DrugBank ID: db00026
DrugCentral: anakinra
Synonymous :anakinra | il-1ra | interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of anakinra gene in 54 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32267081 To report the benefit of a therapeutic approach consisting of intravenous continuous anakinra (recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist) infusions in treating severely ill adult patients with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome (sHLH/MAS). […] Continuous IV anakinra infusions up to 2400 mg/day resulted in rapid serologic, then clinical response in 4/5 severely ill patients who were refractory to all other therapies including subcutaneous anakinra. […] Subsequently, 3/5 have been maintained on anakinra or canakinumab with no recurrence of MAS. […] Continuous infusion of IV anakinra may result in rapid serologic and subsequent clinical improvement in adult patients with MAS.
32410772 Thus, anti-proinflammatory cytokine drugs like Anakinra and Tocilizumab are undergoing multiple trials and some results are encouraging.
32411313 Here, we report on the treatment of eight severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients– seven hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) in Greece and one non-ICU patient in the Netherlands– with the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra. […] These data suggest that administration of Anakinra may be beneficial for treating severe COVID-19 patients with sHLH as determined by the HScore and support the need for larger clinical studies to validate this concept.
32422376 We report the first successful treatment with the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra, in association with the most promising and available antiviral therapy, of a severe case of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] We describe the diagnosis, clinical course, and management of the case, including the respiratory failure at presentation, the progression to a scenario characterized by profound inflammatory dysregulation similar to that observed during macrophage activation syndrome, and the clinical improvement after treatment with the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra. […] This case highlights the high tolerability and the interesting immunomodulatory profile of the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra in the setting of severe COVID-19 associated with remdesivir therapy.
32433778 Several drugs with anti-inflammatory properties (tocilizumab, siltuximab, sarilumab, anakinra, among others) have been suggested as adjuncts to supportive care in the management of COVID-19, and several clinical trials are underway (NCT04315298, NCT04317092, NCT04306705).
32437739 This pilot study provides the first evidence of the safety of anti-IL-1 treatment with highdose IV anakinra in 5 patients, who experienced a positive outcome.
32437934 We present here the case of a patient with critical COVID-19 successfully treated with IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra).
32438450 IL-1 blockage with anakinra has been shown to be safe and is associated with clinical improvement in patients with hyperinflammatory COVID-19 (Cavalli, et al 2020).
32441764 PARPi’s may potentiate the effectiveness of Tocilizumab, Anakinra, Sarilumab, Adalimumab, Canakinumab or Siltuximab therapy.
32470751 Thus, anti-proinflammatory cytokine drugs like Anakinra and Tocilizumab are undergoing multiple trials and some results are encouraging.
32482538 Anakinra is a potent biological drug, capable of blocking this IL-1ß.
32493441 The experimental arms consist of Anakinra alone (anti-IL-1 binding the IL-1 receptor), Siltuximab alone (anti-IL-6 chimeric antibody), a combination of Siltuximab and Anakinra, Tocilizumab alone (humanised anti-IL-6 receptor antibody) or a combination of Anakinra with Tocilizumab in addition to standard care. […] Patients treated with Anakinra will receive a daily subcutaneous injection of 100mg for a maximum of 28 days or until hospital discharge, whichever comes first. […] A 2x2 factorial design was selected with a 2:1 randomization regarding the IL-1 blockade (Anakinra) and a 1:2 randomization regarding the IL-6 blockade (Siltuximab and Tocilizumab). […] A total of 342 participants will be enrolled: 76 patients will receive usual care, 76 patients will receive Siltuximab alone, 76 patients will receive Tocilizumab alone, 38 will receive Anakinra alone, 38 patients will receive Anakinra and Siltuximab and 38 patients will receive Anakinra and Tocilizumab.
32501454 Anakinra is a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist that might be beneficial in this patient population. […] We compared survival, mechanical ventilation-free survival, changes in C-reactive protein, respiratory function, and clinical status in a cohort of patients who received additional treatment with anakinra (either 5 mg/kg twice a day intravenously [high dose] or 100 mg twice a day subcutaneously [low dose]) with a retrospective cohort of patients who did not receive anakinra (referred to as the standard treatment group). […] Between March 17 and March 27, 2020, 29 patients received high-dose intravenous anakinra, non-invasive ventilation, and standard treatment. […] A further seven patients received low-dose subcutaneous anakinra in addition to non-invasive ventilation and standard treatment; however, anakinra treatment was interrupted after 7 days because of a paucity of effects on serum C-reactive protein and clinical status. […] At 21 days, treatment with high-dose anakinra was associated with reductions in serum C-reactive protein and progressive improvements in respiratory function in 21 (72%) of 29 patients; five (17%) patients were on mechanical ventilation and three (10%) died. […] At 21 days, survival was 90% in the high-dose anakinra group and 56% in the standard treatment group (p=0·009). […] Mechanical ventilation-free survival was 72% in the anakinra group versus 50% in the standard treatment group (p=0·15). […] Bacteraemia occurred in four (14%) of 29 patients receiving high-dose anakinra and two (13%) of 16 patients receiving standard treatment. […] Discontinuation of anakinra was not followed by inflammatory relapses. […] In this retrospective cohort study of patients with COVID-19 and ARDS managed with non-invasive ventilation outside of the ICU, treatment with high-dose anakinra was safe and associated with clinical improvement in 72% of patients.
32569708 The inflammatory phase includes therapeutic options like Tocilizumab, Anakinra, Baricitinib, Eculizumab, Emapalumab and Heparin.
32571730 However, the role of anti-IL-1 receptor antibodies, such as anakinra, in the treatment of COVID-19 has not been established. […] We present a case report of a 51-year-old man diagnosed with severe respiratory infection associated with SARS-CoV-2 that was refractory to antiviral and anti-IL-6 treatment, with a favourable clinical outcome and analytical improvement after treatment with anti-IL-1 (anakinra).
32267072 Anakinra, a recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist, has been used subcutaneously and intravenously in pediatric patients and is considered a first-line treatment for MAS and secondary HLH (sHLH) among many pediatric rheumatologists. […] Previous reports of anakinra used in adults for treatment of MAS or sHLH are limited to subcutaneous administration. […] In this issue, Moneagudo et al. present a series of adult patients with sHLH treated with intravenous anakinra, including patients in whom subcutaneous anakinra was insufficient. […] As the authors suggest, there is a potential therapeutic use for anakinra in sHLH or the cytokine storm syndrome triggered by COVID19.
32593339 Immunomodulatory medication used included corticosteroids (22 [4%] patients), intravenous immunoglobulin (seven [1%] patients), tocilizumab (four [1%] patients), anakinra (three [1%] patients), and siltuximab (one [<1%] patient).
32602262 To report the clinical experience with anakinra for preventing mechanical ventilation (MV) in patients with COVID-19, features of cytokine storm syndrome (CSS), and acute hypoxic respiratory failure (AHRF). […] Subcutaneous anakinra was initiated at 100 mg q6 hours and gradually tapered off completely. […] Eleven of 14 patients meeting criteria received anakinra for a maximum of 19 days. […] Seven of those who initiated anakinra ≤36 hours after onset of AHRF did not require MV, and all were discharged home. […] Four patients who started anakinra ≥4 days after onset of AHRF required MV. […] All 3 patients who met criteria but did not receive anakinra required MV. […] Our data suggest that anakinra could be beneficial in COVID-19 patients with evidence of CSS when initiated early after onset of AHRF. […] Our patient selection and treatment approach should be considered for investigation in a clinical trial to determine the safety and efficacy of anakinra in patients with COVID-19 and features of CSS.
32643551 The patient received remdesivir, steroids, and anakinra.
32646930 Preliminary evidence indicates that anakinra and canakinumab, drugs that block the action of IL-1 and have a good safety profile, improve the outcomes of patients with COVID-19 cytokine release syndrome.
32658005 In both conditions, clinicians may be doubtful regarding the safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, colchicine, and biological agents, such as anti-IL1 agents (e.g. anakinra), that are the mainstay of therapy for pericarditis.For NSAIDs, there is no clear scientific evidence linking ibuprofen and other NSAIDs to worsening of COVID-19; however, it seems prudent to continue them, if necessary to control pericarditis, and on the other hand, to prefer paracetamol for fever and systemic symptoms related to COVID-19. […] Treatments with corticosteroids, colchicine, and anakinra appear well tolerated in the context of COVID-19 infection and are currently actively evaluated as potential therapeutic options for COVID infection at different stages of the disease. […] On this basis, currently most treatments for pericarditis do not appear contraindicated also in the presence of possible COVID-19 infection and should not be discontinued, and some (corticosteroids, colchicine, and anakinra) can be considered to treat both conditions.
32659126 Dose modification/avoidance should be considered for chloroquine, atazanavir, oseltamivir, ribavirin, anakinra, and Janus associated kinase inhibitors in patients with organ function impairment.
32681989 For treatment, 27 (38.6%) patients received hydroxychloroquine; 13 (18.6%) remdesivir; 23 (32.9%) corticosteroids; 3 (4.3%) tocilizumab; and 1 (1.4%) anakinra; no patient was given immunoglobulin or convalescent plasma.
32696108 Specific immune modulators include anti-cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 receptor antagonists (e.g. anakinra, tocilizumab, sarilumab, siltuximab), Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors (e.g. baricitinib, ruxolitinib), anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (e.g. adalimumab, infliximab), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors (e.g. gimsilumab, lenzilumab, namilumab), and convalescent plasma, with promising to negative trials and other data.
32699149 Because interleukin-1 (IL-1) blocks the production of IL-6 and other proinflammatory cytokines, we treated COVID-19 patients early in the disease with the IL-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra. […] We retrospectively compared 22 patients from three different centers in France with stages 2b and 3 COVID-19-associated pneumonia presenting with acute severe respiratory failure and systemic inflammation who received either standard-of-care treatment alone (10 patients) or combined with intravenous anakinra (12 patients). […] All of the patients treated with anakinra improved clinically (P < 0.01), with no deaths, significant decreases in oxygen requirements (P < 0.05), and more days without invasive mechanical ventilation (P < 0.06), compared with the control group. […] The effect of anakinra was rapid, as judged by significant decrease of fever and C-reactive protein at day 3.
32701511 Immunomodulatory therapy given to patients with MIS-C included intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) (71%), corticosteroids (61%), and anakinra (18%).
32728817 The article concludes with a summary of the insights gained into pharmacological therapies: thrombosis prevention on the one hand, and specific antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies (remdesivir, tocilizumab, anakinra, dexamethasone) on the other.
32735768 Supportive care and management of the complications that are caused mainly by inflammation might be the key to greater survival rates and shorter hospitalization (e.g., the use of remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, umifenovir (arbidol), oseltamivir, ganciclovir, favipiravir, darunavir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, colchicine, azithromycin, anakinra, canakinumab, tocilizumab, siltuximab, sarilumab, Type 1 interferon, interferon β-1a, interferon α- 2b, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, fedratinib, methylprednisolone and dexamethasone).
32741139 In a meta-analysis of two cohort studies with some concerns/high risk of bias, anakinra use was associated with lower mortality (pooled HR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.4).
32768693 To examine outcomes among patients who were treated with the targeted anti-cytokine agents, anakinra or tocilizumab, for COVID-19 -related cytokine storm (COVID19-CS). […] We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all SARS-coV2-RNA-positive patients treated with tocilizumab or anakinra in Kaiser Permanente Southern California. […] At anakinra initiation (n = 41), 23 (56.1%) were intubated, and all received concomitant corticosteroids. […] Fewer anakinra-treated patients died (n = 9, 22%) and more were extubated/never intubated (n = 26, 63.4%) compared to tocilizumab-treated patients (n = 24, 46.2% dead, n = 22, 42.3% extubated/never intubated). […] After accounting for differences in disease severity at treatment initiation, this apparent superiority of anakinra over tocilizumab was no longer statistically significant (propensity score-adjusted hazards ratio 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.18-1.20).
32777318 The skin reactions of antimalarials (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine), antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin with or without interferon, oseltamivir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and darunavir), and treatments for complications (imatinib, tocilizumab, anakinra, immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, colchicine and low molecular weight heparins) are analyzed.
32779341 Immunomodulatory agents like hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as well as biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) such as tocilizumab and anakinra received worldwide attention for treatment of critical patients with COVID-19.
32809050 In cases of early signs (stage II) or a manifest cytokine storm (stage III) anakinra (40.8% for stage II and 46.5% for stage III), tocilizumab (26.8% and 40.8%, respectively), steroids (25.4% and 33.8%, respectively) and remdesivir (29.6% and 38.0%, respectively) were most frequently used.
32811406 We have assessed some drugs currently for patients (Lopinavir, Ritonavir, Anakinra and Interferon beta 1a), as the feasibility of COVID-19 specific antivirals is not presently known.
32812187 The clinical effect of immunomodulatory agents (especially tocilizumab and anakinra) was noticeable compared to other medications with RR of 0.22 (95% CI 0.09-0.53; I2 = 40.9%) for mortality and 1.25 (95% CI 1.07-1.46; I2 = 45.4%) for clinical improvement.
32835245 It has been postulated that anakinra, a recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist, might help to neutralise the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related hyperinflammatory state, which is considered to be one cause of acute respiratory distress among patients with COVID-19. […] We aimed to assess the off-label use of anakinra in patients who were admitted to hospital for severe forms of COVID-19 with symptoms indicative of worsening respiratory function. […] Patients in the anakinra group were treated with subcutaneous anakinra (100 mg twice a day for 72 h, then 100 mg daily for 7 days) as well as the standard treatments at the institution at the time. […] The main analysis was done on an intention-to-treat basis (including all patients in the anakinra group who received at least one injection of anakinra). […] From March 24 to April 6, 2020, 52 consecutive patients were included in the anakinra group and 44 historical patients were identified in the Groupe Hospitalier Paris Saint-Joseph COVID cohort study. […] Admission to the ICU for invasive mechanical ventilation or death occurred in 13 (25%) patients in the anakinra group and 32 (73%) patients in the historical group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·22 [95% CI 0·11-0·41; p<0·0001). […] The treatment effect of anakinra remained significant in the multivariate analysis (HR 0·22 [95% CI 0·10-0·49]; p=0·0002). […] An increase in liver aminotransferases occurred in seven (13%) patients in the anakinra group and four (9%) patients in the historical group. […] Anakinra reduced both need for invasive mechanical ventilation in the ICU and mortality among patients with severe forms of COVID-19, without serious side-effects.
32838293 Considering Russell and colleagues’ [3] comments about potential harm of corticosteroid use in patients with COVID-19 infection, the patient was commenced on treatment with the selective IL-1 receptor antagonist drug, Anakinra, and a two-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin. […] This patient, who had risk factors for deterioration (male, pancytopaenic), did not develop an oxygen requirement and clinically and biochemically improved rapidly on Anakinra with no adverse events. […] We might suggest Anakinra to the scientific community as a treatment option in COVID-19 infection.
32843231 Inhibition of IL-1 by Anakinra (ANK) is a potential life-saving therapy for severe CSS cases.
32844302 To target the inflammatory cascade, low-dose dexamethasone appears to be helpful in moderate to severe cases and trials with anti-interleukin agents (e.g., tocilizumab, anakinra, siltuximab) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are showing early promising results.
32849309 Taken together, it may be crucial to better explore the role of visceral adipose tissue in the inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and investigate the potential therapeutic effect of using specific target anti-inflammatories (canakinumab or anakinra for IL-1β inhibition; anti-IL-6 antibodies for IL-6 inhibition), anticoagulant or anti-diabetic drugs in COVID-19 treatment of people with obesity.
32860431 We proposed IL- 1 blocking by anakinra in seventeen Covid-19 patients at high risk of worsening. […] In our opinion, the prominent factors those emphasize the use of Anakinra could be listed as comorbidity, risk or presence of secondary infection, ongoing malignant disease. […] However, the other factors those enhance the use of Anakinra in the situation of viremia also could be sorted as no response to full dose antivirals, antiviral side effects or no success to antiviral treatment.
32864576 We present a case of a 66-year-old woman with severe pneumonia by SARS-CoV-2 who developed a posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with a typical clinical and radiological presentation, after being treated with anti-interleukin treatment (anakinra and tocilizumab) following local guidelines.
32883116 Anakinra is a human IL-1 receptor antagonist. […] By inhibiting IL-1α/IL-1β competitively from binding to the IL-1 type-I receptor, anakinra, neutralizes the activity that pertains to these key mediators of autoinflammatory and/or immune processes.
32904710 However, lopinavir-ritonavir, anakinra, and sarilumab had not proven their clinical efficacy.
32933914 We present a case of a 50-year-old man with COVID-19 infection and acute respiratory distress syndrome as a result of a cytokine storm and use of anakinra, an interleukin 1-receptor antagonist that is normally used in the treatment of autoinflammatory disorders in adult patients.
32936318 Corticosteroids, anakinra, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and acetylsalicylic acid were used in the treatment. […] The therapeutic options have included IVIG, acetylsalicylic acid, tocilizumab, anakinra, enoxaparin, and methylprednisolone.
32951346 We appreciate the comments of Cavalli and Dagna regarding our case series addressing the potential utility of anakinra to avoid the need for mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19, severe hypoxic respiratory failure and evidence of cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) (1). […] We thank them for pointing out the similarity of the patients in their recently reported study of COVID-19 patients who received high-dose intravenous anakinra. […] Indeed, 25 of the 29 patients treated with anakinra in their similar study had severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (2).
32956615 These include IL-1 antagonists (eg, anakinra), IL-6 receptor blockers (eg, tocilizumab), and anti-TNF agents (eg, infliximab) for children with Kawasaki disease-like phenotype and non-specific presentations.
32959495 We read with interest the study by Navarro-Millàn and colleagues on the use of anakinra in severe COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory insufficiency and hyper-inflammation (1). […] The Authors tried to identify the clinical phenotype that is most likely to benefit from anakinra treatment, in order to maximize utility and not to expose patients to unnecessary risks related to immunosuppression.
32961675 Anakinra was included in seven protocols with six different regimens. […] This study showed that COVID-19 protocols varied widely in several aspects (antiviral treatment, corticosteroids, anakinra, and anticoagulation for high risk of thrombosis or critical situation).
32964179 Anakinra is a selective IL-1 inhibitor, which has been used in the context of secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. […] Our aim is to report our experience on the beneficial effects of anakinra i.v. in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and evidence of hyperinflammation. […] Upon commencement of anakinra i.v., there was subsequent improvement in the patients clinically, with reduction in ventilatory support and inotropic support, and biochemically, with rapid improvement in inflammatory markers. […] Anakinra is safe to use i.v. in patients with COVID-19 and evidence of superadded bacterial infection.
32969369 There are ongoing clinical trials on potential drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids tocilizumab, azithromycin, anakinra, etc. and other therapeutic modalities like convalescent plasma therapy.
32972235 Although a recent report indicated favorable responses to the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra in eight patients with COVID-19 secondary HLH diagnosed using the HScore calculation, others have suggested that the diagnosis of secondary HLH is uncommon and that the use of the HScore has limited value in guiding immunomodulatory therapy for COVID-19.
33029696 The repurposed drugs like Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Tenofovir, Remdesivir, Ribavirin, Darunavir, Oseltamivir, Arbidol (Umifenovir), Favipiravir, Anakinra, and Baricitinib are already being used in clinical trials to treat the COVID-19 patients.