DrugBank ID: db00160
DrugCentral: alanine
Synonymous :(2s)-2-aminopropanoic acid | (s)-2-aminopropanoic acid | (s)-alanine | alanina | alanine | alaninum | l-2-aminopropionic acid | l-alanin | l-alanine | l-alpha-alanine | l-α-alanine

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of alanine gene in 225 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32026671 Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (Tbil), serum creatinine (Scr) and other items showed no significant changes.
32077660 The results of laboratory examination showed that the alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin (ALB), and total bilirubin (TBil) for entire cohort were 26.98 (16.88 ~ 46.09) U/L and 24.75 (18.71 ~ 31.79) U/L, 39.00 (36.20 ~ 44.20) g/L and 16.40 (11.34- ~ 21.15) mmol/L, respectively.
32153170 Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level was initially increased (4.4 to 3.5 times of the normal value) along with decrease of albumin in the second week, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001).
32164089 Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (Tbil), serum creatinine (Scr) and other items showed no significant changes.
32196707 The laboratory results showed that compared to the normal values, the patients’ lymphocytes were reduced (four [80%] patients), and liver functions alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (two [40%] patients and two [40%] patients) and C-reactive protein (four [80%] patients) were increased when admitted to hospital.
32209890 Alanine transaminase (ALT) (22.00 [15.00, 34.00] U/L vs. 
32216803 Higher temperature, blood leukocyte count, neutrophil count, neutrophil percentage, C-reactive protein level, D-dimer level, alanine aminotransferase activity, aspartate aminotransferase activity, α - hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity and creatine kinase activity were related to severe 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia and composite endpoint, and so were lower lymphocyte count, lymphocyte percentage and total protein level.
32217556 Concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin I, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and D-dimer were markedly higher in deceased patients than in recovered patients.
32217835 Compared with moderate cases, severe cases more frequently had dyspnea, lymphopenia, and hypoalbuminemia, with higher levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and D-dimer as well as markedly higher levels of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α.
32239591 31.6%, 35.4% and 5.1% COVID-19 patients had elevated levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and bilirubin respectively.
32249918 Compared to the controls, COVID-19 pneumonia patients had lower counts of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, C-reactive protein (CRP), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) on admission.
32259132 Patients with positive RT-PCR had significantly higher neutrophil (NEU) count (p = 0.0001), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.04), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p = 0.0001), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p = 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p = 0.0001), and Urea (p = 0.001) levels in serum.
32270660 Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBil), albumin(ALB) and international normalized ratio (INR) of 324 cases at baseline were 27.86 ± 20.02 U/L, 29.33 ± 21.02 U/L, 59.93 ± 18.96 U / L, 39.00 ± 54.44 U/L, 9.46 ± 4.58 μmol / L, 40.64 ± 4.13 g / L and 1.02 ± 0.10.
32271456 Blood biochemical indexes exhibited that the proportion of patients with abnormal alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the test group were lower than the control group.
32283325 Abnormal liver function was defined as increased levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin.
32298767 The presence of abnormal liver tests became more pronounced during hospitalization within 2 weeks, with 49 (23.4%), 31 (14.8%), 24 (11.5%) and 51 (24.4%) patients having alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels elevated to more than 3× the upper limit of normal, respectively.
32301746 Methods We analyzed the plasma levels of white blood cells (WBCs), platelets, C-reactive protein (CRP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of 207 patients who, after being admitted to the emergency room of the San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy) with COVID-19 symptoms, were rRT-PCR tested.
32306657 Aspartate aminotransferase (29%), alanine transaminase (22.7%), and total bilirubin (11.7%) levels were elevated, except for serum albumin levels (80.4%).
32311512 Blood samples were analyzed for white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and in some cases, immunoglobulins, complement, lymphocyte subsets, and cytokines.
32312363 An increase in alanine aminotransferase was observed in 11 children (9.6%) and an increase in CK-MB was found in 34 children (29.6%).
32359177 Liver injury dynamic patterns differed in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TBIL).
32386449 Higher serum levels of Aspartate aminotransferase (weighted mean difference = 8.84 U/L, 95% CI = 5.97 to 11.71, P<0.001), Alanine aminotransferase (weighted mean difference = 7.35 U/L, 95% CI = 4.77 to 9.93, P<0.001), total Bilirubin (weighted mean difference = 2.30 mmol/L, 95% CI = 1.24 to 3.36, P<0.001) and lower serum levels of Albumin (weighted mean difference = -4.24 g/L, 95% CI = -6.20 to -2.28, P<0.001), were associated with a significant increase in the severity of COVID-19 infection.
32391936 The definition of COVID-19 associated liver injury in our manuscript was as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or bilirubin above the upper limit of normal (ULN), which were 50 U/L, 40 U/L, and 26 μmol/l respectively.
32396947 Pregnant women with suspected hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and signs and symptoms associated with the severe end of the disease spectrum (e.g., headaches, visual symptoms, epigastric pain, and pulmonary edema) should have an evaluation including complete blood count, serum creatinine level, and liver transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase).
32397399 Analysis of laboratory measures showed significant interactions between time and treatment regarding C-Reactive Protein (CRP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), platelets and international normalized ratio (INR) levels.
32406952 Lower albumin level is seen in severe COVID-19 and is not parallel to the changes in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels.
32407459 On meta-regression, ICU admission was predicted by raised leukocyte count (p<0.0001), raised alanine aminotransferase (p=0.024), raised aspartate transaminase (p=0.0040), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p<0.0001) and increased procalcitonin (p<0.0001).
32415860 Median aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was higher than alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at admission (46 vs. 
32430459 Other diseases/traits having nominal significant associations with increased expression included inflammatory bowel disease, (estrogen receptor-positive) breast cancer, lung cancer, asthma, smoking, and elevated alanine aminotransferase.
32438331 A deep network analysis has suggested clinical biomarkers predicting the higher risk: Hypertension, elevated serum Alanine aminotransferase, high Interleukin-6, and low Lymphocytes count.
32439366 Four patients had a QTc ≥ 480 ms: they showed higher values of aspartate aminotransferase (52 vs 30 U/L, p = .03) and alanine aminotransferase (108 vs 33 U/L, p < .01) compared with those with QTc < 480 ms.
32440660 The main reported laboratory findings were lymphopenia, elevated C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Amino alanine transferase (ALT), and Aspartate amino transferase (AST).
32441789 Those who died, compared to those who survived, differed on multiple biomarker levels on admission including elevated levels of cardiac troponin (+44.2 ng/L, 95% CI 19.0-69.4; P=0.0006); C-reactive protein (+66.3 µg/mL, 95% CI 46.7-85.9; P<0.00001); interleukin-6 (+4.6 ng/mL, 95% CI 3.6-5.6; P<0.00001); D-dimer (+4.6 µg/mL, 95% CI 2.8-6.4; P<0.00001); creatinine (+15.3 µmol/L, 95% CI 6.2-24.3; P=0.001) and alanine transaminase (+5.7 U/L, 95% CI 2.6-8.8; P=0.0003); as well as decreased levels of albumin (-3.7 g/L, 95% CI -5.3 to -2.1; P<0.00001).
32445489 Meta-analysis of 20 retrospective studies (3428 patients), identified that patients with a severe manifestation of COVID-19 exhibited significantly higher levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and bilirubin values with prolonged prothrombin time.
32456948 COVID-19 patients with CVD showed (1) more severe pathological changes in the lungs, (2) elevated injury-related enzymes including α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HDBH), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), (3) significantly increased uncontrolled inflammation related markers, such as c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, serum ferritin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and serum amyloid A (SAA), (4) serious hypercoagulable status reflected by increased D-dimer and serum fibrinogen (FIB), and (5) higher mortality, compared to COVID-19 patients without CVD.
32459919 The most common adverse events were nausea (9% of patients), worsening respiratory failure (8%), elevated alanine aminotransferase level (7%), and constipation (7%).
32469137 We found that an increased level of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, D-dimer, fibrinogen (FIB), IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), serum amyloid A (SAA) and a decreased level of lymphocytes were important risk factors associated with severity.
32473607 Acute liver injury was categorized as mild if alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was > upper limit of normal (ULN) but < two times ULN, moderate if ALT was between two and five times ULN, and severe if ALT was > five times ULN.
32476796 Liver chemistry abnormalities are common and include elevation of aspartate transferase, alanine transferase, and total bilirubin.
32483005 Liver enzyme level elevation was defined as alanine aminotransferase level >35 U/L for men and 25 U/L for women at admission. […] Patients with normal alanine aminotransferase levels were included in the control group.
32488888 Abnormal results of liver blood tests in patients with COVID-19 included increased levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) (21.2%, 14 patients), AST (15.2%, 10 patients), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) (22.7%, 15 patients).
32491199 All Alanine transaminase ( ALT ) testing results met blood donation requirements.
32492165 The most common laboratory abnormalities were increased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (median [IQR], 16.0 [12.0-26.0] U/L), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (median [IQR], 30.0 [23.0-41.8] U/L), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) activity (median [IQR], 24.0 [18.0-34.0] U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (median [IQR], 243.0 [203.0-297.0] U/L), which are associated with liver and myocardial injury.
32504360 Increased C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase and D-dimer were observed in 19.44, 67.74, 47.22, 19.44, 22.22 and 20.69% of infants, respectively. […] Meanwhile, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, creatinine, IL-6 and IL-10 increased significantly.
32507110 However, few data on the combined analysis and change patterns of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBil) have been shown.
32510169 The fever and cough in the test group were relieved markedly faster than those in the control group (P < .05); there was no obvious difference between the two groups concerning the percentage of patients with abnormal CRP, PCT, blood routine indexes, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase (P > .05); the time for two consecutive negative nucleic acid tests in the test group were shorter than that in the control group; the hospitalization period of the patients in the test group and control group were (16.5 ± 7.14) days and (18.55 ± 7.52) days, respectively.
32525549 The pooled rate for aspartate aminotransferase levels outside reference ranges was 20% (95% CI, 15.3%-25.6%) of patients, and the pooled rate for alanine aminotransferase levels outside reference ranges was 14.6% (95% CI, 12.8%-16.6%) of patients.
32530282 Replacing Glu166 by an alanine residue leads to ~ 2.0 kcal/mol decreases in the affinity of darunavir to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.
32530989 When compared between severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients, the pooled ORs of elevated alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, and lactate dehydrogenase levels were 2.35 (95% CI 1.38-3.98), 3.21 (95% CI 2.59-3.98), 1.87 (95% CI 1.32-2.65), and 4.83 (95% CI 2.90-8.05), respectively.
32531257 Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) were also increased.
32532356 2.3 Blood routine: white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils Acidic granulocyte count, basophil count, red blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit, average volume of red blood cells, average red blood cell Hb content, average red blood cell Hb concentration, RDW standard deviation, RDW coefficient of variation, platelet count, platelet specific platelet average Volume, platelet distribution width,% of large platelets; 2.4 Liver and kidney function tests: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, prealbumin, total protein, albumin, globulin, white / globule ratio , Total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, cholinesterase, urea, creatinine, total carbon dioxide, uric acid glucose, potassium, sodium, chlorine, calcium, corrected calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and phosphorus product, anion gap, penetration Pressure, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein a, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, estimated glomerular filtration rate.
32540370 We found significant differences between the two groups for fever, dyspnea, decreased lymphocyte and platelet counts, and increased leukocyte count, C-creative protein, procalcitonin, lactose dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine kinase, and creatinine levels (P<0.05).
32540736 Elevated aspartate and alanine amino transaminase (AST/ALT) and borderline increase in serum bilirubin and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are the commonest findings.
32550096 The patient was asymptomatic, hypothermic, his skin was jaundiced with the icteric sclera, with very high levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 4,933 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT; 4,758 U/L), and total bilirubin (183.9 mmol/L) levels.
32553907 Of 105 SARS-CoV-2 and chronic HBV co-infected patients, elevated levels of liver test were seen in several patients at admission, including elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (22,20.95%), aspartate aminotransferase (29, 27.62%), total bilirubin (7, 6.67%), gamma-glutamyl transferase (7, 6.67%) and alkaline phosphatase (1, 0.95%).
32554832 Meta-analysis showed that 16% and 20% of patients with COVID-19 had alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels higher than the normal range, respectively.
32558955 For the laboratory result, leukopenia (21%) and lymphocytosis (22%) were the mainly indicators for pediatric inpatients, followed by high aspartate aminotransferase(AST) (19%), lymphopenia (16%), high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (15%), high C-reactive protein (CPR) (17%), lymphopenia (16%), leukocytosis (13%), high D-dimer (12%) and high creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB)(5%).
32572128 Overweight/obesity was determined as body mass index (BMI) ≥24 kg/m2, ALF was determined as alanine aminotransferase >40 U/L, and prolonged hospitalization was lasting more than the median value of the hospitalized days (19 days) in this population.
32574309 Differences between the mild and severe groups was observed in neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, CD4 expression, and levels of C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and albumin (P < 0.05).
32582748 Changes in signs and symptoms were incorporated into a chart that consisted of four tiers representing disease stages. Results: Data from 10,172 Covid-19 laboratory confirmed cases showed a correlation with Fever in 43.9% (P = 0.000) cases, cough 54.08% and dry mucus 25.68% equally significant (P = 0.000), Hyperemic pharyngeal mucus membrane 17.92% (P = 0.005), leukopenia 28.11% (P = 0.000), lymphopenia 64.35% (P = 0.000), thrombopenia 35.49% (P = 0.000), elevated Alanine aminotransferase 50.02% (P = 0.000), and Aspartate aminotransferase 34.49% (P = 0.000).
32588791 At the time of admission, aspartate aminotransferase greater than the upper limit of normal was present in 70%, while alanine aminotransferase was elevated in 15.8%. […] During hospitalization, 31% and 22% experienced increasing aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, respectively, when transaminases were normal at admission.
32602202 The patients with severe/critical cases had higher fasting glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine compared with patients with moderate cases (all P < 0.01).
32602604 Of those, 142 (29.5%) patients showed abnormal liver biochemistries on admission, and patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin (TBIL) accounted for 67.6%, 69.0%, and 16.2%, respectively.
32607332 The levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, blood glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), myoglobin (MB), and creatine kinase (CK) were increased in 64.6%, 44.7%, 43.2%, 37.0%, 29.5%, 22.9%,20.8%, 21.6%, 13.6%, and 12.8% of patients, respectively.
32613308 In the peripheral blood system of non-severe symptom COVID-19 patients, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, osteocalcin N-terminal, thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 significantly decreased, and total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, fibrinogen, D-dimer, fibrinogen degradation products, human epididymal protein 4, serum ferritin, and C-reactive protein were elevated.
32618658 Liver enzyme level elevation was defined as alanine aminotransferase level >35 U/L for men and 25 U/L for women at admission. […] Patients with normal alanine aminotransferase levels were included in the control group.
32619279 The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationships between liver injury indicators (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], and total bilirubin [TBIL]) and mortality in COVID-19 patients.
32619764 Remdesivir was interrupted before the initialy planned duration in four patients, two because of alanine aminotransferase elevations (3 to 5 normal range) and two because of renal failure requiring renal replacement.
32623633 The most frequent abnormalities were hypoalbuminemia [61.27% (48.24-72.87)], elevations of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) [27.94% (18.22-40.27)], alanine aminotransferase (ALT) [23.28% (19.92-27.01)], and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) [23.41% (18.84-28.70)]. […] Graphical depiction of the summary of meta-analytic findings a) pooled prevalence of abnormalities b) Risk ratio of abnormality in severe versus non-severe COVID-19 c) standardized mean difference (SMD) between severe and non-severe group and d) pooled prevalence for parameters based on severity stratification for bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), albumin, globulin and acute hepatic injury (AHI) .
32628793 Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were increased in 20.4%, 19% and 13.6% of patients, respectively.
32639420 The pattern of abnormal liver enzymes was notable for higher aspartate aminotransferase (AST) than alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels.
32641471 Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation was defined as ALT/AST ≥2 × upper limit of normal (ie, 80 U/L).
32642164 Patients were likely had normal procalcitonin, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels at diagnosis.
32645044 The median time from initial symptoms to death was 15 days (IQR 11-20), and a significant association between aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.002), alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.037) and time from initial symptoms to death was remarkably observed.
32651938 A patient was considered as having liver injury when alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was > 50 mU/ml, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) > 50 mU/ml, or total bilirubin > 1.1 mg/dl.
32662525 Elder age, underlying comorbidities, and increased laboratory variables, such as leukocyte count, neutrophil count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) on admission, were found in survived severe cases compared to nonsevere cases.
32664161 Primary outcomes would be used to evaluate the mortality rate, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatine, troponin, liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), blood pressure, clinical symptoms (including fever, fatigue, myalgia, cough, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), and serum cytokine levels.
32677918 Significantly, disease severity was associated with age (r = 0.458, P < 0.001), comorbidities (r = 0.445, P < 0.001), white cell count (r = 0.229, P = 0.006), neutrophil count (r = 0.238, P = 0.004), lymphocyte count (r = - 0.295, P < 0.001), albumin (r = - 0.603, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = - 0.362, P < 0.001), serum potassium (r = - 0.237, P = 0.004), plasma glucose (r = 0.383, P < 0.001), total bilirubin (r = 0.340, P < 0.001), serum amyloid A (r = 0.58, P < 0.001), procalcitonin (r = 0.345, P < 0.001), C-reactive protein (r = 0.477, P < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.548, P < 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.342, P < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.264, P = 0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.284, P = 0.001) and D-dimer (r = 0.477, P < 0.001) .
32681674 Decreased albumin levels (39.8%, 95% CI = 15.3%-70.8%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (22.8%, 95% CI = 18.1%-28.4%), and alanine aminotransferase (20.6%, 95% CI = 16.7%-25.1%) were common hepatic findings.
32683882 The relationship between lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and De Ritis ratio were analysed in the first blood samples of the patients.
32692464 There was also a trend toward elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels among these severe cases (pooled MD, 8.84 U/L; 95% CI, -2.28, 19.97; P = 0.12); however, this did not reach statistical significance.
32695551 0.42 (0.28-0.79) mg/L, p = 0.000; While the liver function parameter alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) didn’t show significance between two groups, ALT 30.80 (19.00-58.30) IU/L vs. 
32710250 The incidence of abnormal liver biochemical tests, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBIL), and albumin (ALB), was pooled.
32711001 No considerable difference was observed regarding the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), white blood cell (WBC), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), globulin, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the three groups (p > 0.05).
32713118 Among patients with abnormal liver functions, patients with grade 2 liver damage (with both abnormal alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase levels and abnormal alkaline phosphatase or gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels) had a higher ratio of male patients, elevated neutrophil count, procalcitonin, D-dimer levels and mortality rate.
32721038 There was mild liver function injury (aspartate aminotransferase, 65.8 ± 12.7 vs 67.4 ± 9.3 U/L, P = 0.246; alanine aminotransferase, 66.4 ± 13.2 vs 69.6 ± 12.7 U/L, P = 0.352), and normal renal function was intact (blood urea nitrogen 6.4 ± 2.5 vs 5.6 ± 2.8 mmol/L P = 0.358; creatinine 85.7 ± 37.2, 91.2 ± 32.6 μmol/L, P = 0.297).
32722990 These patients also had lower levels of alanine aminotransferase and C-reactive protein.
32723996 The procalcitonin level was normal while elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, platelet and C-reactive protein were common.
32727177 The concentration of alanine aminotransferase in the death group was 40.0 (30.0, 48.0) U/L, which was higher than 32.5 (24.0, 40.8) U/L in the survival group, and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.047).
32744713 Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels initially increased (1.2-times to 2.0-times the normal value, respectively) in the second week.
32745308 Sequential alterations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were monitored. 330 patients were included and classified into two groups with normal (n=234) or elevated ALT (n=96).
32746929 Our meta-analyses showed a significant decrease in lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil, hemoglobin, platelet, albumin, serum sodium, lymphocyte to C-reactive protein ratio (LCR), leukocyte to C-reactive protein ratio (LeCR), leukocyte to IL-6 ratio (LeIR), and an increase in the neutrophil, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), Procalcitonin (PCT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), fibrinogen, prothrombin time (PT), D-dimer, glucose level, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in the severe group compared with the non-severe group.
32749643 Up to 20% patients developed severe clinical course, and GI and hepatic factors associated with severe clinical course were as follows: diarrhea (OR 2), high aspartate aminotransferase (OR 1.4), high alanine aminotransferase (OR 1.6), high bilirubin (OR 2.4), low albumin (OR 3.4), and high PT (OR 3).
32754608 Liver involvement present with the elevation of enzymatic levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) accompanied by enhanced total bilirubin and decreased albumin levels has been reported in COVID-19 cases.
32761993 In the HBV group versus non-HBV group, 35% (7/20) versus 37.25% (19/51) (P = 0.86) had abnormal alanine aminotransferase at least once during hospitalization, 30% (6/20) versus 31.37% (16/51) had abnormal aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.91), 40% (8/20) versus 37.25% (19/51) had abnormal γ-glutamyltransferase (P = 0.83), and 45% (9/20) versus 39.22% (20/51) had abnormal total bilirubin levels (P = 0.91).
32762417 To understand, how mutations in the conserved residues of RBD affect the molecular interaction with ACE2, we generated five alanine mutants i.e. 
32765952 Increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI), myoglobin, creatinine, urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin were highly associated with severe COVID-19.
32767776 We respectfully disagree with your interpretation of the lag in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations behind aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevations in patients with COVID-19.
32767788 However, it should be noted that AST is usually considered a less specific marker for liver injury than alanine aminotransferase (ALT).
32769260 Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB), albumin, and prealbumin levels at admission and on day 7 after admission were collected.
32771034 Inclusion Criteria: - Patients with mild COVID19 (defined as upper respiratory tract infection symptoms in the absence of clinical or radiological signs of pneumonia). - Adult (18 - 65 years old). - Written informed consent by the patient (or legally authorized representative) prior to initiation of any study procedures. - All patients should understand and agree to comply with planned study procedures. - Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) from throat swab. - Patients with pneumonia or severe illness requiring admission to intensive care unit. - Severe chronic kidney disease (i.e. estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] < 30 mL / min) or end stage renal disease requiring dialysis - Severe chronic liver disease (Alanine transaminase [AlT] or Aspartate transaminase [AST] > 5 times the upper limit of normal). - Pregnancy or breast feeding. - Anticipated transfer within 72 hours to another hospital that is not a study site. - Allergy to the study medication The trial is currently conducted on patients recruited from King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
32777784 The first group included patients without elevated alanine aminotransferase or bilirubin, the third patients meeting the biochemical criteria of acute liver failure (ALF) and the second all other patients.
32782035 Patients with severe disease showed significantly lower platelet count (WMD = -18.63, 95%CI -30.86 to -6.40) and lymphocyte count (WMD = -0.35, 95%CI -0.41 to -0.30) but higher C-reactive protein (CRP; WMD = 42.7, 95%CI 31.12-54.28), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; WMD = 137.4, 95%CI 105.5-169.3), white blood cell count(WBC), procalcitonin(PCT), D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatinine(Cr).
32786709 To better understand the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2, we performed computational alanine scanning mutagenesis on the “hotspot” residues at protein-protein interfaces using relative free energy calculations.
32792598 Peak levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were elevated; median ALT peak 68 U/l (normal up to 46 U/l) and median AST peak 102 U/l (normal up to 37 U/l).
32793616 The literature search was performed using keywords “COVID-19,” “Liver,” Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)," and “Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT),” “AST,” and “ALT,” in various combinations of “AND/OR” from December 1, 2019, till May 8, 2020.
32796355 The pooled prevalence of elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were 26% [95% confidence interval (CI), 20-32%] and 19% (95% CI, 14-26%), respectively.
32837096 Elevation of hepatic aminotransferases (aspartate aminotransferase [AST]/alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) is commonly noted among COVID-19 patients.
32837710 We generated multiple variants by using an alanine scanning strategy and performed an extensive simulation for each system to signify the role of each interfacial residue.
32837834 A meta-analysis was carried out on the findings of four published studies that were related to the albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels of COVID-19 patients.
32838104 In our meta-analysis of 19 studies, which included a total of 4,103 patients, the pooled mean alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were respectively 31.7 and 51.0 IU/L in the patients with COVID-19 who died and 27.7 and 32.9 IU/L in those discharged alive (both p < 0.0001).
32838106 Previous studies have observed highly variable alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in patients with COVID-19.
32841626 TVD and PVD were inversely related to D-dimer levels (rho = -0.667, p = 0.05 and rho = -0.733, p = 0.025 respectively), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (rho = -0.886, p = 0.019 and rho = -0.886, p = 0.019 respectively) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (rho = -0.829, p = 0.042 and rho = -0.829, p = 0.042 respectively).
32846825 Moreover, higher plasma levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), alanine aminotransferase (ALA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), creatinine (CREA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were detected in the ICU group.
32865077 Patients with severe disease had significantly more prominent laboratory abnormalities, including an abnormal lymphocyte count and abnormal C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, D-dimer, and albumin levels.
32877961 These include markers of acute phase reaction (elevated C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell count, fibrinogen, procalcitonin, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor), signs of tissue injury (elevated lactic dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, cardiac troponins), changes in hemostasis and coagulation (elevated D-dimer, prolonged prothrombin time, decreased platelets, decreased antithrombin, elevated factor VIII and von Willebrand factor), and decreased lymphocytes.
32879082 There were 41 (57.7%), 38 (53.5%), 32 (45.1%), 26(36.6%), 22 (31.0%), 20 (28.2%), 14 (19.7%), 14 (19.7%), and 9 (12.7%) patients with the increased levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, procalcitonin, fibrinogen,interleukin 6, lactate dehydrogenase,D-dimer,alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase, respectively.
32879103 Among them, laboratory tests included white blood cell (WBC), lymphocytes (LYM), neutrophil (NEU), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (PLT), prothrombin time (PT), plasma fibrinogen (Fib), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), D-dimer, total bilirubin (TBIL), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and oxygen partial pressure in arterial blood.
32879106 The detection indexes included serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin (ALB), and total bilirubin (TBIL).
32884226 Elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were present in 42 (53.2%) and 36 (45.6%) cases, respectively, and 79 (36.2%) patients had abnormally elevated transaminase levels at admission.
32893398 Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the higher level of hypersensitivity C-reactive protein (OR = 4.77, 95% CI:1.92-11.87, P = .001), elevated alanine aminotransferase (OR = 6.87, 95%CI:1.56-30.21, P = .011), and chronic comorbidities (OR = 11.48, 95% CI:4.44-29.66, P < .001) are the determining risk factors for the progression into severe pneumonia in COVID-19 patients.
32894024 ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; aOR: adjusted odds ratio; ALT: alanine transferase; ALIMA: Alliance for International Medical Action; AST: aspartate transaminase; BUN: blood urea nitrogen; CNS: central nervous system; CUBE: chambre d’urgence biosécurisée pour épidémie; COVID-19: coronavirus disease 2019; Ct: cycle threshold; DRC: Democratic Republic of Congo; ETC: ebola treatment centre; ETU: ebola treatment unit; EBOV: ebola virus; EVD: ebolavirus disease; FEAST: fluid expansion as supportive therapy; GP: glycoprotein; IV: intravenous; MEURI: monitored emergency use of unregistered interventions; NETEC: National Ebola Training and Education Centre; NP: nucleoprotein; ORS: oral rehydration solution; PALM: Pamoja Tulinde Maisha; PREVAIL: Partnership for Research on Ebola Virus in Liberia; PPE: personal protective equipment; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; PEP: post-exposure prophylaxis; RDTs: rapid diagnostic tests; RT: reverse transcriptase; RNA: ribonucleic acid; UNICEF: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund; USA: United States of America; WHO: World Health Organization.
32899640 Liver test abnormalities were defined as the elevation of either gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), or aspartate aminotransferase (AST), above the upper limit of normality set by our laboratory.
32912404 The alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBil) and prothrombin time (PT) of 30 patients were increased to various degrees within 1 week after ICU admission, and albumin (ALB) was decreased.
32912961 Respiratory rate and oxygen supplementation as well as laboratory parameters (such as C-reactive protein (CRP), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) were collected at baseline and during 14 days of follow-up.
32918858 COVID-19 patients with CPAP therapy were older and had higher levels of white blood cells (WBC), procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), D-dimer, but had lymphopenia.
32920232 On univariate analysis, patients with a body mass index >30, type II diabetes mellitus, and those presenting with dyspnoea, asthenia, SOFA score ≥2 points, PaO2/FiO2 <300, temperature >38 °C, increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase, and C-reactive protein, and a d-dimer >1000 ng/mL at admission more frequently underwent NI/I-VS.
32921796 Furthermore, patients with obesity also demonstrated more severe pathological change in lung and higher blood lymphocytes, triglycerides, IL-6, CRP, cystatin C, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), which may greatly influence disease progression and poor prognosis of COVID-19.
32929826 15.27%, P = .000), higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and activated partial thromboplastin (APTT) [50(28-69)vs 21(14-30), P = .000; 40(25-54) vs 23(18-30), P = .000; 34.0(27.2-38.7) vs 37.2(31.1-41.4), P = .031].
32933613 The level of alanine aminotransferase in children with COVID-19 is lower than that in inpatients but higher than that in outpatients with influenza A.
32934000 Studies having biomarkers, including lymphocyte, platelets, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C reactive protein (CRP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, procalcitonin (PCT) and creatine kinase (CK), and describing outcomes were selected with the consensus of three independent reviewers.
32935644 Abbreviations: COVID-19: coronavirus disease 2019; ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; DIC: disseminated intravascular coagulopathy; MOF: multi-organ failure; RT-PCR: real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; UFE: unfavorable evolution; ICU: intensive care unit; EDTA: ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid; WBC: white blood cell count; Hb: hemoglobin level; PCT: procalcitonin; Na: sodium; K: potassium; PT: total protein, CRP: c-reactive protein; Cr: creatinine; ALAT: alanine aminotransferase; ALAT: aspartate aminotransferase; TB: total bilirubin, LDH: lactate dehydrogenase, FERR: ferritin; hs-Tnt: high sensitive-troponin T; cGFR: corrected glomerular filtration rate; QR: quick ratio; DDIM: D-dimer; FIB: fibrinogen; SD: standard deviation; IQR: interquartile ranges; ROC: receiver operating characteristics; ECMO: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; NLR: neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio; AUC: area under the curve; BMI: body mass index.
32938937 Our dataset includes 140 variants of human ACE2 representing missense mutations found in genome-wide studies, 39 mutants with reported effects on the recognition of the RBD, and 63 predictions after computational alanine scanning mutagenesis of ACE2-RBD interface residues.
32941548 Severe disease was strongly associated with fever, cough, dyspnea, pneumonia, any computed tomography findings, any ground glass opacity, lymphocytopenia, elevated C-reactive protein, elevated alanine aminotransferase, elevated aspartate aminotransferase, older age and male sex.
32951624 On comparing both the cases, recurrent cases had markedly elevated concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P = 0.020) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P = 0.007).
32964510 Analysis of peak values of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) during COVID-19 showed moderate liver injury (ALT 2-5x ULN) in 22.2% (n= 18) and severe liver injury (ALT > 5x ULN) in 12.3% (n= 10).
32970246 In multivariable analysis, older age, admission respiratory status including elevated respiratory rate and oxygen saturation ≤ 88%, and initial laboratory derangements of creatinine > 1.33 mg/dL, alanine aminotransferase > 40 U/L, procalcitonin > 0.5 ng/mL, and lactic acid ≥ 2 mmol/L increased risk of in-hospital death.
32976196 Twenty-one percent and 24% had elevated alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase values, respectively.
32983698 Weighted mean difference of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in non-severe COVID-19 patients was higher by 20.54 U/liter (95% CI = 19.95-21.13) and 21.38 U/liter (95% CI = 20.92-21.84) while that in severe patients was higher by 22.70 U/liter (95% CI = 19.09-26.45) and by 22.94 U/liter (95% CI = 20.46-25.42) respectively, as compared to general population.
32990149 Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), markers of liver damage, were positively correlated with coagulopathy (p = 0.039, OR 2.960, 95% CI 1.055-8.304; and p = 0.028, OR 3.352, 95% CI 1.137-9.187).
32999264 We defined liver injury as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels over the upper limit of normal.
33010411 In total, 35% of patients developed an abnormal alanine aminotransferase or total bilirubin level; these were elevated to less than 5 times the upper limit of normal in 77% of cases.
33020546 This study aimed to analyze aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio in COVID-19 patients.
33035183 Among them, earliest indicators were: platelets, lymphocytes, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, white blood cells and neutrophils.
33039937 Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin levels was 1-2 × ULN in 33(36.3%), 34(37.3%), 12(13.2%), 6(6.6%) cases and >2 × ULN in 20(22%), 18(19.8%), 7(7.7%) and 2 (2.2%) cases respectively. […] Aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase are better indicators of covid-19 induced liver injury than alanine transaminase and total bilirubin.
33043447 Increased concentrations of serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) are common in COVID-19 patients.
33043651 Alanine aminotransaminase was normal in all the patients except for two, with levels 1.6 and 4.2 times above normal values.
33047431 Patients who presented 40 or higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at least once during the hospitalization were defined as high-ALT patients, and the others as normal-ALT patients.
33048175 After determination of the base model that better described the data set, the influence of covariates (age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), gender, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), C reactive protein (CRP), and trough ritonavir concentrations) was tested on the model.
33050945 All COVID-19 patients admitted to Shahid Mohammadi Hospital in Bandar Abbas whose PCR test results are positive for SARS-Cov-2 and sign the written consent of the study are included in the study and immunocompromised patients, end-stage renal disease, moderate renal failure (clearance Creatinine 30 to 50 ml/min) or stage 4 severe chronic kidney disease or need for dialysis (creatinine clearance lesser than 30 ml/min), history of liver disease, hepatitis C infection or alcoholism, Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency(G6PD), the ratio of Alanine transaminase to Aspartate transaminase 5 times above the normal limit, history or evidence of long QT segment on Electrocardiogram, psoriasis or porphyria, pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives, Dasatinib, Neratinib, Ozanimod, Pazopanib, Rilpivirine, Siponimod and/or Tizanidine and allergies to any study drug are excluded.
33051695 In addition, tocilizumab did not have significant influence on patients’ neutrophil count (Neut), lymphocyte count (Lymp), platelet count (Plt), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and creatine (WMD, 95% CI: - 0.29, - 2.91~2.33; 0.42, - 0.23~1.07; 5.2, - 2.85~13.25; 22.49, - 2.73~47.7; - 44.78, - 93.37~3.81).
33053426 Multivariable regression showed that a higher incidence of LBA was associated with hepatic hypoattenuation on computed tomography (CT) (odds ratio: 2.243, 95% confidence interval: 1.410-3.592, p = 0.001), lymphocyte proportion <20% (2.088, 1.476-2.954, p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) >1 mg/dL (2.650, 1.845-3.806, p < 0.001) and aspartate transaminase to alanine transaminase (AST/ALT) ratio >1 (2.558, 1.820-3.596, p < 0.001).
33068863 Lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein, IL-6, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and D-Dimer levels were similar in the three groups (all P > 0.05).
33075578 Data from observational studies describing comorbid chronic liver disease, acute liver injury, elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalized patients from December 1, 2019, to June 30, 2020 was extracted following PRISMA guidelines.
33087114 /L, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio > 3.53, fibrinogen > 4 g/L, d-dimer > 0.55 μg/mL, blood urea nitrogen > 7.1 mM, elevated aspartate transaminase, elevated alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin > 21 μM, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score ≥ 2 were identified as risk factors for critical illness.
33089115 Compared to influenza, patients with COVID-19 exhibited a continued increase in white blood cell count, rapid decline of hemoglobin, more rapid increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and D-dimer, and higher level of alanine transaminase, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and fibrinogen.
33116063 The most significant abnormal liver function was increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (0.25, 95% CI: 0.16-0.33).
33119428 Liver injury was defined as elevated alanine aminotransferase and/or alkaline phosphatase at the time when the first positive COVID-19 sample was obtained.
33120785 Patients under 45 years old had higher rates of cough and myalgia and higher proportions of increased alanine aminotransferase and lactic dehydrogenase, as well as more pulmonary lobes involved in the pneumonia revealed by chest computed tomography scans.
33122216 Clinical and laboratory data collected retrospectively included complete blood counts and creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and D-dimer levels.
33122448 Liver injury following COVID-19 infection is common and primarily hepatocellular, with a greater elevation of aspartate aminotransferase than of alanine aminotransferase.
33122776 S100B concentration was associated with inflammation markers (Ferritin, C-Reactive Protein, Procalcitonin), and organ damage markers (Alanine Aminotransferase, Creatinine).
33126910 Patients with a critical illness (WHO clinical improvement ordinal score > 5), documented significant liver disease/dysfunction (aspartate transaminase [AST] / alanine aminotransferase [ALT] > 240), myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (creatine phosphokinase [CPK] > 5x normal), allergy or intolerance to statins or aspirin, prior statin or aspirin use within 30 days, history of active gastrointestinal bleeding in past three months, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100000/ dl), pregnancy, active breastfeeding, or inability to take oral or nasogastric medications will be excluded.
33129222 , alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 558 IU and serum creatinine 2.3 mg/dl.
33147270 The factors of liver injury especially on the elevation of liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) were analyzed.
33157267 Compared with non-survivors, survivors had lower levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (weighted mean difference [WMD]=-16.71U/L, 95%CI=[-21.03,-12.40], P<0.001), alanine transaminase (ALT) (WMD=-5.20U/L, 95%CI=[-8.00,-2.41], P<0.001), total bilirubin (TBIL) (WMD=4.40μmol/L, 95%CI=[-5.11,-3.70], P<0.001) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) (WMD=-252.44U/L, 95%CI=[-289.57,-215.30], P<0.001), and higher albumin (ALB) level (WMD=4.47g/L, 95%CI=[3.47,5.47], P<0.001).
33158276 Through coevolutionary network analysis and dynamics-based alanine scanning, we established linkages between the binding energy hotspots and potential regulators and carriers of signal communication in the virus-host receptor complexes.
33162345 CD8 T cell percentage), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the 6 patients before and after treatment, and the proportions of patients with abnormal indicators were analyzed as well.
33162738 Gastrointestinal predictors of severe COVID-19 included the presence of diarrhea (OR 1.50, 95%CI 1.10-2.03; P=0.01), elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (OR 4.00, 95%CI 3.02-5.28; P<0.001), and elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (OR 2.54, 95%CI 1.91-3.37; P<0.001).
33174624 Sixty-seven (29.4%) of 228 patients without CLD showed abnormal liver function on admission, including increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (25 [11.0%]) U/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 30 [13.2%]) U/L, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) 28 [12.4%]) U/L, total bilirubin (Tbil) 16 [7.0%] μmol/L, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 10 [4.5%]) U/L.
33174669 Computational alanine scanning mutagenesis was performed to predict changes in Gibbs’ free energy that are associated with mutating residues at the positive control (PMI/MDM2) or SARS RBD/ACE2 binding interface to alanine.
33181413 The time of nucleic acid turning negative: no fever group was longer than fever group, diabetes group was longer than no comorbidity group, elevated levels of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), or GLU (fasting blood glucose) group, decreased levels of ALB (albumin) group or HDLC (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) group was longer than it’s normal group separately (P < 0.05).
33184141 Significant increase in the levels of alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase was seen on the 7th day, CRP and ferritin (p<0.0001) peaks were observed on 2nd and 3rd day respectively.
33194061 There were significant differences on hypertension, abidol treatment, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lymphocyte counts, and serum triglyceride (TG) between two groups (P<0.05).
33211319 Liver function tests The summary sensitivity of an increase in alanine aminotransferase (9 studies) was 12% (95% CI 3% to 34%) at median specificity (92%; low-certainty evidence).
33222271 There was a positive correlation among prothrombin time (PT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in severely and critically ill patients.
33235588 However Serum Alanine Aminotransferase was raised in 32(8.2%), Serum C reactive Protein was elevated in 48(12.2%).
33243228 48 (35.8%) of discharged patients had elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, which was more common in adults than in children (40.2% vs 13.6%, P = 0.018).
33244373 To provide a well-conceptualized viewpoint representing the prognostic values of liver-related laboratory parameters in COVID-19, a meta-analysis was performed with the calculation of mean difference and 95% confidence intervals of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (Bili), and albumin (Alb) in severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients.
33249969 Main predictors of severe COVID-19 course in pregnant women were a decrease in the levels of erythrocytes and lymphocytes and increase in the levels of alanine aminotransferase and CRP.
33252912 The recommendations cover musculoskeletal conditions (e.g., do not recommend platelet-rich plasma injections for rotator cuff disease or knee osteoarthritis), respiratory disease (e.g., in clinically stable patients with community-acquired pneumonia, antibiotics can be stopped after five days), screening or preventive care (e.g., patients who take their blood pressure at home or in a pharmacy should know what to do when they have an elevated reading), and miscellaneous topics (e.g., in healthy adults treated for dermatophyte infection, do not obtain baseline or follow-up alanine transaminase level, aspartate transaminase level, or complete blood count).
33259918 Lymphocytopenia (54.8%), elevated alanine aminotransferase (33.0%) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (58.5%) were frequent.
33260201 On June 18, 2020, we identified frequently used eligibility criteria from all the interventional COVID-19 trials in (n = 288), including age, pregnancy, oxygen saturation, alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, platelets, and estimated glomerular filtration rate.
33261654 H7N9 patients had similar patterns of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, elevated alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and those seen in H1N1 patients, which were all significantly different from patients with COVID-19 (P < 0.01).
33263693 Some studies showed increased aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase levels in a portion of the 209 analyzed patients and two studies.
33264276 Other laboratory indicators such as white blood cells, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase showed a decreasing trend after transfusion.
33267597 We assessed the impact of baseline liver function (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], bilirubin) on COVID-19-related outcomes, including mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and non-fatal severe complications. after a systematic review of the relevant studies the odds ratio (OR), mean difference, sensitivity, specificity, and both positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated for the prediction of relevant COVID-19 outcomes by performing a meta-analysis using fixed and random effects models.
33278893 Random blood glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l was significantly associated with intensive care admission [adjusted HR 1.5 (CI 1.0-2.2); p = 0.04], as well as smoking, β-blocker use, neutrophil > 7.5, creatinine > 90 µmol/l and alanine aminotransferase > 65U/l.
33295455 It was found that baseline heart rate, presence of hypertension and diabetes, white blood cell count, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, NT-proBNP, high sensitive C reactive protein, D-dimer, hs-cTnI, Tpe, Tpe/QT, and Tpe/QTc increased from group I to group IV, and they were significantly higher in all patients in group IV (p < 0.05).
33307078 We collected the clinical data from 17 autopsy cases of patients with COVID-19 including age, sex, Body mass index (BMI), liver function test (alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), direct bilirubin, and total bilirubin), D-dimer, and anticoagulation treatment.
33314141 Liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), Y-glutamyl transferase (GGT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were analyzed in these patients.
33325107 In addition, our results also showed that the incidence of cardiac and kidney injury, as well as increased levels of creatinine, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase, were significantly higher in patients from the West than from the East.
33330626 Besides, Computational Alanine Scanning (CAS) mutagenesis was performed, which revealed hotspot mutants, namely I40A, V104A, and R86A for the dimer association.
33331264 Initial laboratory results revealed leukopenia, elevated aspartate transaminase, and elevated alanine transaminase.
33339330 The elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) to the highest level between COVID-19 diagnosis and hospital discharge was categorized according to a standardized toxicity grade scale.
33339813 MATERIAL AND METHODS In this retrospective study, 40 confirmed COVID-19 patients with normal alanine transaminase (ALT) on admission were divided into a group of normal ALT patients whose ALT was always less than 40 U/l during hospitalization and a group of elevated ALT patients whose ALT was at least once more than 40 U/l after admission.
33342313 WBC, NEU, red cell distribution width, alanine transaminase, creatinine, urea, CK-MB, CK, direct bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ferritin, D-dimer, PCT and international normalized ratio values increased while RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and total bilirubin values decreased in a significant proportion of patients in both groups based on the normal reference ranges.
33349263 Serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were reduced by INAE administration (P < 0.05).
33350432 Monocyte counts, lymphocyte subset counts, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the peripheral blood were analyzed.
33369962 Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) had opposite impact on mortality with AST positively, and ALT negatively associated with mortality.
33376949 White blood cell count was mostly normal (26 cases, 74.3%) or decreased (7 cases, 20.0%); lymphocyte percentage was increased in 24 (68.7%); neutrophil percentage was decreased in 25 (71.4%); alanine aminotransferase was increased in 3 (8.6%); and serum potassium was decreased in 4 (11.4%).
33406518 In addition, abnormal laboratory findings revealing organ dysfunctions were frequently observed in the severe cases, including decrease in albumin (43%, 95% CI = 24-63%) and increase in aspartate aminotransferase (47%, 95% CI = 38-56%), alanine aminotransferase (28%, 95% CI = 16-39%), troponin I/troponin T (TnI/TnT; 29%, 95% CI = 13-45%), and serum Cr (SCr; 10%, 95% CI = 5-15%).
33409033 An in-hospital mortality risk calculator was created after the identification of significant factors for the specific cohort, which were abnormal CT scan or chest X-ray, chronic kidney disease, age, white blood cell count, platelet count, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase with a sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of 82%, 72%, and 93%, respectively.
33447431 In terms of laboratory indicators, the decreased lymphocyte and platelet count, and the increased levels of white blood cell (WBC), D-dimer, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and C-reactive protein were more prevalent in severe patients.
33453245 Pathway and network enrichment analyses revealed that the 92 DEPs were mostly associated with metabolic, complement and coagulation cascades, lysosome, and cholesterol metabolism pathways, and the 375 COVID-19 only proteins were mainly enriched in amino acid degradation (Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine degradation), amino acid metabolism (beta-Alanine, Tryptophan, Cysteine and Methionine metabolism), oxidative phosphorylation, phagosome, and cholesterol metabolism pathways.
33459077 Clinical and laboratory characteristics at admission that were associated with clinical deterioration included senior age, diabetes, hypertension, myalgia, higher temperature, systolic blood pressure, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, activated partial thromboplastin time, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, direct bilirubin, plasma creatinine, lymphocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, decreased albumin and bicarbonate concentration.
33463485 White blood cell (WBC) counts, lymphocyte (LYM) counts, neutrophil (NEU) counts, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), hypersensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), and lactic acid (Lac) levels were measured and the rate of change was calculated at the baseline (d0) before plasma transfusion, and day 1 (d1), day 3 (d3) after transfusion.
33469527 alanine scanning were employed to characterize the interacting residues at the interface.
33470392 The patient’s serum alanine aminotransferase increased abnormally in the late stage of hospitalization, suggesting potential liver damage after complex medication strategies.
33494713 We did a comparative analysis of various parameters such as the pneumonia progression, length-of-stay in the hospital, and the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum creatinine (Cr), and creatine kinase (CK) between the day when these patients were admitted to the hospital and the day when the treatment ended.
33514597 Abnormal LFT at baseline was present in 58% of patients, with a predominant elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (42%), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) (37%) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (27%), hypoalbuminaemia was observed in 33%.
33521102 In univariate logistic analysis, risk factors associated with the development of ARDS included older age [odds ratio (OR) = 1.04), coexisting diseases (OR = 3.94), dyspnea (OR = 17.82), dry/moist rales (OR = 9.06), consolidative/mixed opacities (OR = 2.93), lymphocytes (OR = 0.68 for high lymphocytes compared to low lymphocytes), D-dimer (OR = 1.41), albumin (OR = 0.69 for high albumin compared to low albumin), alanine aminotransferase (OR = 1.03), aspartate aminotransferase (OR = 1.02), LDH (OR = 1.02), C-reactive protein (OR = 1.04) and procalcitonin (OR = 17.01).
33527805 Serum levels of total and direct bilirubin, Alanine Transaminase (ALT) and Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALKP), total protein and albumin were assayed.
33529907 Hemogram, NLR, urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, ferritin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, troponin, and coagulation parameters were analyzed.
33530232 Quantitative analysis showed that the severe the coronavirus infection, the higher the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspertate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and the lower the level of albumin (ALB).
33538960 The laboratory values for various liver function tests (e.g., alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, albumin) have indicated potential hepatocellular injury in COVID-19 patients.
33539383 The presence of abnormalities in the following parameters were strongly associated with progression to severe disease: white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, D-dimers, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) during both admission and hospitalization.
33541491 There were no statistically significant differences in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total cholesterol (TC) between the two groups at each time point.
33546633 Hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), CRP, and serum creatinine (Scr) were independent risk factors associated with high BMI.
33548996 Some specific laboratory indicators implied the deterioration of disease, such as leucocytosis, lymphopenia, platelet, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, creatinine, creatine kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein, procalcitonin (PCT), and D-dimer.
33553435 And the elderly patients with diabetes were more likely to have dry cough, and the alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, Ca, and mean hemoglobin recovery rate were higher than the other groups.
33560687 Abnormalities of liver chemistries [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, or total bilirubin] were defined as absent, mild-moderate (at least one value up to four times elevated), or severe.
33564852 The NYC’s cohort had shorter hospital stays (4.1 versus 7.2 days, P < .001) but more African American patients (23% versus 12%, P = .02) and higher prevalence of abnormal alanine (>60U/L; 39.0% versus 5.9%, P < .001) and aspartate (>40U/L; 58.4% versus 42.4%, P = .012) aminotransferase, oxygen saturation <90% (20.4% versus 7.2%, P = .004), and mortality (21% versus 1.4%, P < .001).
33572429 Liver injury expressed as any alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation was noted in 45.6% of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19.
33592042 During admission, elevated hemoglobin and alanine aminotransferase levels on day 7 and 14 of illness were associated with higher BMI levels.