CHLOROQUINE


DrugBank ID: db00608
DrugCentral: chloroquine
Synonymous :chloraquine | chlorochin | chloroquina | chloroquine | chloroquinium | chloroquinum | cloroquina | n4-(7-chloro-4-quinolinyl)-n1,n1-diethyl-1,4-pentanediamine



Drug Sentece Context


Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of chloroquine gene in 495 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32074550 Chloroquine phosphate, an old drug for treatment of malaria, is shown to have apparent efficacy and acceptable safety against COVID-19 associated pneumonia in multicenter clinical trials conducted in China.
32075365 Previous studies have shown that chloroquine phosphate (chloroquine) had a wide range of antiviral effects, including anti-coronavirus. […] Here we found that treating the patients diagnosed as novel coronavirus pneumonia with chloroquine might improve the success rate of treatment, shorten hospital stay and improve patient outcome. […] In order to guide and regulate the use of chloroquine in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia, the multicenter collaboration group of Department of Science and Technology of Guangdong Province and Health Commission of Guangdong Province for chloroquine in the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia developed this expert consensus after extensive discussion. […] It recommended chloroquine phosphate tablet, 500mg twice per day for 10 days for patients diagnosed as mild, moderate and severe cases of novel coronavirus pneumonia and without contraindications to chloroquine.
32092748 This issue has rapidly reviewed and published articles describing COVID-19, including the drug treatment options for SARS-CoV-2, its clinical characteristics, and therapies involving a combination of Chinese and Western medicine, the efficacy of chloroquine phosphate in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia according to clinical studies, and reflections on the system of reserve medical supplies for public health emergencies.
32147496 Recent publications have brought attention to the possible benefit of chloroquine, a broadly used antimalarial drug, in the treatment of patients infected by the novel emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). […] The scientific community should consider this information in light of previous experiments with chloroquine in the field of antiviral research.
32147628 Several drugs such as chloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, and favipiravir are currently undergoing clinical studies to test their efficacy and safety in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China; some promising results have been achieved thus far.
32150618 Chloroquine has been sporadically used in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Hydroxychloroquine shares the same mechanism of action as chloroquine, but its more tolerable safety profile makes it the preferred drug to treat malaria and autoimmune conditions. […] The pharmacological activity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine was tested using SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero cells. […] Hydroxychloroquine (EC50=0.72 μM) was found to be more potent than chloroquine (EC50=5.47 μM) in vitro. […] Based on PBPK models results, a loading dose of 400 mg twice daily of hydroxychloroquine sulfate given orally, followed by a maintenance dose of 200 mg given twice daily for 4 days is recommended for SARS-CoV-2 infection, as it reached three times the potency of chloroquine phosphate when given 500 mg twice daily 5 days in advance. […] Hydroxychloroquine was found to be more potent than chloroquine to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
32171740 In the absence of a known efficient therapy and because of the situation of a public-health emergency, it made sense to investigate the possible effect of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 since this molecule was previously described as a potent inhibitor of most coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-1. […] Preliminary trials of chloroquine repurposing in the treatment of COVID-19 in China have been encouraging, leading to several new trials. […] Here we discuss the possible mechanisms of chloroquine interference with the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle.
32173110 The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence regarding chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19. […] PubMed, EMBASE, and three trial Registries were searched for studies on the use of chloroquine in patients with COVID-19. […] Chloroquine seems to be effective in limiting the replication of SARS-CoV-2 (virus causing COVID-19) in vitro. […] There is rationale, pre-clinical evidence of effectiveness and evidence of safety from long-time clinical use for other indications to justify clinical research on chloroquine in patients with COVID-19.
32173241 To date, effective treatment is lacking; however, clinical trials investigating the efficacy of several agents, including remdesivir and chloroquine, are underway in China.
32179150 Chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, ribavirin and ritonavir have shown efficacy to inhibit coronavirus in vitro.
32196083 Chloroquine (CQ) exhibits a promising inhibitory effect.
32205204 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been found to be efficient on SARS-CoV-2, and reported to be efficient in Chinese COV-19 patients.
32217113 We discuss the latest options in antiviral therapy and vaccine development, including the novel use of chloroquine in the management of COVID-19.
32219357 She was treated with dobutamine, antiviral drugs (lopinavir/ritonavir), steroids, chloroquine, and medical treatment for heart failure, with progressive clinical and instrumental stabilization.
32219882 To help understand the advantages and limitations of differential treatments, we provide a timely review and discuss the complications and corresponding major treatments, especially controversial ones such as antiviral therapy (remdesivir, ribavirin, and chloroquine), glucocorticoid therapy, extracorporeal support including an artificial liver system, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation based on available evidence.
32229706 Also, Chloroquine-related compounds inhibit the induction of the well-known senescence marker, Beta-galactosidase.
32234468 Treatments, including antiviral agents, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids, antibodies, convalescent plasma transfusion and vaccines, are discussed in this article.
32241801 Two antimalarial agents, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), have been trusted treatments for a range of rheumatic diseases over the past seventy years [1].
32243270 This review summarizes the current evidence of potential therapeutic agents, such as lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, interferon, ribavirin, tocilizumab and sarilumab.
32246834 In addition to the recommended antiviral drugs such as interferon-ɑ, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, and chloroquine phosphate, some clinical trials focusing on virus RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitors have been registered and initiated.
32247050 Potential treatments included remdesivir, chloroquine, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma and vaccine immunization (when possible).
32247211 In view of recent studies and discussion on chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), we aimed to review existing literature and relevant websites regarding these drugs and COVID-19, adverse effects related to drugs, and related guidelines. […] We systematically searched the PubMed database up till March 21, 2020 and retrieved all the articles published on chloroquine and HCQ and COVID-19.
32247213 Search terms were, COVID-19, treatment of coronavirus, COVID 19 and following terms; chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ibuprofen, ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, cardiovascular disease, diarrhoea, liver, testis and gastrointestinal disease. […] We discuss evidence regarding role of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in treatment and prophylaxis, use of inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system, safety of ibuprofen, unusual clinical features like gastrointestinal symptoms and interpretation of tests for cardiac enzymes and biomarkers.
32251731 Using a combination of structural and molecular modelling approaches, this study showed that chloroquine (CLQ), one of the drugs currently under investigation for SARS-CoV-2 treatment, binds sialic acids and gangliosides with high affinity.
32256547 We identified 24 clinical trials, involving more than 20 medicines, such as human immunoglobulin, interferons, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, methylprednisolone, bevacizumab, and traditional Chinese medicines (TCM).
32265182 In light of this, there has been growing interest in the use of existing medications, such as chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), as potential treatments of this disease.
32274787 Cases of chloroquine-related toxicity have been reported elsewhere, but have not been observed in our hospital so far.
32277367 Preliminary evidence suggests potential benefit with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine.
32278764 Caution should be taken to potential hypoglycemic events with the use of chloroquine in these subjects.
32281213 Different drugs for prophylaxis against COVID-19 including chloroquine (CQ) or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been tried.
32281268 In light of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) pandemic and the possible widespread use of chloroquine (a member of the drug class 4-aminoquinoline primarily used to prevent and treat malaria and amebiasis) and its derivatives (e.g. hydroxychloroquine, a metabolite of chloroquine),1 a safety issue is addressed, concerning the selection of patients suitable to receive it.
32281481 Due to factors such as history of prescription for other infectious diseases, availability, and relatively low cost, the use of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been tested in vivo and in vitro for the ability to inhibit the causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
32281583 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have garnered considerable attention for their potential to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Increasing evidence obtained from completed clinical studies indicates the prospects for chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19.
32281695 We identified many cheap, available, and safe medicines, such as diphenidol, quinine, chloroquine, artemisinin, chlorpheniramine, yohimbine, and dextromethorphan, which may target the most common symptoms caused by 2019-nCoV.
32282502 No established treatment is currently available; however, several therapies, including remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, and interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitors, are being used off-label and evaluated in ongoing clinical trials.
32285930 The data sources included were 1) longitudinal clinical, pharmacokinetic, and virologic data from patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who received HCQ with or without azithromycin (n=116), 2) in vitro viral replication data and SARS-CoV-2 viral load inhibition by HCQ, 3) a population pharmacokinetic model of HCQ and 4) a model relating chloroquine pharmacokinetics to QTc prolongation.
32293834 The most frequently used agents both in Turkey and all over the world including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir and remdesivir will be reviewed here .
32297571 Inaddition, remdesivir, which has been previously administered to Ebola virus patients, has alsoproven effective in the U.S. against coronavirus, while antimalarial chloroquine and hydroxy-chloroquine, favipiravir and co-administered darunavir and umifenovir (in patient therapies)were also recently recorded as having anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects.
32299753 This document attempts to provide reasonable guidance for the use of antimicrobials which have uncertain benefit but may increase risk of QT interval prolongation and ventricular proarrhythmia, notably, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
32302411 Nevertheless, there are anecdotal reports that some hospitals have begun to include AZ in combination with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine (CQ) for treatment of COVID-19.
32303497 One potential treatment is chloroquine and its derivatives, including hydroxychloroquine, which have both antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. […] Chloroquine is safe and cheap.
32305500 Antimalarial drug chloroquine (CHL) and its safer derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCHL) have been proposed to be repurposed to treat SARS coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19.
32305506 We decided to use the analogy of a play and speculate about the possible impact in this tragedy of 1) air pollution via the interference of nitrogen dioxide on ACE2 expression; 2) the dual role of nicotine; 3) the hypothetical involvement of ACE2 polymorphisms, the relationships of which with ethnic factors and susceptibility to cardiovascular disease seems intriguing; 4) the impact on the severity of infection of hypertension and related medications acting on the renin/angiotensin system, and, finally, 5) the possible helpful role of chloroquine, thanks to its capacity of modifying ACE2 affinity to the viral spike protein by altering glycosylation.
32306288 Since in vitro studies and a preliminary clinical report suggested the efficacy of chloroquine for COVID-19-associated pneumonia, there is increasing interest in this old antimalarial drug. […] In this article, we discuss the pharmacokinetics and safety of chloroquine that should be considered in light of use in SARS-CoV-2 infections. […] Chloroquine is well absorbed and distributes extensively resulting in a large volume of distribution with an apparent and terminal half-life of 1.6 days and 2 weeks, respectively. […] Chloroquine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 and renal clearance is responsible for one third of total clearance. […] Clinical experience has shown that chloroquine has a narrow safety margin, as three times the adult therapeutic dosage for malaria can be lethal when given as a single dose. […] In conclusion, the pharmacokinetic and safety properties of chloroquine suggest that chloroquine can be used safely for an acute virus infection, under corrected QT monitoring, but also that the safety margin is small, particularly in children.
32309622 Potential therapeutic strategies, including remdesivir, chloroquine phosphate, abidol, lopinavir/ritonavir, plasma, antibody, vaccine and stem cells are discussed in this review.
32313880 Thus, as alternative potentially more direct “broad-spectrum” COVID-19 therapeutics, several natural and synthetic PAK1-blockers such as propolis, melatonin, ciclesonide, hydroxy chloroquine (HQ), ivermection, and ketorolac, which are readily available in the market, are introduced here.
32315948 A type 1 diabetes patient experienced remission associated with chloroquine therapy while travelling to a malaria-endemic area. […] Chloroquine has immunomodulatory and hypoglycaemic effects and may become more frequently used due to the COVID-19 pandemic. […] Patients with type 1 diabetes treated with chloroquine should be monitored for hypoglycaemia, even after recovery.
32316233 G6PD deficient individuals are at high risk of severe hemolysis when given anti-malarial drugs such as primaquine, quinine, other sulphonamide-containing medicines, and chloroquine, which has recently been shown to be potent for the treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). […] Given the challenges associated with G6PD deficiency, it would be essential to improve access to G6PD deficiency POC testing to facilitate administration of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to pregnant women, full implementation of the malaria control program in Ghana, and treatment of COVID-19 patients with chloroquine in malaria-endemic countries.
32316270 One of the options under investigation is the old antimalarial drug, chloroquine, and its analog, hydroxychloroquine. […] In principle, the safety profile might be ameliorated by using chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine single enantiomers in place of the racemate.
32317220 Other agents, such as hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine might have a direct anti-viral effect.
32320477 As chloroquine (CHQ) is part of the Dutch Centre for Infectious Disease Control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experimental treatment guideline, pediatric dosing guidelines are needed.
32320825 Moreover, Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, drugs used to treat malaria and arthritis, respectively, were recommended by the National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China for treatment of COVID-19. […] Presently, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are under investigation by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a treatment for COVID-19.
32321878 The recent clinical trial reports pertaining to the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19 albeit yet to be validated with larger clinical trials, have sparked much interest globally to evaluate whether this anti-malarial drug can be repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19. […] In addition to its anti-viral activity, the anti-inflammatory activity of chloroquine may also contribute to its efficacy. […] Based on our data obtained from an animal infection model of melioidosis (a disease caused by the bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei), treatment with chloroquine can result in the phosphorylation and consequent inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). […] In view of this, it is plausible that the mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of chloroquine against COVID-19 involves inhibition of host GSK3β.
32321905 In late March and early April 2020, the antimalarial drug, chloroquine, has been approved as an emergency treatment for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States and in Europe. […] Although infrequent, neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported in patients who received chloroquine for the treatment of malaria or autoimmune diseases. […] In this study, aiming to investigate these adverse events (AEs) using a large self-reporting database, we conducted a disproportionality analysis for the detection of neuropsychiatric AE signals associated with the use of chloroquine (or hydroxychloroquine), reported to FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database between the fourth quarter of 2012 and the fourth quarter of 2019. […] We included 2,389,474 AE cases, among which 520 cases developed neuropsychiatric AE following the use of chloroquine. […] Adjusted reporting odds ratio (ROR) for the development of each of the neuropsychiatric AEs following the use of chloroquine was calculated using a multilevel model: exposure to chloroquine was associated with a statistically significant high reporting of amnesia, delirium, hallucinations, depression, and loss of consciousness, (lower 95% confidence interval of the adjusted ROR > 1), although the degree of increase in their ROR was limited. […] Current pharmacovigilance study results did not suggest any potential link between the use of chloroquine and an increased risk of suicide, psychosis, confusion, and agitation, which would be informative during the emergency use of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19.
32322402 In vitro tests are also being conducted to assess the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of this epidemic, which is considered a pandemic by the WHO.
32323646 Among the repurposed drugs, the commonly used antimalarials chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have become the focus of global scientific, media, and political attention despite a lack of randomized clinical trials supporting their efficacy. […] Chloroquine has been used worldwide for about 75 years and is listed by the WHO as an essential medicine to treat malaria.
32324352 Currently, chloroquine and remdesivir are possible treatment options. […] Chloroquine has side effects (nausea, QT prolongation) and there are several drug interactions.
32325124 This article examines three aspects of antivirals, such as hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and remdesvir, as they might relate to the treatment of a viral infection such as COVID-19: (i) the use of vaporization for the delivery of antivirals, with the bulk constituents having mild antiviral efficacy; (ii) the application of a marine natural product extract as opposed to a single molecule as an antiviral agent; and (iii) a counter intuitive approach to formulation that is, in part, based on delivering multiple species that fall into three categories: building blocks for the virus to accelerate replication; an energy source for the infected cell to boost its immune response; and the species that antagonize or provide toxicity to the virus.
32326602 A recent study has shown that remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the replication and infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2, 2019-nCov) in vitro. […] In addition, we will discuss the viability and challenges in targeting RdRp and proteinase, and application of natural product quinoline and its analog chloroquine for treatment of coronavirus infection.
32327397 Queries extracted reports based on exposures of HCQ/chloroquine (CQ) alone, azithromycin alone, HCQ/CQ + azithromycin, amoxicillin alone, HCQ/CQ + amoxicillin alone.
32328850 Particularly, drugs that show superior maternal and fetal safety are worthy of consideration for pregnant women with COVID-19, such as chloroquine, metformin, statins, lobinavir/ritonavir, glycyrrhizic acid, and nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery (NMDD), etc.
32329419 Antimalarial drugs such as Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine derivatives are being used in emergency cases; however, they are not suitable for patients with conditions like diabetes, hypertension and cardiac issues.
32330277 In vitro studies indicate that the antiviral effect of chloroquine diphosphate (CQ) requires a high concentration of the drug.
32330521 Given the media attention and claims of effectiveness, we chose chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, in combination with azithromycin, as an area of COVID-19 research to examine. […] MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases were searched from 2019 to present (April 3rd, 2020) using a mix of keywords such as COVID-19 and chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. […] We found 6 studies, 3 randomized control trials and 3 observational studies, focusing on chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (with azithromycin). […] We found that the COVID-19 research methodology is very poor in the area of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine research.
32331519 Amid this situation, investigational agents are being used, including chloroquine. […] We report here the clinical features and therapeutic course of the first reported patient with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia that recovered in Colombia, after the use of chloroquine and clarithromycin. […] A day later, chloroquine was started because of that.
32335560 More recent studies have highlighted the possibility of treating patients infected with the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus with chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, of which mechanism of action is not completely understood. […] We seek to draw the attention of the scientific community to the possibility of drastically reducing the effects of the virus on the affected patients and improving clinical trials outcome through the synergistic action of zinc and chloroquine in patients suffering from the coronavirus disease.
32336317 This review discusses the updates on specimens/samples, recent efficient diagnostics, and therapeutic approaches to control the disease and repurposed drugs mainly focusing on chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and convalescent plasma (CP).
32336586 There are currently no therapeutic drugs available that are directly active against SARS-CoV-2; however, several antivirals (remdesivir, favipiravir) and antimalarials (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) have emerged as potential therapies. […] Current guidelines recommend combination treatment with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin or chloroquine, if hydroxychloroquine is unavailable, in patients with moderate disease, although these recommendations are based on limited evidence.
32337790 The clinical course was complicated by extreme overexposure to the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus, following coadministration of chloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir therapy.
32338155 Anti-malarial medicine chloroquine (CQ) and particularly its chemical analogue hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been recommended as promising candidate therapeutics that are now under either compassionate off-label use or clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.
32339248 In vitro studies indicate that the antiviral effect of chloroquine diphosphate (CQ) requires a high concentration of the drug.
32339832 Without much experience, currently, the medicines that are clinically being evaluated for COVID-19 include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, lopinavir, ritonavir, tocilizumab and corticosteroids.
32341791 Here we discuss the challenges that patients with autoimmune diseases might face and the information on using immunomodulatory therapies like chloroquine, tocilizumab and baricitinib to quench the cytokine storm in patients with very severe COVID-19 pneumonia.
32341910 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been used as treatment and are being considered as prophylaxis.
32343658 High in vitro activity has been found for the nucleotide analogue remdesivir, for the antimalarial drug chloroquine, and for nitazoxanide, a drug used to treat protozoan infections.
32344226 It was analyzed that a combination of antiviral drugs with hydroxyl-chloroquine and azithromycin (with the consultation of a medical practitioner) may be the best option to treat the patients, depending on the patient’s conditions and symptoms.
32344310 It was also revealed that alternative treatments currently being considered for COVID-19 such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine by increasing hemoglobin production and increasing hemoglobin availability for oxygen binding and acetazolamine (for the treatment of altitude sickness) by causing hyperventilation with associated increasing levels of oxygen and decreasing levels of carbon dioxide in the blood may significantly ameliorate COVID-19 respiratory symptoms.
32344314 We hypothesize that patients with severe COVID-19 have a severely compromised innate immune response and could be treated via the use of Monalizumab, interferon α, chloroquine, and other antiviral agents.
32347743 Small studies have shown a potential benefit of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19. […] Use of these medications alone, or in combination, can lead to a prolongation of the QT interval, possibly increasing the risk of Torsade de pointes (TdP) and sudden cardiac death. Methods - Hospitalized patients treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin from March 1st through the 23rd at three hospitals within the Northwell Health system were included in this prospective, observational study. […] Secondary outcomes included QT prolongation, the need to prematurely discontinue any of the medications due to QT prolongation and arrhythmogenic death. Results - Two hundred one patients were treated for COVID-19 with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine. […] Ten patients (5.0%) received chloroquine, 191 (95.0%) received hydroxychloroquine and 119 (59.2%) also received azithromycin. […] Baseline QTc intervals did not differ between patients treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (monotherapy group) vs. those treated with combination group (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin) (440.6 ± 24.9 ms vs. […] No arrhythmogenic deaths were reported. Conclusions - In the largest reported cohort of COVID-19 patients to date treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine {plus minus} azithromycin, no instances of TdP or arrhythmogenic death were reported.
32348588 The main therapies being used to treat the disease are antiviral drugs, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and respiratory therapy.
32349115 The proposed doses of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for treatment of COVID-19 (1000 mg/day for 10 days, CQ; 800 mg first day then 400 mg/day for 5 days, HCQ) in many guidelines worldwide, are considerably higher than the maximum recommended daily safe doses of both agents (≤2.3 mg/kg/day, CQ; ≤5.0 mg/kg/day, HCQ) for development of retinal toxicity.
32350686 According to the CDC and Chinese treatment guidelines for COVID-19, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and one of the investigational agents (remdesivir) are recommended in critically ill older patients.
32350818 In the battle against the SARS-CoV‑2 pandemic, chloroquine has emerged as a new potential therapeutic option for the treatment of infected patients. […] A safety consideration for the application of chloroquine is its QTc-prolonging potential. […] Thus far, no data are available on the QTc-prolonging potential of chloroquine in COVID-19 patients. […] To assess the degree of chloroquine-induced QTc prolongation in hospitalised COVID-19 patients. […] A baseline electrocardiogram (ECG) and ECGs recorded during chloroquine treatment were retrospectively collected in patients suspected of having COVID-19. […] A total of 95 patients had a baseline ECG recording and at least one ECG recording during chloroquine therapy. […] Chloroquine treatment resulted in a mean QTc prolongation of 35 ms (95% CI 28-43 ms) using computerised interpretation and 34 ms (95% CI 25-43 ms) using manual interpretation. […] No torsade de pointes was observed during chloroquine treatment. […] After manual review, 22 patients (23%) had a QTc interval exceeding 500 ms during chloroquine treatment. […] None of these patients had a prolonged QTc interval prior to the initiation of chloroquine treatment. […] Chloroquine significantly prolongs the QTc interval in a clinically relevant matter. […] This highlights the need for ECG monitoring when prescribing chloroquine to COVID-19 patients.
32350928 Early anecdotal reports and limited in vitro data led to the significant uptake of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and to lesser extent chloroquine (CQ), for many patients with this disease.
32351831 Even though there is no cure for COVID-19, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are promising alternatives.
32352535 Cardiovascular considerations of therapies currently used, including remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, ribavirin, interferons, and lopinavir/ritonavir, as well as experimental therapies, such as human recombinant ACE2 (rhACE2), are discussed.
32352944 Interferon-alpha (5 million U twice daily by inhalation), lopinavir/ritonavir (400/100 mg twice daily orally), as well as chloroquine (500 mg twice daily orally for 10 days) and azithromycin (500 mg twice per day) cause a milder course of the disease and reduce the duration of treatment.
32356252 The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has provided emergency authorization for the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.
32357553 Currently, antiviral drugs, including chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir, have shown effective inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
32358890 A variety of repurposed drugs and investigational drugs such as remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, lopinavir, interferon-beta, and other potential drugs have been studied for COVID19 treatment.
32359203 Of these, chloroquine (CQ) and its derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have garnered the most attention.
32360480 Further, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and off-label antiviral drugs, such as the nucleotide analogue remdesivir, HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir, broad-spectrum antiviral drugs arbidol and favipiravir as well as antiviral phytochemicals available to date may limit spread of SARS-CoV-2 and morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 pandemic.
32361715 A few days later on April 8th, 2020, Professor Sotiris Tsiodras, scientific advisor to the Greek Government for COVID-19 and an expert on infectious diseases, when asked by a journalist about chloroquine, he responded, "Antony Fauci is correct.
32362217 This study reveals that Isothymol, a major component of this plant, gives the best docking scores, compared to, the co-crystallized inhibitor β-D-mannose of the enzyme ACE2, to Captropil drug as good ACE2 inhibitor and to Chloroquine antiviral drug also involved in other mechanisms as inhibition of ACE2 cellular receptor. In silico (ADME), drug-likeness, PASS & P450 site of metabolism prediction, pharmacophore Mapper showed that the compound Isothymol has given a good tests results compared to the β-D-mannose co-crystallized inhibitor, to Captopril and Chloroquine drugs.
32362345 This commentary discerns the characteristics of demoralization versus depression, and suggests solutions for both, together with a cautionary word on the use chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19.
32363143 The patient was primarily treated with chloroquine and azithromycin.
32363157 Chloroquine and phosphate hydroxychloroquine are the drugs currently in the limelight, and recently, the National Task Force for COVID-19 constituted by the Indian Council of Medical Research has recommended the use of antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine for prophylaxis of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 infection in selected high-risk individuals. […] This short write-up explores the potential efficacy and established safety of chloroquine in COVID-19.
32363212 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have garnered unprecedented attention as potential therapeutic agents against COVID-19 following several small clinical trials, uncontrolled case series, and public figure endorsements. […] We call for additional randomized controlled trial evidence prior to the widespread incorporation of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine into national and international treatment guidelines.
32365215 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are currently being evaluated as treatment against COVID-19. […] Use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine should be reserved to current indications or clinical trials, as recommended by several governmental medical products agencies.
32372695 Multiple off-label and investigational drugs, such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, have gained broad interest due to positive pre-clinical data and are currently used for treatment of COVID-19. […] Adverse effects of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on cardiac function and conduction are broad and can be fatal. […] The American Heart Association has listed chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as agents which can cause direct myocardial toxicity. […] This review summarizes evidenced-based data regarding potential cardiac adverse effects due to off-label and investigational drugs including chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, antiviral therapy, monoclonal antibodies, as well as common antibiotics used for the treatment of COVID-19.
32373183 Chloroquine and closely related structural analogs, employed initially for the treatment of malaria, are now gaining worldwide attention due to the rapidly spreading pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2, named coronavirus disease (COVID) of 2019 (COVID-19). […] Although much of this attention has a mechanistic basis, the hard efficacy data for chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in the management of the clinical syndrome of COVID-19 have been limited thus far. […] This review aims to present the available in vitro and clinical data for the role of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 and attempts to put them into perspective, especially in relation to the different risks/benefits particular to each patient who may require treatment.
32373993 In malarial pandemic countries, chloroquine is widely used to treat malaria. […] In malarial non-pandemic nations, chloroquine is not widely used. […] Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine share similar chemical structures and mechanisms of action. […] The aim of this study was to indirectly investigate the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19 by determining the prevalence of COVID-19 in malaria pandemic and non-pandemic nations. […] We reviewed in vitro studies, in vivo studies, original studies, clinical trials, and consensus reports, that were conducted to evaluate the antiviral activities of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. […] The search was based on keywords: antiviral drugs, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, COVID-19, COVID-19 treatment modalities, and coronavirus. […] These studies were all suggestive that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine can successfully treat COVID-19 infections. […] Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have antiviral characteristics in vitro.
32375574 This study demonstrated the putative inhibitory potential of lopinavir, remdesivir, oseltamir, azithromycin, ribavirin, and chloroquine towards V-ATPase, protein kinase A, SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein/ACE-2 complex and viral proteases. […] Moreover, it was also observed that chloroquine has appreciable binding affinities for 3-Chymotrpsin- like protease and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A when compared to Oseltamivir and ribavirin.
32376392 Next, reviewing current evidence drawn from clinical trials, we examine a number of cytokine and anti-cytokine therapies, including interleukin-1, -6, and TNF inhibitors, as well as less targeted therapies, such as corticosteroids, chloroquine, or JAK inhibitors.
32377559 Preliminary reports suggest that certain drugs, such as chloroquine and antiviral nucleotide analogues such as remdesivir, which inhibit viral replication, can target the new coronavirus, although their usefulness in the clinic is still under debate.
32386448 The antimalarials, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and the antivirals Lopinavir/Ritonavir have been recently recorded as having anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) effects.1 In particular, regarding Italy, one of the countries most affected by the pandemic, the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical disease (Lombardy section) has recommended the use of HCQ for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32387694 Recent publications have re-examined the use of Chloroquine (CQ) and/or Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a potential therapeutic option for these patients.
32389025 The Food and Drug Administration issued an emergency authorization for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as experimental treatments for COVID-19 leading to a shortage of both medications.
32389723 Ribavirin, a common antiviral drug, remdesivir, chloroquine and luteolin were studied. […] Chloroquine has been proved clinically effective and can bind to the main protease; this may be the antiviral mechanism of this drug.
32391999 Since the outbreak of COVID-19, chloroquine has been mentioned as a possible treatment. […] In vitro studies have shown anti-viral activity of chloroquine against SARS-CoV-2. […] Recently, the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment published treatment options for antiviral treatment for COVID-19 where chloroquine was suggested as first choice for off-label treatment, beside remdesivir en lopinavir/ritonavir. […] In this commentary, we provide a background and history of chloroquine, the evidence for antiviral efficacy of chloroquine and the arguments for off-label use of chloroquine in COVID-19.
32393448 The evidence for the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is currently derived from open label trials and cell culture studies with no conclusive evidence available from randomised clinical trials. […] Keywords: Coronavirus, Covid-19, SARS-CoV-2, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, chemoprophylaxis, bioethics, evidence- based medicine.
32395418 These drugs and therapeutic agents include antiviral agents (remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, and oseltamivir), and supporting agents (Ascorbic acid, Azithromycin, Corticosteroids, Nitric oxide, IL-6 antagonists), among others.
32395788 Fifteen patients received both chloroquine and azithromycin.
32400323 Although in vitro studies are scarce, data regarding chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, ivermectin, lopinavir, homoharringtonine and emetine seem promising.
32400349 Reports that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine may be effective against COVID-19 have received worldwide attention, increasing the risk of the introduction of falsified versions of these medicines. […] Five different types of falsified chloroquine tablets were discovered between March 31, 2020 and April 4, 2020, in Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of Congo by locally conducted thin layer chromatographic analysis. […] Subsequent investigation by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry in Germany proved the absence of detectable amounts of chloroquine and the presence of undeclared active pharmaceutical ingredients, that is, paracetamol and metronidazole, in four of the samples. […] The fifth sample contained chloroquine, but only 22% of the declared amount.
32402766 The antimalarial drugs chloroquine phosphate (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) impair in vitro the terminal glycosylation of ACE2 without significant change of cell-surface ACE2 and, therefore, might be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 infections.
32405423 Minimum estimated costs of production were US $0.93/day for remdesivir, $1.45/day for favipiravir, $0.08/day for hydroxychloroquine, $0.02/day for chloroquine, $0.10/day for azithromycin, $0.28/day for lopinavir/ritonavir, $0.39/day for sofosbuvir/daclatasvir and $1.09/day for pirfenidone.
32408070 The antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ) and its metabolite hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are currently being tested in several clinical studies as potential candidates to limit SARS-CoV-2-mediated morbidity and mortality.
32409150 Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine (chloroquine) plus azithromycin is considered as therapy for COVID-19. […] We compared risk of cardiac adverse events between combinations of chloroquine and azithromycin and chloroquine and amoxicillin. […] We included autoimmune disease patients aged ≥18 years initiating azithromycin or amoxicillin for ≥5 days during chloroquine treatment. […] Combination use of chloroquine and azithromycin at routine doses did not show pronounced increases in arrhythmias in this real-world population, though small sample size and outcome rates limit conclusions.
32410772 As per SOLIDARITY trial by WHO, some of the most promising candidates include chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine which are anti-malarial medications, Remdesivir, Lopinavir-Ritonavir combination with or without interferon which are anti-HIV drugs and convalescent plasma therapy.
32415690 Resurgence in the use of chloroquine as a putative treatment for COVID-19 has seen recent cases of fatal toxicity due to unintentional overdoses. […] The aim was to assess the effects of diazepam in experimental models of chloroquine cardiotoxicity. […] In vitro experiments involved cardiac tissues isolated from rats and incubated with chloroquine, alone, or in combination with diazepam. […] In vivo models of toxicity involved chloroquine administered intravenously to pentobarbitone-anaesthetised rats and rabbits. […] Randomised, controlled interventional studies in rats assessed diazepam, clonazepam and Ro5-4864 administered: (i) prior, (ii) during, and (iii) after chloroquine; and the effects of diazepam: (iv) at high dose, (v) in urethane-anaesthetised rats, and (vi) co-administered with adrenaline. […] Chloroquine decreased the developed tension of left atria, prolonged the effective refractory period of atria, ventricular tissue and right papillary muscles, and caused dose-dependent impairment of haemodynamic and electrocardiographic parameters. […] Neither diazepam, nor other ligands for benzodiazepine binding sites, protect against or attenuate chloroquine cardiotoxicity. […] However, diazepam may augment the effe cts of positive inotropes in reducing chloroquine cardiotoxicity.
32418181 COVID-19 infection has shown rapid growth worldwide, and different therapies have been proposed for treatment, in particular, the combination of immune response modulating drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (antimalarials) alone or in combination with azithromycin.
32418730 Lopinavir-ritonavir came third with 17 reports (14%) and chloroquine fourth with 3 reports (2.5%).
32418894 The well reported and clinically used anti-malarial aminoquinoline drugs (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine) have shown potential to be repurposed to control the present pandemic by inhibition of COVID-19. […] The review elaborates the mechanism of action, safety (side effects, adverse effects, toxicity) and details of clinical trials for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine to benefit the clinicians, medicinal chemist, pharmacologist actively involved in controlling the pandemic and to provide therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 infection.
32422406 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are both used to treat COVID-19.
32423027 Whereas plasma therapy attracts much interest, the European project Discovery focuses on the potentialities of small molecules like remdesivir, the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and chloroquine.
32425199 Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir are currently being studied in trials and show some promise.
32425246 The only FDA approved drug to treat COVID-19 is remdesivir, and other off-label medications used include chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, convalescent plasma therapy, azithromycin, vitamin C, corticosteroids, interferon and colchicine.
32426387 In addition, 5 other drugs (boceprevir, chloroquine, homoharringtonine, tilorone, and salinomycin) were also found active during the exercises of AI approaches.
32426957 The paper reviews aspects of COVID-19 that pertain to rheumatology, including symptoms and signs akin to those observed in rheumatic disorders, risk of infection or severe course of the disease in patients with a pre-existing rheumatic disease and those receiving antirheumatic or immunosuppressive medication as well as potential applications of antirheumatic or anticytokine therapeutic strategies that are already applied in rheumatology (including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, baricitinib, and others) for patients with COVID-19.
32430286 The anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (CQ) and primarily the less toxic hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are currently used to treat autoimmune diseases for their immunomodulatory and anti-thrombotic properties.
32434058 We have explicitly highlighted several useful information and facts like: i) No established relationship between progression of SARS-CoV-2 with temperature, humidity and/or both, ii) The underlying mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 is not fully understood, iii) Respiratory droplet size determines drop and airborne-based transmission, iv) Prognosis of COVID-19 can be done by its effects on various body organs, v) Infection can be stopped by restricting the binding of S protein and AE2, vi) Hydroxychloroquine is believed to be better than chloroquine for COVID-19, vii) Ivermectin with Vero-hSLAM cells is able to reduce infection by ~5000 time within 2 days, and viii) Nafamostat mesylate can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 S protein-initiated membrane fusion.
32436445 The use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), remdesivir, and tocilizumab are some of the other promising potential therapies; however, they are yet to be tested in randomized clinical trials (RCTs).
32436867 Patients are being treated with protease drugs are inhibitors, remdesivir, chloroquine, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 inhibitors, ivermectin, sarilumab and tocilizumab, though none of these is Food and Drug Administration approved and are undergoing trials.
32438018 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are now being widely used as treatments for COVID-19. […] Accordingly, we set out to conduct a systematic review of the arrhythmogenic effect of short courses of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. […] We searched in MEDLINE and Embase, as well as grey literature up to April 17, 2020, on the risk of QT prolongation, torsades, ventricular arrhythmia, and sudden death with short-term chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine usage. […] We found evidence of ventricular arrhythmia in two COVID-19 patients out of a group of 28 treated with high-dose chloroquine. […] A limitation of these results is unclear follow-up and possible publication/reporting bias, but there is compelling evidence that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine induce significant QT interval prolongation and potentially increase the risk of arrhythmia.
32438446 Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, mefloquine, atazanavir (ritonavir-boosted), tipranavir (ritonavir-boosted), ivermectin, azithromycin and lopinavir (ritonavir-boosted) were all predicted to achieve lung concentrations over 10-fold higher than their reported EC50 .
32438459 Among these treatments, the off-label use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a less toxic derivate of chloroquine, has become a common practice among clinicians, including pediatricians, despite lack of evidence of its clinical efficacy for this indication (especially for pediatric patients) at present time (2).
32442941 Cardiac aspects of the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are reviewed in this manuscript. […] However, the rate of adverse cardiac events of hydroxychloroquine (and chloroquine) was low.
32445484 Several drugs are being repurposed into clinical trials in COVID-19 patients, ranging from drugs already well established in other diseases, such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir+ ritonavir, azithromycin and tocilizumab/sarilumab, to those such as remdesivir still in development for their initial indication (1).
32447429 Public interest in hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine was plotted against the cumulative number of active clinical trials evaluating antimalarials as potential COVID-19 therapies over time.
32448039 Chloroquine is being widely used in treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Hydroxychloroquine, the derivative of Chloroquine shows better inhibition than Chloroquine and has in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 also used to treat COVID-19. […] To study the interactions of Chloroquine and derivatives of Chloroquine with SARS-CoV-2, series of computational approaches like pharmacophore model, molecular docking, MM_GBSA study and ADME property analysis are explored. […] Outcomes of the present study conclude with the molecule CQD15 which shows better interactions for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine.
32450107 Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, often in combination with a second-generation macrolide, are being widely used for treatment of COVID-19, despite no conclusive evidence of their benefit. […] We did a multinational registry analysis of the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19. […] Patients who received one of the treatments of interest within 48 h of diagnosis were included in one of four treatment groups (chloroquine alone, chloroquine with a macrolide, hydroxychloroquine alone, or hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide), and patients who received none of these treatments formed the control group. […] Of these, 14 888 patients were in the treatment groups (1868 received chloroquine, 3783 received chloroquine with a macrolide, 3016 received hydroxychloroquine, and 6221 received hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide) and 81 144 patients were in the control group. 10 698 (11·1%) patients died in hospital. […] After controlling for multiple confounding factors (age, sex, race or ethnicity, body-mass index, underlying cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, diabetes, underlying lung disease, smoking, immunosuppressed condition, and baseline disease severity), when compared with mortality in the control group (9·3%), hydroxychloroquine (18·0%; hazard ratio 1·335, 95% CI 1·223-1·457), hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide (23·8%; 1·447, 1·368-1·531), chloroquine (16·4%; 1·365, 1·218-1·531), and chloroquine with a macrolide (22·2%; 1·368, 1·273-1·469) were each independently associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. […] Compared with the control group (0·3%), hydroxychloroquine (6·1%; 2·369, 1·935-2·900), hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide (8·1%; 5·106, 4·106-5·983), chloroquine (4·3%; 3·561, 2·760-4·596), and chloroquine with a macrolide (6·5%; 4·011, 3·344-4·812) were independently associated with an increased risk of de-novo ventricular arrhythmia during hospitalisation. […] We were unable to confirm a benefit of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, when used alone or with a macrolide, on in-hospital outcomes for COVID-19.
32450198 The chloroquine (CQ) and its analogue hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been used as frontline drugs for treatment and prophylaxis against all types of human malaria worldwide. […] Based on accumulating scientific reports, we have highlighted in this review, the different possible modes of action of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine that could particularly justify its use against viral infections. […] Considering the global health crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic, the option of using the drugs and repurposing of old drugs in this instance, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, specifically, hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 could be the best choice.
32451259 For this, we performed research on internet and PubMed by crossing the following keywords: healthcare givers, healthcare workers, doctors, nurses, coronavirus, Covid-19, mortality, infection rate, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine.
32454157 Several clinical trials are on-going including testing Remdesivir (anti-viral), Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine derivatives (anti-malarial drugs) etc.
32457932 The media have featured the antimalarials chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to treat coronavirus (COVID-19).
32458149 In addition, sufficient pre-clinical rationale and evidence have been presented to use chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19. […] Again, the effectiveness of Zn can be enhanced by using chloroquine as an ionophore while Zn inside the infected cell can stop SARS-CoV-2 replication.
32458206 Recent publications on SARS-CoV-2 have brought attention to the possible benefit of chloroquine in the treatment of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. […] Whether chloroquine can treat SARS-CoV-2 alone and also work as a prophylactic is doubtful.
32458488 There is no current consensus on pharmacological management of COVID-19, but chloroquine phosphate (CQ) has emerged as a possible therapeutical candidate.
32458599 In addition to the treatment of patients with COVID-19, the China Medical Treatment Expert Group for COVID-19 is active to study and screen effective antiviral drugs, and has found that chloroquine, an old antimalarial,shows activity against SARS-CoV-2. […] Then, chloroquine was included in the Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19 in China (version 6) issued by National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China. […] Currently, chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate, two chloroquine derivatives, are under clinical use. […] This paper summarizes the currently available data and experiences from clinical treatment for malaria with chloroquine drugs, so as to provide insights into the more rational use of chloroquine agents for the treatment of COVID-19. [摘要] 2019 年底, 我国湖北省武汉市出现了新型冠状病毒肺炎 疫情, 随后在全国扩散并成为全球大流行。
32459144 Remdesivir, ritonavir and chloroquine have all been reported to play a role in suppressing SARS-CoV-2.
32459529 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have antiviral effects in vitro against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] To summarize evidence about the benefits and harms of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for the treatment or prophylaxis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Studies in any language reporting efficacy or safety outcomes from hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine use in any setting in adults or children with suspected COVID-19 or at risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Two studies assessed the efficacy of chloroquine; 1 trial, which compared higher-dose (600 mg twice daily for 10 days) with lower-dose (450 mg twice daily on day 1 and once daily for 4 days) therapy, was stopped owing to concern that the higher dose therapy increased lethality and QTc interval prolongation. […] An observational study that compared adults with COVID-19 receiving chloroquine phosphate 500 mg once or twice daily with patients not receiving chloroquine found minor fever resolution and virologic clearance benefits with chloroquine. […] Evidence on the benefits and harms of using hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine to treat COVID-19 is very weak and conflicting.
32460390 In 57% of patients, the immunosuppressive therapy was not changed and only 3 patients were treated with chloroquine.
32462996 Among the studied compounds, we found that dithymoquinone (DTQ), with binding affinity of -8.6 kcal/mol compared to a positive control (chloroquine, -7.2 kcal/mol) , has the high potential of binding at SARS-CoV-2:ACE2 interface and thus could be predicted a plausible inhibitor to disrupt viral-host interactions.
32463308 Several pharmacological therapies have been suggested including repurposing of existing drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, sometimes co-administered with azithromycin. […] Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were developed in the World War II era for treatment and prophylaxis of malaria, long before modern drug safety surveillance programs. […] Chloroquine interacts with multiple cardiac ion channels including the hERG potassium channel that is essential for normal electrical activity in the heart. […] How should we proceed with the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, potentially combined with azithromycin, for COVID-19 given that these agents bring some cardiac toxicity risk and their mechanisms for cardiac toxicity may not be the same?
32470568 Repurposing hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) as antiviral agents is a re-emerging topic with new viral epidemics. […] Use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine as antiviral agents in one or more groups of the study.
32470751 As per SOLIDARITY trial by WHO, some of the most promising candidates include chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine which are anti-malarial medications, Remdesivir, Lopinavir-Ritonavir combination with or without interferon which are anti-HIV drugs and convalescent plasma therapy.
32473310 A few clinically approved drugs, such as remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nafamostat, camostat, and ivermectin, exhibited anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in vitro and/or in a small number of patients. […] Bexarotene demonstrated the highest Cmax:EC50 ratio (1.69) which was higher than those of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and ivermectin.
32469265 The role of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine as potential treatments for Covid-19 is still under debate globally because of some side effects associated with it. […] This study involves the In silico interactions of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine with the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2. […] In our research Hydroxychloroquine exhibited potential inhibitory effectsof S-protein with binding energy -7.28 kcal/mol than Chloroquine (-6.30 kcal/mol) at SARS-CoV-2 receptor recognition of susceptible cells.
32470470 Current treatment of COVID-19 patients relies mainly on antiviral drugs lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, and remdesivir, the anti-malarial drugs hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, and traditional Chinese medicine.
32473812 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are drugs that have shown in vitro activity on the replication of certain coronaviruses. […] The chloroquine hype, fueled by low-quality studies and media announcements, has yielded to the implementation of more than 150 studies worldwide.
32474885 Anti-rheumatic drugs, which are tried for managing immunologic complications of COVID-19 infection, will also be discussed including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, JAK inhibitors, IL-6 inhibitors, IL-1 inhibitors, anti-TNF-α agents, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and colchicine.
32483523 Two third of therapeutic studies tested Western medicines including antiviral drugs (17.7%), stem cell and cord blood therapy (10.2%), chloroquine and derivatives (8.3%), 16 (6.0%) on Chinese medicines, and 73 (27.4%) on integrated therapy of Western and Chinese medicines.
32485205 The anti-malarial drug Chloroquine (CQ) and its derivative hydroxychloroquine have shown antiviral activities in vitro against many viruses, including coronaviruses, dengue virus and the biosafety level 4 Nipah and Hendra paramyxoviruses.
32493478 Concomitant use of other anti-malarial treatment or chemoprophylaxis, including chloroquine, mefloquine, artemether, or lumefantrine.6.
32493494
  1. Previous infection with SARS CoV2 (positive coronavirus PCR or positive serology with SARS Cov2 negative PCR and absence of symptoms); 2) Current treatment with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine; 3) Hypersensitivity, allergy or any contraindication for taking hydroxychloroquine, in the technical sheet; 4) Previous or current treatment with tamoxifen or raloxifene; 5) Previous eye disease, especially maculopathy; 6) Known heart failure (Grade III to IV of the New York Heart Association classification) or prolonged QTc; 7) Any type of cancer (except basal cell) in the last 5 years; 6) Refusal to give informed consent; 8) Evidence of any other unstable or clinically significant untreated immune, endocrine, hematological, gastrointestinal, neurological, neoplastic or psychiatric illness; 9) Antibodies positive for the human immunodeficiency virus; 10) Significant kidney or liver disease; 11) Pregnancy or lactation.
32493740 We included studies of ribavirin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, umifenovir (arbidol), favipravir, interferon and lopinavir/ritonavir.
32494546 The majority of clinical trials have been conducted on chloroquine (n=10) and traditional Chinese medications (TCMs; n=10), followed by antivirals (n=8), anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressants (n=9), cellular therapies (n=4), combinations of different antivirals therapies (n=3), antibacterial (n=1), and other therapies (n=5).
32494896 One hundred fifty-five of 498 (31%) reported regular use of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZM); concomitant use of AZM was more common in the USA. […] Sixty of 489 respondents (12.3%) reported having to discontinue therapy with HCQ + AZM due to significant QTc prolongation and 20 (4.1%) reported cases of Torsade de Pointes in patients on HCQ/chloroquine and AZM.
32495226 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are among the proposed drugs and are the most widely used so far, despite the lack of robust evidence on their usefulness.
32495921 Hence, based upon limited in-vitro and anecdotal data, Chloroquine, or Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Lopinavir and Ritonavir are being employed in the management.
32496926 Among the drugs under investigation, anti-malarials, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), are being repurposed as treatment for COVID-19.
32501367 Currently no specific medicinal treatment exists against the new SARS-CoV2 and chloroquine is widely used, since it can decrease the length of hospital stay and improve the evolution of the associated COVID-19 pneumonia. […] However, several safety concerns have been raised from chloroquine use due to the lack of essential information regarding its dosing. […] The aim of this study is to provide a critical appraisal of the safety information regarding chloroquine treatment and to apply simulation techniques to unveil relationships between the observed serious adverse events and overdosing, as well as to propose optimized dosage regimens. […] The dose related adverse events of chloroquine are unveiled and maximum tolerated doses and concentration levels are quoted. […] Among others, treatment with chloroquine can lead to severe adverse effects like prolongation of the QT interval and cardiomyopathy. […] In case of chloroquine overdosing, conditions similar to those produced by SARS-CoV2, such as pulmonary oedema with respiratory insufficiency and circulatory collapse, can be observed. […] Co-administration of chloroquine with other drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 patients, like azithromycin, can further increase the risk of QT prolongation and cardiomyopathy. […] Based on simulations, safer alternative dosage regimens are proposed and recommendations regarding chloroquine dosing are made.
32503817 Different preclinical studies conducted on other coronaviruses suggested that promising clinical outcomes for 2019-nCoV should be obtained by using alpha-interferon, chloroquine phosphate, arabinol, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and anti-inflammatory drugs.
32512950 Until now, antiparasitic drugs such as chloroquine have shown the most relevant results.
32513231 1)Patients with corrected QT interval (QTc) greater than 500ms at hospital admission.2)Patients who have inherent contraindications to each drug.3)Patients who are unable to consent.4)Patients who have previously received chloroquine.5)Patients already intubated.
32514228 Certain drugs that are clinically approved for other diseases were tested against COVID-19 as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, favipiravir, ribavirin, and remdesivir.
32514287 Chloroquine has been recommended by some authors to be used for the treatment of patients infected with this virus however chloroquine may have side effects and drug resistance problems. […] Artesunate was thought to be an effective treatment for covid-19 because of its anti-inflammatory activity, NF-κB (nuclear Factor kappa B)-coronavirus effect and chloroquine-like endocytosis inhibition mechanism.
32514689 Additionally, seven pharmacological agents (chloroquine, tetrandrine, umifenovir (arbidol), carrimycin, damageprevir, lopinavir/ritonavir) are in phase IV of clinical trials.
32514696 Recent attention on the possible use of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine to treat COVID-19 disease has potentially triggered a number of overdoses from hydroxychloroquine.
32515383 Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, Interferon-l, glucocorticoids, interleukin antagonists, Ulinastatin, intravenous immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis are main immunomodulators showing initial positive outcomes.
32517786 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, also known as antimalarial drugs, are widely used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases and have recently become the focus of attention because of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
32518634 We propose mechanistic investigation of the influence of lithium - alone and with chloroquine - on the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32519117 In the future ophthalmologists could play a decisive role in the screening of maculopathies that might occur during COVID-19 treatment using chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine.
32521191 One first proposed clinical trial has drawn worldwide hype to the benefit of chloroquine (CQ), in the treatment of patients infected by the recently emerged deadly coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).
32522067 Although several known drugs are already under clinical evaluation with many in repositioning strategies, much attention has been paid to the aminoquinoline derivates, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). […] In this short perspective, we discuss the roles of CQ/HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19 patients and propose new ways of possible treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection based on the molecules that selectivity target autophagy.Abbreviation: ACE2: angiotensin I converting enzyme 2; CoV: coronavirus; CQ: chloroquine; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; HCQ: hydroxychloroquine; MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
32522617 Some potential medications like chloroquine by itself or in combination with azithromycin, and some protease inhibitors used for the treatment of COVID-19 have cardiovascular adverse effects that should be kept in mind in order to close monitor of the patients receiving these medications.
32522674 Several improvements have been made, including discovery of the clinical efficacy of chloroquine (CQ) in patients with COVID-19, but effective treatment protocols remain elusive.
32523150 The use of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and antiviral treatment and has been proposed by various groups, supported by in-vitro studies and limited patient series, without the adequate scientific rigor that precedes drug prescription.
32524645 We comment on hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir with zinc supplement, remdesivir, tocilizumab, ciclesonide, niclosamide and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).
32528194 In the absence of a vaccine and an effective antiviral chemotherapy, there is currently an intense global interest in repositioning chloroquine (CQ) and its derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to combat the pandemic.
32531808 We use a mechanistic lung model to demonstrate that accumulation of chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) in the lungs is sensitive to changes in lung pH, a parameter that can be affected in patients with COVID-19.
32532085 In addition to remdesivir, lopinavir, and chloroquine, our primary screening additionally identified types I and II recombinant interferons, 25-hydroxycholesterol, and AM580 as the most potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents among the 22 antiviral agents.
32534369 The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warned against the use of Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for Covid-19 outside of a hospital or a clinical trial setting due to the risk of QT interval prolongation, ventricular tachycardia and the increased risk of these complications when combined with some antibiotics such as azithromycin. […] Several studies have reported no benefit of Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, when used alone or with a macrolide in COVID-19 hospitalized patients.
32542964 Well known anti-inflammatory properties of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, agents widely used in dermatology, made them potential candidates for the treatment of COVID-19. […] In addition, we focus more on Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, their pharmacological properties, clinical utility, and current recommendations for their use in COVID-19.
32546437 All except two patients (97%; n=61) were treated with either chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, while the three most prescribed antibiotics were ceftriaxone (79%; n=50), azithromycin (71%; n=45), and the piperacillin/tazobactam combination (49%; n=31).
32546446 Fluoroquinolones are broad spectrum synthetic antimicrobial agents, being chemical derivatives of quinoline, the prodrome of chloroquine. […] A recent in silico study has shown that the fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication by exhibiting stronger capacity for binding to its main protease than chloroquine and nelfinavir, a protease inhibitor antiretroviral drug.
32552642 Repurposing anti-malarial drugs, chloroquine (CQ)/ hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have shown efficacy to inhibit most coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-1 coronavirus.
32554861 All patients received antiviral treatment, including Lopinavir / Ritonavir (29.3%), Interferon (14.6%) and their combination (40.6%), Arbidol (6.7%), Xuebijing (7.1%) and Chloroquine phosphate (1.3%).
32554907 With no clear remedies to treat the disease, doctors are repurposing drugs like chloroquine and remdesivir to treat COVID-19 patients.
32555974 These include chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), nitazoxanide, remdesivir, Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV / r), in addition to treatment with convalescent plasma.
32558210 The aim of this life size in vitro pharmacokinetic study was to investigate the in-vitro adsorption of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine from human plasma using equipment that is also used at the bedside. […] Both drugs were determined using a validated HPLC method Median [IQR] plasma clearance of the Seraph for chloroquine / hydroxychloroquine was 1.71 [0.51-4.38] ml/min / 1.79 [0.21-3.68] ml/min respectively. […] As neither chloroquine nor hydroxychloroquine were removed by the treatment with the Seraph dose adjustments in COVID-19 patients undergoing this treatment are not necessary.
32559589 The goal of this systematic review is to assess the published literature for seizure risk with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine therapy in persons with and without epilepsy. […] Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine is one proposed medication that has received substantial public attention. […] PubMed (1970 to March 27, 2020) and the Embase (1970 to March 27, 2020) were searched with the terms chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine and seizure or epilepsy, convulsions, or status epilepticus. […] For chloroquine, eligible studies were- one prospective study(n = 109), two case series(n = 6), and six case reports. […] The dose of chloroquine ranged between 100-500 mg/day, except in one patient with a seizure, who was after taking 1000 mg. […] The clinical trials failed to find any significant relation between seizures and chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine.
32561148 This includes clinically available drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir, which are being repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19.
32562764 Furthermore, it is emphasized that the viral spike protein is prevented from binding gangliosides, which are composed of a glycosphingolipid with one or more sialic acids, in the presence of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine.
32563698 They are all old drugs as follows, anisomycin, antimycin A, atovaquone, chloroquine, conivaptan, emetine, gemcitabine, homoharringtonine, niclosamide, nitazoxanide, oligomycin, salinomycin, tilorone, valinomycin, and vismodegib.
32564047 It wasn’t until the midtwentieth century that chloroquine was synthesized, followed by its further derivatives. […] Chloroquine inhibits protozoan polymerase activity, leading to an increase in heme, which is toxic to Plasmodium. […] The sensitivity of the protozoan to chloroquine depends on its ability to accumulate the drug in aquatic vacuolas. […] The immunomodulatory properties of chloroquine have led to its use in collagen diseases, rheumatic disease, chronic rheumatoid and ankylosing arthritis and autoimmune skin disease. […] Chloroquine has recently been shown to be effective in controlling infection caused by the new Corona virus 2019- nCov (SARS-CoV-2). […] Chloroquine has been shown to be able to bind sialic acid and gangliosides effectively by blocking the combination of virus S protein with gangliosides, which prevents the infection from starting.
32565195 There is currently an increased interest in using the antimalarials chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of other diseases, including cancer and viral infections such as COVID-19.
32568027 Furthermore, we determined that the sensitivity of the two viruses to three established inhibitors of coronavirus replication (remdesivir, alisporivir and chloroquine) is very similar, but that SARS-CoV-2 infection was substantially more sensitive to pre-treatment of cells with pegylated interferon alpha.
32570240 Retroviral therapy, antibiotics, heparin, and chloroquine were prescribed at the beginning.
32571302 Registered intervention trials used highly heterogeneous primary outcomes and tested highly heterogeneous interventions; the most frequently studied interventions were hydroxychloroquine (N = 39; 7.2%) and chloroquine (N = 16; 3%).
32572376 Based on the previous experiences with similar coronavirus management and present preliminary data from uncontrolled studies, drugs like chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and favipiravir have been recommended by the researchers to manage COVID-19.
32572842 In particular, information has spread about some drugs approved for other indications (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, favipiravir, and umifenovir) that could have led to inappropriate and therefore hazardous use.
32573538 The review provides detailed literature data on drugs such as hydroxychloroquine / chloroquine, lopinavir/natinavir, remdesivir, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin converting enzyme receptor blockers, tissue plasminogen activator, as well as plasma transfusion transfusions.
32574312 Benefits of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19 infection have been proposed and clinical trials are underway. […] Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, typically used for the treatment of malaria and autoimmune diseases, have been considered for off-label use in several countries. […] This mini-review represents a summary of the findings from a systematic search regarding ototoxicity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the published literature. […] The characteristics of sensorineural hearing loss and/or tinnitus after chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine treatment can be temporary but reports of persistent auditory and vestibular dysfunction exist. […] Additionally, abnormal cochleovestibular development in the newborn was also reported after chloroquine treatment in pregnant women. […] The suggested dose of chloroquine for COVID-19 infection is considerably higher than the usual dosage for malaria treatment; therefore, it is plausible that the ototoxic effects will be greater. […] There are potential implications from this review for survivors of COVID-19 treated with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. […] Clinical trials of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine should also consider including audiological monitoring in the protocol.
32574327 Many conventional drugs including hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, lopinavir, remdesivir, etc., have been repurposed as treatments for this often deadly disease, but there is no specifically-designed effective drug available; also, the drugs mentioned have significant side effects and their efficacy is unknown. […] Under the current critical conditions, large doses of melatonin alone or in combination with currently-recommended drugs, e.g., hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, to resist COVID-19 infection would seem judicious.
32579059 Recently Chloroquine and its derivative Hydroxychloroquine have garnered enormous interest amongst the clinicians and health authorities’ world over as a potential treatment to contain COVID-19 pandemic. […] The present research aims at investigating the therapeutic potential of Chloroquine and its potent derivative Hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. […] At the same time screening was performed for some chemically synthesized derivatives of Chloroquine and compared their binding efficacy with chemically synthesized Chloroquine derivatives through in silico approaches. […] Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, and some of their chemically synthesized derivatives, taken from earlier published studies were selected as drug molecules. […] We have conducted molecular docking and related studies between Chloroquine and its derivatives and SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins, and the findings show that both Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine can bind to specific structural and non-structural proteins implicated in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection with different efficiencies. […] Our current study also shows that some of the chemically synthesized Chloroquine derivatives can also potentially inhibit various SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins by binding to them and concomitantly effectively disrupting the active site of these proteins. […] These findings bring into light another possible mechanism of action of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine and also pave the way for further drug repurposing and remodeling.Communicated by Ramaswamy H.
32579907 In our quest for finding potential drug against this virus, 15 anti-malarial drugs including chloroquine, and 2413 FDA approved drugs were investigated against both protease and spike proteins of COVID-19 usingin-silico approach.
32581194 In our previous basic studies, drugs including chloroquine and azithromycin strongly suppressed the channel activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine production from lymphocytes. […] These findings suggest a novel pharmacological mechanism by which chloroquine, with or without azithromycin, is effective for severe cases of COVID-19, in which the overactivation of cellular immunity and the subsequent cytokine storm are responsible for the pathogenesis.
32581809 This is the case of chloroquine and tocilizumab which seem to limit virus replication and the severity of interstitial pneumonia, respectively.
32582330 Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine has shown some beneficial effects and is being used off-label.
32584236 Chloroquine was found to be effective in reducing viral replication in vitro.
32587162 Certain medications such as chloroquine, trehalose, antihistaminics, and interferons used topically for various ocular conditions with reasonably good safety records are known to have anti-viral properties.
32591664 The inclusion and exclusion criteria for the data sources are not reported in the manuscript.Study selection The authors included six studies on the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in humans. […] Narrative synthesis of each of the included studies identified important and significant limitations, precluding the studies from demonstrating a statistically significant difference in outcomes.Conclusions This review highlights the urgent need for more high quality evidence on the use of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
32591667 Additionally, this study suggested oseltamivir, iopinavir, remdesivir, chloroquine, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, and fedratinib as possible drugs to help manage COVID-19.
32592716 The rational supporting combinations with (hydroxy)chloroquine and tenofovir (two drugs active against SARS-CoV-2) is also discussed.
32164085 Previous studies have shown that chloroquine phosphate (chloroquine) had a wide range of antiviral effects, including anti-coronavirus. […] Here we found that treating the patients diagnosed as novel coronavirus pneumonia with chloroquine might improve the success rate of treatment, shorten hospital stay and improve patient outcome. […] In order to guide and regulate the use of chloroquine in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia, the multicenter collaboration group of Department of Science and Technology of Guangdong Province and Health Commission of Guangdong Province for chloroquine in the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia developed this expert consensus after extensive discussion. […] It recommended chloroquine phosphate tablet, 500mg twice per day for 10 days for patients diagnosed as mild, moderate and severe cases of novel coronavirus pneumonia and without contraindications to chloroquine.
32411941 The current use of chloroquine and/or hydroxychloroquine, a drug currently used to treat autoimmune rheumatic diseases, in treating severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) or COVID-19-infected patients with pneumonia is a matter of intense consideration. […] We propose several suggestions related to treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine that we think must be taken into consideration to fit the evolving situation of the pandemic in Greece.
32595349 The antiviral drugs used for viral diseases excluding COVID-19 infection are Ramdesvir, Favipiravir, and Ribavarin, and antimalarial agents (Chloroquine & Hydroxychloroquine) are being administered to the patients for redemption of this infection.
32602678 Oseltamivir and chloroquine were given to all 26 patients.
32604775 Chloroquine, interferon, and antiviral agents such as remdesivir, lopinavir, and ritonavir are agents under investigation in these trials.
32608513 More than half of the respondents said COVID-19 is a curable disease and that chloroquine can be used.
32610879 Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine are drugs which have been widely used in malaria and rheumatoid arthritis respectively for over 50 years.
32611912 Retinal screening is unnecessary for coronavirus patients taking chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine as the probability of toxic damage to the retina is less due to short-duration of drug therapy.
32612804 A preliminary search identified the following drugs as being used to treat COVID-19 symptoms: atazanavir (ATV), azithromycin (AZI), chloroquine (CLQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCLQ), dipyridamole, famotidine (FAM), favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), nitazoxanide, remdesivir, ribavirin and tocilizumab.
32616067 To be included in the trial the participant MUST: 1) Have given written informed consent to participate 2) Be aged 18 years to 70 years 3) Not previously have been diagnosed with COVID-19 4) Work in a high-risk secondary or tertiary healthcare setting (hospitals accepting COVID-19 patients) with direct patient-facing care EXCLUSION CRITERIA: The presence of any of the following will mean participants are ineligible: 1) Known COVID-19 positive test at baseline (if available) 2) Symptomatic for possible COVID-19 at baseline 3) Known hypersensitivity reaction to hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine or 4-aminoquinolines 4) Known retinal disease 5) Known porphyria 6) Known chronic kidney disease (CKD; eGFR<30ml/min) 7) Known epilepsy 8) Known heart failure or conduction problems 9) Known significant liver disease (Gilbert’s syndrome is permitted) 10) Known glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency 11) Currently taking any of the following contraindicated medications: Digoxin, Chloroquine, Halofantrine, Amiodarone, Moxifloxacin, Cyclosporin, Mefloquine, Praziquantel, Ciprofloxacin, Clarithromycin, Prochlorperazine, Fluconazole 12) Currently taking hydroxychloroquine or having a clinical indication for taking hydroxychloroquine 13) Currently breastfeeding 14) Unable to be followed-up during the trial 15) Current or future involvement in the active treatment phase of other interventional research studies (excluding observational/non-interventional studies) before study follow-up visit 16) Not able to use or have access to a modern phone device/web-based technology 17) Any other clinical reason which may preclude entry in the opinion of the investigator INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Interventions being evaluated are: A) Daily hydroxychloroquine or B) Weekly hydroxychloroquine or C) Placebo The maximum treatment period is approximately 13 weeks per participant.
32617527 Molecular docking results against protein targets Furin, papain like proteases, RdRp and Spike glycoprotein had shown paritaprevir, ritonavir, entecavir and chloroquine derivatives are the best drugs to inhibit multi targets of coronavirus infection including natural compounds corosolic acid, baicalin and glycyrrhizic acid with minimal inhibitory concentrations. […] Thus we propose use of paritaprevir, entecavir, ritonavir and chloroquine derivatives as best drug combination along with niacinamide, folic acid and zinc supplements to treat novel coronavirus infection.
32619669 In this context, this study aimed to evaluate in silico the molecular interactions of drugs with therapeutic indications for treatment of COVID-19 (Azithromycin, Baricitinib and Hydroxychloroquine) and drugs with similar structures (Chloroquine, Quinacrine and Ruxolitinib) in docking models from the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (M-pro) protein.
32622993 (Hydroxy)chloroquine ((H)CQ) is being investigated as a treatment for COVID-19, but studies have so far demonstrated either no or a small benefit.
32628049 Currently, most of the countries all over the world are studying extensively to better understand the antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for therapeutic purposes due to the COVID-19 outbreak.
32629115 Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are old drugs used in the treatment of malaria.
32629149 Chloroquine (CQ) and its analogue hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been thrust into our everyday vernacular because some believe, based on very limited basic and clinical data, that they might be helpful in preventing and/or lessening the severity of the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32629169 Here, we propose repositioning chloroquine (CQ) as prophylaxis against COVID-19.
32631083 Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) originally were prescribed for prevention or treatment of malaria, but now successfully are used in several rheumatologic diseases. […] The data were collected by searching ‘Hydroxychloroquine,’ ‘Chloroquine,’ ‘Viral infection,’ and names of various viral infections in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases from commencement to June 2020.
32634079 Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are derivatives of the heterocyclic aromatic compound quinoline.
32634080 Several compounds, including remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, interferon-β, ribavirin, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, and ivermectin, have emerged as promising alternatives.
32634603 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have shown in vitro inhibition of SARS-CoV-2, but studies on their clinical efficacy and whether the benefits outweigh the risk of dysrhythmias remain inconclusive.
32638628 At present, potential therapeutic targets and drugs for SARS-CoV-2 are continuously reported, and many repositioning drugs are undergoing extensive clinical research, including remdesivir and chloroquine.
32638884 Chloroquine (CQ) and its analog hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were recently included in several clinical trials as potential prophylactic and therapeutic options for SARS-COV-2 infection/covid-19.
32639233 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are used extensively in malaria and rheumatological conditions, and now in COVID-19 prevention and treatment. […] Bayesian regression models were fitted to survival outcomes and electrocardiograph QRS durations from 302 prospectively studied French patients who had taken intentional chloroquine overdoses, of whom 33 died (11%), and 16 healthy volunteers who took 620 mg base chloroquine single doses. […] Prolongation of ventricular depolarization is concentration-dependent with a QRS duration >150 msec independently highly predictive of mortality in chloroquine self-poisoning.
32640747 Furthermore, we discuss how immune modifying drugs, such as tocilizumab, chloroquine, glucocorticoids and immunoglobulins, and blood purification therapy, can constitute a fundamental moment in the therapy of the infection.
32641037 We previously showed that the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) increases inflammatory cleaved caspase-1 activity in myocytes, and that caspase-1/11 is protective in sterile liver injury.
32641091 Our previous use of chloroquine to treat patients with COVID-19 infection showed an improvement in more throat-swab nucleic-acid results (5/10) than the use of lopinavir/ritonavir. […] The trial group will be given chloroquine phosphate treatment for no more than 10 days. […] This experiment should reveal the efficacy and safety of using chloroquine versus lopinavir/ritonavir for patients with mild/general COVID-19 infection. […] If the new treatment including chloroquine shows a higher rate of throat-swab SARS-CoV-2 real-time fluorescent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negativity and is safe, it could be tested as a future COVID-19 treatment.
32641762 Here we discuss the plausibility of two of them: the universal vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and the widespread use of the antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ).
32648153 Chloroquine, a quinolone antimalarial drug, is known to potentially inhibit pH-dependent viral replication of the SARS-CoV‑2 infection. […] Therefore, chloroquine is considered as a treatment option for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Chloroquine is known for prolonging the QT interval, but limited data are available on the extent of this QT-prolonging effect. […] To assess the QTc-prolonging potential of chloroquine in COVID-19 patients and to evaluate whether this prolongation increases with the cumulative dose of chloroquine and is associated with the peak plasma concentration of chloroquine. […] A retrospective, observational study was performed in patients aged over 18 years, hospitalised for a suspected or proven infection with COVID-19, and therefore treated with chloroquine, with a baseline electrocardiogram (ECG) performed prior to the start of treatment and at least one ECG after starting the treatment. […] The mean increase in QTc interval throughout the treatment with chloroquine was 33 ms. […] Chloroquine treatment in COVID-19 patients gradually increased the QTc interval.
32649262 In particular, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, as well as antiviral drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir and lopinavir can all present potential ototoxic side effects.
32651961 Chloroquine has been used to treat malaria for more than 70 years. […] Scientists have found that chloroquine has in vitro activity against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). […] Currently, chloroquine has been adopted in the Protocol for Managing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID19) (Version 7) issued by China National Health Commission for clinically managing COVID-19. […] This review will focus on the antiviral mechanism, effectiveness and safety, dosage and DDIs of chloroquine, for the purpose to provide evidence-based support for rational use of chloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19. […] Method:Use the search terms ‘chloroquine’ linked with ‘effectiveness’, ‘safety’, ‘mechanism’, ‘drug-drug interaction (DDIs)’ or other terms respectively to search relevant literature through PubMed. […] After searching, we found literature about antivirus mechanism, dosage, DDIs of chloroquine. […] However, studies of effectiveness and safety on chloroquine treatment of COVID-19 for the general and geriatric patients are not enough. […] According to literature reports, chloroquine has been proved to have anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect in vitro and the potential mechanism of chloroquine in vivo. […] Although there have been reports of successful clinical application of chloroquine in treatment COVID-19,more clinical test data are still needed to prove its effectiveness and safety.
32651961 Chloroquine has been used to treat malaria for more than 70 years. […] Scientists have found that chloroquine has in vitro activity against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). […] Currently, chloroquine has been adopted in the Protocol for Managing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID19) (Version 7) issued by China National Health Commission for clinically managing COVID-19. […] This review will focus on the antiviral mechanism, effectiveness and safety, dosage and DDIs of chloroquine, for the purpose to provide evidence-based support for rational use of chloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19. […] Method:Use the search terms ‘chloroquine’ linked with ‘effectiveness’, ‘safety’, ‘mechanism’, ‘drug-drug interaction (DDIs)’ or other terms respectively to search relevant literature through PubMed. […] After searching, we found literature about antivirus mechanism, dosage, DDIs of chloroquine. […] However, studies of effectiveness and safety on chloroquine treatment of COVID-19 for the general and geriatric patients are not enough. […] According to literature reports, chloroquine has been proved to have anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect in vitro and the potential mechanism of chloroquine in vivo. […] Although there have been reports of successful clinical application of chloroquine in treatment COVID-19,more clinical test data are still needed to prove its effectiveness and safety.
32651961 Chloroquine has been used to treat malaria for more than 70 years. […] Scientists have found that chloroquine has in vitro activity against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). […] Currently, chloroquine has been adopted in the Protocol for Managing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID19) (Version 7) issued by China National Health Commission for clinically managing COVID-19. […] This review will focus on the antiviral mechanism, effectiveness and safety, dosage and DDIs of chloroquine, for the purpose to provide evidence-based support for rational use of chloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19. […] Method:Use the search terms ‘chloroquine’ linked with ‘effectiveness’, ‘safety’, ‘mechanism’, ‘drug-drug interaction (DDIs)’ or other terms respectively to search relevant literature through PubMed. […] After searching, we found literature about antivirus mechanism, dosage, DDIs of chloroquine. […] However, studies of effectiveness and safety on chloroquine treatment of COVID-19 for the general and geriatric patients are not enough. […] According to literature reports, chloroquine has been proved to have anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect in vitro and the potential mechanism of chloroquine in vivo. […] Although there have been reports of successful clinical application of chloroquine in treatment COVID-19,more clinical test data are still needed to prove its effectiveness and safety.
32651961 Chloroquine has been used to treat malaria for more than 70 years. […] Scientists have found that chloroquine has in vitro activity against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). […] Currently, chloroquine has been adopted in the Protocol for Managing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID19) (Version 7) issued by China National Health Commission for clinically managing COVID-19. […] This review will focus on the antiviral mechanism, effectiveness and safety, dosage and DDIs of chloroquine, for the purpose to provide evidence-based support for rational use of chloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19. […] Method:Use the search terms ‘chloroquine’ linked with ‘effectiveness’, ‘safety’, ‘mechanism’, ‘drug-drug interaction (DDIs)’ or other terms respectively to search relevant literature through PubMed. […] After searching, we found literature about antivirus mechanism, dosage, DDIs of chloroquine. […] However, studies of effectiveness and safety on chloroquine treatment of COVID-19 for the general and geriatric patients are not enough. […] According to literature reports, chloroquine has been proved to have anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect in vitro and the potential mechanism of chloroquine in vivo. […] Although there have been reports of successful clinical application of chloroquine in treatment COVID-19,more clinical test data are still needed to prove its effectiveness and safety.
32651961 Chloroquine has been used to treat malaria for more than 70 years. […] Scientists have found that chloroquine has in vitro activity against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). […] Currently, chloroquine has been adopted in the Protocol for Managing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID19) (Version 7) issued by China National Health Commission for clinically managing COVID-19. […] This review will focus on the antiviral mechanism, effectiveness and safety, dosage and DDIs of chloroquine, for the purpose to provide evidence-based support for rational use of chloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19. […] Method:Use the search terms ‘chloroquine’ linked with ‘effectiveness’, ‘safety’, ‘mechanism’, ‘drug-drug interaction (DDIs)’ or other terms respectively to search relevant literature through PubMed. […] After searching, we found literature about antivirus mechanism, dosage, DDIs of chloroquine. […] However, studies of effectiveness and safety on chloroquine treatment of COVID-19 for the general and geriatric patients are not enough. […] According to literature reports, chloroquine has been proved to have anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect in vitro and the potential mechanism of chloroquine in vivo. […] Although there have been reports of successful clinical application of chloroquine in treatment COVID-19,more clinical test data are still needed to prove its effectiveness and safety.
32651961 Chloroquine has been used to treat malaria for more than 70 years. […] Scientists have found that chloroquine has in vitro activity against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). […] Currently, chloroquine has been adopted in the Protocol for Managing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID19) (Version 7) issued by China National Health Commission for clinically managing COVID-19. […] This review will focus on the antiviral mechanism, effectiveness and safety, dosage and DDIs of chloroquine, for the purpose to provide evidence-based support for rational use of chloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19. […] Method:Use the search terms ‘chloroquine’ linked with ‘effectiveness’, ‘safety’, ‘mechanism’, ‘drug-drug interaction (DDIs)’ or other terms respectively to search relevant literature through PubMed. […] After searching, we found literature about antivirus mechanism, dosage, DDIs of chloroquine. […] However, studies of effectiveness and safety on chloroquine treatment of COVID-19 for the general and geriatric patients are not enough. […] According to literature reports, chloroquine has been proved to have anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect in vitro and the potential mechanism of chloroquine in vivo. […] Although there have been reports of successful clinical application of chloroquine in treatment COVID-19,more clinical test data are still needed to prove its effectiveness and safety.
32651961 Chloroquine has been used to treat malaria for more than 70 years. […] Scientists have found that chloroquine has in vitro activity against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). […] Currently, chloroquine has been adopted in the Protocol for Managing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID19) (Version 7) issued by China National Health Commission for clinically managing COVID-19. […] This review will focus on the antiviral mechanism, effectiveness and safety, dosage and DDIs of chloroquine, for the purpose to provide evidence-based support for rational use of chloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19. […] Method:Use the search terms ‘chloroquine’ linked with ‘effectiveness’, ‘safety’, ‘mechanism’, ‘drug-drug interaction (DDIs)’ or other terms respectively to search relevant literature through PubMed. […] After searching, we found literature about antivirus mechanism, dosage, DDIs of chloroquine. […] However, studies of effectiveness and safety on chloroquine treatment of COVID-19 for the general and geriatric patients are not enough. […] According to literature reports, chloroquine has been proved to have anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect in vitro and the potential mechanism of chloroquine in vivo. […] Although there have been reports of successful clinical application of chloroquine in treatment COVID-19,more clinical test data are still needed to prove its effectiveness and safety.
32651961 Chloroquine has been used to treat malaria for more than 70 years. […] Scientists have found that chloroquine has in vitro activity against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). […] Currently, chloroquine has been adopted in the Protocol for Managing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID19) (Version 7) issued by China National Health Commission for clinically managing COVID-19. […] This review will focus on the antiviral mechanism, effectiveness and safety, dosage and DDIs of chloroquine, for the purpose to provide evidence-based support for rational use of chloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19. […] Method:Use the search terms ‘chloroquine’ linked with ‘effectiveness’, ‘safety’, ‘mechanism’, ‘drug-drug interaction (DDIs)’ or other terms respectively to search relevant literature through PubMed. […] After searching, we found literature about antivirus mechanism, dosage, DDIs of chloroquine. […] However, studies of effectiveness and safety on chloroquine treatment of COVID-19 for the general and geriatric patients are not enough. […] According to literature reports, chloroquine has been proved to have anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect in vitro and the potential mechanism of chloroquine in vivo. […] Although there have been reports of successful clinical application of chloroquine in treatment COVID-19,more clinical test data are still needed to prove its effectiveness and safety.
32654098 Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and azithromycin have been used for treatment of COVID-19, but may cause QT prolongation. […] Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and/or azithromycin were associated with QTc prolongation but did not result in fatal arrhythmias.
32654907 Also, some other reports claimed the possible use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as prophylactic in such a pandemic.
32659126 If continued in patients with COVID-19, therapeutic drug monitoring of CNIs/mTOR inhibitors and appropriate dose reduction is recommended in co-administration with protease inhibitors, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, or interleukin (IL)-1/IL-6 receptor antagonists. […] Dose modification/avoidance should be considered for chloroquine, atazanavir, oseltamivir, ribavirin, anakinra, and Janus associated kinase inhibitors in patients with organ function impairment.
32660993 The safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of oral ivermectin (0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mg/kg) with and without chloroquine (10 mg/kg) administered for 7 consecutive days were evaluated for prophylaxis or radical cure of P. cynomolgi liver stages in rhesus macaques. […] Ivermectin (0.6 and 1.2 mg/kg) and chloroquine (10 mg/kg) in combination were well-tolerated with no adverse events and no significant pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions observed. […] It was recently demonstrated that both ivermectin and chloroquine inhibit replication of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro Further ivermectin and chloroquine trials in humans are warranted to evaluate their role in Plasmodium vivax control and as adjunctive therapies against COVID-19 infections.
32665039 Exclusion criteria include: currently pregnant, planning to become pregnant during the study period, and/or breast feeding; known hypersensitivity/allergy to hydroxychloroquine or to 4-aminoquinoline compounds; current use of hydroxychloroquine; known prolonged QT syndrome and/or baseline resting ECG with QTc>450 ms and/or concomitant medications which simultaneously may prolong the QTc that cannot be temporarily suspended/replaced; known pre-existing retinopathy, G6PD deficiency, porphyria, liver disease including cirrhosis, encephalopathy, hepatitis or alcoholism, diabetes on oral hypoglycemics or insulin, or renal insufficiency/failure; disclosure of self-administered use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine within 12 weeks prior to study; confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 at time of enrollment.
32665090 Notably, patients on chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for their autoimmune rheumatic disease are not protected from COVID-19.
32667444 We do not recommend the routine use of hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir, corticosteroids, or tocilizumab for the treatment of COVID-19.
32669846 It is highly recommended to monitor patients on chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), antiviral drugs, and/or corticosteroids about initiation or progression of cardiac arrhythmias, delirium, seizure, myopathy, and/or neuropathy.
32670066 Based on national clinical trials of novel treatments, China, Italy, Germany, and other countries and organizations have published multiple guidelines for COVID-19 and advised many medicines, such as chloroquine and tocilizumab.
32671829 Drugs such as chloroquine may contribute to increased intracellular zinc.
32674481 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are anti-malarial drugs that have been successfully used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. […] Evidence suggests that at high concentrations, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine can impact viral infection and replication by increasing endosomal and lysosomal pH. […] However, at lower concentrations, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine appear to exert immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting nucleic acid sensors, including toll-like receptor 9 and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase. […] In this review, we explore the immunomodulatory activity of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, their impact on viral infections, and their potential to improve the efficacy and safety of retinal gene therapy by reducing AAV-induced immune responses.
32675717 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) or chloroquine have not demonstrated robust efficacy in prior randomized controlled studies against several other viruses.
32677545 We aimed to analyze the interactions of both hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine with SARS-CoV-2 and identify their possible role for the prevention/treatment of COVID-19 by molecular docking studies. […] Protein crystal structures of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2, the compounds hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, and other ligand structures were minimized by OPLS3 force field. […] Molecular docking studies showed that hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine do not interact with SARS-CoV-2 proteins, but bind to the amino acids ASP350, ASP382, ALA348, PHE40 and PHE390 on the ACE2 allosteric site rather than the ACE2 active site. […] Our results showed that neither hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine bind to the active site of ACE2.
32679055 We report the antiviral effect of remdesivir, lopinavir, chloroquine, umifenovir, berberine and cyclosporine A in Vero E6 cells model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with estimated 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.99, 5.2, 1.38, 3.5, 10.6 and 3 μM, respectively.
32679150 The PPI-CPI network (118 nodes and 293 edges) exhibited a top-ranked sub-network (35 nodes and 174 connectivities) with 12 hub-bottleneck nodes having two drugs chloroquine and melatonin in association with 10 proteins corresponding to six upregulated and four downregulated genes. […] The present study reveals that between chloroquine and melatonin, melatonin appears to be more promising repurposed drug against MMP9 for better immunocompromisation in COVID-19.
32680440 This commentary adopts a health information management lens to focus on aspects of data in one of the studies (investigating the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19).
32682788 Several drugs such as Remdesivir, Hydroxychloroquine, Chloroquine, Ribavirin, Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Favipiravir, Interferons, Bevacizumab, Azithromycin, etc. are currently under clinical trials.
32683212 To assess efficacy and safety of chloroquine (CQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for treatment or prophylaxis of COVID-19 in adult humans.
32685234 Currently, the management of patients with COVID-19 depends mainly on repurposed drugs which include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, interferon-α, interferon-β and others.
32686260 The antimalarials chloroquine (CQ) and its analog, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), have been tested for COVID-19 treatment, and several conflicting evidence has been obtained.
32687630 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are quinoline derivatives used to treat malaria. […] Nevertheless, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are being studied alone or in combination with other agents to assess their effectiveness in the treatment or prophylaxis for COVID-19. […] This work provides basic clinical pharmacology information relevant for planning and initiating COVID-19 clinical studies with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, summarizes safety data from healthy volunteer studies, and summarizes safety data from phase II and phase II/III clinical studies in patients with uncomplicated malaria, including a phase II/III study in pediatric patients following administration of azithromycin and chloroquine in combination.
32687949 Of all the potential therapies, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been the focus of tremendous public attention.
32688139 In some studies, the results were completely inconclusive, as in the case of chloroquine.
32690096 We discovered through the autodock simulations that Met124 plays a key role in the efficiency of drugs targeting ACE2, such as remdesivir, chloroquine, ciclesonide and niclosamide, and may be a potential target in COVID-19.
32691699 We aim to discuss current clinical evidence regarding chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, and the cardiovascular burden of COVID-19. […] We found conflicting evidence of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin, and remdesivir in COVID-19 despite promising early reports of in vitro antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. […] Some of the current studies have demonstrated adverse drug reactions to chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin. […] There is no convincing clinical evidence of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin, and remdesivir use in COVID-19.
32693652 Therefore, FDA has recently revoked the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for emergency use of HCQ and chloroquine to treat COVID-19.
32694358 With hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) emerging as potential therapies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), shortages have been reported.
32694915 Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, interferons, umifenovir, remdesivir, and interleukin antagonists, such as tocilizumab, have been recommended as potential treatment options in COVID-19.
32696108 Non-specific immune modulators include human immunoglobulin, corticosteroids such as dexamethasone, interferons, statins, angiotensin pathway modulators, macrolides (e.g. azithromycin, clarithromycin), hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, colchicine, and prostaglandin D2 modulators such as ramatroban.
32696429 Azithromycin, in association with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, has been proposed as one such medication. […] After the initial expectations raised by a small trial, more recent evidence has raised serious safety concerns on the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with azithromycin to treat COVID-19 patients, as all these drugs have arrhythmogenic potential. […] The World Health Organization has not made recommendations suggesting the use of azithromycin with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine as treatment for COVID-19, but some national organisations have taken a different position, recommending this as first-line treatment.
32698190 Chloroquine is an anti-malaria drug that is used for the treatment of COVID-19 as it inhibits the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the African green monkey kidney-derived cell line Vero1-3. […] Here we show that engineered expression of TMPRSS2, a cellular protease that activates SARS-CoV-2 for entry into lung cells4, renders SARS-CoV-2 infection of Vero cells insensitive to chloroquine. […] Moreover, we report that chloroquine does not block infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the TMPRSS2-expressing human lung cell line Calu-3. […] These results indicate that chloroquine targets a pathway for viral activation that is not active in lung cells and is unlikely to protect against the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in and between patients.
32707160 Thus, the aim of this study was to review and evaluate the literature data on the toxicity of the selected individual drugs (ritonavir, lopinavir, remdesivir, chloroquine, and umifenovir) and the available clinical data concerning the possible adverse effects of the selected drug combinations (lopinavir/ritonavir + umifenovir, lopinavir/ritonavir + interferon β, chloroquine + remdesivir, and chloroquine + azithromycin).
32710198 None of the university rheumatology staff members has prescribed chloroquine or HCQ to prevent or treat COVID-19 in a non-hospitalized patient who was not previously on it.
32711596 We started a study on the molecular docking of six potential pharmacologically active inhibitors compounds that can be used clinically against the COVID-19 virus, in this case, remdesivir, ribavirin, favipiravir, galidesivir, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine interacting with the main COVID-19 protease in complex with a COVID-19 N3 protease inhibitor. […] The highest values of affinity energy found in order from highest to lowest were chloroquine (CHL), hydroxychloroquine (HYC), favipiravir (FAV), galidesivir (GAL), remdesivir (REM) and ribavirin (RIB). […] The values of affinity energy obtained for the hydroxychloroquine ligands was -9.9 kcal/mol and for the chloroquine of -10.8 kcal/mol which indicate that the coupling contributes to an effective improvement of the affinity energies with the protease.
32712675 Utilization of hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and supportive therapy drugs in hospitals in New York during the early weeks of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was analyzed. […] The data demonstrated sharp increases in aggregate utilization of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine and the number of patients receiving either drug beginning on March 15, with a notable 20% median increase per day through March 31. […] This analysis describes the increased use, beginning in mid-March 2020, of hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, midazolam, propofol, ketamine, cisatracurium, and fentanyl in 47 hospitals in New York State.
32713288 Amid the rush to develop treatments, recent hopes have focused on the anti-malarial drug chloroquine or the derivative hydroxychloroquine.
32714335 As the world is severely affected by COVID-19 pandemic, the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in prevention or for the treatment of patients is allowed in multiple countries but remained at the center of much controversy in recent days. […] This review describes the properties of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and highlights not only their anti-viral effects but also their important immune-modulatory properties and their well-known use in autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus and arthritis. […] Chloroquine appears to inhibit in vitro SARS virus’ replication and to interfere with SARS-CoV2 receptor (ACE2). […] Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine impede lysosomal activity and autophagy, leading to a decrease of antigen processing and presentation. […] Given the antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, there is a rational to use them against SARS-CoV2 infection.
32717568 Chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir or ribavirin have all been successful in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. […] The initial results of a number of clinical trials involving various protocols of administration of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine mostly point towards their beneficial effect.
32719731 Since SARS-CoV2 was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, those tasked with the stewardship of public health at a global, regional, and local level-policymakers, politicians, scientists, drug regulators, health officials, professional associations, journal editors, publishers, and clinicians-have displayed rushed decisions and lapses in judgment in their handling of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as potential COVID-19 therapeutics and prophylactics.
32721449 In some cases, combination therapy of antiviral drugs with chloroquine showed better action against COVID-19. […] Some of the clinical studies showed very good effect of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19, however, they were not recommended due to serious clinical toxicity.
32725382 We found promising in vitro evidence for remdesivir, (hydroxy)chloroquine and favipiravir against SARS-CoV-2; potential clinical benefit in SARS-CoV-2 with remdesivir, the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus ribavirin; and strong evidence for LPV/r plus ribavirin against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) for post-exposure prophylaxis in healthcare workers.
32726238 Both chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have gained considerable media attention as possible therapies, resulting in a significant surge in demand. […] Here, we present a brief overview of the pharmacology of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, manifestations of toxicity, and treatment considerations.
32727613 Participants with any of the following conditions are excluded: pregnancy, breastfeeding, ongoing antiviral, antiretroviral or corticosteroids treatment, chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine uptake the last month or any contraindication to hydroxychloroquine treatment.
32734810 Chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQ), well-known antimalarial drugs effective in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, porphyria cutanea tarda, and chronic Q fever, are currently under investigation.
32735546 The top 10 candidates according to our algorithm are hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, chloroquine, ritonavir, losartan, remdesivir, favipiravir, methylprednisolone, rapamycin, and tilorone dihydrochloride.
32735768 Supportive care and management of the complications that are caused mainly by inflammation might be the key to greater survival rates and shorter hospitalization (e.g., the use of remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, umifenovir (arbidol), oseltamivir, ganciclovir, favipiravir, darunavir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, colchicine, azithromycin, anakinra, canakinumab, tocilizumab, siltuximab, sarilumab, Type 1 interferon, interferon β-1a, interferon α- 2b, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, fedratinib, methylprednisolone and dexamethasone).
32736597 All subjects must be aged ≥18 years, male or female, must be willing and able to give informed consent and must not have any contraindications to take hydroxychloroquine (intolerance or previous toxicity for hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, bradycardia or reduction in heart rhythm with arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, retinopathy, congestive heart failure with use of diuretics, favism or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, diabetes type 1, major comorbidities such as advanced chronic kidney disease or dialysis therapy, known history of ventricular arrhythmia, any oncologic/hematologic malignancy, severe neurological and mental illness, current use of medications with known significant drug-drug interactions, and known prolonged QT syndrome or current use of drugs with known QT prolongation).
32738306 Clinical trials have reported improved outcomes resulting from an effective reduction or absence of viral load when patients were treated with chloroquine (CQ) or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32739134 In this moments, of extreme gravity in which we find ourselves, and in the uncertainty face about the most effective treatment against COVID-19 disease and with the aim of find the evidence that support the chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine use recommendation to treat COVID-19 disease, a systematic review of published studies and RCT studies publishes until April 28, 2020 was carried out. […] A systematic search was carried out in PubMed with the keywords COVID-19 and their synonyms and hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine. […] Although the conclusions of the systematic review generate a low confidence in the results, and the clinical variables that show benefit are intermediate variables, the side effects are acceptable and could be minimized with the use of QT lengthening risk tools, so it is could make a weak recommendation in favor of the use of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in patients with mild-moderate stage COVID-19.
32740371 The effectiveness of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and chloroquine treatment for COVID-19 has not been verified. […] We conducted a retrospective study to summarize the clinical practices of nonsevere patients with COVID-19 receiving the standard care, LPV/r or chloroquine in Beijing Ditan Hospital from January 20 to March 26, 2020. […] The main outcome measurements include the changes of cycle threshold values of open reading frame 1 ab (ORF1ab) and nucleocapsid (N) genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay from day 1 to 7 after admission for patients receiving standard care or after treatment being initiated for patients receiving either LPV/r or chloroquine. […] Of the 129 patients included in the study, 59 received the standard care, 51 received LPV/r, and 19 received chloroquine. […] The median increase in cycle threshold values of N and ORF1ab gene for patients receiving LPV/r or chloroquine or the standard care during the treatment course was 7.0 and 8.5, 8.0, and 7.6, 5.0, and 4.0, respectively. […] Antiviral therapy using LPV/r or chloroquine seemed not to improve the prognosis or shorten the clinical course of COVID-19.
32740801 Recently, two old antimalarial drugs, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, have been found to exert anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects both in vitro and in vivo.
32743938 In contrast, immunomodulating substances that do not suppress antiviral immunity (e.g. systemic immunoglobulins, doxycycline), or that have intrinsic effects on SARS-CoV-2 (calcineurin inhibitors, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) may be useful alternatives.
32746653 Here, we summarized and evaluated the current treatment drugs and regimens, and put forward the treatment recommendations, including using the potential repurposed or experimental drugs against COVID-19, e.g. chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), remdesivir (RDV), and favipiravir (FPV).
32749808 Based on a 7-step analysis of the literature, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) were initially included in the SWAB document as possible drug treatments for hospitalised adult COVID-19 patients.
32750131 Experimental therapies for COVID-19 present a risk of drug-drug interactions, with lopinavir/ritonavir (10% RED, 41% AMBER; mainly a perpetrator of pharmacokinetic interactions but also risk of QT prolongation particularly when given with concomitant drugs that can prolong QT), chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (both 7% RED and 27% AMBER, victims of some interactions due to metabolic profile but also perpetrators of QT prolongation) posing the greatest risk.
32750190 Those three medicines are, namely, favilavir, chloroquine phosphate and remdesivir.
32752951 In this study, molecular docking and reactivity were applied for eighteen drugs, which are similar in structure to chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, the potential inhibitors to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2). […] The results obtained from this study showed that Ramipril, Delapril and Lisinopril could bind with ACE2 receptor and [SARS-CoV-2/ACE2] complex better than chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.
32758569 The docking was done with most discussed drugs for SARS-CoV-2 like Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Remdesivir, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), routine antiviral drugs like Oseltamivir and Ribavirin.
32763298 Antimalaria drugs such as chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been administered to several inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, and infectious diseases such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome and influenza.
32767527 All residents treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (CQ/HCQ) from July through December 2019 and living in 3 provinces of Regione Emilia-Romagna were identified by drug prescription registries and matched with the registry containing all residents, living in the same areas, who have had swabs and positive swabs for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). 4,408 patients were identified.
32768505 These include anti-viral agents (remdesivir, ribavirin, lopinavir-ritonavir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, oseltamivir, umifenovir), immunomodulatory agents (tocilizumab, interferons, plasma transfusions), and adjunctive agents (azithromycin, corticosteroids), among other miscellaneous agents.
32768772 Hearing and balance deficits have been reported during and following treatment with the antimalarial drug chloroquine. […] However, experimental work examining the direct actions of chloroquine on mechanoreceptive hair cells in common experimental models is lacking. […] This study examines the effects of chloroquine on hair cells using two common experimental models: the zebrafish lateral line and neonatal mouse cochlear cultures. […] Zebrafish larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of chloroquine phosphate or hydroxychloroquine for 1 h or 24 h, and hair cells assessed by antibody staining. […] In mouse cochlear cultures, chloroquine damage was specific to outer hair cells in tissue from the cochlear basal turn, consistent with susceptibility to other ototoxic agents. […] These findings suggest a need for future studies employing hearing and balance monitoring during exposure to chloroquine and related compounds, particularly with interest in these compounds as therapeutics against viral infections including coronavirus.
32768971 These include different classes of drugs such as antiviral agents (chloroquine, ivermectin, nitazoxanide, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, remdesivir, tocilizumab), supporting agents (Vitamin C, Vitamin D, azithromycin, corticosteroids) and promising investigational vaccines.
32769401 Previous promising in vitro data that emerged after the SARS-CoV outbreak in 2003, along with the emergent need for pharmacologic management strategies in the fight against COVID-19, prompted interest in the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine across the globe. […] In addition, clinical practice guidelines provide no clear consensus on the role of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine for the management of COVID-19. […] The United States Food and Drug Administration has declared that the potential benefits of these agents no longer outweigh the possible risks, and unless new emerging information suggests a more favorable risk:benefit ratio, neither chloroquine nor hydroxychloroquine should be recommended for COVID-19 treatment or prevention at this time.
32770567 Taking into account the toxicity/side effects by chloroquine/HCQ, present drugs may be important.
32771797 In this review, we summarized the real-time information of 2019-nCoV treatment methods and mainly focused on the chemical drugs including lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir and other potential innovative active molecules.
32774508 It was named by the World Health Organization as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and it garnered unprecedented attention from public health researchers around the world, and studies analyzing chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as a possible therapy have arisen in the last 2 months. […] Objective To review the literature and describe updated facts about the ototoxicity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, an important side effect that can be present in patients with COVID-19 treated with these drugs. […] While there is no concrete evidence on the incidence of ototoxicity using chloroquine in the short term, we need to consider that, as a pandemic disease, millions of patients with COVID-19 may receive this treatment, and ototoxicity can be a possible adverse event. […] Conclusion Despite the urgent global situation caused by the COVID-19, the risk of irreversible hearing loss may outweigh the unproven benefit of using hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, especially in patients with mild forms of COVID-19, who may be cured with supportive treatment.
32777318 The skin reactions of antimalarials (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine), antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin with or without interferon, oseltamivir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and darunavir), and treatments for complications (imatinib, tocilizumab, anakinra, immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, colchicine and low molecular weight heparins) are analyzed.
32779755 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) garnered scientific attention in early February following publication of reports showing in vitro activity of chloroquine (CQ) against COVID-19.
32780273 Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine has recently been the subject of intense debate regarding its potential antiviral activity against SARS-Cov-2, the etiologic agent of COVID-19. […] The effects of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine may be fully explained only when also considering the capacity of this drug to increase the death rate of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, in this case by enhancing the cell-mediated immune response. […] These considerations may not only be applied to chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine but may have more general implications for development of anti-COVID-19 combination therapies and prevention strategies through an increased death rate of the infected cells.
32784543 Efforts to find a treatment for COVID-19 has fueled a recent surge in interest in chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and its effects. […] Of specific interest are chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine’s ability to inhibit SARS-CoV infection by impairing ACE2, the SARS-CoV2 entry point, through terminal glycosylation via effects on TGN/post-Golgi pH homeostasis.
32785135 Our objective was to develop and validate a strategy to assess risk for adverse drug events (ADE) associated with COVID-19 repurposed drugs using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ), alone or in combination with azithromycin (AZ), and the combination lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r).
32786258 While 1 and 6 block infection through the M2 block mechanism in the S31N variant, 2-4 may block M2 S31N virus replication in cell culture through the lysosomotropic effect, just as chloroquine is thought to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32786685 The drug repurposing study revealed the high potential of noscapine and proximal binding to the Mpro enzyme in a comparative binding pattern analyzed with chloroquine, ribavirin, and favipiravir.
32799178 They were treated with supportive care, oral chloroquine, and standard 2500 or 5000 International Units (IU) of dalteparine subcutaneously once daily.
32799761 The reliable CoMSIA developed model of 110 pyridine N-oxide based-antiviral compounds, showed Q2= 0.54 and[Formula: see text] The molecular surflex-docking was applied to identify the crystal structure of CoV-2 main protease 3CLpro (PDB: 6LU7) and two potentially and largely used antiviral molecules, namely chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine. […] The inhibition activity of pyridine N-oxyde compounds against CoV-2 was compared with the activity of two common antiviral drug, namely chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32800347 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are among several experimental treatments being investigated in the urgent response to the coronavirus disease-2019. […] Clarify evidence base regarding the psychiatric side effects and psychiatric drug interactions of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. […] A literature review was performed in PubMed from 1950 to 2020 regarding psychiatric topics and targeted pharmacological properties of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. […] First, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine may mildly inhibit CYP2D6 metabolism of psychiatric medications, and psychiatric medications that interfere with CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 activity could alter chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine levels. […] Finally, neuropsychiatric side effects are very uncommon but possible and include a potentially prolonged phenomenon of “psychosis after chloroquine.” […] Hydroxychloroquine has less information available about its neuropsychiatric side effects than chloroquine, with psychosis literature limited to several case reports. […] The risk of neuropsychiatric side effects of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine when used for coronavirus disease-2019 treatment is not known. […] However, delirium is expected to be a more likely etiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms in critically ill patients treated for coronavirus disease-2019, and adjustment disorder is a much more likely etiology of anxiety and depression symptoms than the side effects of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine.
32801640 Some potential drugs have shown antiviral effects on SARS-CoV-2 infections, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, interferon alpha, and remedsivir.
32802924 In the absence of authorised pharmacological treatments, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine, which are known as anti-malaria drugs, had been widely used off-label until concerns about their efficacy/safety limited their use to hospitalized patients affected by severe COVID-19. […] Considering that both chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are BCS class I, proper procedures for purifying the preparation from the insoluble excipients may be adopted to avoid clogging of a nasogastric tube and to reduce the drug content variability in the administered doses. […] The data in this article indicate that compounded oral suspensions containing chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine can be filtered and/or centrifuged without altering the drug assay of the preparation.
32803479 Certain medications, for example, dexamethasone, antimalarials (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine), antiviral (remdesivir), and IL-6 receptor blocking monoclonal antibodies (tocilizumab), are used in various combinations as off-label medications to treat COVID-19.
32804279 In addition, specific drugs for SARS-CoV2 infection under investigation impair neuromuscular function significantly; chloroquine and azithromycin are not recommended in myasthenia gravis without available ventilatory support and prolonged prone positioning may influence options for treatment.
32809210 Based on our study, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, either alone or in combination with azithromycin, remdesivir, corticosteroids, convalescent sera, ritonavir/lopinavir, tocilizumab and arbidol were evaluated as therapeutic options.
32813760 Regarding clinical treatment, the most often used medicines were intravenous antibiotics (84.7%), chloroquine (45.8%) and oseltamivir (31.9%).
32814539 In the absence of evidence based proven prophylactic or therapeutic options, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (CQ/HCQ) patened as first line choice in COVID-19 treatment, which raised concerns about drug poisoning especially ocular toxicity.
32814759 These agents include cepharentine, chloroquine, chlorpromazine, clemastine, cloperastine, emetine, hydroxychloroquine, haloperidol, ML240, PB28, ponatinib, siramesine, and zotatifin (eFT226) all of which are likely to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication by non-specific (off-target) effects, meaning that they probably do not act on their ‘official’ pharmacological targets, but rather interfere with viral replication through non-specific effects on acidophilic organelles including autophagosomes, endosomes, and lysosomes.
32815796 We employed the antitussive noscapine in conjugation with antiviral drugs (Chloroquine, Umifenovir, Hydroxychloroquine, Favlplravir and Galidesivir).
32817221 Moreover, we evaluated two of these, chloroquine and chlorpromazine, in vivo using a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV model and found that both drugs protect mice from clinical disease.IMPORTANCE There are no FDA-approved antivirals for any coronavirus, including SARS-CoV-2. […] Moreover, we evaluated chloroquine and chlorpromazine in vivo using mouse-adapted SARS-CoV.
32817375 Chloroquine (CQ) and its analogue hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were found to be efficacious against SARS-CoV-2 when investigated in preliminary in vitro experiments.
32817689 The five most frequently tested uni-modal interventions were: chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (113 trials with 199,841 participants); convalescent plasma (64 trials with 11,840 participants); stem cells (51 trials with 3,370 participants); tocilizumab (19 trials with 4,139 participants) and favipiravir (19 trials with 3,210 participants).
32820084 In fact, two of the actually used drugs against SARS-CoV2, such as chloroquine and the combination lopinavir/ritonavir, might determine a QT (the time from the start of the Q wave to the end of the T wave) interval prolongation and they show several interactions with antiarrhythmic drugs and antipsychotic medications, making them prone to an increased risk of developing arrhythmias.
32821381 This study aims to discuss the available evidence for the use of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) against COVID-19.
32823144 Unfortunately, scientists have been forced to seek alternative drugs to treat malaria due to the emergence of chloroquine-resistant parasites in the 1960s. […] Better insights into how chloroquine targets the host’s cellular and immune responses may help to develop applications against to new pathogens and diseases, and perhaps even restore the clinical utility of chloroquine against malaria.
32824072 In this paper, we used docking and simulation methods to identify potential targets and the mechanism of action of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) against SARS-CoV-2.
32827400 Repurposing of drugs from different pharmacological groups including antivirals like remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, arbidol, oseltamivir, penciclovir, favipiravir, ganciclovir, and ribavirin; other antibiotics like azithromycin, ivermectin, eravacycline, valrubicin, streptomycin, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, caspofungin, and colistin; and other agents like hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, tocilizumab, camostat, nafamostat, carfilzomib, interferon, aprepitant, and dexamethasone can be considered for COVID-19 therapy.
32834063 Chloroquine (CQ) has been reported as an effective drug in the control of COVID-19 infection. […] Since C60 fullerene has been considered as a drug delivery system, the interaction between pristine fullerene and chloroquine drug and also the interaction between B, Al, Si doped fullerene and chloroquine drug have been investigated based on the density functional theory calculations. […] The results of this study show that the doped fullerene, especially Al and Si doped fullerene could be the better drug delivery vehicles for chloroquine drug because of their relatively better energetic and electronic properties with chloroquine.
32834942 In addition to these drugs, rationale and evidence have been presented to use chloroquine to treat COVID-19, arguably with certain precautions and criticism. […] In line with the proposed use of chloroquine, Nigella sativa (black seed) could be considered as a natural substitute that contains a number of bioactive components such as thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, and nigellimine.
32834950 Chloroquine (CQ) phosphate has been suggested to be clinically effective in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32835020 According to the therapeutic committee guidelines, chloroquine was started for COVID-19 treatment.
32836303 The current situation in the health sector is favourable in this, as evidenced by the “debate on chloroquine” widely reported in the media and on social networks, opposing conclusions most often decided on the basis of beliefs on contrary to evidence based medicine.
32837118 Some drugs such as lopinavir, simeprevir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and amprenavir have been recommended for COVID-19 treatment by some researchers, but these drugs were not effective enough against this virus. […] So, this study suggested that caulerpin and its derivatives could be used as a combination therapy along with lopinavir, simeprevir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and amprenavir for disrupting the stability of SARS-CoV2 receptor proteins to increase the antiviral activity of these drugs.
32837197 Patients receiving antimalarials (hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine) may continue treatment with these agents.
32837922 This near homogeneous catalysis of 40 nm sized, silica functionalized, magnetite nanoparticles have far reaching applications in bulk drug industry for drugs like chloroquine & hydroxychloroquine, the two essential drugs for prophylactic use for COVID-1.
32837982 While nicotine and ivermectin may be blocking transport abilities of the virus or its components, famotidine, remdesivir and chloroquine in combination with zinc ions can deactivate important enzymes needed for the replication of the virus.
32837984 The chloroquine was suggested a potential drug against SARS-CoV-2 infection due to its in vitro antiviral effects, it is imperative high-quality data from worldwide clinical trials are necessitated for an approved therapy.
32838192 Total confirmed cases were more than 80,000 on March 1, 2020, but less than 84,000, and deaths were more than 3000 on March 4, 2020, but less than 4640, totally, thanks for the right public measures for COVID-19 in China, such as the Wuhan City lockdown and travel restrictions for isolation; positive screening and testing; and establishing a Huoshenshan hospital, a Leishenshan hospital, and a number of Fangcang shelter hospitals, traditional Chinese medicine and a combination of Chinese and western medicine, and the launch of the clinical trials of antiviral drugs (Lianhua Qingwen, remdesivir, and chloroquine).
32838264 These include HIV protease inhibitors such as lopinavir/ritonavir that have low placental transfer, interferon that does not cross the placental barrier, and hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine that has high placental transfer.
32838282 Remdesivir combination with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine are promising drug repositioning for the treatment of COVID-19, and mRNA-1273 targeting spike protein is the promising vaccine.
32838367 This review summarizes the existing evidence for medications currently under investigation for treatment of COVID-19, including remdesivir, chloroquine/hydroxychlorquine, convalescent plasma, lopinavir/ritonavir, IL-6 inhibitors, corticosteroids, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
32838713 Existing antivirals such as ASC09/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir with or without umifenovir in combination with antimalarial chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine have been repurposed to fight the current coronavirus epidemic.
32838716 This method of repurposing and the use of existing molecules like Remdesivir (GS-5734), Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, etc. has proven to be a landmark in the field of drug rediscovery.
32840231 Due to lack of any definitive medicine or vaccine, treatment options are supportive of oxygenation, antiviral, antiretroviral drugs, antibiotics, fluid/ electrolyte, mechanical ventilation with ICU (Intensive Care Unit) support, and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine have been tried to fight this infection.
32841640 A number of multi clinical studies have repurposed combined cocktail (remdesivir + chloroquine and favipiravir + chloroquine) to be effective against COVID-19. […] Deep structural analysis of target molecules exposed key binding residues and structural twists involved in binding with important pharmacophore features of existing drugs [(7-chloro-N-[5-(diethylamino)pentan-2-yl]quinolin-4-amine (chloroquine),N-[[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]methyl]-1,2-oxazole-5-carboxamide N-[[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]methyl]-1,2-oxazole-5-carboxamide) (SSAA09E2), 2-ethylbutyl (2S)-2-{[(S)-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-{4-aminopyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-7-yl}-5-cyano-3 (remdesivir) and 6-Fluor-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2-pyrazincarboxamid (favipiravir)]. […] It is evident from this structural informatics study that combo of chloroquine + SSAA09E2 with remdesivir or favipiravir could significantly restrain the virus at the entry and replication stage.
32843231 Patients had previously received combinations of azithromycin, hydroxy-chloroquine, and methyl-prednisolone.
32844516 Many possible treatments are being investigated, one of which is the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine.
32848774 Chloroquine (CQ) was verified effective against COVID-19 in vitro. […] Through searching the CNKI and Wangfang databases in Chinese language and PubMed, EMBASE, and Ovid databases in English language to identify published reports with the keywords including “coronavirus/COVID, chloroquine, hyroxychloroquine” in alone or combined, we found out the potential preclinical or clinical evidence for using CQ and HCQ against COVID-19.
32849658 Here, we review the progress of using hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine as anti-viral agents, failed clinical trials of chloroquine in treatment of dengue virus and influenza infection, and especially the mechanism of azithromycin in inhibiting viral replication, so as to shed light on the ongoing clinical trials and further researches of hydroxychloroquine on SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.
32850924 Compared to the control, Hydroxy-chloroquine (HCQ) has no significant effect on mortality [(OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.46-1.64); eight observational studies; N = 5,944].
32850989 Pharmacological strategies that interfere with the viral attachment to ACE2 (umifenovir and hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine) or that modulate the RAS (analogous of A1-7 and ACE2, losartan) are in clinical development for COVID-19.
32852623 • Covid-19 is more frequent in the subgroup of autoimmune systemic diseases patients without ongoing conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, mainly hydroxyl-chloroquine and methotrexate, which might play some protective role against the most harmful manifestations of Covid-19.
32853604 We found that Teicoplanin is about 10-20 fold more potent in inhibiting protease activity than other drugs in use, such as lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, atazanavir etc.
32854774 Here, we present a case of 27-year-old, otherwise healthy man, who was successfully treated with chloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab and a standard of care.
32855778 This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature on DDIs between antiretroviral drugs and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, and psychotropics, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and anxiolytics.
32860962 Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without azithromycin have been widely promoted to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) following early in vitro antiviral effects against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess whether chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin decreased COVID-19 mortality compared with the standard of care. […] We included published and unpublished studies comparing the mortality rate between patients treated with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin and patients managed with standard of care. […] Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin.
32861965 The widespread clinical use and existing knowledge on antiviral mechanisms of remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of previous epidemic diseases, namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), may be helpful in the combat with novel SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Recent clinical evidence didn’t confirm the beneficial role of lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 patients and their use was reassessed. […] Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine could impair the replication of SARSCoV-2 by multiple mechanisms and their immunomodulatory properties could ameliorate clinical manifestations that are mediated by immune reactions of the host although its beneficial effects are under question and need to be proven at the clinical level. […] Numerous studies demonstrated the ability of remdesivir to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication but future research would be needed to understand the exact mode of action of lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells and to use this knowledge in the treatment of the current COVID-19.
32863223 Regarding currently investigated therapies interferon-beta induced ACE2 gene expression in bronchial epithelial cells, while chloroquine tends to upregulate CTSB/L genes.
32864162 In this review, we summarized the pharmacogenomic literature available for COVID-19 drug therapies including hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, lopinavir/ritonavir, darunavir/cobicistat, interferon beta-1b, tocilizumab, ruxolitinib, baricitinib, and corticosteroids. […] We found several drug-gene variant pairs that may alter the pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (CYP2C8, CYP2D6, SLCO1A2, and SLCO1B1); azithromycin (ABCB1); ribavirin (SLC29A1, SLC28A2, and SLC28A3); and lopinavir/ritonavir (SLCO1B1, ABCC2, CYP3A). […] We also identified other variants, that are associated with adverse effects, most notable in hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (G6PD; hemolysis), ribavirin (ITPA; hemolysis), and interferon β -1b (IRF6; liver toxicity). […] We also describe the complexity of the risk for QT prolongation in this setting because of additive effects of combining more than one QT-prolonging drug (i.e., hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine and azithromycin), increased concentrations of the drugs due to genetic variants, along with the risk of also combining therapy with potent inhibitors.
32864299 Out of these drugs, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have demonstrated positive results indicating a potential antiviral role against SARS-CoV-2.
32867852 HCWs who decline consent, who have a confirmed COVID-19 infection, those who are already on chloroquine/HCQ for any indication, or if pregnant or breast-feeding, or have known QT prolongation or are on medications that when taken with HCQ can prolong the QTc will be excluded.
32868801 Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir/lopinavir, and favipiravir are under trials for the treatment of this disease.
32869558 Monoclonal antibody of tocilizumab and antimalarial agents of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were also introduced.
32875045 Here, the authors question the implementation of hydroxy-chloroquine treatment in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
32876222 Although there are no large-scale studies regarding the use of chloroquine / hydroxychloroquine, due to the global situation, its use has been authorized for its anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-inflammatory effect, which can be potentiated with the use of azithromycin.
32876224 The therapeutic agents evaluated were chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, tocilizumab, oseltamivir, interferon, atazanavir and anti SARS-CoV-2 serum.
32876249 Clinical trials were planned and are in progress to investigate whether drugs used for influenza, HIV and other viruses, and also anthelmintics (ivermectin, nitazoxanide, niclosamide), and antimalarials (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) showing antiviral activity in in vitro assays, are effective and safe for Covid-19.
32877501 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have shown promising preliminary results and have been discussed as therapeutic options for patients with Covid-19.
32879113 Hot anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs include interferon α, ribavirin, lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine phosphate, abidol, as well as hydroxychloroquine sulfate and remdesivir.
32880149 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have a long history of use against other infectious diseases, they are available and inexpensive, so the possibility of using them in vivo and in vitro to suppress the infectious agent was examined.
32881593 There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) as COVID-19 therapies, and thus World Health Organization (WHO) mentioned that “Current data shows that this drug does not reduce deaths among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, nor help people with mild or moderate disease.”
32881656 The most common under trial drugs for COVID-19 are Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin along with adjunct drugs like Amantadine with some monoclonal antibodies.
32881845 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, primarily used to treat autoimmune diseases and to prevent and treat malaria, received national attention in early March 2020, as potential treatment and prophylaxis for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1). […] On March 20, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate in the Strategic National Stockpile to be used by licensed health care providers to treat patients hospitalized with COVID-19 when the providers determine the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the patient. […] § Following the FDA’s issuance of caution and EUA rescindment, on May 12 and June 16, the federal COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel issued recommendations against the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine to treat COVID-19; the panel also noted that at that time no medication could be recommended for COVID-19 pre- or postexposure prophylaxis outside the setting of a clinical trial (3). […] ¶ In response to recent reports of notable increases in prescriptions for hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine (6), CDC analyzed outpatient retail pharmacy transaction data to identify potential differences in prescriptions dispensed by provider type during January-June 2020 compared with the same period in 2019.
32881895 Nicholas White and coauthors discuss chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine pharmacology in the context of possible treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32882888 Zn(II) is an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2’s RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are Zn(II) ionophores-this statement gives a curious mind a lot to think about. […] We show results of the first clinical trials on chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the treatment of COVID-19, as well as earlier reports on the anticoronaviral properties of these two compounds and of Zn(II) itself.
32884603 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Chloroquine (CQ) are two anti-malarial drugs that are now being extensively used by front-line healthcare workers and other common people as a prophylactic drug against the Corona Virus Disease - 19 (COVID-19) in India and as well as in many parts of the world.
32885277 In fact, one potential treatment is chloroquine and its derivatives, including hydroxychloroquine.
32885373 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) have been used for its treatment but their safety and efficacy remain uncertain.
32887670 They covered topics of chemoprophylaxis (including agents and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) agents), diagnosis (including clinical manifestations, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respiratory tract specimens, IgM and IgG antibody tests, chest computed tomography, chest x-ray, and CT features of asymptomatic infections), treatments (including lopinavir-ritonavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, interferon, remdesivir, combination of antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, glucocorticoid, qingfei paidu decoction, lianhua qingwen granules/capsules, convalescent plasma, lung transplantation, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)), and discharge management (including discharge criteria and management plan in patients whose RT-PCR retesting shows SARS-CoV-2 positive after discharge).
32888379 A thorough literature search was conducted to source information on the pharmacological properties of 5 drugs and 1 combination (azithromycin, chloroquine, favipiravir, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir) repurposed to treat COVID-19.
32889701 Number of drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, lopinavir, ritonavir, darunavir, arbidol, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab and interferons have shown inhibitory effects against the SARS-CoV2 in-vitro as well as in clinical conditions.
32893123 Several clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of chloroquine phosphate and nafamostat mesylate with COVID-19.
32895128 The Diagnostic and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19 (Trial Version 6) in China recommends chloroquine phosphate for the first time as an anti-coronavirus trial drug. […] As a classic drug for treatment of malaria and rheumatism, chloroquine phosphate has been used clinically for more than 80 years, and has also shown good results in the treatment of various viral infections. […] As the plasma drug concentration varies greatly among different races and individuals and due to its narrow treatment window, chloroquine in likely to accumulate in the body to cause toxicity. […] Among the treatment regimens recommended for COVID-19, reports concerning the safety of a short-term high-dose chloroquine regimen remain scarce. […] In this review, the authors summarize the current research findings of chloroquine phosphate in the treatment of COVID-19, and examine the pharmacokinetic characteristics, antiviral therapy, the therapeutic mechanism and safety of chloroquine.
32897518 It is important to take note of what ongoing clinical trials on chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine can eventually tell us about the use of antimalarials and other anti-inflammatory agents, not only for the treatment of COVID-19, but also for neurovascular disorders such as stroke and vascular dementia.
32902940 Chloroquine is controversial in its effectiveness and safety to treat SARS-CoV-2. […] Chloroquine has not been formally assigned to a pregnancy category by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
32903640 Besides, the treatment regime involves drugs like losartan, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, Remdesivir, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, etc. may modulate the severity of the comorbidities.
32904710 The use of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, ivermectin, and colchicine might also be effective.
32908736 Despite administration of multiple antiviral drugs, including lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, and favipiravir, the patient’s condition did not improve.
32910933 Chloroquine (CQ) and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been commonly used for the treatment and prevention of malaria, and the treatment of autoimmune diseases for several decades.
32914465 Chloroquine represents at least a basic prototype antimalarial drug, widely applied in several branches of medicine and also recently against a new zoonotic origin coronavirus. […] At present, there is little awareness of chloroquine’s psychiatric side effects, which appear to be overlooked by the Scientific Committee, although they may manifest in a worryingly wide range of symptoms.
32915766 However, since the World Health Organisation declared COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration issued an Emergency Use Authorisation to allow HCQ and Chloroquine (CQ) to be distributed and used for certain hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and numerous clinical trials are underway around the world, including the UK based RECOVERY trial, with over 1000 volunteers.
32916297 Chloroquine (EC50 = 2.1 μM and EC90 = 3.8 μM), hydroxychloroquine (EC50 = 1.5 μM and EC90 = 3.0 μM), ferroquine (EC50 = 1.5 μM and EC90 = 2.4 μM), desethylamodiaquine (EC50 = 0.52 μM and EC90 = 1.9 μM), mefloquine (EC50 = 1.8 μM and EC90 = 8.1 μM), pyronaridine (EC50 = 0.72 μM and EC90 = 0.75 μM) and quinine (EC50 = 10.7 μM and EC90 = 38.8 μM) showed in vitro antiviral effective activity with IC50 and IC90 compatible with drug oral uptake at doses commonly administered in malaria treatment.
32920000 Improvement of COVID-19 clinical condition was seen in studies where combination of antiretroviral drugs, lopinavir and ritonavir, as well as immunomodulant antimalaric, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine together with the macrolide-type antibiotic, azithromycin, was used for patient’s treatment. […] Thus, by using in silico toxicogenomic data-mining approach, we aimed to assess both risks and benefits of the COVID-19 treatment with the most promising candidate drugs combinations: lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin. […] Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin interacted with 6 genes (CCL2, CTSB, CXCL8, IL1B, IL6 and TNF), whereas chloroquine and azithromycin affected two additional genes (BCL2L1 and CYP3A4), which might be a reason behind a greater number of consequential diseases. […] In contrast to lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin downregulated the expression of TNF and IL6. […] As expected, inflammation, cardiotoxicity, and dyslipidaemias were revealed as the main risks of lopinavir/ritonavir treatment, while chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin therapy was additionally linked to gastrointestinal and skin diseases.
32920291 Chloroquine (CQ) and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been reported to treat the disease, but the underlying mechanism remains controversial.
32921965 However, healthcare professionals are using chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, convalescent plasma and some other options of treatments. […] This study aims to compare the biological, molecular, pharmacological, and clinical characteristics of these three treatment modalities for SARS-COV-2 infections, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Convalescent Plasma, and Remdesivir. […] The search was based on keywords “COVID-19” SARS-COV-2, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, convalescent plasma, remdesivir and treatment modalities. […] We selected 17 relevant published original articles and clinical trials: 05 for chloroquine and/or hydroxychloroquine with total sample size (n = 220), 05 for Remdesivir (n = 1,781), and 07 for Convalescent Plasma therapy (n = 398), with a combined total sample size (n = 2,399).
32922210 Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine have been widely adopted worldwide for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.
32924956 In vitro studies have shown some benefits related to the use of antimalarials (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine) for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2.
32924964 Among the proposed therapeutic regimen, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, remdisevir, azithromycin, toclizumab and cromostat mesylate have shown promising results, and limited benefit was seen with lopinavir-ritonavir treatment in hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19.
32929403 Pregnancy was an exclusion criterion for 69% (75/109) of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, 80% (28/35) of lopinavir/ritonavir, and 48% (44/91) of convalescent plasma studies.
32929826 8.18%, P < .001], while the utilization rate of chloroquine phosphate was lower (1.43% vs 14.00%, P < .05) in the co-infected patients group.
32929975 The aminoquinolones, hydroxychloroquine, and chloroquine are undergoing evaluation as a potential therapy against COVID -19. […] The goals of this paper are to identify whether or not hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine improves symptoms in palliative care patients and whether or not these drugs are safe to use in the advanced illness population who have COVID.
32935064 Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were widely adopted in treating COVID-19, but the results were contradictive.
32942296 In this study, we use the ligand-protein docking program and molecular dynamic simulation to ab initio investigate the binding mechanism and inhibitory ability of seven clinically approved drugs (Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Ritonavir, Beclabuvir, Indinavir and Favipiravir) and a recently designed α-ketoamide inhibitor (13b) at the molecular level. […] The results suggest that Chloroquine has the strongest binding affinity with 3CL hydrolase (Mpro) among clinically approved drugs, indicating its effective inhibitory ability for SARS-CoV-2. […] However, the newly designed inhibitor 13b shows potentially improved inhibition efficiency with larger binding energy compared with Chloroquine. […] We further calculate the important binding site residues at the active site and demonstrate that the MET 165 and HIE 163 contribute the most for 13b, while the MET 165 and GLN 189 for Chloroquine, based on residual energy decomposition analysis.
32942793 Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are old drugs used against malaria, rheumatism, inflammation in the joints, lupus, among others. […] It included studies reporting chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine effects and adverse effects against COVID-19.
32946004 Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been largely adopted in the clinical setting for the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, their known retinal toxicity has raised some safety concerns, especially considering the higher-dosage employed for COVID-19 patients as compared with their suggested posology for their usual indications, including systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic diseases. […] A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase and Scopus, by using the following search terms: “chloroquine retinal toxicity” and “hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity” alone or in combination with “coronavirus”, “COVID-19”, " SARS-CoV-2 infection " from inception to August 2020.
32947043 Chloroquine (CQ), a protonated, weakly basic drug, exerts its antimalarial effect mainly by increasing pH and accumulating in the food vacuole of the parasites.
32948577 Either hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine is administered as part of the study protocol in 152 (30%) of the drug/biological trials. […] The total planned enrolment for these hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine trials is over 200 000 participants, which represents 65% of the total planned enrolment for all registered trials of drugs or biologics.
32949079 During the post-transplant period, in profound leukopenia (below 10 leukocytes/µL), she was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2, MPV, and RSV pneumonia and was treated with ribavirin and chloroquine.
32950177 Chloroquine (CQ) and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are antimalarial medications that have been found to have in vitro efficacy against SARS-CoV-2.
32954790 Some results from a limited number of trials of antiviral medications, along with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, have been beneficial.
32956664 The result indicate that Molecules N° 3, 7 and 14 have more binding energy with SARS-CoV-2 main protease recently crystallized (pdb code 6LU7) in comparison with the other imidazole derivatives and the two drug; Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.
32958120 Combination therapy using chloroquine (CQ) and azithromycin (AZM) has drawn great attention due to its potential anti-viral activity against SARS-CoV-2.
32960061 Drug repurposing studies explored the potency of antimalarial drugs, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, against SARS-CoV-2 virus. […] These drugs can inhibit the viral protease, called chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease, also known as Main protease (3CLpro); hence, we studied the binding efficiencies of 4-aminoquinoline and 8-aminoquinoline analogs of chloroquine. […] Six compounds furnished better binding energies than chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. […] A regression model correlating binding energy and the molecular descriptors for chloroquine analogs was generated with R2 = 0.9039 and Q2 = 0.8848.
32960100 While chloroquine, a derivative of quinine, has been used as an antimalarial for 70 years, hydroxychloroquine is now used to treat conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. […] In 2020, hydroxychloroquine (and to a lesser extent chloroquine) also received attention as a possible treatment for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] We review the toxicity associated with hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine use both short-term and long-term and in overdose. […] Medline (via OVID) was searched from its inception through June 7 2020 using the following as either MeSH or keyword terms: (“Chloroquine/” or “Hydroxychloroquine/”) AND (“Adverse Drug Event/” or “Toxicities, Drug/” or “Toxic.mp.” or “Toxicity.mp.” or “Overdose.mp.”). […] To identify toxicities in individuals treated with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with COVID-19, we searched PubMed on June 10th, 2020: (“Chloroquine” or “Hydroxychloroquine”) AND (“Coronavirus” or “COVID-19” or “SARS-CoV-2”). […] We then conducted targeted searches of PubMed up to June 7th 2020 combining “chloroquine” and “hydroxychloroquine” with terms for specific drug classes and drugs identified from the drug-interaction site as potentially relevant. […] Gastrointestinal: Gastrointestinal toxicities are the most common to occur following initiation of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. […] Chloroquine treatment of COVID-19 was associated with elevation in creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB activities with more events in the higher-dose group.
32960147 Seven hundred sixty-one (93.4%) were treated with a combination of oral antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine) with intramuscular administration of IFN-α2b (Heberon® Alpha R, Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Havana, Cuba), 3 times per week, for 2 weeks.
32963091 Although chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and quinine are used for a range of medical conditions, recent research suggested a potential role in treating COVID-19. […] Toxicokinetic or pharmacokinetic analysis was available for 61 patients (13 chloroquine, three hydroxychloroquine, and 45 quinine). […] Clinical data were available for analysis from 38 patients, including 12 with chloroquine toxicity, one with hydroxychloroquine toxicity, and 25 with quinine toxicity. […] The available data do not support using extracorporeal treatments in addition to standard care for patients severely poisoned with either chloroquine or quinine (strong recommendation, very low quality of evidence). […] On the basis of our systematic review and analysis, the EXTRIP workgroup recommends against using extracorporeal methods to enhance elimination of these drugs in patients with severe chloroquine or quinine poisoning.
32963819 Among the array of drugs that have shown positive results, the use of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine has raised a concern due to their well-known retinal toxic effects.
32964535 There is a clinical need for safety data regarding hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.
32964796 With the recognition of autophagy inhibitors, including the controversial drug chloroquine, as possible treatments for COVID-19, understanding how autophagy affects the virus will be critical going forward.
32965013 There are several potential medications available for COVID-19, such as Interferon α (IFN-α), Teicoplanin, Ribavirin, Galidesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Chloroquine phosphate, Arbidol, Velpatasvir, Favipiravir, Ledipasvir, Remdesivir, Sofosbuvir, Darunavir, Qingfei Paidu Decoction (QPD), and Imatinib.
32967116 The drugs studied include chloroquine, ivermectin, remdesivir, sofosbuvir, boceprevir, and α-difluoromethylornithine (DMFO).
32967165 Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been proposed as treatments for COVID-19.
32968208 Chloroquine phosphate and its derivative hydroxychloroquine, which have been used in the treatment and prevention of malaria and autoimmune diseases for decades, were found to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection with high potency in vitro and have shown clinical and virologic benefits in COVID-19 patients. […] Therefore, chloroquine phosphate was first used in the treatment of COVID-19 in China. […] The desperation to control the pandemic overrode the concerns regarding the serious adverse effects of chloroquine derivatives and combination drugs, including lethal arrhythmias and cardiomyopathy. […] From pharmacological and cardiovascular perspectives, therefore, the treatment of COVID-19 with chloroquine and its derivatives should be systematically evaluated, and patients should be routinely monitored for cardiovascular conditions to prevent lethal adverse events.
32969369 There are ongoing clinical trials on potential drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids tocilizumab, azithromycin, anakinra, etc. and other therapeutic modalities like convalescent plasma therapy.
32972339 Both available evidence as well as hypotheses are discussed, with emphasis on drugs which are approved for other indications such as bromhexine, ammonium chloride, nafamostat, camostat, tranexamic acid, epsilon amino-caproic acid, chloroquine, ulinastatin, aprotinin and anticoagulant drugs.
32974268 The drugs most actively tested in various centers include hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, azithromycin, tocilizumab, lopinavir chloroquine and ivermectin. […] Our analysis shows that most clinical trials focus on a small number of candidate drugs (namely hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine representing 25% of total clinical trials) while underestimating the potential of other promising drugs.
32978702 Numerous drugs have been repurposed and investigated for therapeutic effectiveness in the disease, including those from “Solidarity,” an international clinical trial (azithromycin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, the fixed combination lopinavir/ritonavir, and remdesivir).
32978919 Seventy two percent of healthcare workers were on Hydroxy-chloroquine chemoprophylaxis didn’t reach statistical significance in preventing the infection.
32981089 Non-clinical studies suggest that chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have antiviral activities.
32982538 Although there is a lack of conclusive evidence of their benefit, there is worldwide controversy to use anti-malarial drugs, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, for the treatment of COVID-19. […] In addition to this, falsified and substandard chloroquine products started to emerge in some African countries.
32982751 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine (230/943, 24.4%) were widely studied.
32983179 We review the mechanisms of action of (hydroxy)chloroquine on immune cells and networks and discuss promises and pitfalls in the fight against SARS-CoV-2, the agent of the COVID-19 outbreak.
32989996 Many patients however receive off-label antivirals such as lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin and/or chloroquine and /or interferons. […] Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, distress syndrome, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, chloroquine, interferons.
32991900 Since the proteolytic cleavage of the S protein is critical for virus penetration into cells, a set of drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, camostat mesylate have been tested in clinical trials to suppress this event.
32993497 The understanding of this mechanism may be of guidance in re-evaluating the ongoing therapeutic strategies, with special attention to the interaction with mechanical ventilation, paracetamol and chloroquine use, and in the individuation of genetic traits causing increased susceptibility to the disruption of these physiologic processes and to a critical Covid 19.
32998618 The inhibitory effect of all studied compounds was studied with compared to some proposed antiviral drugs which currently used in COVID-19 treatment such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, baloxvir, lopinavir, and favipiravir.
33004837 Progeny virus titers of single-dose treatment of DIG, OUA and remdesivir were approximately 103-, 104- and 103-fold lower (> 99% inhibition), respectively, than that of non-treated control or chloroquine at 48 h post-infection (hpi).
33006776 Chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and ivermectin (IVM) are among the most politically promoted and sold drugs.
33007454 The global push for the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) against COVID-19 resulted in an ongoing discussion about the effectivity and toxicity of these drugs.
33009770 In marginal structural model analysis, there was no statistically significant difference in odds of clinical improvement (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.53, 95% CI: 0.88-2.67, P = 0.132) nor risk of death (aOR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.35-1.20) when comparing the use of chloroquine/azithromycin versus other treatments.
33010669 In addition, Chloroquine, which was previously used for malarial and autoimmune disease, has shown efficacy in the 2019-nCoV infection treatment.
33011025 For the management of children, 90.1% and 71.3% of pediatricians experienced difficulties accessing COVID-19 PCR and chloroquine, respectively, and 74.3% declared difficulties for proper isolation of patients.
33014380 This review aims to collect and summarize a list of drugs used to treat COVID-19, including dexamethasone, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, tociluzimab, nitazoxanide and ivermectin.
33017386 Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, interferon-2b, and oseltamivir are some pharmacological options evaluated in clinical trials for prophylaxis of COVID-19.
33017762 The use of chloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19 has received considerable attention. […] The recent intense focus on this application of chloroquine stimulated an investigation into the effects of chloroquine at low doses on highly biologically-diverse models and whether it may induce hormetic-biphasic dose response effects. […] The assessment revealed that hormetic effects have been commonly induced by chloroquine, affecting numerous cell types, including tumor cell lines (e.g. human breast and colon) and non-tumor cell lines, enhancing viral replication, sperm motility, various behavioral endpoints as well as decreasing risks of convulsions, and enhancing a spectrum of neuroprotective responses within a preconditioning experimental framework. […] These diverse and complex findings indicate that hormetic dose responses commonly occur with chloroquine treatment with a range of biological models and endpoints.
33020333 Visiting private clinic and receiving hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate or sulfasalazine were related to perception that autoimmune conditions would make them more prone to COVID-19. […] Living in Sumatra region and getting hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate or MMF/MPA were related to perception that autoimmune medications could reduce risk of getting COVID-19. […] Adequate information, university education, private clinic visit, and hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate use were related to perception that COVID-19 pandemic would cause difficulties in getting medications. almost all respondents had good knowledge and practices regarding COVID-19.
33020340 Indonesian clinical practice guideline stated that (hydroxy)chloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin may be used to treat for COVID-19. […] However, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin all prolong the QT interval, raising concerns about the risk of arrhythmic death from individual or concurrent use of these medications.
33022293 (Hydroxy)chloroquine was the most frequently evaluated treatment (n=69, 62%), before BCG vaccine (n=12, 11%), this followed by numerous antivirals and immune enhancers.
33023033 In addition, some medicines (i.e., remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) have received emergency use authorisation from the FDA.
33023432 Anti-retroviral, Remdesivir, as well as different repurposed drugs like chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have shown promising effects in vitro.
33023440 Quinolines, such as quinine and chloroquine, exhibit various pharmacological properties, acting as antimalarial drugs, antiparasitic, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and anticancer agents, besides being in clinical use for autoimmune diseases.
33024460 In addition, several antimicrobials that are currently used as potential therapeutic agents for COVID-19, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, have uncertain benefit, and yet may induce electrocardiographic QT prolongation with potential ventricular pro-arrhythmic effects.
33028485 As it happens, such a statement would apply perfectly well to the story of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the COVID-19 infection: it has become a veritable saga, with conflicting views that have often gone beyond the normal scientific dialectic, and with conclusions that have frequently been polluted by non scientific opinions: thus, for instance, when National Agencies have taken positions against CQ and HCQ, the move has been seen as a pro-vaccine attempt to block low cost therapy means.
33029451 Based on available evidence, antivirals like lopinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir specific medication like chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, corticosteroids, and intravenous gamma globulin, are not recommended, so early detection and supportive treatment is needed for an optimal outcome.
33029696 The repurposed drugs like Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Tenofovir, Remdesivir, Ribavirin, Darunavir, Oseltamivir, Arbidol (Umifenovir), Favipiravir, Anakinra, and Baricitinib are already being used in clinical trials to treat the COVID-19 patients.
33031488 Clinical studies of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in COVID-19 disease reported conflicting results.
33031652 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been proposed as treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) on the basis of in vitro activity and data from uncontrolled studies and small, randomized trials.
33031797 So far, chloroquine, lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, favipiravir, ribavirin, darunavir, remdesivir, and umifenovir have been tested in COVID-19 clinical trials. […] Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and favipiravir, which were highly distributed to the lung, were reported to reduce viral loads in respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients.
33041111 The following pharmacologic therapies were evaluated: chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), antivirals therapies, plasma therapy, anti-inflammatories, and a vaccine.
33041712 Though data are limited, antiviral therapies such as remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and other drugs like hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine have been used for severe COVID-19 cases, with remdesivir showing the greatest promise.
33041830 These include antivirals (remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, umifenovir, and favipiravir), interferon, antimalarials (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine), antiparasitic drugs (ivermectin and nitazoxanide), biologics (monoclonal antibodies and interleukin receptor antagonist), cellular therapies (mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells), convalescent plasma, and cytokine adsorber.
33045209 Several drugs that are often used in dermatology are among the potentially useful treatments: ivermectin, antiandrogenic agents, melatonin, and the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.
33047848 To assess whether randomized clinical trials (RCTs) proposed to evaluate the treatment of patients with COVID-19 with hydroxychloroquine (HQ) or chloroquine early in the pandemic included plans to measure outcomes that would translate into meaningful efficacy/effectiveness and safety outcomes. […] The WHO-ICTRP database was searched for registers of RCTs evaluating HQ or chloroquine, alone or in combinations, compared with other treatments for patients diagnosed with COVID-19. […] The RCTs investigating HQ or chloroquine during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic included heterogeneous and insufficient approaches to measure efficacy/effectiveness and safety relevant to patients and clinical practice.
33049737 Chloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravi, lopinavir, ribavirin or ritonavir have shown efficacy to inhibit coronavirus in vitro.