IRON


DrugBank ID: db01592
DrugCentral: iron
Synonymous :carbonyl iron | eisen | electrolytic iron | fe | fer | ferrum | ferrum metallicum | hierro | iron powder | iron, carbonyl | iron, electrolytic | iron, elemental | iron, reduced | reduced iron



Drug Sentece Context


Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of iron gene in 46 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32270515 We concluded that rhEPO could attenuate respiratory distress syndrome and confront the SARS-CoV-2 virus through multiple mechanisms including cytokine modulation, anti-apoptotic effects, leukocyte release from bone marrow, and iron redistribution away from the intracellular virus.
32318324 Iron-containing enzymes are required for viruses most likely including coronaviruses (CoVs) to complete their replication process. […] Moreover, poor prognosis occurred in the conditions of iron overload for patients upon infections of viruses. […] Thus, limiting iron represents a promising adjuvant strategy in treating viral infection through oral uptake or venous injection of iron chelators, or through the manipulation of the key iron regulators. […] For example, treatment with iron chelator deferiprone has been shown to prolong the survival of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. […] Increasing intracellular iron efflux via increasing iron exporter ferroportin expression also exhibits antiviral effect on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). […] The implications of other metals besides iron are also briefly discussed. […] For even though we know little about iron regulation in COVID-19 patients thus far, it could be deduced from other viral infections that iron chelation might be an alternative beneficial adjuvant in treating COVID-19.
32340216 A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system.
32418885 Here, we present evidence from the literature and a compelling hypothesis on the potential immunomodulatory, iron chelating and anti-oxidant effects of iron chelators in the treatment of COVID-19 and its complications. […] Interestingly, iron chelation has been shown in vitro to suppress endothelial inflammation in viral infection, which is the main pathophysiologic mechanism behind systemic organ involvement induced by SARS-CoV-2, by inhibiting IL-6 synthesis through decreasing NF-kB. […] Iron chelators exhibit iron chelating, antiviral and immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo, particularly against RNA viruses. […] These agents could attenuate ARDS and help control SARS-CoV-2 via multiple mechanisms including: 1) inhibition of viral replication; 2) decrease of iron availability; 3) upregulation of B cells; 4) improvement of the neutralizing anti-viral antibody titer; 5) inhibition of endothelial inflammation and 6) prevention of pulmonary fibrosis and lung decline via reduction of pulmonary iron accumulation. […] Both retrospective analyses of data in electronic health records, as well as proof of concept studies in humans and large RCTs are needed to fully elucidate the efficacy and safety of iron chelating agents in the therapeutic armamentarium of COVID-19, probably as an adjunctive treatment.
32430286 Given the role of iron in several human viral infections, we also propose a different insight into a number of CQ and HCQ pharmacological effects, suggesting a potential involvement of iron homeostasis in Sars-Cov-2 infection and COVID-19 clinical course.
32438763 Intravenous iron is the first-line treatment in subjects with moderate-severe anemia, active disease, or oral iron intolerance. […] On the other hand, oral iron is recommended in patients with mild anemia and inactive disease. […] However, during the current coronavirus pandemic, hospital activities have significantly changed, and all non-essential procedures, including non-urgent iron infusions, have been rescheduled. […] Oral iron, including both the traditional formulations with ferrous iron and the new ferric iron complexes, could constitute a valid alternative for anemia treatment. […] For this reason, we conducted a literature review, to summarize the scientific evidence on oral iron therapy in IBD patients with anemia.
32497811 Here we address implications of a possible role for hyper-ferritinemia, and altered iron homeostasis in COVID-19 pathogenesis, and potential therapeutic targets in this regard.
32509258 A hemoglobinopathy, hypoxia and cell iron overload might have a possible additional role. […] In this translational medicinebased narrative review, the following pathologic metabolic pathways, deriving from hemoglobin denaturation and iron metabolism dysregulation, are highlighted: i) decrease of functioning hemoglobin quote; ii) iron overload in cell/tissue (hyperferritinemia); iii) release of free toxic circulating heme; iv) hypoxemia and systemic hypoxia; v) reduction of nitric oxide; vi) coagulation activation; vii) ferroptosis with oxidative stress and lipoperoxidation; viii) mitochondrial degeneration and apoptosis. […] We speculated that in COVID-19, beyond the classical pulmonary immune-inflammation view, the occurrence of an oxygen-deprived blood disease, with iron metabolism dysregulation, should be taken in consideration. […] A more comprehensive diagnostic/therapeutic approach to COVID-19 is proposed, including potential adjuvant interventions aimed at improving hemoglobin dysfunction, iron over-deposit and generalized hypoxic state.
32515699 The article discussed in detail a new hypothesis proposed by Chinese physicians about a new component in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, namely, about the effect of SARS-CoV-2 virus on the hemoglobin beta-chain and the formation of a complex with porphyrin, which results in displacement of the iron ion.
32574271 It binds iron and is transferred via a variety of receptors into and between cells, serum, bile, and cerebrospinal fluid.
32574708 These include iron dysregulation manifested as hyperferritinemia associated with disease severity. […] Iron dysregulation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and promotes oxidative stress.
32574914 The physico-chemical parameters compared are pH, total dissolved solids (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate (NO3), fluoride (F), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and selenium (Se), and the bacterial parameters are total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, and fecal streptococci.
32575554 Heme can be degraded by the anti-inflammatory enzyme heme oxygenase (HO) generating biliverdin/bilirubin, iron/ferritin, and carbon monoxide.
32579049 Recent advances in understanding the mechanism of action of COVID-19 have shown that it causes a systemic infection that significantly affects the hematopoietic system and hemostasis, factors extremely dependent of light, mainly in the region of visible and infrared radiation. Results: In the COVID-19 patients hemoglobin is decreasing and protoporphyrin is increasing, generating an extremely harmful accumulation of iron ions in the bloodstream, which are able to induce an intense inflammatory process in the body with a consequent increase in C-reactive protein and albumin. […] According to the theory of electron excitation in photosensitive molecules, similar to hemoglobin heme, after the photon absorption there would be an increase in the stability of the iron ion bond with the center of the pyrrole ring, preventing the losses of heme function oxygen transport (HbO2).
32582745 Transfusion dependent patients require regular monitoring for iron overload, and iron chelation therapy may be stopped by the physician depending on the situation.
32605582 Iron metabolism and immune response to SARS-CoV-2 have not been described yet in intensive care patients, although they are likely involved in Covid-19 pathogenesis. […] We performed an observational study during the peak of pandemic in our intensive care unit, dosing D-dimer, C-reactive protein, troponin T, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, serum iron, transferrin, transferrin saturation, transferrin soluble receptor, lymphocyte count and NK, CD3, CD4, CD8 and B subgroups of 31 patients during the first 2 weeks of their ICU stay. […] The same trend is observed with serum iron levels (median 25.5 μg/L, IQR 69 μg/L at admission; median 73 μg/L, IQR 56 μg/L on days 3 to 6) without reaching statistical significance. […] The description of iron metabolism and lymphocyte count in Covid-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit provided with this paper might allow a wider understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathophysiology.
32621178 This defect results in imbalance in the α/β-globin chain ratio, ineffective erythropoiesis, chronic hemolytic anemia, and iron overload.
32644876 Some nutrients are actively involved in the proper functioning and strengthening of the human immune system against viral infections including dietary protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, iron, zinc, and selenium.
32646061 Based on studies in a range of in vitro and in vivo models, ergothioneine has exhibited the ability to modulate inflammation, scavenge free radicals, protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome, prevent endothelial dysfunction, protect against ischemia and reperfusion injury, protect against neuronal damage, counteract iron dysregulation, hinder lung and liver fibrosis, and mitigate damage to the lungs, kidneys, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and testis, amongst many others.
32661499 Various types of pulmonary diseases are associated with iron deficiency. […] However, information on iron status in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is scarce. […] The role of serum iron in predicting severity and mortality of COVID-19 was evaluated. […] Of the 50 patients, 45 (90%) patients had abnormally low serum iron levels (<7.8 μmol/L). […] The severity of COVID-19 was negatively correlated with serum iron levels before and after treatment and was positively correlated with C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, urea nitrogen, and myoglobin levels. […] Decreased serum iron level could predict the transition of COVID-19 from mild to severe and critical illness. […] Seven (53.8%) patients with a lower serum iron level after treatment in the critical group had died. […] There was a significant difference in posttreatment serum iron levels between COVID-19 survivors and nonsurvivors. […] Serum iron deficiency was detected in the patients with COVID-19. […] The severity and mortality of the disease was closely correlated with serum iron levels. […] Low serum iron concentration was an independent risk factor for death in COVID-19 patients.
32664543 Increasing interest has been highlighted on the possible preventative role and adjunct treatment of lactoferrin, glycoprotein of human secretions part of a non-specific defensive system, known to play a crucial role against microbial and viral infections and exerting anti-inflammatory effects on different mucosal surfaces and able to regulate iron metabolism. […] Lactoferrin could counteract the coronavirus infection and inflammation, acting either as natural barrier of both respiratory and intestinal mucosa or reverting the iron disorders related to the viral colonization.
32668312 Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were previously approved by the US food and drug administration (FDA) for anemia treatment and studies have also demonstrated its antiviral activity in vitro.
32674021 Nine major sources were identified by the positive matrix factorization model, including fireworks burning, coal combustion, vehicle emissions, dust, Cr industry, oil combustion, Se industry, Zn smelter, and iron and steel industry. […] After the control period, Fe, K, Ca, Zn and Ba were the main elements, and dust and iron and steel industry were responsible for 56% and 21% of the total element mass. […] The largest reductions of dust, coal combustion, and the industrial sources (Cr industry, Zn smelter, Se industry, iron and steel industry) were distinctly seen for northwest transport (Ulanqab) and were least significant for northeast transport (Tangshan and Tianjin).
32681497 High levels of free iron are harmful in tissues, especially through the redox damage that can lead to fibrosis. […] Iron chelation represents a pillar in the treatment of iron overload. […] Herein, we analyse the pathogenic role of ferritin and iron during SARS-CoV-2 infection and propose iron depletion therapy as a novel therapeutic approach in the COVID-19 pandemic.
32692241 To analyze the clinical and infectious characteristics of new coronavirus pneumonia with diagnosed and suspected cases in the Second Hospital of WISCO(Wuhan Iron and Steel Company) of Qingshan District, Wuhan City, and further enhance the understanding of new coronavirus pneumonia.
32700561 Serum ferritin generally represents a biomarker of choice when iron deficiency is suspected.
32721799 Finally, we suggest a therapeutic strategy to reduce oxidative stress using antioxidants, NF-κB inhibitors, Nrf2 activators, and iron complexing agents.
32751400 As such patients present with systemic inflammation, we studied the prevalence and predictive value of anemia of inflammation (AI) or functional iron deficiency (FID), originating from immune-mediated alterations of iron homeostasis. […] Anemia and alterations of iron homeostasis are highly prevalent in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. […] Iron metabolism biomarkers and hemoglobin can contribute to risk stratification of patients, as initial anemia is associated with increased mortality, whereas alterations of iron homeostasis with a higher ferritin/transferrin ratio reflect more advanced inflammation and predicts subsequent insufficient pulmonary oxygenation with the need for ICU admission and mechanical ventilation.
32812717 Ferritin, the cellular protein storage for iron, has emerged as a key molecule in the immune system, orchestrating the cellular defense against inflammation.
32812721 These findings mirror what was previously reported about the prognostic role of this iron storage protein in other inflammatory diseases included in the hyperferritinemic syndrome.
32816244 Iron metabolism and anemia may play an important role in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate biomarkers of anemia and iron metabolism (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin, soluble transferrin receptor, hepcidin, haptoglobin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, erythropoietin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrine, and erythrocyte indices) in patients diagnosed with COVID-19, and explored their prognostic value. […] Future studies should explore the impact of iron metabolism and anemia in the pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment of COVID-19.
32821884 Lactoferrin (LF), one of the AMPs, is an iron-binding glycoprotein that is present in several mucosal secretions.
32825954 The main mechanisms of virus internalization and interaction with the host are down-regulation or upregulation of the ACE2 receptor, the surface glycoprotein competition mechanism for the binding of porphyrin to iron in heme formation as well as interference with the immune system. […] Because ACE receptor is also present in the endothelium of other districts as well as in different cell types, and as porphyrins are transporters in the blood and other biological liquids of iron forming heme, which is important in the assembly of the hemoglobin, myoglobin and the cytochromes, multiorgan damage occurs both primitive and secondary to lung damage.
32837929 Commencing with the discovery of coal in the 18th century, to gold and copper and base metals in the 19th century, to the world class iron ore, mineral sands and diamond mines of the 20th century to the current day, the paper will attempt to determine how and why an industry, formerly well-respected by the public, is considered to be a pariah in the eyes of many sections of society.
32839664 Nutritious, biofortified crops such as potato, sweetpotato, but also wheat, maize and beans among others, can play a more significant role to provide key micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc) at large scale.
32872374 Functional foods and nutraceuticals within popular diets contain immune-boosting nutraceuticals, polyphenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, pigments, unsaturated fatty-acids, micronutrient vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate, and trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper.
32882061 Iron liberated from necrotic cells may catalyze free radical production and amplify lipid peroxidation causing membrane dysfunction and multiorgan failure. […] Consequently, iron chelators have been successfully utilized in various experimental and clinical models of cytokine storm and multiorgan damage, such as in ischemia-reperfusion injury, sepsis, and infections. […] Since viral replication may be influenced by iron accumulation, iron chelation has been proven beneficial in a variety of viral infections, such as HIV-1, hepatitis B virus, Mengovirus, Marburg hemorrhagic fever, Enterovirus 71, and West Nile virus. […] In this commentary, we elaborate on the idea of considering iron chelation as a therapeutic modality in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. […] For critically ill patients in the ICU, intravenous deferoxamine would provide sufficient and rapid iron chelation to ameliorate cytokine storm, whereas in less severe cases an oral chelator could prevent the development of excessive inflammatory response.
32894566 Some surface proteins of the newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can bind to the hemoglobin molecule of an erythrocyte, which leads to the destruction of the structure of the heme and the release of harmful iron ions to the bloodstream. […] The degradation of hemoglobin results in the impairment of oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, and the accumulation of free iron enhances the production of reactive oxygen species.
32897518
  1. They may affect the expression and Fe2+/H+ symporter activity of iron transporters such as divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), hence reducing iron accumulation in tissues and iron-catalysed free radical formation.
32904944 At an innate level, intracrine synthesis of 1,25D by macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) stimulates expression of antimicrobial proteins such as cathelicidin, as well as lowering intracellular iron concentrations via suppression of hepcidin.
32911778 Specifically, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) evaluated and deems six vitamins (D, A, C, Folate, B6, B12) and four minerals (zinc, iron, copper and selenium) to be essential for the normal functioning of the immune system, due to the scientific evidence collected so far. […] Results from the review approach show the importance of maintaining a correct nutritional status of these 10 nutrients analyzed for the health of the immune system, highlighting the importance of Vitamin D and iron in the context of COVID-19. […] Besides, the ecological study demonstrates that intake levels of relevant micronutrients-especially Vitamins D, C, B12, and iron-are inversely associated with higher COVID-19 incidence and/or mortality, particularly in populations genetically predisposed to show lower micronutrient status.
32913038 Common comorbidities encountered in patients with diabetes mellitus, such as renal insufficiency, high output states (iron deficiency anaemia, haemolytic anaemia, haemoglobinopathies and pregnancy) and intake of specific drugs could compromise the sensitivity and specificity of the biomarker.
32917356 The numbers of admissions for control diagnoses (heart failure, intestinal obstruction and iron deficiency anaemia) in the same period in 2020 were not reduced.
32932574 Lactoferrin is a naturally occurring iron-binding glycoprotein, produced and secreted by mucosal epithelial cells and neutrophils in various mammalian species, including humans. […] A growing body of evidence supports the antimicrobial efficacy of lactoferrin, which is not limited to its iron-chelating properties but also depends on its capability to directly interact with pathogen particles while playing immunomodulatory effects.
32959998 The myocardial tissue was examined for markers of ferroptosis, an iron-catalysed form of regulated cell death that occurs through excessive peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
32978363 BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic utility of iron homeostasis determinations for prediction of severity of COVID-19. […] We compared clinical laboratory data and iron homeostasis biomarkers among the 3 groups. […] CONCLUSIONS Iron homeostasis had a robust association with the occurrence of severe COVID-19. […] Iron homeostasis determinations were specific and sensitive for the early prediction of disease severity in COVID-19 patients and thus have clinical utility.