HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE


DrugBank ID: db01611
DrugCentral: hydroxychloroquine
Synonymous :(±)-hydroxychloroquine | 2-((4-((7-chloro-4-quinolyl)amino)pentyl)ethylamino)ethanol | 2-(n-(4-(7-chlor-4-chinolylamino)-4-methylbutyl)ethylamino)ethanol | 7-chloro-4-(4-(ethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)-1-methylbutylamino)quinoline | 7-chloro-4-(4-(n-ethyl-n-β-hydroxyethylamino)-1-methylbutylamino)quinoline | 7-chloro-4-[4-(n-ethyl-n-β-hydroxyethylamino)-1-methylbutylamino]quinoline | 7-chloro-4-[5-(n-ethyl-n-2-hydroxyethylamino)-2-pentyl]aminoquinoline | hidroxicloroquina | hydroxychloroquine | hydroxychloroquinum | oxichlorochine | oxichloroquine



Drug Sentece Context


Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of hydroxychloroquine gene in 939 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32150618 Hydroxychloroquine shares the same mechanism of action as chloroquine, but its more tolerable safety profile makes it the preferred drug to treat malaria and autoimmune conditions. […] We propose that the immunomodulatory effect of hydroxychloroquine also may be useful in controlling the cytokine storm that occurs late-phase in critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. […] Currently, there is no evidence to support the use of hydroxychloroquine in SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] The pharmacological activity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine was tested using SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero cells. […] Using the PBPK models, hydroxychloroquine concentrations in lung fluid were simulated under 5 different dosing regimens to explore the most effective regimen whilst considering the drug’s safety profile. […] Hydroxychloroquine (EC50=0.72 μM) was found to be more potent than chloroquine (EC50=5.47 μM) in vitro. […] Based on PBPK models results, a loading dose of 400 mg twice daily of hydroxychloroquine sulfate given orally, followed by a maintenance dose of 200 mg given twice daily for 4 days is recommended for SARS-CoV-2 infection, as it reached three times the potency of chloroquine phosphate when given 500 mg twice daily 5 days in advance. […] Hydroxychloroquine was found to be more potent than chloroquine to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
32171740 In the absence of a known efficient therapy and because of the situation of a public-health emergency, it made sense to investigate the possible effect of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 since this molecule was previously described as a potent inhibitor of most coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-1.
32196083 We propose that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which exhibits an antiviral effect highly similar to that of CQ, could serve as a better therapeutic approach.
32205204 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been found to be efficient on SARS-CoV-2, and reported to be efficient in Chinese COV-19 patients. […] We evaluate the role of hydroxychloroquine on respiratory viral loads. […] French Confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in a single arm protocol from early March to March 16th, to receive 600mg of hydroxychloroquine daily and their viral load in nasopharyngeal swabs was tested daily in a hospital setting. […] Azithromycin added to hydroxychloroquine was significantly more efficient for virus elimination. […] Despite its small sample size our survey shows that hydroxychloroquine treatment is significantly associated with viral load reduction/disappearance in COVID-19 patients and its effect is reinforced by azithromycin.
32214286 These include vaccines, medications Remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine and potentially combination therapy.
32222713 He remained in critical condition being treated with hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab in addition to the standard medical management for septic shock and ARDS.
32234468 Treatments, including antiviral agents, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids, antibodies, convalescent plasma transfusion and vaccines, are discussed in this article.
32241801 Two antimalarial agents, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), have been trusted treatments for a range of rheumatic diseases over the past seventy years [1].
32243270 This review summarizes the current evidence of potential therapeutic agents, such as lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, interferon, ribavirin, tocilizumab and sarilumab.
32247211 In view of recent studies and discussion on chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), we aimed to review existing literature and relevant websites regarding these drugs and COVID-19, adverse effects related to drugs, and related guidelines.
32247213 Search terms were, COVID-19, treatment of coronavirus, COVID 19 and following terms; chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ibuprofen, ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, cardiovascular disease, diarrhoea, liver, testis and gastrointestinal disease. […] We discuss evidence regarding role of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in treatment and prophylaxis, use of inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system, safety of ibuprofen, unusual clinical features like gastrointestinal symptoms and interpretation of tests for cardiac enzymes and biomarkers.
32249257 Very recently, hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin treatment was reported to be effective for COVID-19.
32251731 This study showed that, in the presence of CLQ [or its more active derivative, hydroxychloroquine (CLQ-OH)], the viral S protein is no longer able to bind gangliosides.
32253799 A severe cutaneous drug reaction resembling acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis resulting from ingestion of hydroxychloroquine has been documented. […] Given the anticipated surge in the use of hydroxychloroquine due to its reported benefits in those with coronavirus disease 2019, specific recognition of this entity is pivotal.
32253888 It is hoped that certain drugs, such as CoV-19 receptor blockers, anti-inflammatories (against rheumatic diseases), monoclonal antibodies, anti-IL-1 and anti-IL-6, the remdesevir drug (analogue adenosine, effective against ebola), hydroxychloroquine (for the treatment of malaria) and vaccines, will open up new strategies and new therapeutic ways to combat this terrible virus.
32255489 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) appears to be a promising treatment for COVID-19.
32256547 We identified 24 clinical trials, involving more than 20 medicines, such as human immunoglobulin, interferons, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, methylprednisolone, bevacizumab, and traditional Chinese medicines (TCM).
32265182 In light of this, there has been growing interest in the use of existing medications, such as chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), as potential treatments of this disease.
32268005 It has been reported that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is active against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, and this finding was quickly supported by an open label non-randomized clinical trial that provided the first published clinical evidence HCQ may be a treatment option.
32277367 Preliminary evidence suggests potential benefit with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. […] • Although preliminary results may be encouraging, high-quality clinical trials are needed to better understand the role of drugs commonly used in rheumatology like hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab in COVID-19.
32277836 Both patients were treated with darunavir/cobicistat and hydroxychloroquine.
32279418 Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir were started, and the antiviral drug was replaced with darunavir/cobicistat after two days for diarrhea.
32281114 Supportive measures, in addition to a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine, were maintained until remdesivir could be supplied on day 9 of hospitalization, 13 days after symptom onset.
32281213 Different drugs for prophylaxis against COVID-19 including chloroquine (CQ) or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been tried.
32281268 In light of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) pandemic and the possible widespread use of chloroquine (a member of the drug class 4-aminoquinoline primarily used to prevent and treat malaria and amebiasis) and its derivatives (e.g. hydroxychloroquine, a metabolite of chloroquine),1 a safety issue is addressed, concerning the selection of patients suitable to receive it.
32281481 Due to factors such as history of prescription for other infectious diseases, availability, and relatively low cost, the use of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been tested in vivo and in vitro for the ability to inhibit the causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
32281583 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have garnered considerable attention for their potential to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Increasing evidence obtained from completed clinical studies indicates the prospects for chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19.
32282502 No established treatment is currently available; however, several therapies, including remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, and interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitors, are being used off-label and evaluated in ongoing clinical trials.
32282982 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was used by 78.1% of respondents; azithromycin by 46.9%; tocilizumab by 31.3%, and remdesivir by 25.0%.
32285930 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a promising candidate for Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) treatment.
32289548 We conducted an uncontrolled non-comparative observational study in a cohort of 80 relatively mildly infected inpatients treated with a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin over a period of at least three days, with three main measurements: clinical outcome, contagiousness as assessed by PCR and culture, and length of stay in infectious disease unit (IDU).
32290293 The initial clinical studies revealed the promising therapeutic potential of several of such drugs, including favipiravir, a broad-spectrum antiviral drug that interferes with the viral replication, and hydroxychloroquine, the repurposed antimalarial drug that interferes with the virus endosomal entry pathway.
32292817 Our coalition of public health experts, doctors, and scientists worldwide want to draw attention to the need for high-quality evaluation protocols of the potential beneficial effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a post-exposure drug for exposed people, meaning people with close contact with positive tested patients, including home and medical caregivers.
32292908 This paper provides an overview of the current global market and manufacturing landscape for hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32292909 For this emergency, the FDA has approved Remdesivir and Hydroxychloroquine for treatment of COVID-19 as Emergency Use Authorization.
32293710 It is also allows consideration of agents, such as hydroxychloroquine, which may interfere with this overly brisk macrophage inflammatory response and perhaps influence the course of the disease, in particular those that blunt but do not completely abrogate the M1 to M2 balance in macrophage polarization, as well as viral load, which in SARS appears to be temporally related to the onset of ARDS.
32293834 The most frequently used agents both in Turkey and all over the world including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir and remdesivir will be reviewed here .
32294807 At present, there are no studies demonstrating the clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine for the prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19 infection.
32296817 The few trials which allow their inclusion focus on post-exposure prophylaxis or outpatient treatment of milder disease, limiting the options available to pregnant women with severe COVID-19 to compassionate use of remdesivir, or off-label drug use of hydroxychloroquine or other therapies.
32297988 Following the demonstration of the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in vitro, many trials started to evaluate its efficacy in clinical settings. […] However, no systematic review and meta-analysis have addressed the issue of the safety and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in coronavirus disease 2019.
32299202 The results of preliminary studies have shown that immune-modulatory or immune-suppressive treatments such as hydroxychloroquine, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 antagonists, commonly used in rheumatology, might be considered as treatment choices for COVID-19, particularly in severe disease.
32299753 This document attempts to provide reasonable guidance for the use of antimicrobials which have uncertain benefit but may increase risk of QT interval prolongation and ventricular proarrhythmia, notably, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
32301155 Lopinavir/ritonavir (usually associated with hydroxychloroquine) was used in 50.0% of patients and had to be prematurely discontinued in 2 of them. […] Other antiviral regimens included hydroxychloroquine monotherapy (27.8%) and interferon-β (16.7%).
32302411 Nevertheless, there are anecdotal reports that some hospitals have begun to include AZ in combination with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine (CQ) for treatment of COVID-19.
32303497 One potential treatment is chloroquine and its derivatives, including hydroxychloroquine, which have both antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects.
32303672 SARS-CoV-2 was detected and antiviral therapy with Lopinavir/Ritonavir, associated with hydroxychloroquine, was promptly started.
32305359 Expanded indications for hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab have already caused stress on the usual supply chain.
32305500 Antimalarial drug chloroquine (CHL) and its safer derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCHL) have been proposed to be repurposed to treat SARS coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19.
32305587 After a large COVID-19 exposure event in an LTCH in Korea, PEP using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was administered to 211 individuals, including 189 patients and 22 careworkers, whose baseline polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for COVID-19 were negative.
32307245 Another promising alternative is hydroxychloroquine (200 mg thrice daily) plus azithromycin (500 mg on day 1, followed by 250 mg once daily on day 2-5), which showed excellent clinical efficacy on Chinese COVID-19 patients and anti-SARS-CoV-2 potency in vitro.
32311836 Qualitative analysis revealed four key themes: emotions in response to the pandemic, perceptions of risks from immunosuppressive medications, protective measures to reduce risk of COVID-19 infection, and disruptions in accessing rheumatic disease medications, including hydroxychloroquine. […] After 2 weeks, many participants with rheumatic diseases already had important changes to their health care, with many altering medications without professional consultation or because of hydroxychloroquine shortage.
32313660 To date, the anti-malaria drug hydroxychloroquine found to be a treatment option for SARS-CoV-2.
32314010 The patient was treated with antiviral agents (lopinavir/ritonavir), and treatment with cDMARDs was discontinued except hydroxychloroquine.
32314249 All 4 patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine.
32314698 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been used for the treatment of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases.
32316270 One of the options under investigation is the old antimalarial drug, chloroquine, and its analog, hydroxychloroquine. […] In principle, the safety profile might be ameliorated by using chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine single enantiomers in place of the racemate.
32317220 Other agents, such as hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine might have a direct anti-viral effect.
32317402 Patients were managed with immunosuppression reduction and the addition of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32317557 Adjunctive medication in the surviving patients while on ECMO was as follows: 4 of 5 survivors received intravenous steroids, 3 of 5 survivors received antiviral medications (Remdesivir), 2 of 5 survivors were treated with anti-interleukin-6-receptor monoclonal antibodies (Tocilizumab or Sarilumab), and 1 of 5 survivors received hydroxychloroquine.An analysis of 32 COVID-19 patients with severe pulmonary compromise supported with ECMO suggests that ECMO may play a useful role in salvaging select critically ill patients with COVID-19.
32318706 Hydroxychloroquine could be considered for patients who are not candidates for remdesivir or when remdesivir is not available.
32319218 The patient received an antiviral therapy with hydroxychloroquine showing no further deterioration of the clinical state.
32320825 Moreover, Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, drugs used to treat malaria and arthritis, respectively, were recommended by the National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China for treatment of COVID-19. […] Presently, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are under investigation by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a treatment for COVID-19.
32321878 The recent clinical trial reports pertaining to the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19 albeit yet to be validated with larger clinical trials, have sparked much interest globally to evaluate whether this anti-malarial drug can be repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19.
32321905 In this study, aiming to investigate these adverse events (AEs) using a large self-reporting database, we conducted a disproportionality analysis for the detection of neuropsychiatric AE signals associated with the use of chloroquine (or hydroxychloroquine), reported to FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database between the fourth quarter of 2012 and the fourth quarter of 2019.
32322397 Towards that initiative, potential drugs like hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin and azithromycin have been tested by diverse group of researchers worldwide for their potential against novel coronavirus. […] Hydroxychloroquine and ivermectin were known to act by creating the acidic environment and inhibiting the importin (IMPα/β1) mediated viral import. […] Azithromycin was found to act similar to the hydroxychloroquine as an acidotropic lipophilic weak base.
32322402 In vitro tests are also being conducted to assess the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of this epidemic, which is considered a pandemic by the WHO.
32323646 Among the repurposed drugs, the commonly used antimalarials chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have become the focus of global scientific, media, and political attention despite a lack of randomized clinical trials supporting their efficacy. […] Hydroxychloroquine is mainly used as a therapy for autoimmune diseases.
32324284 Hydroxychloroquine is suspected to trigger haemolytic crisis in G6PD-deficient patients, and off-label administration of this drug to patients infected with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) could cause concern. […] We report here the first case of severe haemolytic crisis in a patient with G6PD deficiency, initiated by severe COVID-19 infection and hydroxychloroquine use.
32324331 We describe the case of a 61-year-old kidney transplant recipient with several comorbidities who was hospitalized and later received a diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia; the infection was successfully managed with the use of hydroxychloroquine and a single administration of tocilizumab, after immunosuppression reduction; the patient did not require mechanical ventilation.
32324363 Hydroxychloroquine is an immunomodulatory drug that has been used to treat malaria and autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and inflammatory arthritis. […] The authors conclude the proarrhytmic effects of hydroxychloroquine and the most important signs of drug-induced long QT syndrome.
32325124 This article examines three aspects of antivirals, such as hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and remdesvir, as they might relate to the treatment of a viral infection such as COVID-19: (i) the use of vaporization for the delivery of antivirals, with the bulk constituents having mild antiviral efficacy; (ii) the application of a marine natural product extract as opposed to a single molecule as an antiviral agent; and (iii) a counter intuitive approach to formulation that is, in part, based on delivering multiple species that fall into three categories: building blocks for the virus to accelerate replication; an energy source for the infected cell to boost its immune response; and the species that antagonize or provide toxicity to the virus.
32327397 Combinations of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin have been promoted as treatments for COVID-19 based on small, uncontrolled clinical trials that have not assessed potential risks.
32328588 She was treated with pericardiocentesis, colchicine, corticosteroids and hydroxychloroquine with improvement in symptoms.
32329404 Despite the lack of high-quality evidence, the mere hope of effectiveness of potential treatments, such as hydroxychloroquine, has led to surges in demand for these products, and many pharmacists are already informally reporting shortages through social channels. […] As manufacturers and wholesale distributors struggle to fulfill orders for drugs such as hydroxychloroquine, short-term price increases may seem reasonable in a free market when demand increases.
32329419 Antimalarial drugs such as Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine derivatives are being used in emergency cases; however, they are not suitable for patients with conditions like diabetes, hypertension and cardiac issues.
32329879 However, the current treatment options include hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir (Kaletra®), and nitazoxanide.
32329881 Patients were also treated with anticoagulant therapy with Enoxaparin 4000 IU/day via subcutaneous injection, antiviral therapy with Lopinavir 800 mg/day + Ritonavir 200 mg/day, hydroxychloroquine 400 mg/day, ceftriaxone 2 g/day IV, vitamine C 6 g/day for 4 days, and were on Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV).
32329920 We address issues surrounding corticosteroid and exon-skipping treatments, cardiac medications, hydroxychloroquine use, emergency/respiratory care, rehabilitation management, and the conduct of clinical trials.
32330312 The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), recommended the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a prophylactic against COVID-19 among health care workers and asymptomatic contacts of laboratory confirmed cases of COVID.
32330343 Among the 68 hospitalized patients, 12% required non-rebreather and 35% required intubation. 91% received hydroxychloroquine, 66% azithromycin, 3% remdesivir, 21% tocilizumab, and 24% bolus steroids.
32330521 Given the media attention and claims of effectiveness, we chose chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, in combination with azithromycin, as an area of COVID-19 research to examine. […] MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases were searched from 2019 to present (April 3rd, 2020) using a mix of keywords such as COVID-19 and chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. […] We found 6 studies, 3 randomized control trials and 3 observational studies, focusing on chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (with azithromycin). […] We found that the COVID-19 research methodology is very poor in the area of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine research.
32330817 Patients also received lopinivir/ritonavir (82%), hydroxychloroquine (79%), and tocilizumab (12%) according to this treatment algorithm.
32335560 More recent studies have highlighted the possibility of treating patients infected with the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus with chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, of which mechanism of action is not completely understood.
32336317 This review discusses the updates on specimens/samples, recent efficient diagnostics, and therapeutic approaches to control the disease and repurposed drugs mainly focusing on chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and convalescent plasma (CP).
32336586 There are currently no therapeutic drugs available that are directly active against SARS-CoV-2; however, several antivirals (remdesivir, favipiravir) and antimalarials (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) have emerged as potential therapies. […] Current guidelines recommend combination treatment with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin or chloroquine, if hydroxychloroquine is unavailable, in patients with moderate disease, although these recommendations are based on limited evidence.
32337139 Recent findings of an open-label study that investigated the use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in COVID-19 patients in Marseille, France, has garnered some optimism in scientific quarters and the general public alike in terms of finding a treatment regimen to control the rampant rise of COVID-19.
32337859 Following administration of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine with reduced immunosuppressant, he recovered from COVID-19. […] During the hospitalization period, the chest infiltrative lesion showed a wax and wane, but he successfully recovered by administration of hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin.
32338155 Anti-malarial medicine chloroquine (CQ) and particularly its chemical analogue hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been recommended as promising candidate therapeutics that are now under either compassionate off-label use or clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.
32338164 The results show the effectiveness of Sofosbuvir, Ribavirin, Galidesivir, Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Cefuroxime, Tenofovir, and Hydroxychloroquine, in binding to SARS-CoV-2 RdRp.
32338347 In severe pneumonia and critically ill children, trial of hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir/ritonavir should be considered.
32339832 Without much experience, currently, the medicines that are clinically being evaluated for COVID-19 include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, lopinavir, ritonavir, tocilizumab and corticosteroids.
32341910 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been used as treatment and are being considered as prophylaxis. […] Our patient developed COVID-19 while on hydroxychloroquine and although more work is needed, this calls into question the role of these medications as preventive therapy.
32342252 In a preliminary clinical study, we observed that the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin was effective against SARS-CoV-2 by shortening the duration of viral load in Covid-19 patients.
32344177 Hydroxychloroquine showed an antiviral effect in vitro. […] Here we demonstrate that the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin has a synergistic effect in vitro on SARS-CoV-2 at concentrations compatible with that obtained in human lung.
32344310 It was also revealed that alternative treatments currently being considered for COVID-19 such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine by increasing hemoglobin production and increasing hemoglobin availability for oxygen binding and acetazolamine (for the treatment of altitude sickness) by causing hyperventilation with associated increasing levels of oxygen and decreasing levels of carbon dioxide in the blood may significantly ameliorate COVID-19 respiratory symptoms.
32344449 Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial drug being tested as a potential treatment for the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2( (SARS-CoV-2. […] Although the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 remains uncertain, it may serve as a potential prophylactic agent especially in those at high risk, such as healthcare workers, household contacts of infected patients, and the immunocompromised. […] Our aim was to identify possible hydroxychloroquine dosing regimens through simulation in those at high risk of infections by optimizing exposures above the in vitro generated half maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) and to help guide researchers in dose-selection for COVID-19 prophylactic studies.
32345563 He was tested for COVID-19 per admission protocol, started on hydroxychloroquine, his hiccups improved, and he was discharged to home after 3 days.
32347743 Small studies have shown a potential benefit of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19. […] Use of these medications alone, or in combination, can lead to a prolongation of the QT interval, possibly increasing the risk of Torsade de pointes (TdP) and sudden cardiac death. Methods - Hospitalized patients treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin from March 1st through the 23rd at three hospitals within the Northwell Health system were included in this prospective, observational study. […] Secondary outcomes included QT prolongation, the need to prematurely discontinue any of the medications due to QT prolongation and arrhythmogenic death. Results - Two hundred one patients were treated for COVID-19 with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine. […] Ten patients (5.0%) received chloroquine, 191 (95.0%) received hydroxychloroquine and 119 (59.2%) also received azithromycin. […] Baseline QTc intervals did not differ between patients treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (monotherapy group) vs. those treated with combination group (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin) (440.6 ± 24.9 ms vs. […] No arrhythmogenic deaths were reported. Conclusions - In the largest reported cohort of COVID-19 patients to date treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine {plus minus} azithromycin, no instances of TdP or arrhythmogenic death were reported.
32348046 In case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, immunosuppressive drugs should be temporarily stopped, except for glucocorticoids, hydroxychloroquine and sulfasalazine. […] Leur arrêt n’est recommandé qu’en cas d’infection avérée à SARS-CoV-2, à l’exception de la prednisone, de l’hydroxychloroquine et de la sulfasalazine qui peuvent être poursuivis.
32348232 The patient was hospitalized and treated with Oseltamivir 75 mg every 12 hours, Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra) 400/100 mg every 12 hours and hydroxychloroquine 400 mg stat.
32348588 The main therapies being used to treat the disease are antiviral drugs, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and respiratory therapy.
32349115 The proposed doses of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for treatment of COVID-19 (1000 mg/day for 10 days, CQ; 800 mg first day then 400 mg/day for 5 days, HCQ) in many guidelines worldwide, are considerably higher than the maximum recommended daily safe doses of both agents (≤2.3 mg/kg/day, CQ; ≤5.0 mg/kg/day, HCQ) for development of retinal toxicity.
32350686 According to the CDC and Chinese treatment guidelines for COVID-19, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and one of the investigational agents (remdesivir) are recommended in critically ill older patients.
32350928 Early anecdotal reports and limited in vitro data led to the significant uptake of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and to lesser extent chloroquine (CQ), for many patients with this disease.
32351040 All hospitalized patients received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32351831 Even though there is no cure for COVID-19, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are promising alternatives.
32351851 Hydroxychloroquine therapy was started, and the patient responded favorably with improvement of symptoms.
32352359 We discuss the critical role hydroxychloroquine plays in the management of lupus patients and suggest considering the psychosocial implications of the current pandemic on lupus care.
32352535 Cardiovascular considerations of therapies currently used, including remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, ribavirin, interferons, and lopinavir/ritonavir, as well as experimental therapies, such as human recombinant ACE2 (rhACE2), are discussed.
32354634 At admission, all had immunosuppression withdrawn and were started on methylprednisolone 16 mg/day, all but one was commenced on antiviral therapy and hydroxychloroquine with doses adjusted for kidney function.
32355607 They are concerned about their risk of developing COVID-19 as many are immune suppressed from their disease and/or treatment, whether they should stop their advanced therapies, if they will have a worse outcome if/when infected due to their underlying medication condition(s) and if they will have drug availability, especially with press (without much data) coverage suggesting hydroxychloroquine may be used in COVID-19 infection causing diversion of medication supply.
32356252 The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has provided emergency authorization for the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.
32356863 Administration of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pneumonia carries increased risk of corrected QT (QTc) prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias. […] To characterize the risk and degree of QT prolongation in patients with COVID-19 in association with their use of hydroxychloroquine with or without concomitant azithromycin. […] This was a cohort study performed at an academic tertiary care center in Boston, Massachusetts, of patients hospitalized with at least 1 positive COVID-19 nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction test result and clinical findings consistent with pneumonia who received at least 1 day of hydroxychloroquine from March 1, 2020, through April 7, 2020. […] Change in QT interval after receiving hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin; occurrence of other potential adverse drug events. […] Among 90 patients given hydroxychloroquine, 53 received concomitant azithromycin; 44 (48.9%) were female, and the mean (SD) body mass index was 31.5 (6.6). […] The overall median (interquartile range) baseline QTc was 455 (430-474) milliseconds (hydroxychloroquine, 473 [454-487] milliseconds vs hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, 442 [427-461] milliseconds; P < .001). […] Those receiving concomitant azithromycin had a greater median (interquartile range) change in QT interval (23 [10-40] milliseconds) compared with those receiving hydroxychloroquine alone (5.5 [-15.5 to 34.25] milliseconds; P = .03). […] Seven patients (19%) who received hydroxychloroquine monotherapy developed prolonged QTc of 500 milliseconds or more, and 3 patients (3%) had a change in QTc of 60 milliseconds or more. […] Ten patients had hydroxychloroquine discontinued early because of potential adverse drug events, including intractable nausea, hypoglycemia, and 1 case of torsades de pointes. […] In this cohort study, patients who received hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of pneumonia associated with COVID-19 were at high risk of QTc prolongation, and concurrent treatment with azithromycin was associated with greater changes in QTc. […] Clinicians should carefully weigh risks and benefits if considering hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, with close monitoring of QTc and concomitant medication usage.
32357553 Currently, antiviral drugs, including chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir, have shown effective inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
32358890 A variety of repurposed drugs and investigational drugs such as remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, lopinavir, interferon-beta, and other potential drugs have been studied for COVID19 treatment.
32359203 Of these, chloroquine (CQ) and its derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have garnered the most attention.
32359210 We report the clinical course and management of a liver transplant recipient on hemodialysis, who presented with COVID-19 pneumonia, and despite completing a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine, later developed marked inflammatory manifestations with rapid improvement after administration of off-label, single-dose tocilizumab.
32359771 As the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) global pandemic rages across the globe, the race to prevent and treat this deadly disease has led to the “off-label” repurposing of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, which have the potential for unwanted QT-interval prolongation and a risk of drug-induced sudden cardiac death.
32360480 Further, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and off-label antiviral drugs, such as the nucleotide analogue remdesivir, HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir, broad-spectrum antiviral drugs arbidol and favipiravir as well as antiviral phytochemicals available to date may limit spread of SARS-CoV-2 and morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 pandemic.
32360583 We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), and WANFANG DATA for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective cohort, and retrospective cohort studies that evaluated therapies (hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir-based therapy, and ribavirin-based therapy, etc.) for SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. […] Likewise, hydroxychloroquine improved radiographical result. […] Meanwhile, hydroxychloroquine could increase AEs rate especially diarrhea.
32362345 This commentary discerns the characteristics of demoralization versus depression, and suggests solutions for both, together with a cautionary word on the use chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19.
32363157 Chloroquine and phosphate hydroxychloroquine are the drugs currently in the limelight, and recently, the National Task Force for COVID-19 constituted by the Indian Council of Medical Research has recommended the use of antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine for prophylaxis of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 infection in selected high-risk individuals.
32363212 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have garnered unprecedented attention as potential therapeutic agents against COVID-19 following several small clinical trials, uncontrolled case series, and public figure endorsements. […] We call for additional randomized controlled trial evidence prior to the widespread incorporation of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine into national and international treatment guidelines.
32363221 The results of ongoing clinical trials on hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin alone or in combination and a new antiviral agent remdesivir may help to treat some of the infections.
32363963 This is a report of a case with mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) with severe eye involvement and concurrent COVID-19 treated successfully using simultaneous high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and anti-viral treatment as hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and ribavirin.
32365215 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are currently being evaluated as treatment against COVID-19. […] Use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine should be reserved to current indications or clinical trials, as recommended by several governmental medical products agencies.
32367579 Specifically, we propose that the lysosomotropic effects of hydroxychloroquine and several other drugs undergoing testing may be responsible for their demonstrated in vitro antiviral activities against COVID-19.
32368483 He was started on hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin with no improvement of symptoms.
32371558 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has multiple potential antiviral mechanisms of action that differ according to the pathogen studied (eg, Chikungunya, Dengue virus, human immunodeficiency virus, poliovirus, Zika virus). […] Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) use in patients with COVID-19 is being investigated examining prophylaxis, postexposure prophylaxis, and treatment regimens.
32372695 Multiple off-label and investigational drugs, such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, have gained broad interest due to positive pre-clinical data and are currently used for treatment of COVID-19. […] Adverse effects of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on cardiac function and conduction are broad and can be fatal. […] The American Heart Association has listed chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as agents which can cause direct myocardial toxicity. […] This review summarizes evidenced-based data regarding potential cardiac adverse effects due to off-label and investigational drugs including chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, antiviral therapy, monoclonal antibodies, as well as common antibiotics used for the treatment of COVID-19.
32373183 Although much of this attention has a mechanistic basis, the hard efficacy data for chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in the management of the clinical syndrome of COVID-19 have been limited thus far. […] This review aims to present the available in vitro and clinical data for the role of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 and attempts to put them into perspective, especially in relation to the different risks/benefits particular to each patient who may require treatment.
32373993 Hydroxychloroquine has been demonstrated to limit the replication of SARS-CoV-2 virus in vitro. […] Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine share similar chemical structures and mechanisms of action. […] The aim of this study was to indirectly investigate the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19 by determining the prevalence of COVID-19 in malaria pandemic and non-pandemic nations. […] We reviewed in vitro studies, in vivo studies, original studies, clinical trials, and consensus reports, that were conducted to evaluate the antiviral activities of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. […] The search was based on keywords: antiviral drugs, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, COVID-19, COVID-19 treatment modalities, and coronavirus. […] These studies were all suggestive that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine can successfully treat COVID-19 infections. […] Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have antiviral characteristics in vitro.
32376394 While moderate-severe forms need in-hospital surveillance plus antivirals and/or hydroxychloroquine; in severe and life-threating subsets a high intensity anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory therapy could be a therapeutic option.
32376395 In this cross-sectional study, Tuscan outpatients with systemic autoimmune diseases followed at a tertiary referral centre were telephonically interviewed between April 1st-14th 2020 to collect demographic and clinical data, information on ongoing immunomodulating/immunosuppressive treatments, and on the presence of symptoms suspected of SARS-CoV-2 or of a confirmed infection. 458 patients were interviewed [74% female, median age 56 years (IQR 43-68)]; 56% of them were receiving corticosteroids, 44% traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), of whom 23% hydroxychloroquine, 5% colchicine, while 41% were on biologic DMARDs (of whom 9% on tocilizumab).
32378314 Despite reduction in immunosuppression and treatment with tocilizumab, intravenous immunoglobulin, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and broad-spectrum antibiotics, she ultimately died from multiorgan failure. […] Given a milder presentation compared to the first patient, antimetabolite was discontinued and only hydroxychloroquine was started.
32379955 Hydroxychloroquine has been widely administered to patients with Covid-19 without robust evidence supporting its use. […] We examined the association between hydroxychloroquine use and intubation or death at a large medical center in New York City. […] We compared outcomes in patients who received hydroxychloroquine with those in patients who did not, using a multivariable Cox model with inverse probability weighting according to the propensity score. […] Of the remaining 1376 patients, during a median follow-up of 22.5 days, 811 (58.9%) received hydroxychloroquine (600 mg twice on day 1, then 400 mg daily for a median of 5 days); 45.8% of the patients were treated within 24 hours after presentation to the emergency department, and 85.9% within 48 hours. […] Hydroxychloroquine-treated patients were more severely ill at baseline than those who did not receive hydroxychloroquine (median ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen, 223 vs. […] In the main analysis, there was no significant association between hydroxychloroquine use and intubation or death (hazard ratio, 1.04, 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.32). […] In this observational study involving patients with Covid-19 who had been admitted to the hospital, hydroxychloroquine administration was not associated with either a greatly lowered or an increased risk of the composite end point of intubation or death. […] Randomized, controlled trials of hydroxychloroquine in patients with Covid-19 are needed.
32380315 Some disease-modifying agents commonly used to treat patients with rheumatic diseases/autoimmune disorders, such as hydroxychloroquine and colchicine, are under investigation as potential therapies for the “coronavirus disease 2019” (COVID-19). […] A comparison was conducted between subjects tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and those found negative in terms of rate of administration of hydroxychloroquine/colchicine therapy. […] No significant difference was found in terms of rates of usage of hydroxychloroquine or colchicine between those who were found positive for SARS-CoV-2 and those who were found negative (0.23% versus 0.25% for hydroxychloroquine, and 0.53% versus 0.48% for colchicine, respectively).
32382516 She completed 5 days of hydroxychloroquine and 7 days of prednisone. […] It is unclear whether our institution’s empiric use of hydroxychloroquine and prednisone facilitated her recovery.
32383125 We describe the design of a clinical trial of hydroxychloroquine for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-emptive therapy (PET) for COVID-19. […] We will conduct two nested multicentre international double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of hydroxychloroquine for: 1) PEP of asymptomatic household contacts or healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19 within the past four days, and 2) PET for symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19 showing symptoms for less than four days. […] Participants will be randomized 1:1 to receive five days of hydroxychloroquine or placebo. […] These complementary randomized-controlled trials are innovatively designed and adequately powered to rapidly answer urgent questions regarding the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine to reduce virus transmission and disease severity of COVID-19 during a pandemic.
32383430 Currently, there is no available treatment proven to be effective against COVID-19, but multiple medications, including hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), are used off label.
32384516 She was being treated aggressively in the intensive care unit with high dose intravenous ascorbic acid, hydroxychloroquine, and anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody.
32386448 The antimalarials, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and the antivirals Lopinavir/Ritonavir have been recently recorded as having anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) effects.1 In particular, regarding Italy, one of the countries most affected by the pandemic, the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical disease (Lombardy section) has recommended the use of HCQ for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32387409 In France, the combination hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) is used in the treatment of COVID-19.
32387694 Recent publications have re-examined the use of Chloroquine (CQ) and/or Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a potential therapeutic option for these patients.
32389025 The Food and Drug Administration issued an emergency authorization for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as experimental treatments for COVID-19 leading to a shortage of both medications. […] Because of its higher potency and better safety profile, hydroxychloroquine may be the more reasonable treatment option if treatment is initiated.
32389518 The most used treatments were hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir-ritonavir, and steroids.
32389720 A recent report identified significant reductions or disappearance of viral load in COVID-19 patients given a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. […] The physicochemical properties of both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin are consistent with particularly high affinity for the intracellular lysosomal space, which has been implicated as a target site for antiviral activity. […] The combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin produces very high local concentrations in lysosomes.
32390367 Hydroxychloroquine was used in 79 patients (80.6%), and glucocorticoid therapy was used in 18 patients (18.4%).
32391234 He positively responded to a 14-day course of Lopinavir-Ritonavir, Ribavirin, Azithromycin, and Hydroxychloroquine.
32391519 Eighty-one percent of women were treated with hydroxychloroquine; 9% of women with severe disease and 65% of women with critical disease received remdesivir.
32391667 To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the treatment of patients with moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32392282 Hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, has been considered as a possible therapeutic agent for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] To describe the association between use of hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, and clinical outcomes among hospital inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19. […] Receipt of both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, or neither. […] Among 1438 hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 (858 [59.7%] male, median age, 63 years), those receiving hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both were more likely than those not receiving either drug to have diabetes, respiratory rate >22/min, abnormal chest imaging findings, O2 saturation lower than 90%, and aspartate aminotransferase greater than 40 U/L. […] The probability of death for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin was 189/735 (25.7% [95% CI, 22.3%-28.9%]), hydroxychloroquine alone, 54/271 (19.9% [95% CI, 15.2%-24.7%]), azithromycin alone, 21/211 (10.0% [95% CI, 5.9%-14.0%]), and neither drug, 28/221 (12.7% [95% CI, 8.3%-17.1%]). […] In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, compared with patients receiving neither drug, there were no significant differences in mortality for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin (HR, 1.35 [95% CI, 0.76-2.40]), hydroxychloroquine alone (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.63-1.85]), or azithromycin alone (HR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.26-1.21]). […] In logistic models, compared with patients receiving neither drug cardiac arrest was significantly more likely in patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin (adjusted OR, 2.13 [95% CI, 1.12-4.05]), but not hydroxychloroquine alone (adjusted OR, 1.91 [95% CI, 0.96-3.81]) or azithromycin alone (adjusted OR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.27-1.56]), . […] Among patients hospitalized in metropolitan New York with COVID-19, treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both, compared with neither treatment, was not significantly associated with differences in in-hospital mortality.
32392288 Targeted therapies were used in 28 patients (61%), with hydroxychloroquine being the most commonly used agent either alone (11 patients) or in combination (10 patients).
32392332 Different dosage regimens of hydroxychloroquine are used to manage COVID-19 patients, without information on the pharmacokinetics in this population.Blood samples (n=101) were collected from 57 COVID-19 patients for 7 days and concentrations were compared with simulated kinetic profiles.Hydroxychloroquine exposure is low and cannot be predicted by other populations.
32393448 The National Task Force for Covid-19 of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in a bulletin dated March 21, 2020 recommended the use of hydroxychloroquine for prophylaxis in asymptomatic health care workers caring for suspected or confirmed patients and household contacts of confirmed patients. […] The evidence for the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is currently derived from open label trials and cell culture studies with no conclusive evidence available from randomised clinical trials. […] Hydroxychloroquine also carries contraindications in the case of conditions such as maculopathy, retinopathy and QTc prolongation and should be used with caution in vulnerable populations such as children, pregnancy, lactation and the elderly. […] Despite this, there has been a rush to procure and self-medicate with hydroxychloroquine, which has been addressed by the National Task Force. […] While further evidence is awaited, including from trials registered with the FDA and the ICMR, it is recommended that the administration of hydroxychloroquine for chemo-prophylaxis be considered on a case by case basis with monitoring by a registered medical practitioner including electrocardiography (ECG). […] Keywords: Coronavirus, Covid-19, SARS-CoV-2, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, chemoprophylaxis, bioethics, evidence- based medicine.
32393597 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is in short supply as a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, presenting a challenge to rheumatologists to ensure their patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) continue to take this essential drug.
32393664 To characterize hydroxychloroquine exposure in patients with rheumatic disease receiving long-term hydroxychloroquine compared to target concentrations with reported antiviral activity against the 2019 coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. […] We evaluated total hydroxychloroquine concentrations in serum and plasma from published literature values, frozen serum samples from a pediatric lupus trial, and simulated concentrations using a published pharmacokinetic model during pregnancy. […] For each source, we compared observed or predicted hydroxychloroquine concentrations to target concentrations with reported antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. […] The average total serum/plasma hydroxychloroquine concentrations were below the lowest SARS-CoV-2 target of 0.48 mg/L in all studies. […] We found that the average patient receiving treatment with hydroxychloroquine for rheumatic diseases, including children and non-pregnant/pregnant adults, are unlikely to achieve total serum or plasma concentrations shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in-vitro. […] Nevertheless, patients receiving hydroxychloroquine long-term may have tissue concentrations far exceeding that of serum/plasma. […] Because the therapeutic window for hydroxychloroquine in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 is unknown, well-designed clinical trials that include patients with rheumatic disease are urgently needed to characterize the efficacy, safety, and target exposures for hydroxychloroquine.
32394467 In patients with COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine decreases the inflammatory response and cytokine storm, but overdose causes toxicity and mortality. […] Favipiravir increases clinical recovery and reduces respiratory problems and has a stronger antiviral effect than LPV/r. currently, appropriate treatment for patients with COVID-19 is an ACE2 inhibitor and a clinical problem reducing agent such as favipiravir in addition to hydroxychloroquine and corticosteroids.
32394481 Questions on the controversial use of hydroxychloroquine and to a lesser extent concerning azithromycin have been the most consulted Q&As.
32395418 These drugs and therapeutic agents include antiviral agents (remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, and oseltamivir), and supporting agents (Ascorbic acid, Azithromycin, Corticosteroids, Nitric oxide, IL-6 antagonists), among others.
32397399 Using propensity scores, the 21 patients who received TCZ were matched to 21 patients who received SOC (a combination of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and prophylactic dose of low weight heparin).
32397911 In particular, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, arbidol, tocilizumab and bevacizumab have shown promising results.
32398343 The in vitro studies revealed conflicting results, with one finding anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity for azithromycin alone, while the other found activity against SARS-CoV-2 only when azithromycin was combined with hydroxychloroquine. […] A small trial of 36 patients, with high risk of bias, found superior viral clearance in patients with COVID-19 treated with azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine combined, compared with hydroxychloroquine alone. […] There is extremely limited evidence of a possible synergy between azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine.
32399456 A 52-year-old patient with SARS-CoV-2 was diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia and treated with darunavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).
32400323 Although in vitro studies are scarce, data regarding chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, ivermectin, lopinavir, homoharringtonine and emetine seem promising.
32400349 Reports that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine may be effective against COVID-19 have received worldwide attention, increasing the risk of the introduction of falsified versions of these medicines.
32400380 Thus, global stocks of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been put under pressure with a study of 26 patients treated with HCQ during their infection with SARS-CoV-2.
32400965 Faced with this novel coronavirus, scientists have been trying to use drugs that have not been validated by rigorous clinical trials, such as lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32401405 The antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has long been used as a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug for the treatment of several inflammatory rheumatic diseases.
32402056 Treatment of COVID-19 included hydroxychloroquine (18 patients [78%]), high-dose corticosteroids (8 patients [47%]), and interleukin 6 receptor antagonists (6 patients [26%]).
32402766 The antimalarial drugs chloroquine phosphate (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) impair in vitro the terminal glycosylation of ACE2 without significant change of cell-surface ACE2 and, therefore, might be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 infections.
32403946 Outcome from the infection were compared with infected noncancer patients. Results: Twenty patients (80%) were treated with antiviral therapy and hydroxychloroquine and five (20%) received hydroxychloroquine alone. […] In the control group the mortality was 16.13% and the overcome from infection was 83.87%. Conclusion: Mortality for COVID-19 was greater in cancer patients when compared with noncancer patients, worse prognosis for older age, women and patients treated with hydroxychloroquine alone.
32405156 Hydroxychloroquine (CLQ-OH)/azithromycin (ATM) combination therapy is currently being tested for the treatment of COVID-19, with promising results.
32405160 Patients admitted before March 13th (n=23) were prescribed the standard therapy (hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir and ritonavir) and were considered controls.
32405423 Minimum estimated costs of production were US $0.93/day for remdesivir, $1.45/day for favipiravir, $0.08/day for hydroxychloroquine, $0.02/day for chloroquine, $0.10/day for azithromycin, $0.28/day for lopinavir/ritonavir, $0.39/day for sofosbuvir/daclatasvir and $1.09/day for pirfenidone.
32405877 At present, anti-IL-6, antiviral therapy, convalescent plasma, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin among others are being investigated as potential treatments for COVID-19.
32406927 Overall risk of bias of the eight included studies was high, due to: study design; small number of participants; poor reporting within studies; and varied type of participants with different severities of disease, comorbidities, and types of previous or concurrent treatments, including antivirals, antifungals or antibiotics, corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine and respiratory support.
32407884 Initial reports suggesting the potential benefit of Hydroxychloroquine/Azithromycin (HY/AZ) have resulted in massive adoption of this combination worldwide.
32408070 The antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ) and its metabolite hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are currently being tested in several clinical studies as potential candidates to limit SARS-CoV-2-mediated morbidity and mortality.
32409150 Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine (chloroquine) plus azithromycin is considered as therapy for COVID-19.
32409486 To assess the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine in patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pneumonia who require oxygen. […] Hydroxychloroquine at a dose of 600 mg/day within 48 hours of admission to hospital (treatment group) versus standard care without hydroxychloroquine (control group). […] In the main analysis, 84 patients who received hydroxychloroquine within 48 hours of admission to hospital (treatment group) were compared with 89 patients who did not receive hydroxychloroquine (control group). […] Eight additional patients received hydroxychloroquine more than 48 hours after admission. […] Hydroxychloroquine has received worldwide attention as a potential treatment for covid-19 because of positive results from small studies.
32409561 To assess the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine plus standard of care compared with standard of care alone in adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). […] Multicentre, open label, randomised controlled trial. 16 government designated covid-19 treatment centres in China, 11 to 29 February 2020. 150 patients admitted to hospital with laboratory confirmed covid-19 were included in the intention to treat analysis (75 patients assigned to hydroxychloroquine plus standard of care, 75 to standard of care alone). […] Hydroxychloroquine administrated at a loading dose of 1200 mg daily for three days followed by a maintenance dose of 800 mg daily (total treatment duration: two or three weeks for patients with mild to moderate or severe disease, respectively). […] Adverse events were analysed in the safety population in which hydroxychloroquine recipients were participants who received at least one dose of hydroxychloroquine and hydroxychloroquine non-recipients were those managed with standard of care alone. […] A total of 109 (73%) patients (56 standard of care; 53 standard of care plus hydroxychloroquine) had negative conversion well before 28 days, and the remaining 41 (27%) patients (19 standard of care; 22 standard of care plus hydroxychloroquine) were censored as they did not reach negative conversion of virus. […] The probability of negative conversion by 28 days in the standard of care plus hydroxychloroquine group was 85.4% (95% confidence interval 73.8% to 93.8%), similar to that in the standard of care group (81.3%, 71.2% to 89.6%). […] In the safety population, adverse events were recorded in 7/80 (9%) hydroxychloroquine non-recipients and in 21/70 (30%) hydroxychloroquine recipients. […] The most common adverse event in the hydroxychloroquine recipients was diarrhoea, reported in 7/70 (10%) patients. […] Two hydroxychloroquine recipients reported serious adverse events. […] Administration of hydroxychloroquine did not result in a significantly higher probability of negative conversion than standard of care alone in patients admitted to hospital with mainly persistent mild to moderate covid-19. […] Adverse events were higher in hydroxychloroquine recipients than in non-recipients.
32410772 As per SOLIDARITY trial by WHO, some of the most promising candidates include chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine which are anti-malarial medications, Remdesivir, Lopinavir-Ritonavir combination with or without interferon which are anti-HIV drugs and convalescent plasma therapy.
32412509 The benefit of orticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, etc., is limited.
32415419 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an old medication for malaria.
32417708 The role of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the treatment of COVID-19 is not fully known.
32418114 We sought to determine whether hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) application may reduce the death risk of critically ill COVID-19 patients. […] Primary endpoint is fatality of patients, and inflammatory cytokine levels were compared between HCQ and non-hydroxychloroquine (NHCQ) treatments. […] Therefore, HCQ should be prescribed as a part of treatment for critically ill COVID-19 patients, with possible outcome of saving lives. hydroxychloroquine, IL-6, mortalities, COVID-19.
32418181 COVID-19 infection has shown rapid growth worldwide, and different therapies have been proposed for treatment, in particular, the combination of immune response modulating drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (antimalarials) alone or in combination with azithromycin.
32418730 Several publicized drugs are being used with not much evidence of their efficacy such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin or lopinavir-ritonavir. […] Since March 27th, 2020, the French Pharmacovigilance Network directed all cardiac adverse drug reactions associated with “off-label” use of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and lopinavir-ritonavir in COVID-19 to the Nice Regional Center of Pharmacovigilance. […] In one month, 120 reports of cardiac adverse drug reactions have been notified, 103 of which associated with hydroxychloroquine alone (86%), or associated with azithromycin (60%).
32418894 The well reported and clinically used anti-malarial aminoquinoline drugs (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine) have shown potential to be repurposed to control the present pandemic by inhibition of COVID-19. […] The review elaborates the mechanism of action, safety (side effects, adverse effects, toxicity) and details of clinical trials for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine to benefit the clinicians, medicinal chemist, pharmacologist actively involved in controlling the pandemic and to provide therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 infection.
32419524 To obtain convincing recommendations, we referred to opinions from the US National Institute of Health regarding drugs repurposed for COVID-19 therapy.Expert opinion: Although strong evidence of well-designed randomized controlled studies regarding COVID-19 therapy is presently lacking, remdesivir, teicoplanin, hydroxychloroquine (not in combination with azithromycin), and ivermectin might be effective antiviral drugs and are deemed promising candidates for controlling SARS-CoV-2.
32422406 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are both used to treat COVID-19. […] In particular, cardiologic, gastro-intestinal and neuropsychiatric side-effects of (hydroxychloroquine) needs special attention in COVID-19 patients.
32423027 Whereas plasma therapy attracts much interest, the European project Discovery focuses on the potentialities of small molecules like remdesivir, the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and chloroquine.
32423324 There is not any standard treatment for coronavirus infection 2019; however, there are promising data for hydroxychloroquine and some anti-retroviral drugs.
32425051 We describe here the protocol for a pragmatic, active comparator trial in as many as 300 patients comparing two current “off-label” treatments for COVID-19-hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin-in academic and non-academic hospitals in Utah.
32425199 Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir are currently being studied in trials and show some promise.
32425246 The only FDA approved drug to treat COVID-19 is remdesivir, and other off-label medications used include chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, convalescent plasma therapy, azithromycin, vitamin C, corticosteroids, interferon and colchicine.
32426230 He was treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin with improvement in mental status back to baseline after 6 days.
32426242 She was treated with intravenous fluids, ceftriaxone, azithromycin, and hydroxychloroquine.
32426957 The paper reviews aspects of COVID-19 that pertain to rheumatology, including symptoms and signs akin to those observed in rheumatic disorders, risk of infection or severe course of the disease in patients with a pre-existing rheumatic disease and those receiving antirheumatic or immunosuppressive medication as well as potential applications of antirheumatic or anticytokine therapeutic strategies that are already applied in rheumatology (including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, baricitinib, and others) for patients with COVID-19.
32428144 In severe cases, the use of medications such as hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin or medication can be promising.
32430286 The anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (CQ) and primarily the less toxic hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are currently used to treat autoimmune diseases for their immunomodulatory and anti-thrombotic properties.
32432527 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has sparked much interest in the therapeutics of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
32434058 We have explicitly highlighted several useful information and facts like: i) No established relationship between progression of SARS-CoV-2 with temperature, humidity and/or both, ii) The underlying mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 is not fully understood, iii) Respiratory droplet size determines drop and airborne-based transmission, iv) Prognosis of COVID-19 can be done by its effects on various body organs, v) Infection can be stopped by restricting the binding of S protein and AE2, vi) Hydroxychloroquine is believed to be better than chloroquine for COVID-19, vii) Ivermectin with Vero-hSLAM cells is able to reduce infection by ~5000 time within 2 days, and viii) Nafamostat mesylate can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 S protein-initiated membrane fusion.
32434337 Current potential treatment options include hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and convalescent plasma.
32435791 Translation of in vitro antiviral activity to the in vivo setting is crucial to identify potentially effective dosing regimens of hydroxychloroquine. […] In vitro EC50/EC90 values for hydroxychloroquine should be compared to the in vivo free extracellular tissue concentration, which is similar to the free plasma hydroxychloroquine concentration.
32436445 The use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), remdesivir, and tocilizumab are some of the other promising potential therapies; however, they are yet to be tested in randomized clinical trials (RCTs).
32437000 She was successfully managed with hydroxychloroquine and broad spectrum antibiotics, and was discharged after 24 days.
32437675 The postoperative course was complicated by a mixed viral/bacterial pneumonia with bilateral infiltration, treated with antibiotics and hydroxychloroquine, without any need for reintubation.
32437768 In group 1, 41% received antivirals and 76% hydroxychloroquine. […] In group 2, 79% received antivirals and 77% hydroxychloroquine.
32438018 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are now being widely used as treatments for COVID-19. […] Accordingly, we set out to conduct a systematic review of the arrhythmogenic effect of short courses of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. […] We searched in MEDLINE and Embase, as well as grey literature up to April 17, 2020, on the risk of QT prolongation, torsades, ventricular arrhythmia, and sudden death with short-term chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine usage. […] A limitation of these results is unclear follow-up and possible publication/reporting bias, but there is compelling evidence that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine induce significant QT interval prolongation and potentially increase the risk of arrhythmia.
32438446 Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, mefloquine, atazanavir (ritonavir-boosted), tipranavir (ritonavir-boosted), ivermectin, azithromycin and lopinavir (ritonavir-boosted) were all predicted to achieve lung concentrations over 10-fold higher than their reported EC50 .
32438459 Among these treatments, the off-label use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a less toxic derivate of chloroquine, has become a common practice among clinicians, including pediatricians, despite lack of evidence of its clinical efficacy for this indication (especially for pediatric patients) at present time (2).
32439306 In the absence of a vaccine, the management of COVID-19 included antivirals, high-flow oxygen, mechanical ventilation, corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, interferons, intravenous immunoglobulin, and convalescent plasma infusions.
32439366 Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combination therapy is often prescribed for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] We performed 12‑lead ECGs and 12‑lead 24-h Holter ECG monitoring in all patients aged <80 years admitted to our medical unit for COVID-19, in oral therapy with hydroxychloroquine (200 mg, twice daily) and azithromycin (500 mg, once daily) for at least 3 days. […] Therapy with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin prolongs QTc interval in patients with COVID-19, particularly in those with high levels of transaminases.
32441332 Forty-one patients (68.6%) required hospital admission (18 due to disease worsening and 23 for delivery) of whom 21 patients (35%) underwent pharmacological treatment, including hydroxychloroquine, antivirals, antibiotics and tocilizumab.
32441771 Several trials are currently underway evaluating the antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine as a potential treatment for acute infection. […] However, polypharmacy predisposes patients to increased risk of drug-drug interactions with hydroxychloroquine and may render many in this population ineligible to participate in trials. […] We aimed to quantify the degree of polypharmacy and burden of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) that older hospitalized adults are taking which would interact with hydroxychloroquine. […] We first identified patients taking medications with potentially harmful drug-drug interactions with hydroxychloroquine that might exclude them from participation in a typical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) therapeutic trial. […] Next, we identified medications that were flagged by MedSafer as being potentially inappropriate and crafted guidance around medication management if contemplating the use of hydroxychloroquine. […] Of these 1,001 patients, 590 (58.9%) were receiving one or more home medications that could potentially interact with hydroxychloroquine, and of these 255 (43.2%) were flagged as potentially inappropriate by the MedSafer tool.
32442699 While evidence suggests that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may decrease the viral load in patients with a COVID-19 infection, a number of case reports indicate adverse dermatologic effects of this potential treatment.
32442941 Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a wide number of compounds are under scrutiny regarding their antiviral activity, one of them being hydroxychloroquine. […] Cardiac aspects of the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are reviewed in this manuscript. […] However, the rate of adverse cardiac events of hydroxychloroquine (and chloroquine) was low.
32444382 To this end, the antiviral efficacies of lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, and emtricitabine-tenofovir for SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed in the ferret infection model. […] While the lopinavir-ritonavir-, hydroxychloroquine sulfate-, or emtricitabine-tenofovir-treated group exhibited lower overall clinical scores than the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated control group, the virus titers in nasal washes, stool specimens, and respiratory tissues were similar between all three antiviral-candidate-treated groups and the PBS-treated control group. […] In this study, we tested the FDA-approved drugs lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, and emtricitabine-tenofovir against SARS-CoV-2 infection in a highly susceptible ferret infection model.
32444415 Five rheumatic cases used hydroxychloroquine before the diagnosis of COVID-19 and none progressed to critically ill stage.
32445484 Several drugs are being repurposed into clinical trials in COVID-19 patients, ranging from drugs already well established in other diseases, such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir+ ritonavir, azithromycin and tocilizumab/sarilumab, to those such as remdesivir still in development for their initial indication (1).
32446866 A combination such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and zinc, all of which have previously been used topically in the eye and which work at least in part by blocking ACE2 receptors, may offer a safe, cost-effective and resource-sparing intervention.
32447429 Public interest in hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine was plotted against the cumulative number of active clinical trials evaluating antimalarials as potential COVID-19 therapies over time.
32447603 •The most frequently discussed topics in videos were the place of hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19 and whether to continue the use of existing rheumatological drugs.
32448039 Hydroxychloroquine, the derivative of Chloroquine shows better inhibition than Chloroquine and has in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 also used to treat COVID-19. […] Outcomes of the present study conclude with the molecule CQD15 which shows better interactions for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine.
32449022 Twenty-nine patients were enrolled and divided into two groups: group 1 (14 patients) was composed of patients treated with off-label hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, whereas group 2 (15 patients) was composed of patients treated with hydroxychloroquine only, combined with the inhalation of acetic acid disinfectant at a 0.34% concentration.
32449128 Patients who combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin presented 3/18 deaths, regardless of age, staging, histology, cancer treatment and comorbidities (OR 0.02, p = 0.03). […] Combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin is presented as a good treatment option.
32449235 We report a case of the successful recovery from severe COVID-19 of a kidney-transplanted patient treated with hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, steroid and tocilizumab.
32450107 Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, often in combination with a second-generation macrolide, are being widely used for treatment of COVID-19, despite no conclusive evidence of their benefit. […] We did a multinational registry analysis of the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19. […] Patients who received one of the treatments of interest within 48 h of diagnosis were included in one of four treatment groups (chloroquine alone, chloroquine with a macrolide, hydroxychloroquine alone, or hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide), and patients who received none of these treatments formed the control group. […] Of these, 14 888 patients were in the treatment groups (1868 received chloroquine, 3783 received chloroquine with a macrolide, 3016 received hydroxychloroquine, and 6221 received hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide) and 81 144 patients were in the control group. 10 698 (11·1%) patients died in hospital. […] After controlling for multiple confounding factors (age, sex, race or ethnicity, body-mass index, underlying cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, diabetes, underlying lung disease, smoking, immunosuppressed condition, and baseline disease severity), when compared with mortality in the control group (9·3%), hydroxychloroquine (18·0%; hazard ratio 1·335, 95% CI 1·223-1·457), hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide (23·8%; 1·447, 1·368-1·531), chloroquine (16·4%; 1·365, 1·218-1·531), and chloroquine with a macrolide (22·2%; 1·368, 1·273-1·469) were each independently associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. […] Compared with the control group (0·3%), hydroxychloroquine (6·1%; 2·369, 1·935-2·900), hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide (8·1%; 5·106, 4·106-5·983), chloroquine (4·3%; 3·561, 2·760-4·596), and chloroquine with a macrolide (6·5%; 4·011, 3·344-4·812) were independently associated with an increased risk of de-novo ventricular arrhythmia during hospitalisation. […] We were unable to confirm a benefit of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, when used alone or with a macrolide, on in-hospital outcomes for COVID-19.
32450198 The chloroquine (CQ) and its analogue hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been used as frontline drugs for treatment and prophylaxis against all types of human malaria worldwide. […] Based on accumulating scientific reports, we have highlighted in this review, the different possible modes of action of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine that could particularly justify its use against viral infections. […] Considering the global health crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic, the option of using the drugs and repurposing of old drugs in this instance, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, specifically, hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 could be the best choice.
32451259 Repositioning hydroxychloroquine (HQ) seems to be a promising option. […] For this, we performed research on internet and PubMed by crossing the following keywords: healthcare givers, healthcare workers, doctors, nurses, coronavirus, Covid-19, mortality, infection rate, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine.
32451353 We would like to share ideas on the report on “Hydroxychloroquine in Patients with Rheumatic Disease Complicated by COVID-19: Clarifying Target Exposures and the Need for Clinical Trials [1].”Balevic noted that “well-designed clinical trials that include patients with rheumatic disease are urgently needed to characterize the efficacy, safety, and target exposures for hydroxychloroquine [1].”
32454157 Several clinical trials are on-going including testing Remdesivir (anti-viral), Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine derivatives (anti-malarial drugs) etc.
32456286 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a drug approved by several countries to treat malaria and immune-mediated diseases in humans, and its antiviral effects on other viral infections (e.g., SARS-CoV-2, dengue virus) have been confirmed.
32457932 The media have featured the antimalarials chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to treat coronavirus (COVID-19).
32458599 Currently, chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate, two chloroquine derivatives, are under clinical use.
32458969 Two candidate medications have been widely discussed: remdesivir, and hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin. […] Hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin has been widely misrepresented in both clinical reports and public media, and outpatient trials results are not expected until September. […] Evidence about use of hydroxychloroquine alone, or of hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin in inpatients, is irrelevant concerning efficacy of the pair in early high-risk outpatient disease. […] Hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin has been used as standard-of-care in more than 300,000 older adults with multicomorbidities, with estimated proportion diagnosed with cardiac arrhythmias attributable to the medications 47/100,000 users, of which estimated mortality is <20%, 9/100,000 users, compared to the 10,000 Americans now dying each week.
32459529 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have antiviral effects in vitro against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] To summarize evidence about the benefits and harms of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for the treatment or prophylaxis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Studies in any language reporting efficacy or safety outcomes from hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine use in any setting in adults or children with suspected COVID-19 or at risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Evidence was conflicting and insufficient regarding the effect of hydroxychloroquine on such outcomes as all-cause mortality, progression to severe disease, clinical symptoms, and upper respiratory virologic clearance with antigen testing. […] Several studies found that patients receiving hydroxychloroquine developed a QTc interval of 500 ms or greater, but the proportion of patients with this finding varied among the studies. […] Evidence on the benefits and harms of using hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine to treat COVID-19 is very weak and conflicting.
32460458 We examined the in vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine on SARS-CoV-2, at concentrations which can be used to treat coronavirus-19 patients with little concern of toxicity. […] Lopinavir/ritonavir (7/1.75 μg/mL), hydroxychloroquine base (1 or 2 μg/mL), or a combination thereof were administered 1 hour after the inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 to Vero cells at a multiplicity of infection of 0.05. […] However, hydroxychloroquine did not show significant inhibitory effects on anti-SARS-CoV-2-mediated cytotoxicity or on viral load at either concentration. […] However, the in vitro antiviral activity of hydroxychloroquine at concentrations commonly used in humans was minimal, whether used alone or in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir.
32461326 Tocilizumab was administered to 4 patients and hydroxychloroquine to 1 patient.
32463308 Several pharmacological therapies have been suggested including repurposing of existing drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, sometimes co-administered with azithromycin. […] Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were developed in the World War II era for treatment and prophylaxis of malaria, long before modern drug safety surveillance programs. […] How should we proceed with the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, potentially combined with azithromycin, for COVID-19 given that these agents bring some cardiac toxicity risk and their mechanisms for cardiac toxicity may not be the same?
32463348 Background Despite a lack of clinical evidence, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin are being administered widely to patients with verified or suspected COVID-19. […] Methods and Results We performed a case series of COVID-19 positive/suspected patients admitted between 2/1/2020 and 4/4/2020 who were treated with azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, or a combination. […] Azithromycin was prescribed in 28%, hydroxychloroquine in 10%, and both in 62%.
32468425 Various drugs are being tried for the treatment of COVID-19, including hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32469045 Dispensing of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, enoxaparin, and sedative medications increased substantially during the pandemic period (P < 0.01 for all comparisons).
32469614 Four patients were treated with azithromycin and a cephalosporin and two were also treated with hydroxychloroquine.
32470568 Repurposing hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) as antiviral agents is a re-emerging topic with new viral epidemics. […] Use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine as antiviral agents in one or more groups of the study.
32470751 As per SOLIDARITY trial by WHO, some of the most promising candidates include chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine which are anti-malarial medications, Remdesivir, Lopinavir-Ritonavir combination with or without interferon which are anti-HIV drugs and convalescent plasma therapy.
32471001 The main treatment combination was hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32471876 Additional mortality risk factors may include age, performance status, treatment with chemotherapy, and exposure to hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin.
32473020 Around the world, several dose regimens of hydroxychloroquine have been used for COVID-19 infection treatment, with the objective of identifying a short-term course. […] Hydroxychloroquine was found to decrease the viral replication in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro and to be more active when added prior to the viral challenge. […] Thus, we propose a hydroxychloroquine sulphate dose regimen of 400 mg twice daily at Day 1 then 400 mg once daily from Day 2 to Day 10.
32473310 A few clinically approved drugs, such as remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nafamostat, camostat, and ivermectin, exhibited anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in vitro and/or in a small number of patients. […] Bexarotene demonstrated the highest Cmax:EC50 ratio (1.69) which was higher than those of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and ivermectin.
32469265 The role of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine as potential treatments for Covid-19 is still under debate globally because of some side effects associated with it. […] This study involves the In silico interactions of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine with the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2. […] In our research Hydroxychloroquine exhibited potential inhibitory effectsof S-protein with binding energy -7.28 kcal/mol than Chloroquine (-6.30 kcal/mol) at SARS-CoV-2 receptor recognition of susceptible cells. […] The outcomes of this research strongly appeal for in vivo trials of Hydroxychloroquine for the patients infected with Covid-19. […] Furthermore, the recommended doses of Hydroxychloroquine may reduce the chances of catching Covid-19 to the healthcare workers and staff who are in contact with or delivering direct care to coronavirus patients as long as they have not been diagnosed with Covid-19.
32470470 Current treatment of COVID-19 patients relies mainly on antiviral drugs lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, and remdesivir, the anti-malarial drugs hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, and traditional Chinese medicine.
32473681 In logistic regression analysis, independent factors associated with increased 30-day mortality, after partial adjustment, were: increased age (per 10 years; partially adjusted odds ratio 1·84, 95% CI 1·53-2·21), male sex (1·63, 1·07-2·48), smoking status (former smoker vs never smoked: 1·60, 1·03-2·47), number of comorbidities (two vs none: 4·50, 1·33-15·28), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or higher (status of 2 vs 0 or 1: 3·89, 2·11-7·18), active cancer (progressing vs remission: 5·20, 2·77-9·77), and receipt of azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine (vs treatment with neither: 2·93, 1·79-4·79; confounding by indication cannot be excluded).
32473812 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are drugs that have shown in vitro activity on the replication of certain coronaviruses. […] The results of the first clinical studies evaluating the effect of hydroxychloroquine do not support any efficacy of this drug in patients with COVID-19, due to major methodological weaknesses. […] In the absence of evidence of clinical benefits, the main risk is of exposing patients unnecessarily to the well-known adverse effects of hydroxychloroquine, with a possibly increased risk in the specific setting of COVID-19. […] Meanwhile, serious adverse drug reactions have been reported in patients with COVID-19 receiving hydroxychloroquine, justifying to limit its prescription, and to perform suitable cardiac and therapeutic drug monitoring.
32474476 Given the lack of antiviral therapies or vaccines for the disease, the antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) obtained much attention as a treatment for COVID-19.
32474885 Anti-rheumatic drugs, which are tried for managing immunologic complications of COVID-19 infection, will also be discussed including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, JAK inhibitors, IL-6 inhibitors, IL-1 inhibitors, anti-TNF-α agents, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and colchicine.
32475347 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is the standard of care in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and other inflammatory rheumatic diseases and potentially for the treatment in COVID-19 patients.
32476080 The following variables were extracted for this study: age, gender, temperature, and saturation of oxygen on admission, treatment with heparin, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, steroids, tocilizumab, a combination of lopinavir with ritonavir, and oseltamivir, together with data on mortality.
32479900 Early during the current coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) received a significant amount of attention as a potential antiviral treatment, such that it became one of the most commonly prescribed medications for COVID-19 patients.
32482587 The analyzed drugs were paracetamol, ascorbic acid, dapagliflozin plus metformin, rosuvastatin plus ezetimibe, formoterol, and hydroxychloroquine, as these pharmaceutical substances registered the highest growth rate in sales and shortages when compared to the same period in the previous year. […] Hydroxychloroquine showed the most different pattern trends on sales and shortages of these medicines.
32485205 The anti-malarial drug Chloroquine (CQ) and its derivative hydroxychloroquine have shown antiviral activities in vitro against many viruses, including coronaviruses, dengue virus and the biosafety level 4 Nipah and Hendra paramyxoviruses.
32486229 Besides, the computations data of DFT the docking simulation studies was predicted that the Amodiaquine (2) has the least binding energy (-7.77 Kcal/mol) and might serve as a good inhibitor to SARS-CoV-2 comparable with the approved medicines, hydroxychloroquine, and remdesivir which have binding affinity -6.06 and -4.96 Kcal/mol, respectively.
32490532 The rising burden of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has led to the mass use of hydroxychloroquine by healthcare workers (HCWs). […] A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted across the country using semi-structured web-based questionnaire among COVID-19 negative and asymptomatic healthcare workers, taking hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis. […] Risk was higher in participants <40 years age (odd’s ratio (OR): 2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-5.05) and after first dose of hydroxychloroquine (51.2%, OR: 2.38, 95%CI: 1.17-4.84). […] Hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis was initiated without electrocardiography by 80.1% of HCWs. […] A higher incidence of adverse events was observed when results were compared with studies involving patients on long-term hydroxychloroquine therapy.
32492092 Hydroxychloroquine was administered to 15 patients (30%) but could not be completed for 3.
32492293 Whether hydroxychloroquine can prevent symptomatic infection after SARS-CoV-2 exposure is unknown. […] We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial across the United States and parts of Canada testing hydroxychloroquine as postexposure prophylaxis. […] Within 4 days after exposure, we randomly assigned participants to receive either placebo or hydroxychloroquine (800 mg once, followed by 600 mg in 6 to 8 hours, then 600 mg daily for 4 additional days). […] The incidence of new illness compatible with Covid-19 did not differ significantly between participants receiving hydroxychloroquine (49 of 414 [11.8%]) and those receiving placebo (58 of 407 [14.3%]); the absolute difference was -2.4 percentage points (95% confidence interval, -7.0 to 2.2; P = 0.35). […] Side effects were more common with hydroxychloroquine than with placebo (40.1% vs. […] After high-risk or moderate-risk exposure to Covid-19, hydroxychloroquine did not prevent illness compatible with Covid-19 or confirmed infection when used as postexposure prophylaxis within 4 days after exposure.
32492354 The Outcomes Related to COVID-19 treated with Hydroxychloroquine among In-patients with symptomatic Disease (ORCHID) trial is a multicenter, blinded, randomized trial of hydroxychloroquine versus placebo for the treatment of adults hospitalized with COVID-19. […] The ORCHID trial will provide high-quality, clinically relevant data on the safety and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19 among hospitalized adults.
32493447 Comparison of the effect of hydroxychloroquine with placebo to prevent infection from the COVID -19 virus among healthcare professionals TRIAL DESIGN: Single centre, 2-arm, double-blind randomised (ratio 1:1) placebo-controlled trial PARTICIPANTS: Treatment staff who are in contact with patients and have at least 3 shifts a week in Arash hospital affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences, in Iran and who consent to participate in the study. […] Exclusion criteria include: History of COVID -19 virus infection, clinical symptoms such as fever, nausea, dyspnea and myalgia in the past two months, history of underlying diseases hypersensitivity to hydroxychloroquine and G6PD enzyme deficiency. […] Intervention group: Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg tablet of Amin Pharmaceutical. placebo which is completely similar in form and taste to 200 mg hydroxychloroquine tablet and is manufactured by the same factory (Amin Pharmacy).
32493468 Although Hydroxychloroquine will be administered in a single dose, patients with heart problems (prolonged QT or PR intervals, second- or third-degree heart block, and arrhythmias including torsade de pointes) will be excluded. […] Other exclusion criteria include using drugs with potential interaction with Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Interferon-β 1a, Interferon-β 1b, pregnant or lactating women, history of alcohol or drug addiction in the past 5 years, blood ALT/AST levels > 5 times the upper limit of normal on laboratory results and refusal to participate. […] The first group (Arm 1) will receive Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra) + Interferon-β 1a (Recigen), the second group (Arm 2) will be administered Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra) + Interferon-β 1b (Ziferon), and the control group (Arm 3) will be treated by Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra).
32493478 Primary Objective • To test the efficacy of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) (400 mg orally daily for 3 days then 200 mg orally daily for an additional 11 days, to complete 14 days) to prevent incident SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared to ascorbic acid among contacts of persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection Secondary objectives • To determine the safety and tolerability of HCQ as SARS-CoV-2 Post-exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) in adults • To test the efficacy of HCQ (400 mg orally daily for 3 days then 200 mg orally daily for an additional 11 days, to complete 14 days) to prevent incident SARS-CoV-2 infection 2 weeks after completing therapy, compared to ascorbic acid among contacts of persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection • To test the efficacy of HCQ to shorten the duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding among those with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the HCQ PEP group • To test the efficacy of HCQ to prevent incident COVID-19 TRIAL DESIGN: This is a randomized, multi-center, placebo-equivalent (ascorbic acid) controlled, blinded study of HCQ PEP for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in adults exposed to the virus.
32493494 Currently there is no accepted chemoprophylaxis but hydroxychloroquine (HDQ) is known to inhibit the coronavirus in vitro. […] Our hypothesis is that oral administration of hydroxychloroquine to healthcare professionals can reduce the incidence and prevalence of infection as well as its severity in this group. […] Exclusion criteria include previous infection with SARS CoV2 (positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR or IgG serology), pregnancy or lactation, any contraindication to hydroxychloroquine or evidence of unstable or clinically significant systemic disease. […] Patients will be randomized (1:1) to receive once-daily oral Hydroxychloroquine 200mg for two months (HC group) or placebo (P group) in addition to the protective measures appropriate to the level of exposure established by the hospital. […] Some evidence of the in vitro efficacy of hydroxychloroquine against this virus is known, along with some clinical data that would support the study of this drug in the chemoprophylaxis of infection. […] If our hypothesis is confirmed, hydroxychloroquine can help professionals fight this infection with more guarantees. […] 1) Previous infection with SARS CoV2 (positive coronavirus PCR or positive serology with SARS Cov2 negative PCR and absence of symptoms); 2) Current treatment with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine; 3) Hypersensitivity, allergy or any contraindication for taking hydroxychloroquine, in the technical sheet; 4) Previous or current treatment with tamoxifen or raloxifene; 5) Previous eye disease, especially maculopathy; 6) Known heart failure (Grade III to IV of the New York Heart Association classification) or prolonged QTc; 7) Any type of cancer (except basal cell) in the last 5 years; 6) Refusal to give informed consent; 8) Evidence of any other unstable or clinically significant untreated immune, endocrine, hematological, gastrointestinal, neurological, neoplastic or psychiatric illness; 9) Antibodies positive for the human immunodeficiency virus; 10) Significant kidney or liver disease; 11) Pregnancy or lactation. […] 1)Intervention: (n = 225): One 200 mg hydroxychloroquine sulfate coated tablet once daily for two months.2)Comparator (control group) (n = 225): One hydroxychloroquine placebo tablet (identical to that of the drug) once daily for two months MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome of this study will be to evaluate: number and percentage of healthcare personnel presenting symptomatic and asymptomatic infection (see “Diagnosis of SARS CoV2 infection” below) by the SARS-Cov2 virus during the study observation period (8 weeks) in both treatment arms;number and percentage of healthcare personnel in each group presenting with Pneumonia with severity criteria (Curb 65 ≥2) and number and percentage of healthcare personnel requiring admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in both treatment arms.
32493514 Immunosuppressive therapy (e.g. mycophenolate, azathioprine, methotrexate, biologicals, prednisolone >10mg/d; exceptions are: prednisolone ≤ 10mg/d, sulfasalazine or hydroxychloroquine)9.
32493740 We included studies of ribavirin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, umifenovir (arbidol), favipravir, interferon and lopinavir/ritonavir.
32494896 One hundred fifty-five of 498 (31%) reported regular use of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZM); concomitant use of AZM was more common in the USA.
32495148 Hydroxychloroquine was recently promoted in patients infected with COVID-19 infection. […] A recent experimental study has suggested an increased toxicity of hydroxychloroquine in association with metformin in mice. […] The present study was undertaken to investigate the reality of this putative drug-drug interaction between hydroxychloroquine and metformin using pharmacovigilance data. […] Data with hydroxychloroquine (or metformin) alone were compared with the association hydroxychloroquine + metformin. […] Of the 10,771 Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSR) involving hydroxychloroquine, 52 were recorded as ‘fatal outcomes’. […] In comparison with hydroxychloroquine alone, hydroxychloroquine + metformin was associated with an ROR value of 57.7 (23.9-139.3). […] In comparison with metformin alone, hydroxychloroquine + metformin was associated with an ROR value of 6.0 (2.6-13.8). […] Our study identified a signal for the association hydroxychloroquine + metformin that appears to be more at risk of fatal outcomes (particularly by completed suicides) than one of the two drugs when given alone.
32495226 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are among the proposed drugs and are the most widely used so far, despite the lack of robust evidence on their usefulness.
32495913 A nasal swab for COVID-19 was performed, which resulted positive, and so therapy with doxycycline, hydroxychloroquine and antiviral agents was started.
32495921 Hence, based upon limited in-vitro and anecdotal data, Chloroquine, or Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Lopinavir and Ritonavir are being employed in the management.
32496241 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an antimalarial has been proposed as possible treatment for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).
32496265 All high-risk contacts were given hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis.
32496357 Eighty-percent received hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin.
32496926 Among the drugs under investigation, anti-malarials, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), are being repurposed as treatment for COVID-19.
32496938 Use of hydroxychloroquine has been popularised on mass media and put forward as a valid treatment option without strong evidence of efficacy. […] Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has its own side effects, some of which are very serious like acute haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient patients.
32498085 The use of modified protocols for insulin administration, bedside glucose monitoring, and medications such as glucocorticoids and hydroxychloroquine that may affect glycemic control are discussed.
32500556 We read with great interest the recent article by Beauverd et al.1 on an interesting case of severe hemolysis in a patient with COVID-19 treated with hydroxychloroquine. […] However, the article also suggested that hydroxychloroquine possibly worsened the hemolysis, and further cautioned the use of hydroxychloroquine in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient patients. […] We would like to comment on the authors’ attribution of accentuated hemolysis to the use of hydroxychloroquine.
32501454 We included consecutive patients (aged ≥18 years) with COVID-19, moderate-to-severe ARDS, and hyperinflammation (defined as serum C-reactive protein ≥100 mg/L, ferritin ≥900 ng/mL, or both) who were managed with non-invasive ventilation outside of the ICU and who received standard treatment of 200 mg hydroxychloroquine twice a day orally and 400 mg lopinavir with 100 mg ritonavir twice a day orally.
32501511 To define pediatric-specific dosing regimens for hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir for COVID-19 treatment. […] Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling was used to inform pediatric dosing for hydroxychloroquine. […] Simulated drug exposures following a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine (400 mg every 12 hours × 2 doses followed by 200 mg every 12 hours × 8 doses) and a single 200-mg intravenous dose of remdesivir were computed for simulated adult participants. […] The primary outcome for hydroxychloroquine was average unbound plasma concentrations for 5 treatment days. […] For hydroxychloroquine, the physiologically based pharmacokinetic model analysis included 500 and 600 simulated white adult and pediatric participants, respectively, and supported weight-normalized dosing for children weighing less than 50 kg. […] Simulated unbound hydroxychloroquine concentrations in lung interstitial fluid mirrored those in unbound plasma and were notably lower than in vitro concentrations needed to mediate antiviral activity. […] This analysis provides pediatric-specific dosing suggestions for hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir and raises concerns regarding hydroxychloroquine use for COVID-19 treatment because concentrations were less than those needed to mediate an antiviral effect.
32503662 The hypothesis of the study is that treatment with hydroxychloroquine sulphate in hospitalised patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is safe and will accelerate the virological clearance rate for patients with moderately severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) when compared to standard care. […] Furthermore, we hypothesize that early treatment with hydroxychloroquine sulphate is associated with more rapid resolve of clinical symptoms as assessed by the National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2), decreased admission rate to intensive care units and mortality, and improvement in protein biomarker profiles (C-reactive protein, markers of renal and hepatic injury, and established cardiac biomarkers like cardiac troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide). […] The study is a two-arm, open label, pragmatic randomised controlled group sequential adaptive trial designed to assess the effect on viral loads and clinical outcome of hydroxychloroquine sulphate therapy in addition to standard care compared to standard care alone in patients with established Covid-19. […] Patients will be excluded from participation in the study if they meet any of the following criteria: (1) Requiring intensive care unit admission at screening; (2) History of psoriasis; (3) Known adverse reaction to hydroxychloroquine sulphate; (4) Pregnancy; or (5) Prolonged corrected QT interval (>450 ms). […] Included patients will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to (1) standard care with the addition of 400 mg hydroxychloroquine sulphate (PlaquenilTM) twice daily for seven days or (2) standard care alone.
32505076 Combined treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin improves the outcome of Covid-19 in lung cancer patients, detecting only 1/6 deaths between patients under this treatment versus others treatment, with statistical significance in the univariate and multivariate logistic regression (OR 0.04, p = 0.018). […] Combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin treatment seems like a good treatment option.
32509485 She clinically improved on hydroxychloroquine and therapeutic anticoagulation.
32510734 Initial enthusiasm for the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin has abated.
32510771 We reduced immunosuppressive regimen in all these patients, typically holding the antiproliferative agent and augmenting steroids; everybody received hydroxychloroquine, initial empiric antibiotic treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam, and high-dose low molecular weight heparin.
32512263 Patients on hydroxychloroquine, TNFα antagonists or tocilizumab may have a mild viral illness.
32512873 Initial experiences with the use of hydroxychloroquine to prevent COVID-19 also seem promising.
32513231 To determine the efficacy of Hydroxychloroquine vs. […] Hydroxychloroquine + Nitazoxanide in reducing the need for invasive mechanical ventilatory support for patients with COVID-19. […] Hydroxychloroquine is currently being used in multiple trials with varying doses in an attempt to treat COVID-19. […] Dual therapy by combining appropriate doses of these two medications with diverse activities against COVID-19 is expected to be better than monotherapy with hydroxychloroquine. […] Elimination criteria: 1)Patients whose clinical follow-up is lost or who decide not to continue in the study INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The two management alternatives will be: Control - Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg taken orally every 12 hours for 7 days. […] Dual therapy - Hydroxychloroquine 400 mg taken orally every 12 hours for two days and then 200 mg taken orally every 12 hours for four days + Nitazoxanide 500 mg orally every 6 hours taken with food, for seven days.
32514228 Certain drugs that are clinically approved for other diseases were tested against COVID-19 as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, favipiravir, ribavirin, and remdesivir.
32514696 Recent attention on the possible use of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine to treat COVID-19 disease has potentially triggered a number of overdoses from hydroxychloroquine. […] Toxicity from hydroxychloroquine manifests with cardiac conduction abnormalities, seizure activity, and muscle weakness. […] A 27-year-old man with a history of rheumatoid arthritis presented to the emergency department 7 hours after an intentional overdose of hydroxychloroquine. […] Hydroxychloroquine toxicity is rare but projected to increase in frequency given its selection as a potential modality to treat COVID-19 disease. […] It is important for clinicians to recognize the unique effects of hydroxychloroquine poisoning and initiate appropriate emergency maneuvers to improve the outcomes in these patients.
32515383 Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, Interferon-l, glucocorticoids, interleukin antagonists, Ulinastatin, intravenous immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis are main immunomodulators showing initial positive outcomes.
32517786 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, also known as antimalarial drugs, are widely used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases and have recently become the focus of attention because of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
32519117 In the future ophthalmologists could play a decisive role in the screening of maculopathies that might occur during COVID-19 treatment using chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine.
32519281 Hydroxychloroquine has been promoted for its use in treatment of COVID-19 patients based on in-vitro evidences. […] We searched the databases to include randomized and observational studies evaluating the effect of Hydroxychloroquine on mortality in COVID-19 patients. […] In all studies, Hydroxychloroquine was given as add on to the standard care and effect was compared with the standard care alone. […] A pooled analysis observed 251 deaths in 1331 participants of the Hydroxychloroquine arm and 363 deaths in 1577 participants of the control arm. […] There was no difference in odds of mortality events amongst Hydroxychloroquine and supportive care arm [1.25 (95% CI: 0.65, 2.38); I2 = 80%]. […] The odds of mortality were significantly higher in patients treated with Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin than supportive care alone [2.34 (95% CI: 1.63, 3.34); I2 = 0%]. […] A pooled analysis of recently published studies suggests no additional benefit for reducing mortality in COVID-19 patients when Hydroxychloroquine is given as add-on to the standard care.
32519406 Hydroxychloroquine was started and continued for 7 days.
32519617 He received treatment with hydroxychloroquine (400 mg/day).
32519786 Hydroxychloroquine (600mg/day), Azithromycine, steroids (dexamethasone 20mg/day), vitamin C (3g/day), Zinc, diuretics and Enoxaparine were equally used for the two patients.
32520683 After the publication of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) with anti-SARS-COV-2 activity in vitro, a small, non-randomized, open-label clinical trial showed that HCQ treatment was significantly associated with reduced viral load in patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). […] Use the keyword ‘Hydroxychloroquine’ to conduct a literature search in PubMed to collect relevant literature on the mechanism of action of HCQ, clinical efficacy and safety, pharmacokinetic characteristics, precautions for clinical use and drug interactions, and extract and organize information.
32522067 Although several known drugs are already under clinical evaluation with many in repositioning strategies, much attention has been paid to the aminoquinoline derivates, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). […] In this short perspective, we discuss the roles of CQ/HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19 patients and propose new ways of possible treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection based on the molecules that selectivity target autophagy.Abbreviation: ACE2: angiotensin I converting enzyme 2; CoV: coronavirus; CQ: chloroquine; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; HCQ: hydroxychloroquine; MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
32522282 The aim of this randomised GCP-controlled trial is to clarify whether combination therapy with the antibiotic azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine via anti-inflammation/immune modulation, antiviral efficacy and pre-emptive treatment of supra-infections can shorten hospitalisation duration for patients with COVID-19 (measured as “days alive and out of hospital” as the primary outcome), reduce the risk of non- invasive ventilation, treatment in the intensive care unit and death. […] Fertile women* must not be pregnant, i.e. negative pregnancy test must be available at inclusion • Informed consent signed by the patient *Defined as after menarche and until postmenopausal (no menstruation for 12 months) Exclusion criteria: • At the time of recruitment, the patient uses >5 LO2/min (equivalent to 40% FiO2 if measured) • Known intolerance/allergy to azithromycin or hydroxychloroquine or hypersensitivity to quinine or 4-aminoquinoline derivatives • Neurogenic hearing loss • Psoriasis • Retinopathy • Maculopathy • Visual field changes • Breastfeeding • Severe liver diseases other than amoebiasis (INR> 1.5 spontaneously) • Severe gastrointestinal, neurological and hematological disorders (investigator-assessed) • eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m2 • Clinically significant cardiac conduction disorders/arrhythmias or prolonged QTc interval (QTc (f) of> 480/470 ms). […] Hydroxychloroquine: Furthermore, the patient will be treated with hydroxychloroquine as follows: Day 1-15: 200 mg x 2 MAIN OUTCOMES: • Number of days alive and discharged from hospital within 14 days (summarises both whether the patient is alive and discharged from hospital) (“Days alive and out of hospital”) RANDOMISATION: The sponsor (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Trial Network, COP:TRIN) generates a randomisation sequence.
32522754 A rapid recovery of respiratory and general symptoms was observed after 1 week of treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir plus hydroxychloroquine and broad-spectrum antibiotics (piperacillin-tazobactam plus teicoplanin).
32523150 The use of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and antiviral treatment and has been proposed by various groups, supported by in-vitro studies and limited patient series, without the adequate scientific rigor that precedes drug prescription.
32524645 We comment on hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir with zinc supplement, remdesivir, tocilizumab, ciclesonide, niclosamide and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).
32526507 Here we propose to use low doses of hydroxychloroquine (50-100 mg daily orally) and intranasal interferon alpha-2b (IFN α-2b) spray (0.5 × 106 IU twice daily) for the prophylaxis of COVID-19. […] Although there are ongoing clinical trials to test the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine for prophylaxis, there has not been any proposal to test the efficacy of IFN α-2b together with hydroxychloroquine to increase protection against COVID-19.
32528194 In the absence of a vaccine and an effective antiviral chemotherapy, there is currently an intense global interest in repositioning chloroquine (CQ) and its derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to combat the pandemic.
32529737 Hydroxychloroquine was considered in both strategies but antivirals in none.
32531620 Various treatment regimens including interferon, antivirals, and hydroxychloroquine therapies have been trialed on the pediatric population but there are currently no studies showing efficacy of one regimen over the other.
32531808 We use a mechanistic lung model to demonstrate that accumulation of chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) in the lungs is sensitive to changes in lung pH, a parameter that can be affected in patients with COVID-19.
32532805 If this hypothesis is correct, hydroxychloroquine, spirulina (more specifically, its chromophore phycocyanobilin) and high-dose glycine may have practical potential for mitigating the elevated thrombotic risk associated with COVID-19.
32532939 Hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, umifenovir, favipiravir, ribavirin and beta-interferon-1 gave rise to variable but still inconsistent proof of clinical efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19.
32532948 A 71-year old gentleman with history of arterial hypertension treated with valsartan presented on was hospitalized at the Infectious Diseases Unit, University of Bologna (Italy) for severe acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and received treatment with hydroxychloroquine 200mg bid (400 mg bid the first day), azithromycin 400 mg qd, thrombotic prophylaxis with enoxaparin 4000 UI qd and Venturi mask oxygen delivering FiO2 of 31%.
32533263 The co-administration of hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin is proposed in COVID-19 therapy. […] This additional mechanism may therefore explain the synergistic effect when azithromycin is added to hydroxychloroquine, leading to apparently more rapid virus clearance and better clinical benefit, when compared to monotherapy with hydroxychloroquine alone.
32534189 Some preliminary evidences have demonstrated controversial results regarding efficacy of azithromycin in combination with hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19. […] Firstly, a French trial demonstrated 100% of virological negativization of six patients treated with azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine vs 57.1% of patients treated with only hydroxychloroquine and 12.5% of the control group (p<0.05). […] Furthermore, there are some concerns regarding the association of azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine because of the potential Qt prolongation.
32534369 The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warned against the use of Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for Covid-19 outside of a hospital or a clinical trial setting due to the risk of QT interval prolongation, ventricular tachycardia and the increased risk of these complications when combined with some antibiotics such as azithromycin. […] Several studies have reported no benefit of Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, when used alone or with a macrolide in COVID-19 hospitalized patients. […] Despite these warnings, in several developing countries the official guidelines for treatment of Covid-19 patients at the primary care level recommend Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, among other treatments, as the first-choice for mild symptomatic Covid-19 patients, asymptomatic contacts or for prophylaxis.
32536150 The efficacies of lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine remain to be determined in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] To compare the virological and clinical responses to lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine treatment in COVID-19 patients. […] This retrospective cohort study included patients with COVID-19 treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine at a single center in Korea from February 17 to March 31, 2020. […] Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine concurrently and those treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine for less than 7 days were excluded. […] Of 65 patients (mean age, 64.3 years; 25 men [38.5%]), 31 were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and 34 were treated with hydroxychloroquine. […] Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir had a significantly shorter time to negative conversion of viral RNA than those treated with hydroxychloroquine (median, 21 days vs. 28 days). […] There was no significant difference in time to clinical improvement between lopinavir-ritonavir- and hydroxychloroquine-treated patients (median, 18 days vs. 21 days). […] Lymphopenia and hyperbilirubinemia were more frequent in lopinavir-ritonavir-treated patients compared with hydroxychloroquine-treated patients. […] Lopinavir-ritonavir was associated with more rapid viral clearance than hydroxychloroquine in mild to moderate COVID-19, despite comparable clinical responses.
32537099 The results of a clinical trial comparing hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin to the standard of care for the treatment of COVID-19 were recently published by Philippe Gautret et al. […] This study provides outstanding results for the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin over the standard of care, but the evidence was deemed insufficiently robust to warrant a public health decision to widen the use of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19.
32540367 Many potential therapies are currently under investigation, with some, like Hydroxychloroquine, being authorized for emergency use in some countries.
32542131 The off-label use of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and emergency use authorization of remdesivir can hopefully help the clinicians while treating critically ill patients.
32542964 Well known anti-inflammatory properties of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, agents widely used in dermatology, made them potential candidates for the treatment of COVID-19. […] In addition, we focus more on Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, their pharmacological properties, clinical utility, and current recommendations for their use in COVID-19.
32544304 Here we summarise the evidence for antiretrovirals to treat COVID-19 and, as a drug that has also been studied in HIV, hydroxychloroquine, and flag some of the pitfalls of using therapies that have not been evaluated robustly.
32544867 All patients received conventional therapy including Hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir. […] Our findings support the use of IFN-β-1a in combination with hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir in the management of COVID-19.
32546029 Tocilizumab and lenzilumab are recombinant monoclonal antibodies against IL-6 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, respectively, and have been proposed as a potential treatment for acute, hypoxic respiratory failure associated with COVID-19. Results & methodology: We present the case of a 68-year-old man with COVID-19 who was initially treated with hydroxychloroquine and lenzilumab, but continued to develop hypoxemia, requiring an increase in respiratory support with an associated rise in serum inflammatory markers.
32546437 All except two patients (97%; n=61) were treated with either chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, while the three most prescribed antibiotics were ceftriaxone (79%; n=50), azithromycin (71%; n=45), and the piperacillin/tazobactam combination (49%; n=31).
32546458 Recently, an advisory by the Indian Council of Medical Research for the use of hydroxychloroquine as post-exposure prophylaxis was hailed as an outstanding initiative for the protection of healthcare workers and high risk contacts of patients.
32549293 In light of the favorable outcomes of few small, non-randomized clinical studies, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.
32550056 There is no definitive treatment, although a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin have shown good results, and passive immunization also shows promising results, their safety profile is yet to be studied in detail.
32550095 We report a case of a 65-year-old man with diabetes and severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation and treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, nafamostat, and prone positioning.
32552642 Repurposing anti-malarial drugs, chloroquine (CQ)/ hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have shown efficacy to inhibit most coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-1 coronavirus.
32554424 Two patients were managed with both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin; one was treated with lopinavir-ritonavir.
32554953 Several anti-viral drugs such as RNA dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin), protease inhibitors (lopinavir, ritonavir) and drugs targeting endocytic pathway (hydroxychloroquine) are being evaluated for COVID-19 but standard therapeutics yet not available.
32555446 According to the information that we have collected so far, this article provides an overview of potential therapeutic drugs and compounds with much attention, including favipiravir and hydroxychloroquine, as well as traditional Chinese medicine, which have been reported with good clinical treatment effects.
32555974 These include chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), nitazoxanide, remdesivir, Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV / r), in addition to treatment with convalescent plasma.
32556143 Data from non-randomized studies have suggested that hydroxychloroquine could be an effective therapeutic agent against Covid-19. […] Patients who received hydroxychloroquine (200mg tid dosage for 10 days) on a compassionate basis in addition to SOCwere compared to patients without contraindications to hydroxychloroquine who received SOCalone. […] Data from 89 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 were analyzed, 84 of whom were considered in the primary analysis; 38 patients treated with hydroxychloroquine and 46 patients treated with SOCalone. […] In hospitalized adults with Covid-19, no significant reduction of the risk of unfavorable outcomes was observed with hydroxychloroquine in comparison to standard of care. […] Ongoing controlled trials in patients with varying degrees of initial severity on a larger scale will help determine whether there is a place for hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of Covid-19.
32557209 Hemodialysis therapy was performed in isolation with hydroxychloroquine administration, but the formation of a dialysis membrane clot forced the withdrawal of dialysis therapy. […] The hydroxychloroquine and appropriate fluid management may have contributed to the patient’s recovery.
32558210 The aim of this life size in vitro pharmacokinetic study was to investigate the in-vitro adsorption of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine from human plasma using equipment that is also used at the bedside. […] Both drugs were determined using a validated HPLC method Median [IQR] plasma clearance of the Seraph for chloroquine / hydroxychloroquine was 1.71 [0.51-4.38] ml/min / 1.79 [0.21-3.68] ml/min respectively. […] As neither chloroquine nor hydroxychloroquine were removed by the treatment with the Seraph dose adjustments in COVID-19 patients undergoing this treatment are not necessary.
32559354 Her hepatitis and respiratory symptoms improved coincident with completing treatment with hydroxychloroquine, reduced immunosuppression, and intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG).
32559589 The goal of this systematic review is to assess the published literature for seizure risk with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine therapy in persons with and without epilepsy. […] Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine is one proposed medication that has received substantial public attention. […] PubMed (1970 to March 27, 2020) and the Embase (1970 to March 27, 2020) were searched with the terms chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine and seizure or epilepsy, convulsions, or status epilepticus. […] For hydroxychloroquine, there was one prospective observational study(n = 631) and one case report. […] The clinical trials failed to find any significant relation between seizures and chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine.
32559820 In the absence of a commonly agreed dosing protocol based on pharmacokinetic considerations, the dose and treatment duration for hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) COVID-19 disease currently vary across national guidelines and clinical study protocols. […] We have used a model-based approach to explore the relative impact of alternative dosing regimens proposed in different dosing protocols for hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19.
32560646 Convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion was reported to be effective in treating critically ill patients with COVID-19, and hydroxychloroquine could potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. […] Herein, we reported a case receiving combination therapy with CP transfusion and hydroxychloroquine for the first time. […] CP was intravenously given twice, and hydroxychloroquine was orally administrated for a week (0.2 g, three times a day). […] These findings suggested that the effectiveness of combination therapy with CP and hydroxychloroquine may be non-optimal, and specific therapy needs to be explored.
32561148 This includes clinically available drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir, which are being repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19.
32561401 Among hospitalized patients, hydroxychloroquine did not improve COVID-19 outcomes.
32562070 Recurrences of COVID-19 were observed in a patient with long-term usage of hydroxychloroquine, leflunomide, and glucocorticoids due to her 30-year history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
32562159 According to the drug regimen, the patients were divided into two groups; group I who received regimen I consisting azithromycin, prednisolone, naproxen, and lopinavir/ritonavir and group II who received regimen II including meropenem, levofloxacin, vancomycin, hydroxychloroquine, and oseltamivir.
32562480 We performed a systematic review of all interventional studies registered in ClinicalTrials.gov with a focus on one repurposed drug, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32562561 Hydroxychloroquine was administered in 11 patients, associated with lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon β in 2 cases each.
32562764 Furthermore, it is emphasized that the viral spike protein is prevented from binding gangliosides, which are composed of a glycosphingolipid with one or more sialic acids, in the presence of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine.
32563969 Currently available expert opinions suggest reduction of immunosuppression therapy for renal transplant recipients with symptomatic COVID-19 infection with either antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine and/or azithromycin.
32565195 There is currently an increased interest in using the antimalarials chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of other diseases, including cancer and viral infections such as COVID-19.
32565199 A treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine twice daily was started. […] Consequently, treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine was stopped.
32566561 Arbidol and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) had no benefit on probability of negative PCR test (RR =1.27; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.73; RR =0.93; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.18) respectively.
32567262 There have been controversies on the prophylactic effect of hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] We describe a patient, 60-year old Korean woman, with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who had been taking hydroxychloroquine for 6 months. […] Her serum and saliva concentrations of hydroxychloroquine were 280 μg/L and 4,890 μg/L, respectively. […] The present case raises concerns on hydroxychloroquine’s role as a prophylactic agent for COVID-19.
32567487 Molecular peptide docking with Moringa oleifera, phytochemicals (aqueous and ethanolic) leaf extracts of flavonoids (3.56 ± 0.03), (3.83 ± 0.02), anthraquinone (11.68 ± 0.04), (10.86 ± 0.06) and hydroxychloroquine present therapy of COVID-19 in Pakistan for comparative study. […] The maximum energy obtained from AutoDock Vina for hydroxychloroquine is -5.1 kcal/mol, kaempferol (flavonoid) is -6.2 kcal/mol, and for anthraquinone -6 kcal/mol.
32568282 The results with hydroxychloroquine have thus far been rather disappointing.
32569708 Treatment options for the pulmonary phase include: Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir.
32571115 The utility of hydroxychloroquine for the prophylaxis and treatment of alarmingly rising COVID-19 infection has been widely explored in several studies. […] We report cases of palmoplantar among health care workers who were on prophylactic doses of hydroxychloroquine and their management with cetirizine and methylprednisolone.
32571302 Registered intervention trials used highly heterogeneous primary outcomes and tested highly heterogeneous interventions; the most frequently studied interventions were hydroxychloroquine (N = 39; 7.2%) and chloroquine (N = 16; 3%).
32572376 Based on the previous experiences with similar coronavirus management and present preliminary data from uncontrolled studies, drugs like chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and favipiravir have been recommended by the researchers to manage COVID-19.
32572609 Only 4% were willing to take hydroxychloroquine for protection.
32572842 In particular, information has spread about some drugs approved for other indications (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, favipiravir, and umifenovir) that could have led to inappropriate and therefore hazardous use.
32573538 The review provides detailed literature data on drugs such as hydroxychloroquine / chloroquine, lopinavir/natinavir, remdesivir, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin converting enzyme receptor blockers, tissue plasminogen activator, as well as plasma transfusion transfusions.
32573882 All patients received a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin; half of the patients received methylprednisolone.
32573895 4/5 KTRs were treated with hydroxychloroquine.
32574312 Benefits of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19 infection have been proposed and clinical trials are underway. […] Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, typically used for the treatment of malaria and autoimmune diseases, have been considered for off-label use in several countries. […] This mini-review represents a summary of the findings from a systematic search regarding ototoxicity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the published literature. […] The characteristics of sensorineural hearing loss and/or tinnitus after chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine treatment can be temporary but reports of persistent auditory and vestibular dysfunction exist. […] There are potential implications from this review for survivors of COVID-19 treated with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. […] Clinical trials of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine should also consider including audiological monitoring in the protocol.
32574327 Many conventional drugs including hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, lopinavir, remdesivir, etc., have been repurposed as treatments for this often deadly disease, but there is no specifically-designed effective drug available; also, the drugs mentioned have significant side effects and their efficacy is unknown. […] Under the current critical conditions, large doses of melatonin alone or in combination with currently-recommended drugs, e.g., hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, to resist COVID-19 infection would seem judicious.
32576712 Covariates were lymphocyte count, serum levels of albumin, C-Reactive Protein, D-Dimers and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), anticoagulation level, and exposure to the hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combined therapy.
32578794 In severe cases, the use of medications such as hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin or medication can be promising.
32579059 Recently Chloroquine and its derivative Hydroxychloroquine have garnered enormous interest amongst the clinicians and health authorities’ world over as a potential treatment to contain COVID-19 pandemic. […] The present research aims at investigating the therapeutic potential of Chloroquine and its potent derivative Hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. […] Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, and some of their chemically synthesized derivatives, taken from earlier published studies were selected as drug molecules. […] We have conducted molecular docking and related studies between Chloroquine and its derivatives and SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins, and the findings show that both Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine can bind to specific structural and non-structural proteins implicated in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection with different efficiencies. […] These findings bring into light another possible mechanism of action of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine and also pave the way for further drug repurposing and remodeling.Communicated by Ramaswamy H.
32579244 The use of hydroxychloroquine (HCL) has been very common in countries with a rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), although controversial and the subject of heated scientific discussions with implications for the whole society.
32580215 The patient was given NIMV (non-invasive mechanical ventilation), and hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir and azithromycin in isolation intensive care, with the diagnosis of severe pneumonia.
32582330 Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine has shown some beneficial effects and is being used off-label.
32585765 Darunavir together with ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and favipiravir were initiated on the first day of admission at primary hospital.
32586363 In this study, we investigate the effect of hydroxychloroquine on the prevention of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in cancer patients being treated. […] The exclusion criteria will include known sensitivity to Hydroxychloroquine, weight below 35 kilograms, history of retinopathy, history of any cardiac disease, acute respiratory tract infection in the last 2 months, having COVID-19 in the first two weeks of entering the trial, having Diabetes Mellitus, having an immuno-suppressive disease other than cancer, having chronic pulmonary disease and taking immuno-suppressant drug other than chemotherapeutic agents for current cancer. […] Patients are randomly assigned to two groups; one being given hydroxychloroquine and the other is given placebo. […] During two months of treatment, the two groups are treated with either hydroxychloroquine (Amin® Pharmaceutical Company, Isfahan, Iran) or placebo (identical in terms of shape, colour, smell) as a single 200 mg tablet every other day. […] This trial has been registered by the title of “Effect of Hydroxychloroquine on Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) prevention in cancer patients under treatment” in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) with code “IRCT20200405046958N1”, https://www.irct.ir/trial/46946.
32586646 Patients free of ECG changes during hospitalization were more likely to be treated with antiretrovirals (68% vs 15%, p = 0.001) and hydroxychloroquine (89% vs 62%, p = 0.026) versus those who developed ECG abnormalities after admission.
32586933 Thirty-one additional questions were added, related to general recommendations, including the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and hydroxychloroquine. […] While there was a consensus in starting or initiating NSAIDs for the treatment of scleritis in healthy patients, there was no consensus in starting hydroxychloroquine in any risk groups.
32588427 Association between Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Azithromycin (AZT) is under evaluation for patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2).
32591664 The inclusion and exclusion criteria for the data sources are not reported in the manuscript.Study selection The authors included six studies on the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in humans. […] Narrative synthesis of each of the included studies identified important and significant limitations, precluding the studies from demonstrating a statistically significant difference in outcomes.Conclusions This review highlights the urgent need for more high quality evidence on the use of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
32591970 Substantial clinical improvement was obtained following a management plan, which included tocilizumab, hydroxychloroquine, prednisolone and enoxaparin sodium.
32279469 There is currently no robust evidence to support prescribing hydroxychloroquine as a treatment or prophylaxis for COVID-19.
32379854 But history also demonstrates the importance of treating early results-such as those associated with hydroxychloroquine-with caution as we only begin to understand the biology, epidemiology, and potential target points of COVID-19.
32411941 The current use of chloroquine and/or hydroxychloroquine, a drug currently used to treat autoimmune rheumatic diseases, in treating severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) or COVID-19-infected patients with pneumonia is a matter of intense consideration. […] We propose several suggestions related to treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine that we think must be taken into consideration to fit the evolving situation of the pandemic in Greece.
32412891 A number of pharmacologic regimens, including hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin, antiviral therapy (eg, remdesevir), and anti-IL-6 agents (e.g., toclizumab), have been highlighted by investigators over the course of the pandemic, based on the therapy’s potential to interrupt the viral life-cycle of SARS-CoV-2 or preventing cytokine storm.
32593339 The most frequently used drug with antiviral activity was hydroxychloroquine (40 [7%] patients), followed by remdesivir (17 [3%] patients), lopinavir-ritonavir (six [1%] patients), and oseltamivir (three [1%] patients).
32593867 Hospitalization and early treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (HCQ-AZ) was proposed for the positive cases.
32594562 The most common therapeutic agent being trialled currently is hydroxychloroquine (24 trials with potential sample size of over 25 000 participants), followed by lopinavir-ritonavir (seven trials) and remdesevir (five trials) There are many candidate drugs in pre-clinical and early phase development, and these form a pipeline for future large clinical trials if current candidate therapies prove ineffective or unsafe.
32595349 The antiviral drugs used for viral diseases excluding COVID-19 infection are Ramdesvir, Favipiravir, and Ribavarin, and antimalarial agents (Chloroquine & Hydroxychloroquine) are being administered to the patients for redemption of this infection.
32596085 The patient was managed pharmacologically with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. […] This case report provides anecdotal evidence for the effectiveness of the hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combination currently being used across the nation to manage COVID-19, pending development of a definitive vaccine or antiviral treatment.
32597466 In this small uncontrolled cohort of patients with moderate-severe COVID-19, treatment with baricitinib plus hydroxychloroquine was associated with recovery in 11 of 15 patients.
32597995 Food and Drug Administration emergency use authorization for treatment of COVID-19: hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir.
32599963 A clinical trial testing effectiveness of famotidine in combination with hydroxychloroquine is currently ongoing in the United States (US).
32600363 Primary objective: Evaluation of the effect of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) pantoprazole on the absorption of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32602006 These patients received less frequently pharmacological treatment with hydroxychloroquine or antivirals and had a greater number of complications such as sepsis (11.9% vs 26.4% vs 40.8%, p < 0.001) and respiratory failure (35.4% vs 72.2% vs 62.0%, p < 0.001) as well as a higher in-hospital mortality rate (eGFR > 60 vs eGFR 30-60 vs and eGFR < 30, 18.4% vs 56.5% vs 65.5%, p < 0.001).
32603531 The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of febuxostat (FBX) in comparison with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and chest CT findings in outpatients with moderate symptoms of COVID-19 infection.
32603692 Promising effects appear to be attributable to hydroxychloroquine. […] Remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine are being tested in ongoing randomized trials.
32605683 The most common pharmacological treatment regimens administered were zinc, hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin and convalescent plasma. […] The efficacy of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin use has yet to be determined but was not without risks of corrected QT interval prolongation and arrhythmias in our cohort.
32606285 Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin were not initiated due to concerns about QT prolongation.
32607304 The patient was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, dobutamine, remdesivir, and ventilatory support.
32607928 Decreased risk of in-hospital mortality was associated with female sex (HR 0.84, CI 0.77-0.90), African American race (HR 0.78 CI 0.65-0.95), and hydroxychloroquine use (HR 0.53, CI 0.41-0.67). […] Among patients with COVID-19, older age, male sex, hypotension, tachypnea, hypoxia, impaired renal function, elevated D-dimer, and elevated troponin were associated with increased in-hospital mortality and hydroxychloroquine use was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality.
32609083 Because of in vitro studies, hydroxychloroquine has been evaluated as a preexposure or postexposure prophylaxis for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and as a possible COVID-19 curative treatment. […] We report a case of COVID-19 in a patient with sarcoidosis who was receiving long-term hydroxychloroquine treatment and contracted COVID-19 despite adequate plasma concentrations.
32609257 This is important considering the possible secondary effects produced by drugs such as hydroxychloroquine.
32610165 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been promoted as a potential treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but there are safety concerns.
32610873 It also evaluated efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in treatment of patients and risk of serious adverse outcomes in patients with COVID-19 in relation to their co morbid status.
32610879 Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine are drugs which have been widely used in malaria and rheumatoid arthritis respectively for over 50 years.
32611911 Among the currently available drugs, hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir may be considered for patients with severe COVID-19 infection, awaiting further clinical trials.
32611912 Retinal screening is unnecessary for coronavirus patients taking chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine as the probability of toxic damage to the retina is less due to short-duration of drug therapy.
32611916 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a repurposed antimalarial drug, was empirically recommended as prophylaxis by the National COVID-19 Task Force in India to cover such added risk.
32612432 Hydroxychloroquine and antiproteases (lopinavir/ritonavir) were reported to be safe; however, therapeutic efficacy and safety of remdesivir still lack evidence.
32612804 A preliminary search identified the following drugs as being used to treat COVID-19 symptoms: atazanavir (ATV), azithromycin (AZI), chloroquine (CLQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCLQ), dipyridamole, famotidine (FAM), favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), nitazoxanide, remdesivir, ribavirin and tocilizumab.
32615987 Due to the severity of the disease, invasive mechanical ventilation was instituted and SARS-CoV-2 treatment (azithromycin 250 mg once-daily and hydroxychloroquine 200 mg trice-daily) started.
32616063 To assess the effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in reducing SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding by PCR in infected pregnant women with mild symptoms.
32616067 PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To determine whether chemoprophylaxis with hydroxychloroquine versus placebo increases time to contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in frontline healthcare workers. […] 1) To determine whether chemoprophylaxis with daily versus weekly dosing of hydroxychloroquine increases time to contracting COVID-19 disease in frontline healthcare workers. […] 2) To compare the number of COVID-19 cases between each trial arm on the basis of positive tests (as per current clinical testing methods and/or serology) 3) To compare the percentage of COVID-19 positive individuals with current testing methods versus serologically-proven COVID-19 in each trial arm 4) To compare COVID-19 disease severity in each trial arm 5) To compare recovery time from COVID-19 infection in each trial arm EXPLORATORY OBJECTIVES: 1) To determine compliance (as measured by trough pharmacokinetic hydroxychloroquine levels) on COVID-19 positive tests 2) To determine if genetic factors determine susceptibility to COVID-19 disease or response to treatment 3) To determine if blood group determines susceptibility to COVID-19 disease 4) To compare serum biomarkers of COVID-19 disease in each arm TRIAL DESIGN: Double-blind, multi-centre, 2-arm (3:3:2 ratio) randomised placebo-controlled trial PARTICIPANTS: National Health Service (NHS) workers who have direct patient contact delivering care to patients with COVID-19. […] To be included in the trial the participant MUST: 1) Have given written informed consent to participate 2) Be aged 18 years to 70 years 3) Not previously have been diagnosed with COVID-19 4) Work in a high-risk secondary or tertiary healthcare setting (hospitals accepting COVID-19 patients) with direct patient-facing care EXCLUSION CRITERIA: The presence of any of the following will mean participants are ineligible: 1) Known COVID-19 positive test at baseline (if available) 2) Symptomatic for possible COVID-19 at baseline 3) Known hypersensitivity reaction to hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine or 4-aminoquinolines 4) Known retinal disease 5) Known porphyria 6) Known chronic kidney disease (CKD; eGFR<30ml/min) 7) Known epilepsy 8) Known heart failure or conduction problems 9) Known significant liver disease (Gilbert’s syndrome is permitted) 10) Known glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency 11) Currently taking any of the following contraindicated medications: Digoxin, Chloroquine, Halofantrine, Amiodarone, Moxifloxacin, Cyclosporin, Mefloquine, Praziquantel, Ciprofloxacin, Clarithromycin, Prochlorperazine, Fluconazole 12) Currently taking hydroxychloroquine or having a clinical indication for taking hydroxychloroquine 13) Currently breastfeeding 14) Unable to be followed-up during the trial 15) Current or future involvement in the active treatment phase of other interventional research studies (excluding observational/non-interventional studies) before study follow-up visit 16) Not able to use or have access to a modern phone device/web-based technology 17) Any other clinical reason which may preclude entry in the opinion of the investigator INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Interventions being evaluated are: A) Daily hydroxychloroquine or B) Weekly hydroxychloroquine or C) Placebo The maximum treatment period is approximately 13 weeks per participant. […] Hydroxychloroquine-identical matched placebo tablets will ensure that all participants are taking the same number and dosing regimen of tablets across the three trial arms. […] There is no variation in the dose of hydroxychloroquine by weight. […] Arm A: Active Hydroxychloroquine (- daily dosing and placebo-matched hydroxychloroquine - weekly dosing). […] Dose and Frequency: Active hydroxychloroquine: Days 1-2: Loading phase - 400mg (2 x 200mg tablets) taken twice a day for 2 days Days 3 onwards: Maintenance Phase - 200mg (1 x 200mg tablet) taken once daily, every day for 90 days (~3 months) Matched Placebo hydroxychloroquine: Days 3 onwards: Maintenance Phase - 2 tablets taken once a week on the same day each week (every 7th day) for 90 days (~3 months) Arm B: Active Hydroxychloroquine (- weekly dosing and placebo matched hydroxychloroquine - daily dosing.) […] Dose and Frequency: Active hydroxychloroquine: Days 1-2: Loading Phase - 400mg (2 x 200mg tablets) taken twice daily for 2 days Days 3 onwards: Maintenance Phase - 400mg (2 x 200mg tablets) taken once a week on the same day each week (every 7th day) for 90 days (~3 months) Matched Placebo hydroxychloroquine: Days 3 onwards: Maintenance Phase - 1 tablet taken once daily for 90 days (~3 months) Arm C: Matched placebo Hydroxychloroquine (- daily dosing and matched placebo hydroxychloroquine - weekly dosing.) […] Frequency: Matched placebo hydroxychloroquine - daily dosing: Days 1-2: Loading Phase - 2 tablets taken twice daily for 2 days Days 3 onwards: Maintenance Phase - 1 tablet taken once daily for 90 days (~3 months) Matched placebo hydroxychloroquine - weekly dosing: Days 3 onwards: Maintenance Phase - 2 tablets taken once a week on the same day each week (every 7th day) for 90 days (~3 months) A schematic of the dosing schedule can be found in the full study protocol (Additional File 1). […] Time to diagnosis of positive COVID-19 disease (defined by record of date of symptoms onset and confirmed by laboratory test) RANDOMISATION: Participants will be randomised to either hydroxychloroquine dosed daily with weekly placebo, HCQ dosed weekly with daily placebo, or placebo dosed daily and weekly. […] Randomisation will be in a 3:3:2 ratio [hydroxychloroquine-(daily), hydroxychloroquine-(weekly), placebo], using stratified block randomisation. […] This would result in approximately 450:450:300 participants randomised to hydroxychloroquine daily, hydroxychloroquine weekly+daily matched placebo or matched-placebo daily and weekly.
32617169 One such medication includes the antimalarial hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which recently reported as a possible therapy for shortening the duration of COVID-19 symptoms, reducing inflammatory reactions to infection, impairing the exacerbation of pneumonia and boosting lung imaging findings.
32619669 In this context, this study aimed to evaluate in silico the molecular interactions of drugs with therapeutic indications for treatment of COVID-19 (Azithromycin, Baricitinib and Hydroxychloroquine) and drugs with similar structures (Chloroquine, Quinacrine and Ruxolitinib) in docking models from the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (M-pro) protein.
32620062 In particular, the off-label use of hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 prophylaxis and treatment has created many unprecedented challenges for the scientific community and the public. […] We critically assessed major events from February - May 2020 that contributed to widespread use of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment and prophylaxis of COVID-19. […] We aimed to explore how opinions toward hydroxychloroquine may shift from early enthusiasm (based on in vitro and preliminary clinical data) to the hope for a miracle cure (through communication and promotion of questionable results) and, finally, to a rise of skepticism as more in-depth analyses are emerging.
32621881 There is limited data regarding the electrophysiological abnormalities and arrhythmias in children with COVID-19, including those associated with treatment using potentially proarrhythmic hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZN).
32623082 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of hydroxychloroquine therapy alone and in combination with azithromycin in hospitalized patients positive for COVID-19. […] Receipt of hydroxychloroquine alone, hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin, azithromycin alone, or neither. […] Overall in-hospital mortality was 18.1% (95% CI:16.6%-19.7%); by treatment: hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin, 157/783 (20.1% [95% CI: 17.3%-23.0%]), hydroxychloroquine alone, 162/1202 (13.5% [95% CI: 11.6%-15.5%]), azithromycin alone, 33/147 (22.4% [95% CI: 16.0%-30.1%]), and neither drug, 108/409 (26.4% [95% CI: 22.2%-31.0%]). […] Hydroxychloroquine provided a 66% hazard ratio reduction, and hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin 71% compared to neither treatment (p<0.001). […] In this multi-hospital assessment, when controlling for COVID-19 risk factors, treatment with hydroxychloroquine alone and in combination with azithromycin was associated with reduction in COVID-19 associated mortality.
32624690 Finally, patients with baseline QT prolongation or those taking QT prolonging drugs must be cautious when treating with lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19.
32626630 Several studies are evaluating potential therapies including hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) which is given to patients based on limited observational evidence.
32627127 The race to prevent and treat this disease has led to “off-label” prescribing of medications such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir).
32627319 Eight of 53 have been handled as outpatients because of mild disease, on average with immunosuppression reduction and the addition of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin; no patients required admission, developed ARDS, or died. […] Because of severe symptoms, 45/53 required admission: this cohort has been managed with immunosuppression withdrawal, methylprednisolone 16 mg/d, hydroxychloroquine, and antiviral drugs.
32628003 Most patients received concomitant glucocorticoids and hydroxychloroquine.
32628049 Currently, most of the countries all over the world are studying extensively to better understand the antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for therapeutic purposes due to the COVID-19 outbreak.
32629115 Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are old drugs used in the treatment of malaria.
32629149 Chloroquine (CQ) and its analogue hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been thrust into our everyday vernacular because some believe, based on very limited basic and clinical data, that they might be helpful in preventing and/or lessening the severity of the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32631083 Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) originally were prescribed for prevention or treatment of malaria, but now successfully are used in several rheumatologic diseases. […] The data were collected by searching ‘Hydroxychloroquine,’ ‘Chloroquine,’ ‘Viral infection,’ and names of various viral infections in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases from commencement to June 2020.
32631826 These repurposed drugs have mainly included remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin, interferons, and hydroxychloroquine.
32633733 Using a combination of enhanced sampling molecular dynamics techniques and non-equilibrium alchemical transformations with full atomistic details, we have shown that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may act as a mild inhibitor of important functional proteins for SARS-CoV2 replication, with potency increasing in the series PLpro, 3CLpro, RdRp.
32634079 Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are derivatives of the heterocyclic aromatic compound quinoline.
32634080 Several compounds, including remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, interferon-β, ribavirin, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, and ivermectin, have emerged as promising alternatives.
32634603 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have shown in vitro inhibition of SARS-CoV-2, but studies on their clinical efficacy and whether the benefits outweigh the risk of dysrhythmias remain inconclusive.
32635353 The treatment was well-tolerated in conjunction with standard drug therapies for COVID-19 (hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and zinc).
32638884 Chloroquine (CQ) and its analog hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were recently included in several clinical trials as potential prophylactic and therapeutic options for SARS-COV-2 infection/covid-19.
32639233 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are used extensively in malaria and rheumatological conditions, and now in COVID-19 prevention and treatment.
32639466 Patients received therapies including hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, tocilizumab, and convalescent serum and were managed according to an institutional algorithm based on evidence available at the time of presentation.
32641163 Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is known to be susceptible in vitro to exposure to hydroxychloroquine and its effect has been found to be potentiated by azithromycin. […] We hypothesise that early administration of hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin can prevent respiratory deterioration in patients admitted to intensive care due to rapidly progressive COVID-19 infection. […] Patients will be randomised in 1:1:1 ratio to receive Hydroxychloroquine 800 mg orally in two doses followed by 400 mg daily in two doses and azithromycin 500 mg orally in one dose followed by 250 mg in one dose for a total of 5 days (HC-A group) or hydroxychloroquine + placebo (HC group) or placebo + placebo (C-group) in addition to the best standard of care, which may evolve during the trial period but will not differ between groups.
32641296 We investigated the association between lopinavir (LPV) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) plasma concentrations and the levels of the acute-phase inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP).
32641874 Right at the center of the debate is the use of drug “Hydroxychloroquine” as a prophylaxis as well as a treatment strategy against Covid-19 in conjunction with azithromycin. […] In this review, we will study the cellular and molecular aspects of hydroxychloroquine, which had driven its use in Covid-19 patients, as well as its chemistry and pharmacokinetics along with clinical trials going on worldwide using hydroxychloroquine against Covid-19.
32642806 A patient with COVID-19-related severe respiratory failure, with insufficient response to an antiretroviral therapy, hydroxychloroquine and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) antagonist therapy, presented a prompt resolution of the respiratory function and improvement in the radiological picture after baricitinib at an oral dose of 4 mg per day for 2 weeks.
32643436 Where compassionate use of remdesivir has shown some benefits, therapies such as hydroxychloroquine have proven harmful due to their toxicities.
32644224 Hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQ) is being scrutinized for repositioning in the treatment and prevention of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.
32645478 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is currently being examined for COVID-19.
32645974 In vitro analyses of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ)’s anecdotal benefits prompted its widespread clinical repurposing globally.
32646502 Patients will be followed-up by specialist physicians and Primary Health Care professionals. - Men and women. - Age between 18 and 75 years old. - Diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection, by PCR and/or IgM+ antibody test and/or antigen test. - Clinical diagnosis of lung involvement: (respiratory symptoms +/- pathological auscultation +/- O2 desaturation) - Chest X-ray with mild-moderate alterations or normal. - Patients who give their verbal informed consent in front of witnesses, which will be reflected in the patients’ medical records. - Oxygen desaturation below 93% or P02 < 62. - Moderate-severe dyspnea or significant respiratory or general deterioration that makes admission advisable. - Chest X-ray with multifocal infiltrates. - Insulin-dependent diabetes with poor control or glycaemia in the emergency room test greater than 300 mg/ml (fasting or not). - Other significant comorbidities: Severe renal failure (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min); cirrhosis or chronic liver disease, poorly controlled hypertension. - Heart rhythm disturbances (including prolonged QT). - Severe immunosuppression (HIV infection, long-term use of immunosuppressive agents); cancer. - Pregnant or breast-feeding women. - Patients under use of glucocorticoids for other diseases. - History of allergy or intolerance to any of the drugs in the study (prednisone, azithromycin or hydroxychloroquine). - Patients who took one or more of the study drugs in the 7 days prior to study inclusion. - Patients taking non-suppressible drugs with risk of QT prolongation or significant interactions. - Patients unwilling or unable to participate until study completion. - Participation in another study. […] Eligible patients will be randomized to receive standard outpatient treatment only (group 1) or standard outpatient treatment plus prednisone (group 2). - Group 1: paracetamol 1 g/8 h (on demand) + hydroxychloroquine 400 mg/12h the first day, 200 mg/12 h for 4 days + azithromycin 500 mg/24h for 5 days. - Group 2: paracetamol 1 g/8 h (on demand) + hydroxychloroquine 400 mg/12h the first day, 200 mg/12 h for 4 days + azithromycin 500 mg/24h for 5 days + prednisone 60 mg / 24 h for 3 days, 30 mg / 24 h for 3 days and 15 mg / 24 h for 3 days.
32647045 The controversy surrounding the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an antimalarial drug, for COVID-19 has raised numerous ethical and policy problems.
32649262 In particular, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, as well as antiviral drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir and lopinavir can all present potential ototoxic side effects.
32649301 Pharmacies (retail, independents, health systems) all over the U.S. are being asked to compound items such as hand sanitizers, saccharin solutions for FIT testing of N95 masks, and hydroxychloroquine suspension.
32649791 Therapeutic management included antimetabolite withdrawal (68%), calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal (23%), hydroxychloroquine (71%), antibiotics (74%), tocilizumab (13%) and antivirals (14%).
32650197 When COVID-19 patients can be treated within several days of symptom onset, using PTX + DIP in conjunction with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and an antibiotic - azithromycin (AZM) or doxycycline - might be warranted.
32650356 The patient was admitted to our department and treated with hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, darunavir, azithromycin and enoxaparin.
32650818 The aim of this trial is to identify the effect of ambulatory treatment in early COVID-19 disease with hydroxychloroquine on the rate of hospitalization or death in older patients above the age of 64. […] Each patient will be given a first dose of 600 mg Hydroxychloroquine or the equivalent number of placebo capsules (3 capsules) at the day of inclusion.
32652521 Nine patients (including 5 with no symptoms) were given hydroxychloroquine, and 3 of them were also given lopinavir/ritonavir.
32653015 Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir have potential interest, but virological and clinical data are scarce, especially in critically ill patients. […] The present report took the opportunity of compassionate use and successive drug shortages to compare the effects of two therapeutic options, lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine, as compared to standard of care only. […] Eighty patients were treated during a 4-week period and included in the analysis: 22 (28%) received standard of care only, 20 (25%) patients received lopinavir/ritonavir associated to standard of care, and 38 (47%) patients received hydroxychloroquine and standard of care. […] Treatment escalation occurred in 9 (41%), 10 (50%), and 15 (39%) patients who received standard of care only, standard of care and lopinavir/ritonavir, and standard of care and hydroxychloroquine, respectively (p = 0.567). […] In critically ill patients admitted for SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia, no difference was found between hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir/ritonavir as compared to standard of care only on the proportion of patients who needed treatment escalation at day 28.
32654078 Thus far there is no convincing evidence that any disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (conventional synthetic, biologic or targeted synthetic) including hydroxychloroquine, may protect against severe COVID-19 infection; answers about their possible usefulness in the management of the cytokine storm associated with severe COVID-9 infection will only arise from ongoing randomized controlled trials.
32654098 Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and azithromycin have been used for treatment of COVID-19, but may cause QT prolongation. […] Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and/or azithromycin were associated with QTc prolongation but did not result in fatal arrhythmias.
32654907 Also, some other reports claimed the possible use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as prophylactic in such a pandemic.
32654931 The Food and Drug Administration has recently approved the off-label use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections.
32655019 Among different immunomodulating/immunosuppressive drugs, hydroxychloroquine and CNIs are the safest ones during COVID-19.
32656310
  1. Researchers’ claim that nutrition and immunity enhancers and treatment plans such as arbidol, lopinavir/ritonavir, convalescent plasma and mesenchymal stem cells and drugs including remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and favipiravir are effective against COVID-19.
32657186 Treatments included lowering immunosuppression, hydroxychloroquine, antivirals, tocilizumab and intravenous immunoglobulins.
32659126 If continued in patients with COVID-19, therapeutic drug monitoring of CNIs/mTOR inhibitors and appropriate dose reduction is recommended in co-administration with protease inhibitors, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, or interleukin (IL)-1/IL-6 receptor antagonists.
32661006 Forty-two patients in the interferon group received IFN β-1a in addition to the national protocol medications (hydroxychloroquine plus lopinavir-ritonavir or atazanavir-ritonavir).
32664810 Results & methodology: Here we present two successful cases of tocilizumab administration in two COVID-19 patients with prior administration of antiviral therapy (hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir and ritonavir) with adequate response and resolution of ARDS, septic shock and severe pneumonia within the first 72 h.
32664879 We further discussed that polymorphisms in ACE2 or TMPRSS2 could guide effective treatments (i.e., hydroxychloroquine and camostat) for COVID-19.
32665039 Primary Objective: To determine if pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with 400mg hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), taken orally once daily reduces microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 among front line health care workers at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 exposure. […] Exclusion criteria include: currently pregnant, planning to become pregnant during the study period, and/or breast feeding; known hypersensitivity/allergy to hydroxychloroquine or to 4-aminoquinoline compounds; current use of hydroxychloroquine; known prolonged QT syndrome and/or baseline resting ECG with QTc>450 ms and/or concomitant medications which simultaneously may prolong the QTc that cannot be temporarily suspended/replaced; known pre-existing retinopathy, G6PD deficiency, porphyria, liver disease including cirrhosis, encephalopathy, hepatitis or alcoholism, diabetes on oral hypoglycemics or insulin, or renal insufficiency/failure; disclosure of self-administered use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine within 12 weeks prior to study; confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 at time of enrollment. […] Intervention: hydroxychloroquine, 400mg (2 tablets) orally per day.
32665040 To determine if lopinavir/ritonavir +/- hydroxychloroquine will reduce the proportion of participants who survive without requiring ventilatory support, 15 days after enrolment, in adult participants with non-critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Participants will have been hospitalised with confirmed COVID-19, and will be randomised 1:1:1:1 to receive lopinavir /ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, both or neither drug in addition to standard of care management. […] Participants will be randomised 1:1:1:1 to: Group 1: standard of care; Group 2: lopinavir (400mg) / ritonavir (100mg) twice daily for 10 days in tablet form; Group 3: hydroxychloroquine (800mg) 4x200mg administered 12 hours apart on Day 1, followed by 400mg twice a day for 6 days; Group 4: lopinavir /ritonavir plus hydroxychloroquine.
32665090 Notably, patients on chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for their autoimmune rheumatic disease are not protected from COVID-19.
32667444 We do not recommend the routine use of hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir, corticosteroids, or tocilizumab for the treatment of COVID-19.
32667668 Hospitals varied considerably in the risk-adjusted proportion of patients who died (range, 6.6%-80.8%) and in the percentage of patients who received hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, and other treatments and supportive therapies.
32667699 Mortality was significantly higher for studies using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for intervention (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.97-1.89).
32668399 330.56% of patients who had received prophylaxis hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) 400 mg twice a day along with the routine anti-hyperglycemic agents without their dose adjustment reported hypoglycemia.
32669846 It is highly recommended to monitor patients on chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), antiviral drugs, and/or corticosteroids about initiation or progression of cardiac arrhythmias, delirium, seizure, myopathy, and/or neuropathy.
32671601 An approved therapy for patients with COVID-19 has yet to emerge; however, there are some medications used in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection globally including hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, dexamethasone, protease inhibitors, and anti-inflammatory agents.
32673060 To investigate whether hydroxychloroquine could reduce COVID-19 severity in adult outpatients. […] Oral hydroxychloroquine (800 mg once, followed by 600 mg in 6 to 8 hours, then 600 mg daily for 4 more days) or masked placebo. […] Change in symptom severity over 14 days did not differ between the hydroxychloroquine and placebo groups (difference in symptom severity: relative, 12%; absolute, -0.27 point [95% CI, -0.61 to 0.07 point]; P = 0.117). […] At 14 days, 24% (49 of 201) of participants receiving hydroxychloroquine had ongoing symptoms compared with 30% (59 of 194) receiving placebo (P = 0.21). […] Medication adverse effects occurred in 43% (92 of 212) of participants receiving hydroxychloroquine versus 22% (46 of 211) receiving placebo (P < 0.001). […] With hydroxychloroquine, 4 hospitalizations occurred plus 1 nonhospitalized death (P = 0.29). […] Hydroxychloroquine did not substantially reduce symptom severity in outpatients with early, mild COVID-19.
32674126 We aimed to determine whether early treatment with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) would be more efficacious than no-treatment for outpatients with mild Covid-19.
32674206 Disease progression and treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin ere associated with increased all-cause 30-day mortality in patients with cancer compared with patients either in remission or with no evidence of disease, according to data presented during a 2020 American Society of Clinical Oncology Virtual Scientific Program press briefing.
32674481 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are anti-malarial drugs that have been successfully used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. […] Evidence suggests that at high concentrations, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine can impact viral infection and replication by increasing endosomal and lysosomal pH. […] However, at lower concentrations, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine appear to exert immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting nucleic acid sensors, including toll-like receptor 9 and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase. […] In this review, we explore the immunomodulatory activity of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, their impact on viral infections, and their potential to improve the efficacy and safety of retinal gene therapy by reducing AAV-induced immune responses. […] The safety and practicalities of delivering hydroxychloroquine into the retina will also be discussed.
32674929 In a recently published study by Gautret et al. the authors concluded that hydroxychloroquine monotherapy and hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin reduced viral load.
32675717 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) or chloroquine have not demonstrated robust efficacy in prior randomized controlled studies against several other viruses.
32676695 To evaluate the effects of an association therapy of hydroxychloroquine (HY) plus ritonavir/darunavir (RD) or azithromycin (AZ) on QTc intervals. […] Hydroxychloroquine with both ritonavir/darunavir or azithromycin therapy significantly increased the QTc-interval at 7 days.
32677113 Hydroxychloroquine combined with azithromycin has been investigated for activity against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but concerns about adverse cardiovascular (CV) effects have been raised. […] This study evaluated claims data to determine if risks for CV events were increased with hydroxychloroquine alone or combined with azithromycin. […] The number of CV events increased by 25 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8, 42, p=0.005) per 1000 people per year of treatment with hydroxychloroquine alone compared with pretreatment levels and by 201 (95% CI: 145, 256, p<0.001) events per 1000 people per year when individuals took hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. […] These rates translate to an additional 0.34 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.58) CV events per 1000 patients placed on a 5-day treatment with hydroxychloroquine monotherapy and 2.75 (95% CI: 1.99, 3.51) per 1000 patients on a 5-day treatment with both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. […] The rate of adverse events increased with age following exposure to hydroxychloroquine alone and combined with azithromycin. […] For females aged 60 to 79 years prescribed hydroxychloroquine, the rate of adverse CV events was 0.92 per 1000 patients on 5 days of therapy, but it increased to 4.78 per 1000 patients when azithromycin was added. […] These data suggest that hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin is likely safe in individuals under 60 years of age if they do not have additional CV risks. […] However, the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin should be used with extreme caution in older patients.
32677545 We aimed to analyze the interactions of both hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine with SARS-CoV-2 and identify their possible role for the prevention/treatment of COVID-19 by molecular docking studies. […] Protein crystal structures of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2, the compounds hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, and other ligand structures were minimized by OPLS3 force field. […] Molecular docking studies showed that hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine do not interact with SARS-CoV-2 proteins, but bind to the amino acids ASP350, ASP382, ALA348, PHE40 and PHE390 on the ACE2 allosteric site rather than the ACE2 active site. […] Our results showed that neither hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine bind to the active site of ACE2.
32678882 Hydroxychloroquine was prescribed in 79% of hospitalized patients.
32680440 This commentary adopts a health information management lens to focus on aspects of data in one of the studies (investigating the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19).
32681989 For treatment, 27 (38.6%) patients received hydroxychloroquine; 13 (18.6%) remdesivir; 23 (32.9%) corticosteroids; 3 (4.3%) tocilizumab; and 1 (1.4%) anakinra; no patient was given immunoglobulin or convalescent plasma.
32682360 Performed subgroup analysis, in the patients receiving azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine and other antibiotics plus hydroxychloroquine, the duration of hospitalization was shorter in azithromycin group (p=0,027).
32682788 Several drugs such as Remdesivir, Hydroxychloroquine, Chloroquine, Ribavirin, Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Favipiravir, Interferons, Bevacizumab, Azithromycin, etc. are currently under clinical trials.
32683060 Recent publication of several observational studies has generated much discussion surrounding efficacy of drugs including hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir, stressing the need for high-quality prospective, randomized control trials in patients with COVID-19.
32683212 To assess efficacy and safety of chloroquine (CQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for treatment or prophylaxis of COVID-19 in adult humans.
32685234 Currently, the management of patients with COVID-19 depends mainly on repurposed drugs which include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, interferon-α, interferon-β and others.
32685300 Later, their clinical course worsened despite ongoing treatment with multiple medications such as hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin until they were started on tocilizumab.
32686260 The antimalarials chloroquine (CQ) and its analog, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), have been tested for COVID-19 treatment, and several conflicting evidence has been obtained.
32686633 Hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin has been increasingly used for patients with coronavirus disease 2019, in both children and adults. […] We aimed to report our experience of QT interval evaluation associated with the use of hydroxychloroquine with concurrent azithromycin among children testing positive for coronavirus disease 2019.
32687485 She was also started on ceftriaxone, azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, and subcutaneous heparin (5000 U every 8 h) for VTE prophylaxis. […] Ceftriaxone and azithromycin were discontinued the very next day because of low suspicion of bacterial infection while hydroxychloroquine was completed for 5 days.
32687630 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are quinoline derivatives used to treat malaria. […] Nevertheless, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are being studied alone or in combination with other agents to assess their effectiveness in the treatment or prophylaxis for COVID-19. […] This work provides basic clinical pharmacology information relevant for planning and initiating COVID-19 clinical studies with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, summarizes safety data from healthy volunteer studies, and summarizes safety data from phase II and phase II/III clinical studies in patients with uncomplicated malaria, including a phase II/III study in pediatric patients following administration of azithromycin and chloroquine in combination.
32687645 To assess clinical outcomes and adverse drug events in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 treated with off-label hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (Az).
32687949 Of all the potential therapies, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been the focus of tremendous public attention. […] Long-term use of hydroxychloroquine is the cornerstone in the treatment of several auto-immune disorders. […] There is convincing evidence that hydroxychloroquine has strong in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. […] Despite the lack of such evidence, hydroxychloroquine has been used as a desperate attempt for prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19.
32691697 Generic antiviral drug remdesivir has been found to reduce time to clinical recovery but with insignificant clinical benefits and the antimalarial drug, hydroxychloroquine has been red flagged by USFDA for use as a prophylactic measure due to its cardiotoxicity.
32691699 We aim to discuss current clinical evidence regarding chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, and the cardiovascular burden of COVID-19. […] We found conflicting evidence of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin, and remdesivir in COVID-19 despite promising early reports of in vitro antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. […] Some of the current studies have demonstrated adverse drug reactions to chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin. […] There is no convincing clinical evidence of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin, and remdesivir use in COVID-19.
32693415 Symptomatic mothers on hydroxychloroquine can safely breastfeed and no adverse effects were reported in a baby treated with remdesivir in another drug trial.
32693652 The antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) initially garnered widespread attention following the publication of preliminary results showing that this drug exerts an anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in vitro.
32694358 With hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) emerging as potential therapies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), shortages have been reported.
32694915 Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, interferons, umifenovir, remdesivir, and interleukin antagonists, such as tocilizumab, have been recommended as potential treatment options in COVID-19.
32695323 Most patients (80%) were treated with oral hydroxychloroquine for a median time of 6.5 days [interquartile range (IQR) 5-14.5] and 40% received azithromycin; two patients received a short course of antivirals and one received a single dose of tocilizumab.
32695719 Hydroxychloroquine is one of the most frequently used drugs in dermatology with a wide variety of uses due to its immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, photoprotective, and metabolic actions and low side effect profile.
32696108 Non-specific immune modulators include human immunoglobulin, corticosteroids such as dexamethasone, interferons, statins, angiotensin pathway modulators, macrolides (e.g. azithromycin, clarithromycin), hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, colchicine, and prostaglandin D2 modulators such as ramatroban.
32696429 Azithromycin, in association with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, has been proposed as one such medication. […] After the initial expectations raised by a small trial, more recent evidence has raised serious safety concerns on the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with azithromycin to treat COVID-19 patients, as all these drugs have arrhythmogenic potential. […] The World Health Organization has not made recommendations suggesting the use of azithromycin with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine as treatment for COVID-19, but some national organisations have taken a different position, recommending this as first-line treatment.
32696720 In this paper, we demonstrate how hydroxychloroquine can act as a good inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein receptor-binding-domain using molecular docking studies. […] We also unveil how hydroxychloroquine can interfere in the prevention of Lys353 in hACE2 from interacting with the corresponding binding hotspot present on the Spike protein. […] Further screening of artemisinin & derived compounds produced better Vina docking score than hydroxychloroquine (-7.1 kcal mol-1 for artelinic acid vs. -5.5 kcal mol-1 for hydroxychloroquine).
32697769 Hydroxychloroquine therapy started initially, was discontinued after 3 doses once the G6PD deficiency was diagnosed. […] CONCLUSIONS Hydroxychloroquine therapy can induce hemolytic crises in patients with underlying G6PD deficiency or hemoglobinopathies and should be avoided or closely monitored. […] Immediate intervention to stop hydroxychloroquine after 3 doses saved our patient from a major hemolytic crisis.
32698191 Among these candidates, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been given to thousands of individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-the virus that causes COVID-19-worldwide but there is no definitive evidence that HCQ is effective for treating COVID-194-7.
32698689 We performed molecular docking studies using 10 potential naturally occurring compounds (flavonoids/non-flavonoids) against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and compared their affinity with an FDA approved repurposed drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32699031 Hydroxychloroquine with any other drug was associated with increased mortality versus treatment with any COVID-19 treatment other than hydroxychloroquine or untreated controls; this association was not present with hydroxychloroquine alone. […] SIGNIFICANCE: Evaluating the potential role of COVID-19 treatments in patients with cancer in a large observational study, there was no statistically significant 30-day all-cause mortality benefit with hydroxychloroquine or high-dose corticosteroids alone or in combination; remdesivir showed potential benefit.
32700555 In this review, we highlight hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a potential agent to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and reduce as well as shorten clinical symptoms.
32701969 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2, but clinical data supporting HCQ for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are limited.
32706953 Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin have been used to treat patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). […] Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive standard care, standard care plus hydroxychloroquine at a dose of 400 mg twice daily, or standard care plus hydroxychloroquine at a dose of 400 mg twice daily plus azithromycin at a dose of 500 mg once daily for 7 days. […] As compared with standard care, the proportional odds of having a higher score on the seven-point ordinal scale at 15 days was not affected by either hydroxychloroquine alone (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 2.11; P = 1.00) or hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.73; P = 1.00). […] Prolongation of the corrected QT interval and elevation of liver-enzyme levels were more frequent in patients receiving hydroxychloroquine, alone or with azithromycin, than in those who were not receiving either agent. […] Among patients hospitalized with mild-to-moderate Covid-19, the use of hydroxychloroquine, alone or with azithromycin, did not improve clinical status at 15 days as compared with standard care.
32707089 We describe a severe case of COVID-19 infection in a G6PD-deficient patient treated with hydroxychloroquine who benefited from intravenous (IV) NAC beyond reversal of hemolysis.
32708858 After treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, despite his low chances, he gradually recovered and survived.
32709838 The patient was initially started on oral hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32711596 We started a study on the molecular docking of six potential pharmacologically active inhibitors compounds that can be used clinically against the COVID-19 virus, in this case, remdesivir, ribavirin, favipiravir, galidesivir, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine interacting with the main COVID-19 protease in complex with a COVID-19 N3 protease inhibitor. […] The highest values of affinity energy found in order from highest to lowest were chloroquine (CHL), hydroxychloroquine (HYC), favipiravir (FAV), galidesivir (GAL), remdesivir (REM) and ribavirin (RIB). […] The values of affinity energy obtained for the hydroxychloroquine ligands was -9.9 kcal/mol and for the chloroquine of -10.8 kcal/mol which indicate that the coupling contributes to an effective improvement of the affinity energies with the protease.
32712675 Utilization of hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and supportive therapy drugs in hospitals in New York during the early weeks of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was analyzed. […] The data demonstrated sharp increases in aggregate utilization of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine and the number of patients receiving either drug beginning on March 15, with a notable 20% median increase per day through March 31. […] This analysis describes the increased use, beginning in mid-March 2020, of hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, midazolam, propofol, ketamine, cisatracurium, and fentanyl in 47 hospitals in New York State.
32713288 Amid the rush to develop treatments, recent hopes have focused on the anti-malarial drug chloroquine or the derivative hydroxychloroquine.
32713677 At baseline the tocilizumab group had longer symptom duration (13 ± 5 vs. 9 ± 5 days) and received hydroxychloroquine more often than controls (100% vs.
32714335 As the world is severely affected by COVID-19 pandemic, the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in prevention or for the treatment of patients is allowed in multiple countries but remained at the center of much controversy in recent days. […] This review describes the properties of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and highlights not only their anti-viral effects but also their important immune-modulatory properties and their well-known use in autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus and arthritis. […] Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine impede lysosomal activity and autophagy, leading to a decrease of antigen processing and presentation. […] Given the antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, there is a rational to use them against SARS-CoV2 infection.
32717568 The initial results of a number of clinical trials involving various protocols of administration of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine mostly point towards their beneficial effect. […] Interestingly, azithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic in combination with hydroxychloroquine, might yield clinical benefit as an adjunctive.
32718127 In this case series, 13.2% patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine alone, 64.9% with hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin, and 18.4% with regimens including favipiravir.
32719731 Since SARS-CoV2 was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, those tasked with the stewardship of public health at a global, regional, and local level-policymakers, politicians, scientists, drug regulators, health officials, professional associations, journal editors, publishers, and clinicians-have displayed rushed decisions and lapses in judgment in their handling of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as potential COVID-19 therapeutics and prophylactics.
32720578 Compound A38 has the highest G-score (-7.83) when compared to all the standard compounds which are proposed for COVID-19 treatment such as ritonavir (-7.48), lopinavir (-6.94), nelfinavir (-5.93), hydroxychloroquine (-5.47) and mataquine (-5.37). […] Compounds A13, A23, A18, A7, A48, A46, A32, A20, A1 and A47 are significantly active against SARS-CoV-2 main protease when compared with hydroxychloroquine and mataquine.
32721449 Some of the clinical studies showed very good effect of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19, however, they were not recommended due to serious clinical toxicity.
32723092 This is the first reported case of an extremely preterm infant born to a mother with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who required intubation, and was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma, inhaled nitric oxide, and prone positioning for severe hypoxemic respiratory failure prior to and after delivery of this infant.
32723403 Of the participants, 41.4 per cent took hydroxychloroquine as coronavirus disease 2019 prophylaxis.
32723446 He was managed in intensive care unit (ICU) with broad-spectrum antibiotics, hydroxychloroquine alongwith anticoagulants; but he remained hypoxic with rapidly worsening clinical course, requiring mechanical ventilation; and ultimately succumbed to the disease.
32724028 He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and ceftriaxone, and was discharged home after five days of inpatient treatment.
32725351 She continued to take the previous SLE drugs (doses of glucocorticoids, hydroxychloroquine, and immunosuppressive agents were not reduced) and was treated with strict antiviral and infection prevention treatment. […] • Hydroxychloroquine may have potential benefits for COVID-19 patients with SLE.
32725866 The recent hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) shortage due to use in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has forced some rheumatic disease patients to choose between continuing their current dose of HCQ but exhaust their supply early or ration it in order to prolong its use.
32725890 Medications used in COVID-19 treatment (lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and tocilizumab) were associated with peak hospitalization liver transaminase elevations >5x ULN.
32726238 Both chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have gained considerable media attention as possible therapies, resulting in a significant surge in demand. […] Here, we present a brief overview of the pharmacology of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, manifestations of toxicity, and treatment considerations.
32727613 The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with hydroxychloroquine against placebo in healthcare workers with high risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in reducing their risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease during an epidemic period. […] As secondary objectives, we would like to: i) assess the efficacy of the use of PrEP with hydroxychloroquine against placebo in healthcare workers with high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in reducing their risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 (defined by seroconversion) during an epidemic period, ii) evaluate the safety of PrEP with hydroxychloroquine in adults, iii) describe the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, iv) identify clinical, analytical and microbiological predictors of COVID-19 among healthcare workers at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, v) set up a repository of serum samples obtained from healthcare workers at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection for future research on blood markers to predict SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Participants with any of the following conditions are excluded: pregnancy, breastfeeding, ongoing antiviral, antiretroviral or corticosteroids treatment, chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine uptake the last month or any contraindication to hydroxychloroquine treatment. […] Eligible participants will be allocated to one of the two study groups: Intervention group (PrEP): participants will receive the standard of care and will take 400mg of hydroxychloroquine (2 tablets of 200 mg per Dolquine® tablet) daily the first four consecutive days, followed by 400 mg weekly for a period of 6 months. participants will receive placebo tablets with identical physical appearance to hydroxychloroquine 200 mg (Dolquine®) tablets following the same treatment schedule of the intervention group. […] As secondary endpoints, we will obtain: i) the SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in the PrEP group compared to placebo during the 6 months of follow-up in healthcare workers with negative serology at day 0; ii) the occurrence of any adverse event related with hydroxychloroquine treatment; iii) the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 among healthcare workers in the non-PrEP group, among the total of healthcare workers included in the non-PrEP group during the study period; iv) the risk ratio for the different clinical, analytical and microbiological conditions to develop COVID-19; v) a repository of serum samples obtained from healthcare workers confirmed COVID-19 cases for future research on blood markers to predict SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Participants meeting all eligibility requirements will be allocated to one of the two study arms (PrEP with hydroxychloroquine or non-PrEP control group) in a 1:1 ratio using simple randomisation with computer generated random numbers.
32729288 Overall, 60.0% of patients received antibiotic treatment and 66.0%, empirical antiviral treatment, mainly with lopinavir/ritonavir (65%) or hydroxychloroquine (42%).
32730095 However, healthcare professionals are using ritonavir, flavipiravir, lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir.
32731059 In this case, exacerbation began before COVID-19; she required ICU admission, non-invasive ventilatory support, and received hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir and ritonavir which were well tolerated.
32731139 During their treatment with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azithromycin and favipiravir, ventricular tachycardia episodes were observed in in two COVID-19 patients during their hospitalization in the intensive care unit.
32732190 Three drugs might reduce symptom duration compared with standard care: hydroxychloroquine (mean difference -4.5 days, low certainty), remdesivir (-2.6 days, moderate certainty), and lopinavir-ritonavir (-1.2 days, low certainty). […] Hydroxychloroquine might increase the risk of adverse events compared with the other interventions, and remdesivir probably does not substantially increase the risk of adverse effects leading to drug discontinuation.
32732245 In the public hospital of Esine, northern Italy, 140 consecutive inpatients, with virologically and radiographically confirmed COVID-19 admitted in the period 5-19 March 2020, were treated with ‘SoC’ (hydroxychloroquine and/or intravenous dexamethasone; and/or lopinavir/ritonavir).
32733682 Roussel and Raoult (2020) assessed the correlation between public positions taken by 98 doctors towards hydroxychloroquine and payments received from the Gilead Sciences company.
32733907 Forty-two patients received hydroxychloroquine, antibiotics, and tocilizumab, alone or in combination.
32734810 Chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQ), well-known antimalarial drugs effective in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, porphyria cutanea tarda, and chronic Q fever, are currently under investigation.
32735546 The top 10 candidates according to our algorithm are hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, chloroquine, ritonavir, losartan, remdesivir, favipiravir, methylprednisolone, rapamycin, and tilorone dihydrochloride.
32735768 Supportive care and management of the complications that are caused mainly by inflammation might be the key to greater survival rates and shorter hospitalization (e.g., the use of remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, umifenovir (arbidol), oseltamivir, ganciclovir, favipiravir, darunavir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, colchicine, azithromycin, anakinra, canakinumab, tocilizumab, siltuximab, sarilumab, Type 1 interferon, interferon β-1a, interferon α- 2b, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, fedratinib, methylprednisolone and dexamethasone).
32736597 Hydroxychloroquine has shown to have antiviral activity in vitro against coronaviruses, specifically SARS-CoV-2. […] In addition to its antiviral activity, hydroxychloroquine has an immune-modulating activity that may synergistically enhance its antiviral effect in vivo, making it a potentially promising drug for the prevention and the cure of SARS-CoV-19. […] The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine for (I) the prevention of COVID-19 or related symptoms in SARS-CoV-2-exposed subjects, such as as household members/contacts of COVID-19 patients and (II) the treatment of early-phase asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic COVID-19 patients. […] Subjects will be randomized either to receive hydroxychloroquine or to observation (2:1). […] All subjects must be aged ≥18 years, male or female, must be willing and able to give informed consent and must not have any contraindications to take hydroxychloroquine (intolerance or previous toxicity for hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, bradycardia or reduction in heart rhythm with arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, retinopathy, congestive heart failure with use of diuretics, favism or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, diabetes type 1, major comorbidities such as advanced chronic kidney disease or dialysis therapy, known history of ventricular arrhythmia, any oncologic/hematologic malignancy, severe neurological and mental illness, current use of medications with known significant drug-drug interactions, and known prolonged QT syndrome or current use of drugs with known QT prolongation). […] The participants will be randomized (2:1 randomization) to receive either hydroxychloroquine (Arm A) or to Observation (Arm B). […] Hydroxychloroquine will be administered with the following schedule: Group1: A loading dose hydroxychloroquine 400 mg twice daily on day 1, followed by a weekly dose of hydroxychloroquine 200 mg twice daily on days 8, 15 and 22, for a total of one month of treatment. […] Group 2: A loading dose hydroxychloroquine 400 mg twice daily on day 1 followed by 200 mg twice daily for a total of 5-7 days. […] Hydroxychloroquine will be shipped to subjects within 24 hours of randomization. […] During treatment, each subject will be contacted every other day for the first week and weekly thereafter (Group 2) or weekly (Group 1) by a study physician to assess early onset of any COVID-19 symptom or any adverse reaction to hydroxychloroquine and to check subject compliance.
32738306 Clinical trials have reported improved outcomes resulting from an effective reduction or absence of viral load when patients were treated with chloroquine (CQ) or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32738843 Covid-19 patients received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin according to prevalent guidelines.
32739134 In this moments, of extreme gravity in which we find ourselves, and in the uncertainty face about the most effective treatment against COVID-19 disease and with the aim of find the evidence that support the chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine use recommendation to treat COVID-19 disease, a systematic review of published studies and RCT studies publishes until April 28, 2020 was carried out. […] A systematic search was carried out in PubMed with the keywords COVID-19 and their synonyms and hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine. […] Although the conclusions of the systematic review generate a low confidence in the results, and the clinical variables that show benefit are intermediate variables, the side effects are acceptable and could be minimized with the use of QT lengthening risk tools, so it is could make a weak recommendation in favor of the use of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in patients with mild-moderate stage COVID-19.
32740801 Recently, two old antimalarial drugs, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, have been found to exert anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects both in vitro and in vivo.
32740858 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an agent available in an oral formulation with in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 that has been suggested as a potential agent.
32741139 In a meta-analysis of three cohort studies with a low risk of bias, hydroxychloroquine use was not significantly associated with mortality (pooled hazard ratio (HR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-2.42). […] In this systematic review and meta-analysis, hydroxychloroquine use was not associated with benefit or harm with regard to COVID-19 mortality.
32742294 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ)-induced hyperpigmentation is uncommon but is increasingly recognized.
32742969 The management strategy included standard of care (SoC) and administration of hydroxychloroquine and azythromycin, available in Bangladesh.
32742970 The management strategy included Standard of Care (SoC) and administration of hydroxychloroquine and doxycycline.
32743938 In contrast, immunomodulating substances that do not suppress antiviral immunity (e.g. systemic immunoglobulins, doxycycline), or that have intrinsic effects on SARS-CoV-2 (calcineurin inhibitors, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) may be useful alternatives.
32746653 Here, we summarized and evaluated the current treatment drugs and regimens, and put forward the treatment recommendations, including using the potential repurposed or experimental drugs against COVID-19, e.g. chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), remdesivir (RDV), and favipiravir (FPV).
32749808 Based on a 7-step analysis of the literature, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) were initially included in the SWAB document as possible drug treatments for hospitalised adult COVID-19 patients.
32750131 Experimental therapies for COVID-19 present a risk of drug-drug interactions, with lopinavir/ritonavir (10% RED, 41% AMBER; mainly a perpetrator of pharmacokinetic interactions but also risk of QT prolongation particularly when given with concomitant drugs that can prolong QT), chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (both 7% RED and 27% AMBER, victims of some interactions due to metabolic profile but also perpetrators of QT prolongation) posing the greatest risk.
32750190 Hydroxychloroquine combined with azithromycin enhances the reduction of the viral load in COVID-19 patients.
32752938 Currently, there are no clinically proven pharmacotherapies for coronavirus disease 2019, despite promising initial results obtained from drugs such as azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine.
32752944 However, some potential antimalarial drugs like hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, antifilarial drug ivermectin and antiviral drugs have been tested by many research groups worldwide for their possible effect against the COVID-19. […] Hydroxychloroquine and ivermectin have been identified to act by creating the acidic condition in cells and inhibiting the importin (IMPα/β1) mediated viral import. […] Therefore, this review focuses on the current use of various drugs as single agents (hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, azithromycin, favipiravir, remdesivir, umifenovir, teicoplanin, nitazoxanide, doxycycline, and dexamethasone) or in combinations with immunomodulators additionally.
32752951 In this study, molecular docking and reactivity were applied for eighteen drugs, which are similar in structure to chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, the potential inhibitors to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2). […] The results obtained from this study showed that Ramipril, Delapril and Lisinopril could bind with ACE2 receptor and [SARS-CoV-2/ACE2] complex better than chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.
32753141 Among candidate drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the combination of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) has received intense worldwide attention.
32754147 In this study, we evidence that the anti-SARS-CoV2 activity of a clinically achievable hydroxychloroquine concentration is maximized only when administered before and after the infection of Vero E6 and Caco-2 cells. […] This suggests that only a combined prophylactic and therapeutic use of hydroxychloroquine may be effective in limiting viral replication in patients.
32754388 In this article, we have compiled comprehensive data on many candidate drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, umifenovir, arbidol, lopinavir, ritonavir, baricitinib, hydroxychloroquine, nitazoxanide, azithromycin, baloxavir, oseltamivir, losartan, and tocilizumab.
32754599 Furthermore, a combination of hydroxychloroquine (i.e., 200 mg 3 times/day) and azithromycin (i.e., 500 mg on first day, then 250 mg/day from day 2-5) also exhibited good activity.
32755653 Prescribed anti-infective agents were lopinavir-ritonavir (n=12), azithromycin (AZI) (n=28) and AZI combined with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) (n=52).
32755844 Overall 76.15% of doctors would either prescribe or consider prescribing hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as prophylaxis for health-care providers (HCP).
32756065 Hydroxychloroquine was prescribed as an antiviral in 90% of cases, both as monotherapy (11.7%), and combined with protease inhibitors (43.6%) or azithromycin (36.2%).
32757497 We observed and analyzed the clinical efficacy of the most used hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for 30 days.
32757500 All patients had received other medications for COVID-19, including lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine, before administration of RDV.
32758569 The docking was done with most discussed drugs for SARS-CoV-2 like Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Remdesivir, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), routine antiviral drugs like Oseltamivir and Ribavirin.
32758659 Virus- or host-targeted medications included lopinavir/ritonavir (2820/4005, 70.4%), hydroxychloroquine (2618/3995, 65.5%), interferon beta (1153/3950, 29.2%), corticosteroids (1109/3965, 28.0%) and tocilizumab (373/3951, 9.4%).
32759459 We report the case of an elderly female where the sum of such factors - together with massive findings in the computed tomography of the lung - led us to a therapy with hydroxychloroquine as a compassionate use. […] The unfavourable outcome demonstrates that - despite the enthusiasm of some authors - hydroxychloroquine is no miracle drug.
32760619 There was minimal improvement in her vestibular symptoms with the recommended COVID-19 treatment as of March 2020 (hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin) and symptomatic management.
32762368 Recent reports have suggested an increased risk of QT prolongation and subsequent life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, particularly torsade de pointes, in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. […] Despite the correction of hypoxemia and the absence of reversible factors, such as adverse medication effects, electrolyte derangements, and usage of hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin, the QT interval remained persistently prolonged compared with the baseline with subsequent degeneration into ventricular tachycardia and death.
32762922 The most used antiviral drugs were hydroxychloroquine (85.6%) and lopinavir/ritonavir (61.4%); 33.1% developed respiratory distress.
32763058 All had ARDS [PaO2/FiO2 ratio: 110 (IQR): 95.5-135.5], septic shock, CRS and deteriorated within 24 h of ICU admission despite fluid resuscitation, antibiotics, hydroxychloroquine, ARDS-net and prone position mechanical ventilation.
32763298 Antimalaria drugs such as chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been administered to several inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, and infectious diseases such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome and influenza.
32763357 To assess the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin) in hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19. […] The primary end point was to assess the impact of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin, on outcome, length of hospitalization, and time to clinical improvement. […] All analyses accounted for age, gender, race, severity on admission, days from symptoms onset and chronic comorbidities. 36 patients received hydroxychloroquine and were age- and sex-matched to 72 patients with COVID-19 who received supportive care. […] Finally, we observed a slight QTc prolongation from a baseline of 444 ± 26 ms to 464 ± 32 ms (mean±SD) among patients receiving hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin. […] This study did not yield benefits from hydroxychloroquine use in patients with COVID-19 and monitoring for adverse events is warranted.
32766266 Immunomodulatory treatment with hydroxychloroquine and biologics as tocilizumab, in fact, has not proven to show satisfactory results in several reports.
32766537 Systemic steroid, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin were concomitantly used for majority of the patients.
32767527 All residents treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (CQ/HCQ) from July through December 2019 and living in 3 provinces of Regione Emilia-Romagna were identified by drug prescription registries and matched with the registry containing all residents, living in the same areas, who have had swabs and positive swabs for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). 4,408 patients were identified.
32768505 These include anti-viral agents (remdesivir, ribavirin, lopinavir-ritonavir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, oseltamivir, umifenovir), immunomodulatory agents (tocilizumab, interferons, plasma transfusions), and adjunctive agents (azithromycin, corticosteroids), among other miscellaneous agents.
32768772 Zebrafish larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of chloroquine phosphate or hydroxychloroquine for 1 h or 24 h, and hair cells assessed by antibody staining. […] Hydroxychloroquine showed similar toxicity.
32768971 These include different classes of drugs such as antiviral agents (chloroquine, ivermectin, nitazoxanide, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, remdesivir, tocilizumab), supporting agents (Vitamin C, Vitamin D, azithromycin, corticosteroids) and promising investigational vaccines.
32769401 Previous promising in vitro data that emerged after the SARS-CoV outbreak in 2003, along with the emergent need for pharmacologic management strategies in the fight against COVID-19, prompted interest in the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine across the globe. […] In addition, clinical practice guidelines provide no clear consensus on the role of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine for the management of COVID-19. […] The United States Food and Drug Administration has declared that the potential benefits of these agents no longer outweigh the possible risks, and unless new emerging information suggests a more favorable risk:benefit ratio, neither chloroquine nor hydroxychloroquine should be recommended for COVID-19 treatment or prevention at this time.
32769902 The patient was treated with empiric antibiotic and hydroxychloroquine.
32770567 In the current study we demonstrated by bioinformatics (CASTp: computed atlas of surface topography of protein, PyMol: molecular visualization) and molecular docking (PatchDock and Autodock) experiments that tea flavonoids catechin products mainly epigallocatechin gallate or other like theaflavin gallate demonstrated higher atomic contact energy (ACE) value, binding energy, Ki value, ligand efficiency, surface area and more amino acid interactions than hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) during binding in the central channel of the spike protein.
32771032 To evaluate the effectiveness of Hydroxychloroquine Phosphate/Sulfate (200 mg orally 8 hourly thrice a day for 5 days), versus oseltamivir (75 mg orally twice a day for 5 days), and versus Azithromycin (500 mg orally daily on day 1, followed by 250 mg orally twice a day on days 2-5) alone and in combination (in all seven groups), in clearing the coronavirus (COVID-19) nucleic acid from throat and nasal swab and in bringing about clinical improvement on day 7 of follow-up (primary outcomes). […] There will be a total of seven comparator groups: Each drug (Hydroxychloroquine Phosphate/Sulfate, Oseltamivir and Azithromycin) given as monotherapy (three groups); combinations of each of two drugs (three groups); and a final group on triple drug regimen.
32771058 She received 5 days of oral hydroxychloroquine and experienced resolution of her symptoms.
32771797 In this review, we summarized the real-time information of 2019-nCoV treatment methods and mainly focused on the chemical drugs including lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir and other potential innovative active molecules.
32772069 Groups were similar except for hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin use, which were more common in patients who did not receive methylprednisolone.
32772895 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) report promising results against this drug target so, we perform molecular docking followed by MD-simulation studies of HCQ and modelled some ligand (Mod-I and Mod-II) molecules with SARS-CoV-2-main protease which reveals the structural organization of the active site residues and presence of a conserve water-mediated catalytic triad that helps in the recognition of Mod-I/II ligand molecules.
32773165 The most frequently used combination of drugs was low molecular weight heparins, hydroxychloroquine, and ritonavir/lopinavir.
32773262 Treatment with hydroxychloroquine or in combination with other medicines did not reduce the quarantine duration.
32773414 Majority of the patients were managed with supportive treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin given on a case-to-case basis.
32774271 The patient was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and ceftriaxone; however, he remained febrile, hypoxemic, continued to require full mechanical ventilator support and his chest X-ray showed increased bilateral infiltrates.
32774508 It was named by the World Health Organization as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and it garnered unprecedented attention from public health researchers around the world, and studies analyzing chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as a possible therapy have arisen in the last 2 months. […] Objective To review the literature and describe updated facts about the ototoxicity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, an important side effect that can be present in patients with COVID-19 treated with these drugs. […] Data Synthesis The most typical treatment regimen is 5 days of hydroxychloroquine at daily doses of 400 to 600 mg. […] Conclusion Despite the urgent global situation caused by the COVID-19, the risk of irreversible hearing loss may outweigh the unproven benefit of using hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, especially in patients with mild forms of COVID-19, who may be cured with supportive treatment.
32775986 Unless contraindicated, hydroxychloroquine was administered only to hospitalized patients. […] Hydroxychloroquine was administered to 15 patients. 11 patients required supplemental oxygen; 2 of them were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with mechanical ventilation.
32776298 To date no trial comparing hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) has been performed.
32776534 As it has been shown that lopinavir (LPV) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have in vitro activity against coronaviruses, they were used to treat COVID-19 during the first wave of the epidemic in Lombardy, Italy.
32777263 During the Covid-19 pandemic, many intensive care unit (ICU) patients received hydroxychloroquine. […] The primary objective of this study was to assess the effects of hydroxychloroquine according to its plasma concentration in ICU patients. […] All patients admitted to the ICU with confirmed Covid-19 pneumonia and treated with hydroxychloroquine were included. […] The study compared 17 patients in whom the hydroxychloroquine plasma concentration was in the therapeutic target (on-target) and 12 patients in whom the plasma concentration was below the target (off-target). […] No association was found between hydroxychloroquine plasma concentration and viral load evolution (P = 0.77). […] These findings indicate that hydroxychloroquine administration for Covid-19 patients hospitalized in ICU is not associated with improved outcomes.
32777318 The skin reactions of antimalarials (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine), antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin with or without interferon, oseltamivir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and darunavir), and treatments for complications (imatinib, tocilizumab, anakinra, immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, colchicine and low molecular weight heparins) are analyzed.
32777441 The potentiality of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for pre-exposure prophylaxis against SARS-CoV-2 has not been explored in randomized controlled trials.
32777550 Hydroxychloroquine (23.9%), lopinavir/ritonavir (8.2%), steroids (3.2%), and antibiotics (3.1%) were the most used drugs.
32779305 Chronic exposure of hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19 may have multiple adverse effects on human physiology, such as cardiac arrhythmias. […] Results indicated (a) curcumenol, (b) N-desmethylselegiline, (c) phentermine and (d) sphingolipid derivatives as a selective and potent candidates in comparison to hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 treatment.
32779341 Immunomodulatory agents like hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as well as biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) such as tocilizumab and anakinra received worldwide attention for treatment of critical patients with COVID-19.
32779755 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) garnered scientific attention in early February following publication of reports showing in vitro activity of chloroquine (CQ) against COVID-19.
32780229 Many concerns still exist regarding the safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32780273 Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine has recently been the subject of intense debate regarding its potential antiviral activity against SARS-Cov-2, the etiologic agent of COVID-19. […] Therefore, the objective of this study was to simulate possible scenarios of response to hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients using mathematical modeling. […] To shed some light on this controversial topic, we simulated hydroxychloroquine-based interventions on virus/host cell dynamics using a basic system of previously published differential equations. […] According to mathematical modeling, hydroxychloroquine may have an impact on the amplitude of the viral load peak and viral clearance if the drug is administered early enough (i.e., when the virus is still confined within the pharyngeal cavity). […] The effects of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine may be fully explained only when also considering the capacity of this drug to increase the death rate of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, in this case by enhancing the cell-mediated immune response. […] These considerations may not only be applied to chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine but may have more general implications for development of anti-COVID-19 combination therapies and prevention strategies through an increased death rate of the infected cells.
32781034 Invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 18% (median 7.5 days); antibiotics, oseltamivir, and corticosteroids were used in 76%, 43%, and 23%, respectively, but not hydroxychloroquine.
32784192 During the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an unfounded fervor surrounding the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and tocilizumab (TCZ); however, evidence on their efficacy and safety have been controversial.
32784543 Efforts to find a treatment for COVID-19 has fueled a recent surge in interest in chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and its effects. […] Of specific interest are chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine’s ability to inhibit SARS-CoV infection by impairing ACE2, the SARS-CoV2 entry point, through terminal glycosylation via effects on TGN/post-Golgi pH homeostasis.
32785135 Our objective was to develop and validate a strategy to assess risk for adverse drug events (ADE) associated with COVID-19 repurposed drugs using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ), alone or in combination with azithromycin (AZ), and the combination lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r).
32789088 One medication that emerged as an early frontrunner as a promising therapeutic was hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a common antimalarial and lupus drug.
32790733 Hydroxychloroquine has been touted as a potential COVID-19 treatment. […] In this retrospective observational cohort study drawn from electronic health records we sought to describe the association between mortality and hydroxychloroquine or tocilizumab therapy among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. […] Among 2512 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 there have been 547 deaths (22%), 1539 (61%) discharges and 426 (17%) remain hospitalized. 1914 (76%) received at least one dose of hydroxychloroquine and 1473 (59%) received hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin. […] After adjusting for imbalances via propensity modeling, compared to receiving neither drug, there were no significant differences in associated mortality for patients receiving any hydroxychloroquine during the hospitalization (HR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.80-1.22]), hydroxychloroquine alone (HR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.83-1.27]), or hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin (HR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.75-1.28]). […] The 30-day unadjusted mortality for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, the combination or neither drug was 25%, 20%, 18%, and 20%, respectively. […] This observational cohort study suggests hydroxychloroquine, either alone or in combination with azithromycin, was not associated with a survival benefit among hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
32792041 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) emerged early in the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as a possible drug with potential therapeutic and prophylactic benefits.
32794463 Currently, there are several experimental therapies with demonstrated in vitro activity against COVID-19 used in clinical practice, including hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, interleukin-6 pathway inhibitors, and convalescent plasma; however, to date no agent has proven efficacy against COVID-19.
32799761 The reliable CoMSIA developed model of 110 pyridine N-oxide based-antiviral compounds, showed Q2= 0.54 and[Formula: see text] The molecular surflex-docking was applied to identify the crystal structure of CoV-2 main protease 3CLpro (PDB: 6LU7) and two potentially and largely used antiviral molecules, namely chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine. […] The inhibition activity of pyridine N-oxyde compounds against CoV-2 was compared with the activity of two common antiviral drug, namely chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32800347 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are among several experimental treatments being investigated in the urgent response to the coronavirus disease-2019. […] Clarify evidence base regarding the psychiatric side effects and psychiatric drug interactions of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. […] A literature review was performed in PubMed from 1950 to 2020 regarding psychiatric topics and targeted pharmacological properties of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. […] First, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine may mildly inhibit CYP2D6 metabolism of psychiatric medications, and psychiatric medications that interfere with CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 activity could alter chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine levels. […] Hydroxychloroquine has less information available about its neuropsychiatric side effects than chloroquine, with psychosis literature limited to several case reports. […] Weak evidence suggests a possible association of hydroxychloroquine exposure and increased suicidal ideation. […] The risk of neuropsychiatric side effects of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine when used for coronavirus disease-2019 treatment is not known. […] Best practice may include suicide risk assessment for patients treated with hydroxychloroquine. […] However, delirium is expected to be a more likely etiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms in critically ill patients treated for coronavirus disease-2019, and adjustment disorder is a much more likely etiology of anxiety and depression symptoms than the side effects of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine.
32801640 Some potential drugs have shown antiviral effects on SARS-CoV-2 infections, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, interferon alpha, and remedsivir.
32801943 In conclusion, our patients improved after starting hydroxychloroquine and continuing to take all immunosuppressive agents except mycophenolate based on the multidisciplinary team’s decision.
32802622 Multiple therapeutic options, including hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZI), were tried initially to treat moderate to severe COVID-19 and high-risk patients in LTCFs, but they were abandoned due to unfavorable reports.
32802924 In the absence of authorised pharmacological treatments, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine, which are known as anti-malaria drugs, had been widely used off-label until concerns about their efficacy/safety limited their use to hospitalized patients affected by severe COVID-19. […] Considering that both chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are BCS class I, proper procedures for purifying the preparation from the insoluble excipients may be adopted to avoid clogging of a nasogastric tube and to reduce the drug content variability in the administered doses. […] The data in this article indicate that compounded oral suspensions containing chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine can be filtered and/or centrifuged without altering the drug assay of the preparation.
32802983 Density functional theory (DFT) was performed in order to predict the structural, chemical descriptors and optoelectronic properties of the drugs Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin using the wB97XD, O3LYP and B3LYP functional with 6-31+G(d,p) basis set. […] Hence, the treatment of COVID-19 using Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin in some patients as single dose and their combination in patients with Corona virus resistance can be more effective.
32803479 Certain medications, for example, dexamethasone, antimalarials (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine), antiviral (remdesivir), and IL-6 receptor blocking monoclonal antibodies (tocilizumab), are used in various combinations as off-label medications to treat COVID-19.
32804086 The development of our RMA approach was motivated by a currently relevant clinical question: is ocular toxicity and vision compromise a side effect of hydroxychloroquine therapy? […] At the time of designing this study, hydroxychloroquine was a leading candidate in the treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). […] The RMA identified 11 studies considering ocular toxicity as a side effect of hydroxychloroquine and estimated the incidence to be 3.4% (95% CI 1.11%-9.96%).
32804802 Treatment for COVID-19 included frequently hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, high dose steroids, lopinavir/ritonavir and tocilizumab.
32804920 The patient had an untoward clinical course despite treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and corticosteroids, dying on the third day of hospitalization.
32805781 Steroids were used in 70 percent of patients, tocilizumab in 59 percent, and hydroxychloroquine in 27 percent. […] Compared with survivors, more of the non-survivors received vasopressors (78 percent vs 46 percent), dialysis (44 percent vs 7 percent) and hydroxychloroquine (44 percent vs 21 percent).
32808712 Being a pandemic and having a high global case fatality rate directed us to assess the evidence strength of hydroxychloroquine efficacy in treating coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) arising from clinical trials and to update the practice with the most reliable clinical evidence. […] Of 432 studies found, only six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, which includes: clinical trials, age more than 12 years with nonsevere COVID-19, polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine is the intervention beyond the usual care. […] The secondary outcomes are the adverse effects of hydroxychloroquine. […] Among 609 COVID-19 confirmed patients obtained from pooling six studies, 294 patients received hydroxychloroquine and 315 patients served as a control. […] Hydroxychloroquine significantly prevents early radiological progression relative to control with risk difference and 95% confidence interval of -0.2 (-0.36 to -0.03). […] On the other hand, hydroxychloroquine did not prevent clinical COVID-19 progression, reduce 5-day mortality, or enhance viral clearance on days 5, 6, and 7. […] Moreover, many adverse effects were reported with hydroxychloroquine therapy. […] Failure of hydroxychloroquine to show viral clearance or clinical benefits with additional adverse effects outweigh its protective effect from radiological progression in nonsevere COVID-19 patients. […] Benefit-risk balance should determine the hydroxychloroquine use in COVID-19.
32809050 Conversely, >70% of the respondents would continue the treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), oral steroids, mycophenolate, IL‑1 blockade and immunoglobulins (Ig).
32809210 Based on our study, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, either alone or in combination with azithromycin, remdesivir, corticosteroids, convalescent sera, ritonavir/lopinavir, tocilizumab and arbidol were evaluated as therapeutic options. […] Based on this early evidence, various national guidelines recommend remdesivir, convalescent sera, corticosteroids and hydroxychloroquine in different subsets of patients.
32809918 Our results also suggest that carbetocin is more effective at inducing immune cell responses than either lopinavir or hydroxychloroquine, both of which have been explored for the treatment of COVID-19.
32810081 A regimen of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and dexamethasone was initiated on admission in all cases.
32810285 Hydroxychloroquine was associated with longer time to clinical recovery and less overall clinical recovery. […] Lopinavir-ritonavir, remdesivir and tocilizumab may have some benefits, while hydroxychloroquine administration may cause harm in nCOV-2019 patients.
32812051 All participants also received the recommended national standard treatment which, at that time, was lopinavir/ritonavir and single-dose hydroxychloroquine.
32812187 Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane, and Scholar databases were searched from inception to July 1, 2020, to identify studies reporting the current treatment process and medications (e.g. hydroxychloroquine, antiviral therapy, convalescent plasma, and immunomodulatory agents) for COVID-19.
32813843 The analysis showed that hydroxychloroquine was investigated in most of the trials.
32814539 In the absence of evidence based proven prophylactic or therapeutic options, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (CQ/HCQ) patened as first line choice in COVID-19 treatment, which raised concerns about drug poisoning especially ocular toxicity.
32814759 These agents include cepharentine, chloroquine, chlorpromazine, clemastine, cloperastine, emetine, hydroxychloroquine, haloperidol, ML240, PB28, ponatinib, siramesine, and zotatifin (eFT226) all of which are likely to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication by non-specific (off-target) effects, meaning that they probably do not act on their ‘official’ pharmacological targets, but rather interfere with viral replication through non-specific effects on acidophilic organelles including autophagosomes, endosomes, and lysosomes.
32815796 We employed the antitussive noscapine in conjugation with antiviral drugs (Chloroquine, Umifenovir, Hydroxychloroquine, Favlplravir and Galidesivir). […] We found that Noscapine-Hydroxychloroquine (Nos-Hcq) conjugate has strong binding affinity for the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2, which performs key biological function in virus infection and progression.
32817375 Chloroquine (CQ) and its analogue hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were found to be efficacious against SARS-CoV-2 when investigated in preliminary in vitro experiments.
32817689 The five most frequently tested uni-modal interventions were: chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (113 trials with 199,841 participants); convalescent plasma (64 trials with 11,840 participants); stem cells (51 trials with 3,370 participants); tocilizumab (19 trials with 4,139 participants) and favipiravir (19 trials with 3,210 participants).
32817707 SOC consisted of hydroxychloroquine 400mg bid plus, in those admitted before March 24th, also darunavir/ritonavir.
32821381 This study aims to discuss the available evidence for the use of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) against COVID-19.
32823144 Due to the rapid onset and spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, the treatment of COVID-19 patients by hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with other drugs has captured a great deal of attention and triggered considerable debate. […] The repurposing of hydroxychloroquine against viral infections, various types of cancer and autoimmune diseases has been ongoing for more than 70 years, with no clear understanding of its mechanism of action (MOA).
32824072 In this paper, we used docking and simulation methods to identify potential targets and the mechanism of action of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) against SARS-CoV-2.
32826796 One patient received hydroxychloroquine, and no patients received antivirals.
32827400 Repurposing of drugs from different pharmacological groups including antivirals like remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, arbidol, oseltamivir, penciclovir, favipiravir, ganciclovir, and ribavirin; other antibiotics like azithromycin, ivermectin, eravacycline, valrubicin, streptomycin, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, caspofungin, and colistin; and other agents like hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, tocilizumab, camostat, nafamostat, carfilzomib, interferon, aprepitant, and dexamethasone can be considered for COVID-19 therapy.
32827987 The combination of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin showed effectiveness as a treatment for COVID-19 and is being used widely all around the world.
32828135 We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) added to standard care in patients with COVID-19.
32828896 Hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin treatment was associated with a lower ICU admission rate (P=0.008). […] This may be due to the care bundle used in our hospital (early hospitalisation, treatment with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin and/or corticosteroids, non-invasive respiratory support, etc).
32832735 Hydroxychloroquine is one of the most commonly used drugs in COVID-19 treatment. […] In this case report, we aimed to present a young patient whose QT interval was prolonged due to hydroxychloroquine overdose which was given for COVID-19 treatment. […] The patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 a day prior and home isolation was recommended with hydroxychloroquine and oseltamivir P. […] His complaints started 6 h after accidentally taking 1.600 mg of hydroxychloroquine P.
32834108 The present work is an investigation to test hydroxychloroquine as an inhibitor for the COVID-19 main protease.
32835062 Although the association between Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin efficacy lack of solid evidence-base, several governments have adopted it for all virology confirmed Covid-19 cases even for those who are asymptomatic. […] If yes, is a randomized controlled trial to prove the hydroxychloroquine for the Covid-19 treatment, necessary, in the context of covid-19 pandemic? […] If no, is it the government’s right to decide the hydroxychloroquine treatment for all covid-19 patients?
32835246 As pathological examination has confirmed the involvement of immune hyperactivation and acute respiratory distress syndrome in fatal cases of COVID-19, several disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDS), such as hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab, have been proposed as potential therapies for the treatment of COVID-19.
32835257 All patients were treated with the standard of care (ie, supplemental oxygen, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, antiretrovirals, and low molecular weight heparin), and a non-randomly selected subset of patients also received tocilizumab.
32835273 Amiodarone, like hydroxychloroquine, exerts antiviral actions by interfering with endocytosis and viral replication.
32835316 Observational studies have suggested increased arrhythmic and cardiovascular risk with the combination use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32837079 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) chemoprophylaxis was reported by 52% surgeons.
32837097 At present, no study with robust methodology have clearly demonstrated benefits of hydroxychloroquine for treatment, preexposure prophylaxis in healthcare workers or post exposure prophylaxis in COrona VIrus Disease-2019.
32837100 In the molecular docking study, the binding energy and inhibition of 6 Gingesulphonic acid from Zingiber Officinalis (Sunthi) is greater than hydroxychloroquine and quinine.
32837118 Some drugs such as lopinavir, simeprevir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and amprenavir have been recommended for COVID-19 treatment by some researchers, but these drugs were not effective enough against this virus. […] So, this study suggested that caulerpin and its derivatives could be used as a combination therapy along with lopinavir, simeprevir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and amprenavir for disrupting the stability of SARS-CoV2 receptor proteins to increase the antiviral activity of these drugs.
32837197 Patients receiving antimalarials (hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine) may continue treatment with these agents.
32837922 This near homogeneous catalysis of 40 nm sized, silica functionalized, magnetite nanoparticles have far reaching applications in bulk drug industry for drugs like chloroquine & hydroxychloroquine, the two essential drugs for prophylactic use for COVID-1.
32837984 In terms of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) therapy, although WHO has stopped all the clinic trials due to its strong side-effects in COVID patients, large scale clinical trials with a long-term outcome follow-up may warrant HCQ and azithromycin combination in combating the virus.
32838150 There are many reports available now, which are mostly observational or registry trial outcomes having varied results on coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients put on hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combination.
32838163 With no drugs currently approved for treatment and cure of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), hydroxychloroquine is one of the many first-line drugs used in the management. […] Considering its minimal risk and favorable safety profile, cost-effectiveness, availability, and affordability in India, the use of hydroxychloroquine in the fight against COVID-19 appears rationale.
32838169 Medications assessed included lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, favipiravir, heparin, and dexamethasone. […] Hydroxychloroquine also showed no significant effect on COVID-19 viral clearance rates (OR 2.16 [95% CI 0.80-5.84]). […] Review of literature showed no significant clinical improvement with lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, hydroxychloroquine, or remdesivir.
32838232 Thirteen COVID-19 adult patients under invasive mechanical ventilation who had received previous antiviral and/or anti-inflammatory treatments (including steroids, lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine and/or tocilizumab, among others) were treated with allogeneic AT-MSC.
32838235 We included consecutive patients with COVID-19 related pneumonia at the early stage of respiratory failure, all treated with a standard protocol (hydroxychloroquine 400 mg daily, lopinavir 800 mg plus ritonavir 200 mg per day).
32838244 Most patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine (72%), and statins (76%; newly initiated in 34%).
32838264 These include HIV protease inhibitors such as lopinavir/ritonavir that have low placental transfer, interferon that does not cross the placental barrier, and hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine that has high placental transfer.
32838282 Remdesivir combination with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine are promising drug repositioning for the treatment of COVID-19, and mRNA-1273 targeting spike protein is the promising vaccine.
32838309 Patients with rheumatic disease who were taking hydroxychloroquine had a lower risk of COVID-19 infection than patients taking other disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (OR 0·09 [95% CI 0·01-0·94]; p=0·044).
32838355 Despite limited and conflicting evidence, hydroxychloroquine, alone or in combination with azithromycin, is widely used in COVID-19 therapy. […] Patients hospitalized within 24 h of diagnosis were classified based on their exposure to hydroxychloroquine alone (HC) or with azithromycin (HC+AZ) or no HC as treatments. […] Among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, this retrospective study did not identify any significant reduction in mortality or in the need for mechanical ventilation with hydroxychloroquine treatment with or without azithromycin.
32838713 Existing antivirals such as ASC09/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir with or without umifenovir in combination with antimalarial chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine have been repurposed to fight the current coronavirus epidemic.
32838716 This method of repurposing and the use of existing molecules like Remdesivir (GS-5734), Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, etc. has proven to be a landmark in the field of drug rediscovery.
32839385 A prolonged QTc was independently associated with a higher mortality even after adjustment for age, comorbidities, and treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32839670 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been shown to be at least somewhat effective in treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32840231 Due to lack of any definitive medicine or vaccine, treatment options are supportive of oxygenation, antiviral, antiretroviral drugs, antibiotics, fluid/ electrolyte, mechanical ventilation with ICU (Intensive Care Unit) support, and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine have been tried to fight this infection.
32841688 All subjects underwent an HRCT study on the day of admission and eight weeks later, and were treated with lopinavir + ritonavir (Kaletra) 400/100 mg two times a day or darunavir + ritonavir two times a day, and Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg two times a day.
32844224 In March 2020, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZI) were proposed as potential treatments of COVID-19, but with warnings concerning their possible toxicity.
32844516 Many possible treatments are being investigated, one of which is the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine. […] This paper seeks to 1) highlight some of the ethical challenges of dispensing hydroxychloroquine by pharmacists during the COVID-19 pandemic, 2) identify some of the responses to these issues from various regulatory authorities in the USA, and 3) recommend approaches to assist pharmacists in their decision-making process, especially in LMICs.
32848774 As CQ’s analogue, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was also reminded as a potential candidate for treating COVID-19.
32849658 Recent small-scale clinical trials have shown promising results in the use of hydroxychloroquine, an FDA approved anti-malaria drug, for the treatment of COVID-19. […] However, large scale, randomized and double-blind clinical trials are needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients. […] Here, we review the progress of using hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine as anti-viral agents, failed clinical trials of chloroquine in treatment of dengue virus and influenza infection, and especially the mechanism of azithromycin in inhibiting viral replication, so as to shed light on the ongoing clinical trials and further researches of hydroxychloroquine on SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.
32849934 The most reported therapies were hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) (eight studies) and lopinavir/ritonavir (four studies).
32849936 During the initial phases of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, there was an unfounded fervor surrounding the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ); however, recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended against routine use of HCQ outside of study protocols citing possible adverse outcomes.
32849949 Limited data are available regarding hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and moxifloxacin (MOX) in patients with possible coronavirus disease 2019, (COVID-19).
32850082 Despite initiation of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin along with supplemental oxygen therapy, rapid disease progression consistent with cytokine release syndrome ensued, leading to initiation of mechanical ventilatory support.
32850261 Results Impact of various clinical treatments was assessed, showing no change in median overall survival (OS) of both hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin or vitamin C with zinc.
32850989 Pharmacological strategies that interfere with the viral attachment to ACE2 (umifenovir and hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine) or that modulate the RAS (analogous of A1-7 and ACE2, losartan) are in clinical development for COVID-19.
32852405 The symptomatic patients were treated with Hydroxychloroquine (83%), Azithromycin (89%) and Tocilizumab (23%).
32853038 Azithromycin has been assessed in retrospective observational studies mainly in combination with hydroxychloroquine, which has shown to provide no benefit.
32853604 We found that Teicoplanin is about 10-20 fold more potent in inhibiting protease activity than other drugs in use, such as lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, atazanavir etc.
32853631 Treatment was mainly based on hydroxychloroquine (24.7%), antiviral drugs (7.8%), and tocilizumab (5.3%).
32853672 A total of 55 patients in the control group receiving hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) were compared with 56 patients in the case group who in addition to the same regimen also received AZM.
32853673 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been largely used and investigated as therapy for COVID-19 across various settings at a total dose usually ranging from 2400 mg to 9600 mg.
32853675 This longitudinal, prospective cohort study aimed to assess risk of QTc interval prolongation and its predicting factors in subjects treated with combinations containing hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for COVID-19.
32854751 This provided a unique opportunity to study the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), while taking stringent, non-pharmacologic, public health measures to prevent spread.
32855778 This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature on DDIs between antiretroviral drugs and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, and psychotropics, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and anxiolytics.
32856034 Many patients received investigational medications for treatment of COVID-19, including 48 patients on remdesivir and 4,232 on hydroxychloroquine.
32856202 We administered hydroxychloroquine plus doxycycline to mild cases (isolated at home) for 3 days and lopinavir plus doxycycline to moderate and severe cases (hospitalized) for 5 days.
32857112 Fourteen children (15%) were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and/or hydroxychloroquine.
32857301 In this study the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine plus atazanavir/ritonavir was compared in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19. […] The patients received the national treatment protocol containing hydroxychloroquine (400 mg BD in first day and then 200 mg BD) plus atazanavir/ritonavir (300/100 mg daily) for 7 days. […] Our study did not support the use of hydroxychloroquine plus atazanavir/ritonavir in patients who had SpO2 < 90% at the time of hospital admission. […] SpO2 was the only predictor of clinical outcomes (duration of hospital stay, discharge from the hospital and mortality) in patients treated with hydroxychloroquine plus atazanavir/ritonavir.
32859477 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was proposed as potential treatment for COVID-19.
32860038 Harvey Risch, that reviewed several papers and argued that using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZ) early to treat symptomatic COVID-19 cases in high-risk patients should be broadly applied.
32860358 In response to the global outbreak caused by SARS-CoV-2, this article aims to propose the development of nanosystems for the delivery of hydroxychloroquine in the respiratory system to the treatment of COVID-19. […] Performed a descriptive literature review, using the descriptors ‘COVID-19’, ‘Nanotechnology’, ‘Respiratory Syndrome’ and ‘Hydroxychloroquine’, in the PubMed, ScienceDirect and SciElo databases. […] After analyzing the articles according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, they were divided into 3 sessions: Coronavirus: definitions, classifications and epidemiology, pharmacological aspects of hydroxychloroquine and pharmaceutical nanotechnology in targeting of drugs. […] Hydroxychloroquine seems to promote a reduction in viral load, in vivo studies, preventing the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into lung cells, and the safety of its administration is questioned due to the toxic effects that it can develop, such as retinopathy, hypoglycemia and even cardiotoxicity. […] Nanosystems for the delivery of drugs in the respiratory system may be a viable alternative for the administration of hydroxychloroquine, which may enhance the therapeutic effect of the drug with a consequent decrease in its toxicity, providing greater safety for implementation in the clinic in the treatment of COVID-19.
32860962 Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without azithromycin have been widely promoted to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) following early in vitro antiviral effects against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess whether chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin decreased COVID-19 mortality compared with the standard of care. […] We included published and unpublished studies comparing the mortality rate between patients treated with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin and patients managed with standard of care. […] Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin. […] All studies except one were conducted on hospitalized patients and evaluated the effects of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin. […] After excluding studies with critical risk of bias, the meta-analysis included 11 932 participants for the hydroxychloroquine group, 8081 for the hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin group and 12 930 for the control group. […] Hydroxychloroquine was not significantly associated with mortality: pooled relative risk (RR) 0.83 (95% CI 0.65-1.06, n = 17 studies) for all studies and RR = 1.09 (95% CI 0.97-1.24, n = 3 studies) for randomized controlled trials. […] Hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin was associated with an increased mortality (RR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.04-1.54, n = 7 studies). […] Hydroxychloroquine alone was not associated with reduced mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients but the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin significantly increased mortality.
32861965 The widespread clinical use and existing knowledge on antiviral mechanisms of remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of previous epidemic diseases, namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), may be helpful in the combat with novel SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Recent clinical evidence didn’t confirm the beneficial role of lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 patients and their use was reassessed. […] Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine could impair the replication of SARSCoV-2 by multiple mechanisms and their immunomodulatory properties could ameliorate clinical manifestations that are mediated by immune reactions of the host although its beneficial effects are under question and need to be proven at the clinical level. […] Numerous studies demonstrated the ability of remdesivir to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication but future research would be needed to understand the exact mode of action of lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells and to use this knowledge in the treatment of the current COVID-19.
32862111 Patients in the IFN group received IFN β-1b (250 mcg subcutaneously every other day for two consecutive weeks) along with the national protocol medications while in the control group, patients received only the national protocol medications (lopinavir/ritonavir or atazanavir/ritonavir plus hydroxychloroquine for 7-10 days).
32862472 Initial treatment included hydroxychloroquine, antibiotics, and prophylactic anticoagulation.
32862840 Hydroxychloroquine (CLQ-OH)/azithromycin (ATM) combination therapy is currently being tested for the treatment of COVID-19, with promising results.
32863397 A quality by design-based stability indicating HPLC method has been developed for hydroxychloroquine sulfate impurities. […] The optimized HPLC method can detect and quantify the hydroxychloroquine sulfate and related organic impurities in pharmaceutical solid oral dosage forms. […] The calibration curve of hydroxychloroquine sulfate and related impurities were linear from LOQ to 150% and correlation coefficient was found more than 0.999. […] The optimized method found to be specific, accurate, rugged, and robust for determination of hydroxychloroquine sulfate impurities in the solid oral dosage forms.
32864162 In this review, we summarized the pharmacogenomic literature available for COVID-19 drug therapies including hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, lopinavir/ritonavir, darunavir/cobicistat, interferon beta-1b, tocilizumab, ruxolitinib, baricitinib, and corticosteroids. […] We found several drug-gene variant pairs that may alter the pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (CYP2C8, CYP2D6, SLCO1A2, and SLCO1B1); azithromycin (ABCB1); ribavirin (SLC29A1, SLC28A2, and SLC28A3); and lopinavir/ritonavir (SLCO1B1, ABCC2, CYP3A). […] We also identified other variants, that are associated with adverse effects, most notable in hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (G6PD; hemolysis), ribavirin (ITPA; hemolysis), and interferon β -1b (IRF6; liver toxicity). […] We also describe the complexity of the risk for QT prolongation in this setting because of additive effects of combining more than one QT-prolonging drug (i.e., hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine and azithromycin), increased concentrations of the drugs due to genetic variants, along with the risk of also combining therapy with potent inhibitors.
32864299 Out of these drugs, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have demonstrated positive results indicating a potential antiviral role against SARS-CoV-2.
32864341 Hydroxychloroquine was administered as suggested by the national guidelines.
32864514 No patients received antiviral medication or hydroxychloroquine. 21 patients (20%) were admitted at COVID-19 diagnosis. 29 of 85 patients (34%) were admitted after initial outpatient management. 16 patients (15%) died.
32864627 Hydroxychloroquine, a drug commonly used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, has received much negative publicity for adverse events associated with its authorisation for emergency use to treat patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. […] We studied the safety of hydroxychloroquine, alone and in combination with azithromycin, to determine the risk associated with its use in routine care in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. […] In this multinational, retrospective study, new user cohort studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis aged 18 years or older and initiating hydroxychloroquine were compared with those initiating sulfasalazine and followed up over 30 days, with 16 severe adverse events studied. […] Self-controlled case series were done to further establish safety in wider populations, and included all users of hydroxychloroquine regardless of rheumatoid arthritis status or indication. […] Separately, severe adverse events associated with hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (compared with hydroxychloroquine plus amoxicillin) were studied. […] The study included 956 374 users of hydroxychloroquine, 310 350 users of sulfasalazine, 323 122 users of hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin, and 351 956 users of hydroxychloroquine plus amoxicillin. […] No excess risk of severe adverse events was identified when 30-day hydroxychloroquine and sulfasalazine use were compared. […] However, long-term use of hydroxychloroquine appeared to be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality (calibrated HR 1·65 [95% CI 1·12-2·44]). […] Hydroxychloroquine treatment appears to have no increased risk in the short term among patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but in the long term it appears to be associated with excess cardiovascular mortality. […] We call for careful consideration of the benefit-risk trade-off when counselling those on hydroxychloroquine treatment.
32865382 Targeted therapies were used in six patients (2.7%), with hydroxychloroquine being the most commonly used agent either alone (one patient) or in combination with favipiravir (five patients).
32867852 To evaluate the effect of the combination of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and standard personal protective equipment (PPE) compared to the use of standard personal protective equipment alone on the proportion of laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infections among frontline healthcare workers(HCWs) in India TRIAL DESIGN: HOPE is an investigator initiated multi-centre open-label parallel group randomized controlled trial.
32868801 Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir/lopinavir, and favipiravir are under trials for the treatment of this disease.
32869558 Monoclonal antibody of tocilizumab and antimalarial agents of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were also introduced.
32871238 All hospitalized patients received as best available therapy the same standard care, (per hospital protocol), of a combination of hydroxychloroquine (400 mg every 12 h on the first day, and 200 mg every 12 h for the following 5 days), azithromycin (500 mg orally for 5 days.
32871242 Concomitant medications were assessed and hydroxychloroquine was correlated with worse outcomes.
32871594 Treatment, including lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine and corticosteroids, was administered in 23% of patients.
32871902 She was treated with Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin and Lopinavir/Ritonavir, and the rash with topical corticosteroids.
32872629 The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has led to widespread use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin despite the lack of conclusive evidence for their safety and efficacy. […] We evaluated the association between treatment with hydroxychloroquine and/or azithromycin and hospital mortality as the primary outcome. […] We compared the hospital mortality of patients treated with hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, or their combination to the mortality of patients who received neither drug. […] Five hundred and eighty-seven patients (42%) received azithromycin and 377 patients (27%) received hydroxychloroquine, alone or in combination. […] Hydroxychloroquine alone (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.53-1.08) and the combination of azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.77-1.69) were not associated with hospital mortality. […] In this cohort of patients, azithromycin alone was associated with lower hospital mortality but hydroxychloroquine was not associated with increased or reduced mortality.
32874745 In this review, we address COVID-19 concerns for the cardiologist and electrophysiologist, including arrhythmia and conduction abnormalities, myocarditis, and arrhythmia in critically ill patients; angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in cardiac patients; hypercoagulability; and the drug properties of hydroxychloroquine as one of the potential therapies under review.
32876222 Although there are no large-scale studies regarding the use of chloroquine / hydroxychloroquine, due to the global situation, its use has been authorized for its anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-inflammatory effect, which can be potentiated with the use of azithromycin.
32876224 The therapeutic agents evaluated were chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, tocilizumab, oseltamivir, interferon, atazanavir and anti SARS-CoV-2 serum.
32876229 SOLIDARITY is a mega clinical trial that recruited thousands of subjects with moderate to severe disease, who were randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups under evaluation, including hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir associated or not with interferon; or remdesivir compared to standard therapy.
32876249 Clinical trials were planned and are in progress to investigate whether drugs used for influenza, HIV and other viruses, and also anthelmintics (ivermectin, nitazoxanide, niclosamide), and antimalarials (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) showing antiviral activity in in vitro assays, are effective and safe for Covid-19.
32876256 In antimalarial, the meta-analysis of two studies with 180 participants did not identify the benefit of hydroxychloroquine concerning the negative viral load via real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the use of antivirals compared to standard care was similar regarding outcomes.
32876623 He was started on hydroxychloroquine, which was switched to Remdesivir when it became available.
32876786 • Hydroxychloroquine shortage has become rampart across Africa as the drug is being used as prophylaxis against COVID-19 and this may necessitate a review of treatment plan for some patients with RMDs.
32877391 Regarding treatment with hydroxychloroquine associated or not with azithromycin, there is evidence of a higher risk with its use than clinical benefit and decreased mortality.
32877501 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have shown promising preliminary results and have been discussed as therapeutic options for patients with Covid-19.
32878881 In silico screening, molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) analysis suggest ribavirin, ascorbate, lopinavir and hydroxychloroquine have strong interaction at the RBD-hACE2 interface.
32879113 Hot anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs include interferon α, ribavirin, lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine phosphate, abidol, as well as hydroxychloroquine sulfate and remdesivir.
32880032 The aim of this article is to overview available evidence on the use of widely used antirheumatic drugs hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate and colchicine for additional indications. […] Hydroxychloroquine has endothelial stabilizing and anti-thrombotic effects. […] Hydroxychloroquine favourably modulates atherogenic lipid and glycaemic profiles. […] Hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate and colchicine are also being tried at different stages of the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic for prophylaxis and treatment. […] Hydroxychloroquine can cause retinopathy and rarely cardiac and auditory toxicity, retinopathy being dose and time dependent.
32880149 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have a long history of use against other infectious diseases, they are available and inexpensive, so the possibility of using them in vivo and in vitro to suppress the infectious agent was examined. […] This review analyzes literature on the development patterns of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy, basic principles of diagnosis and differentiation of this condition from other types of retinal pathology.
32881315 Patients received hydroxychloroquine (84%), azithromycin (75%), augmented steroids (44%), tocilizumab (19%), and remdesivir (9%). 11 patients (34%) died at a median time of 14 days from admission.
32881350 All patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics, 4 received corticosteroids and 2 received both lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine.
32881593 There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) as COVID-19 therapies, and thus World Health Organization (WHO) mentioned that “Current data shows that this drug does not reduce deaths among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, nor help people with mild or moderate disease.”
32881656 The most common under trial drugs for COVID-19 are Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin along with adjunct drugs like Amantadine with some monoclonal antibodies.
32881845 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, primarily used to treat autoimmune diseases and to prevent and treat malaria, received national attention in early March 2020, as potential treatment and prophylaxis for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1). […] On March 20, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate in the Strategic National Stockpile to be used by licensed health care providers to treat patients hospitalized with COVID-19 when the providers determine the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the patient. […] * Following reports of cardiac and other adverse events in patients receiving hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 (2), on April 24, 2020, FDA issued a caution against its use† and on June 15, rescinded its EUA for hydroxychloroquine from the Strategic National Stockpile. […] § Following the FDA’s issuance of caution and EUA rescindment, on May 12 and June 16, the federal COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel issued recommendations against the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine to treat COVID-19; the panel also noted that at that time no medication could be recommended for COVID-19 pre- or postexposure prophylaxis outside the setting of a clinical trial (3). […] However, public discussion concerning the effectiveness of these drugs on outcomes of COVID-19 (4,5), and clinical trials of hydroxychloroquine for prophylaxis of COVID-19 continue. […] ¶ In response to recent reports of notable increases in prescriptions for hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine (6), CDC analyzed outpatient retail pharmacy transaction data to identify potential differences in prescriptions dispensed by provider type during January-June 2020 compared with the same period in 2019. […] Before 2020, primary care providers and specialists who routinely prescribed hydroxychloroquine, such as rheumatologists and dermatologists, accounted for approximately 97% of new prescriptions.
32881895 Nicholas White and coauthors discuss chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine pharmacology in the context of possible treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32882888 Zn(II) is an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2’s RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are Zn(II) ionophores-this statement gives a curious mind a lot to think about. […] We show results of the first clinical trials on chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the treatment of COVID-19, as well as earlier reports on the anticoronaviral properties of these two compounds and of Zn(II) itself.
32884603 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Chloroquine (CQ) are two anti-malarial drugs that are now being extensively used by front-line healthcare workers and other common people as a prophylactic drug against the Corona Virus Disease - 19 (COVID-19) in India and as well as in many parts of the world.
32885277 In fact, one potential treatment is chloroquine and its derivatives, including hydroxychloroquine. […] Hydroxychloroquine, in fact, can induced retinal toxicity.
32885373 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) have been used for its treatment but their safety and efficacy remain uncertain.
32887660 The most common treatment options used were hydroxychloroquine (79.7%), ribavirin (65.2%), and oxygen therapy (78.8%).
32887670 They covered topics of chemoprophylaxis (including agents and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) agents), diagnosis (including clinical manifestations, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respiratory tract specimens, IgM and IgG antibody tests, chest computed tomography, chest x-ray, and CT features of asymptomatic infections), treatments (including lopinavir-ritonavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, interferon, remdesivir, combination of antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, glucocorticoid, qingfei paidu decoction, lianhua qingwen granules/capsules, convalescent plasma, lung transplantation, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)), and discharge management (including discharge criteria and management plan in patients whose RT-PCR retesting shows SARS-CoV-2 positive after discharge).
32888379 A thorough literature search was conducted to source information on the pharmacological properties of 5 drugs and 1 combination (azithromycin, chloroquine, favipiravir, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir) repurposed to treat COVID-19.
32888840 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was hypothesized to be active against SARS-CoV2 via antiviral and anti-inflammatory effect; however, HCQ for COVID-19 in clinical use remained debating.
32889701 Number of drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, lopinavir, ritonavir, darunavir, arbidol, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab and interferons have shown inhibitory effects against the SARS-CoV2 in-vitro as well as in clinical conditions.
32890029 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may prevent preeclampsia in pregnant women with SLE.
32890069 During hospitalization, COVID-19 patients received azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine in addition to their ongoing therapy.
32890139 Among SOT recipients, COVID-19-related treatment with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was associated with ten-fold higher hazard of death compared to without HCQ (HR=10.62[1.24-91.09]).
32892293 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been implicated in antiviral activity in vitro against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
32892311 In fact, drugs like hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone, and tocilizumab have been studied for treatment of COVID-19.
32892516 The pandemic had a significant negative impact on rheumatology visits in 82% of cases, access to hydroxychloroquine (47%), and chronic medication persistency (28%).
32893123 Here, we report the case of a Japanese patient with COVID-19 with severe respiratory failure who improved following the administration of hydroxychloroquine and continuous hemodiafiltlation with nafamostat mesylate. […] Hence, hydroxychloroquine with nafamostat mesylate might be a treatment option for severe COVID-19.
32896292 We assessed whether adding azithromycin to standard of care, which included hydroxychloroquine, would improve clinical outcomes of patients admitted to the hospital with severe COVID-19. […] All patients received hydroxychloroquine (400 mg twice daily for 10 days) because that was part of standard of care treatment in Brazil for patients with severe COVID-19. […] In patients with severe COVID-19, adding azithromycin to standard of care treatment (which included hydroxychloroquine) did not improve clinical outcomes. […] Our findings do not support the routine use of azithromycin in combination with hydroxychloroquine in patients with severe COVID-19.
32896705 One patient was on hydroxychloroquine and sulphasalazine, and one was on methotrexate.
32896750 Sixty-six publications and 111 clinical trials were recognized as eligible, reporting the efficacy of the immunomodulatory agents, including corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, passive and cytokine-targeted therapies, mesenchymal stem cells, and blood-purification therapy, in COVID-19 patients.
32897518 It is important to take note of what ongoing clinical trials on chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine can eventually tell us about the use of antimalarials and other anti-inflammatory agents, not only for the treatment of COVID-19, but also for neurovascular disorders such as stroke and vascular dementia.
32898838 Eight treatments were scrutinized: hypothiocyanite, lactoferrin, N-chlorotaurine, interferon-alpha, povidone-iodine, quaternary ammonium compounds, alcohol-based nasal antiseptics and hydroxychloroquine. […] Inhibition of other coronaviruses was described for lactoferrin, ethanol, hydroxychloroquine and quaternary ammonium compound. […] However, interferon-alpha, lactoferrin and hydroxychloroquine were tested in one-arm open label uncontrolled clinical trial. […] Oxidant activity (hypothiocyanite, N-chlorotaurine and povidone-iodine), enhancement of endocytic and lysosomal pH (quaternary ammonium compounds and hydroxychloroquine) and destruction of the viral capsid (quaternary ammonium compounds, alcohol-based nasal antiseptics) were the main mechanisms of action.
32898845 Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, and steroids were the most frequently prescribed drugs.
32899009 SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1-coinfected female patient under darunavir/cobicistat regimen received a 7-days hydroxychloroquine therapy. […] The severe pneumonia observed in SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1-positive patient under protease inhibitors was reversed by a 7-days hydroxychloroquine therapy.
32900245 Hydroxychloroquine was administered for 5 days, but discontinued after supraventricular extrasystoles.
32900781 We report on the first 56 patients; 29 received hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and 27 did not.
32901220 Considering the possibility of a systemic inflammatory response in the setting of post-chemotherapy immune reconstitution, we avoided aggressive fluid administration and initiated treatment with methylprednisolone and hydroxychloroquine, resulting in rapid clearance of pulmonary infiltrates and creatinine kinase.
32903552 Treatment by hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) medication, among others, has been proposed.
32903555 In the conditions mentioned, many people are on long-term treatment with agents including hydroxychloroquine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor drugs, other biologic agents such as monoclonal antibodies to IL-6 and Janus kinase inhibitors including baricitinib and tofacitinib, which are used to control inflammatory responses in their respective auto-immune condition.
32903640 Besides, the treatment regime involves drugs like losartan, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, Remdesivir, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, etc. may modulate the severity of the comorbidities.
32904117 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been a potential recourse of treatment in this regard for COVID-19 management.
32904710 The use of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, ivermectin, and colchicine might also be effective.
32904993 President Trump mentioned the potential antiviral benefits of hydroxychloroquine as the COVID-19 crisis became evident in the United States.
32905939 We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature evaluating the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine and its related formulations in COVID-19 patients. […] A systematic search of PubMed, Scopus, MedRxiv data and Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials for published articles that reported the outcomes of COVID-19 patients treated with hydroxychloroquine or its compounds was done. […] The study population consisted of a total of 4984 patients, of which 1721 (34.5%) received hydroxychloroquine or its congeners (HCQ group) while 3091 (62.01%) received standard of care or had included antiviral medication (control group). […] The pooled estimate of successful treatment in the hydroxychloroquine group and the control group was 77.45% and 77.87% respectively, which indicated similar clinical outcomes in patients treated with hydroxychloroquine compared to the control group. […] The odds ratio of a favourable outcome with hydroxychloroquine was 1.11 (95 CI 0.72 to 1.69) (p = 0.20). […] The pooled risk difference of favourable outcome with hydroxychloroquine versus control group was 0.00 (95 CI -0.03 to 0.03) which was statistically not significant (p = 0.10). […] The present evidence shows no benefit of hydroxychloroquine in patients affected by mild to moderate COVID-19 disease.
32907357 Based on inhibition of viral replication and limited reports on clinical efficacy, hydroxychloroquine is being considered as prophylaxis and treatment of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). […] Although hydroxychloroquine is generally considered safe during pregnancy based on studies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic conditions, there may still be reluctance to institute this antimalarial during pregnancy for the sole purpose of antiviral therapy. […] To provide data regarding any potential fetal/neonatal cardiotoxicity, we leveraged a unique opportunity in which neonatal ECGs and hydroxychloroquine blood levels were available in a recently completed study evaluating the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine 400 mg daily to prevent the recurrence of congenital heart block associated with anti-SSA/Ro (anti-Sjögren’s Syndrome A/Ro) antibodies. […] Forty-five ECGs were available for corrected QT interval (QTc) measurement, and levels of hydroxychloroquine were assessed during each trimester of pregnancy and in the cord blood, providing unambiguous assurance of drug exposure. […] Overall, there was no correlation between cord blood levels of hydroxychloroquine and the neonatal QTc (R=0.02, P=0.86) or the mean of hydroxychloroquine values obtained throughout each individual pregnancy and the QTc (R=0.04, P=0.80). […] In aggregate, these data provide reassurances that the maternal use of hydroxychloroquine is associated with a low incidence of infant QTc prolongation.
32908842 Hydroxychloroquine has been used worldwide as a first-line treatment for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. […] We reviewed the literature to assess the risk of hydroxychloroquine use in this context. […] A rapid drop in haemoglobin in COVID-19 patients should alert physicians to test for haemolytic anaemia and enzymopathies.Our review of the literature shows that use of hydroxychloroquine is safe in G6PD-deficient patients.
32910933 Chloroquine (CQ) and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been commonly used for the treatment and prevention of malaria, and the treatment of autoimmune diseases for several decades.
32914465 This is likely to interfere with the course of specifically long-term (high-dose) COVID-19 treatment in some aggravated forms (25% of coronavirus patients were still carrying the virus 6 days after taking hydroxychloroquine). […] Besides, symptoms of infection, adverse effects from the 600 mg hydroxychloroquine daily plus azithromycin, including insomnia, headaches, skin reactions, digestive upset with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, blurred vision, and local pain, may lead to increased anxiety and mental distress.
32915766 Objectives Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an anti-malarial and immunomodulatory drug reported to inhibit the Corona virus, SARS-CoV-2, in vitro.
32916297 Chloroquine (EC50 = 2.1 μM and EC90 = 3.8 μM), hydroxychloroquine (EC50 = 1.5 μM and EC90 = 3.0 μM), ferroquine (EC50 = 1.5 μM and EC90 = 2.4 μM), desethylamodiaquine (EC50 = 0.52 μM and EC90 = 1.9 μM), mefloquine (EC50 = 1.8 μM and EC90 = 8.1 μM), pyronaridine (EC50 = 0.72 μM and EC90 = 0.75 μM) and quinine (EC50 = 10.7 μM and EC90 = 38.8 μM) showed in vitro antiviral effective activity with IC50 and IC90 compatible with drug oral uptake at doses commonly administered in malaria treatment.
32918548 The panel recommends against the use of hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir-ritonavir (or other protease inhibitors) for COVID-19 in children.
32920000 Improvement of COVID-19 clinical condition was seen in studies where combination of antiretroviral drugs, lopinavir and ritonavir, as well as immunomodulant antimalaric, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine together with the macrolide-type antibiotic, azithromycin, was used for patient’s treatment. […] Thus, by using in silico toxicogenomic data-mining approach, we aimed to assess both risks and benefits of the COVID-19 treatment with the most promising candidate drugs combinations: lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin. […] Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin interacted with 6 genes (CCL2, CTSB, CXCL8, IL1B, IL6 and TNF), whereas chloroquine and azithromycin affected two additional genes (BCL2L1 and CYP3A4), which might be a reason behind a greater number of consequential diseases. […] In contrast to lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin downregulated the expression of TNF and IL6. […] As expected, inflammation, cardiotoxicity, and dyslipidaemias were revealed as the main risks of lopinavir/ritonavir treatment, while chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin therapy was additionally linked to gastrointestinal and skin diseases.
32920291 Chloroquine (CQ) and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been reported to treat the disease, but the underlying mechanism remains controversial.
32921678 During the hospitalization, she experienced unexpected sinus bradycardia with prolonged QTc, which was thought to be closely related to the short-term use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an old drug used to treat malaria and autoimmune diseases, but now used against COVID-19.
32921965 However, healthcare professionals are using chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, convalescent plasma and some other options of treatments. […] This study aims to compare the biological, molecular, pharmacological, and clinical characteristics of these three treatment modalities for SARS-COV-2 infections, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Convalescent Plasma, and Remdesivir. […] The search was based on keywords “COVID-19” SARS-COV-2, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, convalescent plasma, remdesivir and treatment modalities. […] We selected 17 relevant published original articles and clinical trials: 05 for chloroquine and/or hydroxychloroquine with total sample size (n = 220), 05 for Remdesivir (n = 1,781), and 07 for Convalescent Plasma therapy (n = 398), with a combined total sample size (n = 2,399).
32922210 Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine have been widely adopted worldwide for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. […] Recently, four large Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) have been performed in record time delivering reliable data: (1) the National Institutes of Health (NIH) RCT included 60 hospitals participating all over the world and showed the efficacy of remdesivir in reducing the recovery time in hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia; (2) three large RCTs already completed, for hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone and Lopinavir and Ritonavir respectively. […] These three ‘Recovery’ RCTs concluded definitely: (a) that treatment with hydroxychloroquine provides no benefits in patients hospitalized with COVID-19; (b) that treatment with dexamethasone reduced deaths by one-third in COVID-19 patients that were mechanically ventilated, and by one-fifth in patients receiving oxygen only; (c) that the combination of Lopinavir and Ritonavir is not effective in reducing mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients.
32923151 Amid controversial reports that COVID-19 can be treated with a combination of the antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and the antibiotic azithromycin (AZI), a clinical trial (ONCOCOVID, NCT04341207) was launched at Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus to investigate the utility of this combination therapy in cancer patients.
32923679 Moreover, some of the Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARDS) commonly used to treat rheumatic diseases like Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were proposed as a potential therapy for COVID-19 with a lack of full understanding of their molecular mechanisms.
32924956 In vitro studies have shown some benefits related to the use of antimalarials (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine) for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2.
32924964 Among the proposed therapeutic regimen, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, remdisevir, azithromycin, toclizumab and cromostat mesylate have shown promising results, and limited benefit was seen with lopinavir-ritonavir treatment in hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19.
32926573 Conflicting evidence regarding the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection do exist.
32927376 No protective effect was seen in subjects on hydroxychloroquine. […] Hydroxychloroquine apparently seems not to confer protection to infection per se, although other beneficial roles cannot be excluded.
32929403 Pregnancy was an exclusion criterion for 69% (75/109) of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, 80% (28/35) of lopinavir/ritonavir, and 48% (44/91) of convalescent plasma studies.
32929975 The aminoquinolones, hydroxychloroquine, and chloroquine are undergoing evaluation as a potential therapy against COVID -19. […] The goals of this paper are to identify whether or not hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine improves symptoms in palliative care patients and whether or not these drugs are safe to use in the advanced illness population who have COVID.
32930657 As a result of in vitro evidence suggesting zinc sulphate may be efficacious against COVID-19, our hospitals began using zinc sulphate as add-on therapy to hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.Aim. […] To compare outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients ordered to receive hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin plus zinc sulphate versus hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone.Methodology. […] Patients taking zinc sulphate in addition to hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (n=411) and patients taking hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone (n=521) did not differ in age, race, sex, tobacco use or relevant comorbidities.
32931985 Available data suggest no increased frequency or risk of respiratory viral events with NSAIDs, hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine, methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide, or apremilast.
32932327 All patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and low-molecular-weight heparin at anticoagulant dose.
32933365 During the recent COVID-19 outbreak hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been proposed as a safe and effective therapeutic option.
32935064 Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were widely adopted in treating COVID-19, but the results were contradictive.
32936252 Administration of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pneumonia carries increased risk of corrected QT (QTc) prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias. […] To characterize the risk and degree of QT prolongation in patients with COVID-19 in association with their use of hydroxychloroquine with or without concomitant azithromycin. […] This was a cohort study performed at an academic tertiary care center in Boston, Massachusetts, of patients hospitalized with at least 1 positive COVID-19 nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction test result and clinical findings consistent with pneumonia who received at least 1 day of hydroxychloroquine from March 1, 2020, through April 7, 2020. […] Change in QT interval after receiving hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin; occurrence of other potential adverse drug events. […] Among 90 patients given hydroxychloroquine, 53 received concomitant azithromycin; 44 (48.9%) were female, and the mean (SD) body mass index was 31.5 (6.6). […] The overall median (interquartile range) baseline QTc was 455 (430-474) milliseconds (hydroxychloroquine, 473 [454-487] milliseconds vs hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, 442 [427-461] milliseconds; P < .001). […] Those receiving concomitant azithromycin had a greater median (interquartile range) change in QT interval (23 [10-40] milliseconds) compared with those receiving hydroxychloroquine alone (5.5 [-15.5 to 34.25] milliseconds; P = .03). […] Seven patients (19%) who received hydroxychloroquine monotherapy developed prolonged QTc of 500 milliseconds or more, and 3 patients (8%) had a change in QTc of 60 milliseconds or more. […] Ten patients had hydroxychloroquine discontinued early because of potential adverse drug events, including intractable nausea, hypoglycemia, and 1 case of torsades de pointes. […] In this cohort study, patients who received hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of pneumonia associated with COVID-19 were at high risk of QTc prolongation, and concurrent treatment with azithromycin was associated with greater changes in QTc. […] Clinicians should carefully weigh risks and benefits if considering hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, with close monitoring of QTc and concomitant medication usage.
32940925 All admitted patients (n = 5) received hydroxychloroquine and 3 received high-dose steroids.
32941437 Meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses showed that we could exclude the possibility that hydroxychloroquine versus standard care reduced the risk of all-cause mortality (RR 1.07; 95% CI 0.97-1.19; p = 0.17; I2 = 0%; 7 trials; low certainty) and serious adverse events (RR 1.07; 95% CI 0.96-1.18; p = 0.21; I2 = 0%; 7 trials; low certainty) by 20% or more, and meta-analysis showed evidence of a harmful effect on nonserious adverse events (RR 2.40; 95% CI 2.01-2.87; p < 0.00001; I2 = 90%; 6 trials; very low certainty). […] We can exclude the possibility of hydroxychloroquine versus standard care reducing the risk of death and serious adverse events by 20% or more.
32942296 In this study, we use the ligand-protein docking program and molecular dynamic simulation to ab initio investigate the binding mechanism and inhibitory ability of seven clinically approved drugs (Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Ritonavir, Beclabuvir, Indinavir and Favipiravir) and a recently designed α-ketoamide inhibitor (13b) at the molecular level.
32942793 Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are old drugs used against malaria, rheumatism, inflammation in the joints, lupus, among others. […] It included studies reporting chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine effects and adverse effects against COVID-19.
32942923 In this report, we consolidate and review the available clinically and preclinically relevant results emanating from in vitro animal models and clinical studies of drugs approved for emergency use as a treatment for COVID-19, including remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir-ritonavir combinations.
32943302 Hydroxychloroquine is used as a positive control as it is used by medical professionals showing some positive effects in dealing with coronavirus.
32946004 Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been largely adopted in the clinical setting for the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, their known retinal toxicity has raised some safety concerns, especially considering the higher-dosage employed for COVID-19 patients as compared with their suggested posology for their usual indications, including systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic diseases. […] A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase and Scopus, by using the following search terms: “chloroquine retinal toxicity” and “hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity” alone or in combination with “coronavirus”, “COVID-19”, " SARS-CoV-2 infection " from inception to August 2020.
32947043 We also discuss the clinical evidence for the use of CQ and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) against COVID-19.
32947506 Since COVID-19 outbreak, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been tested for effective therapies and the relevant researches have shown controversial results. […] It was seen that hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin (HCQ-AZI) combination regimen increased the mortality rate in COVID-19 (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.63-3.36) patients, however, it also showed benefits associated with the viral clearance in patients (OR 27.18, 95% CI 1.29-574.32).
32947590 All patients (100%) were given antibiotic therapy, whereas 16 patients (80%) underwent hydroxychloroquine therapy and 8 (40%) were treated with corticosteroids.
32947798 Hydroxychloroquine was administered to 78% of patients, antibiotics to 73%, and antivirals to 30% while 25% received corticosteroid boluses, 28% received anti-interleukin agents, and 8% were given immunoglobulin.
32948577 Either hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine is administered as part of the study protocol in 152 (30%) of the drug/biological trials. […] The total planned enrolment for these hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine trials is over 200 000 participants, which represents 65% of the total planned enrolment for all registered trials of drugs or biologics.
32950177 Chloroquine (CQ) and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are antimalarial medications that have been found to have in vitro efficacy against SARS-CoV-2.
32952617 Recently, hydroxychloroquine and baricitinib have been proposed as potential drugs for SARS-CoV-2.
32953343 Most patients were treated with a combination of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, zinc, and vitamin C.
32953365 Since newer interventions would take months to years to develop, by looking at the pool of existing therapeutic options, including remdesivir (RDV), plasma exchange or cytapheresis, hydroxychloroquine, baricitinib, and lopinavir (LPV), we have tried to detail the principles behind their use to treat COVID-19, current application, and adverse effects.
32953968 Multivariate cox proportional hazards analysis showed that primary endpoint (mortality) was determined by overweight/obesity (OR 1.290, 95% CI 0.115-0.730; p = 0.009), ferritin levels (OR 1.001, 95% CI 1.000-1.001; p < 0.001), myocardial injury (OR 3.764, 95% CI 1.307-10.838; p = 0.014), septic shock (OR 4.104, 95% CI 1.142-14.132; p = 0.024), acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR 3.001, 95% CI 1.008-10.165; p = 0.040), and treatment with Hydroxychloroquine/Azithromycin (OR 0.357, 95% IC 0.133-0.955; p = 0.040).
32954790 Some results from a limited number of trials of antiviral medications, along with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, have been beneficial.
32955801 There was no evidence concerning the prophylaxis with hydroxychloroquine, and only low-grade evidence regarding the use of hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for COVID-19 patients. […] We performed a survey among Romanian physicians in order to see how many of them would administer prophylactically hydroxychloroquine to themselves or to people close to them, and if they would participate to a randomized controlled trial. […] Nine physicians (1.1%) thought that there was clear evidence on prescribing hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis, 375 (48%) considered the evidence acceptable, 348 (44.3%) considered it weak, whereas 53 (6.8%) answered there was no evidence. […] When asked about the source of the treatment regimen, 286 (36.4%) indicated a scientific paper, while no scientific paper about the prophylaxis with hydroxychloroquine existed at that time. […] Despite the lack of evidence, many physicians considered the evidence as existing, and were ready to take or to give hydroxychloroquine prophylactically to family.
32956575 Increased use of azithromycin (AZ) in treating infections associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and reports of increased incidence of prolonged corrected QT (QTc) interval associated with AZ used with hydroxychloroquine prompted us to review the latest evidence in the literature, present additional analyses of human cardiovascular (CV) electrophysiology studies, and to describe sequential steps in research and development that were undertaken to characterize the benefit-risk profile of AZ.
32956664 The result indicate that Molecules N° 3, 7 and 14 have more binding energy with SARS-CoV-2 main protease recently crystallized (pdb code 6LU7) in comparison with the other imidazole derivatives and the two drug; Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.
32956782 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZT) have been proposed for COVID-19 treatment.
32958069 Hydroxychloroquine was used to treat both patients; the first patient was treated with it over a period of 14 days before showing signs of improvement.
32958495 DisCoVeRy is a phase III, open-label, adaptive, controlled, multicentre clinical trial in which hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in need of oxygen therapy are randomised between five arms: (1) a control group managed with SoC and four therapeutic arms with re-purposed antiviral agents: (2) remdesivir + SoC, (3) lopinavir/ritonavir + SoC, (4) lopinavir/ritonavir associated with interferon (IFN)-β-1a + SoC and (5) hydroxychloroquine + SoC.
32958501 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was not associated with the incidence of death (risk ratio (RR)=1.08; 95% CI 0.81 to 1.44) and severe cases (RR=1.05; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.81).
32960061 Drug repurposing studies explored the potency of antimalarial drugs, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, against SARS-CoV-2 virus. […] Six compounds furnished better binding energies than chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. […] The docking and regression analysis showed these analogs to be more potent inhibitors of 3CLpro than hydroxychloroquine and primaquine.
32960100 While chloroquine, a derivative of quinine, has been used as an antimalarial for 70 years, hydroxychloroquine is now used to treat conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. […] In 2020, hydroxychloroquine (and to a lesser extent chloroquine) also received attention as a possible treatment for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] We review the toxicity associated with hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine use both short-term and long-term and in overdose. […] Medline (via OVID) was searched from its inception through June 7 2020 using the following as either MeSH or keyword terms: (“Chloroquine/” or “Hydroxychloroquine/”) AND (“Adverse Drug Event/” or “Toxicities, Drug/” or “Toxic.mp.” or “Toxicity.mp.” or “Overdose.mp.”). […] To identify toxicities in individuals treated with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with COVID-19, we searched PubMed on June 10th, 2020: (“Chloroquine” or “Hydroxychloroquine”) AND (“Coronavirus” or “COVID-19” or “SARS-CoV-2”). […] We then conducted targeted searches of PubMed up to June 7th 2020 combining “chloroquine” and “hydroxychloroquine” with terms for specific drug classes and drugs identified from the drug-interaction site as potentially relevant. […] Gastrointestinal: Gastrointestinal toxicities are the most common to occur following initiation of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. […] Glucose abnormalities: Alterations in blood glucose concentrations may occur with hydroxychloroquine but are rare with standard therapeutic use. […] Hydroxychloroquine is a generally well-tolerated medication.
32961123 Hydroxychloroquine is generally considered safe in pregnancy for the treatment of rheumatic conditions, but studies have been too small to evaluate teratogenicity. […] Quantifying the risk of congenital malformations associated with early pregnancy exposure to hydroxychloroquine is important in both the context of its ongoing use for rheumatological disorders and its potential future use for coronavirus disease 2019 prophylaxis, for which a number of clinical trials are ongoing despite initial trials for coronavirus disease 2019 treatment having been negative. […] The study objective was to evaluate the risk of major congenital malformations associated with exposure to hydroxychloroquine during the first trimester of pregnancy, the period of organogenesis. […] The source cohort included 2045 hydroxychloroquine-exposed pregnancies and 3,198,589 pregnancies not exposed to hydroxychloroquine continuously enrolled in their respective insurance program for 3 months before the last menstrual period through at least 1 month after delivery; infants were enrolled for at least 3 months after birth. […] We compared the risk of congenital malformations in women using hydroxychloroquine during the first trimester of pregnancy with that of those not using hydroxychloroquine, restricting the cohort to women with rheumatic disorders and using propensity score matching to control for indication, demographics, medical comorbidities, and concomitant medications (1867 hydroxychloroquine-exposed pregnancies and 19,080 pregnancies not exposed to hydroxychloroquine). […] Overall, 54.8 per 1000 infants exposed to hydroxychloroquine were born with a major congenital malformation versus 35.3 per 1000 unexposed infants, corresponding to an unadjusted relative risk of 1.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.27-1.81). […] Our findings suggest a small increase in the risk of malformations associated with first-trimester hydroxychloroquine use. […] If hydroxychloroquine were shown to be effective for coronavirus disease 2019 prophylaxis in ongoing trials, the risk of malformations would need to be balanced against such benefits.
32961675 Hydroxychloroquine in monotherapy was the most frequent antiviral drug recommended for mild respiratory illness with clinical risk factors (33.3%). […] Combined hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin or lopinavir/ritonavir was found in 40% of protocols. […] The recommended treatment for patients with mild and moderate pneumonias was different antiviral combinations including hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (93.3%) or hydroxychloroquine plus lopinavir/ritonavir (79.9%). […] Different combinations of hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir (46.7%) and triple therapy with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir (40%) were the most recommended treatments for patients with severe pneumonia.
32963091 Although chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and quinine are used for a range of medical conditions, recent research suggested a potential role in treating COVID-19. […] Toxicokinetic or pharmacokinetic analysis was available for 61 patients (13 chloroquine, three hydroxychloroquine, and 45 quinine). […] Clinical data were available for analysis from 38 patients, including 12 with chloroquine toxicity, one with hydroxychloroquine toxicity, and 25 with quinine toxicity. […] Although hydroxychloroquine was assessed as being non-dialyzable, the clinical evidence was not sufficient to support a formal recommendation regarding the use of extracorporeal treatments for this drug.
32963216 He received treatment including antibiotics, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, vasopressors, prone positioning, and anticoagulation with enoxaparin at a prophylactic dose.
32963819 Among the array of drugs that have shown positive results, the use of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine has raised a concern due to their well-known retinal toxic effects.
32963923 Given that CPM has broad antiviral effects against influenza and virucidal effect against SARS-CoV-2, we propose two further studies: a randomized placebo-controlled study of intranasally delivered chlorpheniramine in patients with mild-to-moderate SARS-CoV-2 and a second study aiming to determine the potential antiviral and adjuvant effects of CPM plus hydroxychloroquine, versus hydroxychloroquine alone, in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2.
32964098 In this article, we provide a brief overview of the protocol and then analyse the QT changes observed in a group of patients during their hospitalization and treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection. 81 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled in the protocol (age 63.4 SD 17.2 years; 70.3% men), while being treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine, both individually or combined.
32964535 There is a clinical need for safety data regarding hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.
32964653 The recent empirical use of hydroxychloroquine in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) revived the interest in its cardiac toxicity, increasingly sidelined over time. […] We aimed to assess and compare the profile of cardiac adverse drug reactions (CADR) associated with hydroxychloroquine before and during COVID-19. […] We performed a retrospective comparative observational study using the French Pharmacovigilance network database between 1985 and May 2020 to assess all postmarketing CADR associated with hydroxychloroquine notified before COVID-19 in its approved indications for lupus and rheumatoid arthritis (preCOV), and those concerning its empirical use in COVID-19 (COV). […] Estimated incidence of CADR was significantly higher among patients exposed to off-label use of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 (2.9%) than before COVID-19 in its approved indications (0.01%, P<0.001). […] The use of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 sheds a new light on the spectrum of its cardiac toxicity. […] This fosters the value of a closer monitoring of all patients treated with hydroxychloroquine, regardless of its indication, and the importance of an update of its summary of product characteristics.
32965016 We summarized antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2, such as remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine and favipiravir.
32965525 Seizures could be induced by hydroxychloroquine that was in the COVID-19 treatment or the inflammation caused by COVID-19 pneumonia.
32967165 Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been proposed as treatments for COVID-19.
32968208 Chloroquine phosphate and its derivative hydroxychloroquine, which have been used in the treatment and prevention of malaria and autoimmune diseases for decades, were found to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection with high potency in vitro and have shown clinical and virologic benefits in COVID-19 patients. […] Later, under a limited emergency-use authorization from the FDA, hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin was used to treat COVID-19 patients in the USA, although the mechanisms of the anti-COVID-19 effects remain unclear.
32968582 Initially, he was treated with IV anticoagulation, oral beta-blocker, azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine, but he dramatically deteriorated within a week exhibiting a highly elevated cytokine level eventually resulting in multi-system organ failure.
32968954 In the absence of characterization on pharmacokinetics and reference concentrations for hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients, the dose and treatment duration for hydrochloroquine are currently empirical, mainly based on in vitro data, and may vary across national guidelines and clinical study protocols. […] The aim of this paper is to describe the pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients, considered to be a key step toward its dosing optimization. […] We have developed a population pharmacokinetic model for hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients using prospectively collected pharmacokinetic data from patients either enrolled in a clinical trial or treated with hydroxychloroquine as part of standard of care in two tertiary Belgian hospitals. […] The developed models provide useful insight for the dosing optimization of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients. […] The present results should be used in conjunction with exposure-efficacy and exposure-safety data to inform optimal dosing of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19.
32969369 There are ongoing clinical trials on potential drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids tocilizumab, azithromycin, anakinra, etc. and other therapeutic modalities like convalescent plasma therapy.
32971536 The aim of the study was to describe ECG modifications and arrhythmic events in COVID-19 patients undergoing hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) therapy in different clinical settings.
32972027 Repositioning existing drugs such as Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Ivermectin and Baricitinib shows good potential for COVID-19 treatment.
32972804 Moreover, drugs such as hydroxychloroquine or tocilizumab that are widely used to treat rheumatic diseases are now being used to treat COVID-19.
32973504 One potential therapy that has garnered international attention is hydroxychloroquine; a potent immunomodulatory agent FDA-approved for the treatment of numerous inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, including malaria, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis. […] Hydroxychloroquine has demonstrated promise in vitro and is currently under investigation in clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19. […] Despite an abundance of empirical data, the mechanism(s) involved in the immunomodulatory activity of hydroxychloroquine have not been characterized. […] Using the unbiased chemical similarity ensemble approach (SEA), we identified C-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CCR4) as an immunomodulatory target of hydroxychloroquine. […] In silico, hydroxychloroquine interacts with Thr-189 within the CCR4 active site, presumably blocking endogenous ligand binding. […] However, the CCR4 antagonists compound 18a and K777 outperformed hydroxychloroquine in silico, demonstrating energetically favorable binding characteristics. […] Hydroxychloroquine may subject COVID-19 patients to QT-prolongation, increasing the risk of sudden cardiac death. […] The FDA-approved CCR4 antagonist mogalizumab is not known to increase the risk of QT prolongation and may serve as a viable alternative to hydroxychloroquine.
32974268 The drugs most actively tested in various centers include hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, azithromycin, tocilizumab, lopinavir chloroquine and ivermectin. […] Our analysis shows that most clinical trials focus on a small number of candidate drugs (namely hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine representing 25% of total clinical trials) while underestimating the potential of other promising drugs.
32978364 BACKGROUND This case series describes 5 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 in Ecuador who had been treated with hydroxychloroquine for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) prior to their COVID-19 illness. […] CASE REPORT Case #1 reports a 29-year-old woman who had been treated with 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day for 1 year and presented with flu-like symptoms, chest pain, fever, odynophagia, asthenia, dry cough, and chills. […] Case #2 was a 34-year-old woman whose treatment for SLE included 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day since 2017. […] Case #3 was a 24-year-old woman who had been using 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day since 2010. […] Case #4 was a 39-year-old woman taking 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine every day for SLE who presented with dyspnea, chest pain, odynophagia, hypogeusia, anosmia, diarrhea, and fever. […] Case #5 was a 46-year-old woman who had been taking 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine since 2019. […] CONCLUSIONS All 5 of our patients with SLE who were taking hydroxychloroquine presented with SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptoms of COVID-19. […] This case series provides support for a lack of prevention of COVID-19 by hydroxychloroquine.
32978702 Numerous drugs have been repurposed and investigated for therapeutic effectiveness in the disease, including those from “Solidarity,” an international clinical trial (azithromycin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, the fixed combination lopinavir/ritonavir, and remdesivir).
32981089 Non-clinical studies suggest that chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have antiviral activities.
32982538 Although there is a lack of conclusive evidence of their benefit, there is worldwide controversy to use anti-malarial drugs, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, for the treatment of COVID-19.
32982720 So far COVID-19 therapies have targeted various pathogenic mechanisms, namely the neutralization of ACE2 receptors or SARS-CoV-2 spike protein epitopes, the disruption of the endocytic pathways using hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, or anti-Janus kinase inhibitors, the inhibition of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase using nucleotide analogues such as remdesivir, immunosuppressive drugs or molecules acting on the immune response (corticoids, interferons, monoclonal antibodies against inflammatory cytokines, mesenchymal stem cells) and convalescent plasma administration together with numerous drugs with unproven effect against SARS-CoV-2 but with potential antiviral activities (antiretrovirals, antimalarial drugs, antibiotics, etc.).
32982751 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine (230/943, 24.4%) were widely studied.
32983702 As a result of this worldwide public health crisis, politicians, elected officials, and healthcare professionals emergently began trialing hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in efforts to treat and prevent the transmission of the virus.
32984847 Hydroxychloroquine is one of several agents being evaluated in the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. […] We aimed to examine whether patients with rheumatological conditions receiving chronic hydroxychloroquine therapy are at less risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 infection than those not receiving hydroxychloroquine. […] A propensity score was calculated for each patient, and each patient who was receiving hydroxychloroquine was matched to two patients who were not receiving hydroxychloroquine (controls). […] The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection among those receiving chronic hydroxychloroquine versus the propensity-matched patients not receiving chronic hydroxychloroquine between March 1 and June 30, 2020. […] Between March 1 and June 30, 2020, 10 703 patients receiving hydroxychloroquine and 21 406 patients not receiving hydroxychloroquine were included in the primary analysis. […] The incidence of active SARS-CoV-2 infections during the study period did not differ between patients receiving hydroxychloroquine and patients not receiving hydroxychloroquine (31 [0·3%] of 10 703 vs 78 [0·4%] of 21 406; odds ratio 0·79, 95% CI 0·52-1·20, p=0·27). […] For all patients in the study, overall mortality was lower in the hydroxychloroquine group than in the group of patients who did not receive hydroxychloroquine (odds ratio 0·70, 95% CI 0·55-0·89, p=0·0031). […] In multivariate logistic regression analysis, receipt of hydroxychloroquine was not associated with the development of active SARS-CoV-2 infection (odds ratio 0·79, 95% CI 0·51-1·42). […] Hydroxychloroquine was not associated with a preventive effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection in a large group of patients with rheumatological conditions.
32989427 She was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and doxycycline at an outside facility and finished the treatment 5 days prior to admission to our facility.
32990927 The response and side effects of currently studied potential therapies for COVID-19, such as hydroxychloroquine, likely differ by sex.
32991900 Since the proteolytic cleavage of the S protein is critical for virus penetration into cells, a set of drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, camostat mesylate have been tested in clinical trials to suppress this event.
32992777
  1. Background: Hydroxychloroquine is used to treat malaria and autoimmune diseases, and its potential use against COVID-19 is currently under investigation. […] Thus far, information on interactions of hydroxychloroquine with drug transporters mediating drug-drug interactions is limited. […] We assessed the inhibition of important efflux (P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)) and uptake transporters (organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1) by hydroxychloroquine, tested its P-gp and BCRP substrate characteristics, and evaluated the induction of pharmacokinetically relevant genes regulated by the nuclear pregnane X (PXR) (CYP3A4, ABCB1) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) (CYP1A1, CYP1A2). […] (3) Results: Hydroxychloroquine did not inhibit BCRP or the OATPs tested but inhibited P-gp at concentrations exceeding 10 µM. […] P-gp overexpressing cells were 5.2-fold more resistant to hydroxychloroquine than control cells stressing its substrate characteristics. […] Hydroxychloroquine did not induce genes regulated by PXR or AhR. […] (4) Conclusions: This is the first evidence that hydroxychloroquine’s interaction potential with drug transporters is low, albeit bioavailability of simultaneously orally administered P-gp substrates might be increased by hydroxychloroquine.
32995369 We describe the unique experience and favorable outcome of a 100-year-old COVID-positive hip fracture patient that underwent spinal anesthesia for hemiarthroplasty and subsequent hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) therapy.
32996071 There was a hydroxychloroquine shortage in 47%.
32997237 This study investigates the association between the treatment with hydroxychloroquine and mortality in patients admitted with COVID-19. […] The following variables were extracted for this study: age, gender, temperature, and saturation of oxygen on admission, treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, heparin, steroids, tocilizumab, a combination of lopinavir with ritonavir, and oseltamivir, together with data on mortality. […] Hydroxychloroquine had been used in 1857 patients. […] Hydroxychloroquine was associated with lower mortality when the model was adjusted for age and gender, with OR (95% CI): 0.44 (0.29-0.67). […] The association between hydroxychloroquine and lower mortality observed in this study can be acknowledged by clinicians in hospitals and in the community. […] Randomized-controlled trials to assess the causal effects of hydroxychloroquine in different therapeutic regimes are required.
32997322 Among all these drugs, we focus on the most promising drugs (such as favipiravir, tocilizumab, SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma, hydroxychloroquine, Lianhua Qingwen, interferon beta-1a, remdesivir, etc.) that have or will enter the final stage of human testing-phase III-IV clinical trials.
32998618 The inhibitory effect of all studied compounds was studied with compared to some proposed antiviral drugs which currently used in COVID-19 treatment such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, baloxvir, lopinavir, and favipiravir.
33001051 Several clinical trials are ongoing with hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, and low molecular weight heparins.
33001138 To evaluate the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in hospital-based HCWs with exposure to patients with COVID-19 using a pre-exposure prophylaxis strategy. […] This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 With Hydroxychloroquine Study) was conducted at 2 tertiary urban hospitals, with enrollment from April 9, 2020, to July 14, 2020; follow-up ended August 4, 2020. […] Hydroxychloroquine, 600 mg, daily, or size-matched placebo taken orally for 8 weeks. […] There was no significant difference in infection rates in participants randomized to receive hydroxychloroquine compared with placebo (4 of 64 [6.3%] vs 4 of 61 [6.6%]; P > .99). […] Mild adverse events were more common in participants taking hydroxychloroquine compared with placebo (45% vs 26%; P = .04); rates of treatment discontinuation were similar in both arms (19% vs 16%; P = .81). […] The median change in QTc (baseline to 4-week evaluation) did not differ between arms (hydroxychloroquine: 4 milliseconds; 95% CI, -9 to 17; vs placebo: 3 milliseconds; 95% CI, -5 to 11; P = .98). […] In this randomized clinical trial, although limited by early termination, there was no clinical benefit of hydroxychloroquine administered daily for 8 weeks as pre-exposure prophylaxis in hospital-based HCWs exposed to patients with COVID-19.
33003964 Hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin have been widely used to treat COVID-19 despite a paucity of evidence regarding efficacy. […] Methods - COVID-19 positive patients that received hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin across 13 hospitals between March 1st and April 15th were included in this study. […] Results - The primary outcome of TdP was observed in 1 (0.015%) out of 6,476 hospitalized COVID-19 patients receiving hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin. […] Sixty-seven (1.03%) had hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin held or discontinued due to an average QT prolongation of 60.5±40.5ms from a baseline QTc of 473.7±35.9ms to a peak QTc of 532.6±31.6ms. […] Of these patients, hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin were discontinued in 58 patients (86.6%), while one or more doses of therapy were held in the remaining nine (13.4%). […] Conclusions - The risk of torsade de pointes is low in hospitalized COVID-19 patients receiving hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin therapy.
33004712 Immunomodulatory drugs, such as hydroxychloroquine and interleukin-6 inhibitors, as well as antithrombotic drugs such as heparin and low molecular weight heparin, are currently being administered with some benefit.
33006776 Chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and ivermectin (IVM) are among the most politically promoted and sold drugs.
33007039 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is widely used in the treatment of malaria, rheumatologic disease such as lupus, and most recently, COVID-19.
33007454 The global push for the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) against COVID-19 resulted in an ongoing discussion about the effectivity and toxicity of these drugs.
33008280 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has shown some promise in the management of COVID 19.
33008777 The docking score of these natural coumarin analogues compared with standard Hydroxychloroquine.
33011363 Taking curcumin as a reference compound, we identified a new commercially available cyclohexanone compound, ZINC07333416 with binding energy (-8.72 kcal/mol) better than that of popularly devised anti-Covid-19 drugs like viral protease inhibitor Lopinavir, nucleoside analogue Remdesivir and the repurposed drug hydroxychloroquine when targeted to the active-site of SARS-CoV-2 Main protease (Mpro) through docking studies.
33013059 Though a large number of treatments, including hydroxychloroquine, anti-viral, convalescent plasma etc., are being tried, as of now treatment is symptomatic only.
33014379 These fluctuations have been tentatively related to communications, publications or leaks about Remdesivir or hydroxychloroquine/azithromicin treatment.
33014380 This review aims to collect and summarize a list of drugs used to treat COVID-19, including dexamethasone, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, tociluzimab, nitazoxanide and ivermectin.
33015096 Concerning Hydroxychloroquine, 10% claimed that they would take it if they have COVID-19 symptoms.
33015546 The most encouraging treatment to date is suggested to be with the help of remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and many such repurposed drugs.
33017386 Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, interferon-2b, and oseltamivir are some pharmacological options evaluated in clinical trials for prophylaxis of COVID-19.
33017904 Current formulations and dose regimens of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) put patients at risk of harm.
33020069 The Task Force made consensus suggestions to treat patients with acute COVID-19 pneumonia with remdesivir and dexamethasone but suggested against hydroxychloroquine except in the context of a clinical trial; these are revisions of prior suggestions resulting from the interim publication of several randomised trials.
33020333 Visiting private clinic and receiving hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate or sulfasalazine were related to perception that autoimmune conditions would make them more prone to COVID-19. […] Living in Sumatra region and getting hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate or MMF/MPA were related to perception that autoimmune medications could reduce risk of getting COVID-19. […] Adequate information, university education, private clinic visit, and hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate use were related to perception that COVID-19 pandemic would cause difficulties in getting medications. almost all respondents had good knowledge and practices regarding COVID-19.
33020340 However, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin all prolong the QT interval, raising concerns about the risk of arrhythmic death from individual or concurrent use of these medications.
33020690 Pharmacological treatments including antivirals (Lopinavir/Ritonavir), Immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory drugs including, Tocilizumab and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been widely investigated as a treatment for COVID-19.
33023033 In addition, some medicines (i.e., remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) have received emergency use authorisation from the FDA.
33023432 Anti-retroviral, Remdesivir, as well as different repurposed drugs like chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have shown promising effects in vitro.
33023552 On day 4 of admission, with suspicion of COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir and oseltamivir were added to the antibiotic regimen.
33023821 All patients received antiviral therapy based on ritonavir and lopinavir, associated with hydroxychloroquine.
33024460 In addition, several antimicrobials that are currently used as potential therapeutic agents for COVID-19, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, have uncertain benefit, and yet may induce electrocardiographic QT prolongation with potential ventricular pro-arrhythmic effects.
33025225 Comparison of antiviral strategies (none, hydroxychloroquine (OHQ), lopinavir/ritonavir (L/R), others (combination or remdesivir) in an observational multicentre cohort of patients with moderate-to-severe Covid-19 ARDS. […] Take home message Neither hydroxychloroquine nor lopinavir/ritonavir as COVID-19 antiviral treatment is associated with higher ventilator-free days at day 28 when compared with standard of care (no antiviral treatment) in ICU patients under invasive mechanical ventilation.
33026101 Many early deaths may have been due to suboptimal management, malfunctional health systems, hydroxychloroquine, sending COVID-19 patients to nursing homes, and nosocomial infections; such deaths are partially avoidable moving forward.
33028485 As it happens, such a statement would apply perfectly well to the story of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the COVID-19 infection: it has become a veritable saga, with conflicting views that have often gone beyond the normal scientific dialectic, and with conclusions that have frequently been polluted by non scientific opinions: thus, for instance, when National Agencies have taken positions against CQ and HCQ, the move has been seen as a pro-vaccine attempt to block low cost therapy means.
33029451 Based on available evidence, antivirals like lopinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir specific medication like chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, corticosteroids, and intravenous gamma globulin, are not recommended, so early detection and supportive treatment is needed for an optimal outcome.
33029696 The repurposed drugs like Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Tenofovir, Remdesivir, Ribavirin, Darunavir, Oseltamivir, Arbidol (Umifenovir), Favipiravir, Anakinra, and Baricitinib are already being used in clinical trials to treat the COVID-19 patients.
33029911 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is commonly used in the treatment of malaria and rheumatic diseases.
33031488 Clinical studies of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in COVID-19 disease reported conflicting results.
33031652 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been proposed as treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) on the basis of in vitro activity and data from uncontrolled studies and small, randomized trials. […] In this randomized, controlled, open-label platform trial comparing a range of possible treatments with usual care in patients hospitalized with Covid-19, we randomly assigned 1561 patients to receive hydroxychloroquine and 3155 to receive usual care. […] The enrollment of patients in the hydroxychloroquine group was closed on June 5, 2020, after an interim analysis determined that there was a lack of efficacy. […] Death within 28 days occurred in 421 patients (27.0%) in the hydroxychloroquine group and in 790 (25.0%) in the usual-care group (rate ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 1.23; P = 0.15). […] The results suggest that patients in the hydroxychloroquine group were less likely to be discharged from the hospital alive within 28 days than those in the usual-care group (59.6% vs. […] Among the patients who were not undergoing mechanical ventilation at baseline, those in the hydroxychloroquine group had a higher frequency of invasive mechanical ventilation or death (30.7% vs. […] There was a small numerical excess of cardiac deaths (0.4 percentage points) but no difference in the incidence of new major cardiac arrhythmia among the patients who received hydroxychloroquine. […] Among patients hospitalized with Covid-19, those who received hydroxychloroquine did not have a lower incidence of death at 28 days than those who received usual care.
33031764 Eligible and consenting patients were randomly allocated to either usual standard of care alone or usual standard of care plus lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg, respectively) by mouth for 10 days or until discharge (or one of the other RECOVERY treatment groups: hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone, or azithromycin) using web-based simple (unstratified) randomisation with allocation concealment.
33031797 So far, chloroquine, lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, favipiravir, ribavirin, darunavir, remdesivir, and umifenovir have been tested in COVID-19 clinical trials. […] Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and favipiravir, which were highly distributed to the lung, were reported to reduce viral loads in respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients.
33032282 Hydroxychloroquine (HQ) has been used for the treatment of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) even though there is no clear evidence for its effectiveness yet.
33033459 A multidrug regimen including others hydroxychloroquine, antibiotics, dexamethasone and paracetamol, low-molecular-weight-heparin and potassium canrenoate was started. […] The highest score retrieved was for hydroxychloroquine. […] To our knowledge, this is the first case of TEN in a patient suffering from COVID-19 probably associated with hydroxychloroquine. […] Given the activation of the immune system syndrome induced by the virus and the widespread off-label use of this drug, we suggest a careful monitoring of skin and mucous membranes in all COVID-19 positive patients treated with hydroxychloroquine in order to early detect early signs of toxicities.
33033595 A computer program for retrosynthetic planning helps develop multiple “synthetic contingency” plans for hydroxychloroquine and also routes leading to remdesivir, both promising but yet unproven medications against COVID-19.
33033687 A total of 127 patients received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (95%).
33037151 Treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters with a low dose of favipiravir or hydroxychloroquine with(out) azithromycin resulted in, respectively, a mild or no reduction in virus levels. […] Moreover, a high dose of favipiravir decreased virus transmission by direct contact, whereas hydroxychloroquine failed as prophylaxis. […] Pharmacokinetic modeling of hydroxychloroquine suggested that the total lung exposure to the drug did not cause the failure. […] Our data on hydroxychloroquine (together with previous reports in macaques and ferrets) thus provide no scientific basis for the use of this drug in COVID-19 patients.
33041111 The following keywords were used: ((COVID-19) OR (SARS-CoV-2)) AND ((((((therapeutics) OR (treatment)) OR (vaccine)) OR (hydroxychloroquine)) OR (antiviral)) OR (prognosis)). […] The following pharmacologic therapies were evaluated: chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), antivirals therapies, plasma therapy, anti-inflammatories, and a vaccine.
33041712 Though data are limited, antiviral therapies such as remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and other drugs like hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine have been used for severe COVID-19 cases, with remdesivir showing the greatest promise.
33041830 These include antivirals (remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, umifenovir, and favipiravir), interferon, antimalarials (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine), antiparasitic drugs (ivermectin and nitazoxanide), biologics (monoclonal antibodies and interleukin receptor antagonist), cellular therapies (mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells), convalescent plasma, and cytokine adsorber.
33042552 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has shown efficacy against COVID-19 in some but not all studies. […] We searched PubMed, Cochrane, EmBase, Google Scholar, and Google for all reports on hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for COVID-19 patients.
33042826 In our series, hospitalization rate was 74%, 39% of patients developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and the case-fatality rate was 35% (8/23). 87% of patients received anti-viral treatment (87% hydroxychloroquine, 74% lopinavir/ritonavir, 13% azithromycin), 43% corticosteroids, 26% interferon-β, 4% tocilizumab, and 82% of hospitalized patients received anticoagulation.
33043250 She was treated with hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir as per hospital protocol.
33044019 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for COVID-19 is presently being used off-label or within a clinical trial.
33044166 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is such a drug that is being studied as a repurposed agent, although the early results are still inconclusive.
33045209 Several drugs that are often used in dermatology are among the potentially useful treatments: ivermectin, antiandrogenic agents, melatonin, and the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.
33045596 Considering that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), the most studied zinc ionophore drug for COVID-19, is linked to potentially serious side effects, we propose the implementation of hinokitiol as a zinc ionophore and anti-infective agent for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 and other viral infections.
33045775 He received hydroxychloroquine while Genvoya® was continued.
33046317 The majority of patients was subjected to the off - label protocol with antivirals and hydroxychloroquine therapy, we used cortisone support therapy under surveillance and in 3 cases the protocol with anti - IL6 monoclonal antibody (Tolicizumab).
33047848 To assess whether randomized clinical trials (RCTs) proposed to evaluate the treatment of patients with COVID-19 with hydroxychloroquine (HQ) or chloroquine early in the pandemic included plans to measure outcomes that would translate into meaningful efficacy/effectiveness and safety outcomes.
33048372 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial drug with immunomodulatory effects used to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and scleroderma.