DrugBank ID: db00143
DrugCentral: glutathione
Synonymous :5-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine | gamma-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinyl-glycine | glutathione | glutathione-sh | gsh | n-(n-gamma-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinyl)glycine | reduced glutathione

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of glutathione gene in 37 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32322478 We evaluated the effects of using high dose oral and/or IV glutathione in the treatment of 2 patients with dyspnea secondary to COVID-19 pneumonia. […] A trial of 2 g of PO or IV glutathione was used in both patients and improved their dyspnea within 1 h of use. […] Repeated use of both 2000 mg of PO and IV glutathione was effective in further relieving respiratory symptoms. […] Oral and IV glutathione, glutathione precursors (N-acetyl-cysteine) and alpha lipoic acid may represent a novel treatment approach for blocking NFKappaB and addressing “cytokine storm syndrome” and respiratory distress in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
32463221 The aim of this Viewpoint is to justify (1) the crucial roles of glutathione in determining individual responsiveness to COVID-19 infection and disease pathogenesis and (2) the feasibility of using glutathione as a means for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 illness. […] The hypothesis that glutathione deficiency is the most plausible explanation for serious manifestation and death in COVID-19 patients was proposed on the basis of an exhaustive literature analysis and observations.
32504923 In human clinical trials, NAC has been used to replenish glutathione stores and increase the proliferative response of T cells. […] Mediation of the viral load could occur through NAC’s ability to increase cellular redox status via maximizing the rate limiting step of glutathione synthesis, and thereby potentially decreasing the effects of virally induced oxidative stress and cell death. […] We hypothesize that NAC could act as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of COVID-19 through a variety of potential mechanisms, including increasing glutathione, improving T cell response, and modulating inflammation.
32534175 A randomized trial of ivermectin, and/or nutraceuticals that have been published to support immune function including glutathione, vitamin C, zinc, and immunomodulatory supplements (3,6 Beta glucan) could be beneficial in preventing transmission or lessening symptomatology but requires statistical validation. […] Deficiency in red blood cell, serum and alveolar glutathione has been published in the medical literature for ARDS, as well as viral and bacterial pneumonias, resulting from increased levels of free radical/oxidative stress. […] A randomized controlled trial of blocking NF-κB and cytokine formation using glutathione precursors (N-acetyl-cysteine [NAC] and alpha lipoic acid) and PO/IV glutathione with associated anti-viral effects should be performed, along with an evaluation of Nrf2 activators (curcumin, sulforaphane glucosinolate) which have been scientifically proven to lower inflammation.
32586380 Top results for ACE2 binding iincluded several ACE inhibitors, a beta-lactam antibiotic, two antiviral agents (Fosamprenavir and Emricasan) and glutathione. […] Glutathione and its precursor glutamine were highly ranked by two independent methods, suggesting both warrant further investigation for potential benefit against SARS-CoV-2.
32597503 Therefore, endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH) redox cycle is highly vital in regulating neutrophil functions. […] Reduced intracellular GSH levels and glutathione reductase (GR) activity in the neutrophils during clinical conditions like autoimmune disorders, neurological disorders, diabetes, and microbial infections lead to dysfunctional neutrophils.
32598985 Ebselen is an organoselenium compound exhibiting hydroperoxide- and peroxynitrite-reducing activity, acting as a glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin enzyme mimetic.
32607398 Therefore, to avoid the increment of OS, we suggest using Leucomethylene Blue through the following protocol: The IV cocktail contains 50 mg MB (1mg/kg, 50-kg weight), 1000-2000 mg vitamin C, 500-1000 mg N-Acetylcysteine (or glutathione or cysteine or α-lipoic acid) and 10-20 gr urea (optional) in 100 ml dextrose 5%.
32659175 AA are at risk for lower cellular glutathione (GSH) levels, and GSH deficiency epigenetically impairs VD biosynthesis pathway genes.
32707089 Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency facilitates human coronavirus infection due to glutathione depletion. […] However, glutathione depletion is reversible by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administration.
32708578 A common denominator in all conditions associated with COVID-19 appears to be the impaired redox homeostasis responsible for reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation; therefore, levels of glutathione (GSH), the key anti-oxidant guardian in all tissues, could be critical in extinguishing the exacerbated inflammation that triggers organ failure in COVID-19.
32752010 It improves oxygenation rates, glutathione levels and strengthens the immune response.
32758904 Elevation in Glutathione (GSH) levels by administration of its promolecule might be effective. […] N-acetylcysteine is one such drug with potency to scavenge Reactive Oxygen Species, least side effects, and an effective precursor of glutathione.
32780893 N- Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a precursor of reduced glutathione (GSH).
32811354 The overexpression of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, and down-regulation of NADPH oxidase are induced by VD to reduce the oxidative stress.
32837716 Various studies investigated that a powerful antioxidant Glutathione and a bioflavonoid Quercetin may prevent various infections including COVID-19.
32840387 Also, the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II), levels of ATP, the level of glutathione (GSH), and thiol were markedly diminished in the MA-induced OA group compared to the normal control rats.
32894672 Herein, we have demonstrated a role of glutathione (GSH) and other thiols in neutralizing the effect of peroxynitrite-mediated DNA damage through stable GSH-DNA adduct formation.
32984400 Glutathione peroxidases (GPX), a family of antioxidant selenoenzymes, functionally link selenium and glutathione, which both show correlations with clinical outcomes in COVID-19. […] Using web-based protease cleavage site prediction tools, we show that Mpro may be targeting not only GPX1, but several other selenoproteins including SELENOF and thioredoxin reductase 1, as well as glutamate-cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme for glutathione synthesis. […] The resulting “collateral damage” of increased oxidative stress and inflammation would be exacerbated by dietary deficiencies of selenium and glutathione precursors.
32987701 Among the numerous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems present in mitochondria, mitochondrial glutathione (mGSH) emerges as the main line of defense for maintaining the appropriate mitochondrial redox environment. mGSH’s ability to act directly or as a co-factor in reactions catalyzed by other mitochondrial enzymes makes its presence essential to avoid or to repair oxidative modifications that can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequently to cell death.
32992775 Based on the evidence attesting to the ability of glutathione (GSH) to inhibit viral replication and decrease levels of IL-6 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) patients, as well as beneficial effects of GSH on other pulmonary diseases processes, we believe the use of liposomal GSH could be beneficial in COVID-19 patients.
33017914 ALA increases the intracellular glutathione strengthens the human host defense.
33038530 Glutathione (GSH) is essential and protects the body from the harmful effects of oxidative damage from excess reactive oxygen radicals. […] The co-optimization of impaired glutathione redox status and excess 25(OH)VD deficiencies has the potential to reduce oxidative stress, boost immunity, and reduce the adverse clinical effects of COVID-19 infection in the AA population.
33043283 In turn, metabolomic analysis reveals abnormally high levels of ketone bodies (acetoacetic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetone) and 2-hydroxybutyric acid, a readout of hepatic glutathione synthesis and marker of oxidative stress.
33081856 In this review we highlight common SNP of the major antioxidant enzymes relevant to nutritional components in the context of viral infections, namely: superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidases and catalase.
33106987 We focused on the impact of antioxidants, like NADPH and glutathione, and redox proteins, such as thioredoxin and protein disulfide isomerase, that maintain the disulfide-thiol balance in the cell.
33117175 On the basis of novel data and hypothesis on the possible role of scarce glutathione (GSH) levels in the exacerbation of COVID-19 and of the GSH depleting activity of PAC, this commentary raises the question of whether PAC may be the better choice.
33181144 In addition, administration of russelioside B halted the gastric oxidative stress via inhibition of lipid peroxides by maintaining reduced glutathione and by decreasing malondialdehyde.
33300133 Significant differences were determined between patients and healthy controls in terms of purine, glutamine, leukotriene D4 (LTD4), and glutathione metabolisms. […] Identified metabolites indicate roles for purine, glutamine, LTD4, and glutathione metabolisms in the pathogenesis of the COVID-19.
33336769 This review identified this common pathway to be a low baseline of reduced glutathione (i.e., GSH) level.
33344529 Exposure to CIS significantly compromised the circulatory activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione with enhanced malondialdehyde, inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL10, and TNFα), and lymphocyte DNA damage in comparison to controls.
33350580 An enhancement of the lipid peroxides (malondialdehyde; MDA), and nitric oxide levels along with a decline of reduced glutathione contents and suppression of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities are also observed within the liver tissues of intoxicated animals.
33358750 Adoption of an anti-inflammatory diet, supplementation with vitamin D, glutathione, melatonin, Cordyceps, Astragalus and garlic have potential utility.
33385878 Tramadol could protect COVID-19 patient from disease complications by increases the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase while diminished malondialdehyde.
33476632 The remaining parts of the heart were collected for assessment of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Reduced Glutathione (GSH).
33524532 Production of oxidant (hydrogen peroxide) and defense antioxidants (total antioxidant capacity, reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione s-transferase), and oxidative damage (malondialdehyde, carbonyl, and sulfhydryl) were assessed using the serum samples.
33562403 The systemic OSS was strongly altered in critically ill COVID-19 patients as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation but also by deficits in some antioxidants (vitamin C, glutathione, thiol proteins) and trace elements (selenium).