Tissue Sentence Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of testis tissue in 69 abstracts.

PMID Senteces
32081428 However, since ACE2 is predominantly expressed in intestines, testis, and kidney, fecal-oral and other routes of transmission are also possible.
32247213 Search terms were, COVID-19, treatment of coronavirus, COVID 19 and following terms; chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ibuprofen, ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, cardiovascular disease, diarrhoea, liver, testis and gastrointestinal disease.
32283711 These findings provide evidence that the human testis is a potential target of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may have significant impact on our understanding of the pathophysiology of this rapidly spreading disease.
32336612 ACE2 receptors are ubiquitous and widely expressed in the heart, vessels, gut, lung (particularly in type 2 pneumocytes and macrophages), kidney, testis and brain.
32345362 ACE2 expression levels were the highest in the small intestine, testis, kidneys, heart, thyroid, and adipose tissue, and were the lowest in the blood, spleen, bone marrow, brain, blood vessels, and muscle.
32361911 Here, we performed singlecell RNA seq (scRNA-seq) analysis on 853 male embryo primordial germ cells (PGCs) and 2,854 normal testis cells to assess the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on the male reproductive system from embryonic stage to adulthood. […] We found that ACE2 expressing cells existed in almost all testis cell types and Sertoli cells had highest expression level and positive cells ratio.
32410141 In normal tissues, ACE2 expression distributions were organ-specific, mainly in the kidney, male testis and female breast, and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. […] High level of expression in testis, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal system indicated that SARS-CoV-2 might not only attack the lungs, but also affect other organs, particularly the testes, thus it may severely damage male sexual development for younger male and lead to infertility in an adult male, if he contracted COVID-19.
32414626 Expert guidance recommends expedient local treatment of testis cancer.
32421367 As the SARS-CoV-2 may have the potential to infect the testis via ACE2, and adversely affect male reproductive system, it is essential to commence with targeted studies to learn from current pandemic, with the possibility of preemptive intervention depending on findings and the time course of the continued pandemic.
32443177 We used MIA-US for tissue sampling of lungs, liver, heart, kidneys, spleen, brain, skin, skeletal muscle and testis for histology and RT-PCR to detect SARS-COV-2-RNA. […] Small thrombi were less frequently observed in glomeruli, spleen, heart, dermis, testis, and liver sinusoids.
32453494 The expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the testis and in the male genital tract allows speculations about a possible testicular involvement during the infection, possibly mediated by local and/or systemic inflammation that might allow a high viral load to overcome the haemato-testicular barrier.
32462316 Several molecular characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 can justify the presence of virus within the testis and possible alterations of spermatogenesis and endocrine function. […] Alternatively, the orchitis could be the result of a vasculitis as COVID-19 has been associated with abnormalities in coagulation and the segmental vascularization of the testis could account for an orchitis-like syndrome.
32482249 Expression patterns of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the human testis are explored through previously published single-cell transcriptome datasets.
32544042 COVID-19 do effect genitourinary system from kidney to testis.
32568496 There is little information on how to prioritize testis cancer (TC) patients’ care during COVID-19 pandemic in order to relieve its pressure on the health care systems. […] Most stages of testis cancer require urgent care; however, all recommendations must be adapted to local health care priorities considering that most of these patients are at low risk of severe COVID-19 infection.
32594644 Considering the critical roles of testicular cells for the transmission of genetic information between generations, we analyzed single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) data of adult human testis.
32598305 It has been now clearly established that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing COVID-19, infects the host cell through biding and being internalized with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a surface protein expressed in a noticeable number of human cells, especially in those of upper and lower respiratory tracts, heart, kidney, testis, adipose tissue, gastrointestinal system and in lymphocytes.
32622411 There was general agreement between publicly available bulk RNA and protein datasets in terms of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression patterns in testis, ovary, endometrial, and placental cells.
32646061 Based on studies in a range of in vitro and in vivo models, ergothioneine has exhibited the ability to modulate inflammation, scavenge free radicals, protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome, prevent endothelial dysfunction, protect against ischemia and reperfusion injury, protect against neuronal damage, counteract iron dysregulation, hinder lung and liver fibrosis, and mitigate damage to the lungs, kidneys, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and testis, amongst many others.
32650948 A mild COVID-19 infection is not likely to affect testis and epididymis function, whereas semen parameters did seem impaired after a moderate infection.
32669955 Our results suggested that ACE2 protein is mainly expressed in the small intestine, kidney, gallbladder, and testis, while the abundance of which in brain-associated tissues and blood common cells is low.
32681716 SARS-CoV-2 binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, present in high levels in the testis.
32692934 We reviewed published literature on bladder cancer, upper tract urothelial carcinoma, penile cancer, testis cancer, prostate cancer, renal cancer and adrenal cancer.
32733785 The expression level of hACE2 protein was determined to be high in hearts, kidneys, and brains of dTg mice, whereas lung, liver, and testis tissues expressed low levels.
32783136 Our findings highlight that male reproductive tissues could be targeted by SARS-CoV-2, particularly the testis since it co-expresses the receptor (ACE2) and the protease (TMPRSS) needed for viral entry.
32826162 Can the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus induce testis damage and dysfunction? […] From a review of the literature, it seems that there is currently no evidence of sexual transmission of SARS-CoV-2; however, the possibility of virus-induced testis damage and dysfunction cannot be excluded.
32837527 From the protein expression atlas, high levels of ACE2 precursor were found in intestines and testis. […] Hence, the testis and seminal fluids could be the host cell and/or reservoir.
32869939 In the male reproductive tract, it was discussed the testis’ vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 invasion and the possible adverse effects on its function and the seminal findings of COVID-19.
32872802 By following the main subdiffusive routes across the PPI network, we identify proteins mainly expressed in the heart, cerebral cortex, thymus, testis, lymph node, kidney, among others of the organs reported to be affected by COVID-19.
32888287 Autoptic studies on SARS patients revealed that thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary gland, endocrine pancreas and especially adrenals and testis can be impaired by different mechanisms (direct damage by SARS-CoV, inflammation, vascular derangement and autoimmune reactions) and few clinical studies have evidenced functional endocrine impairment.
32939636 The protocol required 20 cores of the liver, 30 of lung, 12 of spleen, 20 of heart, 20 of kidney, 4 of breast, 4 of testis, 2 of skeletal muscle, and 4 of fat with total of 112 cores per patient.
32948238 A recent study has indicated that the testis can harbor coronavirus, and consequently, males show delayed viral clearance. […] However, the role of testis involvement in COVID-19 severity and mortality needs further research.
32960504 In this review, we show that male fertility might be damaged by coronavirus associated with (i) direct cytopathic effects derived from viral replication and viral dissemination in the testis; and (ii) indirect damage to male fertility derived from immunopathology.
32969123 Biological plausibility for infection with SARS-CoV-2 exists in testis, ovaries, and placenta as they express ACE2 receptor activity.
32970391 Their expression levels were found to be significantly altered in cancer types, including colon, kidney, liver, testis, thyroid and skin cancers (P < 0.0001); AUC > 0.80 suggests that TMPRSS2, CLEC4M and DPP4 are relevant markers of kidney, liver, and thyroid cancer, respectively.
32998451 In addition, bioinformatics analyses reveal the abundant expression of ACE2 receptor in the male reproductive tissues, particularly in the testis.
33006953 The blood-testis barrier (BTB) and blood-epididymis barrier (BEB) are essential physical barricades in the male reproductive tract located between the blood vessel and seminiferous tubules in the testes. […] Therefore, this mini-review highlights the role of ACE2 receptors in promoting SARS-CoV-2-induced blood-testis/epididymal barrier infiltration and testicular dysfunction.
33009240 ACE2 can be found in the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, and reproductive organs such as human ovaries and Leydig cells in the testis. […] Considering the crucial roles of testicular cells of the male reproductive system, increasing numbers of studies focus on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the testis.
33011887 Although the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, a receptor of SARS-CoV2 in the lung, heart, kidney, testis, liver, lymphocytes, and nervous system was confirmed, there are controversial findings to about the observation of SARS-CoV2 RNA in these organs.
33041326 After intravenous administration of 20 mg/kg RDV in mice, the concentrations of the parent drug, nucleotide monophosphate (RMP) and triphosphate (RTP), as well as nucleoside (RN), in the blood, heart, liver, lung, kidney, testis, and small intestine were quantified.
33108833 The testis appears to be an organ enriched with levels of ACE2, while the possible mechanisms of involvement of the male reproductive system by SARS-CoV-2 are not fully elucidated. […] The aim of this review was to provide new insights into different possible mechanisms of involvement of male gonads with SARS-CoV-2 including investigating the ACE2 axis in testis, hormonal alterations in patients with COVID-19, possible formation of anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) and subsequently immunological infertility as a complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33112891 By immunohistochemistry, duodenum, kidney and testis showed strong signals, whereas the signal was weak in the respiratory tract.
33115584 In testis, SARS affected patients displayed peritubular fibrosis, extensive germ cell disruption, damage of blood-testis barrier integrity and more frequent occurrence of apoptosis.
33134888 The top targets are lung AT2 cells and macrophages, then cardiomyocytes and adrenal gland stromal cells, followed by stromal cells in testis, ovary, and thyroid, whereas the kidney proximal tubule cells, cholangiocytes, and enterocytes are less likely to be the primary SARS-CoV-2 targets.
33134901 Impairment of spermatogenesis was observed in COVID-19 patients, which could be partially explained as a result of an elevated immune response in testis.
33151050 Testis tissue was collected from autopsies of COVID-19 positive (n=6) and negative men (n=3). […] TEM showed the COVID-19 virus in testis tissue of one COVID-19 positive autopsy case and the live biopsy, H&E stain on the same autopsy case demonstrated interstitial macrophage and leukocyte infiltration.
33174632 We enrolled male patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and performed a bedside ultrasound (US) examination of the scrotum, focused on findings of acute inflammation such as tunica albuginea thickening, enlargement and heterogeneous echogenicity of the testis, epididymis, or both, an abscess, scrotal wall edema, and hydrocele. […] This study shows US imaging evidence that SARS-CoV-2 may cause infection of the testis or epididymis, and the risk is worthy of the attention of clinicians.
33177848 In single cells, ACE2 was primarily enriched in gametocytes in the testis and renal proximal tubules. […] The receptors for pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL6ST, were notably concentrated in endothelial cells, macrophages, spermatogonial stem cells in the testis, and renal endothelial cells, which suggested the occurrence of alternative damaging autoimmune mechanisms. […] This study provided new insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 that underlie the clinical manifestations observed in the human testis and kidney.
33200417 According to the existing clinical data, this virus not only causes respiratory diseases and affects the lungs but also induces histopathological or functional changes in various organs like the testis and also the male genital tract. […] As the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the male genital system in direct or indirect ways and showed a negative impact on male reproduction, this paper focuses on the possible mechanisms underlying the damage caused by COVID-19 to the testis and also other components of the male genital tract.
33205008 These NSC Ex/Mv were found to be characterized by producing large libraries of P element-induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) against genomes of various viruses, and some of these piRNAs were enriched during the adaptive immunity-like reaction, possibly contributing to the antiviral effects of these Ex/Mv.
33249233 Findings are however controversial regarding its presence in the semen or the testis.
33330557 Studies have found that ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed in the testis and male reproductive tract and are regulated by testosterone.
33336018 The results showed that the kidneys, duodenum, intestine, gallbladder and testis had the highest ACE2 expressions, followed by the colon, rectum and seminal vesicles.
33346955 According to the fact that SARS-CoV-2 can infect the cells expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which can be distributed in the corpus cavernosum, testis and other male reproductive organs and may also participate in erectile function, spermatogenesis, sperm motility and androgen metabolism through the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis in the renin-angiotensin system(RAS), it can be deduced that SARS-CoV-2 may affect these physiological processes of male reproduction.
33346959 Many studies show that the testis is one of the organs with a high expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor/binding protein of SARS-CoV-2, which has aroused public concerns about the possible damage to male fertility. […] This article presents a review and analysis of the existing literature, aiming to achieve an objective understanding of the significance of the ACE2 expression in the testis. […] Hitherto, clinical and laboratory data available on COVID-19 are not sufficient to provide any direct evidence that the testis is a target organ of the virus.
33346960 It is reported that the novel coronavirus may affect the testis that highly expresses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and theoretically the semen is a possible carrier of the virus considering the fact that it is discharged from the same channel as the urine.
33401657 Besides, the nose, heart, small intestine, large intestine, esophagus, brain, testis, and kidney are also identified to be high-risk organs with high expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2.
33427404 Another study found that orchitic and testis fibrin microthrombi occurred in patients with fatal disease (100%, N = 2).
33434163 However, whether SARS-CoV-2 can infect the human testis directly and enter semen is controversial. […] Here, we analyze the invasiveness of SARS-CoV-2 in the testis and examine reported mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 interferes with male reproduction.
33434886 However, whether SARS-CoV-2 can infect the human testis directly and enter semen is controversial. […] Here, we analyze the invasiveness of SARS-CoV-2 in the testis and examine reported mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 interferes with male reproduction.
33437145 Mostly, it invades the cells of the respiratory system by binding to the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) which is also present in other organs like the kidney, testis, ovaries, breast, heart, and intestine, rendering them prone to be infected.
33458761 The ACE2 gene is expressed in many human tissues, including intestine, testis, kidneys, heart and lungs.
33468445 ACE2 protein is expressed highly in the testis.
33469663 Further investigation showed the presence of similar signalling events in the kidney, placenta, pancreas, testis, stomach, small intestine and adrenal gland suggesting the possible the mechanistic lineage of viral infection in other tissue.
33514391 The major problem remains the fear for possible diagnostic delays in life-threatening or crippling diseases; our study doesn’t demonstrate an increase in number or significant delay in some serious conditions such as tumors, peritonitis, diabetic ketoacidosis, ileo-colic intussusception and testis/ovary torsion.
33521006 The results indicated that ACE2 highly expresses in renal tubular cells, Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and cells in seminiferous ducts in testis. […] Our results suggest that ACE2 expression could contribute to kidney and testis infection after COVID-19 infection.
33534765 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), reported as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor, is expressed in different human tissues (lung, intestine, and kidney) and in the testis, ovaries, uterus, and vagina.
33565141 The testis is a potential target organ for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33583003 Hence, the mechanisms of SARS-Cov-1 and SARS-Cov-2 infection are similar and occur via binding to ACE2 protein, which is widely distributed in the human body, with a predominant expression in endocrine tissues including testis, thyroid, adrenal and pituitary. […] Tissue and vascular damages have been shown on thyroid, adrenal, testis and pituitary glands, with multiple alterations of endocrine function.