It is well known that ANG II via activation of the AT1R promotes detrimental effects on the host, such as, vasoconstriction, reactive oxygen species generation, inflammation and matrix remodelling [38].
32338347 An early intubation is preferred over non-invasive ventilation or heated, humidified, high flow nasal cannula oxygen, as these may generate aerosols increasing the risk of infection in health care personnel.
32338605 In some cases, this develops into a life-threatening condition whereby the lungs cannot provide the body’s vital organs with enough oxygen.
32339382 Pneumonia was diagnosed in 19/42 (45.2%, 95% CI 29.8-61.3) cases: of these, 7/19 (36.8%, 95% CI 16.3-61.6) required oxygen support and 4/19 (21.1%, 95% CI 6.1-45.6) were admitted to a critical care unit.
32342479 Of the 43 severely ill patients, 6 (14%) received high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, and 1 (2.3%) received invasive mechanical ventilation.
32344011 While the clinical status, in particular peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels, and concurrent comorbidities of COVID-19 patients largely determine the need for their admittance to ICUs, several laboratory parameters may facilitate the assessment of disease severity.
32344310 Alternate treatment strategies utilizing clinically available treatments such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusions, or erthropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy were hypothesized to increase oxygenation of tissues by alternative means than standard respiratory and ventilator treatments. […] It was also revealed that alternative treatments currently being considered for COVID-19 such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine by increasing hemoglobin production and increasing hemoglobin availability for oxygen binding and acetazolamine (for the treatment of altitude sickness) by causing hyperventilation with associated increasing levels of oxygen and decreasing levels of carbon dioxide in the blood may significantly ameliorate COVID-19 respiratory symptoms.
32344313 Despite the immense and ongoing global effort, no efficacious drugs to fight this plague have been identified and patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICU), for respiratory distress, are managed mostly by means of supportive care based on oxygen maintenance.
32344456 These recommendations focus on seven specific domains including: planning of resources and staffing; modifying the clinical environment; preparing equipment, supplies and drugs; selecting appropriate personal protective equipment; providing adequate oxygen therapy; assessing for and safely performing regional anaesthesia procedures; and monitoring during the conduct of anaesthesia and post-anaesthetic care.
32345579
  1. Oxygen saturation ≤93%.
32347747 Viruses induce an explosion of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, and melatonin is the best natural antioxidant that is lost with age.
32350134 Within 5 d after tocilizumab, 15 of the 20 patients (75.0%) had lowered their oxygen intake, and 1 patient needed no oxygen therapy.
32350543 Home respirators are turbine respirators, so they can usually be operated without high-pressure oxygen connections and can therefore also be used in areas outside the classical intensive care medical infrastructure.
32352224 First, patients with chronic liver disease may be more vulnerable to the severe clinical consequences of COVID-19, including oxygen desaturation and hypoxemia due to severe pneumonia or the cytokine storm 1;2 .
32352401 Low oxygen saturation was present in 38% of patients, whilst 31% were hypotensive on admission.
32353223 Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22; P = 0.004) and hypertension (OR, 6.15; 95% CI, 1.75-29.11; P = 0.009) were associated with mortality, while early improvement in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio was associated with being discharged alive from the ICU (P = 0.002 for interaction).
32354369 We provided oxygen supply to him using BIPAP ventilator and high-flow humidification oxygen therapy instrument to facilitate respiration.
32354634 During a median follow-up of seven days, 87% experienced a radiological progression and among those 73% required escalation of oxygen therapy. […] These preliminary findings describe a rapid clinical deterioration associated with chest radiographic deterioration and escalating oxygen requirement in renal transplant recipients with SARS-Cov2 pneumonia.
32356672 In addition to oxygen saturation for severity classification, stethoscope, chest X-ray and lung computer tomography are routinely used.
32356900 Early intubation should be considered to prevent the additional risk to staff of emergency intubation and to avoid prolonged use of high flow nasal oxygen or non-invasive ventilation.
32358406 The patients continued to be given oxygen by mask and received antitussive, phlegm-dispelling treatment.
32359035 The ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen (Pa02) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (Fi02) improved (mean±SD Pa02/Fi02 at admission: 152±53; at day 7: 283.73±115.9, at day 14: 302.2±126, p<0.05).
32360083 The paper describes the critical role of the oxygen affinity in hypoxemic COVID-19 patients and the potential positive effect of 5-HMF, a compound shown to increase the Hb-O2 affinity.
32361723 The laboratory model developed with age, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2), neutrophil and lymphocyte count, D-dimer, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) had a significantly stronger discriminatory power than the clinical model (p=0.0157), with AUC of 0.98 (95% CI, 0.92-0.99); threshold, -2.998; sensitivity, 100.00%; specificity, 92.82% and NPV, 100.00%.
32362344 ARDS was defined as an oxygenation index (arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen) ≤300 mm Hg.
32363221 This may progress on to respiratory distress, hypoxia, need for oxygen supplementation and ventilator support as seen in patients in the SARS-CoV-1 epidemic (2003) in Guangdong, China.
32363336 We suggest an echocardiogram in pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia, in particular those necessitating oxygen, or those who are critically ill, and we recommend the use of handheld, point-of-care devices where possible to minimize contamination of staff and traditional large echocardiogram machines.
32366580 We also discuss oxygen support modalities, proning, safe working practices and a new approach to multi-professional working.
32368483 His oxygen saturation improved drastically and eventually was taken off of nasal cannula and discharged within span of one day of proning.
32369205 The risk factors for the requirement of oxygen support in mild COVID-19 were explored using multivariate logistic regression. […] A total of 344 patients with mild COVID-19 were included in the final analysis, 45 of whom progressed and needed high-flow oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation after admission. […] In conclusion, two models comprised common symptoms (fever and sputum), underlying diseases (diabetes and coronary heart disease) and blood routine test are developed for predicting the future requirement of oxygen support in mild COVID-19 cases.
32371066 Wards and rooms must be carefully checked to ensure an ample supply of medical air and oxygen.
32371823 She was easily extubated and transferred to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) with oxygen saturation (SpO2) of 96%. […] About 30 minutes after arrival in the PACU, she developed dyspnea with SpO2 of 84% and promptly received oxygen with bilevel positive airway pressure in conjunction with low-dose corticosteroid.
32373789 Various modifications were put in place during the awake tracheal intubation and surgical tracheostomy procedures to minimise aerosol generation from the patient, such as avoiding high-flow nasal oxygen, establishing conscious sedation with remifentanil before commencing airway topicalisation and avoiding transtracheal local anaesthetic infiltration.
32374538 Diagnosis is based on PCR from a nasopharyngeal swab and emergency treatment rely on oxygen therapy.
32375488 We summarise the evidence existing in the literature of oxygen and positive pressure treatments in patients at different stages of respiratory failure and over the course of the disease, including environment and ethical issues related to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 infection.
32376101 A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 140 patients with moderate to critical COVID-19-associated pneumonia requiring oxygen supplementation admitted to the hospital from January 28, 2020, through February 28, 2020, and followed up through March 13, 2020, in Union Hospital, Wuhan, China. […] Oxygen saturation (SpO2) and other measures were tested as predictors of in-hospital mortality in survival analysis. […] Higher SpO2 levels after oxygen supplementation were associated with reduced mortality independently of age and sex (hazard ratio per 1-U SpO2, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.91 to 0.95; P<.001).
32378314 The patient clinically improved with decreasing oxygen requirements and was discharged home.
32378774 Among 42 affected women, 19 developed pneumonia, of whom seven required oxygen and four critical care.
32379955 Hydroxychloroquine-treated patients were more severely ill at baseline than those who did not receive hydroxychloroquine (median ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen, 223 vs.
32380026 On admission, 78 (78%) required oxygen supplementation.
32380908 Overall, after one treatment, patients’ clinical status and oxygenation improved with an average pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) increase of 192% (P < 0.001).
32387014 Our hypothesis is that CPZ could decrease the unfavorable evolution of COVID-19 infection in oxygen-requiring patients without the need for intensive care, but also reduce the contagiousness of SARS-CoV-2.
32387320 Patients with TCZ (n=20) had a higher Charlson comorbidity index (5.3 [±2.4] vs 3.4 [±2.6], P=0.014), presented with more severe forms (higher level of oxygen therapy at 13L/min vs 6L/min, P<0.001), and had poorer biological findings (severe lymphopenia: 676/mm3 vs 914/mm3, P=0.037 and higher CRP level: 158mg/L vs 105mg/L, P=0.017) than patients without TCZ (n=25).
32387333 Paranasal sinuses continually produce nitric oxide (NO), a reactive oxygen species that diffuses to the bronchi and lungs to produce bronchodilatory and vasodilatory effects.
32391519 Severe infection was defined according to published criteria by patient reported dyspnea, respiratory rate > 30 per minute, blood oxygen saturation ≤ 93% on room air, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen <300 and/or lung infiltrates >50% within 24 to 48 hours on chest imaging. […] Secondary outcomes included need for supplemental oxygen, intubation, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrest, death, and timing of delivery.
32391657 For severe and critical ill cases, the oxygen therapy, antiviral drugs, antibacterial drugs, glucocorticoids, mechanical ventilation or even extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be adopted, and the treatment plan should be adjusted timely through multi-disciplinary cooperation.
32391658 Conservative oxygen therapy was preferred and noninvasive ventilation was not recommended.
32391670 We applied HFNC for oxygen therapy in severe and critical ill COVID-19 patients and summarized the following experiences. […] Thirdly, to avoid hypoxia or hypoxemia, the treatment goal of HFNC should be maintained the oxygen saturation (SpO2) above 95% for patients without chronic pulmonary disease.
32391671 All patients were treated with antiviral, antitussive, oxygen inhalation; case 3 received glucocorticoids, case 2 with severe illness received glucocorticoids and additionally gamma globulin.
32392389 Two patients required intubation for hypoxemic respiratory failure, whereas one required significant supplemental oxygen.
32395418 Current clinical management includes infection prevention and control measures and supportive care including supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilatory support.
32398183 Her vital signs include T 38.3° C, HR 108, BP 118/70 mm Hg, RR 26 breaths per minute, and oxygen saturation 67% on room air.
32400074 The first patient always maintained excellent oxygen saturation throughout hospitalization with no need for additional oxygen therapy.
32401359 Both patients were treated with anti-viral, antibiotics, oxygen treatment and supportive care and recovered from severe pneumonia.
32402088 Finally, we discuss measures to implement augmented care in care homes, including treatment with oxygen and subcutaneous fluids, and the frameworks which will be required if these are to be sustainable.
32404787 Only one of them needed oxygen; the others were hospitalized for surveillance but did not need specific care.
32405160 This study aims to evaluate if tocilizumab, an anti-soluble IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, reduces patients’ mortality. 85 consecutive patients admitted to the Montichiari Hospital (Italy) with COVID-19 related pneumonia and respiratory failure, not needing mechanical ventilation, were included if satisfying at least one among: respiratory rate ≥ 30 breaths/min, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation ≤ 93% or PaO2/FiO2<=300 mmHg.
32405226 Artemisinins can regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), promote cell cycle arrest, drive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and induce Bak or Bax-dependent or independent apoptosis.
32405411 Management is supportive with oxygen supplementation, broad-spectrum antibiotics as well as careful fluid balancing.
32405454 The patient is still under ventilator with a Fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) of 60% and Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of eight.
32407959 This prospective (compassionate), open-label study of remdesivir, which was conducted at Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy, between February 23 and March 20, 2020, involved patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia aged ≥18 years undergoing mechanical ventilation or with an oxygen saturation level of ≤94 % in air or a National Early Warning Score 2 of ≥4.
32408155 On the intensive care unit, non-invasive ventilation was used to provide oxygen and ventilation support regularly.
32409443 The management of patients with COVID-19-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome focuses on identifying the causes for respiratory failure and on following best practices for supportive care with oxygen supplementation and mechanical ventilation.
32409486 To assess the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine in patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pneumonia who require oxygen. […] Four French tertiary care centres providing care to patients with covid-19 pneumonia between 12 March and 31 March 2020. 181 patients aged 18-80 years with documented severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia who required oxygen but not intensive care. […] Secondary outcomes were overall survival, survival without acute respiratory distress syndrome, weaning from oxygen, and discharge from hospital to home or rehabilitation (all at day 21). […] At day 21, 82% of patients in the treatment group had been weaned from oxygen compared with 76% in the control group (weighted risk ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.3). […] However, the results of this study do not support its use in patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 who require oxygen.
32412511 Although artificial ventilator is one of the last resources for the most severely ill patients, there are patients who are on the verge of not meeting the criteria for intubation; if they are directly intubated, the opportunity for them to overcome the severe phase with high concentration supplemental oxygen would be be missed.
32412515 Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and high-flow oxygen therapy are not recommended due to the generation of aerosol (associated with risk of viral spread among health personnel), and neither is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or the use of steroids.
32412544 Benzylidenechromanones, naturally occurring oxygen heterocyclic compounds, having capability to inhibit various protein and receptors, have been designed here to block mutant variety of coronavirus main protease enzyme (SARC-CoV-2 Mpro) isolated from 2019-nCoV with the assistance of molecular docking, bioinformatics and molecular electrostatic potential. (Z)-3-(4’-chlorobenzylidene)-thiochroman-4-one showed highest binding affinity to the protein.
32423368 Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified age, sex, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, history of diabetes, and shortness of breath as factors predictive of intubation.
32423584 Eligible patients were adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, with an interval from symptom onset to enrolment of 12 days or less, oxygen saturation of 94% or less on room air or a ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen of 300 mm Hg or less, and radiologically confirmed pneumonia.
32423911 On presentation he was hypoxaemic, with an SpO2 of 88% on 15 L/min oxygen, tachycardic and had no audible breath sounds on auscultation of the left hemithorax.
32425184 In this setting, myocardial injury is mainly secondary to type 2 myocardial infarction (mismatch in myocardial oxygen supply and demand during respiratory failure); other causes include myocarditis, coronary thrombosis, sepsis or septic shock.
32427171
  1. Provide supplemental oxygen following usual treatment principles for hypoxic respiratory failure. […] (3) High flow nasal oxygen is preferred for patients with higher oxygen support requirements.
32427774 This is a case-series of five COVID-19 positive patients who demonstrated severe hypoxemia, declining respiratory performance, and escalating oxygen requirements. […] Patients met the following criteria: COVID-19 positivity, worsening respiratory performance, severe hypoxemia (PaO2<80) despite traditional supportive measures, escalating supplemental oxygen requirements and D-dimer greater than 1.5μg/mL. […] These patients each required significant oxygen supplementation trending toward intubation. […] Administration of thrombolytics was followed by overall improvement in patients’ oxygen requirements, and in three cases, prevented progression to mechanical ventilation, without deleterious effects.
32428957 Recovery of the female patient under conventional oxygen therapy.
32429235 Emerging evidence suggests that AMPK facilitates central and peripheral reflexes that coordinate breathing and oxygen supply, and contributes to the central regulation of feeding and food choice. […] We propose, therefore, that oxygen supply to the body is aligned with not only the quantity we eat, but also nutrient-based diet selection, and that the cell-specific expression pattern of AMPK subunit isoforms is critical to appropriate system alignment in this respect. […] Currently available information on how oxygen supply may be aligned with feeding and food choice, or vice versa, through our motivation to breathe and select particular nutrients is sparse, fragmented and lacks any integrated understanding.
32431134 Remodelled tasks in charge of RPTs were: oxygen therapy daily monitoring, non invasive ventilation (NIV) and continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) delivery, pronation and postural changes to improve oxygenation, reconditioning with leg/arm cranking and exercises, initial and final patients’ functional assessment by short-physical performance battery (SPPB) and 1-minute sit-to-stand test (1-STS) to evaluate motor conditions and exercise-induced oxygen desaturation. […] Three “what-to-do” algorithms were developed to guide: i) oxygen de-escalation by reducing inhaled fraction of oxygen (FiO2); ii) oxygenation improvement through the use of Venturi mask; iii) reconditioning and physical activity. […] As main topics, RPTs have been involved in oxygen therapy management in almost a third of the admitted patients, reconditioning exercises in 60% of the cases, and initial and final functional motor capacity assessment in all patients.
32432162 Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of STEMI in COVID-19 patients has not been clearly established, we hypothesize that interrelated pathogenetic factors, that we highlight in this report, can play a role in the development of STEMI, including plaque rupture secondary to systemic inflammation, increased pro-coagulants, endothelial dysfunction, impaired fibrinolysis and impaired oxygen utilization leading to demand/supply mismatch and myocardial ischemia.
32434289 The patient was transported to operating theatre with supplemental oxygen over a face mask and plastic covering over the trolley.
32435879 None required oxygen therapy, and 7 could be managed as outpatients.
32437770 Among the 36 patients, 18 had worsening of their clinical status, as defined by severe hypoxia with oxygen therapy requirements greater than 4 Liters/minute and radiological worsening.
32438425 One other woman received home oxygen.
32439306 In the absence of a vaccine, the management of COVID-19 included antivirals, high-flow oxygen, mechanical ventilation, corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, interferons, intravenous immunoglobulin, and convalescent plasma infusions.
32442035 Two systematic reviews suggest a large reduction in mortality with NIV compared with conventional oxygen therapy.
32442105 These data indicate that auranofin could be a useful drug to limit SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated lung injury due to its antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-reactive oxygen species (ROS) properties.
32442562 Fecal samples were collected 2 or 3 times per week from time of hospitalization until discharge; disease was categorized as mild (no radiographic evidence of pneumonia), moderate (pneumonia was present), severe (respiratory rate ≥30/min, or oxygen saturation ≤93% when breathing ambient air), or critical (respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, shock, or organ failure requiring intensive care).
32443911 Unfortunately, there is still not a single proven effective drug available, and therefore, current therapeutic guidelines recommend supportive care including oxygen administration and treatment with antibiotics.
32444366 Admission oxygen saturation of <88% (3.7, 2.8 to 4.8), troponin level >1 (4.8, 2.1 to 10.9), C reactive protein level >200 (5.1, 2.8 to 9.2), and D-dimer level >2500 (3.9, 2.6 to 6.0) were, however, more strongly associated with critical illness than age or comorbidities. […] Age and comorbidities were found to be strong predictors of hospital admission and to a lesser extent of critical illness and mortality in people with covid-19; however, impairment of oxygen on admission and markers of inflammation were most strongly associated with critical illness and mortality.
32446312 There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age, underlying diseases, clinical severity, and oxygen-support category at admission.
32448770 All patients had elevated IL-6 plasma level (>40 pg/mL) and oxygen saturation <93% in ambient air. […] Clinical outcomes, oxygen support, laboratory data and adverse events were collected over a follow-up of 30 days. […] Forty-five patients (88%) were on high-flow oxygen supplementation, six of whom with invasive ventilation. […] The mortality rate was significantly associated with mechanical ventilation at baseline (83.3% vs 20% of patients on non-invasive oxygen support; p=0.0001).
32451366 There will be an estimated 4.6 (3.6-5.5) million COVID-19 hospitalisations, of which 139 521 (81 876-167 044) would be severe cases requiring oxygen, and 89 043 (52 253-106 599) critical cases requiring breathing support.
32452889 Despite the same severity of illness and level of hypoxemia at admission, coronavirus disease 2019 patients failed more high flow oxygen via nasal cannula challenges (n = 16, 100% vs n = 5, 45% in controls; p = 0.002), were more often intubated (n = 44, 100% vs n = 22, 56% in controls; p < 0.001) and paralyzed (n = 34, 77% vs n = 3, 14% in controls; p < 0.001), required higher level of positive end-expiratory pressure (15 vs 8 cm H2O in controls; p < 0.001), more prone positioning (n = 33, 75% vs n = 6, 27% in controls; p < 0.001), more dialysis (n = 16, 36% vs n = 3, 8% in controls; p = 0.003), more hemodynamic support by vasopressors (n = 36, 82% vs n = 22, 56% in controls; p = 0.001), and had more often a prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation (n = 28, 64% vs n = 10, 26% in controls; p < 0.01) resulting in a more frequent resort to tracheostomy (n = 18, 40.9% vs n = 2, 9% in controls; p = 0.01).
32453889 A recent theoretical study suggested a direct interaction between COVID-19 viral proteins and haemoglobin (Hb) that could lead to a loss of oxygen carrying capacity.
32454031 Of the remaining nine who continued to need respiratory support, seven (77.8%) had iatrogenic preterm deliveries (six by cesarean delivery) for maternal respiratory distress (needing increasing levels of respiratory support without improved oxygen saturation), one had an early term delivery due to PROM, and one, now 30 weeks, has required intensive care with high-flow nasal cannula for three weeks. […] Delivery did not worsen the respiratory status of women with persistent oxygen desaturation and the need for increasing respiratory support.
32454157 Viral infections including SARS-CoV are associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, disturbances of Ca++ caused by unfolded protein response (UPR) mediated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and is due to the exploitation of virus’s own protein i.e., viroporins into the host cells.
32459701 Of 15 hospitalized women with moderate or severe disease, 10 received respiratory support with supplemental oxygen and one required intubation.
32459790 All patients needed oxygen therapy through a nasal cannula; five patients received high-flow nasal cannula therapy, which was later substituted with noninvasive ventilation in four.
32459919 We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial involving hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, oxygen saturation of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air, and radiologic evidence of pneumonia.
32461141 COVID-19-associated tissue injury is not primarily mediated by viral infection, but rather is a result of the inflammatory host immune response, which drives hypercytokinemia and aggressive inflammation that affect lung parenchymal cells, diminishing oxygen uptake but also endothelial cells, resulting in endotheliitis and thrombotic events and intravascular coagulation.
32461911 We present a case report of a 68-year-old patient with confirmed COVID-19 and a prolonged course of admission, receiving nasal and humidified oxygen, non-invasive and then mechanical ventilation. […] She self-extubated, but remained stable on nasal oxygen only and was transferred for rehabilitation.
32462858 The aim of the multicentre study promoted by Nuova FIO is to evaluate the beneficial effects of the systemic Oxygen-Ozone (O2O3) therapy in patients suffering from SARS COV-2 disease in the early phases of the disease, before worsening, up to the need of tracheal intubation. […] The study is based on the rationale on that the systemic oxygen-ozone treatment could be effective, positively influencing the disease evolution and/or being able to mitigate the onset of the cytokine storm syndrome at least partially.
32463545 A higher need for assisted ventilation beyond pure oxygen support (Invasive Mechanical Ventilation or Non-Invasive Ventilation) and a higher admission to intensive or semi-intensive care units was observed in patients with overweight and obesity (p<0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) even after adjusting for sex, age and comorbidities (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively), or when patients with dementia or advanced cancer were removed from the analysis (p<0.05).
32469614 All five patients were hospitalized, two required supplemental oxygen, and none required mechanical ventilation.
32470186 Severe case was confirmed when one of the following criteria occurred: 1) dyspnea, respiratory rate ≥30 breaths/min, 2) blood oxygen saturation ≤93%, and 3) PaO2 /FiO2 ≤300 mmHg.
32471203 As SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted through droplets and aerosols, we cannot ignore the risk of transmission during hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). […] Our hyperbaric oxygen therapy center prioritizes preventing the spread of COVID-19 and maintaining operation for the patients during the pandemic. […] The aim of this article is to share the protocol that we have adopted in our hyperbaric oxygen therapy center to help prevent the spread of COVID-19.
32471650 Clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism patients was usually characterized by persistence or worsening of respiratory symptoms, with increasing oxygen requirement.
32471783 We present a case of a 72-year-old male with COVID-19 syndrome who presented to the emergency department with minimal symptoms but low peripheral oxygen saturation readings. […] This case highlights the utility of peripheral oxygen measurements in the evaluation of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32471930 The role of percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen (oxygen saturation), blood pressure and early use of point-of-care ultrasound in differential diagnosis and specific management is detailed.
32472676 In multivariable logistic regression analysis, risk factors for severe infection included pre-existing renal disease (odds ratio [OR], 7.4; 95% CI 2.5-22.0), oxygen requirement at hospitalization (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.7), acute renal injury (OR, 2.7; 95% CI 1.3-5.6) and initial CRP (OR,1.006; 95% CI, 1.001-1.01). […] Acute or pre-existing renal disease, supplemental oxygen at the time of hospitalization and initial CRP were independent predictors for the development of severe COVID-19 infections.
32470515 Admission and oxygen supply was required in 4.9% (2 patients in the Ramipril and 3 in control), and 4 of them died (two in each randomized group).
32470602 We report three cases of COVID-19 pneumonia who progressed while using antiviral drugs and needed supplementary oxygen therapy, improved after treatment with nafamostat. […] These preliminary findings show the possibility that Nafamostat can be considered to be used in elderly patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who need oxygen therapy.
32473964 While the best option in terms of non-invasive systems of oxygen delivery is still a matter of debate, it also remains unclear as to whether or not the optimal in-bed positioning of patients might also help to improve their oxygen saturation levels. […] On the basis of three representative cases, it is possible to propose the following hypotheses: (i) how patients are positioned has a strong influence on their oxygen saturation levels; (ii) saturation-optimalised positions are patient-specific; (iii) prone positions require ergonomic devices; and (iv) saturation-optimalised positions should aim to place the most affected part(s) of the lung(s) on top.
32475761 If dexmedetomidine can improve compliance with non-invasive oxygen support (the current recommended first-line therapy) while promoting better oxygenation, it may also decrease the need for mechanical ventilation and thus improve mortality.
32476080 The following variables were extracted for this study: age, gender, temperature, and saturation of oxygen on admission, treatment with heparin, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, steroids, tocilizumab, a combination of lopinavir with ritonavir, and oseltamivir, together with data on mortality. […] This association remained significant when saturation of oxygen < 90%, and temperature > 37 °C were added to de model with OR 0.54 (0.36-0.82) p = 0.003, and also when all the other drugs were included as covariates OR 0.42 (0.26-0.66) p < 0.001.
32479771 A risk score was developed incorporating twelve characteristics: age>40, male, non-white ethnicity, oxygen saturations<93%, radiological severity score>3, neutrophil count>8.0 x109/L, CRP>40 mg/L, albumin<34 g/L, creatinine>100 µmol/L, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and chronic lung disease.
32481322 Frequency of requiring supplemental oxygen or non-invasive ventilation; 5.
32481340 All patients had oxygen treatment with HFNC, as well as regular treatment of antivirals and traditional Chinese medicine. […] HFNC treatment has its advantages in providing oxygen therapy in COVID-19, but healthcare professionals should still pay close attention to changes in patients’ oxygenation rates and respiratory frequency.
32481381 After the operation, we routinely give symptomatic treatments such as anti-infection, nebulization and oxygen inhalation.
32482597 At baseline, all patients were on high-flow supplemental oxygen and most (78% of TCZ patients and 61% of standard treatment patients) were on non-invasive ventilation.
32484930 While arterial oxygen saturations (87.58±3.12%) dropped in room air in the pre-tocilizumab period, post-tocilizumab they normalized in all patients (94.42±1%).
32489666 A 55-year-old male COVID-19-positive patient with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), diabetes, and obesity presented with cough and shortness of breath, escalating to requiring high-flow oxygen therapy by high-velocity nasal insufflation. […] The patient’s flow rate and oxygen fraction remained labile throughout much of the hospitalization. […] The patient was alert and oriented and was instructed on the operation of the high-flow system, specifically the adjustment of both flow rate and oxygen percentage. […] The patient was instructed to modify oxygen to maintain an SpO2 (peripheral capillary oxygen saturation) target range, and flow rate to address dyspnoea as well as reduction of flow as tolerated when other staff entered the room.
32492530 Severe pneumonia was defined as an oxygen saturation ≤ 93% at room air.
32493441 Only adult (≥18y old) patients will be recruited with recent (≤16 days) COVID-19 infection and acute hypoxia (defined as PaO2/FiO2 below 350mmHg or PaO2/FiO2 below 280 on supplemental oxygen and immediately requiring high flow oxygen device or mechanical ventilation) and signs of systemic cytokine release syndrome characterized by high serum ferritin, or high D-dimers, or high LDH or deep lymphopenia or a combination of those, who have not been on mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours before randomisation. […] This ordinal scale is composed of (1) Death; (2) Hospitalized, on invasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO; (3) Hospitalized, on non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen devices; (4) Hospitalized, requiring supplemental oxygen; (5) Hospitalized, not requiring supplemental oxygen; (6) Not hospitalized.
32493468 Patients will be randomly assigned to the intervention groups or the control group with the following eligibility criteria: ≥ 18 years of age AND (oxygen saturation (SPO2) ≤ 93% OR respiratory rate ≥ 24) AND at least one of the following: Contactless infrared forehead thermometer temperature of ≥37.8, cough, sputum production, nasal discharge, myalgia, headache or fatigue on admission, and time of onset of the symptoms should be acute (Days ≤ 14).
32495226 In the absence of a vaccine and specifically designed antivirals, the medical community has proposed the use of various previously available medications in order to reduce the number of patients requiring prolonged hospitalizations, oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation and to decrease mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32498065 All 3 had ill contacts in the home or had been to the pediatrician and presented with mild to moderate symptoms including fever, rhinorrhea, and hypoxia, requiring supplemental oxygen during their hospital stay.
32499303 Data on demographics, COVID-19 diagnosis, famotidine use, drug-related side effects, temperature measurements, oxygen saturations and symptom scores were obtained using questionnaires and telephone interviews. […] The combined symptom score improved significantly within 24 hours of starting famotidine and peripheral oxygen saturation (n=2) and device recorded activity (n=1) increased.
32500773 On computed tomography scans, she had extensive interstitial lung fibrosis in addition to a positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction test requiring 6 L of oxygen via nasal cannula on admission. […] After administration of methylprednisolone, the patient improved and was weaned off her oxygen requirements and was discharged home.
32503620 Secondary: 14 days after treatment - C-Reactive Protein test x Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio , Interleukin-6, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels reduction - Percentage of patients who require supplemental Oxygen - Mean hospital stay length RANDOMISATION: Patients will be allocated to each group (ratio 1:1) by using an online randomization tool: http://www.graphpad.com/quickcalcs/index.cfm BLINDING (MASKING): This will be a double-blind study in which participants and those assessing the final outcomes will be blinded to group assignment.
32503657 Routine treatment for patients with the corona virus will be administered, this includes oxygen therapy, drugs that reduced phlegm and relieve cough, including thymosin, proprietary Chinese medicine, etc.
32503662 Secondary endpoints include change in NEWS2 at 96 hours after randomisation, admission to intensive care unit, mortality (in-hospital, and at 30 and 90 days), duration of hospital admission, clinical status on a 7-point ordinal scale 14 days after randomization ([1] Death [2] Hospitalised, on invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [3] Hospitalised, on non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen devices [4] Hospitalized, requiring supplemental oxygen [5] Hospitalised, not requiring supplemental oxygen [6] Not hospitalized, but unable to resume normal activities [7] Not hospitalised, with resumption of normal activities), and improvement in protein biomarker profiles (C-reactive protein, markers of renal and hepatic injury, and established cardiac biomarkers like cardiac troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide) at 96 hours after randomization.
32503663 Patients aged 18-80 years admitted to specialized COVID-19 wards in 5 Belgian hospitals with recent (< 2 weeks prior to randomization) confirmed COVID-19 infection and acute respiratory failure defined as a PaO2/FiO2 below 350 mmHg or SpO2 below 93% on minimal 2 L/min supplemental oxygen. […] The primary endpoint of this intervention is measuring oxygenation after 5 days of inhaled (and intravenous) treatment through assessment of a change in pretreatment and post-treatment ratio of PaO2/FiO2 and through measurement of the P(A-a)O2 gradient (PAO2= Partial alveolar pressure of oxygen, PaO2=Partial arterial pressure of oxygen; FiO2= Fraction of inspired oxygen).
32503877 Acalabrutinib, a selective BTK inhibitor, was administered off-label to 19 patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 (11 on supplemental oxygen; 8 on mechanical ventilation), 18 of whom had increasing oxygen requirements at baseline. […] At the end of acalabrutinib treatment, 8/11 (72.7%) patients in the supplemental oxygen cohort had been discharged on room air, and 4/8 (50%) patients in the mechanical ventilation cohort had been successfully extubated, with 2/8 (25%) discharged on room air.
32505805 The primary outcome measures were COVID-19 requiring oxygen (oxygen therapy or noninvasive ventilation) and critical COVID-19 (requiring invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ECMO). […] By April 14, among the 617 pregnant women with COVID-19, 93 women (15.1 %; 95 %CI 12.3-18.1) had required oxygen therapy and 35 others (5.7 %; 95 %CI 4.0-7.8) had had a critical form of COVID-19. […] Among the women who gave birth, rates of preterm birth in women with non-severe, oxygen-requiring, and critical COVID-19 were 13/123 (10.6 %), 14/29 (48.3 %), and 23/29 (79.3 %) before 37 weeks and 3/123 (2.4 %), 4/29 (13.8 %), and 14/29 (48.3 %) before 32 weeks, respectively.
32506055 Close monitoring for temperature and oxygen saturation during hemodialysis sessions may be reasonable.
32507619 Most participants referred absence of training on the use of personal protective equipment, oxygen ventilation systems and COVID-19 therapies.
32508022 Although no effective treatment is formally approved for COVID-19 infection, support of ventilation with oxygen therapy and sometimes mechanical ventilation is often required.
32509258 We speculated that in COVID-19, beyond the classical pulmonary immune-inflammation view, the occurrence of an oxygen-deprived blood disease, with iron metabolism dysregulation, should be taken in consideration.
32510978 While the majority of patients mount an appropriate antiviral response and recover at home, others progress to respiratory distress requiring hospital admission for supplemental oxygen.
32511678 There was no statistical difference between ACEIs and ARBs groups in terms of hospital admission rate, oxygen therapy and need for non-invasive ventilation.
32512089 Currently, approved treatment modalities consist of only supportive care and oxygen supplementation.
32512491 This little-known information should be deemed as crucial as the SARS-CoV-2 relationships with oxygen saturation and the Renine Angiotensin System but it currently remains unexploited. […] We theorized that the Angiotensin II clearance by the red blood cells could trigger the release of its oxygen content in the bloodstream.
32512988 We hereby report a case of a 44-year-old COVID-19 positive male patient suffering from hypoxic respiratory failure that was successfully treated with high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in a negative pressure intensive care room.
32513308 Eligible participants include adults (≥ 18 years) with evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR test of nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab within 14 days of randomization, evidence of infiltrates on chest radiography, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤ 94% on room air, and/or need for supplemental oxygen, non-invasive mechanical ventilation, or invasive mechanical ventilation, who are willing and able to provide written informed consent prior to performing study procedures or who have a legally authorized representative available to do so. […] Hospitalized, not requiring supplemental oxygen 4. […] Hospitalized, requiring supplemental oxygen 5. […] Hospitalized, requiring high-flow oxygen therapy or non-invasive mechanical ventilation 6.
32513515 These measures include the addition of long-acting inhaler therapies, pulmonary rehabilitation, oral therapies, oxygen and lung transplantation.
32513808 Approaches to procedural sedation can be modified to reduce the risk of droplet or aerosol transmission by decreasing nasal cannula oxygen supplementation flows. […] Decreasing the need for oxygen supplement can be accomplished by opioid and sedative sparing strategies, including the use of multimodal analgesia and non-pharmacologic analgesic and anxiolytic interventions.
32515699 Thus, hemoglobin loses the capability for transporting oxygen, which aggravates hypoxia and worsens the prognosis.
32516107 Dyspnea was the patient’s main complaint at the time of admission in this center and the oxygen saturation was 84%. […] The patient’s felt relieved immediately after the procedure; however, the oxygen saturation did not raise above 85% despite the oxygen therapy.
32516861 Severe COVID-19, as expressed by elevated lactate dehydrogenase and low oxygen saturation at emergency department admission, is associated with a rapid progression to death in these patients.
32519786 Our patients were treated by oxygen via face mask in one case and mechanical ventilation as supportive treatment in the other patient.
32519842 First, nanoparticles (NPs) can offer alternative methods to classical disinfection protocols used in healthcare settings, thanks to their intrinsic antipathogenic properties and/or their ability to inactivate viruses, bacteria, fungi, or yeasts either photothermally or via photocatalysis-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.
32519944 A comparative presentation of the clinical features of the first 50 COVID-19 patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who were hospitalized in the University Hospital Aachen. 24 intubated patients were treated in the intensive care unit for ARDS of varying degrees of severity, while 26 patients who were breathing spontaneously without ARDS, but nevertheless needed supplemental oxygen, were treated in a separate isolation ward. […] Patients without ARDS had persistently elevated inflammatory parameters and fever for at least one week, with an accompanying need for supplemental oxygen. […] COVID-19 patients without ARDS may likewise require prolonged hospitalization because of persistently elevated inflammatory values with a simultaneous need for supplemental oxygen.
32521167 Recognition of these issues and careful counseling of patients about the proper means for measuring their oxygen saturation and when to seek assistance can help ensure successful implementation of needed monitoring programs.
32522574 This article compares the symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) with those of SARS-CoV-2 infection and explores overlapping patho-physiological mechanisms of the respiratory system including impaired oxygen transport, pulmonary gas exchange and brainstem circuits controlling respiration. […] In this context, we also discuss the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on oxygen sensing in the carotid body.
32523928 The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is challenging in symptomatic COVID-19 patients since shortness of breath, chest pain, tachycardia, tachypnoea, fever, oxygen desaturation and high D-dimer blood levels might be features of both diseases.
32526061 PDE5 inhibition favors an anti-inflammatory response by modulating activated T cells, reducing cytokine release, lowering fibrosis, increasing oxygen diffusion, stimulating vascular repair.
32527136 The patient received antiviral therapy, antibacterial therapy, recombinant human interferon-α2a, vitamin C and oxygen inhalation.
32527341
  1. Compared with normal group, patients in severe group were older, and with higher proportion of basic diseases, higher body mass index (BMI), higher incidence of tachypnea, persistent high fever, peripheral blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) < 0.95, while the white blood cell count (WBC), CD4+T lymphocyte, CD8+T lymphocyte, lymphocyte count (LYM) were decreased obviously, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid a protein (SAA), and CT showed higher incidence of multi-pulmonary lobe lesions.
32527347 Clinical data of patients with severe H1N1 influenza virus pneumonia implemented by ECMO in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College from October 2018 to December 2019 were retrospective analyzed, including general information, ECMO transport distance, time, clinical parameters before and after ECMO, including the patients’ oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2), respiratory rate (RR), pulse blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), arterial blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), and pH value, various complications during transport, mechanical ventilation time, patients’ prognosis and other indicators.
32530822 Oxygen saturation values taken before and after the 4-hour wear test confirmed that well-fitted facial protection did not compromise the mask seal, but rather improved it.
32531257 The results were correlated with patients’ respiratory function evaluated by the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2).
32532356 Twenty serious COVID-19 cases will be enrolled in the trial from April 6th to December 31st 2020. hospitalised patients at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University satisfy all criteria as below: 1)Adults aged 18-65 years;2)Voluntarily participate in this clinical trial and sign the “informed consent form” or have consent from a legal representative.3)Diagnosed with severe pneumonia of COVID-19: nucleic acid test SARS-CoV-2 positive; respiratory distress (respiratory rate > 30 times / min); hypoxia (resting oxygen saturation < 93% or arterial partial pressure of oxygen / oxygen concentration < 300 mmHg).4)COVID-19 featured lung lesions in chest X-ray image. […] Six grades of ordered variables: GradeDescriptionGrade 1:Discharged of patient;Grade 2:Hospitalized without oxygen supplement;Grade 3:Hospitalized, oxygen supplement is required, but NIV / HFNC is not required;Grade 4:Hospitalized in intensive care unit, and NIV / HFNC treatment is required;Grade 5:Hospitalized in intensive care unit, requiring ECMO and/or IMV;Grade 6:Death.
32532449 This respiratory tract infection is nefarious in how it targets the most distal and highly vulnerable aspect of the human bronchopulmonary tree, specifically, the delicate yet irreplaceable alveoli that are responsible for the loading of oxygen upon red cell hemoglobin for use by all of the body’s tissues.
32532948 A 71-year old gentleman with history of arterial hypertension treated with valsartan presented on was hospitalized at the Infectious Diseases Unit, University of Bologna (Italy) for severe acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and received treatment with hydroxychloroquine 200mg bid (400 mg bid the first day), azithromycin 400 mg qd, thrombotic prophylaxis with enoxaparin 4000 UI qd and Venturi mask oxygen delivering FiO2 of 31%.
32534175 The use of acetazolamide with or without sildenafil also needs to be explored with or without heparin, since increased oxygen delivery to vital organs through prevention of thrombosis/pulmonary emboli along with carbonic anhydrase inhibition may help increase oxygenation and prevent adverse clinical outcomes.
32534848 OB group showed a worse pulmonary clinical picture, with lower PaO2 (57 ± 15 vs. 68 ± 14 mmHg, p = 0.042), and SaO2 (88 ± 6 vs. 92 ± 5%, p = 0.049) at admission consequently requiring higher volumes of oxygen (Fi02: 38 ± 15 vs. 29 ± 19%, p = 0.047) and a longer period to achieve oxygen weaning (10 ± 6 vs. 15 ± 7 days, p = 0.03). […] Subjects with obesity affected by COVID-19 require longer hospitalization, more intensive and longer oxygen treatment, and they may have longer SARS-COV-2 shedding.
32535147 Primary outcomes were mortality and the need for respiratory support, including oxygen administration and mechanical ventilation.
32535188 Median oxygen saturation (SpO2) was 93% (range 60-99), with median PaO2/FiO2 ratio, 267 (IQR 184-314).
32536150 The median duration of symptoms before treatment was 7 days and 26 patients (40%) required oxygen support at baseline.
32537954 Diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 19.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90-193.42; P = 0.012), body temperature ≥ 37.8°C (OR, 10.91; 95% CI, 1.35-88.36; P = 0.025), peripheral oxygen saturation < 92% (OR, 33.31; 95% CI, 2.45-452.22; P = 0.008), and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) > 6.3 (OR, 56.84; 95% CI, 2.64-1,223.78, P = 0.010) at admission were associated with higher risk of severe COVID-19. […] In conclusion, we found that diabetes mellitus, body temperature ≥ 37.8°C, peripheral oxygen saturation < 92%, and CK-MB > 6.3 are independent predictors of severe disease in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
32538995 Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and high-flow oxygen therapy are not recommended due to the generation of aerosol (associated with risk of viral spread among health personnel), and neither is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or the use of steroids.
32539257 The recommendations mainly cover the following aspects: (1) lung ultrasound in patients with COVID-19 is mainly manifested by thickened and irregular pleural lines, different types of B-lines, shred signs, and other consolidation like dynamic air bronchogram; (2) Echocardiography may show right heart dysfunction, diffuse cardiac function enhancement, stress cardiomyopathy, diffuse cardiac depression and other multiple abnormalities; (3) Critical ultrasonography helps with initiating early treatment in the suspect patient, screening confirmed patients after intensive care unit admission, early assessment of sudden critical events, rapid grading assessment and treatment based on it; (4) Critical ultrasonography helps to quickly screen for the etiology of respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19, make oxygen therapeutic strategy, guide the implementation of lung protective ventilation, graded management and precise off-ventilator; (5) Critical ultrasonography is helpful for assessing the circulatory status of patients with COVID-19, finding chronic cardiopulmonary diseases and guiding extracorporeal membrane oxygenation management; (6) Critical ultrasonography Contributes to the management of organs besides based on cardiopulmonary oxygen transport; (7) Critical ultrasonography can help to improve the success of operation; (8) Critical ultrasonography can help to improve the safety and quality of nursing; (9) When performing critical ultrasonography for patients with COVID-19, it needs to implement three-level protection standard, pay attention to disinfect the machine and strictly obey the rules from nosocomial infection.
32539273 Second, cardiorespiratory variables (heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension, and inspired fraction of carbon dioxide) were measured at rest and during moderate exercise.
32539537 Patients with COVID-19 are described as exhibiting oxygen levels incompatible with life without dyspnea. […] It is possible that coronavirus has an idiosyncratic action on receptors involved in chemosensitivity to oxygen, but well-established pathophysiological mechanisms can account for most, if not all, cases of silent hypoxemia. […] These mechanisms include how dyspnea and the respiratory centers respond to low levels of oxygen, how prevailing carbon dioxide tensions (PaCO2) blunt the brain’s response to hypoxia, effects of disease and age on control of breathing, inaccuracy of pulse oximetry at low oxygen saturations, and temperature-induced shifts in the oxygen dissociation curve.
32539988 We defined asymptomatic infection as SARS-CoV-2 infection with no history of clinical signs and symptoms, severe COVID-19 as clinical symptoms of pneumonia (dyspnoea, tachypnoea, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation <93%, and need for oxygen therapy), and mild COVID-19 as all other symptoms.
32541352 Pulmonary rehabilitation during the acute management of COVID-19 should be considered when possible and safe and may include nutrition, airway, posture, clearance technique, oxygen supplementation, breathing exercises, stretching, manual therapy, and physical activity.
32541972 Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors for death were old age, low non oxygen saturation, low lymphocyte count, myocardial injury, abnormal increase of IL 2R, IL-6, and IL-10. […] Multivariate regression showed that old age (OR=1.11, 95%CI=1.03-1.19, P=0.026), low non oxygen saturation(OR=0.85, 95%CI=0.72-0.99, P=0.041), and abnormal increase of IL-10(>9.1 ng/L, OR=101.93, 95%CI=4.74-2190.71, P=0.003)were independent risk factors for COVID-19 patients combined with hypertension, coronary heart disease or diabetes. […] In COVID-19 patients combined with hypertension, coronary heart disease or diabetes, the risk factors for death were old age, low non oxygen saturation, low lymphocyte count, myocardial injury, and abnormal increase of IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-10. […] Old age, low non oxygen saturation and abnormal increase of IL-10 were independent risk factors.
32542464 Review 1: we synthesized results from randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HFNC to conventional oxygen therapy (COT) in critically ill patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. […] Review 1: 12 RCTs (n = 1,989 patients) provided low-certainty evidence that HFNC may reduce invasive ventilation (relative risk [RR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 0.99) and escalation of oxygen therapy (RR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.98) in patients with respiratory failure.
32544034 Inclusion criteria were: (i) positive nasopharyngeal or lower respiratory tract reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays; (ii) severe COVID infection defined as requirement for hospitalization and oxygen therapy; (iii) neurologic manifestations; (iv) abnormal brain MRI.
32545714 This paper addresses several key biological processes of reactive oxygen, halogen and nitrogen species (ROS, RHS and RNS) that play crucial physiological roles in organisms from plants to humans.
32548163 On the 8th d of admission, the patient’s highest temperature was 40.7 °C, and oxygen saturation was 83% despite high-flow oxygen inhalation. […] In addition to nasal catheter oxygen inhalation and symptomatic support, antiviral drugs were used throughout the treatment.
32549025 He had hypoxic respiratory failure and required oxygen therapy.
32549692 Five out of the 10 patients - including the patients who presented with hypoxia - subsequently required supplemental oxygen postoperatively. […] Two patients had persistently elevated oxygen demands requiring prolonged administration of supplemental oxygen therapy beyond postoperative day 3. […] Our findings suggest that hip fracture patients who present with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 infection may have temporarily increased oxygen demands postoperatively, but they can safely undergo early surgical intervention after appropriate medical optimization.
32550056 Supportive treatment such as oxygen therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and ventilator support can also be used.
32553536 Survival and mechanical ventilation (MV) outcomes were reported for 14 days and stratified by disease severity designated at admission (severe, ≥3L supplemental oxygen to maintain oxygen saturation >93%).
32553908 Oxygen support was required for 24.1% (13/54), including high flow oxygen (n=2), noninvasive (n=1) and invasive (n=3) mechanical ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=1).
32554029 Moreover, some other disrupting factors such as patient distance from the sampler, using protective or oxygen masks by patients, patient activities, coughing and sneezing during sampling time, air movement, air conditioning, sampler type, sampling conditions, storage and transferring conditions, can affect the results.
32554861 Severe and critical patients received glucocorticoid, Gamma-globulin and oxygen inhalation.
32555674 The systolic blood pressure (median, 130 mmHg vs 120 mmHg) was higher and the oxygen saturation (median, 98.3% vs 92.0%) was significantly lower in severe patients than nonsevere patients. […] Our study revealed that older patients with high levels of C-reactive protein, myoglobin, troponin I, and neutrophil and high systolic blood pressure as well as low levels of lymphocytes, and albumin and a low creatinine clearance rate and oxygen saturation were more likely to have severe disease.
32557889 His temperature was 38°C, he was dyspneic despite oxygen.
32559309 Resting energy expenditure (REE), carbon dioxide production (VCO2) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured by indirect calorimetry on seven critically ill patients with COVID-19.
32560658 Four levels of thromboembolic risk were defined according to the severity of COVID-19 reflected by oxygen requirement and treatment, the body mass index, and other risk factors.
32560744 We will include both severe and mild-moderate patients defined as follows: Group A (severe disease) - patients with WHO Working Group on the Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 infection 9-point ordinal scale of Grades 4 (hospitalised, oxygen by mask or nasal prongs), 5 (hospitalised, non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen), 6 (hospitalised, intubation and mechanical ventilation) or 7 (hospitalised, ventilation and additional organ support); Group B (mild-moderate disease) - ambulant or hospitalised patients with peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) >94% RA. […] But may include; time to clinical improvement of at least 2 points on the WHO 9-point category ordinal scale [measured up to 29 days from randomisation], progression of disease (oxygen saturation (SaO2) <92%) or hospitalization or death, or change in time-weighted viral load [measured up to 29 days from randomisation].
32560745 They will be hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 who have positive RT-PCR test and have blood oxygen saturation levels (SpO2) less than 90% and respiratory rate higher than 24 per minute or have involvement of more than 50% of their lung when viewed using computed tomography (CT)-scan.
32562159 The oxygen saturation (SpO2) and temperature were positively changed in patients receiving regimen I compared to regimen II (P = 0.013 and P = 0.012, respectively).
32562915 In the absence of a therapy of proven efficacy, current management consists of off-label or compassionate use therapies based on antivirals, antiparasitic agents in both oral and parenteral formulation, anti-inflammatory drugs, oxygen therapy and heparin support and convalescent plasma.
32563584 Within 24 hours, he showed significant improvement in symptoms, oxygen requirements, radiological findings, and inflammatory markers.
32563601 Testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and lower oxygen saturations were associated with need for ICU and invasive mechanical ventilation, and with death. […] For every 100 admitted persons under investigation, 9 will require ICU stay, invasive mechanical ventilation, or both on arrival and another 12 within 2 to 3 days of hospital admission, especially persons under investigation with lower oxygen saturations and positive SARS-CoV-2 swab results.
32564028 The assessment of the extent of ARF should be based on arterial or capillary blood gas analysis under room air conditions, and it needs to include the calculation of oxygen supply (measured from the variables of oxygen saturation, hemoglobin level, the corrected values of Hüfner’s factor, and cardiac output). […] A significant proportion of patients with ARF present with relevant hypoxemia, which often cannot be fully corrected, even with a high inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) under NHF. […] In this situation, the oxygen therapy can be escalated to CPAP or NIV when the criteria for endotracheal intubation are not met.
32565097 More SARS patients required oxygen supplementation than COVID-19 patients (18.6 vs.
32565364 Similarly, the role of oxygen therapy as an anti-inflammatory strategy is evident and access to oxygen therapy should be prioritized to avoid the aggravation of COVID-19 infection.
32565512 KL-6 was also found to be significantly correlated with oxygenation index and oxygen partial pressure difference of alveolar artery (PA-aDO2) (Both P < 0.01).
32569363 Disease severity was defined based on the amount of oxygen supplementation required.
32569585 In this prospective, feasibility, cohort study, patients aged 18-75 years with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19-related pneumonia receiving supplemental oxygen or non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure were recruited from San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy. […] The main study outcome was the variation in oxygenation (partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2]/fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired air [FiO2]) between baseline and resupination, as an index of pulmonary recruitment. […] Prone positioning was feasible and effective in rapidly ameliorating blood oxygenation in awake patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia requiring oxygen supplementation.
32570265 LUS score was significantly correlated with CT visual scoring (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and oxygen saturation in room air (r = -0.66, p < 0.001).
32572707 Past medical history of diabetes and hypertension, initial oxygen saturation, COVID-19 testing results, intubation, and outcome were also collected. […] Oxygen saturation and X-ray grade were both significantly associated with the length of stay in hospital, the hazard ratio (HR) of discharge was 1.05 (95% CI [1.01, 1.09], p = 0.017) and 0.61 (95% CI [0.51, 0.73], p < 0.001), respectively. […] In addition, oxygen saturation and X-ray grade were significant predictors of intubation (odds ratio (OR) of intubation is 0.88 (95% CI [0.81, 0.96], p = 0.004) and 3.69 (95% CI [2.25, 6.07], p < 0.001).
32572809 The correct sentence should be “In this retrospective study, we included 550 critically ill COVID-19 patients who need mechanical ventilation (63.5%) and oxygen therapy (35.6%) in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, from February 1, 2020 to April 4, 2020.” 2.
32573353 Half required oxygen therapy and 7.1% high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO); median time from onset to oxygen therapy and HFNO was 7 and 9 days. […] The case fatality rate was 0.92% with median time from onset to death of 16 days. Conclusion COVID-19 cases in Shanghai were imported, presenting as viral pneumonia with half of cases needing oxygen therapy.
32573724 2.4% and 5.1% of patients in the CPT and the standard-treatment group have been admitted to ICU eventually. 70% of the patients who had severe respiratory symptoms got improved and removed oxygen supports within 7 days after CPT.
32573895 The critical evaluation of all cases suggests that the timing of the administration of tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 receptor antagonist, could be associated with a better efficacy when administered in concomitance to the drop of the oxygen saturation. […] Thus, in SARS-CoV-2 affected KTRs a close biochemical and clinical monitoring should be set up to allow physicians to hit the virus in the right moment such as a sudden reduction of the oxygen saturation and/or a significant increase of the laboratory values such as D-Dimer.
32574235 The COS included clinical outcomes (recovery/improvement/progression/death), etiology (SARS-CoV-2 nucleic-acid tests, viral load), inflammatory factor (C-reactive protein), vital signs (temperature, respiration), blood and lymphatic-system parameters (lymphocytes, virus antibody), respiratory outcomes (pulmonary imaging, blood oxygen saturation, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, arterial blood gas analysis, mechanical ventilation, oxygen intake, pneumonia severity index), clinical efficacy (prevalence of preventing patients with mild-to-moderate disease progressing to severe disease), and symptoms (clinical symptom score).
32574262 Serial SARS-CoV-2 testing along with hematological measurements, including cell counts, blood biochemistry and serum cytokine levels, and temperature and blood oxygen saturation levels, were recorded for each patient during their hospital stay.
32574309 The percentage of patients in which the partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired O2(FiO2) ratio exceeded 200 was 60%.
32574337 After comprehensive treatment including high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, plasma exchange, antiviral and anti-infection therapies, immune regulation, liquid volume management, glucocorticoid, enteral nutrition support, analgesia and sedation, blood glucose control, anticoagulation and thrombus prevention, and electrolyte balance maintenance, the patient was finally cured, and discharged.
32574432 Recently the internet has been abuzz with new ideas to treat COVID-19, including hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy, undoubtedly driven by the fact that until recently there have been few therapeutic options for this highly contagious and often lethal infection. . . . […] Refractory hypoxemia is certainly treatable with hyperbaric oxygen due to the obvious effect of increasing inspired oxygen partial pressure (PO2), the major reason for using HBO2 for its established indications. […] However, the length of time during which patients can safely be administered HBO2 inside a chamber is limited, due to practical issues of confinement and isolation from other necessary medical interventions, but also because of oxygen toxicity.
32574433 To determine whether hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy be effective to improve hypoxemia for severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients. […] Each met at least one of the following criteria: shortness of breath; respiratory rate (RR) ≥30 breaths/minute; finger pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤93% at rest; and oxygen index (P/F ratio: PaO2/FiO2 ≤300 mmHg). […] Patients were treated with 1.5 atmospheres absolute HBO2 with an oxygen concentration of more than 95% for 60 minutes per treatment, once a day for one week.
32574446 There have been numerous recent inquiries regarding use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) for patients with COVID-19. […] The UHMS Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Committee, UHMS Executive Committee, with collaborative input from multiple senior UHMS members and researchers have drafted this position statement.
32574708 Iron dysregulation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and promotes oxidative stress.
32574789 Mean age was 75.3, mean oxygen (O2) requirements 10.4 l/min.
32575124 All patients had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and oxygen saturations <90% on oxygen support with most intubated. […] We examined clinical and laboratory parameters including oxygen and vasopressor requirements, cytokine profiles, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels pre- and post-tocilizumab treatment. […] Oxygen and vasopressor requirements diminished over the first week post-tocilizumab. […] Compared to published reports on the morbidity and mortality associated with SARS-CoV-2, tocilizumab appears to offer benefits in reducing inflammation, oxygen requirements, vasopressor support, and mortality.
32575366 Respiratory safety was evaluated by measuring end-tidal CO2 and oxygen saturation while wearing the masks in rest and during physical exercise.
32576347 Linear regression analysis showed that D-dimer level was negatively related with pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) and platelet count (PLT) with β values of -0.493, -11.615, and -0.018, respectively (all P < 0.05).
32578070 They include self-monitoring of oxygen saturation (SpO2) from home, continuous wireless SpO2 monitoring on hospital wards, and the integration of SpO2 as the input variable for closed-loop oxygen administration systems.
32578324 More than half of these patients presented with hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen, 39% were intubated within 48 hours and 53% developed acute kidney injury but did not require dialysis.
32578747 Although the lungs are one of the target organs, the hypoxia mechanism is systemic and other organs begin to suffer both through lack of oxygen and through deregulation of inflammation control mechanisms.
32578785 Approximately 5% of the patients will require intensive care unit treatment with oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation.
32578825 On the basis of the opinions of front-line experts and a review of the relevant literature on several topics, we proposed clinical practice recommendations on the following aspects for physiotherapists facing challenges in treating patients and containing virus spread: 1. personal protective equipment, 2. conventional chest physiotherapy, 3. exercise and early mobilization, 4. oxygen therapy, 5. nebulizer treatment, 6. non-invasive ventilation and high-flow nasal oxygen, 7. endotracheal intubation, 8. protective mechanical ventilation, 9. management of mechanical ventilation in severe and refractory cases of hypoxemia, 10. prone positioning, 11. cuff pressure, 12. tube and nasotracheal suction, 13. humidifier use for ventilated patients, 14. methods of weaning ventilated patients and extubation, and 15. equipment and hand hygiene.
32579049 According to the theory of electron excitation in photosensitive molecules, similar to hemoglobin heme, after the photon absorption there would be an increase in the stability of the iron ion bond with the center of the pyrrole ring, preventing the losses of heme function oxygen transport (HbO2). […] The light is also absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase in the R-NIR region, with a consequent increase in electron transport, regulating enzyme activity and resulting in a significant increase of oxygen rate consumption by mitochondria, increasing ATP production. Conclusions: The most favorable range of optical radiation to operate in this system is between R-NIR region, in which cytochrome c oxidase and porphyrin present absorption peaks centered at 640 nm and HbO2 with absorption peak centered at 900 nm.
32582740 Most patients (23/29; 79.8%) received supplemental oxygen therapy and antibiotics (23/29; 79.8%) in addition to traditional Chinese medicines (26/29; 89.7%). […] Need of oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, intravascular immunoglobulin, and duration of antibiotic therapy were increased in those with severe disease. Conclusions: Significant differences in demographical and clinical characteristics were observed in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19.
32583671 However, dedicated devices and repeated tracheal toilettes may be needed to deal with oxygen-therapy-related tracheal crusting.
32584326 ICU patients had higher BMIs, higher respiratory rates, and lower room-air capillary oxygen saturations.
32585765 High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy was required on day 4-5 of hospitalization. […] Symptoms of pneumonia were improved which no oxygen treatment required from day 10 of hospitalization.
32586394 Need of either: a.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (Cpap) or Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) orb.IMV in patients who at randomisation were receiving standard oxygen therapy5. […] Severe pneumonia defined by the presence of at least one of the following criteria: a.Respiratory Rate ≥25 breaths /minb.Arterial oxygen saturation≤93% at rest on ambient airc.PaO2/FiO2 ≤300 mmHg 4. […] Need of either: a.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (Cpap) or Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) orb.IMV in patients who at randomisation were in standard oxygen therapy by delivery interfaces5. […] Need of either: a.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (Cpap) or Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) orb.IMV in patients who at randomisation were in standard oxygen therapy by delivery interfaces5.
32586395 Secondary Objectives: • To evaluate cytokine trends / Prevent cytokine storms • To evaluate supplemental oxygen requirements • To decrease mortality of CoViD-19 patients • Delay onset of ventilation TRIAL DESIGN: The study is a single centre, 2-arm, prospective, randomized (ratio 1:1), controlled trial with parallel groups design to compare the reduction of respiratory distress in a CoViD-19 population, using the intervention of the gammaCore®-Sapphire device plus standard of care (active) vs. standard of care alone (SoC) - the control group. […] On home/therapy oxygen (i.e. for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) at baseline prior to development of CoViD-193. […] Max doses per day is 9 or 18 stimulations.Plus standard of care Control: Standard of care: oxygen therapy, antibiotics and ventilatory support if necessary depending on the clinic MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary Endpoint: Initiation of mechanical ventilation, from randomization until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first Secondary Endpoints: Safety; ascertainment of Adverse Effects/Serious Adverse Events, from randomisation to ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs firstCytokine Storm measured by: Tumor necrosis factor α, Interleukin 6, Interleukin 1β. […] Days 1,3,5,10,15 and/or at hospital dischargeMortality and/or need for Critical Care admission, from randomisation until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first,O2 saturation levels , from randomization until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs firstNeed for supplemental oxygen, from randomisation until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first RANDOMISATION: The patients are classified according to their oxygen levels as mild, moderate and severe and randomized according to their classification to the intervention and control in a ratio of 1:1.
32589189 The main outcome was COVID-19 severity assessed on a 7-point ordinal scale (ranging from 1 [not hospitalized with no limitations on activities] to 7 [death]) with a cutoff at 3 (hospitalized and not requiring supplemental oxygen).
32589691 Additionally, patients who underwent at least one of the following treatments were assigned to the severe group: continuous renal replacement therapy, high-flow oxygen absorption, noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
32590322 Exercising with facemasks may reduce available Oxygen and increase air trapping preventing substantial carbon dioxide exchange.
32590779 The results of blood gas analysis indicated that the partial pressure of oxygen was 84 mm Hg with oxygen 8 L/min, and the oxygenation index was less than 200 mm Hg.
32590819 Nine patients required high flow oxygen.
32591667 The following sequence was also suggested as early supportive therapy and monitoring: intravenous fluid administration, oxygen therapy, and application of corticosteroids.
32593060 In the patient side, prioritisation is performed using a contracted patient decision matrix constructed between ‘serological/protein biomarkers and the ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to fractional inspired oxygen criteria’ and ‘patient list based on novel MCDM method known as subjective and objective decision by opinion score method’.
32593202 On admission, he was tachypnoeic and in severe hypoxic respiratory failure with dangerously low peripheral oxygen saturations (SpO2 ) 83% on 15L oxygen.
32412891 COVID-19 positive patients (n=5) at a single institution received hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) between 13 and 20 April 2020. […] All the patients had tachypnoea and low oxygen saturation despite receiving high FiO2. […] Following HBOT, oxygen saturation increased, tachypnoea resolved and inflammatory markers fell.
32594085 The patient’s O2 saturation was 80% using an oxygen mask, which was gradually declining. […] Punctual and early use of HP and CRRT in the treatment of ARDS in patients with COVID-19 prevented the progression of ARDS and patient intubation, reduced respiratory distress and the patient’s dependence on oxygen, prevented other complications such as AKI and septic shock in the patient, and reduced mortality and hospital length of stay.
32596244 Therefore, in this review, we summarize the mounting evidence obtained from preclinical studies using animal models of lethal pneumonia where curcumin exerts protective effects by regulating the expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory factors such as IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and COX-2, promoting the apoptosis of PMN cells, and scavenging the reactive oxygen species (ROS), which exacerbates the inflammatory response.
32596641 Ten cases (38.5%) demonstrated moderate to severe sleep apnoea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) when using an oxygen desaturation index ≥15 times/hour as the cut-off value.
32597503 However, sustaining redox homeostasis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in neutrophils are critical during chemotaxis, oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation.
32597954 Illness severity correlated directly with plasma MPO-DNA complexes (P = .0360), whereas Pao2/fraction of inspired oxygen correlated inversely (P = .0340).
32599101 In 5 of the 28 cases, sampling of the patient’s environment yielded SARS-CoV-2; index cases who required supplemental oxygen had higher odds of environmental contamination (P = .01).
32599285 This paper discussed nocturnal oxygen therapy as a new option for people with COVID-19 under home quarantine. […] It suggested that nocturnal oxygen therapy in the early stages may be helpful in preventing disease progression by inhibiting the rapid replication of the virus and improving the body’s antiviral ability.
32600316 Activating the cholinergic antiinflammatory path might be considered to alleviate severe COVID-19 with or without concurrent oxygen-induced lung injury.
32600350 At presentation, his oxygen saturation was 94.2% on room air and body temperature was 37.3 °C (99.0 °F) with some moist rales.
32601006 Eventually, the endotracheal tube was feasibly removed after intubation for 18 days and subsequently replaced with noninvasive ventilation and a high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy.
32601125 ACE2 could be implicated in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by endothelial dysfunction due to viral damage. […] This implies a pivotal role played by oxygen in the pathogenetic mechanism of COVID-19 disease, in that its availability would tune the oxidant state and consequent damage.
32602262 AHRF was defined as requiring 15L of supplemental oxygen via non-rebreather mask combined with 6L nasal cannula or use of ≥95% oxygen by high flow nasal cannula.
32602676 The patients who met the primary outcome were older in age (56.5 years vs 50 years), had significantly higher SOFA scores (6 vs 3.5), were in shock (41.7% vs 5%), in higher respiratory distress (66.7% vs 10%), had lower mean arterial oxygen saturation (85% vs 89.5%), had higher CK-MB values (66 vs 26)U/L [6(54.5%) vs 2(9.5%)], had hypoalbuminemia (100% vs 50%) and acute kidney injury 8(72.7%) vs 5(23.8%) on admission.
32603572 He was commenced on broad-spectrum antimicrobials and oxygen therapy.
32603901 We found no significant difference between patients with and without asthma in terms of severity (length of stay, maximal oxygen flow needed, noninvasive ventilation requirement, and intensive care unit transfer); 52.2% of the patients with asthma had Global INitiative for Asthma step 1 asthma.
32604593 The aim of our study is to propose a remote patient monitoring solution through a smart phone application (Smart Patient) collecting health data to support diagnosis, monitoring and predicting poor outcome in asymptomatic/mild cases of COVID-19, including signs and symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, medications and vital signs such as body temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate and oxygen saturation.
32605182 We studied the potential mechanisms of e-cig vape cartridge aerosol induced inflammatory response by evaluating the generation of reactive oxygen species by MCT, VEA, and cartridges and their effects on the inflammatory state of pulmonary epithelium and immune cells both in vitro and in vivo. […] Cells exposed to these aerosols generated reactive oxygen species, caused cytotoxicity, induced epithelial barrier dysfunction, and elicited an inflammatory response.
32607928 Cox proportional hazard regression modeling showed an increased risk of in-hospital mortality associated with age older than 50 years (hazard ratio [HR] 2.34, CI 1.47-3.71), systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg (HR 1.38, CI 1.06-1.80), a respiratory rate greater than 24 per min (HR 1.43, CI 1.13-1.83), peripheral oxygen saturation less than 92% (HR 2.12, CI 1.56-2.88), estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73m2 (HR 1.80, CI 1.60-2.02), IL-6 greater than 100 pg/mL (HR 1.50, CI 1.12-2.03), D-dimer greater than 2 mcg/mL (HR 1.19, CI 1.02-1.39), and troponin greater than 0.03 ng/mL (HR 1.40, CI 1.23-1.62).
32609284 It is recommended to confirm pregnancy and disease early on, to use technological resources for screening and providing guidance and support to pregnant women. recommendations emphasize isolation, proper rest, sleep, nutrition, hydration, medications, and in the more severe cases, oxygen support, monitoring of vital signs, emotional support, and multiprofessional and individualized care.
32609464 At baseline, muscle function was consistent with intensive care unit-acquired weakness and the patient still needed mechanical ventilation (MV) and oxygen support.
32610262 RECOVERY trial is the only randomized controlled trial that has shown a significant reduction of death by 35% in ventilated patients and by 20% amongst patients on supplemental oxygen therapy with the dexamethasone, although no benefit was observed in mild cases.
32610859 All 4 patients in the severe category had raised FDP, D-Dimer levels and they needed oxygen support. […] Patients with older age and associated comorbid conditions (COPD and diabetes) seem to have greater risk for lung injury thereby requiring oxygen support during the course of disease and these patients also had greater derangement in their biochemical profile.
32612430 Safety issues related to infection spread limit the use of high flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in hypoxic patients.
32615317 Meanwhile, we revealed that metabolic, glucocorticoid, and reactive oxygen species-associated networks were enriched in both short- and long-term infection models.
32616134 Methods Totally 63 discharged patients in Wuhan,China,who underwent both chest CT and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)from February 1 to February 29,2020,were included.With RT-PCR as a gold standard,the performance of chest CT in diagnosing COVID-19 was assessed.Patients were divided into mild/moderate and severe/critical groups according to the disease conditions,and clinical features such as sex,age,symptoms,hospital stay,comorbidities,and oxygen therapy were collected.CT images in the recovery phase were reviewed in terms of time from onset,CT features,location of lesions,lobe score,and total CT score. […] 53.85%; χ2=18.90, P<0.001), lower nasal oxygen therapy ratio (81.08% vs.
32617244 This case highlights the risk of delayed thromboembolic complications in patients with COVID-19 infection and the need to identify the subgroup of patients with a higher risk of thromboembolism, such as discharges to nursing homes and those in need of oxygen requirement; and those with underlying comorbid conditions that may require anticoagulation for a longer duration.
32617738 Patients with ODs less frequently needed oxygen therapy.
32618262 The CXR score showed a significant positive correlation with C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and fever duration, and a negative correlation with oxygen saturation.
32618463 In the emergency department, it is included the management of suspicious cases and, if it any risk factor is found, complementary tests are carried out for precise diagnosis and admission assessment; In case of oxygen saturation <95% and poor general condition, valuation is requested for admission to the ICU.
32618497 Multivariate analysis showed that oxygen requirement and fever during admission were the only clinical factors independently associated with higher NAb titers.
32618794 On hospital day 3, owing to increased dyspnea and oxygen requirement, the patient was treated with tocilizumab followed by 5 days of remdesivir.
32619764 Among the five patients treated, two needed mechanical ventilation and one needed high-flow cannula oxygen.
32620311 Every patient sent a daily clinical questionnaire with temperature and oxygen saturation 3 times a day.
32622450 Medical management is mostly supportive with antipyretics, hydration, oxygen supplementation, and other measures as dictated by clinical need.
32624494 In a substantial number of patients, adequate arterial oxygenation cannot be achieved with supplementary oxygen therapy alone.
32628003 Outcomes, including clinical improvement, mortality and changes in oxygen-support at 24, 48, and 72 hours, and 7, 14, and 28 days post-tocilizumab, are reported.
32628931 Herein, we investigate associations between VL and parameters, such as severity of symptoms, disposition (admission versus direct discharge), length of hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit, length of oxygen support, and overall survival in 205 patients from a tertiary care center in New York City. […] No significant association was noted between VL, admission to intensive care unit, length of oxygen support, and overall survival.
32629703 He was treated with oxygen, broad-spectrum antibiotics, antiviral drugs, and methylprednisolone.
32631405 Percentage of oxygen saturation (SpO2 level) 5.
32632417 Supplemental oxygen therapy was required in 18 patients (56·3%), with high-flow requirements in six (18·7%). […] Severe cases of pneumonia requiring supplemental oxygen were more likely to exhibit bilateral alveolar or interstitial infiltrates on chest X-ray (55·6% vs. […] 0·0%; P-value = 0·05) at admission than those with no oxygen requirements.
32632667 The effect was reversible upon release of the ulnar artery. (c) To test for collateral perfusion undetectable by pulse-oximetry, we measured regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) of the thenar muscle by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).
32633068 Seventy-two patients (85.7%) had respiratory insufficiency, required oxygen supplementation, and had reduced mobility or were bedridden. […] Significant differences between subjects with and without DVT were D-dimer > 3000 µg/L (P < .05), current or previous cancer (P < .05), and need of high flow nasal oxygen therapy and/or non-invasive ventilation (P < .01).
32633712 All women requiring oxygen >5 L/min were intubated.
32633856 Symptoms such as fever or cough, and signs such as oxygen saturation or lung auscultation findings, are the first and most readily available diagnostic information.
32634734 Unlike patients with other forms of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, these patients do not exhibit increased lung stiffness or dramatic dyspnea., even in the presence of arterial blood oxygen levels lower than that seen normally in mixed venous blood. […] Urgent intubation and mechanical ventilation with high inflation pressures and raised inhaled oxygen concentration have proved unhelpful or worse, but why? […] Search for an open PFO after a large drop in arterial oxygen saturation can be performed at the bedside with a variety of well-established techniques including bedside echocardiography, nitrogen washout test, and imaging studies.
32635353 We present the case of a 48-year-old male with severe COVID-19, on the verge of meeting intubation requirements, who needed progressive oxygen support for respiratory distress.
32637278 Poor clinical outcomes of critically ill patients are most likely due to the impaired gaseous exchange in the lungs in addition to the decreased oxygen-carrying capacity caused by the destruction of red blood cells.
32639236 Patients were matched on positive end-expiratory pressure, fractional inspired oxygen tension, and respiratory rate.
32639466 Critical illness was associated with older age (p = 0.017), longer duration of symptoms (p = 0.036), and lower oxygen saturation on presentation (p = 0.016); with more thrombocytopenia (p = 0.015); higher C-reactive protein (p = 0.031); and lower WBC count (p = 0.039).
32641037 Muscle satellite cell (MuSC) oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate was measured.
32643529 Interestingly, among the identified NLPs, four bis([1,3]dioxolo)pyran-5-carboxamide derivatives showed ΔGbinding > -56.0 kcal/mol, forming essential short hydrogen bonds with HIS163 and GLY143 amino acids via dioxolane oxygen atoms.
32644215 For parameters to be measured at the hospital entrance, age, clinical history, National Early Warning Score2 (NEWS2, a multiparametric score system), partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F ratio), C-reactive protein, and blood cell count were selected.
32644254 TCZ was administered followed by methylprednisolone to patients with >3L oxygen requirement and pneumonia severity index score ≤130 with computed tomography scan changes.
32645044 Due to the overwhelming of our system, a total of 14 patients (17.1%) were treated in the ICU, 83% of deaths never received Critical Care Support, only 40% had mechanical ventilation support despite 100% needing oxygen and the leading cause of death being pulmonary.
32645300 She was tachycardic, febrile, and had an oxygen saturation of 88% on room air. […] On Day 2, she became hypoxic requiring 6 L oxygen. […] Inflammatory markers subsequently improved and she was weaned off oxygen.
32645630 Type I interferons seem to improve respiratory distress, relieve lung abnormalities, present better saturation, reduce needs for supplemental oxygen support.
32646502 Patients will be followed-up by specialist physicians and Primary Health Care professionals. - Men and women. - Age between 18 and 75 years old. - Diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection, by PCR and/or IgM+ antibody test and/or antigen test. - Clinical diagnosis of lung involvement: (respiratory symptoms +/- pathological auscultation +/- O2 desaturation) - Chest X-ray with mild-moderate alterations or normal. - Patients who give their verbal informed consent in front of witnesses, which will be reflected in the patients’ medical records. - Oxygen desaturation below 93% or P02 < 62. - Moderate-severe dyspnea or significant respiratory or general deterioration that makes admission advisable. - Chest X-ray with multifocal infiltrates. - Insulin-dependent diabetes with poor control or glycaemia in the emergency room test greater than 300 mg/ml (fasting or not). - Other significant comorbidities: Severe renal failure (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min); cirrhosis or chronic liver disease, poorly controlled hypertension. - Heart rhythm disturbances (including prolonged QT). - Severe immunosuppression (HIV infection, long-term use of immunosuppressive agents); cancer. - Pregnant or breast-feeding women. - Patients under use of glucocorticoids for other diseases. - History of allergy or intolerance to any of the drugs in the study (prednisone, azithromycin or hydroxychloroquine). - Patients who took one or more of the study drugs in the 7 days prior to study inclusion. - Patients taking non-suppressible drugs with risk of QT prolongation or significant interactions. - Patients unwilling or unable to participate until study completion. - Participation in another study.
32647324 Of 190 patients with CLL and confirmed COVID-19 diagnosed between 28/03/2020 and 22/05/2020, 151 (79%) presented with severe COVID-19 (need of oxygen and/or intensive care admission).
32648899 More than 75% of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 require supplemental oxygen. […] Emerging data indicate that dexamethasone therapy reduces 28-day mortality in patients requiring supplemental oxygen compared with usual care (21.6% vs 24.6%; age-adjusted rate ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.74-0.92]) and that remdesivir improves time to recovery (hospital discharge or no supplemental oxygen requirement) from 15 to 11 days.
32653511 In contrast, some studies have reported that EPA and DHA can make cell membranes more susceptible to non-enzymatic oxidation mediated by reactive oxygen species, leading to the formation of potentially toxic oxidation products and increasing the oxidative stress.
32654557 When comparing exposure to RAAS inhibitors and nonexposure to RAAS inhibitors for intensive care unit admission, high-flow oxygen therapy, and death, the adjusted odds ratios (95% CIs) were 1.515 (0.402-5.701), 0.663 (0.272-1.619), and 1.363 (0.513-3.662), respectively.
32654656 Methodology: Although the dominant approach for these asymptomatic/paucisymptomatic patients is to monitor oxygen saturation, we suggest additionally considering the potential merits and utility of home-based imaging.
32654921 Automatic recording was made of demographic variables, severity parameters, laboratory data, assisted ventilation (HFO: high-flow oxygen therapy and IMV: invasive mechanical ventilation), oxygenation (PaO2, PaO2/FiO2) and complications. […] High-flow oxygen therapy was used in 62.7% of the patients, with failure in 85%.
32654963 Compared with patients in the highest RVLS tertile, those in the lowest tertile were more likely to have higher heart rate; elevated levels of D-dimer and C-reactive protein; more high-flow oxygen and invasive mechanical ventilation therapy; higher incidence of acute heart injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and deep vein thrombosis; and higher mortality.
32658884 Sixty-five patients adhere the televideoconsultation completely and were cured, also with home oxygen therapy and other treatments additional to the standard anti-inflammatory and antibiotic drugs.
32660611 Secondary Objectives • Number of days free of mechanical ventilation at Day 29 • Duration of intensive care unit stay at Day 29 • Change from baseline in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at Day 29 • Change from baseline in peripheral capillary oxygen saturation/ fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2 /FiO2) at Day 29 • Duration of hospitalization at Day 29 • Survival (based on all-cause mortality) at Day 60 and Day 90 Safety • Incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events and treatment-emergent serious adverse events.
32661507 In addition to routine care and measures-such as oxygen therapy, antiviral therapy, and respiratory support-treatment of underlying disease, nutritional support, sputum expectoration complication prevention, and psychological support should also be considered for elderly patients.
32666316 Oxygen saturation level, CRP, LDH, and blood cell counts were collected and compared between CT/RT-PCR classes.
32667150 Outcome measures evaluated at the admission in Rehabilitation Unit were: type of respiratory supports needed, fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), FIO2/PaO2, Barthel Index (BI), modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) Dyspnoea Scale, and 6-Minute Walking Test (6-MWT).
32667669 Independent risk factors associated with mortality included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.60-1.92), male sex (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.31-1.88), high fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), high positive end-expiratory pressure (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06) or low Pao2:Fio2 ratio (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74-0.87) on ICU admission, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.28-2.19), hypercholesterolemia (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), and type 2 diabetes (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.39).
32668763 Meta-analysis of treatment approaches indicated that three modalities of treatment were predominantly used in the majority of patients with a similar prevalence, including antiviral agents (79%), antibiotics (78%), and oxygen therapy (77%). […] Moreover, treatments such as antiviral agents, antibiotics, and oxygen therapy which are used in over three quarters of patients are also analyzed.
32670524 Six patients had pneumonia, and 4 needed oxygen therapy. […] A rapid clinical improvement of tachypnea/dyspnea and oxygen saturation was observed, after red blood cell exchange transfusion, in a young girl with SCD and worsening of anemia (Hb level from 9.2 g/dl to 6.1g/dl).
32671348 To design and test a ventilator circuit that can be used for ventilation of two or more patients with a single ventilator, while allowing individualization of tidal volume, fractional concentration of oxygen, and positive end-expiratory pressure to each patient, irrespective of the other patient’s respiratory system mechanics.
32672430 For each patient, as gas exchange index through the alveolocapillary membrane, we determined the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (AaDO⁠2) and the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient augmentation (AaDO⁠2 augmentation). […] For each patient, as measurement of hypoxemia, we determined oxygen saturation (SpO2), partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO⁠2), PaO⁠2 deficit and the ratio between arterial partial pressure of oxygen by blood gas analysis and fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F). […] Patients of ICU Group had lower oxygen saturation, PaO⁠2, P/F and higher heart rate, respiratory rate, AaDO⁠2, AaDO⁠2 augmentation and lactate than patients of Non-ICU Group.
32672840 During a median follow-up of 20 days, 30 (13.8%) patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for high-flow nasal cannula or higher-level oxygen support measures to correct hypoxemia.
32672860 Lymphocyte count and pulse oximetry oxygen saturation/FiO2 ratio increased by days 3 and 5, whereas C-reactive protein levels dropped by day 2.
32674190 CT of the lung showed extensive bilateral ground glass opacities.The patient was treated according to a predefined standard, including oxygen supplementation and, after intermittent worsening, with CPAP-ventilation.
32674191 The patient was initially treated with highflow oxygen via nasal cannula (HFNC) and CPAP for two days but had to be intubated and mechanically ventilated. […] After discontinuation of ECMO and 11 days of intermittent assisted ventilation via tracheostoma and low dose oxygen (1 l/min), the patient could be transferred to rehabilitation.
32676371 Disease severity was determined by the need for supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation. […] Patients who needed supplemental oxygen (n=19, 17.4%) were significantly older (P<0.001) and significantly more of them had co-morbidities (P=0.011). […] CRSinitial ≥5 had a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 92% in predicting the need for oxygen, and 73% sensitivity and 88% specificity in predicting the need for mechanical ventilation. […] CRS between the 6th and 10th day from the onset of symptoms (CRSD6-10) ≥5 had a sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 95% in predicting the need for oxygen, and 100% sensitivity and 86% specificity in predicting the need for mechanical ventilation.
32678530 41.4%; rate ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.81) and among those receiving oxygen without invasive mechanical ventilation (23.3% vs. […] In patients hospitalized with Covid-19, the use of dexamethasone resulted in lower 28-day mortality among those who were receiving either invasive mechanical ventilation or oxygen alone at randomization but not among those receiving no respiratory support.
32678799 In Montgomery County, Maryland, measurements of oxygen saturation (SpO2) by pulse oximetry obtained by the emergency medical service (EMS) were added to these traditional metrics to enhance the public health picture for decision makers.
32679582 Supportive and symptomatic treatments (oxygen therapy and antibiotics for preventing/treating bacterial coinfections) are recommended in these patients.
32680760 Included are the first 3 weeks of screening by our physicians for potential exposure to COVID-19, common symptoms, temperature, blood oxygen saturation, and heart rate.
32680896 Physical examination, bedside echocardiography, hemodynamic monitoring, lactate and venous oxygen saturation are important components of the patient evaluation.
32681847 Accordingly, at many health-care facilities, patients who had increasing oxygen requirements were emergently intubated and mechanically ventilated to avoid exposure to aerosol-generating procedures.
32684211 Ramsay score, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) before sedation and at 1, 12, 24 hours after sedation, sleep time were collected, and the side effects such as excessive sedation, fall of tongue, abdominal distension, aspiration, bradycardia, escalation to invasive mechanical ventilation during 24 hours were also collected.
32685081 The patient was afebrile, had an oxygen saturation of 100%, and denied chest pain as well as shortness of breath.
32685300 Within a short period after they were administered tocilizumab, their oxygen saturation improved and other inflammatory markers such as D-dimer levels, lactate dehydrogenase, and ferritin levels decreased.
32685326 The symptoms started to resolve on pharmacological treatment and supplemental noninvasive oxygen supply over the next weeks.
32686375 In our case, we performed tracheostomy for a 70-year-old man with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who had required more oxygen with gradual weakness of respiratory muscle to maintain his arterial oxygen saturation.
32687485 CASE REPORT A 46-year-old female with past medical history of diabetes mellites, hypertension, and asthma presented in the emergency department (ED) with dyspnea requiring 6 liters per minute of oxygen on presentation.
32687538 The capacity of Kenyan hospitals to absorb increases in caseload due to COVID-19 is constrained by the availability of oxygen, with only 58% of hospital beds in hospitals with oxygen supply. […] Additional investments will however need to be strategically prioritized to focus on strengthening essential services first, such as oxygen availability before higher cost investments such as ICU beds and ventilators.
32687823 Patients were evaluated for ECMO support based on a partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio of less than 150 mm Hg or pH of less than 7.25 with a partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide exceeding 60 mm Hg with no life-limiting comorbidities.
32690096 The treatment of patients includes supportive treatment, antiviral treatment, and oxygen therapy.
32690324 The process described was equivalent to the oxygen transport system.
32690356 There are significant logistical challenges to providing respiratory support devices, beyond simple oxygen flow, when centres run out of supplies or do not have these devices at all, such as in low resource settings.
32690444 Ten patients (58.8%) received intranasal oxygen, while 3 (17.6%) received non-invasive mechanical ventilation, and 4 (23.5%) received high-flow oxygen.
32690572 The patient was admitted for 1 day; immunosuppressive therapy with tacrolimus and low-dose prednisolone was continued; and the patient recovered successfully without the use of antiviral agents or oxygen therapy.
32690998 We present a case of a young veteran who presented with e-cigarette vaping associated lung injury (EVALI) to a primary care clinic and who required subsequent inpatient admission and home oxygen therapy after discharge.
32692228 However, a technical standard for oxygen therapy nursing, as well as how this would improve clinical outcomes and symptoms, is yet to be explored. […] Fifteen patients who did not receive oxygen therapy and 13 patients who were transferred from other hospitals were excluded. […] The rest of the 30 patients that received standardized oxygen therapy in our unit were included in the study. […] Baseline characteristics, symptoms, and finger pulse oxygen saturation were collected during hospitalization. […] The fingertip oxygen saturation was 94.80%±3.49% at ICU admission and 97.8%±1.27% when transferred out of ICU after standardized oxygen therapy (P<0.005). […] The standardized oxygen therapy nursing strategy for patients with COVID-19 emphasizes the nursing measurement, which focuses on the patient’s oxygenation. […] It is led by nurses and starts oxygen therapy at an earlier stage.
32693650 This retrospective study included patients with severe COVID-19 requiring oxygen therapy who received tocilizumab in seven centers across Poland. […] Sixteen patients (57%) no longer needed oxygen therapy within a week (p < 0.001).
32695322 Four of seven (57%) received oxygen therapy, one (14%) received noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation, five (71%) received antiviral and antibacterial drugs, three (43%) recieved glucocorticoid therapy and one (14%) received continuous renal replacement therapy.
32695323 Eighty percent of patients received supplemental oxygen; none received non-invasive ventilation, one was intubated.
32696108 Dexamethasone 6 mg once daily (either by mouth or by intravenous injection) for 10 days may result in a reduction in mortality in COVID-19 patients by one-third for patients on ventilators, and by one-fifth for those receiving oxygen.
32696443 Therefore, several empirical oxygenation support initiatives have been initiated with intermittent hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy to overcome the unrelenting and progressive hypoxemia during maximum ventilator support in intubated patients, despite high FiO2.
32697030 Following this, the patients’ saturation improved, later to be weaned from oxygen support.
32698822 Oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (SpO2/FiO2) has been described as potential predictor of poor outcome for COVID-19, without considering its time-varying behavior though.
32699094 Severe cases of COVID-19 can result in lung damage, low blood oxygen levels, and even death.
32699149 Around the tenth day after diagnosis, ∼20% of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pneumonia evolve toward severe oxygen dependence (stage 2b) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (stage 3) associated with systemic inflammation often termed a “cytokine storm.” […] All of the patients treated with anakinra improved clinically (P < 0.01), with no deaths, significant decreases in oxygen requirements (P < 0.05), and more days without invasive mechanical ventilation (P < 0.06), compared with the control group.
32699167 In addition to fever and symptom surveillance in the control group, subjects in the intervention group will wear wearable biosensors on their arms to continuously monitor skin temperature, respiratory rate, blood pressure, pulse rate, blood oxygen saturation and daily activities.
32700604 This hyperinflammation leads to worsening of oxygen saturation due to pulmonary infiltration and exudation, organ damage, and dysfunction of coagulation pathway and may lead to multi-organ failure.
32701913 The multidisciplinary assessment comprises a complete physical examination, respiratory evaluation (peripheral oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, dyspnoea assessment, lung ultrasound and pulmonary function), cardiovascular assessment (electrocardiography, echocardiography), nutritional assessment (anthropometrics, mini Nutritional Assessment screening tool), neurological examination including cognitive tests, and mental health assessment.
32701969 Thirty-one percent of patients who were receiving mechanical ventilation at the time of HCQ initiation died during their hospitalization, compared to 18% of patients who were receiving supplemental oxygen but not requiring mechanical ventilation, and 8% of patients who were not requiring supplemental oxygen.
32702153 68.3% received oxygen support; all patients received antiviral therapy, and 15 (36.6%) recipients were additionally treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and interferon-α.
32702930 These women began to exhibit fever or reduced blood oxygen saturation again.
32706108 In some patients, conventional (passive) oxygen therapy alone is sufficient. […] In patients with worsening respiratory failure high flow nasal oxygen therapy (HFNOT) may be effective.
32706407 However, dead spaces would not be sensible to oxygen supplementation, and also, enlargement of pulmonary vessels it has been evidenced. […] Shunt mechanism by vasodilatation, instead, could explain decubitus dependence in oxygenation by blood redistribution as observed in these patients, and moreover, would be more sensible to oxygen supplementation than dead spaces.
32706769 CASE REPORT A 48-year-old man with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus presented to the Emergency Department with acute-onset pleuritic chest pain that had developed 1 day earlier and was found to be hypoxemic, requiring supplemental oxygen. […] The patient’s pleuritic pain and oxygen requirements improved with supportive management over the next several days.
32706859 Inclusion criteria were similar between studies: patients had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, were hospitalized, had oxygen saturation 94% or lower on room air or required supplemental oxygen, and had pulmonary infiltrates.
32706953 We conducted a multicenter, randomized, open-label, three-group, controlled trial involving hospitalized patients with suspected or confirmed Covid-19 who were receiving either no supplemental oxygen or a maximum of 4 liters per minute of supplemental oxygen.
32707264 In this clinical trial, conducted in Iran, we enrolled patients with COVID-19 who were older than 60 years and hospitalized to receive supplementary oxygen for their documented pneumonia. […] With a response rate of 80%, whole-lung irradiation in a single fraction of 0.5 Gy had encouraging results in oxygen-dependent patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
32707480 This position paper of the Respiratory Support and Chronic Care Group of the French Society of Respiratory Diseases is intended to help respiratory clinicians involved in care of COVID-19 pandemic in the rational use of non-invasive techniques such as oxygen therapy, CPAP, non-invasive ventilation and high flow oxygen therapy in managing patients outside intensive care unit (ICU).
32707945 It seems that the stimulation of a proinflammatory cascade and the production of large amounts of reactive oxygen species culminates in the subsequent loss of host eubiosis.
32708430 The inflammatory response manifested by increased cytokine levels and reactive oxygen species results in inhibition of heme oxygenase (HO-1), with a subsequent loss of cytoprotection.
32708578 A common denominator in all conditions associated with COVID-19 appears to be the impaired redox homeostasis responsible for reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation; therefore, levels of glutathione (GSH), the key anti-oxidant guardian in all tissues, could be critical in extinguishing the exacerbated inflammation that triggers organ failure in COVID-19.
32709637 Outcome measures were level of oxygen therapy, discharge and death.
32709838 Her vital signs were normal except for oxygen saturation of 87% and bilateral rhonchi on lung auscultation.
32710297 Such programs include diagnostic procedures (spirometry, ECG, blood tests) and treatments like respiratory physio-kinesiotherapy and postural drainage of the lungs; mechanical pulmonary ventilation for rehabilitative purposes, with or without drugs, along with standard medical and, when required, oxygen therapy; inhalation therapies with mineral waters; physical activity and psychological support.
32710975 High IL-6 level, C-reactive protein level, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, ferritin level, d-dimer level, neutrophil count, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were all predictive of mortality (area under the curve >0.70), as were low albumin level, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, and ratio of peripheral blood oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2).
32712235 He was tachypneic and presented severe hypoxemia (75% percutaneous oxygen saturation).
32713377 During the peak of COVID-19 attendance, the ED faced an extraordinary increase in: patients needing oxygen (+239%) or NIV (+725%), transfers to the intensive care unit (+57%), and in-hospital mortality (+309%), as compared to the same period in 2019.
32714705 His PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) was under 100, even with tracheal intubation with 100% oxygen.
32715804 Given the persistent hypoxemia despite oxygen therapy via non rebreather face mask (FiO2:80%), convalescent plasma transfusion was administered that led to a mild clinical improvement as well as decrease in inflammatory markers.
32717853 Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promoting molecules such as peroxides are detrimental to many viruses, including coronaviruses.
32720612 Shortness of breath considerably decreased; oxygen saturation increased, and the NEWS-2 clinical status scale scores decreased.
32721528 IL6ri were initially reserved for critically ill patients, but after review, treatment was liberalized to patients with lower oxygen requirements. […] Patients were divided into two groups: those requiring ≤45% fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (termed stage IIB) and those requiring >45% FiO2 (termed stage III) at the time of IL6ri administration.
32723327 Preserved oxygen saturation despite low partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood samples occur, due to leftward shift of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve induced by hypoxemia-driven hyperventilation as well as possible direct viral interactions with hemoglobin.
32723435 The overall outcome was severe, with high frequencies of hospitalisation (69.8%), respiratory support oxygen (55.7%), non-invasive ventilation (20.9%) or mechanical ventilation (7.5%), and 19% of deaths.
32723449 Supplemental oxygen, high flow nasal canula, non-invasive ventilation and endotracheal intubation are the most commonly suggested methods to improve oxygenation.
32726724 Thoracic computed tomography (CT) was performed on admission, when oxygen support was necessary, and seven days after TCZ started. […] The median duration of oxygen support before the onset of TCZ was shorter among the severe patient group than the critical patient group (1 vs. 4 days, p < 0.001). […] Earlier use of TCZ in COVID-19 infection was beneficial for survival, length of hospitalization and duration of oxygen support. […] The recommendation for administration of TCZ was based on an increase in requirement of oxygen support, progression in thoracic CT, and elevation of inflammation markers, including IL-6, CRP, ferritin, and d-dimer, and decrease in % lymphocytes.
32727624 The trial objective is to determine if Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) or High-Flow Nasal Oxygen (HFNO) is clinically effective compared to standard oxygen therapy in patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19. […] 1) Adults ≥ 18 years; 2) Admitted to hospital with suspected or proven COVID-19; 3) Receiving oxygen with fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ≥0.4 and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤94%; and 4) Plan for escalation to tracheal intubation if needed. […] Intervention two: High-flow nasal oxygen delivered by any device. […] Comparator group: Standard care- oxygen delivered by face mask or nasal cannula (excluding the use of continuous positive airway pressure or high-flow nasal oxygen). […] Participants are randomised in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive either continuous positive airway pressure, high-flow nasal oxygen or standard care.
32728438 Adverse outcomes analysed included supplemental oxygen use, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation and mortality, with the primary endpoint a composite of any of these.
32728966 Secondary objectives were to test the association between LUS score and location of the patient, use of mechanical ventilation, and the pulse oximetry (SpO2)/fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio.
32730358 Five significant variables predicting ICU admission were lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, pulse oxygen saturation, smoking history, and lymphocyte count. […] Seven significant variables predicting mortality were heart failure, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulse oxygen saturation, heart rate, and age.
32730678 All patients had a high C-reactive protein value. 64% of patients required oxygen support and 32% intensive care. 28% developed a secondary infection. 76% (19/25) of the patients has been discharged with cure and 20% (5/25) died. […] Secondary infection development was significantly associated with oxygen demand (P = 0.027) and need for intensive care (P = 0.001).
32731283 Poor oxygen saturation (< 88 %) and increased signs of inflammation (CRP > 97 mg/l and/or IL-6 > 80 pg/ml) indicate a critical course and should be determined in symptomatic patients.
32733907 All the patients had fever, required non-invasive oxygen therapy and presented a CT lung involvement on imaging more than 50%. […] Results: The two cohorts of patients were comparable for age, sex, laboratory values, concomitant pathologies, and the modality of oxygen support.
32736596 The study will include hospitalised adult patients (≥18 years) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, the virus that causes COVID-19, that clinically meet Grades 3 (hospitalised - mild disease, no oxygen therapy), Grades 4 (hospitalised, oxygen by mask or nasal prongs) and 5 (hospitalised, non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen) of the WHO Working Group on the Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 9-point category ordinal scale.
32738287 We collected sociodemographic information, clinical data, baseline inflammatory markers and follow-up oxygen saturation levels.
32738843 One patient needed oxygen support while hospital course was uncomplicated in the rest.
32739471 Activated vascular endothelial cells become a source of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contribute to the development of coagulopathy, systemic sepsis, a cytokine storm and ARDS.
32740128 Gas blender attached to ECMO is used to allow precise adjustment of characteristics of fresh gas flow, i.e. blood oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal. […] In order to cope with the gas blender shortage, we describe a back-up system set up in our French tertiary referral ECMO center using air and oxygen flowmeters.
32743995 Disease severity scores were defined as: 1) no limitation of daily activities; 2) limitation of daily activities but no need for supplemental oxygen; 3) supplemental oxygen via nasal cannula; 4) supplemental oxygen via facial mask; 5) non-invasive mechanical ventilation; 6) invasive mechanical ventilation; 7) multi-organ failure or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy; and 8) death. […] In Korea, almost all patients of < 50 years of age with COVID-19 recovered without supplemental oxygen.
32745862 Singlet oxygen (1O2) is a reactive oxygen species that plays important role in bacteria/virus inactivation and pollutant degradation. […] It was confirmed that irradiation of the RB filter under oxygen gas stream produced 1O2, which was measured using furfuryl alcohol trapping method followed by HPLC analysis.
32745895 PaO2/FIO2 ratio and oxygen saturation (SaO2) were decreased in critically ill patients.
32747596 A 60-year-old man with swab-positive COVID-19 and extensive ground-glass change seen on CT imaging was successfully managed on our COVID-19 high-dependency unit with only low-flow oxygen and strict awake proning instructions. […] He was successfully weaned off oxygen entirely without any requirement for non-invasive or invasive ventilation and made a recovery to be discharged home after an 18-day hospital stay.
32752010 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the corona virus disease-19 which is accompanied by severe pneumonia, pulmonary alveolar collapses and which stops oxygen exchange.
32753516 Review of the records revealed 138 (92%) patients had pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography, and 146 (97%) required oxygen therapy.
32754041 Cellular therapy, along with organ support systems such as oxygen therapy, artificial ventilation, extra corporeal membrane oxygenation and dialysis, as well as antiviral therapy, are required.
32755117 HFNC provides higher concentration and flow of oxygen, resulting in decreasing anatomic dead space by preventing rebreathing and ensure positive end-expiratory. […] The available reports suggest that HFNC provides high concentrations of oxygen to the patients, who can not reach with conventional devices. […] Besides that, the use of high-flow oxygen cannulas can produce aerosols.
32755653 Pulmonary computerized tomography (CT)-scans were performed significantly more often with time (from 50% to 90%, P<0.0001), and oxygen-dependency (53% vs 80%, P=0.001) and prescription of AZI±HCQ (from 25% to 76%, P<0.0001) were also greater over time. […] The present study showed a significant decrease in admission to ICU over time, which was probably related to multiple factors, including a better indication of pulmonary CT-scan, oxygen therapy, and a suitable prescription of anti-infective agents.
32755777 The Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand values reduced by 42.83% and 39.25%, respectively, compared to the pre-lockdown phase, while Faecal Coliform declined by over 40%.
32756215 The patient was treated with a moderate dose of intravenous corticosteroids and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy.
32757500 Five patients required supplemental oxygen and one required mechanical ventilation.
32758659 Seventeen factors were independently associated with an increased hazard of death, the strongest among them including advanced age, liver cirrhosis, low age-adjusted oxygen saturation, higher concentrations of C-reactive protein and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate.
32758842 The impact could be seen in terms of increased dissolved oxygen (DO) and reduced biological oxygen demand (BOD), Faecal coliform, Total coliform and nitrate (NO3-) concentration.
32758897 We observed too, the markedly reduced local inflammation in the airways after administering NIH lays on its ability to inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase and to markedly diminish reactive oxygen species (ROS).
32758904 N-acetylcysteine is one such drug with potency to scavenge Reactive Oxygen Species, least side effects, and an effective precursor of glutathione.
32761491 With MSC transplantation, the fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) of the two patients gradually decreased while the oxygen saturation (SaO2) and partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) improved.
32762665 Patients with severe/critically ill COVID-19 were more likely to be older, to be single onset (i.e. not belong to a cluster of cases in a family/community, etc.), to have a medical history of hypertension and diabetes; had higher temperature, faster respiratory rates, lower peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2), and higher computer tomography (CT) image quadrant scores and pulmonary opacity percentage; had increased C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and D-dimer on admission; and had lower white blood cells, lymphocyte, and platelet counts and albumin on admission than asymptomatic/mild/moderate cases.
32762737 Daily body temperature and oxygen saturation were recorded as markers of disease severity alongside need for hospitalisation. […] The correlation between chemosensitive scores and oxygen saturation was significant only for taste at T2 (p < 0.001).
32762885 Multiple pathways have been suggested to explain this finding and the related clinical scenarios, encompassing local and systemic inflammatory responses and oxygen supply-demand imbalance.
32763089 Anesthesia nurses have their own professional specialties, such as airway management, the use and maintenance of life support equipment, including ventilators, and the use of high-flow oxygen equipment.
32763101 He had rapidly evolving ARDS [partial arterial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspired concentration of oxygen ratio: 175], and sepsis.
32763657 Human Coronavirus (HCoV) infection causes infiltration of inflammatory cells that cause excessive production of cytokines, proteases, coagulation factors, oxygen radicals and vasoactive molecules causing endothelial damage, disruption of fibrous cap and initiation of formation of thrombus.
32764134 We calculated oxygen consumption (OC). […] There was no significant increase in oxygen during ship transport and no major respiratory complication. […] There was no significant increase in arterial oxygen pressure to fractional inspired oxygen ratio among ventilated patients during ship transport.
32765959 Roughly 71.4% of the older adults require supplementary oxygen, while invasive mechanical ventilation was required in almost a third of the reported hospitalized older individuals. […] Risk for mortality is evident, and attention to the need for supplementary oxygen and possible mechanical ventilation is advised.
32766535 Seven patients received high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy and five received non-invasive mechanical ventilation for lung complications of COVID-19.
32766565 Patients treated with oxygen were assigned to the moderate group (n = 13).
32766567 The strongest combination of clinical, chest radiograph, and lung ultrasound factors for diagnosis was nondependent bilateral pulmonary edema pattern with temperature and oxygen saturation (area under the curve, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.94; sensitivity = 77% [58-93%]; specificity = 76% [53-94%] at the ideal cutoff), which was superior to chest radiograph alone.
32767353 Outcome indicators were death or LOS, and laboratory parameters, e.g., variations in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2, mmHg) to fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) (PaO2/FiO2), and leucocyte count.
32768701 Clinical characteristics and outcomes were retrospectively analysed of patients - with laboratory-confirmed bilateral COVID-19 pneumonia, hyperinflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) ≥20 mg/dL), no hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation >90%), and no contraindications to TCZ - who were treated with subcutaneous TCZ (324 mg) administered within 48 h from hospitalization on top of standard of care (SOC). […] TCZ resulted in a parallel improvement in oxygenation, as assessed by the ratio of partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F) ratio, which increased at day 1 (+11%, IQR +6 to +16; p = 0.005 for within-group and p = 0.006 for between-group comparisons), and day 3 (+23%, IQR +16 to +34; p = 0.005 for within-group and p = 0.003 for between-group comparisons). […] None of the TCZ-treated patients had disease progression, defined as requirement of oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, whereas progression occurred in five (50%) patients among the SOC group.
32768971 The clinical management of COVID-19 has been limited to infection prevention and control measures associated with supportive care such as supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation.
32769659 Recent evidence supports the use of an early, short course of glucocorticoids in patients with COVID-19 who require mechanical ventilation or oxygen support.
32770858 The viral infection leads to severe lack of oxygen, lung oxidative stress because of reactive oxygen species generation, and overactivation of the immune system by activating immune mediators.
32771461 Therapeutic approaches based on these principles include 1) reduction of reinoculation, 2) combination antiviral therapy, 3) immunomodulation, 4) antiplatelet/antithrombotic therapy, and 5) administration of oxygen, monitoring, and telemedicine.
32771635 Patients with anosmia had pneumonia less often (10/37 vs 17/33, p = 0.036), were hospitalized less often (13/37 vs 20/33, p = 0.033), and needed oxygen therapy less often (6/37 vs 17/33, p = 0.002) than patients without anosmia.
32771883 Factors predicting survival were a female sex (OR 0.271; 0.128-0.575, p = 0.001), previous treatment with RAAS inhibitors (OR 0.459; 0.222-0.949, p = 0.036), a higher oxygen saturation at admission (OR 0.901; 0.842-0.963 per percentage point increase, p = 0.002), and a greater platelet count (OR 0.995; 0.991-0.999 per 106/L, p = 0.025).
32772283 Additionally, preexisting cardiovascular disease, malignancy, blood oxygen saturation < 90%, leukocytosis, and lymphopenia at presentation were independently associated with a greater risk of developing cardiac injury.
32773102 In this review, we suggest that the overwhelming production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in oxidative stress is a major cause of local or systemic tissue damage that leads to severe COVID-19.
32773414 Only five (3.5%) patients required oxygen supplementation, four (2.8%) patients had severe disease requiring intensive care, one required mechanical ventilation and mortality occurred in two (1.4%) patients.
32773848 High flow nasal oxygen, face mask ventilation, nebulisation, small bore cannula cricothyroidotomy with jet ventilation should be avoided.
32774178 At present, COVID-19 is managed by available antiviral drugs to improve the symptoms, and in severe cases, supportive care including oxygen and mechanical ventilation is used for infected patients.
32775071 Awake proning delays the use of mechanical ventilation and facilitates the patients with severe ARDS or severe pneumonia in maintaining the supply of oxygen to the body tissues.
32775986 Hydroxychloroquine was administered to 15 patients. 11 patients required supplemental oxygen; 2 of them were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with mechanical ventilation.
32776298 Hospitalized patients ≥18 years old with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were treated with either HCQ or LPV/RTV if they had either respiratory insufficiency (SpO2 ≤ 93% on room air or the need for oxygen insufflation) or bilateral consolidations on chest X‑ray and at least 2 comorbidities associated with poor COVID-19 prognosis.
32776617 Once SARS-CoV-2 enters the blood stream, a cascade of events (Steps 1-8) unfolds including accumulation of angiotensin II, reactive oxygen species, endothelial dysfunction, oxidation of beta 2 glycoprotein 1, formation of antiphospholipid antibody complexes promoting platelet aggregation, coagulation cascade, and formation of cross-linked fibrin blood clots, leading to pulmonary emboli (PE) and large vessel strokes seen on angiographic imaging studies.
32777054 The five double-elite enhancer/promoters that are known to be operational, and shared read-through lncRNA transcripts, imply that ongoing SARS-CoV-2 infection will reduce host defences to reactive oxygen species, directly generate superoxide O2 - and H2O2 (a “ROS storm”), and impair pulmonary endothelial homeostasis.
32777268 Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by orthostatic oxygen desaturation and positional dyspnea from supine to an upright position. […] POS was first observed during physiotherapy sessions; median oxygen desaturation was 8 % (range: 8-12 %).
32779309 Insufficiency of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 in pregnant women and the effects of hypoxia on the placental oxygen supply will cause severe perinatal complications.
32779728 We will allocate 1000 adult patients with COVID-19 receiving ≥10 L/min of oxygen or on mechanical ventilation to intravenous hydrocortisone 200 mg daily vs placebo (0.9% saline) for 7 days.
32779828 Our objective was to evaluate patient-reported oxygen saturation (SpO2) using pulse oximetry as a home monitoring tool for patients with initially non-severe COVID-19 to identify need for hospitalization.
32779925 Data were collected on diagnostic status (COVID-19: confirmed/excluded (using the RT-PCR test)), symptomatology (typical/atypical and other symptoms, body temperature and oxygen saturation) and, in the case of confirmed COVID-19, on disease course (recovered/clinically improved/deteriorated, deceased).
32781167 Venous oxygen saturation was frequently measured (79%), mostly from a CVC blood sample (94%).
32784238 On initial assessment the patient was hypoxic (arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) of 86% on room air), requiring 10 L/min of oxygen to maintain 98% SaO2 Examination demonstrated left-sided tracheal deviation and absent breath sounds in the right lung field on auscultation.
32784240 However, with the patient requiring an increasing fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), a prompt CT pulmonary angiogram scan was performed to exclude an acute pulmonary embolism.
32785285 Multivariate regression identified the amount of supplemental oxygen required at admission (OR: 1.208, 95% CI: 1.011-1.443, p = .037), sputum production (OR: 6.734, 95% CI: 1.630-27.812, p = .008), insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (OR: 11.873, 95% CI: 2.218-63.555, p = .004) and chronic kidney disease (OR: 4.793, 95% CI: 1.528-15.037, p = .007) as significant risk factors for intensive care unit admission or death. […] Patients with increased sputum production and higher supplemental oxygen requirements at admission, and insulin dependent diabetes or chronic kidney disease may be at increased risk for severe illness.
32787397 The treatment of severely ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has brought the worldwide shortage of oxygen and ventilator-related resources to public attention. […] Most patients need oxygen and supportive therapy. […] In Africa, the shortage of oxygen is even more severe and needs equipment that is simpler to use than a ventilator. […] Different models of generating oxygen locally at hospitals, including at provincial and district levels, are required. […] In some countries, hospitals have established small oxygen production plants to supply themselves and neighbouring hospitals. […] Oxygen concentrators have also been explored but require dependable power supply and are influenced by local factors such as ambient temperature and humidity. […] The local and regional energy unleashed in the citizens to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic should now be directed towards developing appropriate infrastructure for oxygen and critical care.
32788008 All patients had a positive nucleic acid test for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and were discharged after clinical treatment with oxygen therapy, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and nutritional support.
32788025 To make a new simple respirator and observe the oxygen therapy effect of the respirator on patients with severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Based on the infectivity and hospital requirements of COVID-19, a new simple respirator was designed by the medical staff of the Department of Anesthesiology of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, which was applied on the 22 patients with severe and critical COVID-19 who needed oxygen therapy admitted to the Cancer Center of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology from February 15th to March 15th in 2020. […] The new simple respirator contained two National Utility Model Patents (a respirator: ZL 2015 2 0410623.6, a fluid switch and oxygen suction device: ZL 2017 2 0873509.6), which was mainly composed of anesthesia mask and filter, L-shaped connecting tube, soft breathing bladder, connecting tube and elastic fixing belt. […] When in use, the anesthesia mask was fixed to the patient’s mouth and nose with elastic straps, the connecting tube was inserted into the oxygen meter interface, the oxygen flow was adjusted to 6-10 L/min, and the L-shaped connecting tube was opened immediately after the soft breathing bag was full. […] The carbon dioxide and excess oxygen in the body was discharged from exhaust port. […] The oxygen flow was lowered to 2-3 L/min, the patient’s respiratory rate (RR) was observed through the soft breathing bag fluctuations, and the oxygen flow was adjusted at any time. […] The changes of pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), RR and heart rate (HR) before and after application of new simple respirator were observed, and the blood gas test results of part of the patients were collected. […] The new simple respirator can significantly improve the oxygen therapy effect of patients with severe and critical COVID-19.
32789084 Sore throat (25%), fatigue (25%), and low oxygen saturation (25%) were present in one patient which prompted us to get the COVID-19 test.
32789988 In this ICU readmitted group, the mean oxygen index, FiO2 , and mortality rate were higher and the PaO2 /FiO2 ratio was lower than those of the nonreadmitted patients.
32793725 Clinical symptoms, including fever, heart rate, and oxygen levels, improved after Tocilizumab use.
32794245 However, her oxygen saturation gradually declined, and she died 10 days after hospitalization.
32794415 High body mass index, previous history of coronary heart disease, lactic acid accumulation, and a decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen were associated with death.
32795828 Adverse pregnancy outcomes were associated with infection acquired at early gestational ages, more symptomatic presentation, myalgia symptom at presentation, and use of oxygen support therapy.
32795898 This study evaluated the potential efficacy of a novel approach to treat COVID-19 patients, using an oxygen-ozone (O2-O3) mixture, via a process called Oxygen-Ozone- Immunoceutical Therapy.
32796809 On admission, he had no dyspnea and his oxygen saturation (SpO₂) level was normal.
32798339 All the patients were given oxygen by non invasive technique, in 46(12.3%) intubation and invasive ventilation required. […] “Happy Hypoxia”, hyperglycemia, high inflammatory markers (IL-6, ferritin), and ARDS were hallmark of critical COVID-19, early detection of factors associated with severity and mortality and starting the multipronged management with oxygen in prone position, hydroxychloroquin, antiviral, methylprednisolone, anticoagulants, tocilizumab early may help in halting the worsening of COVID and reduce morbidity and mortality.
32798340 To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in Central India and to evaluate risk factors leading to requirement of oxygen, mechanical ventilation and mortality. […] During hospitalization, 14.52% adults (median age, 50 years; 49.05% male) were on oxygen support, and 13% received mechanical ventilation (median age, 54 years; 63.26% male). […] Presence of Lymphopenia, and Comorbid condition were identified as risk factors for requirement of oxygen, mechanical Ventilation and death.
32798660 TCZ was used in patients in critical condition (oxygen therapy flow at TCZ onset was 10.5 L/min and 14/30 patients had ≥ 50% lung involvement on CT scan) as a rescue treatment (8/30 patients who died were not admitted in USC in regard to their comorbidities).
32800073 At admission, 55 (50%) patients had a fever, 29 (26%) had a respiratory rate exceeding 24 breaths/minute, and 78 (70%) received supplemental oxygen.
32801291 Ringer’s lactate infusion was administered at a controlled rate to treat the rhabdomyolysis along with boluses of normal saline, with close monitoring of her oxygen saturation and kidney function.
32802622 Main outcomes and measures Assessed measures were patients’ characteristics, fever, shortness of breath (SOB), cough, oxygen saturation/pulse oximetry (POX), radiologic improvements, laboratory tests, DOXY side effects, hospital transfers, and death. […] Higher pre- and post-treatment POX is associated with lower mortality (oxygen saturation (Spo2) vs.
32802627 Additionally, AKI was significantly associated with a lower PaO2/FiO2 (partial pressure of arterial oxygen/percentage of inspired oxygen) ratio (P < 0.001) and a greater number of medications for COVID-19 pneumonia (P = 0.003).
32803468 The duration of prone positioning was 75 (30-480) min, and the peripheral oxygen saturation was 91% (84-95) supine and 98% (92-100) prone.
32803484 The presence of cardiac injury, D-dimer, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), LV-GLS (OR 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.47; p = 0.010) and RV-LS (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.07-2.25; p = 0.019) were identified as independent predictors of mortality via multivariate analysis.
32804395 Key difficulties that needed to be overcome in planning COVID-19 medical care delivery in a non-traditional space included oxygen delivery, unknown future patient populations, and staffing.
32804682 Patients that received a high dose of vitamin D supplementation achieved normalization of vitamin D levels and improved clinical recovery evidenced by shorter lengths of stay, lower oxygen requirements, and a reduction in inflammatory marker status.
32804789 Lung function, lung scarring, sepsis, shortness of breath, and oxygen level in the blood were common to the top 10 outcomes across all three groups (mean > 7.5, median ≥ 8, and > 70% of respondents rated the outcome as critically important).
32804917 Ozone therapy consists of administration of a mixture of oxygen and ozone (a molecule consisting of 3 oxygen atoms). […] CASE REPORT We report rapidly improved hypoxia with associated decreases in inflammatory markers and D-dimer immediately after 1-4 sessions of oxygen-ozone (O₂-O₃) therapy in 3 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who presented with respiratory failure.
32805728 Bioinformatics findings indicate that the mechanisms of action of VA against SARS-CoV-2 include enrichment of immunoreaction, inhibition of inflammatory reaction, and biological processes related to reactive oxygen species.
32808513 Patients were classified into mild and non-mild groups on initial admission according to oxygen demand and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, and the mild group was followed up and subgrouped into non-aggravation and aggravation groups.
32808941 Metabolic rates, carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption were measured by indirect calorimetry. […] Mild hypothermia decreased the REE on average of 27.0% with resultant declines in CO2 production (VCO2) and oxygen consumption (VO2) by 29.2% and 25.7%, respectively.
32809050 In stable patients with oxygen treatment (stage I) HCQ (18.3%), azithromycin (16.9%) and Ig (9.9%) were most frequently used.
32809207 Fraction of inspired oxygen, P/F ratio, respiratory rate, heparin administration, D-dimer, IL-6, ferritin and CRP showed correlation with DVT.
32809969 We provided evidences that baricitinib-treated patients have a marked reduction in serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a rapid recovery in circulating T and B cell frequencies, and increased antibody production against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which were clinically associated with a reduction in oxygen flow need and progressive increase in the P/F.
32810081 Thus, oxygen supplementation without aggressive pulmonary hygiene management may be suboptimal.
32811531 Clinical symptoms of weakness and fatigue, shortness of breath, and low oxygen saturation obviously improved beginning on the third day of stem cell infusion and reached a significant difference on day 7.
32811801 The proportions (95% confidence interval) of patients requiring any form of oxygen therapy, oxygen therapy by high-flow nasal cannula and invasive mechanical ventilation were 77, 21.7 and 25.5 per cent, respectively, within 24 h of hospital admission. […] Nearly half of the patients presented with severe and critical disease and required high-flow nasal oxygen or invasive mechanical ventilation at admission.
32812204 Patients with severe COVID-19 at admission, based on low oxygen saturation, low partial arterial oxygen pressure, were excluded. […] The most contributory variables to the models were APACHE II score, white blood cell count, time from symptoms to admission, oxygen saturation and blood lymphocytes count.
32814566 The current target oxygen saturation range for patients with COVID-19 recommended by the National Institutes of Health is 92-96%. […] This article critically examines the evidence guiding current target oxygen saturation recommendation for COVID-19 patients, and raises important concerns in the extrapolation of data from the two studies stated to be guiding the recommendation. […] Finally, it discusses potential implications of specific clinical observations and considerations in COVID-19 patients on target oxygen saturation, such as diffuse systemic endothelitis and microthrombi playing an important pathogenic role in the wide range of systemic manifestations, exacerbation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in the setting of pulmonary vascular endothelitis/microthrombi, the phenomenon of “silent hypoxemia” with some patients presenting to the hospital with severe hypoxemia disproportional to symptoms, and overburdened health systems and public health resources in many parts of the world with adverse implications on outpatient monitoring and early institution of oxygen supplementation. […] The above factors and analyses, put together, call for an urgent exploration and re-evaluation of target oxygen saturation in COVID-19 patients, both in the inpatient and outpatient settings. […] Until data from such trials become available, where possible, it may be prudent to target an oxygen saturation at least at the upper end of the recommended 92-96% range in COVID-19 patients both in the inpatient and outpatient settings (in patients that are normoxemic at pre-COVID baseline). […] Home pulse oximetry, tele-monitoring, and earlier institution of oxygen supplementation for hypoxemic COVID-19 outpatients could be beneficial, where public health resources allow for their implementation.
32814839 Patients had severe pulmonary disease defined by pulmonary infiltrates on imaging and an oxygen saturation ≤ 93% in air and/or PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 300 mmHg. […] Clinical improvement was not affected by low-flow versus high-flow oxygen support but was less frequent in patients with PaO2/FiO2 < 200 mmHg.
32815344 The patients were categorised in three groups on the basis of the treatment they received for respiratory failure (oxygen alone, supplemental non-invasive ventilation (NIV), and intubation/ventilator) and described using descriptive statistics. […] Eleven patients received ventilator treatment, seven oxygen by mask, and four supplemental NIV. […] All patients treated with oxygen and NIV were alive and had been discharged from hospital. […] For many patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure and need for intensive care, increased oxygen and NIV are sufficient, but the need for intubation must be continuously assessed.
32815354 A total of 49 patients (67 %) had hypoxaemia and required oxygen therapy for an average of 10.1 days. […] The majority of the patients hospitalised with COVID-19 needed prolonged oxygen therapy, and there was a high incidence of severe complications.
32815513 The acute respiratory phase in both patients was treated with supplemental oxygen.
32815745 Background: Since partial oxygen pressure decreases as altitude increases, environmental hypoxia could worsen Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient’s hypoxemia.
32816059 Compassionate treatment with a single 1‑Gy dose to the bilateral whole-lung volume was administered, with gradual daily improvement of ventilatory function and decrease in serum inflammatory markers and oxygen support needs, including intubation.
32816615 Various scientific studies demonstrated that Sumac had a free oxygen radical-scavenging effect, a protective effect against liver damage, antihemolytic, leukopenia, and antifibrogenic effects, along with its antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties.
32816941 Patient initially had poor endurance and was only able to ambulate with a front wheel walker for 150 feet, and also had tachycardia and decreased oxygen saturation after ambulation. […] Patient also showed improvement in gait speed, heart rate, oxygen saturation after ambulation and incentive spirometer volume.
32817258 It advocates for assessment of oxygen needs at discharge and more comprehensive assessment of rehabilitation needs including physical as well as mental aspects 6-8 weeks after discharge.
32819292 Peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) changed after each session.
32820143 We stabilized clinical parameters related to the patient’s main underlying health conditions (blood glucose and pain levels and oxygen saturation).
32821939 Randomized, open-label trial of hospitalized patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and moderate COVID-19 pneumonia (pulmonary infiltrates and room-air oxygen saturation >94%) enrolled from March 15 through April 18, 2020, at 105 hospitals in the United States, Europe, and Asia.
32822208 Rationale: Aerosol generation with modes of oxygen therapy such as high-flow nasal cannula and noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation is a concern for healthcare workers during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. […] The amount of aerosol generation from the respiratory tract with these various oxygen modalities is unknown.Objectives: To measure the size and number concentration of particles and droplets generated from the respiratory tract of humans exposed to various oxygen delivery modalities.Methods: Ten healthy participants with no active pulmonary disease were enrolled. […] Oxygen modalities tested included nonhumidified nasal cannula, face mask, heated and humidified high-flow nasal cannula, and noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. […] Aerosol generation was measured with each oxygen mode while participants performed maneuvers of normal breathing, talking, deep breathing, and coughing. […] This was the case during normal breathing, talking, deep breathing, and coughing.Conclusions: Oxygen delivery modalities of humidified high-flow nasal cannula and noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation do not increase aerosol generation from the respiratory tract in healthy human participants with no active pulmonary disease measured in a negative-pressure room.
32822564 Exact logistic regression was used to examine the association between the infection groups and the development of hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen (an indicator of severe COVID-19, the primary endpoint). […] Development of hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen was less frequent in the ∆382 variant group (0 [0%] of 29 patients) than in the wild-type only group (26 [28%] of 92; absolute difference 28% [95% CI 14-28]). […] After adjusting for age and presence of comorbidities, infection with the ∆382 variant only was associated with lower odds of developing hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen (adjusted odds ratio 0·07 [95% CI 0·00-0·48]) compared with infection with wild-type virus only.
32823497 Furthermore, both hesperidin and ascorbic acid counteract the cell damaging effects of the oxygen free radicals triggered by virus infection and inflammation.
32826432 However, the clinical effectiveness of early high-flow nasal oxygen treatment in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure has not been explored. […] This study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of high-flow nasal oxygen treatment and to identify the variables predicting high-flow nasal oxygen treatment failure in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. […] Forty-three confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 adult patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure treated with high-flow nasal oxygen. […] High-flow nasal oxygen failure (defined as upgrading respiratory support to positive pressure ventilation or death) was observed in 20 patients (46.5%), of which 13 (30.2%) required endotracheal intubation. […] Patients with high-flow nasal oxygen success had a higher median oxygen saturation (96.0% vs 93.0%; p < 0.001) at admission than those with high-flow nasal oxygen failure. […] High-flow nasal oxygen failure was more likely in patients who were older (p = 0.030) and male (p = 0.037), had a significant increase in respiratory rate and a significant decrease in the ratio of oxygen saturation/FIO2 to respiratory rate index within 3 days of high-flow nasal oxygen treatment. […] In a multivariate logistic regression analysis model, male and lower oxygen saturation at admission remained independent predictors of high-flow nasal oxygen failure. […] The hospital mortality rate of the cohort was 32.5%; however, the hospital mortality rate in patients with high-flow nasal oxygen failure was 65%. […] High-flow nasal oxygen may be effective for treating coronavirus disease 2019 patients with mild to moderate acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. […] However, high-flow nasal oxygen failure was associated with a poor prognosis. […] Male and lower oxygenation at admission were the two strong predictors of high-flow nasal oxygen failure.
32828864 To investigate environmental SARS-CoV-2 contamination in the isolation rooms of severe COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen therapy. […] Patients 1 and 2 received mechanical ventilation with a closed suction system, while patient 3 received high-flow oxygen therapy and non-invasive ventilation.
32831319 Since maybe not all COVID-19 neurological manifestations are due to SARS-CoV-2 direct effects, it is important to monitor the rest of the clinical parameters such as, for example, oxygen saturation.
32832735 His pulse was 54 beats/min, oxygen saturation was 99%, arterial blood pressure was 122/82 mmHg, and fever was 36.5°C.
32833671 One-hundred(91.7%) patients required oxygen therapy, which improved percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2). […] Our findings suggest that oxygen plays an important role in the treatment of COVID-19 patients and that age and underlying diseases are significant risk factors for COVID-19.
32833773 Respiratory failure due to the virus should be managed by providing supplemental oxygen and early intubation.
32835245 The other inclusion criteria were either laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 or typical lung infiltrates on a lung CT scan, and either an oxygen saturation of 93% or less under oxygen 6 L/min or more, or aggravation (saturation ≤93% under oxygen 3 L/min) with a loss of 3% of oxygen saturation in ambient air over the previous 24 h.
32835257 All patients were treated with the standard of care (ie, supplemental oxygen, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, antiretrovirals, and low molecular weight heparin), and a non-randomly selected subset of patients also received tocilizumab.
32835272 Coronary angiography was performed with the patient in prone (face down) position, owing to the necessity to maintain a reasonable oxygen saturation during the examination.
32836648 I organize these directions and considerations into two sets of five each: focal groups that should be studied-i.e., underprivileged populations, different countries and cultural contexts, women (vs. men), workers in healthcare (frontline workers), elderly and at-risk-and five general issues and special considerations-i.e., role of technology as the oxygen, pre- vs. mid- vs. post-COVID studies, constraints on data collection/research due to COVID, evolution of COVID, and focus on contextualization (generalizability is irrelevant).
32837057 Takuo Aoyagi who invented pulse oximetry to measure the oxygen saturation in the blood in 1974.
32837300 The majority of patients have respiratory symptoms (e.g., cough and reduced peripheral oxygen saturation) and fever.
32837409 Based on the algorithm, COVID-19 inpatients were selected to receive telerehabilitation if they could ambulate independently, could use technology, had stable vital signs, required minimal supplemental oxygen, and were cognitively intact. […] They demonstrated independence with their individualized home exercise programs in one to two sessions, did not require an in-person rehabilitation consultation, did not require increased oxygen, experienced no exacerbation of symptoms, and were discharged home.
32837497 Its efficiency relies on the photocatalytic generation of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon UV illumination, and on a particularly high dielectric constant of TiO2, which is of paramount importance for enhanced wettability by the water droplets carrying the germs.
32837666 He had severe respiratory failure with a partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fraction of inspiratory oxygen ratio (P/F ratio) of 203.
32837669 The authors present the case of a young man victim of a traffic accident during the SARS-CoV-2 confinement, having presented a fracture of the femoral shaft that was soon complicated by respiratory failure with oxygen desaturation.
32838082 Thirty-three (75%) patients required oxygen therapy, including 15 (45.5%) who were referred to the intensive care unit.
32838142 In our hospital, we have instituted strategies to rationalise drug and oxygen usage.
32838144 On day 4, rapid clinical deterioration associated to a high respiratory rate and increased oxygen requirements was noted. […] Oxygen was administered at a rate of 15 litres per minute via a Boussignac valve, which initially restored normal oxygen saturation, but this treatment was poorly tolerated and the patient withdrew it after 2 h. […] We would like to encourage the use of CPAP, better tolerated for extended hours with lower oxygen flows, in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, where acute respiratory distress all too often leads to patient intubation and the genesis of deleterious lung lesions.
32838170 The objective of this review is to enhance the awareness regarding the safety aspects towards infection prevention practices and to offer solutions for safe patient care practices including side effects of disinfectants and precaution in specific medical facilities especially in hemodialysis rooms, intensive care unit, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) chambers, or patient transport vehicle.
32838181 The patients improved oxygen saturation, as observed by the lower number of desaturations and the lower supply of O2.
32838199 According to regression analysis, older age (OR = 1.06; P < 0.001), blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) < 88% (OR = 2.88; P = 0.03), and higher chest CT total score (OR = 1.10; P = 0.03) were significant predictors for in-hospital death.
32838244 Among those discharged alive (n = 213), 70 (32.9%) were discharged to a post-acute facility, 31 (14.6%) newly required supplemental oxygen, 19 (8.9%) newly required tube feeding, and 34 (16%) required new prescriptions for antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, methadone, or opioids.
32838293 This patient, who had risk factors for deterioration (male, pancytopaenic), did not develop an oxygen requirement and clinically and biochemically improved rapidly on Anakinra with no adverse events.
32838373 High Velocity Nasal Insufflation (HVNI) and High Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC) deliver High Flow Oxygen (HFO) therapy, established as a competent means of supporting oxygenation for acute respiratory distress patients, including that precipitated by COVID-19. […] Here, we present a subsequent high-resolution simulation (higher complexity/reliability) to provide a more accurate and precise particle characterization on the effect of surgical masks on patients during HVNI, Low-Flow Oxygen therapy (LFO2), and tidal breathing.
32839287 For all patients, we suggest a holistic package of care to address breathlessness, anxiety, oxygen requirement, palliative care and rehabilitation.
32839534 Of the patients, 48 were treated in the ICU with a high flow oxygen/noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV, n = 12) or mechanical ventilation (n = 36).
32840387 In MA-induced OA rat, the tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factors, reactive oxygen species, as well as all the mitochondrial markers such as mitochondria membrane potential, swelling mitochondria, cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), and serum oxidative/antioxidant status (malondialdehyde level and activities of myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase) are elevated.
32841212 Interestingly, higher frequency of cTFH-EM cells correlated with lower number of recorded admission blood oxygen level in convalescent patients.
32842058 Among clinical variables, the combination of peripheral capillary oxygen saturation on hospital admission, duration of symptoms, platelet counts, and patient age provided an AUC of 0.81 for predicting patient outcomes.
32842269 Results: There was statistical significance in age, respiratory frequency, systolic blood pressure, symptoms of dyspnea, previous chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease history, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, C-reactive protein, platelet counting, aspartate transaminase, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, urea, estimated glomerular filtration rate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, D-dimer, CD3+, CD4+, partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure of CO2, blood oxygen saturation, other organ injury, clinical outcome and prognosis between patients with myocardial injury and without myocardial injury (all P<0.05).
32842957 He progressed to ARF requiring high-flow-nasal-cannula (flow: 60 L/minute, fraction of inspired oxygen: 40%). […] His ratio of partial arterial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspired concentration of oxygen was < 120.
32843381 The only evidence of respiratory symptoms on admission was a 2 L oxygen requirement, maintaining oxygen saturations between 88% and 92%. […] In a matter of hours this patient developed a greater oxygen requirement, alongside reduced levels of consciousness.
32844131 Hypercoagulability and hyperinflammation were observed in COVID-19 patients, especially in men with high oxygen demand.
32844958 Similarly, the frequencies of oxygen therapy (100% vs. 33%, p=0.003), intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (67% vs. 2%, p<0.001), aspirin therapy (50% vs. 0%, p<0.001), and current acute renal replacement therapy (50% vs. 2%, p=0.002) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C.
32848446 Antiviral medication (lopinavir, darunavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, ribavirin, oseltamivir, tocilizumab, and umifenovir), ACE inhibitors, interferon-α2b, co-therapy with azithromycin, inhaling iNO, and oxygen therapy can be used for treatment.
32850082 Despite initiation of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin along with supplemental oxygen therapy, rapid disease progression consistent with cytokine release syndrome ensued, leading to initiation of mechanical ventilatory support.
32850921 Already after 48 h of ruxolitinib treatment 16/18 patients showed evident clinical improvement, and after 7 days of treatment 11/18 patients showed fully recovered respiratory function (pO2 > 98% in spontaneous breathing), 4/18 patients had minimal oxygen requirement (2-4 L/m), 1/18 patient showed stable disease, and 2/18 patient showed progressive disease.
32850926 Compared with the good outcome group, 20 (17.5%) patients in the poor outcome group more frequently exhibited lymphopenia, and lower levels of albumin, partial arterial oxygen pressure, higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, hypersensitive troponin I, C-reactive protein, ferritin, blood urea nitrogen, and D-dimer, as well as markedly higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10.
32851093 Compared with nondiabetics, patients with diabetes had an older age, high levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), D-dimer, white blood cell, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total bilirubin (TBIL), lower levels of lymphocyte, albumin and oxygen saturation (SaO2), and higher mortality (P < 0.05).
32851697 Pathway analysis revealed associations to morphogenesis of branching structure, extracellular matrix interaction, oxygen binding and antioxidant activity in ACE2+TMPRSS2+ EVT_24W cells.
32852405 Acute kidney injury occurred in 19% of patients, and 45% required supplementary oxygen.
32854630 We found that remarkably decreased ventilatory efficiency (e.g., the ratio of dead space to tidal volume 70-80%, arterial to end-tidal CO2 difference 18-23 mmHg and ventilatory ratio 3-4) and hypermetabolism (oxygen consumption 300-400 ml/min, CO2 elimination 200-300 ml/min) may explain why these patients experienced more severe respiratory distress and CO2 retention in the late phase of ARDS caused by COVID-19.
32854921 In addition, the ultrasound score correlated positively with supplemental oxygen therapy (r=0.45, p=0.041) and negatively with minimal oxygen saturation at ambient air (r=-0.652, p<0.01). […] The present study suggests that among COVID-19 patients, lung ultrasound and HRCT findings agree in quantifying lung involvement and oxygen parameters.
32856707 Disease severity was correlated with results from viral culture, serologic testing, and immune markers. 57 (57%) patients developed viral pneumonia, of whom 20 (20%) required supplemental oxygen including 12 (12%) invasive mechanical ventilation.
32857301 The disease was categorized to moderate and severe based on the severity of pneumonia and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2).
32860101 The severity of the symptoms was mild-moderate in the majority with a predominance of febrile syndrome, with mild radiological involvement and in some cases with mild respiratory distress that required oxygen therapy.
32860325 In our study, non ICU-subjects with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) more frequently required oxygen supplementation (100.0 % vs 83.7 %) and high flow nasal oxygen therapy or non-invasive ventilation (NIV) (60.0% vs 8.1%) compared to those who had no DVT (2).
32860431 Consequently, 1 (5.9%) patient was receiving low-flow oxygen supply, 3 (17.6%) patients needed no longer oxygen supply and 10 (58.8%) patients were discharged from hospital.
32860432 The primary outcome was de-escalation in oxygen therapy. […] Early treatment with TCB in patients admitted for COVID-19 led to an improvement in their oxygen status during hospitalization.
32860509 HCoV infection frequently required hospitalization (18%), oxygen administration (13%) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (3%).
32860649 85.71%) to inhale oxygen.
32861275 Median ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired air (PaO2/FiO2) was 18 kpa (IQR 15-21) and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score was 12 (10-16). 17 (44%) of 39 patients had died by day 28 of the study.
32861276 Static respiratory system compliance, the ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired air, ventilatory ratio (a surrogate of dead space), and D-dimer concentrations were measured within 24 h of ICU admission.
32861734 Adverse clinical events were defined as in-hospital mortality, admission to intensive care unit, need for high-flow oxygen and/or intubation.
32861887 Seven days later after admission, the endotracheal intubation was successfully removed, after extubation, High-Flow nasal cannula(HFNC) oxygen therapy was used as a sequential strategy to prevent reintubation.
32862472 Before treatment with TCZ, 3 patients were receiving high-flow oxygen, 4 patients low-flow oxygen and 1 case non-invasive ventilation.
32863339 Amongvital signs, systolic blood pressure (119 vs. 125 mmHg, p = 0.02), oxygen saturation (98% vs. 97%, p < 0.001), and body temperature (36.6 vs.
32863637 Early warning scores (EWS), oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate, can facilitate categorizing COVID-19 patients as stable, unstable, and end of life.
32864341 He had unfavorable prognostic factors such as moderate oxygen impairment, positive D-dimer, increased lactate dehydrogenase and ferritin.
32864388 More patients without HIV required a higher level of supplemental oxygen on presentation than PWH.
32864514 Oxygen saturations progressively decreased over the first 3 dialysis sessions in the cohorts who progressed to future hospital admission or death.
32864608 C-reactive protein level, oxygen requirement and positive cultures were associated with prolonged duration of therapy.
32864628 Respiratory support was categorised as oxygen only, non-invasive ventilation, and intubation.
32864934 The authors of this review appeal to the necessity of paying closer attention to assess microhemodynamic repercussion, by monitoring central venous oxygen saturation during strategies of IMV.
32865072 All patients received low-molecular-weight heparin during their hospital stay and required supplementary oxygen therapy either by a nasal cannula or continuous positive airway pressure.
32865522 The patient was evaluated before and after treatment via radiological assessment of lung edema (RALE) by CXR, pulmonary severity indices, blood tests, oxygen requirements, and patient questionnaires. […] Oxygen saturation (SpO₂) increased from 93-94% to 97-100%, while the oxygen requirement decreased from 2-4 L/min to 1 L/min. […] Respiratory indices, radiological findings, oxygen requirements, and patient outcomes improved over several days and without need for a ventilator.
32866314 This article provides an overview of BioMeTs available for collecting vital signs (temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate) and discusses the strengths and limitations of continuous monitoring.
32866898 While most of the infected individuals show minimal or no symptoms and recover spontaneously, a small proportion of the patients exhibit severe symptoms characterized by extreme dyspnea and low tissue oxygen levels, with extensive damage to the lungs referred to as acute respiratory distress symptom (ARDS).
32868092 Non medication based interventions including hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), aggressive dialysis, and other interventions, all with various degrees of clinical success, and will be discussed in this section.
32868974 Oxygen saturation at rest was 93%.
32868978 The preprint of day-7 interim results by the investigators concluded, "In a small pilot trial of 5 oxygen-dependent patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, low-dose whole-lung radiation led to rapid improvement in clinical status, encephalopathy, and radiographic infiltrates without acute toxicity or worsening the cytokine storm.
32869227 CRP was moderately elevated and oxygen saturation was slightly reduced.
32870512 Supplemental oxygen is frequently administered to patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), including ARDS secondary to viral illness such as coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). […] An up-to-date understanding of how best to target this therapy (e.g. arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) or peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) aim) in these patients is urgently required. […] To address how oxygen therapy should be targeted in adults with ARDS (particularly ARDS secondary to COVID-19 or other respiratory viruses) and requiring mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit, and the impact oxygen therapy has on mortality, days ventilated, days of catecholamine use, requirement for renal replacement therapy, and quality of life. […] We included RCTs comparing supplemental oxygen administration (i.e. different target PaO2 or SpO2 ranges) in adults with ARDS and receiving mechanical ventilation in an intensive care setting. […] We excluded studies exploring oxygen administration in patients with different underlying diagnoses or those receiving non-invasive ventilation, high-flow nasal oxygen, or oxygen via facemask. […] We identified one completed RCT evaluating oxygen targets in patients with ARDS receiving mechanical ventilation in an intensive care setting. […] The study randomized 205 mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS to either conservative (PaO2 55 to 70 mmHg, or SpO2 88% to 92%) or liberal (PaO2 90 to 105 mmHg, or SpO2 ≥ 96%) oxygen therapy for seven days. […] The available data suggested that mortality at 90 days may be higher in those participants receiving a lower oxygen target (odds ratio (OR) 1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03 to 3.27). […] We are very uncertain as to whether a higher or lower oxygen target is more beneficial in patients with ARDS and receiving mechanical ventilation in an intensive care setting.
32871002 In addition to abovementioned risk factors, in patients aged between 60-79 years, coronary artery disease, oxygen support need, total number of drugs, and cerebrovascular disease during hospitalization, and in patients 80 years of age and older acute coronary syndrome during hospitalization were also associated with increased risk of mortality.
32871014 Data were collected on age, sex, physical ability, rehabilitation modality (remote/direct), need for intubation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, degree of pneumonia, oxygen therapy from the start of rehabilitation, D-dimer and C-reactive protein levels, and rehabilitation-related complications.
32871424 Demographics (age, gender, smoking status, comorbid conditions, and body-mass index), clinical variables (temperature, oxygen saturation, and symptoms), and laboratory values (white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and peak interleukin-6) were collected.
32872310 The non-invasive estimation of blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) by pulse oximetry is of vital importance clinically, from the detection of sleep apnea to the recent ambulatory monitoring of hypoxemia in the delayed post-infective phase of COVID-19. […] During resting blood oxygen saturation estimation, we found a root mean square difference of 1.47% between the two measurement sites, with a mean difference of 0.23% higher SpO2 in the right ear canal.
32872607 A risk tool was developed using a combination of machine learning methods and utilized BMI, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation.
32874907 This has led to questions regarding the most efficacious and least harmful oxygen delivery strategies that minimize exposure to health care workers. […] In this case series, we present the hospital course of 4 patients that were managed with a multi-component oxygen delivery method in a COVID-19 step down unit.
32874986 After withdrawal of MV, the patients were transitioned through NIV and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen support.
32876623 His respiratory status rapidly worsened to the point of requiring supplemental oxygen by high flow nasal cannula with FiO2 of 80%. […] The patients oxygenation improved significantly over the following days and he was discharged home with no oxygen supplementation and saturating 96% on room air.
32876689 The primary outcome, treatment failure on day 21, was defined as death or persistent dependency on mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen therapy.
32878480 Patients with severe COVID-19 are managed with oxygen support, as are at-risk individuals with chronic lung disease. […] To date, no study has examined whether an increased fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) may affect the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors and co-receptors, including ACE2 and the transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS1, TMPRSS2, and TMPRSS11D. […] Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 receptor expression was assessed in primary human nasal, tracheal, esophageal, bronchial, and alveolar epithelial cells, as well as primary mouse alveolar type II cells exposed to elevated oxygen concentrations. […] These data highlight the need for further studies that examine the relative contribution of the various viral co-receptors on the infection cycle, and point to oxygen supplementation as a potential risk factor for COVID-19.
32879035 Medical-grade oxygen supplies, reliable electricity, bioengineering support, and consumables are all needed for ventilators to save lives.
32879103 Among them, laboratory tests included white blood cell (WBC), lymphocytes (LYM), neutrophil (NEU), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (PLT), prothrombin time (PT), plasma fibrinogen (Fib), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), D-dimer, total bilirubin (TBIL), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and oxygen partial pressure in arterial blood. […] Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fractional concentration of inspiratory oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) was calculated.
32879108 Moreover, for the experimental group, the dynamic changes of blood oxygen saturation before and after the transfusion, the changes of lymphocyte absolute value 48 hours after the transfusion, and the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid were analyzed. […] For the experimental group, before, during and after the convalescent plasma transfusion, the blood oxygen saturation of all 6 patients at all time (1, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h) was more than 90%, and there was no significant fluctuation.
32880993 And alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (A-aDO2) and oxygenation index were correlated with IgA and IgG.
32881304 The association between baseline CRP, aPTT ratio, PT ratio, D-dimers, fibrinogen, FVIII, VWF:Ag and FVIII/VWF:Ag ratio levels and adverse outcomes (increased oxygen requirements, thrombosis and death at day-30) was assessed by regression analysis after adjustment on age, sex, body mass index, diabetes and hypertension. […] In univariable regression analysis increased CRP (SHR, 1.68; 95%CI, 1.26 to 2.23), increased fibrinogen (SHR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.68) and decreased FVIII/VWF:Ag ratio (SHR, 0.70 ; 95% CI, 0.52-0.96) levels at admission were significantly associated with the risk of increased oxygen requirement during follow-up. […] Coagulation biomarkers are early and independent predictors of increased oxygen requirement in COVID-19 patients.
32881350 Oxygen therapy has been ceased in three patients. […] The time from first tocilizumab administration to improvement in ventilation, defined as a 25% reduction in fraction of inspired oxygen required to maintain peripheral oxygen saturation greater than 92%, ranged from 7 hours to 4.6 days.
32881359 There were suggestions of BRH advantage over placebo in improved chest computed tomography, need for oxygen therapy, and discharge rate within 20 days.
32881982 As primary outcomes, we studied the evolution of SAFI ratio (oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen) in the first 48 hours of treatment and the time to discharge.
32884251 In addition to video telephony, electrocardiography and assessment of vitals such as pulse, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and auscultation of heart and lungs were applied frequently.
32884965 Patient age and initial oxygen requirement, but not race (adjusted proportional odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.70-1.20), were associated with worse day 14 outcomes.
32887660 The most common treatment options used were hydroxychloroquine (79.7%), ribavirin (65.2%), and oxygen therapy (78.8%).
32889236 Improvement after Tocilizumab was defined as improvement in oxygen requirement and inflammatory parameters. […] 29 (77.5%) patients showed significant improvement in oxygen requirement, inflammatory parameters and chest x-rays, out of which 28 patients were discharged home.
32889638 Oxygen delivered by ventilators is already in extensive use to provide life support for patients with severe COVID-19. […] Two articles propose to advance the use of oxygen to the level of a therapeutic treatment early in the detection of the virus in infected patients by delivering oxygen under elevated pressure in hyperbaric chambers. […] At elevated blood plasma concentrations, hyperbaric oxygen is capable of achieving results far beyond the capability of ventilators as it promotes the activation of transcription factors that control the establishment of inducible cellular defense systems.
32892061 The suggestions for mild (green)category: symptomatic treatment in ward, in moderate (yellow) category: active treatment, semi critical care and oxygen supplementation, in severe (red) category: critical care and intensive care.
32892893 Those not in respiratory failure are sent home, often with phone monitoring and/or respiratory rate and oxygen saturation monitoring.
32893160 All cases were severe and patients required oxygen administration or had a blood oxygen saturation ≤93% on room air. […] All were treated with favipiravir and methylprednisolone, and 10 of 11 patients responded well and required no further oxygen supplementation or ventilator management.
32894167 The artificial manual breathing unit (AMBU) bag connected to wall oxygen source using a flow meter was used as air reservoir.
32894436 Twenty-two percent were admitted to the ICU for mechanical ventilation, 11% had non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen, and 67% did not have specialist respiratory support.
32894566 The degradation of hemoglobin results in the impairment of oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, and the accumulation of free iron enhances the production of reactive oxygen species.
32895247 The use of PP alongside CPAP significantly increased both the ROX index and arterial oxygen pressure:fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2:FiO2) ratio from baseline values (ROX index: 7.0±2.5 baseline vs 11.4±3.7 CPAP+PP, p<0.0001; PaO2:FiO2 ratio: 143±73 mm Hg baseline vs 252±87 mm Hg CPAP+PP, p<0.01), and the changes to both the ROX index and PaO2:FiO2 ratio remained significant 1 hour after cessation of proning.
32895645 Key selection criteria included evidence of hyperinflammation, most notably elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin, and an increasing oxygen requirement. […] Clinical responses to anti-IL-6/IL-6-R therapy were accompanied by significant decreases in temperature, oxygen requirement, CRP, IL-6, and IL-10 levels.
32896292 We enrolled patients admitted to hospital with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and at least one additional severity criteria as follows: use of oxygen supplementation of more than 4 L/min flow; use of high-flow nasal cannula; use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation; or use of invasive mechanical ventilation.
32897668 Data on demography, comorbidities, vital signs, mental status, oxygen saturation, and use of supplemental oxygen at admission to the ward were collected from medical records and used to score National Early Warning Score, National Early Warning Score 2, Rapid Emergency Medicine Score, Confusion, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, Age 65 score, and quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment. […] Among the parameters of National Early Warning Score, the oxygen saturation score was found to be the most significant predictor of in-hospital death. […] The area under the receiver operating characteristic (95% CI) for oxygen saturation score was 0.875 (0.834-0.916). […] Peripheral oxygen saturation could independently predict in-hospital death in these patients.
32897885 Clinical variables significantly associated with the composite endpoint of non-rebreather or higher oxygen requirement and death (n events = 25/77) included number of co-morbidities (HR 5.41, P = 0.004), infiltrates (HR 3.08, P = 0.032), and neutropenia (HR 1.15, P = 0.04).
32899009 At the end of treatment, on day 7, patient reported resolution of fever, normalization of respiratory rate (14 breaths/min), and improved oxygen arterial pressure with a FiO2 of 30%.
32900168 She was confirmed as Sars-CoV-2-positive and experienced a steady decrease in oxygen saturation (SaO2), despite being given increasing amounts of supplemental oxygen.
32900326 Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22; P = 0.004) and hypertension (OR, 6.15; 95% CI, 1.75-29.11; P = 0.009) were associated with mortality, while early improvement in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio was associated with being discharged alive from the ICU (P = 0.002 for interaction).
32900659 He was admitted to the hospital and started to receive oxygen and favipiravir.
32900744 We present a case of a 56-year-old man with COVID-19 who presented to the fever clinic of our institution with fever and cough without any respiratory distress but low oxygen saturation. […] This case demonstrates ‘silent hypoxia’ as a possible presentation in COVID-19 and emphasises the importance of meticulous clinical examination including oxygen saturation measurements in suspected or confirmed patients.
32905265 Vital parameters including blood oxygen level, respiratory rate, pulse rate, and body temperature are crucial for triaging patients to appropriate medical care.
32905897 Both 2D:4D and the ACE I/D polymorphism are covariates of oxygen metabolism. […] COVID-19 leads to lung damage and a reduction in oxygen saturation of the blood. […] Low 2D:4D and ACE II individuals show efficient oxygen metabolism.
32907540 We reported a case of 66-year-old man infected with COVID-19, presenting with fever, cough and myalgia; The patient received supportive and empirical treatment including antiviral treatment, anti-inflammatory treatment, oxygen supply and inhalation therapy; The symptoms, CT images, laboratory results got improved after the treatments, and a throat swab was negative for COVID-19 PCR test; However, on the hospital day 30, the patient presented with a sudden chest pain and dyspnea.
32907638 Hospitalised, requiring non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen devices; 4. […] Hospitalised, requiring supplemental oxygen; 5. […] Hospitalised, not requiring supplemental oxygen - but in need of ongoing medical care (COVID-19 related or otherwise) 6. […] Hospitalised, not requiring supplemental oxygen - no longer requires ongoing medical care (independent) 7.
32907855 The final 4C Mortality Score included eight variables readily available at initial hospital assessment: age, sex, number of comorbidities, respiratory rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, level of consciousness, urea level, and C reactive protein (score range 0-21 points).
32907873 A 71-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with low oxygen saturations and symptoms consistent with COVID-19 infection.
32907890 Among all (n=349) patients hospitalised for COVID-19 in a university hospital in a French region with a high rate of COVID-19, we analysed patients who underwent CTPA for clinical signs of severe disease (oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry ≤93% or breathing rate ≥30 breaths·min-1) or rapid clinical worsening.
32908046 Furthermore, the median duration from oxygen therapy initiation to death or intubation was significantly shorter in the patients with hematological disease (5 days [range, 1-17 days] vs. 10 days [1-24 days], respectively; P<0.05).
32908840 Symptomatic treatment with oxygen supplementation and pulmonary physical therapy was initiated, and hydroxyurea was discontinued. […] Over 14 days, the patient’s blood counts slowly recovered, and his clinical condition gradually improved, such that supplemental oxygen was no longer necessary and he could be discharged.
32909713 Methemoglobin impairs hemoglobin’s ability to transport oxygen, produces functional anemia, and leads to tissue hypoxia.
32910106 Data from debriefings and observations demonstrated the following categories of latent safety threats: inadequate preparedness on infection control, uncertainty of guidelines on oxygen supplementation and intubation protocols, lack of leadership and communication, overall panic, and others.
32911986 The patient was discharged home after 47 days of hospitalization without any supplemental oxygen and was able to undergo active physical rehabilitation.
32912049 High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a widely used modality of delivering high concentrations of oxygen and airflow to patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure, but its use in patients with SARS-CoV-2 is poorly described.
32912329 Our patient was a 27-year-old Caucasian woman with a past medical history of asthma transferred from a community hospital to our medical intensive care unit for acute hypoxic respiratory failure due to bilateral pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation (ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen, 180).
32912961 SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with the development of cytokine storm (including interleukin 6 (IL-6)), which can cause lung damage and lack of oxygen. […] Respiratory rate and oxygen supplementation as well as laboratory parameters (such as C-reactive protein (CRP), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) were collected at baseline and during 14 days of follow-up. […] In each group, 10 patients no longer required oxygen therapy. […] The same number of patients were weaned off oxygen on day 14 in the two groups, while the patients in the TCZ group had more severe impairment at inclusion.
32913866 The patient was treated with supplementary oxygen by nasal cannula and gamma globulin.
32918548 For children with severe illness, defined as a supplemental oxygen requirement without need for non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation or extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), remdesivir is suggested, preferably as part of a clinical trial if available.
32918761 Eligible patients were hospitalized and required to have positive nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, be at least 18 years old, and have either dyspnea, blood oxygen saturation ≤ 93% on ambient air, respiratory frequency ≥ 30 breaths/min, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio < 300, or lung infiltrates > 50%.
32920232 NI/I-VS was defined as the need for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) (non-invasive ventilation) or mechanical ventilation, not including low-flow systems of oxygen therapy such as the Venturi mask or nasal cannula. […] Thirty-five of the 97 patients (36%) required ICU admission and 94.8% (92/97) were prescribed oxygen therapy: 10.8% (10/92) by nasal cannula, 44.5% (41/92) by Venturi mask, 31.5% (29/92) by CPAP, 2.2% (2/92) by BPAP, and 10.8% (10/92) by mechanical ventilation following intubation.
32921708 They had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, longer duration of hospitalization, ICU stay, mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. […] CRP was correlated significantly with the duration of stay in the ICU and the duration for oxygen supplementation (r = 0.37 and 0.42 respectively; p: <0.01). […] Diabetic patients had more comorbidities and more aggressive course of the disease with higher rate of ICU admission and longer need for hospitalization and oxygen use.
32922210 These three ‘Recovery’ RCTs concluded definitely: (a) that treatment with hydroxychloroquine provides no benefits in patients hospitalized with COVID-19; (b) that treatment with dexamethasone reduced deaths by one-third in COVID-19 patients that were mechanically ventilated, and by one-fifth in patients receiving oxygen only; (c) that the combination of Lopinavir and Ritonavir is not effective in reducing mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients.
32922409 Patients with evidence of progressive disease after 24 h including an oxygen saturation <93% at rest in ambient air were included at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland in April 2020. […] Immediate defervescence occurred, and inflammatory markers and oxygen supplementation decreased or stabilized in 4 patients (e.g., median C-reactive protein 203 (range 31-235) mg/L before vs. 32 (12-72) mg/L on day 5).
32922804 We followed clinical improvement in the radiological analysis (two of three cases), oxygen saturation (Spo2), respiratory rate, disappearance of dyspnoea, coughing and a decrease in NET formation and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load after the treatment.
32923016 The primary outcome was set as the time to clinical improvement, defined as normalization of body temperature, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, cough, and absorption of pulmonary infection by chest computed tomography (CT) until 28 d after randomization.
32924219 Herein it is a therapeutic based on catalase, an antioxidant enzyme that can effectively breakdown hydrogen peroxide and minimize the downstream reactive oxygen species, which are excessively produced resulting from the infection and inflammatory process, is reported.
32925581 The median period from the non-invasive mechanic ventilation (NIV) or high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) to intubation was 7 hours (IQR 2-42) in IMV survivors and 54 hours (IQR 28-143) in IMV non-survivors.
32926678 His initial oxygen saturation registered at SpO2 (blood oxygenation saturation) 55% on room air.
32926931 A negative correlation with tissue oxygen consumption (delta pO2) and compartmental fluid shift was seen in Group 1 only.
32927092 To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new treatment for COVID-19 vs. standard care, certain key endpoints are related to the duration of a specific event, such as hospitalization, ICU stay, or receipt of supplemental oxygen. […] For the analysis of ICU stay or oxygen usage, where the initiating event is potentially an outcome of treatment, standard survival analysis techniques may not be appropriate.
32928122 Secondary endpoints include the number of attempts at intubation, lowest oxygen saturation during induction, and the need for bag-mask ventilation.
32928157 At ICU admission the patient had fever and severe acute respiratory failure requiring high flow oxygen therapy.
32928319 Decreased oxygen saturation at admission was associated with increased odds of mortality (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.06-1.12; P < .001) as was diabetes (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.21-2.03; P < .001).
32928787 This single-centre retrospective study aimed to assess whether successful awake proning of patients with COVID-19, requiring respiratory support (continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) or high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO)) on a respiratory high-dependency unit (HDU), is associated with improved outcomes.
32930099 Of 2634 patients who died of COVID-19, 1478 (56.1%) had oxygen saturation levels ≥90% on presentation and required no respiratory support. […] Before the RRT/CA call, the most recent oxygen saturation levels for 852/1112 (76.6%) of these non-ICU patients were at least 90%. […] At the time the RRT/CA was called, 479/1112 patients (43.1%) had an oxygen saturation of <80%. […] Patients admitted at a non-ICU level of care suffered rapid clinical deterioration, often with a sudden decrease in oxygen saturation.
32931666 Given the high mortality and prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation of COVID-19 patients, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen for COVID-19 patients with respiratory distress. […] Patients in this trial received hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 2.0 atmospheres of pressure in monoplace hyperbaric chambers for 90 minutes daily for a maximum of five total treatments. […] We treated 20 COVID-19 patients with hyperbaric oxygen. […] Ages ranged from 30 to 79 years with an oxygen requirement ranging from 2 to 15 liters on hospital days 0 to 14. […] Among 60 propensity-matched controls based on age, sex, body mass index, coronary artery disease, troponin, D-dimer, hospital day, and oxygen requirement, 18 (30%) were intubated, 13 (22%) have died, and three (5%) remain hospitalized (with one still requiring mechanical ventilation). […] Though limited by its study design, our results demonstrate the safety of hyperbaric oxygen among COVID-19 patients and strongly suggests the need for a well-designed, multicenter randomized control trial.
32932327 The remaining patients, with late infection, were all discharged home without oxygen support, at a median of 25 days after symptom onset.
32932329 Oxygen administration (41%) and noninvasive ventilation (16%) were frequently required; however, mechanical ventilation (3%) was rarely needed. […] C-reactive protein (CRP) and prothrombin time (PT) levels were found to be higher in patients who needed supplemental oxygen (0.9 [0.1-8.6] vs.
32932951 The main COVID-19 symptoms included benign upper respiratory infection signs (N = 9, 81.8%), diarrhea (N = 7, 63.6%), fatigue (N = 7, 63.6%), and respiratory signs (N = 5, 45.5%), including one patient who needed oxygen therapy.
32933914 We saw a reduction in oxygen requirement and improvements in inflammatory markers and ferritin.
32934000 Composite poor outcomes include intensive care unit admission, oxygen saturation <90%, invasive mechanical ventilation utilisation, severe disease, in-hospital admission and mortality.
32934372 Oxygen requirements on day 14 after transfusion worsened in 17.9% of plasma recipients versus 28.2% of propensity score-matched controls who were hospitalized with COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-0.98; chi-square test P value = 0.025).
32934903 The patient had no predisposing risk factors for pneumothorax, such as a history of trauma, smoking, past intubations, asthma, high pressure oxygen delivery, or a history of prior pneumothorax.
32935329 Patients receiving IMV were characterized by a moderately decreased median [IQR] partial pressure of oxygen:fraction of inspired oxygen (day 1 PaO2:FiO2 = 177 [138-276]; day 10 = 173 [147-227]) and compliance (day 1 = 48 [38-58] mL/cmH2O; day 10 = 34 [28-42] mL/cmH2O) and very elevated estimated dead space fraction (day 1 = 0.60 [0.53-0.67]; day 10 = 0.72 [0.69-0.79]).
32935808 Patients with room air oxygen saturation < 90% were considered as severe COVID-19, and patients with ≥90% were considered moderate COVID-19. […] According to oxygen saturation, 81 patients had moderate and 134 had severe COVID-19. […] Our findings revealed that oxygen saturation at admission and the MPV difference between the first and third days of hospitalization were significant parameters in COVID-19 patients for predicting mortality. […] While mortality was 8.4 times higher in patients who had oxygen saturation under 90 % at hospital admission, 1 unit increase in MPV increased mortality 1.76 times.
32935928 SARS-CoV-2 can cause CVD by inducing cytokine storms, creating an imbalance in the oxygen supply and demand and disrupting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; SARS-CoV-2 infection can also lead to the development of CVD through the side effects of therapeutic drugs, psychological factors, and aggravation of underlying CVD.
32936491 The total LS showed a strong correlation (r = -0.765) with the oxygen pressure-to-fraction of inspired oxygen ratio; by lung region, those with a higher correlation were the LS of the anterior region (r = -0.823) and the LS of the upper region (r = -0.731).
32937800 Secondary endpoints included favorable change in the Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement on days 14 and 28 versus baseline, proportion of patients not requiring supplemental oxygen on days 14 and 28, and proportion of patients discharged by day 28.
32938496 They will be hospitalized patients, of at least 18 years of age, with severe COVID-19 who have positive RT-PCR test and have radiographic evidence of pulmonary infiltrates by imaging or rales/crackles on exam and SpO2 ≤ 94% on room air that requires supplemental oxygen. […] Patients must present elevation of inflammatory parameters (IL-6 > 40 pg/mL or d-dimer >1.0 mcg/ml) or, alternatively, progressive worsening in at least two of these inflammatory parameters in the prior 24-48h: CRP, LDH, serum ferritin, lymphopenia, or d-dimer. high oxygen requirements (including face mask with reservoir, non-invasive mechanical ventilation or high flow nasal cannula, or mechanical ventilation), admission to ICU, pregnancy or lactation, allergy or hypersensitivity to sarilumab or corticoesteroids, immunosuppressive antibody therapy within the past 5 months, AST/ALT values > 10 x ULN, neutropenia (< 0.5 x 109/L), severe thrombocytopenia (< 50 x 109/L), sepsis caused by an alternative pathogen, diverticulitis with risk of perforation or ongoing infectious dermatitis.
32938758 Risk factors for COVID-19 patients with poorer outcomes include pre-existing conditions: obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart failure, hypertension, low oxygen saturation capacity, cancer, elevated: ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer. […] Hyperinsulinaemia mediates thrombi development via: fibrinolysis inhibition, anticoagulation production dysregulation, increasing reactive oxygen species, decreased antioxidant capacity via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide depletion, haem oxidation and catabolism, producing carbon monoxide, increasing deep vein thrombosis risk and pulmonary emboli. […] Increased haem-synthesis demand upregulates carbon dioxide production, decreasing oxygen saturation capacity.
32938838 During the first week after tracheal intubation, non-survivors displayed lower values for minimum ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspiratory oxygen concentration (P/F ratio) (44 mmHg vs. 122 mmHg, p < 0.01) and poor response to intensive therapy compared with survivors.
32943538 Logistic regression showed increasing odds of respiratory failure with sC5b-9 (odds ratio 31.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 746, P = 0.03) and need for oxygen therapy with C4d (11.7, 1.1 to 130, P = 0.045).
32943872 Specifically, through an inter-professional and collaborative approach to care delivery, we provide rationale and guidance on prone positioning, oxygen strategies, early mobilization, identifying and treating co-infections, anticoagulation and ensuring appropriate psychological support for patients and their families.
32945149 Oxygen requirements and clinical outcomes of interests were captured as well as laboratory parameters at baseline and 3 days after treatment.
32945644 Pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, bronchiectasis and cysts are probably underrated complications of COVID-19 that can worsen prognosis, in terms of prolonged hospitalization and need of oxygen therapy.
32945710 Approximately 14% of UK hospital in-patients receive supplemental oxygen therapy, only 57% have valid prescriptions. […] Oxygen must be optimally prescribed to ensure maximal therapeutic response whilst minimizing adverse outcomes (including fatality). […] Of the 636 patients admitted, 66 (10%) were receiving oxygen therapy. […] The prescription was not documented in the oxygen section of the drug chart (n = 37, 56.1%, p = 0.389), nor did it have the physicians signature (n = 40, 60.6%, p = 0.110) nor date (n = 46, 69.7%, p = 0.002). […] Target oxygen saturation (SpO2) range had been documented for 30 (45.5%) patients.
32946668 Among patients who received tocilizumab, there was also no difference in mortality based on the level of oxygen support (intubated vs not intubated) at the time of tocilizumab initiation.
32947292 The ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) significantly increased during PP (change from baseline and CI 97.5%: 110 [19; 202]) and after PP, albeit not significantly (change from baseline and CI 97.5%: 38 [-9.2; 85]) compared with previous supine position.
32947927 The proposed pathophysiological mechanisms of myocardial impairment include invasion of SARS-CoV-2 virus via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 to cardiovascular cells/tissue, which leads to endothelial inflammation and dysfunction, de-stabilization of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, stent thrombosis, cardiac stress due to diminish oxygen supply and cardiac muscle damage, and myocardial infarction.
32948531 This case suggests that a high index of suspicion should be taken into consideration for thromboembolic events, when treating patients with COVID-19 with breathing difficulty and low oxygen saturation levels, especially in those who have underlying predisposing conditions for coagulopathy.
32949098 No patient required supplemental oxygen, intubation, or ECMO.
32949777 Hospitalization rate was 11.6%, 1.3% required supplemental oxygen, 0.6% needed intensive care unit admission, and 0.3% required mechanical ventilation.
32950458 Rapid deterioration of these cases with septic shock, accompanying with lung CT images enlarged rapidly, decrease of blood oxygen, heart rate drop (with asynchrony of hypoxemia) accompanied with SARS-CoV-2 viremia.
32951346 Cavalli et al. defined severe respiratory distress as partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to the fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired air ≤ 100 mmHg in the setting of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and a positive end-expiratory pressure ≥ 5 cm H2 O.
32952981 None of the patients required oxygen supplementation nor mechanical ventilation.
32953091 Results: Compared with the baseline, treatment contributed to and exacerbated the deterioration of pulmonary pathology by reducing lung compliance and the arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO 2/FiO 2) ratio. […] The oxygen extraction index changes mirrored those of the PaO 2/FiO 2 ratio.
32953947 Analysis of existing data revealed that HA natives do possess certain physiological advantages such as (1) improved hypoxic ventilatory response, (2) higher concentration of oxygen carrying molecules, haemoglobin, (3) increased production of Vitamin D, due to intense solar radiation, (4) lower rates of comorbidities such as lung infections, obesity etc. and (5) most importantly reduced production of angiotensin converting enzyme 2, a carrier molecule for SARS-CoV-2 virus entry into the host cell; all of which can collectively account for improved tolerance to SARS-CoV-2 infection in HA natives.
32953968 Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that obesity (OR 2.029, 95% CI 1.039-3.961; p = 0.038), arterial oxygen saturation <90% (OR 2.250, 95% CI 1.216-3.560; p = 0.025), and systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg (OR 2.636, 95% CI 1.530-4.343; p = 0.042), were directly related to higher levels of troponins.
32958495 DisCoVeRy is a phase III, open-label, adaptive, controlled, multicentre clinical trial in which hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in need of oxygen therapy are randomised between five arms: (1) a control group managed with SoC and four therapeutic arms with re-purposed antiviral agents: (2) remdesivir + SoC, (3) lopinavir/ritonavir + SoC, (4) lopinavir/ritonavir associated with interferon (IFN)-β-1a + SoC and (5) hydroxychloroquine + SoC.
32959547 Demographic and epidemiological information, comorbidities, clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory and radiologic findings, medications, treatments, outcomes, and main durations of patients with COVID-19 were compared according to supplemental oxygen requirement. […] Six (15%) patients required supplemental oxygen. […] Sputum production, chest discomfort, a large number of symptoms, abnormal procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels, and abnormal chest X-ray or chest computed tomography findings were more common in patients requiring supplemental oxygen than in those not requiring supplemental oxygen.
32959951 There are numerous proposed mechanisms of cardiac injury, including direct cellular injury, pro-inflammatory cytokine storm, myocardial oxygen-demand mismatch, and systemic inflammation causing multi-organ failure.
32962092 We noted a less severe clinical presentation in the PCR- group (lower respiratory rate, lower oxygen need and mechanical ventilation requirement).
32963432 The most common reason for ICU admission in our series of 24 patients with severe COVID-19 was hypoxemic respiratory failure, which responded well to conservative measures such as awake proning and oxygen supplementation.
32963439 Noninvasive ventilation (NIV), high-flow oxygen via nasal cannula, supplementary oxygen with venturi face mask, or nasal cannula were used variedly in these patients. […] Mechanical ventilatory support is offered to patients with AHRF when other methods, such as NIV and oxygen via high-flow nasal cannula, fail.
32964179 All four patients showed evidence of deterioration, with hyperferritinaemia and increasing oxygen requirements and with superadded bacterial infections.
32964483 This association remained significant after correction for age (OR = 1.16, 95%CI 1.01-1.34, P = .029 for RV free wall LS and OR = 1.20, 95%CI 1.01-1.42, P = .033 for RV-GLS), for oxygen partial pressure at arterial gas analysis/fraction of inspired oxygen (OR = 1.28, 95%CI 1.04-1.57, P = .021 for RV free wall-LS and OR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.04-1.62, P = .020 for RV-GLS) and for the severity of pulmonary involvement measured by a computed tomography lung score (OR = 1.27, 95%CI 1.02-1.19, P = .034 for RV free wall LS and OR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.04-1.63, P = .022 for RV-GLS).
32966582 RNA sequencing confirmed a transcriptional response to viral infection as demonstrated by the up-regulation of genes associated with pathways related to viral response and interferon signalling, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen stress.
32967165 CQ/HCQ-induced alterations in proton fluxes influence the type and chemical reactivity of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
32969531 Heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and time to exhaustion did not differ significantly.
32970246 In multivariable analysis, older age, admission respiratory status including elevated respiratory rate and oxygen saturation ≤ 88%, and initial laboratory derangements of creatinine > 1.33 mg/dL, alanine aminotransferase > 40 U/L, procalcitonin > 0.5 ng/mL, and lactic acid ≥ 2 mmol/L increased risk of in-hospital death. […] Older age, low oxygen saturation and elevated respiratory rate on admission, and initial lab derangements including renal and hepatic dysfunction and elevated procalcitonin and lactic acid are risk factors for in-hospital death.
32970733 A two-factor logistic model using patient age and oxygen saturation was created, which demonstrates 89% accuracy and area under the ROC curve of 0.86 (p<0.0001).
32971109 Our major findings were as follows: (1) severe clinical outcome (ICU treatment) was associated with high plasma levels of sTIM-3 and myeloperoxidase, suggesting activated and potentially exhausted T cells and activated neutrophils, respectively; (2) in contrast, sCD14 and sCD163 showed no association with need for ICU treatment; and (3) levels of sCD25, sTIM-3, and myeloperoxidase were inversely correlated with degree of respiratory failure, as assessed by the ratio of Pao2 to fraction of inspired oxygen, and were positively correlated with the cardiac marker N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide.
32971254 We included consecutive adult patients with severe COVID-19, defined as respiratory rate ≥30 breath per minute, oxygen saturation ≤93% on ambient air or arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ≤300 mm Hg.
32972411 The authors review well-known mechanisms that contribute to development of hypoxemia in patients with pneumonia, but are less clear as to why patients should be free of respiratory discomfort despite arterial oxygen levels commonly regarded as life threatening.
32972430 Clinical improvement, negative conversion of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), adverse effects, and oxygen requirements were studied. […] The meta-analysis showed no significant differences between the two groups on viral clearance (day 14: RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.84-1.33), non-invasive ventilation or oxygen requirement (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.42-1.39), and adverse effects (OR 0.69, 0.13-3.57). […] There is a significant clinical and radiological improvement following treatment with FVP in comparison to the standard of care with no significant differences on viral clearance, oxygen support requirement and side effect profiles.
32974111 In contrast, among younger people, men had higher odds of severe pneumonia, need for high oxygen support, acute kidney injury and acute liver injury when compared to women.
32975205 At logistic regression analysis, gestational age at diagnosis (OR: 0.85, 95% CI 0.8-0.9 per week increase; p<0.001), birthweight (OR: 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.12.7 per 100 g decrease; p=0.012) and maternal ventilatory support, including either need for oxygen or CPAP (OR: 4.12, 95% CI 2.3-7.9; p=0.001) were independently associated with composite adverse fetal outcome.
32975814 Adverse outcomes defined as intensive care units, oxygen saturation less than 90%, invasive mechanical ventilation, severe disease, and in-hospital mortality.
32976364 Overall, one-third of patients had an oxygen saturation of bellow 90% on admission.
32977101 Arterial blood gas analysis showed low pO2, pCO2, and ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) indicating hypocapnic hypoxemia.
32977137 We evaluated the gas exchange over time through the ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) at baseline, 7, and 14 days after randomization, the time until successful liberation from mechanical ventilation, and the ventilator-free days.
32977606 Our final model identified nine key features: age, oxygen saturation, smoking, serum creatinine, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, C-reactive protein, and sodium at admission.
32978307 The most discriminating univariable predictors were admission oxygen saturation on room air for in-hospital deterioration (AUROC 0.76; 0.71-0.81), and age for in-hospital mortality (AUROC 0.76; 0.71-0.81). […] Admission oxygen saturation on room air and patient age are strong predictors of deterioration and mortality among hospitalised adults with COVID-19, respectively.
32978920 This retrospective study was undertaken to explore the physiotherapy practices that could be implemented in patients admitted with COVID 19 in the ICU and its effect on mobility and oxygen requirement as an outcome. […] Demographic characteristics, disease severity, oxygen requirement, mobility status, physiotherapy intervention were studied. 278 record sheets (110 ICU and 168 SDU) were retrospectively analysed for demographics. […] Descriptive analysis showed a definitive reduction in oxygen support requirement.
32978927 Most can be managed with home isolation under telemedicine supervision with oxygen saturation screening by a simple six minute walk test. […] Hospitalised cases have emerging evidence in different therapies from antivirals, steroids, immunologic to heparins but high flow oxygen, prone position and supportive care remains the cornerstone in critical care with nursing and nutrition.
32979425 Laboratory results including myocardial biomarkers, oxygen saturation, inflammatory indicators and coagulation function were compared between survivors and non-survivors.
32980424 Ten were asymptomatic, 25 were treated as outpatients, 28 required admission without intensive care or ventilation, 13 required non-invasive ventilation or oxygen administration, 18 were admitted to intensive care units, 12 requiring invasive ventilation, and 3 extra corporeal membrane oxygenation.
32980556 Six patients with SCD had COVID-19 (1.6%): three remained asymptomatic, two had mild symptoms and one required oxygen therapy.
32981508 Oxygen transport physiology, SARSCov-2 characteristics, and its transmission, lung imaging in COVID-19, and HAPE, as well as the causes of clinical signs and symptoms, are discussed. […] High-altitude oxygen transport physiology has been systematically ignored. […] COVID-19 signs and symptoms indicate a progressive and irreversible failure in the oxygen transport system, secondary to pneumolysis produced by SARS-Cov-2’s alveolar-capillary membrane “attack”.
32983456 High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) has been shown to be a useful therapy in the treatment of patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), but its efficacy is still unknown in patients with COVID-19.
32984400 Proteolytic knockdown of GPX1 is highly consistent with previously documented effects of recombinant SARS-CoV Mpro in transfected cells, including increased reactive oxygen species and NF-κB activation.
32984797 This model was based on three clinical features: patient’s age, minimum oxygen saturation over the course of their medical encounter, and type of patient encounter (inpatient vs outpatient and telehealth visits).
32984838 Among 948 patients, 122 (12.87%) received invasive ventilation, 637 (67.19%) received supplemental oxygen only, and 189 (19.94%) received no respiratory support. […] The rate of in-hospital death for invasive ventilation recipients was 22.95%, 12.87% for supplemental oxygen recipients, and 7.41% for those who received neither (p = 0.0004). […] A sensitivity analysis of the 770 patients less than 80 years old revealed a lower, but similar mortality trend (18.02%, 8.10%, 5.23%; p = 0.0008) among the 14.42%, 65.71%, and 19.87% of patients treated with mechanical ventilation, supplemental oxygen only, or neither.
32985211 In addition, Resveratrol was demonstrated to be a stimulator of fetal hemoglobin and a potent antioxidant, by trapping reactive oxygen species (ROS).
32986274 Eligible patients were hospitalized, had radiographic consolidation, required supplemental oxygen, and were clinically deteriorating. […] Within 24 hours of radiation, 3 patients (60%) were weaned from supplemental oxygen to ambient air, 4 (80%) exhibited radiographic improvement, and the median Glasgow Coma Scale score improved from 10 to 14. […] A fourth patient (80% overall recovery) was weaned from oxygen at hour 96. […] In a pilot trial of 5 oxygen-dependent elderly patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, low-dose whole-lung radiation led to rapid improvements in clinical status, encephalopathy, and radiographic consolidation without acute toxicity. […] Each had pneumonia visible on a chest x-ray, required supplemental oxygen, and experienced a clinical decline in mental status or in work of breathing or a prolonged or escalating supplemental oxygen requirement.
32986793 The respiratory support during hospitalization includes those who received no oxygen support (61.6%, 1623/2636), followed by those who received supplemental oxygen (29.9%, 788/2636), and IMV/ECMO (mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) (8.5%, 225/2636).
32986989 The primary outcomes included (1) a composite of adverse maternal outcome, defined as preeclampsia, venous thromboembolism, antepartum admission, maternal intensive care unit admission, need for mechanical ventilation, supplemental oxygen, or maternal death, and (2) a composite of adverse neonatal outcome, defined as respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, 5-minute Apgar score of <5, persistent category 2 fetal heart rate tracing despite intrauterine resuscitation, or neonatal death.
32987177 Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the adjusted odds of survival for patients receiving oxygen therapy or convalescent plasma, based on therapeutic effectiveness observed for other respiratory illnesses. […] After adjustment for sex, age, and underlying conditions in the synthetic case population, the odds of mortality for cases not receiving oxygen therapy was significantly higher than those receiving oxygen, such as due to disruptions to standard care (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.56 - 2.75). […] Investment in sustainable production and maintenance of supplies for oxygen therapy, along with messaging around early and appropriate use for healthcare providers, caregivers, and patients could reduce COVID-19 deaths in SSA.
32987701 Mitochondria are the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), most of them deriving from the mitochondrial respiratory chain.
32990580 With ASD closed, the atrial shunts disappeared, the peripheral artery pressure of oxygen(PaO2): 141.2±21.4mmHg, the oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2): 353.0±53.5, the mean blood pressure (MAP): 49.3±13.5 mmHg, the heart was full; with ASD opened, the left-to-right shunt was observed, PaO2: 169.3±18.9mmHg, PaO2/FiO2: 423.3±47.3, MAP: 68.2±16.1 mmHg, the range of cardiac motion significantly increased, heart beat was powerful, and systemic circulation significantly improved.
32992843 We found: (i) In SP-A2 mice, the redox alteration of AM in response to O3 showed sex-dependence with AM from males being significantly more oxidized and having a higher level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species than females; (ii) AM from KO mice were more oxidized after O3 exposure and showed no sex differences; (iii) AM from female KO mice were more oxidized than female SP-A2 mice; and (iv) Two distinct subpopulations characterized by size and redox status were observed in a mouse AM sample.
32992875 For example, a viral infection can switch energy metabolism from respiration to widely anaerobic glycolysis even if plenty of oxygen is available (the Warburg effect) when the host cell cannot generate acetyl-coenzyme A, a metabolite required for melatonin biosynthesis.
32993451 Paired analysis of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen(PaO2): fraction of inspired oxygen(FiO2) ratio (PF ratio) (n = 89) and FiO2 (n = 129) was recorded within 3 hours of both the initiation and termination of PP and differences were assessed with the paired Student’s t-test and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. […] In summary, PP improved arterial oxygenation and reduced oxygen requirements in most Covid-19 patients in this single- center, retrospective analysis.
32993479 The fraction of inspired oxygen requirements was reduced for all five patients after initiating dornase alfa administration.
32994187 All patients had pneumonia and exhibited oxygen saturation <95% when breathing ambient air or when receiving oxygen support.
32997237 The following variables were extracted for this study: age, gender, temperature, and saturation of oxygen on admission, treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, heparin, steroids, tocilizumab, a combination of lopinavir with ritonavir, and oseltamivir, together with data on mortality. […] This association remained significant when saturation of oxygen < 90% and temperature > 37 °C were added to de model with OR 0.45 (0.30-0.68) p < 0.001, and also when all the other drugs, and time of admission, were included as covariates.
32999777 Overall, 39% of the subjects did not need respiratory support, while 13% were on a ventilator, 16% on bilevel positive airway pressure/continuous positive airway pressure (BiPAP/CPAP), and 31% on supplemental oxygen therapy.
33000107 Inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein, D-dimer, ferritin, fibrin degradation product and interleukin-6 were significantly elevated (P <0.05) in patients who required oxygen therapy than those who did not require it, suggesting the potential role such markers could play in predicting prognosis in patients.
33003134 Men were more likely to receive oxygen therapy (144 [6.46%] vs 131 [4.63%], P = 0.004), be admitted to the intensive care unit (60 [2.69%] vs 53 [1.87%], P = 0.049), and have a longer length of stay after admission to the intensive care unit (19.70 ± 11.80 vs 14.75 ± 9.23, P = 0.016).
33004712 Ozone therapy consists in the administration of a mixture of ozone and oxygen, called medical ozone, which has been used for over a century as an unconventional medicine practice for several diseases.
33005276 The proportion of patients received oxygen therapy was 22.7% in the asymptomatic group and 99.1% in symptomatic patients (p < 0.001).
33005428 On day 23, lung opacity on the chest X-ray cleared and the patient’s oxygen saturation improved significantly.
33005518 Phosphorus levels remained elevated, and sevelamer was added on discharge after he was weaned off oxygen and cleared by physical therapy.
33006317 Among patients that were almost 100% certain which person infected them, only 14 out of 38 overall, and 9 out of 25 hospitalized patients requiring supplemental oxygen, were infected by someone who coughed, which did not support our hypothesis.
33006440 High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I levels were significantly associated with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, creatinine, d-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, and inflammatory cytokines and negatively associated with oxygen saturation.
33007478 When patients received corticosteroids before they required nasal high-flow oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, the in-hospital death rate was lower than that in patients who were not administered corticosteroids (17/86, 19.8% vs.
33008453 She received steroids, anticoagulation, and convalescent plasma, and within 48 h she was off oxygen.
33010257 Multivariable logistic and linear regressions, and survival analysis were performed depending on outcomes: need for IMV, evolution of arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) or mortality.
33011717 The Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, hemodynamic status, and PF ratio (arterial oxygen partial pressure [PaO2]/fractional inspired oxygen [FiO2]) determined that on admission, an elevated blood urea nitrogen (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-2.48), a low eGFR (HR 1.43; CI 1.1-2.03), AKI stage 1 (HR 1.14; CI 0.64-2.03), AKI stage 2 (HR 1.86; CI 1.03-3.56), and AKI stage 3 (HR 2.1; CI 1.3-2.81) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality.
33012378 This was an observational, retrospective, cohort study from a 9-ED health system of admitted adult patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) and an oxygen requirement less than or equal to 6 L/min. […] We sought to predict respiratory failure within 24 hours of admission as defined by oxygen requirement of greater than 10 L/min by low-flow device, high-flow device, noninvasive or invasive ventilation, or death.
33012857 The COVID 19 pandemic is exposing an important weakness in health systems: medical oxygen production and delivery.
33014275 During a virus-induced cytokine storm, metabolic flexibility is compromised due to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that damage, downregulate, or inactivate many enzymes of central metabolism including the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC).
33014499 Treatment provided to the child included intranasal oxygen, antibiotics, and a dietary program with therapeutic milk.
33014697 We should note that, respiration process is the movement of oxygen from external atmosphere to the cells within tissue and the transport of carbon dioxide outside.
33014804 The extent of COVID-19 pneumonia was correlated with inpatient management (p = 0.003) and oxygen therapy requirements (p < 0.001).
33015423 ATMO-Vent is capable of adjusting the Fraction of Inspiratory Oxygen (FiO2) levels, Tidal Volume (TV), frequency of breaths, Inspiratory/Expiratory ratio (I/E), Peak Inspiratory Pressure (PIP) and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP).
33015428 Following the inflammatory response, BSs induce the production of cationic proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lysozyme, and thus can be utilized for therapeutic purposes.
33015643 Eligibility criteria were age 18 years or older; severe pneumonia with pulmonary infiltrates consistent with pneumonia, a clinical history of severe shortness of breath within the past 14 days, or a need for non-invasive or invasive ventilation; severe disease defined as a ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired air (PaO2/FiO2) between 100 mm Hg and 250 mm Hg in the supine position; and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection confirmed by RT-PCR.
33015645 In the multistate model, using daily cHIS score as a time-dependent variable, the cHIS hazard ratio for worsening from low to moderate oxygen requirement was 1·4 (95% CI 1·2-1·6), from moderate oxygen to high-flow oxygen 2·2 (1·1-4·4), and to mechanical ventilation 4·0 (1·9-8·2).
33019838 Antiviral photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is based on the reaction between a photo-sensitive agent and a light source in the presence of oxygen which can produce oxidative and free radical agents to damage the virus’ structures.
33020140 It included personal history, antigen swabs, blood tests, spirometry, resting/stress-test ECG with oxygen saturation monitoring, echocardiogram, Holter and chest CT. […] In this small cohort of athletes with previous asymptomatic/mild SARS-CoV-2 infection, a comprehensive screening protocol including blood tests, spirometry, resting ECG, stress-test ECG with oxygen saturation monitoring and echocardiogram did not identify relevant anomalies.
33020762 Lung ultrasound may better correlate with the oxygen requirement and overall condition of the patient than chest radiographs - a pertinent consideration given the imminent advance of the pandemic into resource-poor zones where timely access to roentgenological imaging may be sparse.
33020836 This observational study enrolled patients with moderate to severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia [arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) <200 mmHg] who received lopinavir/ritonavir and HCQ plus either corticosteroids (CS group, n = 50) or corticosteroids and baricitinib (BCT-CS group, n = 62). […] The primary end point was the change in oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2)/FiO2 from hospitalization to discharge. […] Secondary end points included the proportion of patients requiring supplemental oxygen at discharge and 1 month later. […] A higher proportion of patients required supplemental oxygen both at discharge (62.0% vs 25.8%; reduction of the risk by 82%, OR adjusted for IPSW, 0.18; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.43; P < 0.001) and 1 month later (28.0% vs 12.9%, reduction of the risk by 69%, OR adjusted for IPSW, 0.31; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.86; P = 0.024) in the CS vs BCT-CS group. .
33021102 Heavier charged particles have potential advantages over protons by delivering more dose in the Bragg peak, with a sharper penumbra, lower oxygen dependence and increased biological effectiveness. […] Discussion followed on the scale and features, including which ions should be included, from protons through helium, boron, and lithium to carbon, and even oxygen.
33022818 Moreover, lower oxygen delivery to kidney may cause an ischaemic injury.
33023669 We aimed to examine whether the combination of high-flow nasal oxygen therapy (HFNO) with awake-PP prevents the need for intubation when compared to HFNO alone.
33023671 High-risk is defined as SARS-CoV-2 positive infection with Oxygen saturation at ≤ 94% at ambient air with additional risk features as categorised in 4 groups: • Group 1, pre-existing or concurrent hematological malignancy and/or active cancer therapy (incl. chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery) within the last 24 months or less.
33024082 Following CP transfusion, six out of eight patients showed improved oxygen support status; chest CT indicated varying degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions in six patients within 8 days; the viral load was decreased to a negative level in five patients who had the previous viremia; other laboratory parameters also tended to improve, including increased lymphocyte counts, decreased C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and indicators for liver function.
33024388 The ventilators require oxygen supply and manpower to function which are deficient in these countries. […] These countries might do well only by procurement of oxygen delivery machinery, as most of the patients of COVID require oxygen only.
33025500 Respiratory symptoms, including cough and oxygen desaturation, appeared after those initial symptoms or as the first sign in 36.8% and 52.2%, respectively.
33025502 Patients with COVID-19 experienced more likely dyspnea (p=0.04), had lower arterial oxygen saturation (p<0.001), higher C-reactive protein and white blood cell (WBC) count (p<0.0001 and p=0.001, respectively), and a significantly higher in-hospital mortality (14% versus 3.4%, p=0.04). […] COVID-19 patients with diagnosis of PE during hospitalization (n=13) had significantly more dyspnea (p=0.04), lower arterial oxygen saturation (p=0.01), less proximal PE (p=0.02), and higher heart rate (p=0.009), CT severity score (p=0.001), C-reactive protein (p=0.006) and WBC count (p=0.04).
33026573 The incidence of liver injury was much higher in male [192/303 (63.4%)] than female [111/303 (36.6%)], and in severe/critical patients [148/303 (48.8%)] with percutaneous oxygen saturation ≤ 93% [89/279 (31.9%)] or peak body temperature ≥ 38.5 °C [185/301 (61.5%)] on admission.
33028398 Both patients had multiple comorbidities, received a combination of antibiotics, steroids and supportive oxygen therapy, and underwent routine laboratory workup.
33028562 Participants will undergo the measurement of vital parameters (oxygen saturation measured by oximeter, respiratory rate and body temperature detected by laser thermometer), the administration of a COVID-19-related symptoms questionnaire, the collection of a blood sample and a nasopharyngeal swab.
33028914 A COVID-19 severity score ranging from 0 to 10, consisting of age, oxygen saturation, mean arterial pressure, blood urea nitrogen, C-Reactive protein, and the international normalized ratio was developed.
33029105 However, these proteins can cause blood clotting, which can clog blood vessels in the heart and other organs; as a result, the organs are deprived of oxygen and nutrients which could ultimately lead to multiorgan failure and consequent progression to acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and often death.
33029275 An oxygen mask was placed over the nasal cannula to administer oxygen while minimizing H2 leakage, and a catheter was inserted into the carotid artery to monitor the arterial blood H2 concentration. […] The combination of a nasal cannula and an oxygen mask is a convenient way to reduce H2 leakage while maintaining oxygenation.
33031409 Considering the severity of the disease and the lack of active treatments, 14 patients with Covid-19 and severe lung inflammation received inhaled adenosine in the attempt to therapeutically compensate for the oxygen-related loss of the endogenous adenosine→A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR)-mediated mitigation of the lung-destructing inflammatory damage.
33031500 Reported data span March 21 to June 16, 2020 for hospitalized pregnant women with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and room air oxygen saturation ≤94% whose clinicians requested remdesivir through the compassionate use program. […] By Day 28 of follow-up, the level of oxygen requirement decreased in 96% and 89% of pregnant and postpartum women, respectively.
33031955 This multicentre study project includes a single-arm phase 2 study and a further parallel cohort, enrolling hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and oxygen saturation at rest in ambient air ≤93% or requiring respiratory support.
33032841 She showed shorter hospitalization time, similar clinical outcome with fewer oxygen needs.
33033687 Patients were separated into two groups: Non-severe patients were those with mild or moderate forms of COVID-19, and severe patients were those admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) who had one of the following signs-respiratory rate > 30 breaths/min; oxygen saturation < 93% on room air; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); or required mechanical ventilation.
33035409 Compared with patients with HbA1C < 6.5, patients with HbA1C ≥ 6.5 showed higher heart rate (101 vs. 89 beats per min, P=0.012), lower percutaneous oxygen saturation (93% vs.
33035991 Co-primary outcomes were death or composite outcomes of severe illness from COVID-19 such as hospitalisation, supplemental oxygen, intensive-care unit (ICU) admission and/or mechanical ventilation.
33037620 We performed a retrospective, observational study of blood gas analyses (n = 3518) obtained from patients with COVID-19 to investigate changes in haemoglobin oxygen (Hb-O2) affinity. […] Calculated oxygen tension at half-saturation (p50) was on average (±SD) 3·3 (3·13) mmHg lower than the normal p50 value (23·4 vs. 26·7 mmHg; P < 0·0001).
33038530 Glutathione (GSH) is essential and protects the body from the harmful effects of oxidative damage from excess reactive oxygen radicals.
33039144 Oxygen therapy was given for a single night, and the patient gradually recovered with supportive care only.
33039952 We hypothesized that fewer patients administered this combination would require oxygen therapy, intensive care support, or a combination of both than those who did not. […] After this date, patients were administered 1000 IU/d oral vitamin D3, 150 mg/d oral magnesium, and 500 mcg/d oral vitamin B12 upon admission if they did not require oxygen therapy. […] Primary outcome was deterioration leading to any form of oxygen therapy, intensive care support, or both. […] Fewer treated patients than controls required initiation of oxygen therapy during hospitalization (17.6 vs 61.5%, P = 0.006). […] DMB exposure was associated with odds ratios of 0.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.59) and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.04-0.93) for oxygen therapy, intensive care support, or both on univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. […] A vitamin D / magnesium / vitamin B12 combination in older COVID-19 patients was associated with a significant reduction in the proportion of patients with clinical deterioration requiring oxygen support, intensive care support, or both.
33040020 Anthropometrical, clinical characteristics and blood biomarkers were assessed within the first 24 hours from admission. hARF was graded as follows: severe (partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) <100 mm Hg); moderate (PaO2/FiO2 101-200 mm Hg); mild (PaO2/FiO2 201-300 mm Hg) and normal (PaO2/FiO2 >300 mm Hg).
33040021 Procedures classified as aerosol-generating or possibly aerosol-generating by ≥90% of documents included autopsy, surgery/postmortem procedures with high-speed devices, intubation and extubation procedures, bronchoscopy, sputum induction, manual ventilation, airway suctioning, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, tracheostomy and tracheostomy procedures, non-invasive ventilation, high-flow oxygen therapy, breaking closed ventilation systems, nebulised or aerosol therapy, and high frequency oscillatory ventilation.
33041811 Predictors of long hospital stays were older age (P = 0.002), low oxygen saturation (P = 0.001) and bilateral radiological findings at admission (P = 0.023). […] Predictors of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission were the previous use of calcium-channel blockers (P = 0.005), proton pump inhibitors (P = 0.017), low oxygen saturation (P = 0.002), high leukocyte count (P = 0.011), and high D-dimer values (P = 0.005).
33042826 High-oxygen requirements were needed in 39% of patients, but only 1 pt was admitted for invasive MV and was discharged 42 days after admission.
33043131 The circuit is controlled by a pneumatic signal with electronic microcontroller input, using air and oxygen sources found in standard patient rooms.
33043132 The patient was evaluated before and after LLLT by radiological assessment of lung edema (RALE) on chest X-ray, oxygen requirements and saturation, pneumonia severity indices (SMART-COP and Brescia-COVID), blood inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, ferritin, and C-Reactive protein (CRP)). […] Prior to treatment, oxygen saturation (SpO2) via pulse oximetry was 88%-93% on 5-6 L oxygen. […] Following LLLT, SpO2 increased to 97%-99% on 1-3 L oxygen.
33043172 We have validated the prototype of PROPER unit for air flow, ISO class cleanliness level, oxygen and carbon-dioxide gas concentrations during exhalation, and present here these results for illustration.
33043284 At 19 days median follow-up, 89·7% of medical inpatients significantly improved (46·1% after 24 h, 61·5% after 3 days), 70·6% were discharged from the hospital and 85·7% no longer needed oxygen therapy.
33043285 The utility of heated and humidified high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) for severe COVID-19-related hypoxaemic respiratory failure (HRF), particularly in settings with limited access to intensive care unit (ICU) resources, remains unclear, and predictors of outcome have been poorly studied. […] The median (IQR) arterial oxygen partial pressure to fraction inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) was 68 (54-92) in 293 enroled patients. […] A higher ratio of oxygen saturation/FiO2 to respiratory rate within 6 h (ROX-6 score) after HFNO commencement was associated with HFNO success (ROX-6; AHR 0.43, 0.31-0.60), as was use of steroids (AHR 0.35, 95%CI 0.19-0.64).
33045281 We evaluated the accuracy of clinical signs and these biomarkers in predicting 30-day intubation/mortality, and oxygen requirement by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and by classification and regression tree analysis. […] Of 76 COVID-19 patients included, 24 were outpatients or hospitalized without oxygen requirement, 35 hospitalized with oxygen requirement and 17 intubated/died. […] We found that soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (sTREM-1) had the best prognostic accuracy for 30-day intubation/mortality (AUROC 0.86; 95% CI 0.77-0.95) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) measured at presentation to the ED had the best accuracy for 30-day oxygen requirement (AUROC 0.84; 95% CI 0.74-0.94) . […] An IL-6-based algorithm had 98% sensitivity and 0.04 negative likelihood ratio (NLR) for 30-day oxygen requirement. sTREM-1 and IL-6 concentrations in COVID-19 in the ED have good predictive accuracy for intubation/mortality and oxygen requirement. sTREM-1- and IL-6-based algorithms are highly sensitive to identify patients with adverse outcome and could serve as early triage tools.
33045577 In Iran and China, some reports showed a positive effect of Tocilizumab on Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen (SPO2) but results of CT scan in patients in different.
33045772 They showed lower initial oxygen saturation (92.8 vs.
33045775 Pneumonia diagnosed in chest computed tomography improved without oxygen supplementation.
33046288 A structured approach to respiratory failure in these patients includes the use of exogenous oxygen via nasal cannula or non-rebreather, as well as titrated high-flow nasal cannula and non-invasive ventilation.
33046291 After adjusting for multiple comparisons and controlling numerous confounders, quantile regression revealed that the laboratory indexes of non-survivors were significantly higher in C-reactive protein (CRP; QS = 0.835, p < .001), white blood cell counts (WBC; QS = 0.743, p < .001), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST; QS = 0.735, p < .001), blood glucose (BG; QS = 0.608, p = .059), fibrin degradation product (FDP; QS = 0.730, p = .080), and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), and lower in oxygen saturation (SO2; QS = 0.312, p < .001), calcium (Ca2+; QS = 0.306, p = .073), and pH.
33046303 On 72-h return, 91 (65.5%) subjects required oxygen, and 7 (5.0%) required mechanical ventilation in the ED.
33046316 Our study suggests that patients who demonstrate acute deterioration, a protracted course of illness with non-resolving symptoms, worsening dyspnoea, persistent oxygen requirements or significantly raised D-dimer levels should be investigated for PE, particularly in the context of COVID-19 infection.
33046370 To investigate the validity of CT quantification in the management of COVID-19, we built random forest (RF) models for the purpose of classification and regression to assess the disease severity (Moderate, Severe, and Critical) and to predict the need and length of ICU stay, the duration of oxygen inhalation, hospitalization, sputum NAT-positive, and patient prognosis. […] The median values of ICU stay were 0, 0, and 12 days, the duration of oxygen inhalation 10, 15, and 28 days, the hospitalization 12, 16, and 28 days, and the sputum NAT-positive 8, 9, and 13 days, in three severity groups, respectively. […] The root-mean-square errors of RF regressors were 0.88 weeks for prediction of duration of hospitalization (mean: 2.60 ± 1.01 weeks), 0.92 weeks for duration of oxygen inhalation (mean: 2.44 ± 1.08 weeks), 0.90 weeks for duration of sputum NAT-positive (mean: 1.59 ± 0.98 weeks), and 0.69 weeks for stay of ICU (mean: 1.32 ± 0.67 weeks), respectively.
33048783 Patients were stratified int o 4 subgroups: admission to the ward with pneumonia and/or oxygen requirement (WARD; n = 100); ICU admission (ICU; n = 87); ICU admission with requirement of mechanical ventilation (ICU-MV; n = 56), and ICU-MV plus septic shock (ICU-MV-SS; N = 29).
33048824 The primary outcome was requiring an oxygen supplement. […] The outcome of the model for the patient’s application was the length of time from the date of hospitalization to the date of the first usage of an oxygen supplement.