DrugBank ID: db04540
DrugCentral: cholesterol
Synonymous :(3β,14β,17α)-cholest-5-en-3-ol | cholest-5-en-3beta-ol | cholesterin

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of cholesterol gene in 50 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32191676 We focus on the role of lipid structures, such as lipid rafts and cholesterol, involved in the process, mediated by endocytosis, by which viruses attach to and infect cells.
32340551 The results show high to a moderate binding affinity for the phytoestrogens (Diadiazin, Genistein, Formontein, and Biochanin A), chlorogenic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid, caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, hydroxytyrosol, cis-p-Coumaric acid, cinnamaldehyde, thymoquinone, and some physiological hormones such as estrogens, progesterone, testosterone, and cholesterol to the HSPA5 SBDβ.
32375002 Cholesterol, a major constituent within LNPs, contributes to their morphology that influences gene delivery. […] Herein, we examine the structure of LNPs containing cholesterol derivatives using electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and membrane fluidity assays. […] LNPs formulated with C24 alkyl derivatives of cholesterol show a polymorphic shape and various degrees of multilamellarity and lipid partitioning, likely due to phase separation. […] The addition of methyl and ethyl groups to the C24 alkyl tail of the cholesterol backbone induces multilamellarity (>50% increase compared to cholesterol), while the addition of a double bond induces lipid partitioning (>90% increase compared to cholesterol).
32402109 We thank Dr Mansur for his interest in our editorial in which we highlighted the association between northern latitude and increased COVID-19 mortality1 and for his helpful comments about the potential importance of vitamin D effects on cathelicidin and on the renin-angiotensin system, which could be important in protecting against severe COVID-19.2 Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone, derived like cortisol and sex hormones from cholesterol, so not surprisingly it has a broad range of actions reflecting the several hundred or more genes that are vitamin D-responsive.3,4.
32430154 In this study, we aimed to investigate the pathological alterations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and total cholesterol (TC) in COVID-19 patients and their relationships with the disease severity.
32457038 SARS-CoV-2 shares extensive structural and functional conservation with SARS-CoV-1 including engagement of the same host cell receptor (ACE2) localized in cholesterol-rich microdomains.
32532356 2.3 Blood routine: white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils Acidic granulocyte count, basophil count, red blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit, average volume of red blood cells, average red blood cell Hb content, average red blood cell Hb concentration, RDW standard deviation, RDW coefficient of variation, platelet count, platelet specific platelet average Volume, platelet distribution width,% of large platelets; 2.4 Liver and kidney function tests: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, prealbumin, total protein, albumin, globulin, white / globule ratio , Total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, cholinesterase, urea, creatinine, total carbon dioxide, uric acid glucose, potassium, sodium, chlorine, calcium, corrected calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and phosphorus product, anion gap, penetration Pressure, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein a, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, estimated glomerular filtration rate.
32536672 High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI), creatinine, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, prothrombin time, and D-dimer levels in the severe COVID-19 with CVD group were higher than in the non-severe COVID-19 with CVD group (P<0.05).
32537481 Further study on different cell membranes demonstrates that the selectivity results from the presence of cholesterol in mammalian but not in bacterial membranes, as the cholesterol can condense the hydrophobic region of membrane, preventing the penetration of the molecular agents.
32556213 Multivariate logistic regression models including age, sex and ethnicity were used to test whether addition of (1) cardiometabolic factors [diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, prior myocardial infarction, smoking and body mass index (BMI)]; (2) 25(OH)-vitamin D; (3) poor diet; (4) Townsend deprivation score; (5) housing (home type, overcrowding) or (6) behavioural factors (sociability, risk taking) attenuated sex/ethnicity associations with COVID-19 status.
32567003 Serum albumin, low-density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and inflammatory cytokines levels were measured and compared among these three groups.
32570882 It has been shown that high cholesterol levels are associated with more lipid rafts, subdomains of the plasma membrane that can harbour angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors for the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2. […] Evidence of the importance of cholesterol for viral entry into host cells could suggest a role for cholesterol-lowering therapies in reducing viral infectivity. […] In this review, we elaborate on the role of cholesterol level in the process of the coronavirus infection and provide a critical appraisal on the potential of statins in reducing the severity, duration, and complications of COVID-19.
32589755 In addition, the proportion of patients with abnormal total cholesterol increased as the severity of disease increased, and the proportion in critically severe patients was significantly higher than that in moderate patients. […] With the progression of COVID-19, the abnormal proportion of total white blood cell, neutrophils, lymphocytes, IL-2, IL-4 and total cholesterol increased. […] In addition, the change in the total cholesterol level suggested that COVID-19 would induce some liver function damage in patients.
32592716 At the membrane level, GLR induces cholesterol-dependent disorganization of lipid rafts which are important for the entry of coronavirus into cells. […] We used molecular docking to characterize further and discuss both the cholesterol- and HMG box-binding functions of GLR.
32636061 Levels of albumin, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, small and dense low density lipoprotein and CD4+T lymphocyte counts in severe patients were lower than those in non-severe patients (P<0.05).
32653486 Compared with the healthy controls, the patients had sharply decreased concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (P < 0.001). […] Among the patients, HDL-cholesterol concentration in severe groups was significantly lower than the common groups [1.01 (0.88-1.20) vs 1.21 (1.02-1.48) mmol/l, P < 0.001]. […] The lipid profile of a severe patient showed that serum cholesterol concentration significantly decreased in the early stage and returned to be normal in the recovery period. […] Moreover, the change of HDL-cholesterol in this patient was consistent with the results of nucleic acid tests and chest CT scans. […] In correlation analysis, HDL-cholesterol concentration was negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP, r = -0.396, P < 0.001) and positively correlated with lymphocytes (r = 0.336, P < 0.001). […] The area under curve (AUC) in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of HDL-cholesterol was 0.732 (P < 0.001), and, the adjusted odd ratio (OR) of HDL-cholesterol was 0.023 (95% CI 0.002-0.227). […] Decreased serum HDL-cholesterol is associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection.
32663789 To undertake a review and critical appraisal of published/preprint reports that offer methods of determining the effects of hypertension, diabetes, stroke, cancer, kidney issues, and high-cholesterol on COVID-19 disease severity. […] It was observed that diabetes, hypertension, and cholesterol levels possess an apparent relation to COVID-19 severity.
32677918 Significantly, disease severity was associated with age (r = 0.458, P < 0.001), comorbidities (r = 0.445, P < 0.001), white cell count (r = 0.229, P = 0.006), neutrophil count (r = 0.238, P = 0.004), lymphocyte count (r = - 0.295, P < 0.001), albumin (r = - 0.603, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = - 0.362, P < 0.001), serum potassium (r = - 0.237, P = 0.004), plasma glucose (r = 0.383, P < 0.001), total bilirubin (r = 0.340, P < 0.001), serum amyloid A (r = 0.58, P < 0.001), procalcitonin (r = 0.345, P < 0.001), C-reactive protein (r = 0.477, P < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.548, P < 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.342, P < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.264, P = 0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.284, P = 0.001) and D-dimer (r = 0.477, P < 0.001) . […] Lymphocyte count, serum potassium, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and procalcitonin may also be a prognostic indicator.
32683320 However, benefit-risk ratio of its complex interaction with MYD88 gene expression on outcomes in COVID-19, and the putative role of low serum LDL cholesterol in increasing severity of SARS-CoV2 infection need further clarification.
32717282 This includes the encapsulation and transport of specific drugs, as adjuvants to stabilize proteins, vaccines or other molecules involved in the infection, as cholesterol trappers to destabilize the virus envelope, as carriers for RNA therapies, as direct antiviral drugs and even to rescue blood coagulation upon heparin treatment.
32758903 Statins are among the most widely prescribed cholesterol-lowering drugs. […] As competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA-reductase, the key enzyme of the “mevalonate pathway” through which essential compounds, not only cholesterol, are synthesized, statins decrease the levels of cholesterol, and thus LDLs, as an innate defense mechanism, with controversial results in decreasing mortality from cardiovascular disease.
32788355 This gradient was little affected after adjustment for a wide range of covariates; however, controlling for biomarkers, particularly high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glycated hemoglobin, led to a greater degree of attenuation.
32810737 Specific side-chain cholesterol oxidation products of the oxysterols family have been shown to inhibit a large variety of both enveloped and non-enveloped human viral pathogens.
32825713 The lipid composition of caveolae largely matches that of lipid rafts microdomains that are particularly enriched in cholesterol, sphingomyelin, glycosphingolipids, and saturated fatty acids.
32837747 5.46 mmol·L-1 (IQR: 5.00-6.46)), blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (2.21 mmol·L-1 (IQR: 1.67-2.76) vs.
32839670 On the contrary, HCQ and azithromycin were both found to substantially reduce cardiac mortality and also decrease thrombosis, arrhythmia and cholesterol in treated patients in recent peer-reviewed studies and meeting presentations.
32842269 Results: There was statistical significance in age, respiratory frequency, systolic blood pressure, symptoms of dyspnea, previous chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease history, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, C-reactive protein, platelet counting, aspartate transaminase, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, urea, estimated glomerular filtration rate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, D-dimer, CD3+, CD4+, partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure of CO2, blood oxygen saturation, other organ injury, clinical outcome and prognosis between patients with myocardial injury and without myocardial injury (all P<0.05).
32857620 Interestingly, numerous genes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway were significantly upregulated as part of a potential process named drug-induced phospholipidosis (DLP). […] Finally, azithromycin may also decrease available cholesterol in lipid rafts which may hinder SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32858131 These findings were concomitant to a decrease in blood glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides as well as an increase in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio.
32870376 Statins are first-line therapy for lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), particularly in heterozygous patients. […] FH is undertreated, with > 80% of statin-treated FH patients failing to attain LDL cholesterol treatment targets. […] Statin treatment from childhood may reduce the need for stringent cholesterol targets.
32878290 Here, we review the role of cholesterol and other lipids in ssRNA+ infection.
32880929 The lysosomal membrane protein NPC1 (Niemann-Pick type C1) and NPC2 (Niemann-Pick type C2) are main players of cholesterol control in the lysosome and it is known that the mutation on these proteins leads to the cholesterol trafficking related neurodegenerative disease, which is called the Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) disease. […] The mutation R518W or R518Q on the NPC1 is one of type of disease-related mutation that causes cholesterol transports to be cut in half, which results in the accumulation of cholesterol and lipids in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment of the cell. […] Even though there has been significant progress with understanding the cholesterol transport by NPC1 in combination with NPC2, especially after the structural determination of the full length NPC1 in 2016, many details such as the interaction of the full length NPC1 with the NPC2, the molecular motions responsible for the cholesterol transport during and after this interaction, and the structure and the function relations of many mutations are still not well understood. […] In this paper, we report the extensive molecular dynamics simulations in order to gain insight into the structure and the dynamics of NPC1 lumenal domain for the cholesterol transport and the disease behind the mutation (R518W). […] Also, the simulation indicates the possible re-orientation of the NTD with both the wild and the R518W mutated NPC1 after receiving the cholesterol from the NPC2, that align to form an internal tunnel, which is a possible pose for further action in cholesterol trafficking. […] We believe the current study can provide a better understanding of the cholesterol transport by NPC1 especially the role of NTD of NPC1 in combination with NPC2 interactions.
32883951 Sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) is activated by cytokines or pathogen, such as virus or bacteria, but its association with diminished cholesterol levels in COVID-19 patients is unknown. […] We confirmed that SREBP-2-induced cholesterol biosynthesis was suppressed by Sestrin-1 and PCSK9 expression, while the SREBP-2-induced inflammatory responses was upregulated in COVID-19 ICU patients.
32892746 The Kaplan-Meier (KM) curve and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the correlation between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and the severity of COVID-19. […] Compared with control, COVID-19 patients showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC) [median, 3.76 vs 4.65 mmol/L, P = 0.031], triglyceride [median, 1.08 vs 1.21 mmol/L, P < 0.001], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) [median, 2.63 vs 2.83 mmol/L, P < 0.001], and HDL-C [median, 0.78 vs 1.37 mmol/L, P < 0.001], while compared with non-severe patients, severe COVID-19 patients only presented lower levels of HDL-C [median, 0.69 vs 0.79 mmol/L, P = 0.032].
32922517 Corticosteroids are substances derived from cholesterol metabolism that interfere with multiple aspects of glucose homeostasis.
32926319 Our results reconfirmed several well-recognized risk factors, such as age, gender (male), and comorbidities, as well as provided novel laboratory indications (e.g., cholesterol) and TCM-specific phenotype markers (e.g., dull tongue) that were relevant to COVID-19 infections and prognosis.
32929007 Furthermore, gene expression analyses demonstrated differential expression of genes involved in myelin debris clearance, lipid and cholesterol recycling, and promotion of oligodendrocyte function.
32938758 Hyperinsulinaemia decreases cholesterol sulfurylation to cholesterol sulfate, as low vitamin D regulation due to magnesium depletion and/or vitamin D sequestration and/or diminished activation capacity decreases sulfotransferase enzyme SULT2B1b activity, consequently decreasing plasma membrane negative charge between red blood cells, platelets and endothelial cells, thus increasing agglutination and thrombosis.Patients with COVID-19 admitted with hyperglycaemia and/or hyperinsulinaemia should be placed on a restricted refined carbohydrate diet, with limited use of intravenous dextrose solutions.
32940180 Cholesterol-rich parts of cell membranes serve as docking places of host cells for the viruses. […] In vitro cell models have shown that depletion of cholesterol by cyclodextrin, and particularly methyl beta cyclodextrin disturb the host cell membrane lipid composition this way reducing the attachment of the virus to the protein receptors.
32944968 Here, we report that one of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H), is induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in COVID-19-infected patients. […] CH25H converts cholesterol to 25-hydrocholesterol (25HC) and 25HC shows broad anti-coronavirus activity by blocking membrane fusion. […] Mechanistically, 25HC inhibits viral membrane fusion by activating the ER-localized acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) which leads to the depletion of accessible cholesterol from the plasma membrane. […] Altogether, our results shed light on a potentially broad antiviral mechanism by 25HC through depleting accessible cholesterol on the plasma membrane to suppress virus-cell fusion.
32970772 High-density lipoproteins (HDLs), particles chiefly known for their reverse cholesterol transport function, also display pleiotropic properties, including anti-inflammatory or antioxidant functions. […] HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) decrease during bacterial sepsis, and an association has been reported between low lipoprotein levels and poor patient outcomes.
32971895 Peptides identified in silico were synthesized and tested for membrane-modifying activity in the presence of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) consisting of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), sphingomyelin and cholesterol.
32973697 Over the years, beneficial strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been successfully used to treat gastrointestinal, oral, and vaginal infections, and some can also effect a reduction in serum cholesterol levels.
32974243 Based on clinical findings of significant proteinuria (urine protein and creatinine ratio of 11.4), hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin of 2 g/dl), and hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol of 384 mg/dl), he was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome.
32975484 Mechanistically, fluoxetine induced both impaired endolysosomal acidification and the accumulation of cholesterol within the endosomes.
33006622 Visit type (office-based or telemedicine), overall and stratified by patient population and geographic region; assessment of blood pressure or cholesterol measurement; and initiation or continuation of prescription medications. […] Decreases occurred in blood pressure level assessment (50.1% decrease, 44.4 million visits) and cholesterol level assessment (36.9% decrease, 10.2 million visits) in Q2 of 2020 compared with Q2 2018-2019 levels, and assessment was less common during telemedicine than during office-based visits (9.6% vs 69.7% for blood pressure; P < .001; 13.5% vs 21.6% for cholesterol; P < .001).
33024735 A history of dyslipidemia is likely to be associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection, but the contrary is the case for cholesterol levels at hospitalization.
33034780 We summarized five kinds of substances, including peptide P6, griffithsin, hr2p analogs, EK1, vaccine, monoclonal antibody, cholesterol-depleting agents, and extracts from traditional Chinese medicine.
33038926 We observed a negative effect on 85% of the EQA indicators in March and 68% in April. 90% of the control indicators had a negative effect, highlighting the control of LDL cholesterol with a reduction of - 2.69% (95%CI - 3.17% to - 2.23%) in March and - 3.41% (95%CI - 3.82% to - 3.01%) in April; and the control of blood pressure with a reduction of - 2.13% (95%CI - 2.34% to - 1.9%) and - 2.59% (95%CI - 2.8% to - 2.37%).
33047740 Here, we consider mechanisms by which dyslipidaemia and the use of cholesterol-modifying drugs could influence the virus-host relationship. […] Cholesterol is essential for the assembly, replication and infectivity of enveloped virus particles; we highlight several cholesterol-modifying drugs with the potential to alter the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle that could be tested in in vitro and in vivo models. […] Although cholesterol is an essential component of immune cell membranes, excess levels can dysregulate protective immunity and promote exaggerated pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses. […] We highlight antiviral, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of cholesterol-modifying drugs that merit further consideration in the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection.