CYSTEINE


DrugBank ID: db00151
DrugCentral: cysteine
Synonymous :(2r)-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid | (2r)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid | (r)-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid | cisteina | cisteinum | cys | cysteine | cysteinum | free cysteine | l-2-amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid | l-cys | l-cystein | l-zystein



Drug Sentece Context


Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of cysteine gene in 31 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32266873 3CLpro is a cysteine protease responsible for the proteolysis of replicase polyproteins resulting in the formation of various functional proteins, whereas 2’-O-MTase methylates the ribose 2’-O position of the first and second nucleotide of viral mRNA, which sequesters it from the host immune system.
32296570 The viral 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) enzyme controls coronavirus replication and is essential for its life cycle.
32322478 Oral and IV glutathione, glutathione precursors (N-acetyl-cysteine) and alpha lipoic acid may represent a novel treatment approach for blocking NFKappaB and addressing “cytokine storm syndrome” and respiratory distress in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
32391184 Coronavirus 3C-like protease (3CLPro) is a highly conserved cysteine protease employing a catalytic dyad for its functions.
32402186 An attractive therapeutic target for CoVs is the main protease (Mpro) or 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), as this enzyme plays a key role in polyprotein processing and is active in a dimeric form.
32429099 First, PLP is one of the two viral cysteine proteases, along with 3-chymotripsin-like protease, that is responsible for the production of the replicase proteins required for viral replication.
32470470 Cathepsin L (CatL) is an endosomal cysteine protease.
32534175 A randomized controlled trial of blocking NF-κB and cytokine formation using glutathione precursors (N-acetyl-cysteine [NAC] and alpha lipoic acid) and PO/IV glutathione with associated anti-viral effects should be performed, along with an evaluation of Nrf2 activators (curcumin, sulforaphane glucosinolate) which have been scientifically proven to lower inflammation.
32551639 The crystal structure for the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2, 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), was recently made available and is considerably similar to the previously reported SARS-CoV. […] Molecular docking of 13 antivirals against the 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) enzyme was accomplished, and indinavir was described as a lead drug with a docking score of -8.824 and a XP Gscore of -9.466 kcal/mol.
32561291 SARS-CoV-2 enters the cells through endocytosis process, which is possibly facilitated, via a pH dependent endosomal cysteine protease cathepsins.
32598985 We discuss here the reaction of ebselen with cysteine proteases, the role of ebselen in infections with viruses and with other microorganisms.
32607398 Therefore, to avoid the increment of OS, we suggest using Leucomethylene Blue through the following protocol: The IV cocktail contains 50 mg MB (1mg/kg, 50-kg weight), 1000-2000 mg vitamin C, 500-1000 mg N-Acetylcysteine (or glutathione or cysteine or α-lipoic acid) and 10-20 gr urea (optional) in 100 ml dextrose 5%.
32646487 The viral replicating enzyme, 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) that plays a key role in its pathogenicity was used to assess its affinity with pharmacological inhibitors and repurposed drugs such as anti-viral flavones, biflavanoids, anti-malarial drugs and vitamin supplements.
32656452 The receptor-binding domain of the viral spike proteins and ACE2 have several cysteine residues.
32659175 Compared with vitamin D alone, co-supplementation of vitamin D and L-cysteine (a GSH precursor) showed a better efficacy in improving levels of GSH and VD-regulatory genes at the cellular/tissue level, increasing 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and reducing inflammation biomarkers in the blood in mice studies. […] We propose that randomized clinical trials are needed to examine the potential of co-supplementation with anti-inflammatory antioxidants, vitamin D and L-cysteine in correcting the 25(OH)VD deficiency and preventing the ‘cytokine storm,’ one of the most severe consequences of infection with COVID-19, thereby preventing the adverse clinical effects of COVID-19 infection in the vulnerable AA population.
32687345 The Ser46 mutation present at the entrance of the S5 subpocket of SARS-CoV-2 increases the contribution of other two hydrophilic residues, while the Phe134 mutation, present in the catalytic cysteine loop, can cause an increase in catalytic efficiency of Mpro by facilitating fast proton transfer from the Cys145 to His41 residue.
32692176 Cathepsin C (CatC) is a cysteine dipeptidyl aminopeptidase that activates most of tissue-degrading elastase-related serine proteases.
32707573 Of these, thirteen were found to harbour effective concentrations commensurate with probable achievable therapeutic doses in patients, including the PIKfyve kinase inhibitor apilimod2-4 and the cysteine protease inhibitors MDL-28170, Z LVG CHN2, VBY-825 and ONO 5334.
32720605 3C-like protease (3CLP) is a homodimeric cysteine protease that is present in coronaviruses.
32736274 Our analysis also indicated that metal binding to cysteine residues 44 and 145 could disable the enzyme.
32745925 Similar to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, the viral key 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease enzyme (3CLPro), which controls 2019-nCoV duplications and manages its life cycle, could be pointed as a drug discovery target.
32748969 The in-silico studies suggested that Tea component Thearubigins binds to the cysteine 145 of protease active site and could be a pharmacoactive molecule.
32758873 Importantly, TMPRSS2 also requires calcium for its SRCR (scavenger receptor cysteine-rich) domain and itsLDLRA(LDL receptor class A) domain.
32780893 N- Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a precursor of reduced glutathione (GSH).
32783247 The main 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLPro) enzyme of SARS-CoV-2, which operates its replication, could be used as a medication discovery point.
32812956 The results of our simulations demonstrate the role of the theory level used in QM subsystems for a proper description of the nucleophilic attack of the catalytic cysteine residue in Mpro.
32828741 As the last therapeutic option, five patients were administered methylene blue-vitamin C-N-acetyl Cysteine (MCN).
32862101 The ability of these compounds to target cysteine 111 in SOD may have wider therapeutic applications targeting cysteines of enzymes involved in pathogenic and viral diseases including main protease of SARS-Cov-2 (COVID-19).
32863223 Virus entry may also depend on the activity of the endosomal/lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsin B, L (CTSB, CTSL) although their activity is likely dispensable.
32869854 Human serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are the main inhibitors of serine proteases, but some of them also have the capability to effectively inhibit cysteine proteases. […] Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease (Mpro) is a chymotrypsin-type cysteine protease that is needed to produce functional proteins essential for virus replication and transcription. […] Alternatively, RCL cleavage site of serpins with known evidence of inhibition of cysteine proteases can be replaced by Mpro target site to make chimeric proteins. […] Trapping SARS-CoV-2 Mpro cysteine protease using cross-class serpin cysteine protease inhibition activity is a novel idea with significant therapeutic potential.
32873185 Drugs in the discovery phase identified as inhibitors include the known cysteine protease inhibitors, Calpain inhibitor IV and an experimental cathepsin F inhibitor. […] In order to analyse the stability of the binding interactions, the known cysteine protease inhibitors viz, Simeprevir, calpain inhibitor IV and the cathepsin F inhibitor in complex Mpro were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations at 100 ns.
32896566 The coronavirus 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) controls replication and is therefore considered a major target for antiviral discovery.
32930481 Inhibition of coronavirus (CoV)-encoded papain-like cysteine proteases (PLpro) represents an attractive strategy to treat infections by these important human pathogens.
32960061 These drugs can inhibit the viral protease, called chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease, also known as Main protease (3CLpro); hence, we studied the binding efficiencies of 4-aminoquinoline and 8-aminoquinoline analogs of chloroquine.
32962355 As a cysteine protease, PLpro is rich in cysteines and histidines, and their protonation/deprotonation modulates catalysis and conformational plasticity. […] Interestingly, despite the lack of an analogous cysteine, BL2 in MERS-CoV PLpro is also very flexible, challenging a current hypothesis.
32979476 These targets including an important host cell receptor, i.e., angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE2 and several viral proteins e.g. spike glycoprotein (S) containing S1 and S2 domains, SARS CoV Chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), papain-like cysteine protease (PLpro), helicases and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp).
32984400 Thus, it is highly significant that cytosolic GPX1 has been shown to interact with an inactive C145A mutant of Mpro, the main cysteine protease of SARS-CoV-2, but not with catalytically active wild-type Mpro. […] We show that the GPX1 active site sequence is substantially similar to a known Mpro cleavage site, and is identified as a potential cysteine protease site by the Procleave algorithm. […] Using web-based protease cleavage site prediction tools, we show that Mpro may be targeting not only GPX1, but several other selenoproteins including SELENOF and thioredoxin reductase 1, as well as glutamate-cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme for glutathione synthesis.
32993622 Other drugs that are more likely to present clinical effects despite the lack of specific evidence for COVID-19 include anti-androgens (spironolactone, eplerenone, finasteride and dutasteride), statins, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ACE inhibitors (ACEi), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), and direct TMPRSS-2 inhibitors (nafamostat and camostat).
33006576 The replication of SARS-CoV-2 produces two large polyproteins, pp1a and pp1ab, that are inactive until cleavage by the viral chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease enzyme (3CL Mpro) into a series of smaller functional proteins.
33007504 The observed reduction in SARS-CoV-2 protease activity was consistent with S-nitrosation of the enzyme active site cysteine.
33022015 This cysteine protease acts by processing the viruses’ precursor polyproteins.
33027419 Among these proteins, 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), also named main protease, and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), have been identified as fundamental targets due to its importance in the viral replication stages.
33028810 To identify starting points for such therapeutics, we performed a large-scale screen of electrophile and non-covalent fragments through a combined mass spectrometry and X-ray approach against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, one of two cysteine viral proteases essential for viral replication.
33043036 Sputum specimens from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients were treated with four commonly used reagents-saline, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC), proteinase K (PK), and dithiothreitol (DTT), prior to NA extraction.
33047658 In this study, approximately 1400 cysteine-focused ligands were screened to identify the best candidates that can act as potent inhibitors against Mpro. […] Our combined studies suggest that the best cysteine focused ligands can help to design an effective lead drug for COVID-19 treatment.