AZITHROMYCIN


DrugBank ID: db00207
DrugCentral: azithromycin
Synonymous :azithromycin | azithromycine | azithromycinum | azitromicina



Drug Sentece Context


Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of azithromycin gene in 118 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32031570 Most patients received antiviral therapy (oseltamivir, 124 [89.9%]), and many received antibacterial therapy (moxifloxacin, 89 [64.4%]; ceftriaxone, 34 [24.6%]; azithromycin, 25 [18.1%]) and glucocorticoid therapy (62 [44.9%]).
32205204 Depending on their clinical presentation, azithromycin was added to the treatment. […] Azithromycin added to hydroxychloroquine was significantly more efficient for virus elimination. […] Despite its small sample size our survey shows that hydroxychloroquine treatment is significantly associated with viral load reduction/disappearance in COVID-19 patients and its effect is reinforced by azithromycin.
32229706 Similarly, two proposed therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 infection are Azithromycin and Quercetin, both drugs with significant senolytic activity. […] As Azithromycin and Doxycycline are both commonly used antibiotics that inhibit viral replication and IL-6 production, we may want to consider this general class of antibiotics that functionally inhibits cellular protein synthesis as a side-effect, for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 disease.
32249257 Very recently, hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin treatment was reported to be effective for COVID-19.
32276453 Two of these senotherapeutics, azithromycin and ruxolitinib, are currently undergoing testing for their efficacy in treating COVID-19.
32282982 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was used by 78.1% of respondents; azithromycin by 46.9%; tocilizumab by 31.3%, and remdesivir by 25.0%.
32285930 The data sources included were 1) longitudinal clinical, pharmacokinetic, and virologic data from patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who received HCQ with or without azithromycin (n=116), 2) in vitro viral replication data and SARS-CoV-2 viral load inhibition by HCQ, 3) a population pharmacokinetic model of HCQ and 4) a model relating chloroquine pharmacokinetics to QTc prolongation.
32289548 We conducted an uncontrolled non-comparative observational study in a cohort of 80 relatively mildly infected inpatients treated with a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin over a period of at least three days, with three main measurements: clinical outcome, contagiousness as assessed by PCR and culture, and length of stay in infectious disease unit (IDU).
32297988 Five studies reported either the safety or efficacy of HCQ + azithromycin.
32299753 This document attempts to provide reasonable guidance for the use of antimicrobials which have uncertain benefit but may increase risk of QT interval prolongation and ventricular proarrhythmia, notably, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
32302411 Azithromycin (AZ) is a broad-spectrum macrolide antibiotic with a long half-life and a large volume of distribution.
32307245 Another promising alternative is hydroxychloroquine (200 mg thrice daily) plus azithromycin (500 mg on day 1, followed by 250 mg once daily on day 2-5), which showed excellent clinical efficacy on Chinese COVID-19 patients and anti-SARS-CoV-2 potency in vitro.
32307653 Studies suggest beneficial effects of azithromycin in reducing viral load of hospitalized patients, possibly interfering with ligand/CD147 receptor interactions; however, its possible effects on SARS-CoV-2 invasion has not yet been evaluated. […] In addition to the possible effect in invasion, azithromycin decreases the expression of some metalloproteinases (downstream to CD147), induces anti-viral responses in primary human bronchial epithelial infected with rhinovirus, decreasing viral replication and release.
32317402 Patients were managed with immunosuppression reduction and the addition of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32322397 Towards that initiative, potential drugs like hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin and azithromycin have been tested by diverse group of researchers worldwide for their potential against novel coronavirus. […] Azithromycin was found to act similar to the hydroxychloroquine as an acidotropic lipophilic weak base.
32327397 Combinations of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin have been promoted as treatments for COVID-19 based on small, uncontrolled clinical trials that have not assessed potential risks. […] Queries extracted reports based on exposures of HCQ/chloroquine (CQ) alone, azithromycin alone, HCQ/CQ + azithromycin, amoxicillin alone, HCQ/CQ + amoxicillin alone. […] The PRRs and 95% CIs for TdP/QT prolongation was 1.43 (1.29-2.59) with HCQ/CQ use alone and 4.10 (3.80-4.42) for azithromycin alone. […] For the combined HCQ/CQ + azithromycin group, the PRR and 95% CI was 3.77 (1.80-7.87). […] However, azithromycin used alone was associated with TdP/QT prolongation events and should be used with caution.
32330277 The preliminary findings of this study suggest that the higher CQ dosage should not be recommended for critically ill patients with COVID-19 because of its potential safety hazards, especially when taken concurrently with azithromycin and oseltamivir.
32330343 Among the 68 hospitalized patients, 12% required non-rebreather and 35% required intubation. 91% received hydroxychloroquine, 66% azithromycin, 3% remdesivir, 21% tocilizumab, and 24% bolus steroids.
32330521 Given the media attention and claims of effectiveness, we chose chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, in combination with azithromycin, as an area of COVID-19 research to examine. […] We found 6 studies, 3 randomized control trials and 3 observational studies, focusing on chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (with azithromycin).
32336586 Current guidelines recommend combination treatment with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin or chloroquine, if hydroxychloroquine is unavailable, in patients with moderate disease, although these recommendations are based on limited evidence.
32337139 Recent findings of an open-label study that investigated the use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in COVID-19 patients in Marseille, France, has garnered some optimism in scientific quarters and the general public alike in terms of finding a treatment regimen to control the rampant rise of COVID-19.
32337859 During the hospitalization period, the chest infiltrative lesion showed a wax and wane, but he successfully recovered by administration of hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin.
32339248 The preliminary findings of this study suggest that the higher CQ dosage should not be recommended for critically ill patients with COVID-19 because of its potential safety hazards, especially when taken concurrently with azithromycin and oseltamivir.
32339832 Without much experience, currently, the medicines that are clinically being evaluated for COVID-19 include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, lopinavir, ritonavir, tocilizumab and corticosteroids.
32342252 In a preliminary clinical study, we observed that the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin was effective against SARS-CoV-2 by shortening the duration of viral load in Covid-19 patients.
32344177 In vivo it showed efficacy, especially when combined with azithromycin in a preliminary clinical trial. […] Here we demonstrate that the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin has a synergistic effect in vitro on SARS-CoV-2 at concentrations compatible with that obtained in human lung.
32344226 It was analyzed that a combination of antiviral drugs with hydroxyl-chloroquine and azithromycin (with the consultation of a medical practitioner) may be the best option to treat the patients, depending on the patient’s conditions and symptoms.
32347743 Small studies have shown a potential benefit of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19. […] Use of these medications alone, or in combination, can lead to a prolongation of the QT interval, possibly increasing the risk of Torsade de pointes (TdP) and sudden cardiac death. Methods - Hospitalized patients treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin from March 1st through the 23rd at three hospitals within the Northwell Health system were included in this prospective, observational study. […] Ten patients (5.0%) received chloroquine, 191 (95.0%) received hydroxychloroquine and 119 (59.2%) also received azithromycin. […] Baseline QTc intervals did not differ between patients treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (monotherapy group) vs. those treated with combination group (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin) (440.6 ± 24.9 ms vs. […] No arrhythmogenic deaths were reported. Conclusions - In the largest reported cohort of COVID-19 patients to date treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine {plus minus} azithromycin, no instances of TdP or arrhythmogenic death were reported.
32351040 All hospitalized patients received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32352944 Interferon-alpha (5 million U twice daily by inhalation), lopinavir/ritonavir (400/100 mg twice daily orally), as well as chloroquine (500 mg twice daily orally for 10 days) and azithromycin (500 mg twice per day) cause a milder course of the disease and reduce the duration of treatment.
32354651 In the context of NM diseases, particular attention must be paid to two experimental COVID-19 treatments, hydroxycholoroquine and azithromycin: risk of exacerbation of myasthenia gravis and QT prolongation in patients with pre-existing cardiac involvement.
32356863 Administration of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pneumonia carries increased risk of corrected QT (QTc) prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias. […] To characterize the risk and degree of QT prolongation in patients with COVID-19 in association with their use of hydroxychloroquine with or without concomitant azithromycin. […] Change in QT interval after receiving hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin; occurrence of other potential adverse drug events. […] Among 90 patients given hydroxychloroquine, 53 received concomitant azithromycin; 44 (48.9%) were female, and the mean (SD) body mass index was 31.5 (6.6). […] The overall median (interquartile range) baseline QTc was 455 (430-474) milliseconds (hydroxychloroquine, 473 [454-487] milliseconds vs hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, 442 [427-461] milliseconds; P < .001). […] Those receiving concomitant azithromycin had a greater median (interquartile range) change in QT interval (23 [10-40] milliseconds) compared with those receiving hydroxychloroquine alone (5.5 [-15.5 to 34.25] milliseconds; P = .03). […] Of those who received concomitant azithromycin, 11 of 53 (21%) had prolonged QTc of 500 milliseconds or more and 7 of 53 (13 %) had a change in QTc of 60 milliseconds or more. […] In this cohort study, patients who received hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of pneumonia associated with COVID-19 were at high risk of QTc prolongation, and concurrent treatment with azithromycin was associated with greater changes in QTc. […] Clinicians should carefully weigh risks and benefits if considering hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, with close monitoring of QTc and concomitant medication usage.
32360581 Azithromycin has been shown to have a clinical efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; ivermectin has also demonstrated a remarkable experimental efficacy with a potential to be used for Coronavirus disease 2019. […] This article illustrates some structural and functional relationships that may gather these drugs and the author, basing on a combined pathophysiological and pharmacological approach, recommends the FDA-approved antidiarrhea drug; nitazoxanide, which has been previously suggested but unfortunately widely ignored, to be tested in combination with azithromycin for their potential activity against SARS CoV-2, soonest.
32363143 The patient was primarily treated with chloroquine and azithromycin.
32363221 The results of ongoing clinical trials on hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin alone or in combination and a new antiviral agent remdesivir may help to treat some of the infections.
32368483 He was started on hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin with no improvement of symptoms.
32372695 Many antibiotics commonly used for the treatment of patients with COVID-19, for instance azithromycin, can also prolong QT interval.
32375574 This study demonstrated the putative inhibitory potential of lopinavir, remdesivir, oseltamir, azithromycin, ribavirin, and chloroquine towards V-ATPase, protein kinase A, SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein/ACE-2 complex and viral proteases. […] The amino acids Asp269, Leu370, His374, and His345 were predicted as the key residues for lopinavir binding to human SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein/ACE-2 complex while His378, Tyr515, Leu73, Leu100, Phe32 and Phe40 for remdesivir and Tyr510, Phe504, Met62, Tyr50, and His378 were predicted for azithromycin as the key residues for binding to SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein/ACE-2 complex.
32387409 In France, the combination hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) is used in the treatment of COVID-19.
32389720 A recent report identified significant reductions or disappearance of viral load in COVID-19 patients given a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. […] The physicochemical properties of both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin are consistent with particularly high affinity for the intracellular lysosomal space, which has been implicated as a target site for antiviral activity. […] These predictions are consistent with previously reported experimentally measured cellular and extracellular concentrations of azithromycin. […] The combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin produces very high local concentrations in lysosomes.
32391234 He positively responded to a 14-day course of Lopinavir-Ritonavir, Ribavirin, Azithromycin, and Hydroxychloroquine.
32392007 Amoxicillin is first choice treatment for respiratory infections during the COVID-19 epidemic; there is lack of evidence to support azithromycin as a first choice.Respiratory rate > 24 / min or saturation <92-94% indicate imminent respiratory decompensation and may be reasons for referral.
32392282 Hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, has been considered as a possible therapeutic agent for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] To describe the association between use of hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, and clinical outcomes among hospital inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19. […] Receipt of both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, or neither. […] Among 1438 hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 (858 [59.7%] male, median age, 63 years), those receiving hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both were more likely than those not receiving either drug to have diabetes, respiratory rate >22/min, abnormal chest imaging findings, O2 saturation lower than 90%, and aspartate aminotransferase greater than 40 U/L. […] The probability of death for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin was 189/735 (25.7% [95% CI, 22.3%-28.9%]), hydroxychloroquine alone, 54/271 (19.9% [95% CI, 15.2%-24.7%]), azithromycin alone, 21/211 (10.0% [95% CI, 5.9%-14.0%]), and neither drug, 28/221 (12.7% [95% CI, 8.3%-17.1%]). […] In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, compared with patients receiving neither drug, there were no significant differences in mortality for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin (HR, 1.35 [95% CI, 0.76-2.40]), hydroxychloroquine alone (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.63-1.85]), or azithromycin alone (HR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.26-1.21]). […] In logistic models, compared with patients receiving neither drug cardiac arrest was significantly more likely in patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin (adjusted OR, 2.13 [95% CI, 1.12-4.05]), but not hydroxychloroquine alone (adjusted OR, 1.91 [95% CI, 0.96-3.81]) or azithromycin alone (adjusted OR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.27-1.56]), . […] Among patients hospitalized in metropolitan New York with COVID-19, treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both, compared with neither treatment, was not significantly associated with differences in in-hospital mortality.
32394481 Questions on the controversial use of hydroxychloroquine and to a lesser extent concerning azithromycin have been the most consulted Q&As.
32395418 These drugs and therapeutic agents include antiviral agents (remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, and oseltamivir), and supporting agents (Ascorbic acid, Azithromycin, Corticosteroids, Nitric oxide, IL-6 antagonists), among others.
32395788 Fifteen patients received both chloroquine and azithromycin.
32397399 Using propensity scores, the 21 patients who received TCZ were matched to 21 patients who received SOC (a combination of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and prophylactic dose of low weight heparin).
32398343 While novel drugs are being developed, azithromycin has been identified as a candidate treatment in the interim. […] To review the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of azithromycin in treating COVID-19. […] In vivo and in vitro studies were included assessing the safety and effectiveness of azithromycin for treatment of COVID-19, and/or the activity of azithromycin against SARS-CoV-2. […] The in vitro studies revealed conflicting results, with one finding anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity for azithromycin alone, while the other found activity against SARS-CoV-2 only when azithromycin was combined with hydroxychloroquine. […] A small trial of 36 patients, with high risk of bias, found superior viral clearance in patients with COVID-19 treated with azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine combined, compared with hydroxychloroquine alone. […] There is no evidence to support the use of azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19 outside of the context of clinical trials, unless it is used to treat bacterial super-infection. […] There is extremely limited evidence of a possible synergy between azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine. […] The adverse events profile of azithromycin in the context of COVID-19 has not yet been established.
32399456 A 52-year-old patient with SARS-CoV-2 was diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia and treated with darunavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).
32405156 Hydroxychloroquine (CLQ-OH)/azithromycin (ATM) combination therapy is currently being tested for the treatment of COVID-19, with promising results.
32405418 None of the infected nurses were hospitalized and all of them preferred to be quarantine at home and receive the necessary care and treatment (Oseltamivir, Azithromycin and Kaletra.
32405423 Minimum estimated costs of production were US $0.93/day for remdesivir, $1.45/day for favipiravir, $0.08/day for hydroxychloroquine, $0.02/day for chloroquine, $0.10/day for azithromycin, $0.28/day for lopinavir/ritonavir, $0.39/day for sofosbuvir/daclatasvir and $1.09/day for pirfenidone.
32405877 At present, anti-IL-6, antiviral therapy, convalescent plasma, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin among others are being investigated as potential treatments for COVID-19.
32407884 Initial reports suggesting the potential benefit of Hydroxychloroquine/Azithromycin (HY/AZ) have resulted in massive adoption of this combination worldwide.
32409150 Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine (chloroquine) plus azithromycin is considered as therapy for COVID-19. […] We compared risk of cardiac adverse events between combinations of chloroquine and azithromycin and chloroquine and amoxicillin. […] We included autoimmune disease patients aged ≥18 years initiating azithromycin or amoxicillin for ≥5 days during chloroquine treatment. […] The adjusted incidence of cardiac symptoms among azithromycin and amoxicillin users was 276 vs 254 per 10,000 person-years with an adjusted HR of 1.10 (95%CI, 0.62-1.95). […] Combination use of chloroquine and azithromycin at routine doses did not show pronounced increases in arrhythmias in this real-world population, though small sample size and outcome rates limit conclusions.
32418181 COVID-19 infection has shown rapid growth worldwide, and different therapies have been proposed for treatment, in particular, the combination of immune response modulating drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (antimalarials) alone or in combination with azithromycin.
32418730 Several publicized drugs are being used with not much evidence of their efficacy such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin or lopinavir-ritonavir. […] Since March 27th, 2020, the French Pharmacovigilance Network directed all cardiac adverse drug reactions associated with “off-label” use of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and lopinavir-ritonavir in COVID-19 to the Nice Regional Center of Pharmacovigilance. […] In one month, 120 reports of cardiac adverse drug reactions have been notified, 103 of which associated with hydroxychloroquine alone (86%), or associated with azithromycin (60%).
32419524 To obtain convincing recommendations, we referred to opinions from the US National Institute of Health regarding drugs repurposed for COVID-19 therapy.Expert opinion: Although strong evidence of well-designed randomized controlled studies regarding COVID-19 therapy is presently lacking, remdesivir, teicoplanin, hydroxychloroquine (not in combination with azithromycin), and ivermectin might be effective antiviral drugs and are deemed promising candidates for controlling SARS-CoV-2.
32425051 We describe here the protocol for a pragmatic, active comparator trial in as many as 300 patients comparing two current “off-label” treatments for COVID-19-hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin-in academic and non-academic hospitals in Utah.
32425199 Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir are currently being studied in trials and show some promise.
32425246 The only FDA approved drug to treat COVID-19 is remdesivir, and other off-label medications used include chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, convalescent plasma therapy, azithromycin, vitamin C, corticosteroids, interferon and colchicine.
32426230 He was treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin with improvement in mental status back to baseline after 6 days.
32426242 She was treated with intravenous fluids, ceftriaxone, azithromycin, and hydroxychloroquine.
32426812 We evaluated the potential antiviral effects of azithromycin on the nasopharyngeal virome of Nigerien children who had received multiple rounds of mass drug administration. […] We found that the respiratory burden of non-SARS coronaviruses was decreased with azithromycin distributions.
32428144 In severe cases, the use of medications such as hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin or medication can be promising.
32438446 Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, mefloquine, atazanavir (ritonavir-boosted), tipranavir (ritonavir-boosted), ivermectin, azithromycin and lopinavir (ritonavir-boosted) were all predicted to achieve lung concentrations over 10-fold higher than their reported EC50 .
32439366 Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combination therapy is often prescribed for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] We performed 12‑lead ECGs and 12‑lead 24-h Holter ECG monitoring in all patients aged <80 years admitted to our medical unit for COVID-19, in oral therapy with hydroxychloroquine (200 mg, twice daily) and azithromycin (500 mg, once daily) for at least 3 days. […] Therapy with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin prolongs QTc interval in patients with COVID-19, particularly in those with high levels of transaminases.
32442941 We found an anti-inflammatory effect with reduction of longterm cardiovascular events, a very infrequent heart disease due to a lysosomal effect of the drug, and at the hemodynamic level hypotension, tachycardia, and QT interval prolongation, exacerbated when combined with azithromycin.
32445484 Several drugs are being repurposed into clinical trials in COVID-19 patients, ranging from drugs already well established in other diseases, such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir+ ritonavir, azithromycin and tocilizumab/sarilumab, to those such as remdesivir still in development for their initial indication (1).
32446866 A combination such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and zinc, all of which have previously been used topically in the eye and which work at least in part by blocking ACE2 receptors, may offer a safe, cost-effective and resource-sparing intervention.
32449128 Patients who combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin presented 3/18 deaths, regardless of age, staging, histology, cancer treatment and comorbidities (OR 0.02, p = 0.03). […] Combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin is presented as a good treatment option.
32458149 A number of anti-viral drugs such as ribavirin, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, antibiotics such as azithromycin and doxycycline, and anti-parasite such as ivermectin have been recommended for COVID-19 treatment.
32458969 Two candidate medications have been widely discussed: remdesivir, and hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin. […] Hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin has been widely misrepresented in both clinical reports and public media, and outpatient trials results are not expected until September. […] Evidence about use of hydroxychloroquine alone, or of hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin in inpatients, is irrelevant concerning efficacy of the pair in early high-risk outpatient disease. […] Hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin has been used as standard-of-care in more than 300,000 older adults with multicomorbidities, with estimated proportion diagnosed with cardiac arrhythmias attributable to the medications 47/100,000 users, of which estimated mortality is <20%, 9/100,000 users, compared to the 10,000 Americans now dying each week.
32463308 Several pharmacological therapies have been suggested including repurposing of existing drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, sometimes co-administered with azithromycin. […] Azithromycin also can cause modest QT interval prolongation, but not through potent hERG channel blockade, rather when used chronically through an increase in peak and late cardiac sodium current to cause potential loading of cardiomyocytes with sodium and calcium to produce calcium overload. […] How should we proceed with the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, potentially combined with azithromycin, for COVID-19 given that these agents bring some cardiac toxicity risk and their mechanisms for cardiac toxicity may not be the same?
32463348 Background Despite a lack of clinical evidence, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin are being administered widely to patients with verified or suspected COVID-19. […] Methods and Results We performed a case series of COVID-19 positive/suspected patients admitted between 2/1/2020 and 4/4/2020 who were treated with azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, or a combination. […] Azithromycin was prescribed in 28%, hydroxychloroquine in 10%, and both in 62%. […] Changes in QTc were highest with the combination compared to either drug, with much greater prolongation with combination vs. azithromycin (17±39 vs.
32468425 Some of the clinical studies demonstrated good virological and clinical outcomes with HCQ alone or in combination with azithromycin in COVID-19 patients, although the studies had major methodological limitations.
32469045 Dispensing of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, enoxaparin, and sedative medications increased substantially during the pandemic period (P < 0.01 for all comparisons).
32469614 Four patients were treated with azithromycin and a cephalosporin and two were also treated with hydroxychloroquine.
32471001 The main treatment combination was hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32471876 Additional mortality risk factors may include age, performance status, treatment with chemotherapy, and exposure to hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin.
32473681 In logistic regression analysis, independent factors associated with increased 30-day mortality, after partial adjustment, were: increased age (per 10 years; partially adjusted odds ratio 1·84, 95% CI 1·53-2·21), male sex (1·63, 1·07-2·48), smoking status (former smoker vs never smoked: 1·60, 1·03-2·47), number of comorbidities (two vs none: 4·50, 1·33-15·28), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or higher (status of 2 vs 0 or 1: 3·89, 2·11-7·18), active cancer (progressing vs remission: 5·20, 2·77-9·77), and receipt of azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine (vs treatment with neither: 2·93, 1·79-4·79; confounding by indication cannot be excluded).
32476080 The following variables were extracted for this study: age, gender, temperature, and saturation of oxygen on admission, treatment with heparin, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, steroids, tocilizumab, a combination of lopinavir with ritonavir, and oseltamivir, together with data on mortality.
32493475 Weight less than 40 Kg.Participant with any immunosuppressive condition or hematological disease.Treatment with drugs that may prolong QT in the last month before randomization for more than 7 days including: azithromycin, chlorpromazine, cisapride, clarithromycin, domperidone, droperidol, erythromycin, halofantrine, haloperidol, lumefantrine, mefloquine, methadone, pentamidine, procainamide, quinidine, quinine, sotalol, sparfloxacin, thioridazine, amiodarone.Hereditary intolerance to galactose, Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose or galactose malabsorption.Treatment with fluvoxamine.Treatment with benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine analogues such as zolpidem, zopiclone or zaleplon.Pregnancy.Breastfeeding.History of potentially immune derived diseases such as: lupus, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, vasculitis or rheumatoid arthritis.Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.Known history of hypersensitivity to the study drug or any of its components.Patients that should not be included in the study at the judgment of the research team.
32494896 One hundred fifty-five of 498 (31%) reported regular use of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZM); concomitant use of AZM was more common in the USA.
32496357 Eighty-percent received hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin.
32501367 Co-administration of chloroquine with other drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 patients, like azithromycin, can further increase the risk of QT prolongation and cardiomyopathy.
32505076 Combined treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin improves the outcome of Covid-19 in lung cancer patients, detecting only 1/6 deaths between patients under this treatment versus others treatment, with statistical significance in the univariate and multivariate logistic regression (OR 0.04, p = 0.018). […] Combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin treatment seems like a good treatment option.
32510734 Initial enthusiasm for the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin has abated. […] However, as a result of positive clinical experience with azithromycin used alone during the first few days of the flu-like illness caused by this coronavirus, we recommend formal clinical trials using azithromycin early in the course of a COVID-19 infection. […] There is one clinical trial initiated, the individually-randomized, telemedicine-based, “Azithromycin for COVID-19 Treatment in Outpatients Nationwide (ACTION)” based at the University of California San Francisco. […] This placebo-controlled trial is designed to determine the efficacy of a single 1.2 g dose of oral azithromycin to prevent COVID-19 patient progression to hospitalization. […] We recommend formal clinical trials of azithromycin in its prepackaged form at the first sign of COVID-19 infection in adults and children, using an initial adult dose of 500 mg followed by 250 mg per day for four days, a total cumulative dose of 1.5 g, and for children 5 to 18 years of age, 10 mg/kg on the first day followed by 5 mg/kg for four days.
32511867 Azithromycin, a broad-spectrum macrolide antibiotic, is being investigated in patients with COVID-19. […] These data will better inform optimization of dosing regimens for azithromycin clinical trials.
32519281 The odds of mortality were significantly higher in patients treated with Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin than supportive care alone [2.34 (95% CI: 1.63, 3.34); I2 = 0%].
32522282 The aim of this randomised GCP-controlled trial is to clarify whether combination therapy with the antibiotic azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine via anti-inflammation/immune modulation, antiviral efficacy and pre-emptive treatment of supra-infections can shorten hospitalisation duration for patients with COVID-19 (measured as “days alive and out of hospital” as the primary outcome), reduce the risk of non- invasive ventilation, treatment in the intensive care unit and death. […] Fertile women* must not be pregnant, i.e. negative pregnancy test must be available at inclusion • Informed consent signed by the patient *Defined as after menarche and until postmenopausal (no menstruation for 12 months) Exclusion criteria: • At the time of recruitment, the patient uses >5 LO2/min (equivalent to 40% FiO2 if measured) • Known intolerance/allergy to azithromycin or hydroxychloroquine or hypersensitivity to quinine or 4-aminoquinoline derivatives • Neurogenic hearing loss • Psoriasis • Retinopathy • Maculopathy • Visual field changes • Breastfeeding • Severe liver diseases other than amoebiasis (INR> 1.5 spontaneously) • Severe gastrointestinal, neurological and hematological disorders (investigator-assessed) • eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m2 • Clinically significant cardiac conduction disorders/arrhythmias or prolonged QTc interval (QTc (f) of> 480/470 ms). […] Immediately after randomisation to the intervention group, the patient will begin treatment with: Azithromycin: Day 1-3: 500 mg x 1 Day 4-15: 250 mg x 1 If the patient is unable to take the medication orally by themselves, the medication will, if possible, be administered by either stomach-feeding tube, or alternatively, temporary be changed to clarithromycin 500 mg x 2 (this only in agreement with either study coordinator Pradeesh Sivapalan or principal investigator Jens-Ulrik Stæhr Jensen). […] The patient will switch back to azithromycin when possible.
32522617 Some potential medications like chloroquine by itself or in combination with azithromycin, and some protease inhibitors used for the treatment of COVID-19 have cardiovascular adverse effects that should be kept in mind in order to close monitor of the patients receiving these medications.
32522674 Some of these drugs -particularly azithromycin and other macrolides, indomethacin and some other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors and fluoxetine - could provide additional therapeutic benefits in addition to the potential antiviral effect that is still to be confirmed by well-controlled clinical trials.
32523150 The use of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and antiviral treatment and has been proposed by various groups, supported by in-vitro studies and limited patient series, without the adequate scientific rigor that precedes drug prescription.
32531808 We use a mechanistic lung model to demonstrate that accumulation of chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) in the lungs is sensitive to changes in lung pH, a parameter that can be affected in patients with COVID-19.
32532948 A 71-year old gentleman with history of arterial hypertension treated with valsartan presented on was hospitalized at the Infectious Diseases Unit, University of Bologna (Italy) for severe acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and received treatment with hydroxychloroquine 200mg bid (400 mg bid the first day), azithromycin 400 mg qd, thrombotic prophylaxis with enoxaparin 4000 UI qd and Venturi mask oxygen delivering FiO2 of 31%.
32533263 The co-administration of hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin is proposed in COVID-19 therapy. […] Azithromycin is a substrate of ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) which is localized in endosomes and lysosomes with a polarized substrate transport from the cell cytosol into the vesicle interior. […] Based on these considerations, we hypothesize that ABCB1 could be a possible enhancer by confining azithromycin more extensively than expected when the trapping is solely dependent on the passive diffusion. […] This additional mechanism may therefore explain the synergistic effect when azithromycin is added to hydroxychloroquine, leading to apparently more rapid virus clearance and better clinical benefit, when compared to monotherapy with hydroxychloroquine alone.
32534189 Since the most severe clinical manifestation of COVID-19 appeared to be a severe acute respiratory syndrome, azithromycin has been proposed as a potential treatment. […] Azithromycin is known to have immunomodulating and antiviral properties. […] In vitro studies have demonstrated the capacity of azithromycin to reduce production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8, IL-6, TNF alpha, reduce oxidative stress and modulate T-helper functions. […] At the same time there are multiple clinical evidences of the role of azithromycin in acute respiratory distress syndrome and against MERS. […] Some preliminary evidences have demonstrated controversial results regarding efficacy of azithromycin in combination with hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19. […] Firstly, a French trial demonstrated 100% of virological negativization of six patients treated with azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine vs 57.1% of patients treated with only hydroxychloroquine and 12.5% of the control group (p<0.05). […] Furthermore, there are some concerns regarding the association of azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine because of the potential Qt prolongation. […] However, based on preclinical and clinical evidences and some preliminary results in COVID-19, azithromycin could have a potential in the fight against this new disease.
32534369 The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warned against the use of Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for Covid-19 outside of a hospital or a clinical trial setting due to the risk of QT interval prolongation, ventricular tachycardia and the increased risk of these complications when combined with some antibiotics such as azithromycin. […] Despite these warnings, in several developing countries the official guidelines for treatment of Covid-19 patients at the primary care level recommend Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, among other treatments, as the first-choice for mild symptomatic Covid-19 patients, asymptomatic contacts or for prophylaxis.
32537099 The results of a clinical trial comparing hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin to the standard of care for the treatment of COVID-19 were recently published by Philippe Gautret et al. […] This study provides outstanding results for the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin over the standard of care, but the evidence was deemed insufficiently robust to warrant a public health decision to widen the use of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19.
32538597 For children three months to three years of age, azithromycin or amoxicillin is recommended if pneumonia is suspected; for urinary infections, suggested antibiotics are cefixime, amoxicillin/clavulanate, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.
32546018 The initial clinical trials on hydroquinone in combination with azithromycin showed an admirable result in the reduction of COVID-19.
32546437 All except two patients (97%; n=61) were treated with either chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, while the three most prescribed antibiotics were ceftriaxone (79%; n=50), azithromycin (71%; n=45), and the piperacillin/tazobactam combination (49%; n=31).
32550056 There is no definitive treatment, although a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin have shown good results, and passive immunization also shows promising results, their safety profile is yet to be studied in detail.
32550095 We report a case of a 65-year-old man with diabetes and severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation and treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, nafamostat, and prone positioning.
32554149 Although macrolides like azithromycin and clarithromycin etc., have been reported to act against respiratory infections but they lack the ability of immunity enhancement through defensins.
32554424 Two patients were managed with both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin; one was treated with lopinavir-ritonavir.
32556649 His respiratory function deteriorated despite treatments with lopinavir/ritonavir, oseltamivir, azithromycin and meropenem at a regional hospital.
32557347 Hospitalization with supportive therapy (azithromycin) as well as non-invasive oxygenation led to a stabilization of the patient.
32562159 According to the drug regimen, the patients were divided into two groups; group I who received regimen I consisting azithromycin, prednisolone, naproxen, and lopinavir/ritonavir and group II who received regimen II including meropenem, levofloxacin, vancomycin, hydroxychloroquine, and oseltamivir. […] This study revealed the beneficial effect of the short-term use of low-dose prednisolone in combination with azithromycin, naproxen and lopinavir/ritonavir (regimen I), in decreasing ALOS compared to regimen II.
32563969 Currently available expert opinions suggest reduction of immunosuppression therapy for renal transplant recipients with symptomatic COVID-19 infection with either antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine and/or azithromycin.
32573882 All patients received a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin; half of the patients received methylprednisolone.
32576712 Covariates were lymphocyte count, serum levels of albumin, C-Reactive Protein, D-Dimers and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), anticoagulation level, and exposure to the hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combined therapy.
32578794 In severe cases, the use of medications such as hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin or medication can be promising.
32580215 The patient was given NIMV (non-invasive mechanical ventilation), and hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir and azithromycin in isolation intensive care, with the diagnosis of severe pneumonia.
32581194 In our previous basic studies, drugs including chloroquine and azithromycin strongly suppressed the channel activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine production from lymphocytes. […] These findings suggest a novel pharmacological mechanism by which chloroquine, with or without azithromycin, is effective for severe cases of COVID-19, in which the overactivation of cellular immunity and the subsequent cytokine storm are responsible for the pathogenesis.
32585765 Darunavir together with ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and favipiravir were initiated on the first day of admission at primary hospital.
32588427 Association between Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Azithromycin (AZT) is under evaluation for patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2).