DrugBank ID: db14154
DrugCentral: gold
Synonymous :aurum metallicum | colloidal gold | gold flake | gold leaf | gold powder | gold, colloidal | gold, elemental

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of gold gene in 224 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32172228 As the current gold standard for the etiological diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is (real time) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) on respiratory tract specimens, the diagnostic accuracy of this technique shall be considered a foremost prerequisite.
32174053 The nucleic acid test or genetic sequencing serves as the gold standard method for confirmation of infection, yet several recent studies have reported false-negative results of real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR).
32196430 Newer laboratory methods are fast, highly sensitive and specific, and are gradually replacing the conventional gold standards.
32277023 Objective: To investigate the interference factors that lead to false-positive novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) IgM detected using gold immunochromatography assay (GICA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the corresponding solutions.Methods: GICA and ELISA were used to detect SARS-CoV-2 IgM in 86 serum samples, including 5 influenza A virus (Flu A) IgM-positive sera, 5 influenza B virus (Flu B) IgM-positive sera, 5 Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM-positive sera, 5 Legionella pneumophila IgM-positive sera, 6 sera of HIV infection patients, 36 rheumatoid factor IgM (RF-IgM)-positive sera, 5 sera from hypertensive patients, 5 sera from diabetes mellitus patients, and 14 sera from novel coronavirus infection disease (COVID-19) patients.
32281785 The two-dimensional gold nanoislands (AuNIs) functionalized with complementary DNA receptors can perform a sensitive detection of the selected sequences from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) through nucleic acid hybridization.
32283141 Here, we presented the colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic (ICG) strip targeting viral IgM or IgG antibody and compared it with real-time RT-PCR.
32292623 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is regarded as a gold standard test for the molecular diagnosis of viral and bacterial infections with high sensitivity and specificity.
32301746 Amplification of viral RNA by rRT-PCR serves as the gold standard for confirmation of infection, yet it needs a long turnaround time (3-4 h to generate results) and shows false-negative rates as large as 15%-20%.
32301749 Laboratory tests play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19, the current gold standard being real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) on respiratory tract specimens.
32302956 With a positive nucleic acid test as the gold standard, the sensitivity of lung CT was 12.00 %, 95 % CI: 4.6-24.3; with the changes of CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity of nucleic acid positive was 30.16 %, 95 % CI: 19.2-43.0.
32306047 The gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis was nucleic acid testing for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR.
32311437 Real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction,RT-PCR) and viral gene sequencing are the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19.
32312166 Flexible laryngoscopy, the gold-standard evaluation of the larynx and the pharynx, is one of the most commonly performed procedures in otolaryngology.
32324359 We also focus on the proper method of microbiological sampling and the relevant informations regarding diagnostic tests like the gold standard real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2.
32327383 Ultrasound is being used in Italy and China to help review lung condition during the COVID-19 outbreak however not strictly as a diagnostic tool as Computed Tomography (CT) of the chest and chest radiographs are currently gold standard.
32328206 It is desirable to prioritize disease conditions for which cytoreduction surgery with or without associated hyperthermic intraoperative peritoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is the gold-standard treatment, and for which systemic chemotherapy cannot be a temporary or long-term alternative: pseudomyxoma peritonei, resectable malignant peritoneal mesotheliomas, peritoneal metastases of colorectal origin if they are resectable and unresponsive to systemic chemotherapy after up to 12 courses, first-line ovarian carcinomatosis if resectable or in interval surgery after at most six courses of systemic chemotherapy.
32330291 Though molecular diagnostic tests are the gold standard for COVID-19, serological testing is emerging as a potential surveillance tool, in addition to its complementary role in COVID-19 diagnostics.
32334183 The gold standard is a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based system taking several hours to confirm positivity.
32335426 The current gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19 is the detection of coronavirus nucleic acids, but imaging has an important role in the detection of lung lesions, stratification, evaluation of treatment strategies, and differentiation of mixed infections.
32337795 Although chest Computer Tomography (CT) represents the gold standard to assess lung involvement, with a specificity even superior to the nasal/pharyngeal swab for diagnosis, lung ultrasound examination can be a valid alternative to CT scan, with some advantages, particularly desirable for pregnant women.
32340562 Molecular docking is performed using AutoDock Vina and GOLD suite to determine the binding affinities and interactions between the phytochemicals and the main protease.
32342927 All kits are based on colloidal gold-labeled immunochromatography principle and one-step method with results obtained within 15 minutes, using whole blood, serum or plasma samples.
32346593 The nucleic acid testing is the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19, but has a low sensitivity is low.
32350048 All assays were 100% specific, using our CDC-based LDT as the gold standard.
32354369 Nucleic acid detection is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19.
32355546 To evaluate the diagnostic performance and clinical utility of the colloidal gold immunochromatography assay for SARS-Cov-2 specific IgM/IgG anti-body detection in suspected COVID-19 cases. […] All patients were tested by the colloidal gold immunochromatography assay for COVID-19. […] The colloidal gold immunochromatography assay for SARS-Cov-2 specific IgM/IgG anti-body had 71.1% sensitivity and 96.2% specificity in this population, showing the potential for a useful rapid diagnosis test for COVID-19.
32356672 The gold standard so far is RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polmerase chain reaction) from the nasopharyngeal smear.
32357503 Despite the decline in postmortem examination rate, autopsy remains the gold standard to determine why and how death happens.
32358057 However, the “gold standard” test pioneered by the United States Center for Disease Control & Prevention, takes several hours to complete and requires extensive human labor, materials such as RNA extraction kits that could become in short supply and relatively scarce qPCR machines. […] There has been a tremendous explosion in the number of papers written within the first weeks of the pandemic evaluating potential advances, comparable reagents, and alternatives to the “gold-standard” CDC RT-PCR test.
32361322 Using the in-house assays as the “gold standard”, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the AusDiagnostics assay was 100 %, 92.16 %, 55.56 % and 100 % respectively.
32363011 The results revealed a sensitivity of 69% and 93.1% for IgM and IgG, respectively, based solely on PCR-positivity due to the absence of a serological gold standard.
32364358 Aim: We evaluated two rapid tests (Anhui and Clungene) in comparison with those of real-time PCR tests considered as the gold standard in the detection of infection.
32370065 The proposed chain reactions target the complementary DNA (cDNA) of SARS-CoV-2, with loci corresponding to gold-standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) loci.
32376587 RCTs provides the gold standard for evaluating the effectiveness of a given treatment for the patients from the outbreaks.
32387058 It is desirable to prioritize disease conditions for which cytoreduction surgery with or without associated hyperthermic intraoperative peritoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is the gold-standard treatment, and for which systemic chemotherapy cannot be a temporary or long-term alternative: pseudomyxoma peritonei, resectable malignant peritoneal mesotheliomas, peritoneal metastases of colorectal origin if they are resectable and unresponsive to systemic chemotherapy after up to 12 courses, first-line ovarian carcinomatosis if resectable or in interval surgery after at most six courses of systemic chemotherapy.
32391022 Molecular assays have been the gold standard to directly detect for the presence of viral genetic material in infected individuals.
32400049 Recently, the group of Sichuan published a protocol for COVID/ACS infected patients that see the thrombolysis as the gold standard of care.
32431052 For this infectious disease, nucleic acid detection is still the gold standard for pathogenic detection.
32437124 We herein report the development of a colorimetric assay based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), when capped with suitably designed thiol-modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) specific for N-gene (nucleocapsid phosphoprotein) of SARS-CoV-2, could be used for diagnosing positive COVID-19 cases within 10 min from the isolated RNA samples.
32438677 Although Nucleic Acid Test (NAT) is considered to be the gold standard, serological tests based on antibodies could be very helpful.
32438806 The reverse transcriptase real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) test is currently considered as a gold standard in the laboratory for the etiological detection of COVID-19.
32438868 Quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR) is widely used as the gold standard for clinical detection of SARS-CoV-2.
32443459 To date, assays based on the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in respiratory samples are the gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis.
32446037 Although CT scan is the gold standard, CXR are still useful because it is cheaper, faster and more widespread.
32451162 Real-time polymerase chain reaction was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19, and computed tomography scans were considered useful for cases of diagnostic uncertainty.
32455796 The real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain was one of the most quickly established methods in the novel viral pandemic and was considered as the gold standard for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
32458502 Detection of viral genomic materials by RT-PCR is the gold standard for diagnosis.
32462968 Gold nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots in colorimetric and immunochromatographic assays, silica nanoparticles in a polymerase chain reaction and spike protein nanospheres as antigen carriers and adjuvants in vaccine formulations present notable examples in diagnostics and prevention, while uses of nanoparticles in coronavirus infection treatments have been merely sporadic.
32467809 Appendectomy is the gold standard of treatment for acute appendicitis; however, recent evidence suggests conservative management with intravenous antibiotics may provide similar outcomes and can be used as an alternative in selected patients.
32466458 Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) based assays performed on respiratory specimens remain the gold standard for COVID-19 diagnostics.
32475066 As such, plaque assays remain the gold standard in quantifying concentrations of replication-competent lytic virions.
32476607 The SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM antibodies were then detected using a SARS-CoV-2 IgM colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA).
32485473 We evaluated nCoV-QS (MiCo BioMed) kit using CDC kit as gold standard.
32490854 Here, the unique localized surface plasmon resonance properties of chemically-synthesized gold triangular nanoprisms (Au TNPs) are utilized to create large SERS and PEF enhancements.
32492531 The gold-standard COVID-19 diagnosis relies on detecting SARS-CoV-2 using RNA purification and one-step retrotranscription and quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). […] Although with a delay in cycle threshold compared to the gold-standard, we found consistent results in nasopharyngeal swab samples that were subject to a direct 70°C incubation for 10 min.
32505777 When calculating the overall sensitivity, in a time frame of 49 days after first PCR-positivity, the PRNT as gold standard, showed the highest sensitivity with 93.3% followed by the dual-target assay for the VIRCLIA® automation system with 89%.
32506142 Depending on clinical status (symptomatic or non-symptomatic), the information useful for the orthopaedist surgeon and obtained from the Chest CT scan according to the result of the PCR (gold standard) was graded from 0 (no or low value) to 3 (high value).
32508026 A colloidal gold immunochromatography assay for IgM/IgG antibodies against the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) S1 protein was established to assess its rapid diagnostic value. […] We first designed and manufactured all contents of the test cassette of SARS-CoV-2 rapid test kit: the colloidal gold-labeled mouse-antihuman lgM/lgG antibody, the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 antigen, the nitrocellulose membrane control line, and specimen diluents. […] Furthermore, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, colloidal gold immunochromatography assay, serological validation of cross reaction with other common viruses, and clinical validation were performed.
32513515 Symptoms are examined using the COPD assessment test (CAT) score, and dyspnea grade are examined using a modified MRC from GOLD guidelines.
32513858 Molecular testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the gold standard for diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the clinical performance of these tests is still poorly understood, particularly with regard to disease course, patient-specific factors, and viral shedding.
32520160 Since rRT-PCR tests serve as the gold standard method to confirm a SARS-CoV-2 infection, false-negative results could hinder the prevention and control of the epidemic, particularly considering the test plays a key role in the decision for continued isolated medical observation or discharge.
32523136 Percutaneous coronary intervention is considered the gold standard, however in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the reperfusion strategy is more focused on fibrinolytic therapy due to the shorter time required to perform and less exposure.
32523142 Evidence of the usefulness of USP in COVID-19 is still scarce, although preliminary, it seems to be a sensitive technique whose findings have a high gold standard. […] La evidencia de la utilidad de USP en COVID-19 es aún escasa, aunque de forma preliminar, parece ser una técnica sensible cuyos hallazgos tienen una elevada gold-standard.
32523933 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can cause fever, dry cough and acute respiratory failure.Cough can result in several complications, including rupture of the diaphragm and abdominal herniation.CT scanning is the gold standard technique to investigate COVID-19 pneumonia and diaphragmatic rupture.
32530131 Assuming negative repeat RT-PCR, clear chest imaging, and lack of subsequent symptoms represent the “gold standard,” RT-PCR specificity was 0.97.
32534909 The gold standard for diagnosis is nucleic acid detection by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) in naso-pharyngeal swabs, but, due to limitations in its sensitivity, thoracic imaging plays a crucial, complementary role in diagnostic work-up and it allows also to reveal atypical findings and potential alternative target for sampling, such as pleural effusion.
32535302 The unprecedented outbreak posed the challenge of evaluating the different diagnostic RT-PCR assays sensitivity and specificity without a previous established gold standard.Since the availability of the first SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequence (Wu et al., 2020), several studies have reported a rapid genetic evolution of SARS-CoV-2 through a phylogenetic tree tracking the geographical spread of the virus (Andersen et al., 2020; The Open Science Prize, 2020; Wu et al., 2020; Yi, 2020).
32537697 Blind insertion of SADs should become the exception and we anticipate, as in other domains such as central venous cannulation and nerve block insertions, vision-guided placement becoming the gold standard.
32538893 Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Next-generation sequencing (NGS) are the gold standard for diagnosing COVID-19.
32542208 In this study, a colloidal gold nanoparticle-based lateral-flow (AuNP-LF) assay was developed to achieve rapid diagnosis and on-site detection of the IgM antibody against the SARS-CoV-2 virus through the indirect immunochromatography method.
32543753 The detection data of IgM and IgG antibodies in 169 patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were analyzed to evaluate differences in clinical performance between the colloidal gold method and chemiluminescence method. […] In this study, chemiluminescence detection of IgM antibody showed a positive conversion earlier (about 1~2 days earlier), positive conversion rates higher in different stages of disease, and a trend of declining positive rate later than colloidal gold method. […] For IgG antibody, the chemiluminescence method showed a positive conversion earlier and the positive rate climbing more quickly than the colloidal gold method. […] Although colloidal gold method is generally less sensitive than chemiluminescence method, it shows advantages of shorter turn-around time, more simple procedure and no special equipment required.
32550056 Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR; rt-PCR) is the gold standard diagnostic test, and chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scan are the other main investigations.
32552549 The RNA purification is the gold standard for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in swab samples, but it is dependent on the availability of chemical reagents.
32555087 The current surgical gold treatment standard is intramedullary nail fixation.
32563180 Preferably, the performance of serological tests for a novel virus should be determined with clinical specimens against a gold standard, i.e. virus neutralisation.
32566476 Sensitivity of RT-PCR nasopharyngeal (NP) testing is presumed to be high, but there is no gold standard against which this has been determined.
32568341 The principle of a lateral flow immunoassay strip (LFIAs) consists of fixing SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein to the surface of the strip and coupling anti-human IgG with colloidal gold nanoparticles (Au NPs).
32568413 A subgroup analysis among detection methods indicated the sensitivity of IgG and IgM using ELISA were slightly lower than those using gold immunochromatography assay (GICA) and chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) (p > .05) These results showed that the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM had high diagnostic efficiency to assist the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32571647 We present the case of a 71-year-old man who, despite becoming asymptomatic after having some mild symptoms of COVID-19, had SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected for 37 days after onset, from his concentrated and purified saliva specimens using sugar chain-immobilized gold nanoparticles.
32572338 To ensure a proper disinfection, we have evaluated three biological indicators namely Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis and spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus, considered as the gold standard for disinfection processes.
32574326 In this original research article, we describe the conception, the analytical and clinical performances as well as the risk management of implementing the COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip in a diagnostic decision algorithm. Materials and Methods: Development of the COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip resulted in a ready-to-use ICT assay based on a membrane technology with colloidal gold nanoparticles using monoclonal antibodies directed against the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 highly conserved nucleoprotein antigen.
32574328 There is currently not a well-established gold standard therapy for the treatment of diagnosed COVID-19.
32574333 A nucleic acid test is currently accepted as the gold standard method to confirm diagnosis.
32580529 The right equilibrium between high speed, low cost and accuracy is obtained with easy-to-use decentralized point-of-care test as the colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip assay which detects IgM and IgG antibodies directed against SARS-CoV-2.
32582718 The current gold standard for the molecular diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is the real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the qualitative and quantitative detection of viral nucleic acids.
32585723 The latest Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists guidance for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) recommends avoiding the ‘gold standard’ 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic [1].
32588614 Diagnostic procedure in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is based mainly on performing real-time-reverse transcription-polymerase chain-reaction (RT-PCR), which has been accepted as the gold standard method.
32591166 The current gold standard for etiologic diagnosis is reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of respiratory-tract specimens, but the test has a high false-negative rate owing to both nasopharyngeal swab sampling error and viral burden.
32592498 In reference to the comments by Dramé M., et al., 2020, that question the possibility of whether the reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) for viral load should be considered a gold standard in the diagnosis of Covid-19.
32593875 SARS-CoV-2 has caused COVID-19 pandemic globally in the beginning of 2020, and qualitative real-time RT-PCR has become the gold standard in diagnosis.
32600935 The Polymer Chain Reaction (PCR) test in the first 7 days for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA is considered the test of reference (‘Gold standard’).
32602024 Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) is the gold standard for the surgical management of localized prostate cancer (PCa).
32605192 For these reasons, autopsy remains the gold standard method to ascertain the exact cause of death (from or with COVID-19 infection, or other causes), to consequently provide real data for statistical evaluations and to take necessary measures to contain the risks of the infection.
32607737 Amplification of viral RNA by (real time) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is the current gold standard test for confirmation of infection, although it presents known shortcomings: long turnaround times (3-4 hours to generate results), potential shortage of reagents, false-negative rates as large as 15-20%, the need for certified laboratories, expensive equipment and trained personnel. […] We have developed two machine learning models, to discriminate between patients who are either positive or negative to the SARS-CoV-2: their accuracy ranges between 82% and 86%, and sensitivity between 92% e 95%, so comparably well with respect to the gold standard.
32609256 However, the gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis is the viral detection through the amplification of nucleic acids. […] Although the quantitative Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) has been described as the gold standard for diagnosing COVID-19, there are several difficulties involving its use.
32616134 Methods Totally 63 discharged patients in Wuhan,China,who underwent both chest CT and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)from February 1 to February 29,2020,were included.With RT-PCR as a gold standard,the performance of chest CT in diagnosing COVID-19 was assessed.Patients were divided into mild/moderate and severe/critical groups according to the disease conditions,and clinical features such as sex,age,symptoms,hospital stay,comorbidities,and oxygen therapy were collected.CT images in the recovery phase were reviewed in terms of time from onset,CT features,location of lesions,lobe score,and total CT score.
32617987 For diagnosis, the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction is the gold standard test for initial diagnosis of COVID-19.
32620592 An ongoing national switchboard quality improvement project seeks to establish a gold standard whereby healthcare professionals with urgent enquiries can press ‘X’ to skip past infection control messages and have their calls triaged immediately.
32621728 A ‘gold-standard’ investigation has not yet been identified for detection and monitoring.
32634550 The lack of specific treatment and gold-standard diagnostic system has made the situation more complicated.
32638712 An evaluation of a rapid portable gold-nanotechnology measuring SARS-CoV-2 IgM, IgA and IgG antibody concentrations against spike 1 (S1), spike 2 (S) and nucleocapsid (N) was conducted using serum samples from 74 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA on admission to hospital, and 47 historical control patients from March 2019. 59 patients were RNA(+) and 15 were RNA(-).
32641984 Quantitative nucleic acid testing has become the gold standard for diagnosis and guiding clinical decisions regarding the use of antiviral therapy.
32643218 Nucleic acid amplification technology for molecular diagnostics remains the gold standard for virus detection.
32654408 We chose death as a hard relevant outcome, rather than severity. 100% of patients had gold-standard PCR RNA positivity.
32659413 RT-PCR remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in sputum samples.
32664787 On the other hand, rapid sequence induction, which represents the gold standard for limiting the risk of transmission for health care professionals, implies side effects that can be potentially harmful for patients with impaired hemodynamics.
32670990 Clinical and laboratory findings in COVID-19 are unspecific.Chest CT has a diagnostic sensitivity comparable to nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR assay but lacks specificity.RT-PCR assays on biological specimens, particularly nasopharyngeal swabs, are considered the diagnostic gold standard.Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage can help confirm the diagnosis and should be performed in patients in whom diagnostic-driven treatment for COVID-19, such as tocilizumab or remdesivir, is being considered.
32671013 Verifying the presence of viral RNA is the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19.
32671661 Early laparoscopic appendicectomy is the gold-standard management.
32679328 Additionally, we speculate the possible mechanisms of polysaccharides anti-SARS-CoV-2, and propose the strategy of loading S or N protein from coronavirus onto polysaccharide capped gold nanoparticles vaccine for COVID-19 treatment.
32681309 Primary endpoint was the false-negative rate of variplex test compared with PCR as gold standard.
32685080 Currently, positive of virus nucleic acid in respiratory or blood samples is the gold standard for the diagnosis of the disease, but the nucleic acid test may be false negative.
32694271 These include gold or silver nanoparticles and graphene oxide.
32695791 Background: The unprecedented impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on modern society has ignited a “gold rush” for effective treatment and diagnostic strategies, with a significant diversion of economic, scientific, and human resources toward dedicated clinical research.
32696013 Nucleic acid assays such as quantitative, or real-time, polymerase chain reaction and loop-mediated isothermal amplification are ideal for acute diagnosis with polymerase chain reaction testing remaining the “gold standard” to diagnose acute infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2, specifically the presence of viral RNA.
32700055 A hierarchical brain network-the “central autonomic network”-regulates these systems; embedded within it are components of the Chrousos/Gold “stress system.”
32702851 Polymerase chain reaction testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the diagnostic gold standard of COVID-19.
32702940 Although computed tomography remains the gold standard for diagnosing lung diseases, its usefulness for infected, critically ill patients has been largely limited during the pandemic.
32703816 Detection of the viral genome through reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is the gold standard for this virus; however, the high demand of the materials and reagents needed to sample individuals, purify the viral RNA, and perform the RT-qPCR has resulted in a worldwide shortage of several of these supplies.
32704169 The current gold standard is the conventional virus neutralization test requiring live pathogen and a biosafety level 3 laboratory.
32705153 Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of COVID‑19 infection.
32705298 The gold standard for detection of an active SARS-CoV‑2 infection is the direct detection of the pathogen with nucleic acid amplification techniques.
32707307 Worldwide, clinical data remain the gold standard for disease surveillance and tracking.
32711946 Although ‘in-person’ clinical appointments will continue to be regarded as the default safe and gold standard management modality, OMFS departments should consider significant upscaling of teleconsultation services.
32713715 LUS follow-up of 72 patients were compared with the gold standard chest CT.
32714821 Currently, the gold standard for test is Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR); however, patients with a high clinical suspicion for COVID-19 can sometimes have multiple negative tests.
32717056 While molecular techniques remain the gold standard for diagnosis of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, serological tests have the unique potential to ascertain how much of the population has been exposed to the COVID-19 pathogen.
32718086 In this review we discuss the main immunologic aspects that make anti-IL-6 a good candidate in RA, but despite the main therapeutic options available to target IL-6, no gold standard treatment has been established so far.
32720704 The aim of this study was to clinically evaluate the colloidal gold immunochromatography assay for SARS-Cov-2 IgM/IgG antibody (Ab).
32729264 Early diagnosis is crucial for the management of the patients with COVID-19, but the gold standard diagnostic test for this infection, the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, has a low sensitivity and an increased turnaround time.
32730214 Although nucleic acid detection has been mainly used as the gold standard to confirm this RNA virus-based disease, it has been shown that such a strategy has a high false negative rate, especially for patients in the early stage, and thus CT imaging has been applied as a major diagnostic modality in confirming positive COVID-19.
32731151 Nucleic acid testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, large numbers of false-negative results have been reported.
32731285 However, the findings of pulmonary sonography must be placed in the clinical context; sonography does not replace the gold standard of PCR diagnosis.
32742146 The randomized clinical trial (RCT) has long been recognized as the ‘gold standard’ for developing evidence for clinical treatments and vaccines; however, the successful implementation and translation of these findings is predicated upon external validity.
32745829 These calculations can account for the experimental observation that direct immobilization on gold gives sufficient exposure of the epitope to obtain a response in immunochemical assays.
32752043 The genetic screening, featuring the well-established Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), represents the gold standard for virus detection in nasopharyngeal swabs.
32754967 Currently, detection of the RNA from the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the gold standard for establishing a COVID-19 diagnosis.
32756614 Using these sandwiched aptamers in ELISA and colloidal gold immunochromatographic strips, we were able to detect Np at the tens of pM level.
32757745 Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have recently gained attention because of their unique optical, physical and electrical properties.
32759673 Amplification of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is the gold standard to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
32763640 Gold Foundation).
32767275 TaqMan-based real-time RT-qPCR is currently the gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis. […] Both of the proposed assays are less sensitive than the current gold standard; however, our data shows a low sensibility variation, suggesting that these methods could be used by laboratories as a lower cost molecular method for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis.
32770653 Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction is the gold standard diagnostic test to confirm SARS-CoV-2 infection, and although sensitivity can be improved with repeated testing, the decision to retest should incorporate clinical history and the local supply of diagnostic resources.
32774639 Real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is currently the “gold standard” for the detection of SARS-COV-2.
32777813 Polymerase chain reaction-based assays are the current gold standard for detecting and diagnosing SARS-CoV-2.
32788768 The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction is the current gold standard diagnostic test and chest Computed Tomography scan for screening the disease is considered inappropriate by most society recommendations.
32791207 This study was performed to assess the necessity for the RNA extraction, by comparing the efficacy of RT-qPCR in several direct approaches versus the gold standard RNA extraction, in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in laboratory samples, as well as in clinical oro-nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 swabs.
32792628 Virus neutralization remains the gold standard for determining antibody efficacy. […] Here, we report on a fluorescence-based SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assay that detects SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in COVID-19 patient specimens and yields comparable results to plaque reduction neutralizing assay, the gold standard of serological testing.
32800072 As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic evolves and test strategies change, understanding the concepts of testing (gold standard and test performance measures) becomes essential. […] The challenge of any novel disease is that the gold standard has yet to be defined. […] We used published data on chest CT and RT-qPCR to examine the potential of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of RT-qPCR when no single gold standard exists.
32800517 Kidney allograft biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis of rejection.
32804668 The Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-Cov-2 Assay was used as gold standard.
32813575 Nucleic acid testing (NAT), with high sensitivity and specificity, is considered the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of COVID-19.
32815744 For example, real-time reverse transcription PCR is the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses.
32816200 Since there is no specific treatment available for SARS-CoV2 infection, and or COVID-19, several clinical and sub-clinical studies are currently undertaken to find a gold-standard therapeutic regimen with high efficacy and low side effect.
32822689 RT-qPCR based methods are the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 detection.
32825737 These nanomaterials include silver, gold, quantum dots, organic nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers and polymers.
32826428 We included studies that compared diagnostic performance strategies without introducing bias due to use of an imperfect gold standard.
32826529 Herein, we evaluate the staining performance of ISH for SARS-CoV-2 and an IHC directed at the SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein and compare these results to a gold standard, tissue quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
32833548 Nucleic acid detection techniques are the gold standard for detecting SARS-CoV-2.
32834621 First, by using Renyi entropy, we analyze the multiscale entropy function in the return time series of Bitcoin, S&P500, WTI, Brent, Gas, Gold, Silver, and investor fear index represented by VIX. […] From a managerial perspective, we conclude that during the pandemic (i) portfolios composed of Bitcoin and Silver, Bitcoin and WTI, Bitcoin and Gold, Bitcoin and Brent, or Bitcoin and S&P500 could be risky, (ii) diversification opportunities exist by investing in portfolios composed of Gas and Silver, Gold and Silver, Gold and Gas, Brent and Silver, Brent and Gold, or Bitcoin and Gas, and that (iii) the VIX exhibited the lowest level of information disorder at all scales before and during the pandemic.
32836413 Globally, New Zealand has been perceived as setting the gold standard in ‘curve crushing’, and for a short period achieved Covid-free status.
32837370 •The gold return has a positive correlation with the stock markets, which amplifies during extreme bearish and bullish periods indicating that it does not behave as a “Safe Havens” asset.
32837382 This paper examines the causal relationship between crude oil and gold spot prices to assess how the economic impact of COVID-19 has affected them. […] We analyze West Texas Light crude oil (WTI) and gold prices from January 4, 2010, to May 4, 2020. […] We detect common periods of mild explosivity in WTI and gold markets. […] More importantly, we find a bilateral contagion effect of bubbles in oil and gold markets during the recent COVID-19 outbreak.
32837587 We focus on rapid, point-of-care technologies that can be deployed at scale, as such devices could be promising alternatives to the current gold standard of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) diagnostic testing.
32837929 Commencing with the discovery of coal in the 18th century, to gold and copper and base metals in the 19th century, to the world class iron ore, mineral sands and diamond mines of the 20th century to the current day, the paper will attempt to determine how and why an industry, formerly well-respected by the public, is considered to be a pariah in the eyes of many sections of society.
32840148 The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid test is currently the gold standard for diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32844798 Among them Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is the most popular and the “gold standard” testing method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2.
32844901 A positive real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS CoV-2, from nasopharyngeal swabs, is the current gold standard diagnostic test for this virus and has sensitivity of 60-70%.
32845122 This probe is capable of engaging in energy transfer quenching with ACE2-conjugated gold nanoparticles to enable monitoring of the binding event in solution.
32845192 In the future, molecular diagnostics will still be the gold standard and next-generation sequencing can help us to understand more on the pathogenesis and detect novel mutations.
32867855 The successful experience of the “COVID-19 Helpline for Rare Bone Diseases” launched in Italy could serve as a primer of gold-standard remote care for rare bone diseases for the other European countries and globally.
32868971 Thereafter, the HIV pseudovirus was added to the treated substrates followed by addition of anti-HIV gp41 antibodies conjugated to selenium nanoparticle (SeNPs) and gold nanoclusters (AuNCs).
32874430 It is noteworthy that reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test is still gold standard for the diagnosis.
32875819 All suspected cases were submitted to deep nasal and throat swab for SARS COV-2 investigation by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Test, adopted as gold standard.
32882235 The gold standard for diagnosis is the identification of viral genome targets by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in respiratory tract materials during the first week of symptoms. […] The identification of genetic material of the virus by RT-PCR is the gold standard test, but its sensitivity is not satisfactory.
32882309 Conjunctival swab remains the gold standard of tear collection for RT-PCR assay.
32883050 A total of ~200 coronavirus disease (CoVID-19)-suspected NHS patient samples were tested using the platform and it was shown to be reliable, highly specific and significantly more sensitive than the current gold standard qRT-PCR.
32888905 Although Real Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) of respiratory specimens is the gold standard test for detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection, collecting nasopharyngeal swabs causes discomfort to patients and may represent considerable risk for healthcare workers.
32895587 The gold standard for diagnosing COVID-19 is reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test.
32895611 Although the lack of evidence and guidelines about the management of patient with acute cholecystitis during COVID-19 pandemic, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, at most preceded by PTGBD on high surgical risk patients, remains the gold standard for the treatment of acute cholecystitis on COVID-19 patients.
32895631 The COVID-19 pandemic exposes both conflict and cooperation in artisanal and small-scale gold mining in the Brazilian Amazon. […] Reporting on the experiences of artisanal and small-scale gold miners (garimpeiros, in Brazilian Portuguese), we show how, on the one hand, the pandemic challenges an already precarious working system that could lead garimpeiros, often invisible to public policies, to positions of further vulnerability; and, on the other hand, highlights the capacity of garimpeiros to self-organize and navigate the difficulties by finding alternative solutions to cope with the crisis.
32895985 While the gold standard for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in tissue sections has yet to be determined, the detection of SARS-CoV-2 SP alone without spike RNA suggests that cleaved SP may be present in cutaneous endothelial cells and eccrine epithelium, providing a potential pathogenetic mechanism of COVID-19 endotheliitis.
32898875 From a therapeutic stand point, there have been a variety of antibiotics, antifungals, and antiviral agents, better approaches to prevent sepsis, specific immunotherapy, for example, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); bundled approach to prevention of deep-line infection and better antibiotic stewardship, leading to earlier discontinuation of antibiotic therapy.Hand hygiene remains the benchmark and gold standard for late-onset sepsis prevention.
32902237 Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) is the gold standard for diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, it is not universally available and may have limitations in response times.
32903849 The present gold standard for sampling is the nasopharyngeal swab method.
32905265 The accuracy of device under study was compared against the gold standard patient monitoring systems used in intensive care units.
32911317 In this work, based on the principle of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), we develop an opto-microfluidic sensing platform with gold nanospikes, fabricated by electrodeposition, to detect the presence and amount of antibodies specific to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in 1μL of human plasma diluted in 1mL of buffer solution, within ∼30min. […] The target antibody concentration can be correlated with the LSPR wavelength peak shift of gold nanospikes caused by the local refractive index change due to the antigen-antibody binding.
32912236 Conventional LFAs, such as gold nanoparticle dyed assays, are limited to approximately five targets-the maximum number of test lines on an assay.
32915473 Gold complexes have a long tradition in medicine and for many examples antirheumatic, anticancer or anti-infective effects have been confirmed. […] Herein, we evaluated the lead compound Auranofin and five selected gold organometallics as inhibitors of two relevant drug targets of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoV). […] The gold metallodrugs were effective inhibitors of the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) host receptor and might thus interfere with the viral entry process. […] The gold metallodrugs were also efficient inhibitors of the papain-like protease (PLpro) of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, which is a key enzyme in the viral replication. […] Taken together, the results of this pilot study suggest further evaluation of gold complexes as SARS-CoV antiviral drugs.
32915656 To this respect, the gold drug auranofin seems a promising candidate, but some other clinically established metal compounds are worthy of a careful evaluation as well.
32917729 We found the Ortho Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Total Ig and IgG high throughput serological assays (HTSAs), as well as the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay, quantify levels of antibodies that strongly correlate with nAb assays and are consistent with gold-standard ELISA assay results.
32921701 Amplification of viral RNA by RT-PCR represents the gold standard for confirmation of infection, yet it showed false-negative rates as large as 15-20% which may jeopardize the effect of the restrictive measures taken by governments.
32922210 Even though a definitive treatment for COVID-19 has not yet been found, large RCTs stand as the Gold Standards for COVID-19 therapy and offer a solid scientific base on which to base treatment decisions.
32935535 RT-PCR in nasopharyngeal swabs is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis, although it can have false negative results.
32941461 We conducted a prospective observational study to evaluate the performance of two POC tests, COVID-PRESTO® and COVID-DUO®, compared to the gold standard, RT-PCR (real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction).
32942766 Granger causality analysis reveals causal associations between selected stock market returns and Philadelphia Gold/Silver Index.
32943228 Compared to the reference laboratory gold standard, sensitivity of the Coronavirus Typing assay for SARS-CoV-2 was 100% (95% CI 93.2-100%), specificity 99.8% (95% CI 99.1-100%), positive predictive value 98.1% (95% CI 90.2-99.7%) and negative predictive value 100% (95% CI 99.4-100%).
32945214 RT-PCR assays are diagnosis gold standard; however, they can lead to false-negative results.
32957073 During the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) public health emergency, the gold standard for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection diagnosis is the detection of viral RNA.
32966064 Although nucleic acid detection methods such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are the gold standard, during the current pandemic, the deployment of RT-PCR tests has been extremely slow, and key reagents such as PCR primers and RNA extraction kits are at critical shortages.
32970782 Highly specific in-house ELISAs were developed for the detection of anti-spike (S), -receptor binding domain (RBD) and -nucleocapsid (N) antibodies and used for the cross-comparison of ten commercial serological assays-a chemiluminescence-based platform, two ELISAs and seven colloidal gold lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs)-on an identical panel of 110 SARS-CoV-2-positive samples and 50 pre-pandemic negatives.
32973638 VCP was compared to a gold-standard psychotherapy treatment for PDA, which was delivered either in person or in videoconference, with a strict tolerance criterion of about 2 points on the primary outcome measure.
32979256 We have assessed the Xiamen AmonMed Biotechnology COVID-19 IgM/IgG test kit (Colloidal gold) and the EUROIMMUN benchtop assay with serum samples from patients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 disease. […] For the colloid gold rapid test and the EUROIMMUN assay, the study indicated overall sensitivity of 15.2% and 67.4%, respectively, while specificity of 99.0% and 97.9% with the blood donor sera, as well as 100% and 96.8% with the EBV-patients, were observed, respectively.
32979475 The CDC protocol for SARS-CoV2 RT-PCR diagnosis (2019-nCoV CDC kit) is considered a gold standard worldwide; based on three different FAM probes (N1 and N2 for viral detection; RP for RNA extraction quality control), three reactions per sample are needed for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis.
32982600 The basis for clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 is not just the detection of viral nucleic acids as the gold standard.
32987722 Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay is the gold standard recommended to test for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32989986 We demonstrate that a colorimetric biosensor based on gold nanoparticle (AuNP) interaction induced by SARS-CoV-2 lends itself as an outstanding tool for detecting viral particles in nasal and throat swabs. […] The extinction spectrum of a colloidal solution of multiple viral-target gold nanoparticles-AuNPs functionalized with antibodies targeting three surface proteins of SARS-CoV-2 (spike, envelope, and membrane)-is red-shifted in few minutes when mixed with a solution containing the viral particle. […] The optical density of the mixed solution measured at 560 nm was compared to the threshold cycle (Ct) of a real-time PCR (gold standard for detecting the presence of viruses) finding that the colorimetric method is able to detect very low viral load with a detection limit approaching that of the real-time PCR.
32990479 Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA is the gold standard method for diagnosis of COVID-19 in the context of CRS but assay performance varies and is susceptible to false-negative results even as patients clinically deteriorate due to decreased viral shedding in the setting of CRS.
32994651 The main financial markets in the Iranian Economy include the stock exchange, foreign exchange, oil, and gold markets. […] The results showed that the oil price had a low co-movement with the other three markets, i.e. stock exchange, exchange rate, and gold markets. […] Between the exchange rate and gold price, the gold price was identified as the leading variable. […] While the exchange rate and gold price did not show a significant co-movement in stable conditions, they did show a significant co-movement in unstable conditions, as in times of sanctions or during a global pandemic and thus influenced the investors’ portfolio risk. […] Based on this result, the policymakers can, especially during crises and unstable conditions, control the gold market and make it more stable by managing the foreign exchange market.
32998840 Multiple polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is considered the gold standard diagnostic investigation for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
33002409 Pathogen determination through blood culture is the gold standard for diagnosis but has limitations due to low sensitivity.
33012989 Here, we report a simple colorimetric strategy derived from linker-based single-component assembly of gold nanoparticle core-spherical nucleic acids (AuNP-coreSNAs) for visual detection of PCR products of SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA) template.
33013745 While live virus-based neutralization assays are used as gold standard serological methods to detect and measure nAbs, handling of highly pathogenic live CoVs requires strict bio-containment conditions in biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) laboratories.
33014893 Colloidal gold immunochromatography assay was used to detect serum N protein antibodies in the above populations.
33020043 Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) remains the gold standard for confirmation of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) despite having many disadvantages.
33021051 Despite being the gold-standard for the treatment of selected individuals with severe obesity, there is scarce information on whether or not bariatric surgery modifies the prognosis of people living with obesity in the current COVID-19 pandemic.
33027775 Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been identified as a gold standard test with Chest CT and Chest Radiography showing promising results as well.
33031049 Gold standard methods, such as systematic reviews and meta-analyses are unsuitable due to their narrow scope and high time-consumption.
33032666 Simulation-based training as the ‘gold standard’ for medical education has limitations that prevent widespread adoption outside suitably resourced centres.
33032981 Chest computed tomography (CT) continues to play an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease due to shortcomings of the real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test, which is the gold standard in the diagnosis of this disease.
33034142 Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, laryngoscopy was the mandatory gold standard for the accurate assessment and diagnosis of inducible laryngeal obstruction. […] The consensus recommendations will also be potentially relevant to other future situations where access to laryngoscopy is restricted, although we emphasize that this investigation remains the gold standard.
33039612 Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction remains the gold-standard for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, but several practical issues limit the test use.
33045362 While nucleic acid based tests are considered to be more sensitive with respect to serological tests but present gold standard qRT-PCR-based assays possess limitations such as low sample throughput, requirement for sophisticated reagents and instrumentation.
33046317 The incoming parameters of the blood chemistry and radiology investigations and the timing of the gold - tracheal intubation were compared.