DrugBank ID: db14240
DrugCentral: echinacea
Synonymous :echinacea angustifolia or echinacea pallida | echinacea, unspecified

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of echinacea gene in 19 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32434254 Lignans like podophyllotoxin and bicyclol show strong antiviral activities against different viruses, and essential oils can directly interact with viral membranes and reduce the host’s inflammatory responses (e.g., 1,8-cineol). Echinacea extracts stimulate the immune system, and bioavailable alkamides are key players by interacting with immunomodulating cannabinoid receptors.
32837894 Current evidence suggests that Echinacea supplementation may decrease the duration and severity of acute respiratory tract infections; however, no studies using Echinacea in the prevention or treatment of conditions similar to COVID-19 have been identified. […] Because Echinacea can increase immune function, there is a concern that it could worsen over-activation of the immune system in cytokine storm; however, clinical trials show that Echinacea decreases levels of immune molecules involved in cytokine storm. […] Echinacea supplementation may assist with the symptoms of acute respiratory infections (ARI) and the common cold, particularly when administered at the first sign of infection; however, no studies using Echinacea in the prevention or treatment of conditions similar to COVID-19 have been identified. […] Previous studies have reported that Echinacea may decrease the severity and/or duration of ARI when taken at the onset of symptoms. […] The studies reporting benefit used E. purpurea or a combination of E. purpurea and E. angustifolia containing standardized amounts of active constituents.Few adverse events from the use of Echinacea were reported, suggesting that this herbal therapy is reasonably safe. […] No human trials could be located reporting evidence of cytokine storm when Echinacea was used for up to 4 months.When assessing all human trials which reported changes in cytokine levels in response to Echinacea supplementation, the results were largely consistent with a decrease in the pro-inflammatory cytokines that play a role in the progression of cytokine storm and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), factors that play a significant role in the death of COVID-19 patients. […] While there is currently no research on the therapeutic effects of Echinacea in the management of cytokine storm, this evidence suggests that further research is warranted.
32907596 Therefore we investigated the virucidal and antiviral potential of Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce®) against human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E, highly pathogenic MERS- and SARS-CoVs, as well as the newly identified SARS-CoV-2, in vitro. […] Therefore we hypothesize that Echinacea purpurea preparations, such as Echinaforce®, could be effective as prophylactic treatment for all CoVs due to their structural similarities.
32985017 The consumption of herbal medicine such as Allium sativum, Camellia sinensis, Zingiber officinale, Nigella sativa, Echinacea spp.
33067112 Through the screening for natural products with antiviral activities against different types of the human coronavirus, extracts of Lycoris radiata (L’Hér.), Gentiana scabra Bunge, Dioscorea batatas Decne., Cassia tora L., Taxillus chinensis (DC.), Cibotium barometz L. and Echinacea purpurea L. showed a promising effect against SARS-CoV.
33373071 Botanicals with a documented immunomodulatory, immunostimulatory, and antiinflammatory effects include adaptogens, Boswellia spp., Curcuma longa, Echinacea spp., Glycyrrhiza spp., medicinal fungi, Pelargonium sidoides, salicylate-yielding herbs, and Sambucus spp.
33450678 Vitamins (A, B, C, D, and E), minerals (selenium and zinc), and bioactive substances from curcumin, echinacea, propolis, garlic, soybean, green tea, and other polyphenols were identified as having potential roles in interfering with spike glycoproteins, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, and transmembrane protease serine 2 at the entry site, and inhibiting activities of papain-like protease, 3 chymotrypsin-like protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the replication cycle of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.