DrugBank ID: db09152
DrugCentral: nitrogen
Synonymous : None

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of nitrogen gene in 114 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32229732 Twelve (10.8%) patients showed mild increase of blood urea nitrogen or creatinine (<26 μmol/L within 48 h), and 8 (7.2%) patients showed trace or 1+ albuminuria in 111 COVID-19-confirmed patients without chronic kidney disease (CKD).
32247631 The prevalence of elevated serum creatinine, elevated blood urea nitrogen and estimated glomerular filtration under 60 ml/min/1.73m2 were 14.4, 13.1 and 13.1%, respectively. […] Cox proportional hazard regression confirmed that elevated baseline serum creatinine (hazard ratio: 2.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.36-3.26), elevated baseline blood urea nitrogen (3.97, 2.57-6.14), AKI stage 1 (1.90, 0.76-4.76), stage 2 (3.51, 1.49-8.26), stage 3 (4.38, 2.31-8.31), proteinuria 1+ (1.80, 0.81-4.00), 2+∼3+ (4.84, 2.00-11.70), and hematuria 1+ (2.99, 1.39-6.42), 2+∼3+ (5.56,2.58- 12.01) were independent risk factors for in-hospital death after adjusting for age, sex, disease severity, comorbidity and leukocyte count.
32249089 The most common symptoms on admission to hospital were fever (five patients, 100%), cough (five patients, 100%), myalgia or fatigue (three patients, 60%), and sputum production (three patients, 60%); serum creatinine or urea nitrogen levels were slightly higher than those before symptom onset.
32296824 We found that old age, and higher serum lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, the coefficient of variation of red blood cell distribution width, blood urea nitrogen, direct bilirubin, lower albumin, are associated with severe COVID-19.
32302812 Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an ambient trace-gas result of both natural and anthropogenic processes.
32305506 We decided to use the analogy of a play and speculate about the possible impact in this tragedy of 1) air pollution via the interference of nitrogen dioxide on ACE2 expression; 2) the dual role of nicotine; 3) the hypothetical involvement of ACE2 polymorphisms, the relationships of which with ethnic factors and susceptibility to cardiovascular disease seems intriguing; 4) the impact on the severity of infection of hypertension and related medications acting on the renin/angiotensin system, and, finally, 5) the possible helpful role of chloroquine, thanks to its capacity of modifying ACE2 affinity to the viral spike protein by altering glycosylation.
32348946 Moreover, COVID-19 significantly reduces the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the atmosphere.
32360479 Laboratory tests showed decreased lymphocyte count, elevated PCT, IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-2R, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I, NT-proBNP, creatinine, and urea nitrogen.
32361428 The main goal of this work is to discuss the impact of the measures on the air quality of the city by comparing the particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone concentrations determined during the partial lockdown with values obtained in the same period of 2019 and also with the weeks prior to the virus outbreak. […] Ozone concentrations increased probably due to the decrease in nitrogen oxides level.
32380370 By contrast, an increase of approximately 30% in ozone concentrations was observed in urban areas highly influenced by vehicle traffic, probably related to nitrogen monoxide decreases.
32408041 There was a substantial reduction in the level of nitrogen dioxide (NO2: 0.00002 mol m-2), a low reduction in CO (<0.03 mol m-2), and a low-to-moderate reduction in Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD: ~0.1-0.2) in the major hotspots of COVID-19 outbreak during February-March 2020, which may be attributed to the mass lockdowns.
32416357 Particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the outdoor air pollutants that are major factors in diseases, causing especially adverse respiratory effects in humans.
32418377 There were 29.9% (26/87) and 12.6% (11/87) patients who had already showed mild elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) at admission.
32425003 The prothrombin time was increased and the levels of platelet, hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and IL-6 were higher in IMV cases compared with NIV cases during hospitalization.
32434806 Reported risk factors include elevated baseline serum creatinine, elevated blood urea nitrogen, acute kidney injury, proteinuria, and hematuria.
32446795 Patients with diabetes had significantly higher leucocyte and neutrophil counts, and higher levels of fasting blood glucose, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB at admission compared with those without diabetes.
32462316 Studies in larger cohorts of currently infected subjects are warranted to confirm (or exclude) the presence of risks for male gametes that are destined either for cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen or for assisted reproduction techniques.
32466289 Then, four types of Biolog Phenotype MicroArray™ plates (PM-M1 to PM-M4) precoated with different carbon and nitrogen sources were used to determine the metabolic profiles in FIPV-infected cells.
32480061 Monitoring data obtained at two automatic monitoring stations showed higher ratios between non-methane hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides (NMHC/NOx) during the partial lockdown (up to 37.3%).
32512381 We assessed air quality during the COVID-19 pandemic for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the continental United States from January 8th-April 21st in 2017-2020.
32513529 In this paper we critically review the work “Assessing nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels as a contributing factor to coronavirus (COVID-19) fatality” (Ogen, 2020), stressing the fact that we think there are flaws in the published methodology.
32526275 Elevated procalcitonin (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.02-2.90), urea nitrogen (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.21-2.43), α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HR 3.02, 95% CI 1.26-7.21) and D-dimer (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.12-3.58) at baseline were also associated with risk for disease progression.
32527342 In addition to the difference of serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil count (NEU), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer, procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reaction protein (CRP) in AKI group were significantly higher than those in non-AKI group [WBC (×109/L): 5.75 (4.13, 7.83) vs.
32540837 Those intubated exhibited increased disease severity with significantly elevated levels of serum Procalcitonin, C reactive protein (CRP), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Mean glucose, Creatinine, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN).
32541471 And the renal function (measured as blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and urine protein) returned to normal.
32545714 This paper addresses several key biological processes of reactive oxygen, halogen and nitrogen species (ROS, RHS and RNS) that play crucial physiological roles in organisms from plants to humans.
32554754 Also, because of non-linear production chemistry and titration of ozone in winter, reduced nitrogen oxides resulted in ozone enhancement in urban areas, further increasing the atmospheric oxidizing capacity and facilitating secondary aerosol formation.
32556649 Progression of organ dysfunctions necessitated inhalation of nitrogen oxide for respiratory dysfunction, noradrenaline for cardiovascular dysfunction and continuous renal replacement therapy for renal dysfunction.
32559180 Widespread dysregulation of nitrogen metabolism was also seen in infected patients, with altered levels of most amino acids, along with increased markers of oxidant stress (e.g., methionine sulfoxide, cystine), proteolysis, and renal dysfunction (e.g., creatine, creatinine, polyamines). […] Interestingly, metabolite levels in these pathways correlated with clinical laboratory markers of inflammation (i.e., IL-6 and C-reactive protein) and renal function (i.e., blood urea nitrogen).
32559534 For January-April 2020 period, time series of daily average inhalable gaseous pollutants ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), together climate variables (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation rate, atmospheric pressure field and Planetary Boundary Layer) were analyzed.
32563813 This work resulted in the synthesis of 16 adenine dinucleosides with both adenosines connected by various nitrogen-containing linkers.
32575073 From baseline to day 14, significant decreases of three biomarkers (C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, albumin) and dramatic increases of three biomarkers (lymphocytes, platelets, blood urea nitrogen) were observed in older patients.
32590117 The only oxide of nitrogen in the mainstream smoke is NO, and the NO2 concentration that is inhaled is very low or undetectable, and methemoglobin levels are lower in smokers than non-smokers, reasonably explained by the breaths of air in between the puffs that wash out the NO.
32526820 The evidence reports that the incidence and risk of morbidity and mortality from Covid-19 increase with chronic and acute exposure to air pollution, particularly to particulate matter (PM2.5, P M10) and nitrogen dioxide.
32600484 Through multivariable logistic regression, we found that decreased lymphocyte ratio (Lymr, %) (odds ratio, OR 0.574, P < 0.001), elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (OR 1.513, P = 0.009), and raised D-dimer (DD) (OR 1.334, P = 0.002) at admission were closely related to death.
32612961 The severe and critically severe groups had elevated levels of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, platelets, C-reaction protein (CRP), lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), troponin-I, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).
32623470 ACEI/ARB use was independently associated with the following biochemical variations: phosphorus >40 mg/L (odds ratio [OR], 3.35, 95% CI, 1.83-6.14), creatinine >10.1 mg/L (OR, 3.22, 2.28-4.54), and urea nitrogen (UN) >0.52 g/L (OR, 2.65, 1.89-3.73).
32626680 Older age, elevated aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, serum lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, prothrombin time, D-dimer, Procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein levels, decreased albumin, elevated serum cytokines (IL2R, IL6, IL8, IL10, and TNF-α) levels, and a decreased lymphocyte count indicated poor outcome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
32626733 After 48 h, we measured the histopathological alterations in the kidney tissue and the serum levels of creatinine (CRE) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).
32629257 Hourly air pollution observations were obtained for fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ozone from the Ontario air monitoring network for 2020 and the previous five years. […] Nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides demonstrated a reduction across Ontario, and both pollutants displayed their lowest concentrations for 22 of 29 monitors. […] Individual monitors ranged from 1 ppb (nitrogen dioxide) and 5 ppb (nitrogen oxides) above average to 4.5 (nitrogen dioxide) and 7.1 ppb (nitrogen oxides) below average. […] Overall, both nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides demonstrated a reduction across Ontario in response to the COVID-19 SOE, ozone concentrations suggested a possible reduction, and fine particulate matter has not varied from historic concentrations.
32634686 Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) showed the largest decrease of approximately 53.3%, and ozone (O3) increased by 116.6%.
32634726 These two cities have observed a substantial decrease in Nitrogen Dioxide (40-50%) compared to the same period last year. […] The study found a significant decline in Nitrogen Dioxide in reputed states of India, i.e., Delhi and Mumbai. […] Moreover, a faded track of Nitrogen Dioxide can be seen at the Maritime route in the Indian Ocean.
32634734 Search for an open PFO after a large drop in arterial oxygen saturation can be performed at the bedside with a variety of well-established techniques including bedside echocardiography, nitrogen washout test, and imaging studies.
32640401 To do this, daily concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were obtained from 15 central monitoring stations throughout the five NYC boroughs for the first 17 weeks (January through May) of 2015-2020.
32651993 9.3mg/L) and blood urea nitrogen (7.2mmol/L vs. […] The survival curve analysis showed that higher C-reactive protein (≥5mg/L) plus any other abnormalities of lymphocyte, blood urea nitrogen or lactate dehydrogenase significantly predicted poor prognosis of COVID-19 infected elderly patients. […] This study revealed that the risk factors for the death in these elderly patients included comorbidities, increased levels of C-reactive protein and blood urea nitrogen, and lymphopenia during hospitalization.
32656888 Multivariable regression showed that neutrophil count greater than 4.47 × 109 /L (OR, 58.35; 95%CI: 2.16-1571.69; P = .016), hypersensitivity C-reactive protein greater than 86.7 mg/L (OR, 14.90; 95%CI: 1.29-171.10; P = .030), creatine kinase greater than 101 U/L (OR, 161.62; 95%CI: 6.45-4045.20; P = .002), and blood urea nitrogen greater than 6.7 mmol/L (OR, 11.18; 95%CI: 1.36-91.62; P = .024) were risk factors for in-hospital death. […] The risk factors of neutrophil count, hypersensitivity C-reactive protein, creatine kinase, and blood urea nitrogen could help clinicians to early identify COVID-19 severe patients with poor outcomes on admission.
32661499 The severity of COVID-19 was negatively correlated with serum iron levels before and after treatment and was positively correlated with C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, urea nitrogen, and myoglobin levels.
32662525 Elder age, underlying comorbidities, and increased laboratory variables, such as leukocyte count, neutrophil count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) on admission, were found in survived severe cases compared to nonsevere cases.
32662893 We aimed to examine independent predictive factors for the severity and survival of COVID-19 disease, from routine blood parameters, especially the blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine (Cr) ratio.
32671411 This study has shown strong positive correlation between the concentration of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and both the absolute number of COVID-19 deaths (r = 0.79, p < 0.05) and case fatality rate (r = 0.74, p < 0.05) in India.
32674410 The study investigated the levels of four air pollutants-Carbon monoxide (CO), Ozone (O3), Fine Particulate (PM2.5) and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)-during the month of March 2020, compared to 2015-2019, in the urban air of these metropolitan areas, controlling for meteorological variables.
32679925 The variables retained by the models were identical for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM10), PM2.5, but not for ozone (O3) Air pollution data from 2019 was used for validation purposes.
32701249 Viral RNA was consistently detected in lung tissues from infected animals at 3, 5, and 7 dpi, along with alterations in related parameters from routine blood tests and serum biochemistry, including increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).
32711001 No considerable difference was observed regarding the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), white blood cell (WBC), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), globulin, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the three groups (p > 0.05).
32712332 This study aimed to test whether levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in combination with D-dimer were predictors of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients.
32718835 Air pollutants such as sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and dioxide, particulate matter (PM), ozone and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are commonly found at high levels in big cities and/or in the vicinity of different chemical industries.
32721038 There was mild liver function injury (aspartate aminotransferase, 65.8 ± 12.7 vs 67.4 ± 9.3 U/L, P = 0.246; alanine aminotransferase, 66.4 ± 13.2 vs 69.6 ± 12.7 U/L, P = 0.352), and normal renal function was intact (blood urea nitrogen 6.4 ± 2.5 vs 5.6 ± 2.8 mmol/L P = 0.358; creatinine 85.7 ± 37.2, 91.2 ± 32.6 μmol/L, P = 0.297).
32721760 By analyzing the long-term measurements from 2012 to 2020, we found considerable increases in the ratios of nitrate to sulfate, secondary to primary OA, and sulfur and nitrogen oxidation capacity despite the overall decreasing trends in mass concentrations of most aerosol species, suggesting that the decreases in anthropogenic emissions have facilitated secondary formation processes during the last decade.
32723027 After excluding prior kidney diseases, some patients showed abnormal urinalysis (32.11%), elevated blood creatinine (15.04%) and blood urea nitrogen (19.11%).
32723816 After accounting for the effects of meteorological variability, we find declines in the population-weighted concentration of ground-level nitrogen dioxide (NO2: 60% with 95% CI 48 to 72%), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5: 31%; 95% CI: 17 to 45%), with marginal increases in ozone (O3: 4%; 95% CI: -2 to 10%) in 34 countries during lockdown dates up until 15 May.
32731074 Data acquired from 28 long-term air quality stations across the U.S. revealed widespread but nonuniform reductions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) during the first phase of lockdown (March 15-April 25, 2020) relative to a pre-lockdown reference period and historical baselines established in 2017-2019.
32739424 Higher levels of serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were associated with a significant increase in fatality [Scr: mean difference (MD): 20.19 μmol/L, 95 % CI: 14.96-25.42, P < 0.001; BUN: MD: 4.07 mmol/L, 95 % CI: 3.33-4.81, P < 0.001] and severe infection (Scr: MD: 7.78 μmol/L, 95 % CI: 4.43-11.14, P < 0.00001, BUN: MD: 2.12 mmol/L, 95 % CI: 1.74-2.50, P < 0.00001) in COVID-19 patients.
32746929 Our meta-analyses showed a significant decrease in lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil, hemoglobin, platelet, albumin, serum sodium, lymphocyte to C-reactive protein ratio (LCR), leukocyte to C-reactive protein ratio (LeCR), leukocyte to IL-6 ratio (LeIR), and an increase in the neutrophil, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), Procalcitonin (PCT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), fibrinogen, prothrombin time (PT), D-dimer, glucose level, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in the severe group compared with the non-severe group.
32754610 Serum creatinine (Scr) was not abnormally elevated in all of the patients, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was abnormally elevated in only 25.0% of the patients.
32768746 In provinces with high flow, indicators such as carbon monoxide (CO) and 24-h average concentration of carbon monoxide (CO_24 h) were positively correlated with R0, while nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 24-h average concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2_24 h) and daily maximum temperature were inversely correlated to R0, with coefficients of 0.644, 0.661, -0.636, -0.657, -0.645, respectively.
32768975 In contrast, C-reactive protein, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase, and blood urea nitrogen levels were improved only in the combined treatment group (P < 0.05), and C-reactive protein and creatine kinase were the most pronounced (P < 0.01).
32771791 The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of lockdown on air pollutants and to analyze pre-monsoon (April and May) cloud-to-ground and inter-cloud lightning activity in relation to air pollutants i.e. suspended Particulate matter (PM10), Nitrogen dioxides (NO2) Sulfur dioxide (SO2), Ozone (O3) and Aerosol concentration (AC) in a polluted tropical urban megacities like Kolkata.
32773332 Nitrogen incorporation in the primordial cell chemistry allowed synthesis of amino acids and nucleic acids, a prelude to RNA and subsequently DNA.
32781318 This paper analyses the impact of the control measures during the COVID-19 lockdown in Europe (15 March-30 April 2020) on 1-h daily maximum nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and maximum daily 8-h running average ozone (MDA8 O3) observations obtained from the European Environment Agency’s air quality database (AirBase).
32785121 Deficient nutritional status is probably due to anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hypoalbuminemia, hypermetabolism, and excessive nitrogen loss.
32802752 Anthropogenic activities are responsible for the emission of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH) too, which represent other possible external contaminants potentially impairing IAQ.
32810523 Independent risk factors for in-hospital death for patients with ESKD were increased age, being on a ventilator, lymphopenia, blood urea nitrogen and serum ferritin.
32813298 Levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), D-dimer, myoglobin, T-pro brain natriuretic peptide (T-pro-BNP) and urea nitrogen (BUN) in patients with anaemia were significantly higher than those without.
32818500 Nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx) and ammonia (NH3) are among the main contributors to the formation of secondary particulate matter (PM2.5), which represent a severe risk to human health.
32834964 Our analysis has considered March and April 2020, for air quality measurement and infections in Lima, the data collected on 6 meteorological stations with CO (carbon monoxide), NO2 (nitrogen oxide), O3 (ozone), SO2 (sulfur dioxide), PM10 and PM2.5 (particle matter with diameter aerodynamic less than 2.5 and 10 m respectively).
32836517 During NYH-20, PM2.5 levels correlated significantly with the oxidation ratio of nitrogen (r2 = 0.77, p < 0.01), and aged particles from northern China were found to impede atmospheric new particle formation and growth in Shanghai.
32837481 While satellite data have provided visual evidence for the global reduction in air pollution such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) worldwide, precise and quantitative information is missing at the local scale. […] Overall, we observed not only the expected reduction in some atmospheric pollutants (PM, SO2, CO, NO2), but also unexpected increases in SO2 in the rural areas and of ozone (O3) in both urban and rural areas, the latter being paradoxically due to the reduction in nitrogen oxide levels.
32837618 The primary objective of the study is to analyse the relationship between COVID-19 and nitrogen dioxide in New York City during the global pandemic.
32838236 Urea nitrogen concentration at admission was associated with the presence of CT abnormalities (P = 0.046, OR 7.149, 95% CI 1.038 to 49.216).
32850926 Compared with the good outcome group, 20 (17.5%) patients in the poor outcome group more frequently exhibited lymphopenia, and lower levels of albumin, partial arterial oxygen pressure, higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, hypersensitive troponin I, C-reactive protein, ferritin, blood urea nitrogen, and D-dimer, as well as markedly higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10.
32851093 Compared with nondiabetics, patients with diabetes had an older age, high levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), D-dimer, white blood cell, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total bilirubin (TBIL), lower levels of lymphocyte, albumin and oxygen saturation (SaO2), and higher mortality (P < 0.05).
32867037 The concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) decreased by 16.9% and 16.4%, respectively.
32879103 Among them, laboratory tests included white blood cell (WBC), lymphocytes (LYM), neutrophil (NEU), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (PLT), prothrombin time (PT), plasma fibrinogen (Fib), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), D-dimer, total bilirubin (TBIL), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and oxygen partial pressure in arterial blood.
32879731 Meta-analysis of standardized mean difference (SMD) between severe and non-severe COVID-19 cases showed that CK-MB (SMD = 0.68,95%CI: 0.48;0.87; P-value:< 0.001), troponin I (SMD = 0.71, 95%CI:0.42;1.00; P-value:< 0.001), D-dimer (SMD = 0.54,95%CI:0.31;0.77; P-value:< 0.001), prothrombin time (SMD = 0.48, 95%CI:0.23;0.73; P-value: < 0.001), procalcitonin (SMD = 0.72, 95%CI: 0.34;1,11; P-value:< 0.001), interleukin-6 (SMD = 0.93, 95%CI: 0.25;1.61;P-value: 0.007),C-reactive protein (CRP) (SMD = 1.34, 95%CI:0.83;1.86; P-value:< 0.001), ALAT (SMD = 0.53, 95%CI: 0.34;0,71; P-value:< 0.001), ASAT (SMD = 0.96, 95%CI: 0.58;1.34; P-value: < 0.001), LDH (SMD = 1.36, 95%CI: 0.75;1.98; P-value:< 0.001), CK (SMD = 0.48, 95%CI: 0.10;0.87; P-value:0.01), total bilirubin (SMD = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.18;0.47;P-value: < 0.001), γ-GT (SMD = 1.03, 95%CI: 0.83;1.22; P-value: < 0.001), myoglobin (SMD = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.81;1.47; P-value:< 0.001), blood urea nitrogen (SMD = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.18;0.47;P-value:< 0.001) and Creatininemia (SMD = 0.18, 95%CI: 0.01;0.35; P-value:0.04) were significantly more elevated in severe cases, in opposition to lymphocyte count (SMD = -0.57, 95%CI:-0.71; - 0.42; P-value: < 0.001) and proportion of lymphocytes (SMD = -0.81, 95%CI: - 1.12; - 0.49; P-value:< 0.001) which were found to be significantly lower in severe patients with other biomarker such as thrombocytes (SMD = -0.26, 95%CI: - 0.48; - 0.04; P-value:0.02), eosinophils (SMD = - 0.28, 95%CI:-0.50; - 0.06; P-value:0.01), haemoglobin (SMD = -0.20, 95%CI: - 0.37,-0.03; P-value:0.02), albuminemia (SMD-1.67,95%CI -2.40; - 0.94; P-value:< 0.001), which were also lower.
32882494 The spatial patterns of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) tropospheric vertical column density (TVCD) show a decreasing trend over the locations of major powerplants and an increasing trend over residential areas near interactions of national highways.
32887014 Particularly, strong correlations (R2 > 0.72) between the risk of COVID-19 fatality and nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter pollution concentrations were found.
32894024 ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; aOR: adjusted odds ratio; ALT: alanine transferase; ALIMA: Alliance for International Medical Action; AST: aspartate transaminase; BUN: blood urea nitrogen; CNS: central nervous system; CUBE: chambre d’urgence biosécurisée pour épidémie; COVID-19: coronavirus disease 2019; Ct: cycle threshold; DRC: Democratic Republic of Congo; ETC: ebola treatment centre; ETU: ebola treatment unit; EBOV: ebola virus; EVD: ebolavirus disease; FEAST: fluid expansion as supportive therapy; GP: glycoprotein; IV: intravenous; MEURI: monitored emergency use of unregistered interventions; NETEC: National Ebola Training and Education Centre; NP: nucleoprotein; ORS: oral rehydration solution; PALM: Pamoja Tulinde Maisha; PREVAIL: Partnership for Research on Ebola Virus in Liberia; PPE: personal protective equipment; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; PEP: post-exposure prophylaxis; RDTs: rapid diagnostic tests; RT: reverse transcriptase; RNA: ribonucleic acid; UNICEF: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund; USA: United States of America; WHO: World Health Organization.
32895319 To examine the impact of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions in March/April 2020 on concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution measured at roadside monitors across Scotland by comparing data with previous years.
32904471 The studied air pollutants include carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and inhalable particulate matter (PM10).
32904906 TROPOMI satellite data show substantial drops in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during COVID-19 physical distancing.
32904938 Satellite retrievals show that nitrogen dioxide pollution declined by an unprecedented amount (~50% regionally) from its expected unperturbed value, but regional-scale column aerosol loadings and cloud microphysical properties were not detectably affected. […] The disparate impact is tied to differential economic impacts of the shutdown, in which transportation, a disproportionate source of nitrogen oxide emissions, underwent drastic declines (~90% reductions in passenger traffic), whereas industry and power generation, responsible for >90% of particulate emissions, were relatively less affected (~20% reductions in electricity and thermal power generation). […] A combination of anomalously warm and humid meteorological conditions and complex chemical interactions further decreased nitrogen dioxide concentrations but likely enhanced secondary aerosol formation.
32923601 Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide indicates economic activities, as nitrogen dioxide is primarily emitted from fossil fuel consumption. […] Satellite measurements show a 48% drop in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide vertical column densities from the 20 days averaged before the 2020 Lunar New Year to the 20 days averaged after.
32931792 We have found that long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and, to a lesser extent, to coarse particles (PM10) have been independent predictors of the spatial spread of COVID-19.
32945705 Six biological abnormalities were identified as potential risk markers independently related to the severity: elevated urea nitrogen (>8.0 mmol/L, OR = 9.3 [2.7-31.7], p < .00001), elevated CRP (>42mg/L, OR = 7.5 [2.4-23.3], p = .001), decreased natremia (<133. 6 mmol/L, OR = 6.0 [2.0-17.4], p = .001), decreased albumin (<33.5 g/L, OR = 5.2 [1.7-16.6], p = .003), elevated LDH (>367 IU/L, OR = 4.9 [1.7-14.2], p = .003) and elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (>7.99, OR = 4.2, [1.4-12.2], p = .009).
32945707 Among the results of laboratory tests, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase, albumin, urea nitrogen and D-dimer (NLAUD) show greater differences and have better regression coefficients (β) when using hierarchical comparisons in a multivariate logistic regression model. […] Predictors of mortality based on better regression coefficients (β) included NLR (OR = 31.2, 95% CI 6.7-144.5, p < .0001), lactate dehydrogenase (OR = 73.4, 95% CI 11.8-456.8, p < .0001), albumin (OR < 0.1, 95% CI <0.1-0.2, p < .0001), urea nitrogen (OR = 12.0, 95% CI 3.0-48.4, p = .0005), and D-dimer (OR = 13.6, 95% CI 3.4-54.9, p = .0003).
32952739 We find, as shown in numerous studies of other countries, the nitrogen oxides levels across the country dropped substantially (∼ 50%). […] These changes, driven by a complex balance in the air chemistry near the surface, may reflect the influence of low humidity as suggested by Met Office data, and potentially, the reduction of nitrogen oxides and their interactions with multiple pollutants.
32965368 There were also significant changes in laboratory tests that indicated kidney injury, such as increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), proteinuria, and hematuria.
32969605 Ten independent risk factors associated with cardiovascular complications were identified in training set: male (odds ratio [OR]: 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18, 2.85), age ≥ 60 years old (OR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.3, 3.2), cough (OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.16, 3), chronic heart disease (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.19, 4.46), lymphocyte count ≤1.1 × 109 /L at admission (OR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.47), blood urea nitrogen ≥7 mmol/L at admission (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.27, 3.62), estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤90 ml/min/1.73 m2 at admission (OR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.13, 3.83), activated partial thromboplastin time ≥37 s (OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.37, 6.86), D-dimer ≥ 0.5 mg/L (OR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.33, 3.36) and procalcitonin ≥0.5 μg/L (OR: 3.58; 95% CI: 1.40, 9.14).
32979419 22.3%; P < 0.001]); had higher levels of white blood cell count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and blood urea nitrogen, and had a higher proportion of patchy ground-glass opacity in chest computed tomography findings (52.7% vs.
32982622 Many major cities that witnessed heavy air pollution by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) have experienced a high rate of infection and severity of the coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19).
32984786 On the 20 more representative biochemical markers (>250 iterations), only CRP >90 mg/L (odds ratio [OR] 6·87, 95% CI, 2·36-20·01) and urea nitrogen >0·36 g/L (OR 3·91, 95% CI, 1·15-13·29) were independently associated with the risk of ARF. […] Urea nitrogen >0·42 g/L was the only marker associated with the risk of COVID-19 related death.
33011717 The Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, hemodynamic status, and PF ratio (arterial oxygen partial pressure [PaO2]/fractional inspired oxygen [FiO2]) determined that on admission, an elevated blood urea nitrogen (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-2.48), a low eGFR (HR 1.43; CI 1.1-2.03), AKI stage 1 (HR 1.14; CI 0.64-2.03), AKI stage 2 (HR 1.86; CI 1.03-3.56), and AKI stage 3 (HR 2.1; CI 1.3-2.81) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality.
33014275 During a virus-induced cytokine storm, metabolic flexibility is compromised due to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that damage, downregulate, or inactivate many enzymes of central metabolism including the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC).
33014985 Furthermore, using satellite data of nitrogen dioxide as an indicator of lockdown efficacy, we found that countries where lockdown was implemented early and firmly have been successful in reducing COVID-19 spread.
33015108 Compared with severe patients, critical patients were older, more likely to exhibit low platelet counts and high blood urea nitrogen, and were in hospital for longer.
33021366 No statistically significant effect of traffic ban was found at Fortnight, Weekly or Sunday analyses for daily mean concentrations of benzene, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter (PM) <2.5 μm or PM <10 μm (all p>0.05).
33022781 We have focused on the potential effect of exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and particulate matter (PM) since there are studies investigating how exposure to these pollutants affects the life cycle of other viruses.
33023440 Quinolines are nitrogen heterocyclic compounds ubiquitous in nature and largely used as a structural component of dyes, solvent for resins, terpenes as well as during the production of several other chemical stuffs, including pesticides.
33028914 A COVID-19 severity score ranging from 0 to 10, consisting of age, oxygen saturation, mean arterial pressure, blood urea nitrogen, C-Reactive protein, and the international normalized ratio was developed.
33032909 This review aims to address the available literature on the presence of SARS-CoV-2 on tissues, gametes and embryos, with special reference to the possible sources of cross-contamination through liquid nitrogen.
33040289 The present study aims to determine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic confinement on air quality among populous sites of four major metropolitan cities in India (Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai) from January 1, 2020 to May 31, 2020 by analyzing particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone levels.
33043313 The prevalence of elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN), elevated serum creatinine (Scr), and decreased blood uric acid (BUA) at admission was 6.29%, 5.22%, 11.66%, respectively.
33045513 This resulted in unprecedented reductions in anthropogenic activity, and reduced emissions of certain air pollutants, namely oxides of nitrogen.
33046323 In 41 studies with 10,335 COVID-19 patients, the serum creatinine (sCr) in severe cases was much higher than that in non-severe cases (SMD = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.29-0.39), with a similar trend for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (SMD = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.51-0.81), hematuria (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.15-2.19), and proteinuria (OR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.58-5.38).