DrugBank ID: db01611
DrugCentral: hydroxychloroquine
Synonymous :(±)-hydroxychloroquine | 2-((4-((7-chloro-4-quinolyl)amino)pentyl)ethylamino)ethanol | 2-(n-(4-(7-chlor-4-chinolylamino)-4-methylbutyl)ethylamino)ethanol | 7-chloro-4-(4-(ethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)-1-methylbutylamino)quinoline | 7-chloro-4-(4-(n-ethyl-n-β-hydroxyethylamino)-1-methylbutylamino)quinoline | 7-chloro-4-[4-(n-ethyl-n-β-hydroxyethylamino)-1-methylbutylamino]quinoline | 7-chloro-4-[5-(n-ethyl-n-2-hydroxyethylamino)-2-pentyl]aminoquinoline | hidroxicloroquina | hydroxychloroquine | hydroxychloroquinum | oxichlorochine | oxichloroquine

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of hydroxychloroquine gene in 385 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32150618 Hydroxychloroquine shares the same mechanism of action as chloroquine, but its more tolerable safety profile makes it the preferred drug to treat malaria and autoimmune conditions. […] We propose that the immunomodulatory effect of hydroxychloroquine also may be useful in controlling the cytokine storm that occurs late-phase in critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. […] Currently, there is no evidence to support the use of hydroxychloroquine in SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] The pharmacological activity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine was tested using SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero cells. […] Using the PBPK models, hydroxychloroquine concentrations in lung fluid were simulated under 5 different dosing regimens to explore the most effective regimen whilst considering the drug’s safety profile. […] Hydroxychloroquine (EC50=0.72 μM) was found to be more potent than chloroquine (EC50=5.47 μM) in vitro. […] Based on PBPK models results, a loading dose of 400 mg twice daily of hydroxychloroquine sulfate given orally, followed by a maintenance dose of 200 mg given twice daily for 4 days is recommended for SARS-CoV-2 infection, as it reached three times the potency of chloroquine phosphate when given 500 mg twice daily 5 days in advance. […] Hydroxychloroquine was found to be more potent than chloroquine to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
32171740 In the absence of a known efficient therapy and because of the situation of a public-health emergency, it made sense to investigate the possible effect of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 since this molecule was previously described as a potent inhibitor of most coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-1.
32196083 We propose that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which exhibits an antiviral effect highly similar to that of CQ, could serve as a better therapeutic approach.
32205204 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been found to be efficient on SARS-CoV-2, and reported to be efficient in Chinese COV-19 patients. […] We evaluate the role of hydroxychloroquine on respiratory viral loads. […] French Confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in a single arm protocol from early March to March 16th, to receive 600mg of hydroxychloroquine daily and their viral load in nasopharyngeal swabs was tested daily in a hospital setting. […] Azithromycin added to hydroxychloroquine was significantly more efficient for virus elimination. […] Despite its small sample size our survey shows that hydroxychloroquine treatment is significantly associated with viral load reduction/disappearance in COVID-19 patients and its effect is reinforced by azithromycin.
32214286 These include vaccines, medications Remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine and potentially combination therapy.
32222713 He remained in critical condition being treated with hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab in addition to the standard medical management for septic shock and ARDS.
32234468 Treatments, including antiviral agents, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids, antibodies, convalescent plasma transfusion and vaccines, are discussed in this article.
32241801 Two antimalarial agents, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), have been trusted treatments for a range of rheumatic diseases over the past seventy years [1].
32243270 This review summarizes the current evidence of potential therapeutic agents, such as lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, interferon, ribavirin, tocilizumab and sarilumab.
32247211 In view of recent studies and discussion on chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), we aimed to review existing literature and relevant websites regarding these drugs and COVID-19, adverse effects related to drugs, and related guidelines.
32247213 Search terms were, COVID-19, treatment of coronavirus, COVID 19 and following terms; chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ibuprofen, ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, cardiovascular disease, diarrhoea, liver, testis and gastrointestinal disease. […] We discuss evidence regarding role of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in treatment and prophylaxis, use of inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system, safety of ibuprofen, unusual clinical features like gastrointestinal symptoms and interpretation of tests for cardiac enzymes and biomarkers.
32249257 Very recently, hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin treatment was reported to be effective for COVID-19.
32251731 This study showed that, in the presence of CLQ [or its more active derivative, hydroxychloroquine (CLQ-OH)], the viral S protein is no longer able to bind gangliosides.
32253799 A severe cutaneous drug reaction resembling acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis resulting from ingestion of hydroxychloroquine has been documented. […] Given the anticipated surge in the use of hydroxychloroquine due to its reported benefits in those with coronavirus disease 2019, specific recognition of this entity is pivotal.
32253888 It is hoped that certain drugs, such as CoV-19 receptor blockers, anti-inflammatories (against rheumatic diseases), monoclonal antibodies, anti-IL-1 and anti-IL-6, the remdesevir drug (analogue adenosine, effective against ebola), hydroxychloroquine (for the treatment of malaria) and vaccines, will open up new strategies and new therapeutic ways to combat this terrible virus.
32255489 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) appears to be a promising treatment for COVID-19.
32256547 We identified 24 clinical trials, involving more than 20 medicines, such as human immunoglobulin, interferons, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, methylprednisolone, bevacizumab, and traditional Chinese medicines (TCM).
32265182 In light of this, there has been growing interest in the use of existing medications, such as chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), as potential treatments of this disease.
32268005 It has been reported that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is active against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, and this finding was quickly supported by an open label non-randomized clinical trial that provided the first published clinical evidence HCQ may be a treatment option.
32277367 Preliminary evidence suggests potential benefit with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. […] • Although preliminary results may be encouraging, high-quality clinical trials are needed to better understand the role of drugs commonly used in rheumatology like hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab in COVID-19.
32277836 Both patients were treated with darunavir/cobicistat and hydroxychloroquine.
32279418 Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir were started, and the antiviral drug was replaced with darunavir/cobicistat after two days for diarrhea.
32281114 Supportive measures, in addition to a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine, were maintained until remdesivir could be supplied on day 9 of hospitalization, 13 days after symptom onset.
32281213 Different drugs for prophylaxis against COVID-19 including chloroquine (CQ) or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been tried.
32281268 In light of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) pandemic and the possible widespread use of chloroquine (a member of the drug class 4-aminoquinoline primarily used to prevent and treat malaria and amebiasis) and its derivatives (e.g. hydroxychloroquine, a metabolite of chloroquine),1 a safety issue is addressed, concerning the selection of patients suitable to receive it.
32281481 Due to factors such as history of prescription for other infectious diseases, availability, and relatively low cost, the use of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been tested in vivo and in vitro for the ability to inhibit the causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
32281583 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have garnered considerable attention for their potential to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Increasing evidence obtained from completed clinical studies indicates the prospects for chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19.
32282502 No established treatment is currently available; however, several therapies, including remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, and interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitors, are being used off-label and evaluated in ongoing clinical trials.
32282982 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was used by 78.1% of respondents; azithromycin by 46.9%; tocilizumab by 31.3%, and remdesivir by 25.0%.
32285930 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a promising candidate for Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) treatment.
32289548 We conducted an uncontrolled non-comparative observational study in a cohort of 80 relatively mildly infected inpatients treated with a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin over a period of at least three days, with three main measurements: clinical outcome, contagiousness as assessed by PCR and culture, and length of stay in infectious disease unit (IDU).
32290293 The initial clinical studies revealed the promising therapeutic potential of several of such drugs, including favipiravir, a broad-spectrum antiviral drug that interferes with the viral replication, and hydroxychloroquine, the repurposed antimalarial drug that interferes with the virus endosomal entry pathway.
32292817 Our coalition of public health experts, doctors, and scientists worldwide want to draw attention to the need for high-quality evaluation protocols of the potential beneficial effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a post-exposure drug for exposed people, meaning people with close contact with positive tested patients, including home and medical caregivers.
32292908 This paper provides an overview of the current global market and manufacturing landscape for hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32292909 For this emergency, the FDA has approved Remdesivir and Hydroxychloroquine for treatment of COVID-19 as Emergency Use Authorization.
32293710 It is also allows consideration of agents, such as hydroxychloroquine, which may interfere with this overly brisk macrophage inflammatory response and perhaps influence the course of the disease, in particular those that blunt but do not completely abrogate the M1 to M2 balance in macrophage polarization, as well as viral load, which in SARS appears to be temporally related to the onset of ARDS.
32293834 The most frequently used agents both in Turkey and all over the world including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir and remdesivir will be reviewed here .
32294807 At present, there are no studies demonstrating the clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine for the prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19 infection.
32296817 The few trials which allow their inclusion focus on post-exposure prophylaxis or outpatient treatment of milder disease, limiting the options available to pregnant women with severe COVID-19 to compassionate use of remdesivir, or off-label drug use of hydroxychloroquine or other therapies.
32297988 Following the demonstration of the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in vitro, many trials started to evaluate its efficacy in clinical settings. […] However, no systematic review and meta-analysis have addressed the issue of the safety and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in coronavirus disease 2019.
32299202 The results of preliminary studies have shown that immune-modulatory or immune-suppressive treatments such as hydroxychloroquine, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 antagonists, commonly used in rheumatology, might be considered as treatment choices for COVID-19, particularly in severe disease.
32299753 This document attempts to provide reasonable guidance for the use of antimicrobials which have uncertain benefit but may increase risk of QT interval prolongation and ventricular proarrhythmia, notably, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
32301155 Lopinavir/ritonavir (usually associated with hydroxychloroquine) was used in 50.0% of patients and had to be prematurely discontinued in 2 of them. […] Other antiviral regimens included hydroxychloroquine monotherapy (27.8%) and interferon-β (16.7%).
32302411 Nevertheless, there are anecdotal reports that some hospitals have begun to include AZ in combination with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine (CQ) for treatment of COVID-19.
32303497 One potential treatment is chloroquine and its derivatives, including hydroxychloroquine, which have both antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects.
32303672 SARS-CoV-2 was detected and antiviral therapy with Lopinavir/Ritonavir, associated with hydroxychloroquine, was promptly started.
32305359 Expanded indications for hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab have already caused stress on the usual supply chain.
32305500 Antimalarial drug chloroquine (CHL) and its safer derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCHL) have been proposed to be repurposed to treat SARS coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19.
32305587 After a large COVID-19 exposure event in an LTCH in Korea, PEP using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was administered to 211 individuals, including 189 patients and 22 careworkers, whose baseline polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for COVID-19 were negative.
32307245 Another promising alternative is hydroxychloroquine (200 mg thrice daily) plus azithromycin (500 mg on day 1, followed by 250 mg once daily on day 2-5), which showed excellent clinical efficacy on Chinese COVID-19 patients and anti-SARS-CoV-2 potency in vitro.
32311836 Qualitative analysis revealed four key themes: emotions in response to the pandemic, perceptions of risks from immunosuppressive medications, protective measures to reduce risk of COVID-19 infection, and disruptions in accessing rheumatic disease medications, including hydroxychloroquine. […] After 2 weeks, many participants with rheumatic diseases already had important changes to their health care, with many altering medications without professional consultation or because of hydroxychloroquine shortage.
32313660 To date, the anti-malaria drug hydroxychloroquine found to be a treatment option for SARS-CoV-2.
32314010 The patient was treated with antiviral agents (lopinavir/ritonavir), and treatment with cDMARDs was discontinued except hydroxychloroquine.
32314249 All 4 patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine.
32314698 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been used for the treatment of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases.
32316270 One of the options under investigation is the old antimalarial drug, chloroquine, and its analog, hydroxychloroquine. […] In principle, the safety profile might be ameliorated by using chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine single enantiomers in place of the racemate.
32317220 Other agents, such as hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine might have a direct anti-viral effect.
32317402 Patients were managed with immunosuppression reduction and the addition of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32317557 Adjunctive medication in the surviving patients while on ECMO was as follows: 4 of 5 survivors received intravenous steroids, 3 of 5 survivors received antiviral medications (Remdesivir), 2 of 5 survivors were treated with anti-interleukin-6-receptor monoclonal antibodies (Tocilizumab or Sarilumab), and 1 of 5 survivors received hydroxychloroquine.An analysis of 32 COVID-19 patients with severe pulmonary compromise supported with ECMO suggests that ECMO may play a useful role in salvaging select critically ill patients with COVID-19.
32318706 Hydroxychloroquine could be considered for patients who are not candidates for remdesivir or when remdesivir is not available.
32319218 The patient received an antiviral therapy with hydroxychloroquine showing no further deterioration of the clinical state.
32320825 Moreover, Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, drugs used to treat malaria and arthritis, respectively, were recommended by the National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China for treatment of COVID-19. […] Presently, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are under investigation by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a treatment for COVID-19.
32321878 The recent clinical trial reports pertaining to the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19 albeit yet to be validated with larger clinical trials, have sparked much interest globally to evaluate whether this anti-malarial drug can be repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19.
32321905 In this study, aiming to investigate these adverse events (AEs) using a large self-reporting database, we conducted a disproportionality analysis for the detection of neuropsychiatric AE signals associated with the use of chloroquine (or hydroxychloroquine), reported to FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database between the fourth quarter of 2012 and the fourth quarter of 2019.
32322397 Towards that initiative, potential drugs like hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin and azithromycin have been tested by diverse group of researchers worldwide for their potential against novel coronavirus. […] Hydroxychloroquine and ivermectin were known to act by creating the acidic environment and inhibiting the importin (IMPα/β1) mediated viral import. […] Azithromycin was found to act similar to the hydroxychloroquine as an acidotropic lipophilic weak base.
32322402 In vitro tests are also being conducted to assess the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of this epidemic, which is considered a pandemic by the WHO.
32323646 Among the repurposed drugs, the commonly used antimalarials chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have become the focus of global scientific, media, and political attention despite a lack of randomized clinical trials supporting their efficacy. […] Hydroxychloroquine is mainly used as a therapy for autoimmune diseases.
32324284 Hydroxychloroquine is suspected to trigger haemolytic crisis in G6PD-deficient patients, and off-label administration of this drug to patients infected with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) could cause concern. […] We report here the first case of severe haemolytic crisis in a patient with G6PD deficiency, initiated by severe COVID-19 infection and hydroxychloroquine use.
32324331 We describe the case of a 61-year-old kidney transplant recipient with several comorbidities who was hospitalized and later received a diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia; the infection was successfully managed with the use of hydroxychloroquine and a single administration of tocilizumab, after immunosuppression reduction; the patient did not require mechanical ventilation.
32324363 Hydroxychloroquine is an immunomodulatory drug that has been used to treat malaria and autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and inflammatory arthritis. […] The authors conclude the proarrhytmic effects of hydroxychloroquine and the most important signs of drug-induced long QT syndrome.
32325124 This article examines three aspects of antivirals, such as hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and remdesvir, as they might relate to the treatment of a viral infection such as COVID-19: (i) the use of vaporization for the delivery of antivirals, with the bulk constituents having mild antiviral efficacy; (ii) the application of a marine natural product extract as opposed to a single molecule as an antiviral agent; and (iii) a counter intuitive approach to formulation that is, in part, based on delivering multiple species that fall into three categories: building blocks for the virus to accelerate replication; an energy source for the infected cell to boost its immune response; and the species that antagonize or provide toxicity to the virus.
32327397 Combinations of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin have been promoted as treatments for COVID-19 based on small, uncontrolled clinical trials that have not assessed potential risks.
32328588 She was treated with pericardiocentesis, colchicine, corticosteroids and hydroxychloroquine with improvement in symptoms.
32329404 Despite the lack of high-quality evidence, the mere hope of effectiveness of potential treatments, such as hydroxychloroquine, has led to surges in demand for these products, and many pharmacists are already informally reporting shortages through social channels. […] As manufacturers and wholesale distributors struggle to fulfill orders for drugs such as hydroxychloroquine, short-term price increases may seem reasonable in a free market when demand increases.
32329419 Antimalarial drugs such as Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine derivatives are being used in emergency cases; however, they are not suitable for patients with conditions like diabetes, hypertension and cardiac issues.
32329879 However, the current treatment options include hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir (Kaletra®), and nitazoxanide.
32329881 Patients were also treated with anticoagulant therapy with Enoxaparin 4000 IU/day via subcutaneous injection, antiviral therapy with Lopinavir 800 mg/day + Ritonavir 200 mg/day, hydroxychloroquine 400 mg/day, ceftriaxone 2 g/day IV, vitamine C 6 g/day for 4 days, and were on Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV).
32329920 We address issues surrounding corticosteroid and exon-skipping treatments, cardiac medications, hydroxychloroquine use, emergency/respiratory care, rehabilitation management, and the conduct of clinical trials.
32330312 The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), recommended the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a prophylactic against COVID-19 among health care workers and asymptomatic contacts of laboratory confirmed cases of COVID.
32330343 Among the 68 hospitalized patients, 12% required non-rebreather and 35% required intubation. 91% received hydroxychloroquine, 66% azithromycin, 3% remdesivir, 21% tocilizumab, and 24% bolus steroids.
32330521 Given the media attention and claims of effectiveness, we chose chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, in combination with azithromycin, as an area of COVID-19 research to examine. […] MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases were searched from 2019 to present (April 3rd, 2020) using a mix of keywords such as COVID-19 and chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. […] We found 6 studies, 3 randomized control trials and 3 observational studies, focusing on chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (with azithromycin). […] We found that the COVID-19 research methodology is very poor in the area of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine research.
32330817 Patients also received lopinivir/ritonavir (82%), hydroxychloroquine (79%), and tocilizumab (12%) according to this treatment algorithm.
32335560 More recent studies have highlighted the possibility of treating patients infected with the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus with chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, of which mechanism of action is not completely understood.
32336317 This review discusses the updates on specimens/samples, recent efficient diagnostics, and therapeutic approaches to control the disease and repurposed drugs mainly focusing on chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and convalescent plasma (CP).
32336586 There are currently no therapeutic drugs available that are directly active against SARS-CoV-2; however, several antivirals (remdesivir, favipiravir) and antimalarials (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) have emerged as potential therapies. […] Current guidelines recommend combination treatment with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin or chloroquine, if hydroxychloroquine is unavailable, in patients with moderate disease, although these recommendations are based on limited evidence.
32337139 Recent findings of an open-label study that investigated the use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in COVID-19 patients in Marseille, France, has garnered some optimism in scientific quarters and the general public alike in terms of finding a treatment regimen to control the rampant rise of COVID-19.
32337859 Following administration of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine with reduced immunosuppressant, he recovered from COVID-19. […] During the hospitalization period, the chest infiltrative lesion showed a wax and wane, but he successfully recovered by administration of hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin.
32338155 Anti-malarial medicine chloroquine (CQ) and particularly its chemical analogue hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been recommended as promising candidate therapeutics that are now under either compassionate off-label use or clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.
32338164 The results show the effectiveness of Sofosbuvir, Ribavirin, Galidesivir, Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Cefuroxime, Tenofovir, and Hydroxychloroquine, in binding to SARS-CoV-2 RdRp.
32338347 In severe pneumonia and critically ill children, trial of hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir/ritonavir should be considered.
32339832 Without much experience, currently, the medicines that are clinically being evaluated for COVID-19 include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, lopinavir, ritonavir, tocilizumab and corticosteroids.
32341910 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been used as treatment and are being considered as prophylaxis. […] Our patient developed COVID-19 while on hydroxychloroquine and although more work is needed, this calls into question the role of these medications as preventive therapy.
32342252 In a preliminary clinical study, we observed that the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin was effective against SARS-CoV-2 by shortening the duration of viral load in Covid-19 patients.
32344177 Hydroxychloroquine showed an antiviral effect in vitro. […] Here we demonstrate that the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin has a synergistic effect in vitro on SARS-CoV-2 at concentrations compatible with that obtained in human lung.
32344310 It was also revealed that alternative treatments currently being considered for COVID-19 such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine by increasing hemoglobin production and increasing hemoglobin availability for oxygen binding and acetazolamine (for the treatment of altitude sickness) by causing hyperventilation with associated increasing levels of oxygen and decreasing levels of carbon dioxide in the blood may significantly ameliorate COVID-19 respiratory symptoms.
32344449 Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial drug being tested as a potential treatment for the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2( (SARS-CoV-2. […] Although the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 remains uncertain, it may serve as a potential prophylactic agent especially in those at high risk, such as healthcare workers, household contacts of infected patients, and the immunocompromised. […] Our aim was to identify possible hydroxychloroquine dosing regimens through simulation in those at high risk of infections by optimizing exposures above the in vitro generated half maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) and to help guide researchers in dose-selection for COVID-19 prophylactic studies.
32345563 He was tested for COVID-19 per admission protocol, started on hydroxychloroquine, his hiccups improved, and he was discharged to home after 3 days.
32347743 Small studies have shown a potential benefit of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19. […] Use of these medications alone, or in combination, can lead to a prolongation of the QT interval, possibly increasing the risk of Torsade de pointes (TdP) and sudden cardiac death. Methods - Hospitalized patients treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin from March 1st through the 23rd at three hospitals within the Northwell Health system were included in this prospective, observational study. […] Secondary outcomes included QT prolongation, the need to prematurely discontinue any of the medications due to QT prolongation and arrhythmogenic death. Results - Two hundred one patients were treated for COVID-19 with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine. […] Ten patients (5.0%) received chloroquine, 191 (95.0%) received hydroxychloroquine and 119 (59.2%) also received azithromycin. […] Baseline QTc intervals did not differ between patients treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (monotherapy group) vs. those treated with combination group (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin) (440.6 ± 24.9 ms vs. […] No arrhythmogenic deaths were reported. Conclusions - In the largest reported cohort of COVID-19 patients to date treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine {plus minus} azithromycin, no instances of TdP or arrhythmogenic death were reported.
32348046 In case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, immunosuppressive drugs should be temporarily stopped, except for glucocorticoids, hydroxychloroquine and sulfasalazine. […] Leur arrêt n’est recommandé qu’en cas d’infection avérée à SARS-CoV-2, à l’exception de la prednisone, de l’hydroxychloroquine et de la sulfasalazine qui peuvent être poursuivis.
32348232 The patient was hospitalized and treated with Oseltamivir 75 mg every 12 hours, Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra) 400/100 mg every 12 hours and hydroxychloroquine 400 mg stat.
32348588 The main therapies being used to treat the disease are antiviral drugs, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and respiratory therapy.
32349115 The proposed doses of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for treatment of COVID-19 (1000 mg/day for 10 days, CQ; 800 mg first day then 400 mg/day for 5 days, HCQ) in many guidelines worldwide, are considerably higher than the maximum recommended daily safe doses of both agents (≤2.3 mg/kg/day, CQ; ≤5.0 mg/kg/day, HCQ) for development of retinal toxicity.
32350686 According to the CDC and Chinese treatment guidelines for COVID-19, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and one of the investigational agents (remdesivir) are recommended in critically ill older patients.
32350928 Early anecdotal reports and limited in vitro data led to the significant uptake of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and to lesser extent chloroquine (CQ), for many patients with this disease.
32351040 All hospitalized patients received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32351831 Even though there is no cure for COVID-19, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are promising alternatives.
32351851 Hydroxychloroquine therapy was started, and the patient responded favorably with improvement of symptoms.
32352359 We discuss the critical role hydroxychloroquine plays in the management of lupus patients and suggest considering the psychosocial implications of the current pandemic on lupus care.
32352535 Cardiovascular considerations of therapies currently used, including remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, ribavirin, interferons, and lopinavir/ritonavir, as well as experimental therapies, such as human recombinant ACE2 (rhACE2), are discussed.
32354634 At admission, all had immunosuppression withdrawn and were started on methylprednisolone 16 mg/day, all but one was commenced on antiviral therapy and hydroxychloroquine with doses adjusted for kidney function.
32355607 They are concerned about their risk of developing COVID-19 as many are immune suppressed from their disease and/or treatment, whether they should stop their advanced therapies, if they will have a worse outcome if/when infected due to their underlying medication condition(s) and if they will have drug availability, especially with press (without much data) coverage suggesting hydroxychloroquine may be used in COVID-19 infection causing diversion of medication supply.
32356252 The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has provided emergency authorization for the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.
32356863 Administration of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pneumonia carries increased risk of corrected QT (QTc) prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias. […] To characterize the risk and degree of QT prolongation in patients with COVID-19 in association with their use of hydroxychloroquine with or without concomitant azithromycin. […] This was a cohort study performed at an academic tertiary care center in Boston, Massachusetts, of patients hospitalized with at least 1 positive COVID-19 nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction test result and clinical findings consistent with pneumonia who received at least 1 day of hydroxychloroquine from March 1, 2020, through April 7, 2020. […] Change in QT interval after receiving hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin; occurrence of other potential adverse drug events. […] Among 90 patients given hydroxychloroquine, 53 received concomitant azithromycin; 44 (48.9%) were female, and the mean (SD) body mass index was 31.5 (6.6). […] The overall median (interquartile range) baseline QTc was 455 (430-474) milliseconds (hydroxychloroquine, 473 [454-487] milliseconds vs hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, 442 [427-461] milliseconds; P < .001). […] Those receiving concomitant azithromycin had a greater median (interquartile range) change in QT interval (23 [10-40] milliseconds) compared with those receiving hydroxychloroquine alone (5.5 [-15.5 to 34.25] milliseconds; P = .03). […] Seven patients (19%) who received hydroxychloroquine monotherapy developed prolonged QTc of 500 milliseconds or more, and 3 patients (3%) had a change in QTc of 60 milliseconds or more. […] Ten patients had hydroxychloroquine discontinued early because of potential adverse drug events, including intractable nausea, hypoglycemia, and 1 case of torsades de pointes. […] In this cohort study, patients who received hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of pneumonia associated with COVID-19 were at high risk of QTc prolongation, and concurrent treatment with azithromycin was associated with greater changes in QTc. […] Clinicians should carefully weigh risks and benefits if considering hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, with close monitoring of QTc and concomitant medication usage.
32357553 Currently, antiviral drugs, including chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir, have shown effective inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
32358890 A variety of repurposed drugs and investigational drugs such as remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, lopinavir, interferon-beta, and other potential drugs have been studied for COVID19 treatment.
32359203 Of these, chloroquine (CQ) and its derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have garnered the most attention.
32359210 We report the clinical course and management of a liver transplant recipient on hemodialysis, who presented with COVID-19 pneumonia, and despite completing a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine, later developed marked inflammatory manifestations with rapid improvement after administration of off-label, single-dose tocilizumab.
32359771 As the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) global pandemic rages across the globe, the race to prevent and treat this deadly disease has led to the “off-label” repurposing of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, which have the potential for unwanted QT-interval prolongation and a risk of drug-induced sudden cardiac death.
32360480 Further, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and off-label antiviral drugs, such as the nucleotide analogue remdesivir, HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir, broad-spectrum antiviral drugs arbidol and favipiravir as well as antiviral phytochemicals available to date may limit spread of SARS-CoV-2 and morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 pandemic.
32360583 We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), and WANFANG DATA for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective cohort, and retrospective cohort studies that evaluated therapies (hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir-based therapy, and ribavirin-based therapy, etc.) for SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. […] Likewise, hydroxychloroquine improved radiographical result. […] Meanwhile, hydroxychloroquine could increase AEs rate especially diarrhea.
32362345 This commentary discerns the characteristics of demoralization versus depression, and suggests solutions for both, together with a cautionary word on the use chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19.
32363157 Chloroquine and phosphate hydroxychloroquine are the drugs currently in the limelight, and recently, the National Task Force for COVID-19 constituted by the Indian Council of Medical Research has recommended the use of antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine for prophylaxis of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 infection in selected high-risk individuals.
32363212 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have garnered unprecedented attention as potential therapeutic agents against COVID-19 following several small clinical trials, uncontrolled case series, and public figure endorsements. […] We call for additional randomized controlled trial evidence prior to the widespread incorporation of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine into national and international treatment guidelines.
32363221 The results of ongoing clinical trials on hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin alone or in combination and a new antiviral agent remdesivir may help to treat some of the infections.
32363963 This is a report of a case with mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) with severe eye involvement and concurrent COVID-19 treated successfully using simultaneous high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and anti-viral treatment as hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and ribavirin.
32365215 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are currently being evaluated as treatment against COVID-19. […] Use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine should be reserved to current indications or clinical trials, as recommended by several governmental medical products agencies.
32367579 Specifically, we propose that the lysosomotropic effects of hydroxychloroquine and several other drugs undergoing testing may be responsible for their demonstrated in vitro antiviral activities against COVID-19.
32368483 He was started on hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin with no improvement of symptoms.
32371558 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has multiple potential antiviral mechanisms of action that differ according to the pathogen studied (eg, Chikungunya, Dengue virus, human immunodeficiency virus, poliovirus, Zika virus). […] Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) use in patients with COVID-19 is being investigated examining prophylaxis, postexposure prophylaxis, and treatment regimens.
32372695 Multiple off-label and investigational drugs, such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, have gained broad interest due to positive pre-clinical data and are currently used for treatment of COVID-19. […] Adverse effects of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on cardiac function and conduction are broad and can be fatal. […] The American Heart Association has listed chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as agents which can cause direct myocardial toxicity. […] This review summarizes evidenced-based data regarding potential cardiac adverse effects due to off-label and investigational drugs including chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, antiviral therapy, monoclonal antibodies, as well as common antibiotics used for the treatment of COVID-19.
32373183 Although much of this attention has a mechanistic basis, the hard efficacy data for chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in the management of the clinical syndrome of COVID-19 have been limited thus far. […] This review aims to present the available in vitro and clinical data for the role of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 and attempts to put them into perspective, especially in relation to the different risks/benefits particular to each patient who may require treatment.
32373993 Hydroxychloroquine has been demonstrated to limit the replication of SARS-CoV-2 virus in vitro. […] Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine share similar chemical structures and mechanisms of action. […] The aim of this study was to indirectly investigate the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19 by determining the prevalence of COVID-19 in malaria pandemic and non-pandemic nations. […] We reviewed in vitro studies, in vivo studies, original studies, clinical trials, and consensus reports, that were conducted to evaluate the antiviral activities of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. […] The search was based on keywords: antiviral drugs, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, COVID-19, COVID-19 treatment modalities, and coronavirus. […] These studies were all suggestive that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine can successfully treat COVID-19 infections. […] Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have antiviral characteristics in vitro.
32376394 While moderate-severe forms need in-hospital surveillance plus antivirals and/or hydroxychloroquine; in severe and life-threating subsets a high intensity anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory therapy could be a therapeutic option.
32376395 In this cross-sectional study, Tuscan outpatients with systemic autoimmune diseases followed at a tertiary referral centre were telephonically interviewed between April 1st-14th 2020 to collect demographic and clinical data, information on ongoing immunomodulating/immunosuppressive treatments, and on the presence of symptoms suspected of SARS-CoV-2 or of a confirmed infection. 458 patients were interviewed [74% female, median age 56 years (IQR 43-68)]; 56% of them were receiving corticosteroids, 44% traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), of whom 23% hydroxychloroquine, 5% colchicine, while 41% were on biologic DMARDs (of whom 9% on tocilizumab).
32378314 Despite reduction in immunosuppression and treatment with tocilizumab, intravenous immunoglobulin, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and broad-spectrum antibiotics, she ultimately died from multiorgan failure. […] Given a milder presentation compared to the first patient, antimetabolite was discontinued and only hydroxychloroquine was started.
32379955 Hydroxychloroquine has been widely administered to patients with Covid-19 without robust evidence supporting its use. […] We examined the association between hydroxychloroquine use and intubation or death at a large medical center in New York City. […] We compared outcomes in patients who received hydroxychloroquine with those in patients who did not, using a multivariable Cox model with inverse probability weighting according to the propensity score. […] Of the remaining 1376 patients, during a median follow-up of 22.5 days, 811 (58.9%) received hydroxychloroquine (600 mg twice on day 1, then 400 mg daily for a median of 5 days); 45.8% of the patients were treated within 24 hours after presentation to the emergency department, and 85.9% within 48 hours. […] Hydroxychloroquine-treated patients were more severely ill at baseline than those who did not receive hydroxychloroquine (median ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen, 223 vs. […] In the main analysis, there was no significant association between hydroxychloroquine use and intubation or death (hazard ratio, 1.04, 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.32). […] In this observational study involving patients with Covid-19 who had been admitted to the hospital, hydroxychloroquine administration was not associated with either a greatly lowered or an increased risk of the composite end point of intubation or death. […] Randomized, controlled trials of hydroxychloroquine in patients with Covid-19 are needed.
32380315 Some disease-modifying agents commonly used to treat patients with rheumatic diseases/autoimmune disorders, such as hydroxychloroquine and colchicine, are under investigation as potential therapies for the “coronavirus disease 2019” (COVID-19). […] A comparison was conducted between subjects tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and those found negative in terms of rate of administration of hydroxychloroquine/colchicine therapy. […] No significant difference was found in terms of rates of usage of hydroxychloroquine or colchicine between those who were found positive for SARS-CoV-2 and those who were found negative (0.23% versus 0.25% for hydroxychloroquine, and 0.53% versus 0.48% for colchicine, respectively).
32382516 She completed 5 days of hydroxychloroquine and 7 days of prednisone. […] It is unclear whether our institution’s empiric use of hydroxychloroquine and prednisone facilitated her recovery.
32383125 We describe the design of a clinical trial of hydroxychloroquine for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-emptive therapy (PET) for COVID-19. […] We will conduct two nested multicentre international double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of hydroxychloroquine for: 1) PEP of asymptomatic household contacts or healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19 within the past four days, and 2) PET for symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19 showing symptoms for less than four days. […] Participants will be randomized 1:1 to receive five days of hydroxychloroquine or placebo. […] These complementary randomized-controlled trials are innovatively designed and adequately powered to rapidly answer urgent questions regarding the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine to reduce virus transmission and disease severity of COVID-19 during a pandemic.
32383430 Currently, there is no available treatment proven to be effective against COVID-19, but multiple medications, including hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), are used off label.
32384516 She was being treated aggressively in the intensive care unit with high dose intravenous ascorbic acid, hydroxychloroquine, and anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody.
32386448 The antimalarials, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and the antivirals Lopinavir/Ritonavir have been recently recorded as having anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) effects.1 In particular, regarding Italy, one of the countries most affected by the pandemic, the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical disease (Lombardy section) has recommended the use of HCQ for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32387409 In France, the combination hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) is used in the treatment of COVID-19.
32387694 Recent publications have re-examined the use of Chloroquine (CQ) and/or Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a potential therapeutic option for these patients.
32389025 The Food and Drug Administration issued an emergency authorization for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as experimental treatments for COVID-19 leading to a shortage of both medications. […] Because of its higher potency and better safety profile, hydroxychloroquine may be the more reasonable treatment option if treatment is initiated.
32389518 The most used treatments were hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir-ritonavir, and steroids.
32389720 A recent report identified significant reductions or disappearance of viral load in COVID-19 patients given a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. […] The physicochemical properties of both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin are consistent with particularly high affinity for the intracellular lysosomal space, which has been implicated as a target site for antiviral activity. […] The combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin produces very high local concentrations in lysosomes.
32390367 Hydroxychloroquine was used in 79 patients (80.6%), and glucocorticoid therapy was used in 18 patients (18.4%).
32391234 He positively responded to a 14-day course of Lopinavir-Ritonavir, Ribavirin, Azithromycin, and Hydroxychloroquine.
32391519 Eighty-one percent of women were treated with hydroxychloroquine; 9% of women with severe disease and 65% of women with critical disease received remdesivir.
32391667 To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the treatment of patients with moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32392282 Hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, has been considered as a possible therapeutic agent for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] To describe the association between use of hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, and clinical outcomes among hospital inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19. […] Receipt of both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, or neither. […] Among 1438 hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 (858 [59.7%] male, median age, 63 years), those receiving hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both were more likely than those not receiving either drug to have diabetes, respiratory rate >22/min, abnormal chest imaging findings, O2 saturation lower than 90%, and aspartate aminotransferase greater than 40 U/L. […] The probability of death for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin was 189/735 (25.7% [95% CI, 22.3%-28.9%]), hydroxychloroquine alone, 54/271 (19.9% [95% CI, 15.2%-24.7%]), azithromycin alone, 21/211 (10.0% [95% CI, 5.9%-14.0%]), and neither drug, 28/221 (12.7% [95% CI, 8.3%-17.1%]). […] In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, compared with patients receiving neither drug, there were no significant differences in mortality for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin (HR, 1.35 [95% CI, 0.76-2.40]), hydroxychloroquine alone (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.63-1.85]), or azithromycin alone (HR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.26-1.21]). […] In logistic models, compared with patients receiving neither drug cardiac arrest was significantly more likely in patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin (adjusted OR, 2.13 [95% CI, 1.12-4.05]), but not hydroxychloroquine alone (adjusted OR, 1.91 [95% CI, 0.96-3.81]) or azithromycin alone (adjusted OR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.27-1.56]), . […] Among patients hospitalized in metropolitan New York with COVID-19, treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both, compared with neither treatment, was not significantly associated with differences in in-hospital mortality.
32392288 Targeted therapies were used in 28 patients (61%), with hydroxychloroquine being the most commonly used agent either alone (11 patients) or in combination (10 patients).
32392332 Different dosage regimens of hydroxychloroquine are used to manage COVID-19 patients, without information on the pharmacokinetics in this population.Blood samples (n=101) were collected from 57 COVID-19 patients for 7 days and concentrations were compared with simulated kinetic profiles.Hydroxychloroquine exposure is low and cannot be predicted by other populations.
32393448 The National Task Force for Covid-19 of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in a bulletin dated March 21, 2020 recommended the use of hydroxychloroquine for prophylaxis in asymptomatic health care workers caring for suspected or confirmed patients and household contacts of confirmed patients. […] The evidence for the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is currently derived from open label trials and cell culture studies with no conclusive evidence available from randomised clinical trials. […] Hydroxychloroquine also carries contraindications in the case of conditions such as maculopathy, retinopathy and QTc prolongation and should be used with caution in vulnerable populations such as children, pregnancy, lactation and the elderly. […] Despite this, there has been a rush to procure and self-medicate with hydroxychloroquine, which has been addressed by the National Task Force. […] While further evidence is awaited, including from trials registered with the FDA and the ICMR, it is recommended that the administration of hydroxychloroquine for chemo-prophylaxis be considered on a case by case basis with monitoring by a registered medical practitioner including electrocardiography (ECG). […] Keywords: Coronavirus, Covid-19, SARS-CoV-2, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, chemoprophylaxis, bioethics, evidence- based medicine.
32393597 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is in short supply as a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, presenting a challenge to rheumatologists to ensure their patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) continue to take this essential drug.
32393664 To characterize hydroxychloroquine exposure in patients with rheumatic disease receiving long-term hydroxychloroquine compared to target concentrations with reported antiviral activity against the 2019 coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. […] We evaluated total hydroxychloroquine concentrations in serum and plasma from published literature values, frozen serum samples from a pediatric lupus trial, and simulated concentrations using a published pharmacokinetic model during pregnancy. […] For each source, we compared observed or predicted hydroxychloroquine concentrations to target concentrations with reported antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. […] The average total serum/plasma hydroxychloroquine concentrations were below the lowest SARS-CoV-2 target of 0.48 mg/L in all studies. […] We found that the average patient receiving treatment with hydroxychloroquine for rheumatic diseases, including children and non-pregnant/pregnant adults, are unlikely to achieve total serum or plasma concentrations shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in-vitro. […] Nevertheless, patients receiving hydroxychloroquine long-term may have tissue concentrations far exceeding that of serum/plasma. […] Because the therapeutic window for hydroxychloroquine in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 is unknown, well-designed clinical trials that include patients with rheumatic disease are urgently needed to characterize the efficacy, safety, and target exposures for hydroxychloroquine.
32394467 In patients with COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine decreases the inflammatory response and cytokine storm, but overdose causes toxicity and mortality. […] Favipiravir increases clinical recovery and reduces respiratory problems and has a stronger antiviral effect than LPV/r. currently, appropriate treatment for patients with COVID-19 is an ACE2 inhibitor and a clinical problem reducing agent such as favipiravir in addition to hydroxychloroquine and corticosteroids.
32394481 Questions on the controversial use of hydroxychloroquine and to a lesser extent concerning azithromycin have been the most consulted Q&As.
32395418 These drugs and therapeutic agents include antiviral agents (remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, and oseltamivir), and supporting agents (Ascorbic acid, Azithromycin, Corticosteroids, Nitric oxide, IL-6 antagonists), among others.
32397399 Using propensity scores, the 21 patients who received TCZ were matched to 21 patients who received SOC (a combination of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and prophylactic dose of low weight heparin).
32397911 In particular, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, arbidol, tocilizumab and bevacizumab have shown promising results.
32398343 The in vitro studies revealed conflicting results, with one finding anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity for azithromycin alone, while the other found activity against SARS-CoV-2 only when azithromycin was combined with hydroxychloroquine. […] A small trial of 36 patients, with high risk of bias, found superior viral clearance in patients with COVID-19 treated with azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine combined, compared with hydroxychloroquine alone. […] There is extremely limited evidence of a possible synergy between azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine.
32399456 A 52-year-old patient with SARS-CoV-2 was diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia and treated with darunavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).
32400323 Although in vitro studies are scarce, data regarding chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, ivermectin, lopinavir, homoharringtonine and emetine seem promising.
32400349 Reports that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine may be effective against COVID-19 have received worldwide attention, increasing the risk of the introduction of falsified versions of these medicines.
32400380 Thus, global stocks of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been put under pressure with a study of 26 patients treated with HCQ during their infection with SARS-CoV-2.
32400965 Faced with this novel coronavirus, scientists have been trying to use drugs that have not been validated by rigorous clinical trials, such as lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32401405 The antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has long been used as a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug for the treatment of several inflammatory rheumatic diseases.
32402056 Treatment of COVID-19 included hydroxychloroquine (18 patients [78%]), high-dose corticosteroids (8 patients [47%]), and interleukin 6 receptor antagonists (6 patients [26%]).
32402766 The antimalarial drugs chloroquine phosphate (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) impair in vitro the terminal glycosylation of ACE2 without significant change of cell-surface ACE2 and, therefore, might be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 infections.
32403946 Outcome from the infection were compared with infected noncancer patients. Results: Twenty patients (80%) were treated with antiviral therapy and hydroxychloroquine and five (20%) received hydroxychloroquine alone. […] In the control group the mortality was 16.13% and the overcome from infection was 83.87%. Conclusion: Mortality for COVID-19 was greater in cancer patients when compared with noncancer patients, worse prognosis for older age, women and patients treated with hydroxychloroquine alone.
32405156 Hydroxychloroquine (CLQ-OH)/azithromycin (ATM) combination therapy is currently being tested for the treatment of COVID-19, with promising results.
32405160 Patients admitted before March 13th (n=23) were prescribed the standard therapy (hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir and ritonavir) and were considered controls.
32405423 Minimum estimated costs of production were US $0.93/day for remdesivir, $1.45/day for favipiravir, $0.08/day for hydroxychloroquine, $0.02/day for chloroquine, $0.10/day for azithromycin, $0.28/day for lopinavir/ritonavir, $0.39/day for sofosbuvir/daclatasvir and $1.09/day for pirfenidone.
32405877 At present, anti-IL-6, antiviral therapy, convalescent plasma, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin among others are being investigated as potential treatments for COVID-19.
32406927 Overall risk of bias of the eight included studies was high, due to: study design; small number of participants; poor reporting within studies; and varied type of participants with different severities of disease, comorbidities, and types of previous or concurrent treatments, including antivirals, antifungals or antibiotics, corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine and respiratory support.
32407884 Initial reports suggesting the potential benefit of Hydroxychloroquine/Azithromycin (HY/AZ) have resulted in massive adoption of this combination worldwide.
32408070 The antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ) and its metabolite hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are currently being tested in several clinical studies as potential candidates to limit SARS-CoV-2-mediated morbidity and mortality.
32409150 Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine (chloroquine) plus azithromycin is considered as therapy for COVID-19.
32409486 To assess the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine in patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pneumonia who require oxygen. […] Hydroxychloroquine at a dose of 600 mg/day within 48 hours of admission to hospital (treatment group) versus standard care without hydroxychloroquine (control group). […] In the main analysis, 84 patients who received hydroxychloroquine within 48 hours of admission to hospital (treatment group) were compared with 89 patients who did not receive hydroxychloroquine (control group). […] Eight additional patients received hydroxychloroquine more than 48 hours after admission. […] Hydroxychloroquine has received worldwide attention as a potential treatment for covid-19 because of positive results from small studies.
32409561 To assess the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine plus standard of care compared with standard of care alone in adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). […] Multicentre, open label, randomised controlled trial. 16 government designated covid-19 treatment centres in China, 11 to 29 February 2020. 150 patients admitted to hospital with laboratory confirmed covid-19 were included in the intention to treat analysis (75 patients assigned to hydroxychloroquine plus standard of care, 75 to standard of care alone). […] Hydroxychloroquine administrated at a loading dose of 1200 mg daily for three days followed by a maintenance dose of 800 mg daily (total treatment duration: two or three weeks for patients with mild to moderate or severe disease, respectively). […] Adverse events were analysed in the safety population in which hydroxychloroquine recipients were participants who received at least one dose of hydroxychloroquine and hydroxychloroquine non-recipients were those managed with standard of care alone. […] A total of 109 (73%) patients (56 standard of care; 53 standard of care plus hydroxychloroquine) had negative conversion well before 28 days, and the remaining 41 (27%) patients (19 standard of care; 22 standard of care plus hydroxychloroquine) were censored as they did not reach negative conversion of virus. […] The probability of negative conversion by 28 days in the standard of care plus hydroxychloroquine group was 85.4% (95% confidence interval 73.8% to 93.8%), similar to that in the standard of care group (81.3%, 71.2% to 89.6%). […] In the safety population, adverse events were recorded in 7/80 (9%) hydroxychloroquine non-recipients and in 21/70 (30%) hydroxychloroquine recipients. […] The most common adverse event in the hydroxychloroquine recipients was diarrhoea, reported in 7/70 (10%) patients. […] Two hydroxychloroquine recipients reported serious adverse events. […] Administration of hydroxychloroquine did not result in a significantly higher probability of negative conversion than standard of care alone in patients admitted to hospital with mainly persistent mild to moderate covid-19. […] Adverse events were higher in hydroxychloroquine recipients than in non-recipients.
32410772 As per SOLIDARITY trial by WHO, some of the most promising candidates include chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine which are anti-malarial medications, Remdesivir, Lopinavir-Ritonavir combination with or without interferon which are anti-HIV drugs and convalescent plasma therapy.
32412509 The benefit of orticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, etc., is limited.
32415419 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an old medication for malaria.
32417708 The role of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the treatment of COVID-19 is not fully known.
32418114 We sought to determine whether hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) application may reduce the death risk of critically ill COVID-19 patients. […] Primary endpoint is fatality of patients, and inflammatory cytokine levels were compared between HCQ and non-hydroxychloroquine (NHCQ) treatments. […] Therefore, HCQ should be prescribed as a part of treatment for critically ill COVID-19 patients, with possible outcome of saving lives. hydroxychloroquine, IL-6, mortalities, COVID-19.
32418181 COVID-19 infection has shown rapid growth worldwide, and different therapies have been proposed for treatment, in particular, the combination of immune response modulating drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (antimalarials) alone or in combination with azithromycin.
32418730 Several publicized drugs are being used with not much evidence of their efficacy such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin or lopinavir-ritonavir. […] Since March 27th, 2020, the French Pharmacovigilance Network directed all cardiac adverse drug reactions associated with “off-label” use of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and lopinavir-ritonavir in COVID-19 to the Nice Regional Center of Pharmacovigilance. […] In one month, 120 reports of cardiac adverse drug reactions have been notified, 103 of which associated with hydroxychloroquine alone (86%), or associated with azithromycin (60%).
32418894 The well reported and clinically used anti-malarial aminoquinoline drugs (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine) have shown potential to be repurposed to control the present pandemic by inhibition of COVID-19. […] The review elaborates the mechanism of action, safety (side effects, adverse effects, toxicity) and details of clinical trials for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine to benefit the clinicians, medicinal chemist, pharmacologist actively involved in controlling the pandemic and to provide therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 infection.
32419524 To obtain convincing recommendations, we referred to opinions from the US National Institute of Health regarding drugs repurposed for COVID-19 therapy.Expert opinion: Although strong evidence of well-designed randomized controlled studies regarding COVID-19 therapy is presently lacking, remdesivir, teicoplanin, hydroxychloroquine (not in combination with azithromycin), and ivermectin might be effective antiviral drugs and are deemed promising candidates for controlling SARS-CoV-2.
32422406 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are both used to treat COVID-19. […] In particular, cardiologic, gastro-intestinal and neuropsychiatric side-effects of (hydroxychloroquine) needs special attention in COVID-19 patients.
32423027 Whereas plasma therapy attracts much interest, the European project Discovery focuses on the potentialities of small molecules like remdesivir, the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and chloroquine.
32423324 There is not any standard treatment for coronavirus infection 2019; however, there are promising data for hydroxychloroquine and some anti-retroviral drugs.
32425051 We describe here the protocol for a pragmatic, active comparator trial in as many as 300 patients comparing two current “off-label” treatments for COVID-19-hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin-in academic and non-academic hospitals in Utah.
32425199 Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir are currently being studied in trials and show some promise.
32425246 The only FDA approved drug to treat COVID-19 is remdesivir, and other off-label medications used include chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, convalescent plasma therapy, azithromycin, vitamin C, corticosteroids, interferon and colchicine.
32426230 He was treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin with improvement in mental status back to baseline after 6 days.
32426242 She was treated with intravenous fluids, ceftriaxone, azithromycin, and hydroxychloroquine.
32426957 The paper reviews aspects of COVID-19 that pertain to rheumatology, including symptoms and signs akin to those observed in rheumatic disorders, risk of infection or severe course of the disease in patients with a pre-existing rheumatic disease and those receiving antirheumatic or immunosuppressive medication as well as potential applications of antirheumatic or anticytokine therapeutic strategies that are already applied in rheumatology (including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, baricitinib, and others) for patients with COVID-19.
32428144 In severe cases, the use of medications such as hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin or medication can be promising.
32430286 The anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (CQ) and primarily the less toxic hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are currently used to treat autoimmune diseases for their immunomodulatory and anti-thrombotic properties.
32432527 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has sparked much interest in the therapeutics of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
32434058 We have explicitly highlighted several useful information and facts like: i) No established relationship between progression of SARS-CoV-2 with temperature, humidity and/or both, ii) The underlying mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 is not fully understood, iii) Respiratory droplet size determines drop and airborne-based transmission, iv) Prognosis of COVID-19 can be done by its effects on various body organs, v) Infection can be stopped by restricting the binding of S protein and AE2, vi) Hydroxychloroquine is believed to be better than chloroquine for COVID-19, vii) Ivermectin with Vero-hSLAM cells is able to reduce infection by ~5000 time within 2 days, and viii) Nafamostat mesylate can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 S protein-initiated membrane fusion.
32434337 Current potential treatment options include hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and convalescent plasma.
32435791 Translation of in vitro antiviral activity to the in vivo setting is crucial to identify potentially effective dosing regimens of hydroxychloroquine. […] In vitro EC50/EC90 values for hydroxychloroquine should be compared to the in vivo free extracellular tissue concentration, which is similar to the free plasma hydroxychloroquine concentration.
32436445 The use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), remdesivir, and tocilizumab are some of the other promising potential therapies; however, they are yet to be tested in randomized clinical trials (RCTs).
32437000 She was successfully managed with hydroxychloroquine and broad spectrum antibiotics, and was discharged after 24 days.
32437675 The postoperative course was complicated by a mixed viral/bacterial pneumonia with bilateral infiltration, treated with antibiotics and hydroxychloroquine, without any need for reintubation.
32437768 In group 1, 41% received antivirals and 76% hydroxychloroquine. […] In group 2, 79% received antivirals and 77% hydroxychloroquine.
32438018 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are now being widely used as treatments for COVID-19. […] Accordingly, we set out to conduct a systematic review of the arrhythmogenic effect of short courses of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. […] We searched in MEDLINE and Embase, as well as grey literature up to April 17, 2020, on the risk of QT prolongation, torsades, ventricular arrhythmia, and sudden death with short-term chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine usage. […] A limitation of these results is unclear follow-up and possible publication/reporting bias, but there is compelling evidence that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine induce significant QT interval prolongation and potentially increase the risk of arrhythmia.
32438446 Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, mefloquine, atazanavir (ritonavir-boosted), tipranavir (ritonavir-boosted), ivermectin, azithromycin and lopinavir (ritonavir-boosted) were all predicted to achieve lung concentrations over 10-fold higher than their reported EC50 .
32438459 Among these treatments, the off-label use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a less toxic derivate of chloroquine, has become a common practice among clinicians, including pediatricians, despite lack of evidence of its clinical efficacy for this indication (especially for pediatric patients) at present time (2).
32439306 In the absence of a vaccine, the management of COVID-19 included antivirals, high-flow oxygen, mechanical ventilation, corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, interferons, intravenous immunoglobulin, and convalescent plasma infusions.
32439366 Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combination therapy is often prescribed for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] We performed 12‑lead ECGs and 12‑lead 24-h Holter ECG monitoring in all patients aged <80 years admitted to our medical unit for COVID-19, in oral therapy with hydroxychloroquine (200 mg, twice daily) and azithromycin (500 mg, once daily) for at least 3 days. […] Therapy with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin prolongs QTc interval in patients with COVID-19, particularly in those with high levels of transaminases.
32441332 Forty-one patients (68.6%) required hospital admission (18 due to disease worsening and 23 for delivery) of whom 21 patients (35%) underwent pharmacological treatment, including hydroxychloroquine, antivirals, antibiotics and tocilizumab.
32441771 Several trials are currently underway evaluating the antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine as a potential treatment for acute infection. […] However, polypharmacy predisposes patients to increased risk of drug-drug interactions with hydroxychloroquine and may render many in this population ineligible to participate in trials. […] We aimed to quantify the degree of polypharmacy and burden of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) that older hospitalized adults are taking which would interact with hydroxychloroquine. […] We first identified patients taking medications with potentially harmful drug-drug interactions with hydroxychloroquine that might exclude them from participation in a typical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) therapeutic trial. […] Next, we identified medications that were flagged by MedSafer as being potentially inappropriate and crafted guidance around medication management if contemplating the use of hydroxychloroquine. […] Of these 1,001 patients, 590 (58.9%) were receiving one or more home medications that could potentially interact with hydroxychloroquine, and of these 255 (43.2%) were flagged as potentially inappropriate by the MedSafer tool.
32442699 While evidence suggests that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may decrease the viral load in patients with a COVID-19 infection, a number of case reports indicate adverse dermatologic effects of this potential treatment.
32442941 Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a wide number of compounds are under scrutiny regarding their antiviral activity, one of them being hydroxychloroquine. […] Cardiac aspects of the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are reviewed in this manuscript. […] However, the rate of adverse cardiac events of hydroxychloroquine (and chloroquine) was low.
32444382 To this end, the antiviral efficacies of lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, and emtricitabine-tenofovir for SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed in the ferret infection model. […] While the lopinavir-ritonavir-, hydroxychloroquine sulfate-, or emtricitabine-tenofovir-treated group exhibited lower overall clinical scores than the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated control group, the virus titers in nasal washes, stool specimens, and respiratory tissues were similar between all three antiviral-candidate-treated groups and the PBS-treated control group. […] In this study, we tested the FDA-approved drugs lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, and emtricitabine-tenofovir against SARS-CoV-2 infection in a highly susceptible ferret infection model.
32444415 Five rheumatic cases used hydroxychloroquine before the diagnosis of COVID-19 and none progressed to critically ill stage.
32445484 Several drugs are being repurposed into clinical trials in COVID-19 patients, ranging from drugs already well established in other diseases, such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir+ ritonavir, azithromycin and tocilizumab/sarilumab, to those such as remdesivir still in development for their initial indication (1).
32446866 A combination such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and zinc, all of which have previously been used topically in the eye and which work at least in part by blocking ACE2 receptors, may offer a safe, cost-effective and resource-sparing intervention.
32447429 Public interest in hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine was plotted against the cumulative number of active clinical trials evaluating antimalarials as potential COVID-19 therapies over time.
32447603 •The most frequently discussed topics in videos were the place of hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19 and whether to continue the use of existing rheumatological drugs.
32448039 Hydroxychloroquine, the derivative of Chloroquine shows better inhibition than Chloroquine and has in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 also used to treat COVID-19. […] Outcomes of the present study conclude with the molecule CQD15 which shows better interactions for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine.
32449022 Twenty-nine patients were enrolled and divided into two groups: group 1 (14 patients) was composed of patients treated with off-label hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, whereas group 2 (15 patients) was composed of patients treated with hydroxychloroquine only, combined with the inhalation of acetic acid disinfectant at a 0.34% concentration.
32449128 Patients who combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin presented 3/18 deaths, regardless of age, staging, histology, cancer treatment and comorbidities (OR 0.02, p = 0.03). […] Combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin is presented as a good treatment option.
32449235 We report a case of the successful recovery from severe COVID-19 of a kidney-transplanted patient treated with hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, steroid and tocilizumab.
32450107 Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, often in combination with a second-generation macrolide, are being widely used for treatment of COVID-19, despite no conclusive evidence of their benefit. […] We did a multinational registry analysis of the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19. […] Patients who received one of the treatments of interest within 48 h of diagnosis were included in one of four treatment groups (chloroquine alone, chloroquine with a macrolide, hydroxychloroquine alone, or hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide), and patients who received none of these treatments formed the control group. […] Of these, 14 888 patients were in the treatment groups (1868 received chloroquine, 3783 received chloroquine with a macrolide, 3016 received hydroxychloroquine, and 6221 received hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide) and 81 144 patients were in the control group. 10 698 (11·1%) patients died in hospital. […] After controlling for multiple confounding factors (age, sex, race or ethnicity, body-mass index, underlying cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, diabetes, underlying lung disease, smoking, immunosuppressed condition, and baseline disease severity), when compared with mortality in the control group (9·3%), hydroxychloroquine (18·0%; hazard ratio 1·335, 95% CI 1·223-1·457), hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide (23·8%; 1·447, 1·368-1·531), chloroquine (16·4%; 1·365, 1·218-1·531), and chloroquine with a macrolide (22·2%; 1·368, 1·273-1·469) were each independently associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. […] Compared with the control group (0·3%), hydroxychloroquine (6·1%; 2·369, 1·935-2·900), hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide (8·1%; 5·106, 4·106-5·983), chloroquine (4·3%; 3·561, 2·760-4·596), and chloroquine with a macrolide (6·5%; 4·011, 3·344-4·812) were independently associated with an increased risk of de-novo ventricular arrhythmia during hospitalisation. […] We were unable to confirm a benefit of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, when used alone or with a macrolide, on in-hospital outcomes for COVID-19.
32450198 The chloroquine (CQ) and its analogue hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been used as frontline drugs for treatment and prophylaxis against all types of human malaria worldwide. […] Based on accumulating scientific reports, we have highlighted in this review, the different possible modes of action of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine that could particularly justify its use against viral infections. […] Considering the global health crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic, the option of using the drugs and repurposing of old drugs in this instance, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, specifically, hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 could be the best choice.
32451259 Repositioning hydroxychloroquine (HQ) seems to be a promising option. […] For this, we performed research on internet and PubMed by crossing the following keywords: healthcare givers, healthcare workers, doctors, nurses, coronavirus, Covid-19, mortality, infection rate, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine.
32451353 We would like to share ideas on the report on “Hydroxychloroquine in Patients with Rheumatic Disease Complicated by COVID-19: Clarifying Target Exposures and the Need for Clinical Trials [1].”Balevic noted that “well-designed clinical trials that include patients with rheumatic disease are urgently needed to characterize the efficacy, safety, and target exposures for hydroxychloroquine [1].”
32454157 Several clinical trials are on-going including testing Remdesivir (anti-viral), Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine derivatives (anti-malarial drugs) etc.
32456286 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a drug approved by several countries to treat malaria and immune-mediated diseases in humans, and its antiviral effects on other viral infections (e.g., SARS-CoV-2, dengue virus) have been confirmed.
32457932 The media have featured the antimalarials chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to treat coronavirus (COVID-19).
32458599 Currently, chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate, two chloroquine derivatives, are under clinical use.
32458969 Two candidate medications have been widely discussed: remdesivir, and hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin. […] Hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin has been widely misrepresented in both clinical reports and public media, and outpatient trials results are not expected until September. […] Evidence about use of hydroxychloroquine alone, or of hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin in inpatients, is irrelevant concerning efficacy of the pair in early high-risk outpatient disease. […] Hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin has been used as standard-of-care in more than 300,000 older adults with multicomorbidities, with estimated proportion diagnosed with cardiac arrhythmias attributable to the medications 47/100,000 users, of which estimated mortality is <20%, 9/100,000 users, compared to the 10,000 Americans now dying each week.
32459529 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have antiviral effects in vitro against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] To summarize evidence about the benefits and harms of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for the treatment or prophylaxis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Studies in any language reporting efficacy or safety outcomes from hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine use in any setting in adults or children with suspected COVID-19 or at risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Evidence was conflicting and insufficient regarding the effect of hydroxychloroquine on such outcomes as all-cause mortality, progression to severe disease, clinical symptoms, and upper respiratory virologic clearance with antigen testing. […] Several studies found that patients receiving hydroxychloroquine developed a QTc interval of 500 ms or greater, but the proportion of patients with this finding varied among the studies. […] Evidence on the benefits and harms of using hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine to treat COVID-19 is very weak and conflicting.
32460458 We examined the in vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine on SARS-CoV-2, at concentrations which can be used to treat coronavirus-19 patients with little concern of toxicity. […] Lopinavir/ritonavir (7/1.75 μg/mL), hydroxychloroquine base (1 or 2 μg/mL), or a combination thereof were administered 1 hour after the inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 to Vero cells at a multiplicity of infection of 0.05. […] However, hydroxychloroquine did not show significant inhibitory effects on anti-SARS-CoV-2-mediated cytotoxicity or on viral load at either concentration. […] However, the in vitro antiviral activity of hydroxychloroquine at concentrations commonly used in humans was minimal, whether used alone or in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir.
32461326 Tocilizumab was administered to 4 patients and hydroxychloroquine to 1 patient.
32463308 Several pharmacological therapies have been suggested including repurposing of existing drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, sometimes co-administered with azithromycin. […] Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were developed in the World War II era for treatment and prophylaxis of malaria, long before modern drug safety surveillance programs. […] How should we proceed with the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, potentially combined with azithromycin, for COVID-19 given that these agents bring some cardiac toxicity risk and their mechanisms for cardiac toxicity may not be the same?
32463348 Background Despite a lack of clinical evidence, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin are being administered widely to patients with verified or suspected COVID-19. […] Methods and Results We performed a case series of COVID-19 positive/suspected patients admitted between 2/1/2020 and 4/4/2020 who were treated with azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, or a combination. […] Azithromycin was prescribed in 28%, hydroxychloroquine in 10%, and both in 62%.
32468425 Various drugs are being tried for the treatment of COVID-19, including hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32469045 Dispensing of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, enoxaparin, and sedative medications increased substantially during the pandemic period (P < 0.01 for all comparisons).
32469614 Four patients were treated with azithromycin and a cephalosporin and two were also treated with hydroxychloroquine.
32470568 Repurposing hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) as antiviral agents is a re-emerging topic with new viral epidemics. […] Use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine as antiviral agents in one or more groups of the study.
32470751 As per SOLIDARITY trial by WHO, some of the most promising candidates include chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine which are anti-malarial medications, Remdesivir, Lopinavir-Ritonavir combination with or without interferon which are anti-HIV drugs and convalescent plasma therapy.
32471001 The main treatment combination was hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32471876 Additional mortality risk factors may include age, performance status, treatment with chemotherapy, and exposure to hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin.
32473020 Around the world, several dose regimens of hydroxychloroquine have been used for COVID-19 infection treatment, with the objective of identifying a short-term course. […] Hydroxychloroquine was found to decrease the viral replication in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro and to be more active when added prior to the viral challenge. […] Thus, we propose a hydroxychloroquine sulphate dose regimen of 400 mg twice daily at Day 1 then 400 mg once daily from Day 2 to Day 10.
32473310 A few clinically approved drugs, such as remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nafamostat, camostat, and ivermectin, exhibited anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in vitro and/or in a small number of patients. […] Bexarotene demonstrated the highest Cmax:EC50 ratio (1.69) which was higher than those of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and ivermectin.
32469265 The role of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine as potential treatments for Covid-19 is still under debate globally because of some side effects associated with it. […] This study involves the In silico interactions of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine with the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2. […] In our research Hydroxychloroquine exhibited potential inhibitory effectsof S-protein with binding energy -7.28 kcal/mol than Chloroquine (-6.30 kcal/mol) at SARS-CoV-2 receptor recognition of susceptible cells. […] The outcomes of this research strongly appeal for in vivo trials of Hydroxychloroquine for the patients infected with Covid-19. […] Furthermore, the recommended doses of Hydroxychloroquine may reduce the chances of catching Covid-19 to the healthcare workers and staff who are in contact with or delivering direct care to coronavirus patients as long as they have not been diagnosed with Covid-19.
32470470 Current treatment of COVID-19 patients relies mainly on antiviral drugs lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, and remdesivir, the anti-malarial drugs hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, and traditional Chinese medicine.
32473681 In logistic regression analysis, independent factors associated with increased 30-day mortality, after partial adjustment, were: increased age (per 10 years; partially adjusted odds ratio 1·84, 95% CI 1·53-2·21), male sex (1·63, 1·07-2·48), smoking status (former smoker vs never smoked: 1·60, 1·03-2·47), number of comorbidities (two vs none: 4·50, 1·33-15·28), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or higher (status of 2 vs 0 or 1: 3·89, 2·11-7·18), active cancer (progressing vs remission: 5·20, 2·77-9·77), and receipt of azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine (vs treatment with neither: 2·93, 1·79-4·79; confounding by indication cannot be excluded).
32473812 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are drugs that have shown in vitro activity on the replication of certain coronaviruses. […] The results of the first clinical studies evaluating the effect of hydroxychloroquine do not support any efficacy of this drug in patients with COVID-19, due to major methodological weaknesses. […] In the absence of evidence of clinical benefits, the main risk is of exposing patients unnecessarily to the well-known adverse effects of hydroxychloroquine, with a possibly increased risk in the specific setting of COVID-19. […] Meanwhile, serious adverse drug reactions have been reported in patients with COVID-19 receiving hydroxychloroquine, justifying to limit its prescription, and to perform suitable cardiac and therapeutic drug monitoring.
32474476 Given the lack of antiviral therapies or vaccines for the disease, the antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) obtained much attention as a treatment for COVID-19.
32474885 Anti-rheumatic drugs, which are tried for managing immunologic complications of COVID-19 infection, will also be discussed including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, JAK inhibitors, IL-6 inhibitors, IL-1 inhibitors, anti-TNF-α agents, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and colchicine.
32475347 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is the standard of care in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and other inflammatory rheumatic diseases and potentially for the treatment in COVID-19 patients.
32476080 The following variables were extracted for this study: age, gender, temperature, and saturation of oxygen on admission, treatment with heparin, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, steroids, tocilizumab, a combination of lopinavir with ritonavir, and oseltamivir, together with data on mortality.
32479900 Early during the current coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) received a significant amount of attention as a potential antiviral treatment, such that it became one of the most commonly prescribed medications for COVID-19 patients.
32482587 The analyzed drugs were paracetamol, ascorbic acid, dapagliflozin plus metformin, rosuvastatin plus ezetimibe, formoterol, and hydroxychloroquine, as these pharmaceutical substances registered the highest growth rate in sales and shortages when compared to the same period in the previous year. […] Hydroxychloroquine showed the most different pattern trends on sales and shortages of these medicines.
32485205 The anti-malarial drug Chloroquine (CQ) and its derivative hydroxychloroquine have shown antiviral activities in vitro against many viruses, including coronaviruses, dengue virus and the biosafety level 4 Nipah and Hendra paramyxoviruses.
32486229 Besides, the computations data of DFT the docking simulation studies was predicted that the Amodiaquine (2) has the least binding energy (-7.77 Kcal/mol) and might serve as a good inhibitor to SARS-CoV-2 comparable with the approved medicines, hydroxychloroquine, and remdesivir which have binding affinity -6.06 and -4.96 Kcal/mol, respectively.
32490532 The rising burden of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has led to the mass use of hydroxychloroquine by healthcare workers (HCWs). […] A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted across the country using semi-structured web-based questionnaire among COVID-19 negative and asymptomatic healthcare workers, taking hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis. […] Risk was higher in participants <40 years age (odd’s ratio (OR): 2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-5.05) and after first dose of hydroxychloroquine (51.2%, OR: 2.38, 95%CI: 1.17-4.84). […] Hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis was initiated without electrocardiography by 80.1% of HCWs. […] A higher incidence of adverse events was observed when results were compared with studies involving patients on long-term hydroxychloroquine therapy.
32492092 Hydroxychloroquine was administered to 15 patients (30%) but could not be completed for 3.
32492293 Whether hydroxychloroquine can prevent symptomatic infection after SARS-CoV-2 exposure is unknown. […] We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial across the United States and parts of Canada testing hydroxychloroquine as postexposure prophylaxis. […] Within 4 days after exposure, we randomly assigned participants to receive either placebo or hydroxychloroquine (800 mg once, followed by 600 mg in 6 to 8 hours, then 600 mg daily for 4 additional days). […] The incidence of new illness compatible with Covid-19 did not differ significantly between participants receiving hydroxychloroquine (49 of 414 [11.8%]) and those receiving placebo (58 of 407 [14.3%]); the absolute difference was -2.4 percentage points (95% confidence interval, -7.0 to 2.2; P = 0.35). […] Side effects were more common with hydroxychloroquine than with placebo (40.1% vs. […] After high-risk or moderate-risk exposure to Covid-19, hydroxychloroquine did not prevent illness compatible with Covid-19 or confirmed infection when used as postexposure prophylaxis within 4 days after exposure.
32492354 The Outcomes Related to COVID-19 treated with Hydroxychloroquine among In-patients with symptomatic Disease (ORCHID) trial is a multicenter, blinded, randomized trial of hydroxychloroquine versus placebo for the treatment of adults hospitalized with COVID-19. […] The ORCHID trial will provide high-quality, clinically relevant data on the safety and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19 among hospitalized adults.
32493447 Comparison of the effect of hydroxychloroquine with placebo to prevent infection from the COVID -19 virus among healthcare professionals TRIAL DESIGN: Single centre, 2-arm, double-blind randomised (ratio 1:1) placebo-controlled trial PARTICIPANTS: Treatment staff who are in contact with patients and have at least 3 shifts a week in Arash hospital affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences, in Iran and who consent to participate in the study. […] Exclusion criteria include: History of COVID -19 virus infection, clinical symptoms such as fever, nausea, dyspnea and myalgia in the past two months, history of underlying diseases hypersensitivity to hydroxychloroquine and G6PD enzyme deficiency. […] Intervention group: Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg tablet of Amin Pharmaceutical. placebo which is completely similar in form and taste to 200 mg hydroxychloroquine tablet and is manufactured by the same factory (Amin Pharmacy).
32493468 Although Hydroxychloroquine will be administered in a single dose, patients with heart problems (prolonged QT or PR intervals, second- or third-degree heart block, and arrhythmias including torsade de pointes) will be excluded. […] Other exclusion criteria include using drugs with potential interaction with Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Interferon-β 1a, Interferon-β 1b, pregnant or lactating women, history of alcohol or drug addiction in the past 5 years, blood ALT/AST levels > 5 times the upper limit of normal on laboratory results and refusal to participate. […] The first group (Arm 1) will receive Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra) + Interferon-β 1a (Recigen), the second group (Arm 2) will be administered Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra) + Interferon-β 1b (Ziferon), and the control group (Arm 3) will be treated by Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra).
32493478 Primary Objective • To test the efficacy of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) (400 mg orally daily for 3 days then 200 mg orally daily for an additional 11 days, to complete 14 days) to prevent incident SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared to ascorbic acid among contacts of persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection Secondary objectives • To determine the safety and tolerability of HCQ as SARS-CoV-2 Post-exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) in adults • To test the efficacy of HCQ (400 mg orally daily for 3 days then 200 mg orally daily for an additional 11 days, to complete 14 days) to prevent incident SARS-CoV-2 infection 2 weeks after completing therapy, compared to ascorbic acid among contacts of persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection • To test the efficacy of HCQ to shorten the duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding among those with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the HCQ PEP group • To test the efficacy of HCQ to prevent incident COVID-19 TRIAL DESIGN: This is a randomized, multi-center, placebo-equivalent (ascorbic acid) controlled, blinded study of HCQ PEP for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in adults exposed to the virus.
32493494 Currently there is no accepted chemoprophylaxis but hydroxychloroquine (HDQ) is known to inhibit the coronavirus in vitro. […] Our hypothesis is that oral administration of hydroxychloroquine to healthcare professionals can reduce the incidence and prevalence of infection as well as its severity in this group. […] Exclusion criteria include previous infection with SARS CoV2 (positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR or IgG serology), pregnancy or lactation, any contraindication to hydroxychloroquine or evidence of unstable or clinically significant systemic disease. […] Patients will be randomized (1:1) to receive once-daily oral Hydroxychloroquine 200mg for two months (HC group) or placebo (P group) in addition to the protective measures appropriate to the level of exposure established by the hospital. […] Some evidence of the in vitro efficacy of hydroxychloroquine against this virus is known, along with some clinical data that would support the study of this drug in the chemoprophylaxis of infection. […] If our hypothesis is confirmed, hydroxychloroquine can help professionals fight this infection with more guarantees. […] 1) Previous infection with SARS CoV2 (positive coronavirus PCR or positive serology with SARS Cov2 negative PCR and absence of symptoms); 2) Current treatment with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine; 3) Hypersensitivity, allergy or any contraindication for taking hydroxychloroquine, in the technical sheet; 4) Previous or current treatment with tamoxifen or raloxifene; 5) Previous eye disease, especially maculopathy; 6) Known heart failure (Grade III to IV of the New York Heart Association classification) or prolonged QTc; 7) Any type of cancer (except basal cell) in the last 5 years; 6) Refusal to give informed consent; 8) Evidence of any other unstable or clinically significant untreated immune, endocrine, hematological, gastrointestinal, neurological, neoplastic or psychiatric illness; 9) Antibodies positive for the human immunodeficiency virus; 10) Significant kidney or liver disease; 11) Pregnancy or lactation. […] 1)Intervention: (n = 225): One 200 mg hydroxychloroquine sulfate coated tablet once daily for two months.2)Comparator (control group) (n = 225): One hydroxychloroquine placebo tablet (identical to that of the drug) once daily for two months MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome of this study will be to evaluate: number and percentage of healthcare personnel presenting symptomatic and asymptomatic infection (see “Diagnosis of SARS CoV2 infection” below) by the SARS-Cov2 virus during the study observation period (8 weeks) in both treatment arms;number and percentage of healthcare personnel in each group presenting with Pneumonia with severity criteria (Curb 65 ≥2) and number and percentage of healthcare personnel requiring admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in both treatment arms.
32493514 Immunosuppressive therapy (e.g. mycophenolate, azathioprine, methotrexate, biologicals, prednisolone >10mg/d; exceptions are: prednisolone ≤ 10mg/d, sulfasalazine or hydroxychloroquine)9.
32493740 We included studies of ribavirin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, umifenovir (arbidol), favipravir, interferon and lopinavir/ritonavir.
32494896 One hundred fifty-five of 498 (31%) reported regular use of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZM); concomitant use of AZM was more common in the USA.
32495148 Hydroxychloroquine was recently promoted in patients infected with COVID-19 infection. […] A recent experimental study has suggested an increased toxicity of hydroxychloroquine in association with metformin in mice. […] The present study was undertaken to investigate the reality of this putative drug-drug interaction between hydroxychloroquine and metformin using pharmacovigilance data. […] Data with hydroxychloroquine (or metformin) alone were compared with the association hydroxychloroquine + metformin. […] Of the 10,771 Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSR) involving hydroxychloroquine, 52 were recorded as ‘fatal outcomes’. […] In comparison with hydroxychloroquine alone, hydroxychloroquine + metformin was associated with an ROR value of 57.7 (23.9-139.3). […] In comparison with metformin alone, hydroxychloroquine + metformin was associated with an ROR value of 6.0 (2.6-13.8). […] Our study identified a signal for the association hydroxychloroquine + metformin that appears to be more at risk of fatal outcomes (particularly by completed suicides) than one of the two drugs when given alone.
32495226 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are among the proposed drugs and are the most widely used so far, despite the lack of robust evidence on their usefulness.
32495913 A nasal swab for COVID-19 was performed, which resulted positive, and so therapy with doxycycline, hydroxychloroquine and antiviral agents was started.
32495921 Hence, based upon limited in-vitro and anecdotal data, Chloroquine, or Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Lopinavir and Ritonavir are being employed in the management.
32496241 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an antimalarial has been proposed as possible treatment for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).
32496265 All high-risk contacts were given hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis.
32496357 Eighty-percent received hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin.
32496926 Among the drugs under investigation, anti-malarials, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), are being repurposed as treatment for COVID-19.
32496938 Use of hydroxychloroquine has been popularised on mass media and put forward as a valid treatment option without strong evidence of efficacy. […] Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has its own side effects, some of which are very serious like acute haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient patients.
32498085 The use of modified protocols for insulin administration, bedside glucose monitoring, and medications such as glucocorticoids and hydroxychloroquine that may affect glycemic control are discussed.
32500556 We read with great interest the recent article by Beauverd et al.1 on an interesting case of severe hemolysis in a patient with COVID-19 treated with hydroxychloroquine. […] However, the article also suggested that hydroxychloroquine possibly worsened the hemolysis, and further cautioned the use of hydroxychloroquine in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient patients. […] We would like to comment on the authors’ attribution of accentuated hemolysis to the use of hydroxychloroquine.
32501454 We included consecutive patients (aged ≥18 years) with COVID-19, moderate-to-severe ARDS, and hyperinflammation (defined as serum C-reactive protein ≥100 mg/L, ferritin ≥900 ng/mL, or both) who were managed with non-invasive ventilation outside of the ICU and who received standard treatment of 200 mg hydroxychloroquine twice a day orally and 400 mg lopinavir with 100 mg ritonavir twice a day orally.
32501511 To define pediatric-specific dosing regimens for hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir for COVID-19 treatment. […] Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling was used to inform pediatric dosing for hydroxychloroquine. […] Simulated drug exposures following a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine (400 mg every 12 hours × 2 doses followed by 200 mg every 12 hours × 8 doses) and a single 200-mg intravenous dose of remdesivir were computed for simulated adult participants. […] The primary outcome for hydroxychloroquine was average unbound plasma concentrations for 5 treatment days. […] For hydroxychloroquine, the physiologically based pharmacokinetic model analysis included 500 and 600 simulated white adult and pediatric participants, respectively, and supported weight-normalized dosing for children weighing less than 50 kg. […] Simulated unbound hydroxychloroquine concentrations in lung interstitial fluid mirrored those in unbound plasma and were notably lower than in vitro concentrations needed to mediate antiviral activity. […] This analysis provides pediatric-specific dosing suggestions for hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir and raises concerns regarding hydroxychloroquine use for COVID-19 treatment because concentrations were less than those needed to mediate an antiviral effect.
32503662 The hypothesis of the study is that treatment with hydroxychloroquine sulphate in hospitalised patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is safe and will accelerate the virological clearance rate for patients with moderately severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) when compared to standard care. […] Furthermore, we hypothesize that early treatment with hydroxychloroquine sulphate is associated with more rapid resolve of clinical symptoms as assessed by the National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2), decreased admission rate to intensive care units and mortality, and improvement in protein biomarker profiles (C-reactive protein, markers of renal and hepatic injury, and established cardiac biomarkers like cardiac troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide). […] The study is a two-arm, open label, pragmatic randomised controlled group sequential adaptive trial designed to assess the effect on viral loads and clinical outcome of hydroxychloroquine sulphate therapy in addition to standard care compared to standard care alone in patients with established Covid-19. […] Patients will be excluded from participation in the study if they meet any of the following criteria: (1) Requiring intensive care unit admission at screening; (2) History of psoriasis; (3) Known adverse reaction to hydroxychloroquine sulphate; (4) Pregnancy; or (5) Prolonged corrected QT interval (>450 ms). […] Included patients will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to (1) standard care with the addition of 400 mg hydroxychloroquine sulphate (PlaquenilTM) twice daily for seven days or (2) standard care alone.
32505076 Combined treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin improves the outcome of Covid-19 in lung cancer patients, detecting only 1/6 deaths between patients under this treatment versus others treatment, with statistical significance in the univariate and multivariate logistic regression (OR 0.04, p = 0.018). […] Combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin treatment seems like a good treatment option.
32509485 She clinically improved on hydroxychloroquine and therapeutic anticoagulation.
32510734 Initial enthusiasm for the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin has abated.
32510771 We reduced immunosuppressive regimen in all these patients, typically holding the antiproliferative agent and augmenting steroids; everybody received hydroxychloroquine, initial empiric antibiotic treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam, and high-dose low molecular weight heparin.
32512263 Patients on hydroxychloroquine, TNFα antagonists or tocilizumab may have a mild viral illness.
32512873 Initial experiences with the use of hydroxychloroquine to prevent COVID-19 also seem promising.
32513231 To determine the efficacy of Hydroxychloroquine vs. […] Hydroxychloroquine + Nitazoxanide in reducing the need for invasive mechanical ventilatory support for patients with COVID-19. […] Hydroxychloroquine is currently being used in multiple trials with varying doses in an attempt to treat COVID-19. […] Dual therapy by combining appropriate doses of these two medications with diverse activities against COVID-19 is expected to be better than monotherapy with hydroxychloroquine. […] Elimination criteria: 1)Patients whose clinical follow-up is lost or who decide not to continue in the study INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The two management alternatives will be: Control - Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg taken orally every 12 hours for 7 days. […] Dual therapy - Hydroxychloroquine 400 mg taken orally every 12 hours for two days and then 200 mg taken orally every 12 hours for four days + Nitazoxanide 500 mg orally every 6 hours taken with food, for seven days.
32514228 Certain drugs that are clinically approved for other diseases were tested against COVID-19 as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, favipiravir, ribavirin, and remdesivir.
32514696 Recent attention on the possible use of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine to treat COVID-19 disease has potentially triggered a number of overdoses from hydroxychloroquine. […] Toxicity from hydroxychloroquine manifests with cardiac conduction abnormalities, seizure activity, and muscle weakness. […] A 27-year-old man with a history of rheumatoid arthritis presented to the emergency department 7 hours after an intentional overdose of hydroxychloroquine. […] Hydroxychloroquine toxicity is rare but projected to increase in frequency given its selection as a potential modality to treat COVID-19 disease. […] It is important for clinicians to recognize the unique effects of hydroxychloroquine poisoning and initiate appropriate emergency maneuvers to improve the outcomes in these patients.
32515383 Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, Interferon-l, glucocorticoids, interleukin antagonists, Ulinastatin, intravenous immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis are main immunomodulators showing initial positive outcomes.
32517786 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, also known as antimalarial drugs, are widely used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases and have recently become the focus of attention because of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
32519117 In the future ophthalmologists could play a decisive role in the screening of maculopathies that might occur during COVID-19 treatment using chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine.
32519281 Hydroxychloroquine has been promoted for its use in treatment of COVID-19 patients based on in-vitro evidences. […] We searched the databases to include randomized and observational studies evaluating the effect of Hydroxychloroquine on mortality in COVID-19 patients. […] In all studies, Hydroxychloroquine was given as add on to the standard care and effect was compared with the standard care alone. […] A pooled analysis observed 251 deaths in 1331 participants of the Hydroxychloroquine arm and 363 deaths in 1577 participants of the control arm. […] There was no difference in odds of mortality events amongst Hydroxychloroquine and supportive care arm [1.25 (95% CI: 0.65, 2.38); I2 = 80%]. […] The odds of mortality were significantly higher in patients treated with Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin than supportive care alone [2.34 (95% CI: 1.63, 3.34); I2 = 0%]. […] A pooled analysis of recently published studies suggests no additional benefit for reducing mortality in COVID-19 patients when Hydroxychloroquine is given as add-on to the standard care.
32519406 Hydroxychloroquine was started and continued for 7 days.
32519617 He received treatment with hydroxychloroquine (400 mg/day).
32519786 Hydroxychloroquine (600mg/day), Azithromycine, steroids (dexamethasone 20mg/day), vitamin C (3g/day), Zinc, diuretics and Enoxaparine were equally used for the two patients.
32520683 After the publication of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) with anti-SARS-COV-2 activity in vitro, a small, non-randomized, open-label clinical trial showed that HCQ treatment was significantly associated with reduced viral load in patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). […] Use the keyword ‘Hydroxychloroquine’ to conduct a literature search in PubMed to collect relevant literature on the mechanism of action of HCQ, clinical efficacy and safety, pharmacokinetic characteristics, precautions for clinical use and drug interactions, and extract and organize information.
32522067 Although several known drugs are already under clinical evaluation with many in repositioning strategies, much attention has been paid to the aminoquinoline derivates, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). […] In this short perspective, we discuss the roles of CQ/HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19 patients and propose new ways of possible treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection based on the molecules that selectivity target autophagy.Abbreviation: ACE2: angiotensin I converting enzyme 2; CoV: coronavirus; CQ: chloroquine; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; HCQ: hydroxychloroquine; MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
32522282 The aim of this randomised GCP-controlled trial is to clarify whether combination therapy with the antibiotic azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine via anti-inflammation/immune modulation, antiviral efficacy and pre-emptive treatment of supra-infections can shorten hospitalisation duration for patients with COVID-19 (measured as “days alive and out of hospital” as the primary outcome), reduce the risk of non- invasive ventilation, treatment in the intensive care unit and death. […] Fertile women* must not be pregnant, i.e. negative pregnancy test must be available at inclusion • Informed consent signed by the patient *Defined as after menarche and until postmenopausal (no menstruation for 12 months) Exclusion criteria: • At the time of recruitment, the patient uses >5 LO2/min (equivalent to 40% FiO2 if measured) • Known intolerance/allergy to azithromycin or hydroxychloroquine or hypersensitivity to quinine or 4-aminoquinoline derivatives • Neurogenic hearing loss • Psoriasis • Retinopathy • Maculopathy • Visual field changes • Breastfeeding • Severe liver diseases other than amoebiasis (INR> 1.5 spontaneously) • Severe gastrointestinal, neurological and hematological disorders (investigator-assessed) • eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m2 • Clinically significant cardiac conduction disorders/arrhythmias or prolonged QTc interval (QTc (f) of> 480/470 ms). […] Hydroxychloroquine: Furthermore, the patient will be treated with hydroxychloroquine as follows: Day 1-15: 200 mg x 2 MAIN OUTCOMES: • Number of days alive and discharged from hospital within 14 days (summarises both whether the patient is alive and discharged from hospital) (“Days alive and out of hospital”) RANDOMISATION: The sponsor (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Trial Network, COP:TRIN) generates a randomisation sequence.
32522754 A rapid recovery of respiratory and general symptoms was observed after 1 week of treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir plus hydroxychloroquine and broad-spectrum antibiotics (piperacillin-tazobactam plus teicoplanin).
32523150 The use of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and antiviral treatment and has been proposed by various groups, supported by in-vitro studies and limited patient series, without the adequate scientific rigor that precedes drug prescription.
32524645 We comment on hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir with zinc supplement, remdesivir, tocilizumab, ciclesonide, niclosamide and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).
32526507 Here we propose to use low doses of hydroxychloroquine (50-100 mg daily orally) and intranasal interferon alpha-2b (IFN α-2b) spray (0.5 × 106 IU twice daily) for the prophylaxis of COVID-19. […] Although there are ongoing clinical trials to test the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine for prophylaxis, there has not been any proposal to test the efficacy of IFN α-2b together with hydroxychloroquine to increase protection against COVID-19.
32528194 In the absence of a vaccine and an effective antiviral chemotherapy, there is currently an intense global interest in repositioning chloroquine (CQ) and its derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to combat the pandemic.
32529737 Hydroxychloroquine was considered in both strategies but antivirals in none.
32531620 Various treatment regimens including interferon, antivirals, and hydroxychloroquine therapies have been trialed on the pediatric population but there are currently no studies showing efficacy of one regimen over the other.
32531808 We use a mechanistic lung model to demonstrate that accumulation of chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) in the lungs is sensitive to changes in lung pH, a parameter that can be affected in patients with COVID-19.
32532805 If this hypothesis is correct, hydroxychloroquine, spirulina (more specifically, its chromophore phycocyanobilin) and high-dose glycine may have practical potential for mitigating the elevated thrombotic risk associated with COVID-19.
32532939 Hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, umifenovir, favipiravir, ribavirin and beta-interferon-1 gave rise to variable but still inconsistent proof of clinical efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19.
32532948 A 71-year old gentleman with history of arterial hypertension treated with valsartan presented on was hospitalized at the Infectious Diseases Unit, University of Bologna (Italy) for severe acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and received treatment with hydroxychloroquine 200mg bid (400 mg bid the first day), azithromycin 400 mg qd, thrombotic prophylaxis with enoxaparin 4000 UI qd and Venturi mask oxygen delivering FiO2 of 31%.
32533263 The co-administration of hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin is proposed in COVID-19 therapy. […] This additional mechanism may therefore explain the synergistic effect when azithromycin is added to hydroxychloroquine, leading to apparently more rapid virus clearance and better clinical benefit, when compared to monotherapy with hydroxychloroquine alone.
32534189 Some preliminary evidences have demonstrated controversial results regarding efficacy of azithromycin in combination with hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19. […] Firstly, a French trial demonstrated 100% of virological negativization of six patients treated with azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine vs 57.1% of patients treated with only hydroxychloroquine and 12.5% of the control group (p<0.05). […] Furthermore, there are some concerns regarding the association of azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine because of the potential Qt prolongation.
32534369 The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warned against the use of Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for Covid-19 outside of a hospital or a clinical trial setting due to the risk of QT interval prolongation, ventricular tachycardia and the increased risk of these complications when combined with some antibiotics such as azithromycin. […] Several studies have reported no benefit of Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, when used alone or with a macrolide in COVID-19 hospitalized patients. […] Despite these warnings, in several developing countries the official guidelines for treatment of Covid-19 patients at the primary care level recommend Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, among other treatments, as the first-choice for mild symptomatic Covid-19 patients, asymptomatic contacts or for prophylaxis.
32536150 The efficacies of lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine remain to be determined in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] To compare the virological and clinical responses to lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine treatment in COVID-19 patients. […] This retrospective cohort study included patients with COVID-19 treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine at a single center in Korea from February 17 to March 31, 2020. […] Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine concurrently and those treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine for less than 7 days were excluded. […] Of 65 patients (mean age, 64.3 years; 25 men [38.5%]), 31 were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and 34 were treated with hydroxychloroquine. […] Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir had a significantly shorter time to negative conversion of viral RNA than those treated with hydroxychloroquine (median, 21 days vs. 28 days). […] There was no significant difference in time to clinical improvement between lopinavir-ritonavir- and hydroxychloroquine-treated patients (median, 18 days vs. 21 days). […] Lymphopenia and hyperbilirubinemia were more frequent in lopinavir-ritonavir-treated patients compared with hydroxychloroquine-treated patients. […] Lopinavir-ritonavir was associated with more rapid viral clearance than hydroxychloroquine in mild to moderate COVID-19, despite comparable clinical responses.
32537099 The results of a clinical trial comparing hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin to the standard of care for the treatment of COVID-19 were recently published by Philippe Gautret et al. […] This study provides outstanding results for the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin over the standard of care, but the evidence was deemed insufficiently robust to warrant a public health decision to widen the use of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19.
32540367 Many potential therapies are currently under investigation, with some, like Hydroxychloroquine, being authorized for emergency use in some countries.
32542131 The off-label use of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and emergency use authorization of remdesivir can hopefully help the clinicians while treating critically ill patients.
32542964 Well known anti-inflammatory properties of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, agents widely used in dermatology, made them potential candidates for the treatment of COVID-19. […] In addition, we focus more on Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, their pharmacological properties, clinical utility, and current recommendations for their use in COVID-19.
32544304 Here we summarise the evidence for antiretrovirals to treat COVID-19 and, as a drug that has also been studied in HIV, hydroxychloroquine, and flag some of the pitfalls of using therapies that have not been evaluated robustly.
32544867 All patients received conventional therapy including Hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir. […] Our findings support the use of IFN-β-1a in combination with hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir in the management of COVID-19.
32546029 Tocilizumab and lenzilumab are recombinant monoclonal antibodies against IL-6 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, respectively, and have been proposed as a potential treatment for acute, hypoxic respiratory failure associated with COVID-19. Results & methodology: We present the case of a 68-year-old man with COVID-19 who was initially treated with hydroxychloroquine and lenzilumab, but continued to develop hypoxemia, requiring an increase in respiratory support with an associated rise in serum inflammatory markers.
32546437 All except two patients (97%; n=61) were treated with either chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, while the three most prescribed antibiotics were ceftriaxone (79%; n=50), azithromycin (71%; n=45), and the piperacillin/tazobactam combination (49%; n=31).
32546458 Recently, an advisory by the Indian Council of Medical Research for the use of hydroxychloroquine as post-exposure prophylaxis was hailed as an outstanding initiative for the protection of healthcare workers and high risk contacts of patients.
32549293 In light of the favorable outcomes of few small, non-randomized clinical studies, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.
32550056 There is no definitive treatment, although a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin have shown good results, and passive immunization also shows promising results, their safety profile is yet to be studied in detail.
32550095 We report a case of a 65-year-old man with diabetes and severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation and treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, nafamostat, and prone positioning.
32552642 Repurposing anti-malarial drugs, chloroquine (CQ)/ hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have shown efficacy to inhibit most coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-1 coronavirus.
32554424 Two patients were managed with both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin; one was treated with lopinavir-ritonavir.
32554953 Several anti-viral drugs such as RNA dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin), protease inhibitors (lopinavir, ritonavir) and drugs targeting endocytic pathway (hydroxychloroquine) are being evaluated for COVID-19 but standard therapeutics yet not available.
32555446 According to the information that we have collected so far, this article provides an overview of potential therapeutic drugs and compounds with much attention, including favipiravir and hydroxychloroquine, as well as traditional Chinese medicine, which have been reported with good clinical treatment effects.
32555974 These include chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), nitazoxanide, remdesivir, Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV / r), in addition to treatment with convalescent plasma.
32556143 Data from non-randomized studies have suggested that hydroxychloroquine could be an effective therapeutic agent against Covid-19. […] Patients who received hydroxychloroquine (200mg tid dosage for 10 days) on a compassionate basis in addition to SOCwere compared to patients without contraindications to hydroxychloroquine who received SOCalone. […] Data from 89 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 were analyzed, 84 of whom were considered in the primary analysis; 38 patients treated with hydroxychloroquine and 46 patients treated with SOCalone. […] In hospitalized adults with Covid-19, no significant reduction of the risk of unfavorable outcomes was observed with hydroxychloroquine in comparison to standard of care. […] Ongoing controlled trials in patients with varying degrees of initial severity on a larger scale will help determine whether there is a place for hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of Covid-19.
32557209 Hemodialysis therapy was performed in isolation with hydroxychloroquine administration, but the formation of a dialysis membrane clot forced the withdrawal of dialysis therapy. […] The hydroxychloroquine and appropriate fluid management may have contributed to the patient’s recovery.
32558210 The aim of this life size in vitro pharmacokinetic study was to investigate the in-vitro adsorption of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine from human plasma using equipment that is also used at the bedside. […] Both drugs were determined using a validated HPLC method Median [IQR] plasma clearance of the Seraph for chloroquine / hydroxychloroquine was 1.71 [0.51-4.38] ml/min / 1.79 [0.21-3.68] ml/min respectively. […] As neither chloroquine nor hydroxychloroquine were removed by the treatment with the Seraph dose adjustments in COVID-19 patients undergoing this treatment are not necessary.
32559354 Her hepatitis and respiratory symptoms improved coincident with completing treatment with hydroxychloroquine, reduced immunosuppression, and intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG).
32559589 The goal of this systematic review is to assess the published literature for seizure risk with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine therapy in persons with and without epilepsy. […] Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine is one proposed medication that has received substantial public attention. […] PubMed (1970 to March 27, 2020) and the Embase (1970 to March 27, 2020) were searched with the terms chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine and seizure or epilepsy, convulsions, or status epilepticus. […] For hydroxychloroquine, there was one prospective observational study(n = 631) and one case report. […] The clinical trials failed to find any significant relation between seizures and chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine.
32559820 In the absence of a commonly agreed dosing protocol based on pharmacokinetic considerations, the dose and treatment duration for hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) COVID-19 disease currently vary across national guidelines and clinical study protocols. […] We have used a model-based approach to explore the relative impact of alternative dosing regimens proposed in different dosing protocols for hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19.
32560646 Convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion was reported to be effective in treating critically ill patients with COVID-19, and hydroxychloroquine could potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. […] Herein, we reported a case receiving combination therapy with CP transfusion and hydroxychloroquine for the first time. […] CP was intravenously given twice, and hydroxychloroquine was orally administrated for a week (0.2 g, three times a day). […] These findings suggested that the effectiveness of combination therapy with CP and hydroxychloroquine may be non-optimal, and specific therapy needs to be explored.
32561148 This includes clinically available drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir, which are being repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19.
32561401 Among hospitalized patients, hydroxychloroquine did not improve COVID-19 outcomes.
32562070 Recurrences of COVID-19 were observed in a patient with long-term usage of hydroxychloroquine, leflunomide, and glucocorticoids due to her 30-year history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
32562159 According to the drug regimen, the patients were divided into two groups; group I who received regimen I consisting azithromycin, prednisolone, naproxen, and lopinavir/ritonavir and group II who received regimen II including meropenem, levofloxacin, vancomycin, hydroxychloroquine, and oseltamivir.
32562480 We performed a systematic review of all interventional studies registered in ClinicalTrials.gov with a focus on one repurposed drug, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32562561 Hydroxychloroquine was administered in 11 patients, associated with lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon β in 2 cases each.
32562764 Furthermore, it is emphasized that the viral spike protein is prevented from binding gangliosides, which are composed of a glycosphingolipid with one or more sialic acids, in the presence of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine.
32563969 Currently available expert opinions suggest reduction of immunosuppression therapy for renal transplant recipients with symptomatic COVID-19 infection with either antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine and/or azithromycin.
32565195 There is currently an increased interest in using the antimalarials chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of other diseases, including cancer and viral infections such as COVID-19.
32565199 A treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine twice daily was started. […] Consequently, treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine was stopped.
32566561 Arbidol and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) had no benefit on probability of negative PCR test (RR =1.27; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.73; RR =0.93; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.18) respectively.
32567262 There have been controversies on the prophylactic effect of hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] We describe a patient, 60-year old Korean woman, with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who had been taking hydroxychloroquine for 6 months. […] Her serum and saliva concentrations of hydroxychloroquine were 280 μg/L and 4,890 μg/L, respectively. […] The present case raises concerns on hydroxychloroquine’s role as a prophylactic agent for COVID-19.
32567487 Molecular peptide docking with Moringa oleifera, phytochemicals (aqueous and ethanolic) leaf extracts of flavonoids (3.56 ± 0.03), (3.83 ± 0.02), anthraquinone (11.68 ± 0.04), (10.86 ± 0.06) and hydroxychloroquine present therapy of COVID-19 in Pakistan for comparative study. […] The maximum energy obtained from AutoDock Vina for hydroxychloroquine is -5.1 kcal/mol, kaempferol (flavonoid) is -6.2 kcal/mol, and for anthraquinone -6 kcal/mol.
32568282 The results with hydroxychloroquine have thus far been rather disappointing.
32569708 Treatment options for the pulmonary phase include: Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir.
32571115 The utility of hydroxychloroquine for the prophylaxis and treatment of alarmingly rising COVID-19 infection has been widely explored in several studies. […] We report cases of palmoplantar among health care workers who were on prophylactic doses of hydroxychloroquine and their management with cetirizine and methylprednisolone.
32571302 Registered intervention trials used highly heterogeneous primary outcomes and tested highly heterogeneous interventions; the most frequently studied interventions were hydroxychloroquine (N = 39; 7.2%) and chloroquine (N = 16; 3%).
32572376 Based on the previous experiences with similar coronavirus management and present preliminary data from uncontrolled studies, drugs like chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and favipiravir have been recommended by the researchers to manage COVID-19.
32572609 Only 4% were willing to take hydroxychloroquine for protection.
32572842 In particular, information has spread about some drugs approved for other indications (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, favipiravir, and umifenovir) that could have led to inappropriate and therefore hazardous use.
32573538 The review provides detailed literature data on drugs such as hydroxychloroquine / chloroquine, lopinavir/natinavir, remdesivir, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin converting enzyme receptor blockers, tissue plasminogen activator, as well as plasma transfusion transfusions.
32573882 All patients received a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin; half of the patients received methylprednisolone.
32573895 4/5 KTRs were treated with hydroxychloroquine.
32574312 Benefits of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19 infection have been proposed and clinical trials are underway. […] Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, typically used for the treatment of malaria and autoimmune diseases, have been considered for off-label use in several countries. […] This mini-review represents a summary of the findings from a systematic search regarding ototoxicity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the published literature. […] The characteristics of sensorineural hearing loss and/or tinnitus after chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine treatment can be temporary but reports of persistent auditory and vestibular dysfunction exist. […] There are potential implications from this review for survivors of COVID-19 treated with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. […] Clinical trials of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine should also consider including audiological monitoring in the protocol.
32574327 Many conventional drugs including hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, lopinavir, remdesivir, etc., have been repurposed as treatments for this often deadly disease, but there is no specifically-designed effective drug available; also, the drugs mentioned have significant side effects and their efficacy is unknown. […] Under the current critical conditions, large doses of melatonin alone or in combination with currently-recommended drugs, e.g., hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, to resist COVID-19 infection would seem judicious.
32576712 Covariates were lymphocyte count, serum levels of albumin, C-Reactive Protein, D-Dimers and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), anticoagulation level, and exposure to the hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combined therapy.
32578794 In severe cases, the use of medications such as hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin or medication can be promising.
32579059 Recently Chloroquine and its derivative Hydroxychloroquine have garnered enormous interest amongst the clinicians and health authorities’ world over as a potential treatment to contain COVID-19 pandemic. […] The present research aims at investigating the therapeutic potential of Chloroquine and its potent derivative Hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. […] Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, and some of their chemically synthesized derivatives, taken from earlier published studies were selected as drug molecules. […] We have conducted molecular docking and related studies between Chloroquine and its derivatives and SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins, and the findings show that both Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine can bind to specific structural and non-structural proteins implicated in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection with different efficiencies. […] These findings bring into light another possible mechanism of action of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine and also pave the way for further drug repurposing and remodeling.Communicated by Ramaswamy H.
32579244 The use of hydroxychloroquine (HCL) has been very common in countries with a rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), although controversial and the subject of heated scientific discussions with implications for the whole society.
32580215 The patient was given NIMV (non-invasive mechanical ventilation), and hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir and azithromycin in isolation intensive care, with the diagnosis of severe pneumonia.
32582330 Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine has shown some beneficial effects and is being used off-label.
32585765 Darunavir together with ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and favipiravir were initiated on the first day of admission at primary hospital.
32586363 In this study, we investigate the effect of hydroxychloroquine on the prevention of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in cancer patients being treated. […] The exclusion criteria will include known sensitivity to Hydroxychloroquine, weight below 35 kilograms, history of retinopathy, history of any cardiac disease, acute respiratory tract infection in the last 2 months, having COVID-19 in the first two weeks of entering the trial, having Diabetes Mellitus, having an immuno-suppressive disease other than cancer, having chronic pulmonary disease and taking immuno-suppressant drug other than chemotherapeutic agents for current cancer. […] Patients are randomly assigned to two groups; one being given hydroxychloroquine and the other is given placebo. […] During two months of treatment, the two groups are treated with either hydroxychloroquine (Amin® Pharmaceutical Company, Isfahan, Iran) or placebo (identical in terms of shape, colour, smell) as a single 200 mg tablet every other day. […] This trial has been registered by the title of “Effect of Hydroxychloroquine on Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) prevention in cancer patients under treatment” in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) with code “IRCT20200405046958N1”, https://www.irct.ir/trial/46946.
32586646 Patients free of ECG changes during hospitalization were more likely to be treated with antiretrovirals (68% vs 15%, p = 0.001) and hydroxychloroquine (89% vs 62%, p = 0.026) versus those who developed ECG abnormalities after admission.
32586933 Thirty-one additional questions were added, related to general recommendations, including the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and hydroxychloroquine. […] While there was a consensus in starting or initiating NSAIDs for the treatment of scleritis in healthy patients, there was no consensus in starting hydroxychloroquine in any risk groups.
32588427 Association between Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Azithromycin (AZT) is under evaluation for patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2).
32591664 The inclusion and exclusion criteria for the data sources are not reported in the manuscript.Study selection The authors included six studies on the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in humans. […] Narrative synthesis of each of the included studies identified important and significant limitations, precluding the studies from demonstrating a statistically significant difference in outcomes.Conclusions This review highlights the urgent need for more high quality evidence on the use of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
32591970 Substantial clinical improvement was obtained following a management plan, which included tocilizumab, hydroxychloroquine, prednisolone and enoxaparin sodium.