DrugBank ID: db01373
DrugCentral: calcium
Synonymous :calcio | calcium, elemental | elemental calcium | kalzium

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of calcium gene in 63 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32340096 Two patients took calcium channel antagonist (CCB), one patient took angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), and one patient took angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB).
32356628 We assessed the relation between previous treatment with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, or thiazide diuretics and the likelihood of a positive or negative result on Covid-19 testing as well as the likelihood of severe illness (defined as intensive care, mechanical ventilation, or death) among patients who tested positive.
32396134 Herein we provide pragmatic advice on the management of commonly encountered calcium problems and osteoporosis.
32401673 We argue for inhibition of the TRPV4 calcium-permeable ion channel as a strategy to address this issue, based on the rationale that TRPV4 inhibition is protective in various preclinical models of lung edema, and that TRPV4 hyperactivation potently damages the alveolo-capillary barrier, with lethal outcome.
32405454 Also, a few supplements were also given after ATN development including daily Rocaltrol and Nephrovit (as a multivitamin appropriate for patients with renal failure), Folic acid and Calcium carbonate.
32411566 Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCB) are typically used agents in the clinical management of hypertension.
32434635 Continuous blood pressure monitoring in the resting state during hospitalization showed that blood pressure was above the 95% reference interval of normal value for children of the same age, and the two boys were given calcium channel blockers or β-receptor blockers and were then recovered.
32436995 Memantine, a moderate affinity, uncompetitive N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist which prevents excess calcium entry into cells is commonly utilized in treating patients with Alzheimer’s disease, and may inhibit the neurotoxicity induced by SARS-CoV-2 in the medullary brain stem to avoid development of ARDS.
32463308 Azithromycin also can cause modest QT interval prolongation, but not through potent hERG channel blockade, rather when used chronically through an increase in peak and late cardiac sodium current to cause potential loading of cardiomyocytes with sodium and calcium to produce calcium overload.
32495915 In an osteoporosis clinic, we advocate the following suggestions to prevent and control osteoporosis during the pandemic period: (1) specialized diagnosis and treatment techniques for osteoporosis patients in the outpatient care, including enhancing the prevention for outpatient medical staff, strengthening awareness of COVID-19 prevention, strictly screening outpatients with COVID-19 infection, and insistent administration of anti-osteoporosis drugs during outbreaks; (2) home prevention for osteoporosis patients including keeping windows open, exposing them to sunlight, supplementing them with enough protein, exercising regularly, and administrating calcium supplements; and (3) simplifying the follow-up and evaluation of osteoporosis using online platforms.
32522282 For atrial fibrillation/flutter, select according to the Cardiovascular National Treatment Guide (NBV): Calcium antagonist, Beta blocker, direct current (DC) conversion or amiodarone.
32532356 2.3 Blood routine: white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils Acidic granulocyte count, basophil count, red blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit, average volume of red blood cells, average red blood cell Hb content, average red blood cell Hb concentration, RDW standard deviation, RDW coefficient of variation, platelet count, platelet specific platelet average Volume, platelet distribution width,% of large platelets; 2.4 Liver and kidney function tests: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, prealbumin, total protein, albumin, globulin, white / globule ratio , Total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, cholinesterase, urea, creatinine, total carbon dioxide, uric acid glucose, potassium, sodium, chlorine, calcium, corrected calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and phosphorus product, anion gap, penetration Pressure, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein a, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, estimated glomerular filtration rate.
32546437 Mortality was associated with those that were admitted to ICU (19% vs 0; p=0.009), mechanically ventilated (31% vs 0; p=0.001), had DM (20% vs 2.3%; p=0.032), older (62 vs 47 years; p=0.045), had high total bilirubin (43% vs 2.3%; p=0.007) and those with high C-reactive protein (186 vs 90mg/dL; p=0.009) and low corrected calcium (15% vs 0%; p=0.047). […] ICU admission, those on mechanical ventilation, the elderly, those with high total bilirubin and low corrected calcium were associated with high mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
32582740 Anemia, decreased activated partial thromboplastin time, calcium, and albumin, and increased D-dimer and interleukin-6 were more frequent in severe disease.
32582749 Compared with the short-term group, patients in the long-term group had significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein (P = 0.000), troponin I (P = 0.002), myoglobin (P = 0.037), aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.005), lactic dehydrogenase (P = 0.000), prothrombin time (P = 0.030), fibrinogen (P = 0.000), and D-dimer (P = 0.006), but had significantly lower levels of lymphocyte count (P = 0.001), platelet count (P = 0.017), albumin (P = 0.001), and calcium (P = 0.000).
32589164 The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between serum calcium and clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] In this retrospective study, serum calcium levels, hormone levels and clinical laboratory parameters on admission were recorded. […] The median serum calcium levels were 2.12 (IQR, 2.04-2.20) mmol/L, median parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were 55.27 (IQR, 42.73-73.15) pg/mL, and median 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (VD) levels were 10.20 (IQR, 8.20-12.65) ng/mL. […] The serum calcium levels were significantly positively correlated with VD levels (P =0.004) but negatively correlated with PTH levels (P =0.048). […] Patients with lower serum calcium levels (especially ≤2.0 mmol/L) had worse clinical parameters, higher incidences of organ injury and septic shock, and higher 28-day mortality. […] In conclusion, serum calcium was associated with the clinical severity and prognosis of patients with COVID-19.
32597045 Among patients who showed complete compliance, there was a significantly lower risk of COVID-19 for those prescribed angiotensin II receptor blockers (relative risk [RR], 0.751; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.587-0.960) or calcium channel blockers (RR, 0.768; 95% CI, 0.601-0.980).
32622796 We retrospectively investigated the clinical and laboratory characteristics of severe COVID-19 patients. 107 patients were divided into hypocalcemia group and normal serum calcium group. […] Serum calcium levels were negatively correlated with leukocytes, CRP, PCT, IL-6 and D-dimer, while positively correlated with lymphocytes and ALB. […] Median serum calcium levels were significantly lower in the patients with poor outcome (2.01(1.97-2.05) vs 2.10(2.03-2.20), p<0.001), and it could predict the prognosis with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.73(95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-0.83, p<0.001).
32629995 Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are a family of calcium-regulated enzymes that are phylogenetically conserved and cause post-translational deimination/citrullination, contributing to protein moonlighting in health and disease.
32633594 Moreover, in the present study we investigated the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor versus angiotensin receptor blockers versus calcium channel blockers on clinical outcomes as mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admissions, heart injury, and death in 62 patients with hypertension hospitalized for COVID-19 infection.
32637999 Whether pulmonary artery (PA) dimension and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, as assessed by chest computed tomography (CT), are associated with myocardial injury in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not known.
32649272 Mechanisms include its “calcium-channel blocking” effects that lead to downstream suppression of nuclear factor-Kβ, interleukin-6, c-reactive protein, and other related endocrine disrupters; its role in regulating renal potassium loss; and its ability to activate and enhance the functionality of vitamin D, among others.
32662982 Studies have shown that the calcium ion (Ca2+) plays important roles both in Alzheimer’s dementia and SARS-CoV S-mediated fusion to host cell entry. […] An elevated level of intracellular calcium causes neuronal dysfunction, cell death, and apoptosis. […] Dysregulation of calcium has also been shown to increase the production of amyloid beta (Aβ) protein, the hallmark of Alzheimer’s dementia. […] Reversely, deposition of Aβ is also responsible for calcium dysregulation. […] Viruses can also hijack the host cell calcium channels and pumps to release more intracellular Ca2+ to utilize for their life cycle. […] Furthermore, some calcium channel blockers (CCBs), such as nimodipine, memantine, etc., have been reported to be effective in the treatment of dementia in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as well as have shown inhibition in various virus infections.
32679784 Vitamin D is responsible for regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism and maintaining a healthy mineralized skeleton.
32687223 To evaluate the efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) vs calcium channel blockers (CCBs) on the progression of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with hypertension in Wuhan.
32710674 Considering anti-hypertensive drugs, receiving diuretics (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 0.90-1.67; P = .205), calcium channel blockers (HR: 1.29; 95%CI: 0.91-1.82; P = .148), beta-blockers (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.68-1.37; P = .844), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.61-1.13; P = .238) did not significantly alter the risk of PCR-confirmed COVID-19, whereas receiving angiotensin II receptor blockers was associated with an almost statistically significant reduction risk (HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.44-1.01; P = .054).
32729826 From March 2019 to March 2020, there was a 39% increase in angiotensin II antagonist prescriptions, a 33% increase in lipid-lowering drug prescriptions, a 32% increase in calcium channel blocker (CCB) prescriptions, a 30% increase in beta blocker prescriptions, a 27% increase in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, vitamin k antagonist (VKA), and oral antidiabetic prescriptions, a 24% increase in diuretic prescriptions, and an 18% increase in insulin prescriptions.
32755466 Using fluorescent indicators, action potential duration, Ca2+ alternans, and spontaneous calcium release (SCR) incidence were determined. […] Compared with nonfailing hMSCs, failing hMSCs prolonged action potential duration by 24% (P<0.001, n=15), increased Ca2+ alternans by 300% (P<0.001, n=18), and promoted spontaneous calcium release activity (n=14, P<0.013) in human cardiac myocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. […] IL-1β or IL-6 in the absence of hMSCs prolonged action potential duration but only IL-6 increased Ca2+ alternans and promoted spontaneous calcium release activity in human cardiac myocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, replicating the effects of failing hMSCs.
32758873 A NCBI pBlast analysis revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 surface spike protein contains key two calcium-dependent fusion domains that are almost identical to those that were recently discovered SARS-CoV-1. […] These viral calcium-dependent binding domains can facilitate membrane fusion only after cleavage by the host surface protease TMPRSS2. […] Importantly, TMPRSS2 also requires calcium for its SRCR (scavenger receptor cysteine-rich) domain and itsLDLRA(LDL receptor class A) domain. […] EDTA warrants further investigation as a potential treatment for SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 in consideration of the new calcium requirements for virus infection and the regular presence of EDTA excipients in common asthma medications such as Metaproterenol.
32759101 We explored the effects of long-term treatment by calcium channel blockers on the outcomes of COVID-19 infection in patients with high blood pressure during in-patient hospital stays using two sources of information: data available strictly from structured electronic health records (EHRs) and data available through structured EHRs and text mining. […] In our study, use of calcium channel blockers was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19 infection.
32763956 Arthrocentesis of his left ankle revealed mild inflammatory fluid without monosodium urate or calcium pyrophosphate crystals.
32784543 We suggest that linkage between the specific gene defects identified in GS and BS and the myriad of distinctive and frequently overlapping clinical findings may be the result of aberrant glycosylation of ACE2 driven by altered TGN/endosome system acidification caused by the metabolic alkalosis brought about by these salt-losing tubulopathies in addition to their altered intracellular calcium signaling due to a blunted second messenger induced intracellular calcium release that is, in turn, amplified by the RAS system.
32795330 Calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel inhibitors stabilize the pulmonary endothelium and block proinflammatory cytokine release, potentially mitigating respiratory complications observed in patients with COVID-19.
32802622 The majority of the patients received zinc and calcium supplements as well.
32811354 An arguable role in autophagy or apoptosis control has been suggested for VD through calcium signaling at the mitochondrial and ER levels.
32815099 Several lines of evidence collected from experimental studies older than three decades have pointed out the fact that inhibiting calcium entry into cells can affect vital steps in the lifecycle of viruses. […] Hence, calcium channel blockers may be considered as an effective measure in the containment of the viruses.
32835124 Consequently, the use of ion channel inhibitors, such as Calcium Channel blockers or Potassium Channel blockers, can prevent cellular transfection early in the course of the illness.
32841654 Part II of the study evaluated survivability and rate of adverse events for teeth that received partial or full root canal debridement and placement of calcium hydroxide before shutdown.
32852721 The aim of this large-scale, retrospective cohort study was to investigate whether prior exposure to ACEIs and/or ARBs was associated with all-cause mortality among over 40,000 hospitalised COVID-19 patients compared with calcium channel blockers (CCBs), a potential therapeutic alternative.
32853469 Plus, NAD acts as a signalling molecule, being a cosubstrate for several enzymes such as sirtuins, poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs) and some ectoenzymes like CD38, regulating critical biological processes like gene expression, DNA repair, calcium signalling and circadian rhythms.
32870735 Vitamin D is pleiotropic, mediating bone metabolism, calcium homeostasis, and immune functions, whereas VDD is associated with inflammatory reactions and immune dysfunction, predisposing individuals to severe infections.
32879082 The onset age, gender, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negative time, lymphocyte count, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, calcium ion, CD4+ T cell count, CD8+ T cell count, calcitonin, procalcitonin, and troponin were significantly different between the severe group and the non-severe group (all P<0.05).
32904987 Baseline levels of sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride were assessed and the effects of abnormalities in these electrolytes on requirement for intensive care unit and mechanical ventilation, hospitalization duration and treatment outcome were evaluated.
32910830 Individuals with hypertension taking calcium channel blockers had significantly increased risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.3) of manifesting symptoms of COVID-19, whereas those taking angiotensin receptor blockers and diuretics had significantly lower disease risk (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.15-0.30 and OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.58, respectively).
32913696 Interestingly, both of these patients were treated with calcium channel blockers and this class of medications is utilized to prevent HAPE as well. […] In a separate study, vasodilatation with calcium channel blocker (CCB) therapy has been associated with improved mortality in COVID-19 and potential pathophysiologic mechanisms were previously presented.
32923299 Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), Tartrate-resistant Acid Phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b), calcium and phosphorus were assessed at the same time points. […] Serum calcium and phosphorus did not differ among the time points (p=0.516 and p=0.358, respectively).
32926424 This study aimed to evaluate the clinical performance of low serum calcium and phosphorus in discriminative diagnosis of the severity of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] The discriminative power of low calcium and phosphorus regarding the disease severity was evaluated. […] Low calcium and low phosphorus are more prevalent in severe or critical COVID-19 patients than moderate COVID-19 patients (odds ratio [OR], 15.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59-143.18 for calcium; OR, 6.90; 95% CI, 2.43-19.64 for phosphorus). […] The specificity in detecting the severe or critical patients among COVID-19 patients reached 98.5% (95% CI, 92.0%-99.7%) and 84.8% (95% CI, 74.3%-91.6%) by low calcium and low phosphorus, respectively, albeit with suboptimal sensitivity. […] Calcium and phosphorus combined with lymphocyte count could obtain the best discriminative performance for the severe COVID-19 patients (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.80), and combined with oxygenation index was promising (AUC = 0.71). […] Similar discriminative performances of low calcium and low phosphorus were found between suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patient. […] Low calcium and low phosphorus could indicate the severity of COVID-19 patients, and may be utilized as promising clinical biomarkers for discriminative diagnosis.
32928868 More studies reported upregulation than downregulation with ACE-I (n=22), ARBs (n=55), insulin (n=8), thiazolidinedione (n=7) aldosterone agonists (n=3), statins (n=5), oestrogens (n=5) calcium channel blockers (n=3) glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists (n=2) and Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (n=2).
32930523 In this hypothesis paper, we argue that the bisbenzylisoquinoline and calcium channel blocker tetrandrine, originally extracted from the plant Stephania tetrandra and utilized in traditional Chinese medicine, may have potential in the treatment of COVID-19 and should be further investigated.
32935064 We propose that intracellular calcium homeostasis is an alternative mechanism for CQ/HCQ pharmacology, which should be considered when evaluating the risks and benefits of therapy in these patients and other perspective applications.
32964796 Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine (autophagy inhibitor); AKT/protein kinase B: AKT serine/threonine kinase; ATG: autophagy related; ATPase: adenosine triphosphatase; BMM: bone marrow macrophage; CGAS: cyclic GMP-AMP synthase; CHO: Chinese hamster ovary/cell line; CoV: coronaviruses; COVID-19: Coronavirus disease 2019; DMV: double-membrane vesicle; EAV: equine arteritis virus; EDEM1: ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase like protein 1; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERAD: ER-associated degradation; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HCoV: human coronavirus; HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; HSV: herpes simplex virus; IBV: infectious bronchitis virus; IFN: interferon; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MCoV: mouse coronavirus; MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; MHV: mouse hepatitis virus; NBR1: NBR1 autophagy cargo receptor; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2 (autophagy receptor that directs cargo to phagophores); nsp: non-structural protein; OS9: OS9 endoplasmic reticulum lectin; PEDV: porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; PtdIns3K: class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PLP: papain-like protease; pMEF: primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts; SARS-CoV: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SKP2: S-phase kinase associated protein 2; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STING1: stimulator of interferon response cGAMP interactor 1; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; Vps: vacuolar protein sorting.
32965360 A total of 142 patients(84%) were using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), 91 (53.8%) were using diuretics, 69 (40.8%) were using calcium channel blockers (CCBs), 66 (39.1%) were using beta-blockers, 12 (7.1%) were using alpha-blockers, and 5 (2.9%) were using mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs).
32965525 Fahr’s syndrome (or Fahr’s disease) is a rare, neurological disorder characterized by bilateral calcification in the cerebellum, thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex as a result of calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorder.
32967126 As immune cells in infected patients are responsive to the ameliorative effects of vitamin D, the beneficial effects of supplementing vitamin D-deficient individuals with an infectious disease may extend beyond the impact on bone and calcium homeostasis.
32971532 Pre-hospital use vs. non-use of angiotensin receptor blockers (aOR 2.02, CI 1.03-3.96) and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (aOR 1.91, CI 1.03-3.55) were associated with death.
32998607 Thirty-day mortality and risk of admission to the intensive care unit in ACE-Is/ARBs users was compared with nonusers and with users of calcium channel blockers. […] Of 568 019 patients hospitalized with influenza or pneumonia, 100 278 were ACE-I/ARB users and 37 961 were users of calcium channel blockers. […] In propensity score-weighted analyses, ACE-I/ARB users had marginally lower 30-day mortality than users of calcium channel blockers (13.9% versus 14.5%; RD, -0.6%; 95% CI, -1.0 to -0.1; RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99), and a lower risk of admission to the intensive care unit (8.0% versus 9.6%; RD, -1.6%; 95% CI, -2.0 to -1.2; RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.80-0.87).
33002827 Mechanistically, RH repressed calcium store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) induced by LPS, which is due to downregulation of stromal interaction molecule-1 (STIM-1) following upregulating microRNA-185 (miR-185).
33005518 Vitamin D levels obtained were also low (7 ng/dL), phosphorus was at 5.8 mg/dL with albumin of 2.9 g/dL, and calcium level was normal at 9.2 mg/dl. […] He was also started on calcium acetate 1,334 mg three times a day for hyperphosphatemia.
33024460 Mechanistically, a number of ion channels can be adversely affected in COVID-19, leading to alterations in cardiac conduction and/or repolarization properties, as well as calcium handling, which can predispose to cardiac arrhythmogenesis.
33025652 Some antihypertensive drugs affect ACE2 expression or activity (ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers [ARBs]), suggesting use of other hypertensives might be preferable, such as calcium channel blockers (CCBs).
33028754 The counts of leucocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, and basophils and the levels of chloride and calcium in blood of COVID-19 patients were significantly lower than those of non-COVID-19 patients.
33041811 Predictors of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission were the previous use of calcium-channel blockers (P = 0.005), proton pump inhibitors (P = 0.017), low oxygen saturation (P = 0.002), high leukocyte count (P = 0.011), and high D-dimer values (P = 0.005).
33046291 After adjusting for multiple comparisons and controlling numerous confounders, quantile regression revealed that the laboratory indexes of non-survivors were significantly higher in C-reactive protein (CRP; QS = 0.835, p < .001), white blood cell counts (WBC; QS = 0.743, p < .001), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST; QS = 0.735, p < .001), blood glucose (BG; QS = 0.608, p = .059), fibrin degradation product (FDP; QS = 0.730, p = .080), and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), and lower in oxygen saturation (SO2; QS = 0.312, p < .001), calcium (Ca2+; QS = 0.306, p = .073), and pH.