IRON


DrugBank ID: db01592
DrugCentral: iron
Synonymous :carbonyl iron | eisen | electrolytic iron | fe | fer | ferrum | ferrum metallicum | hierro | iron powder | iron, carbonyl | iron, electrolytic | iron, elemental | iron, reduced | reduced iron



Drug Sentece Context


Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of iron gene in 15 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32270515 We concluded that rhEPO could attenuate respiratory distress syndrome and confront the SARS-CoV-2 virus through multiple mechanisms including cytokine modulation, anti-apoptotic effects, leukocyte release from bone marrow, and iron redistribution away from the intracellular virus.
32318324 Iron-containing enzymes are required for viruses most likely including coronaviruses (CoVs) to complete their replication process. […] Moreover, poor prognosis occurred in the conditions of iron overload for patients upon infections of viruses. […] Thus, limiting iron represents a promising adjuvant strategy in treating viral infection through oral uptake or venous injection of iron chelators, or through the manipulation of the key iron regulators. […] For example, treatment with iron chelator deferiprone has been shown to prolong the survival of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. […] Increasing intracellular iron efflux via increasing iron exporter ferroportin expression also exhibits antiviral effect on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). […] The implications of other metals besides iron are also briefly discussed. […] For even though we know little about iron regulation in COVID-19 patients thus far, it could be deduced from other viral infections that iron chelation might be an alternative beneficial adjuvant in treating COVID-19.
32340216 A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system.
32418885 Here, we present evidence from the literature and a compelling hypothesis on the potential immunomodulatory, iron chelating and anti-oxidant effects of iron chelators in the treatment of COVID-19 and its complications. […] Interestingly, iron chelation has been shown in vitro to suppress endothelial inflammation in viral infection, which is the main pathophysiologic mechanism behind systemic organ involvement induced by SARS-CoV-2, by inhibiting IL-6 synthesis through decreasing NF-kB. […] Iron chelators exhibit iron chelating, antiviral and immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo, particularly against RNA viruses. […] These agents could attenuate ARDS and help control SARS-CoV-2 via multiple mechanisms including: 1) inhibition of viral replication; 2) decrease of iron availability; 3) upregulation of B cells; 4) improvement of the neutralizing anti-viral antibody titer; 5) inhibition of endothelial inflammation and 6) prevention of pulmonary fibrosis and lung decline via reduction of pulmonary iron accumulation. […] Both retrospective analyses of data in electronic health records, as well as proof of concept studies in humans and large RCTs are needed to fully elucidate the efficacy and safety of iron chelating agents in the therapeutic armamentarium of COVID-19, probably as an adjunctive treatment.
32430286 Given the role of iron in several human viral infections, we also propose a different insight into a number of CQ and HCQ pharmacological effects, suggesting a potential involvement of iron homeostasis in Sars-Cov-2 infection and COVID-19 clinical course.
32438763 Intravenous iron is the first-line treatment in subjects with moderate-severe anemia, active disease, or oral iron intolerance. […] On the other hand, oral iron is recommended in patients with mild anemia and inactive disease. […] However, during the current coronavirus pandemic, hospital activities have significantly changed, and all non-essential procedures, including non-urgent iron infusions, have been rescheduled. […] Oral iron, including both the traditional formulations with ferrous iron and the new ferric iron complexes, could constitute a valid alternative for anemia treatment. […] For this reason, we conducted a literature review, to summarize the scientific evidence on oral iron therapy in IBD patients with anemia.
32497811 Here we address implications of a possible role for hyper-ferritinemia, and altered iron homeostasis in COVID-19 pathogenesis, and potential therapeutic targets in this regard.
32509258 A hemoglobinopathy, hypoxia and cell iron overload might have a possible additional role. […] In this translational medicinebased narrative review, the following pathologic metabolic pathways, deriving from hemoglobin denaturation and iron metabolism dysregulation, are highlighted: i) decrease of functioning hemoglobin quote; ii) iron overload in cell/tissue (hyperferritinemia); iii) release of free toxic circulating heme; iv) hypoxemia and systemic hypoxia; v) reduction of nitric oxide; vi) coagulation activation; vii) ferroptosis with oxidative stress and lipoperoxidation; viii) mitochondrial degeneration and apoptosis. […] We speculated that in COVID-19, beyond the classical pulmonary immune-inflammation view, the occurrence of an oxygen-deprived blood disease, with iron metabolism dysregulation, should be taken in consideration. […] A more comprehensive diagnostic/therapeutic approach to COVID-19 is proposed, including potential adjuvant interventions aimed at improving hemoglobin dysfunction, iron over-deposit and generalized hypoxic state.
32515699 The article discussed in detail a new hypothesis proposed by Chinese physicians about a new component in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, namely, about the effect of SARS-CoV-2 virus on the hemoglobin beta-chain and the formation of a complex with porphyrin, which results in displacement of the iron ion.
32574271 It binds iron and is transferred via a variety of receptors into and between cells, serum, bile, and cerebrospinal fluid.
32574708 These include iron dysregulation manifested as hyperferritinemia associated with disease severity. […] Iron dysregulation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and promotes oxidative stress.
32574914 The physico-chemical parameters compared are pH, total dissolved solids (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate (NO3), fluoride (F), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and selenium (Se), and the bacterial parameters are total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, and fecal streptococci.
32575554 Heme can be degraded by the anti-inflammatory enzyme heme oxygenase (HO) generating biliverdin/bilirubin, iron/ferritin, and carbon monoxide.
32579049 Recent advances in understanding the mechanism of action of COVID-19 have shown that it causes a systemic infection that significantly affects the hematopoietic system and hemostasis, factors extremely dependent of light, mainly in the region of visible and infrared radiation. Results: In the COVID-19 patients hemoglobin is decreasing and protoporphyrin is increasing, generating an extremely harmful accumulation of iron ions in the bloodstream, which are able to induce an intense inflammatory process in the body with a consequent increase in C-reactive protein and albumin. […] According to the theory of electron excitation in photosensitive molecules, similar to hemoglobin heme, after the photon absorption there would be an increase in the stability of the iron ion bond with the center of the pyrrole ring, preventing the losses of heme function oxygen transport (HbO2).
32582745 Transfusion dependent patients require regular monitoring for iron overload, and iron chelation therapy may be stopped by the physician depending on the situation.