Tissue Sentence Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of skin tissue in 608 abstracts.

PMID Senteces
32170800 Health professions preventing and controlling Coronavirus Disease 2019 are prone to skin and mucous membrane injury, which may cause acute and chronic dermatitis, secondary infection and aggravation of underlying skin diseases. […] Insufficient and excessive protection will have adverse effects on the skin and mucous membrane barrier.
32172546 Objective: To investigate the pathological characteristics and the clinical significance of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (termed by WHO as corona virus disease 2019, COVID-19). Methods: Minimally invasive autopsies from lung, heart, kidney, spleen, bone marrow, liver, pancreas, stomach, intestine, thyroid and skin were performed on three patients died of novel coronavirus pneumonia in Chongqing, China.
32201983 In this paper we share our experiences in dealing with skin diseases in this special period and hope to provide some references for international colleagues in the epidemic situation.
32219888 Since then numerous additional cases have been reported and the dissemination of the infection does not only pose a major health challenge for the entire population, medical care facilities and the economy, but also for the medical training of future doctors and outpatient care of patients with skin disease.
32220276 All patients had acro-ischemia presentations including finger/toe cyanosis, skin bulla and dry gangrene.
32223004 Dermatoscope is a convenient diagnostic tool used by dermatologists in the diagnosis of skin, hair and nail disorders.
32255197 During the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), healthcare workers (HCWs) caring for COVID-19 patient have to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) and are therefore susceptible to PPE-related adverse skin reactions. […] However, little is known about the prevalence and characteristics of these adverse skin reactions and their associated risk factors.
32255510 In patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 disease, all immunomodulators used for skin diseases should be immediately withheld, with the possible exception of systemic corticosteroid therapy, which needs to be weaned.
32268381 · Parents should be engaged in shared decision-making with options for rooming in, skin-to-skin contact, and breastfeeding..
32294259 A skin rash has been reported in 2 out of 1.099 patients presenting with Coronavirus disease 2019 in China [1], as in 14 of 48 patients with the same disease in Italia, but unfortunately without further description of its semiology [2]. […] We wish to report here the case of a woman who presented, coincidently with Covid-19, a skin rash that had an original picture.
32294264 We have read with great interest Dr Recalcati’s review about skin manifestations in COVID-19 as it is the first report on this subject1 .
32294265 Psoriasis is a major chronic inflammatory skin disease, affecting about 3% of the population in Italy, whose management require experienced specialists in order to guarantee high-quality standards of care.
32294273 About skin manifestation, few cases of rashes on patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 were described in two Chineses cohorts.
32298514 COVID-19 presents many pressing challenges to the global dermatological community and our patients with ongoing skin needs, which must be considered by every dermatology provider.
32299776 We examined skin and lung tissues from 5 patients with severe COVID-19 characterized by respiratory failure (n= 5) and purpuric skin rash (n = 3). […] The purpuric skin lesions similarly showed a pauci-inflammatory thrombogenic vasculopathy, with deposition of C5b-9 and C4d in both grossly involved and normally-appearing skin.
32302444 While most of the studies have focused on the skin reactions caused by gloves, other PPE such as gowns, respirator masks, face shields and goggles are also worn by HCWs for long hours during the current epidemic and skin irritations caused by these equipment may cause discouragement of health workers from using them [2].
32304265 The working parties of TROG (head/neck/skin, genitourinary, breast and lung) were also sampled.
32305046 The patient underwent a cesarean delivery, and neonatal isolation was implemented immediately after birth, without delayed cord clamping or skin-to-skin contact.
32314460 COVID-19 is a challenge for the treatment of dermatologic patients, either with severe inflammatory disorders or with skin cancer. […] COVID-19, although not a skin disease, by itself has an immense impact on dermatology.
32315079 It has been reported that the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may be associated with a papulovesicular skin eruption predominantly involving the trunk.
32320091 It is not known yet, if skin lesions and derangement of the skin barrier could make it easier for SARS-CoV-2 to transmit via indirect contact; it remains to be defined if specific mucosal or skin lesions are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, although some unpublished observations indicate the occurrence of a transient varicelliform exanthema during the early phase of the infection.
32320359 Objective: To investigate the prevalence, characteristics, and preventive status of skin injuries caused by personal protective equipment (PPE) in medical staff. Approach: A cross-sectional survey was conducted online for understanding skin injuries among medical staff fighting COVID-19 in February 8-22, 2020. […] The questionnaire items included demographic data, grade of PPE and daily wearing time, skin injury types, anatomical sites, and preventive measures. […] Univariable analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to explore the risk factors associated with skin injuries. Results: A total of 4,308 respondents were collected from 161 hospitals and 4,306 respondents were valid. […] The overall prevalence of skin injuries was 42.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 41.30-44.30) with three types of device-related pressure injuries, moist-associated skin damage, and skin tear. […] Co-skin injuries and multiple location injuries were 27.4% and 76.8%, respectively. […] The logistic regression analysis indicated that sweating (95% CI for odds ratio [OR] 87.52-163.11), daily wearing time (95% CI for OR 1.61-3.21), male (95% CI for OR 1.11-2.13), and grade 3 PPE (95% CI for OR 1.08-2.01) were associated with skin injuries. […] Only 17.7% of respondents took prevention and 45.0% of skin injuries were treated. Innovation: This is the first cross-sectional survey to understand skin injuries in medical staff caused by PPE, which is expected to be a benchmark. Conclusion: The skin injuries among medical staff are serious, with insufficient prevention and treatment.
32329915 Here we report two cases of peculiar skin manifestation.
32339344 Skin symptoms of COVID-19 have been poorly described but may include erythematous rash, urticaria and chicken pox like lesions (2-7).
32339362 Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. […] Patients with AD have increased infection risk, including skin infections and systemic infections.
32345362 In the skin, digestive system, brain, and blood vessels, ACE2 expression levels were positively associated with immune signatures in both males and females.
32353170 Skin biopsy specimen showed slight spongiosis, basal cell vacuolation and mild perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate (c).
32356382 According to the data reported by Lin et al 1 , based in the experience from healthcare workers in Wuhan, adverse skin reactions were reported in 74% of responders (n=376) to a general survey. […] The most commonly reported types of eruptions were skin dryness or desquamation (68.6%), papules or erythema (60.4%) and maceration (52,9%).
32358808 Since first reported in 2019, pneumonia associated with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has rapidly developed into an outbreak across the world.1 Number of the patients of all age groups has increased significantly.2 In order to curb the spread of the epidemic, thousands of health care workers (HCWs) have joined the front line of the fight against this highly contagious disease.3 When taking care of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, HCWs must first protect themselves by performing adequate hand hygiene and using protective equipment including medical mask, goggles/face shield, gown and gloves.4 However, the wearing of these personal protective equipment (PPE) on a daily basis and the frequent use of hand disinfectants often cause skin problems which could reduce their enthusiasm for overloaded work and make them anxious at all stages of the pandemic.
32362062 Keeping the integrity of skin barrier is a critical method to prevent the spread of 2019-nCoV, since skin is the first line of defense of human body(4). […] It is of prime importance to ensure and maintain the skin clean, sterilized and protected of clinical health care staff during the fight against the epidemic. […] Self-protection of the medical staff is essential, however, utilizing protective equipment such as goggles, masks and protective clothing continuously impairs skin integrity and the skin damage caused by the respective protective measures must be taken seriously.
32365215 These drugs are associated with some potential harms, including QTc-interval prolongation, hypoglycaemia, severe skin reactions and psychiatric effects.
32367558 The median age of these patients was 58 (minimum 18, maximum 80) years, and the most common dermatologic diseases before diagnosed COVID-19 were superficial fungal infections (5, 25%), psoriasis (4, 20%), and viral skin diseases (3, 15%).
32373409 Frequent hand washing implies a prolonged exposure to water and other chemical or physical agents and may induce several pathophysiologic changes, such as epidermal barrier disruption, impairment of keratinocytes, the subsequent release of proinflammatory cytokines, activation of the skin immune system, and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. […] Adverse dermatologic effects, such as excessive skin dryness or even contact dermatitis (particularly the irritant subtype and, to a lesser extent, the allergic subtype), can occur, especially in individuals with a history of atopic dermatitis. […] These skin conditions are perfectly manageable, and applying a moisturizer immediately after washing hands or after using a portable hand sanitizer is the cornerstone in preventing the development of eczematous changes in the hands.
32374033 We present four children investigated for suspected COVID-19 infection with who presented with acral skin findings and mild systemic symptoms.
32375776 This would be sufficient to reduce R0 from 2.6 prior to lockdown to 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.89) after the lockdown, based on all types of contact and 0.37 (95% CI = 0.22-0.53) for physical (skin to skin) contacts only.
32376531 Wearing the protective equipment (masks, goggles, and protective screens) with a poor breathability for a long time causes various skin problems, such as allergies, excessive skin hydration, local mechanical injuries, and even secondary infections. […] In addition, in a closed environment, compression and friction aggravate skin reactions, which may compromise duty performance of the medical staff. […] It is therefore essential to provide timely treatment opinions and prevention methods for common skin problems. […] We also give suggestions concerning the preparation of medical kit for skin protection in the epidemic area.
32381430 Skin lesion development occurred before the onset of respiratory symptoms or COVID-19 diagnosis in 12.5% (9/72) of the patients, and lesions spontaneously healed in all patients within 10 days. […] Majority of the studies reported no correlation between COVID-19 severity and skin lesions.
32383234 The searching strategy was (COVID* or coronavirus) and (dermatol or skin* or cutaneous*). […] A total of 60 patients developed skin rashes, and the age ranged from 8 to 84. […] Skin lesions mainly appeared erythematous, urticarial, and vesicular (chicken pox-like or varicelliform). […] Newly reported eruptions like vascular lesions and peculiar (perniosis-like) skin lesions caused concern among dermatologists. […] This study reviewed the recently published COVID-19 studies with skin manifestations, which may pave the way for further research.
32384180 Vesicular skin rashes have been associated to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), but there is little information about this cutaneous manifestation. […] Clinical characterization of skin findings was conducted by dermatologists. […] The median duration of the skin rash was of 10 days. […] Out of all, 19 patients (79.2%) presented the skin rash after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. […] This monocentric study shows the clinical characteristics of vesicular skin rashes in COVID-19 patients.
32385858 One patient developed the skin rash during hospitalization. […] These 3 patients returned to the Emergency department consulting for skin rashes 6, 7 and 4 days after discharge, respectively. […] Laboratory tests at the time of skin lesions showed worsening of one or more parameters, compared to those at the time of discharge (CRP, D-dimer and lymphocyte count). […] In all patients, skin lesions begun as erythematous papules in upper trunk, that progressively turned to erythemato-violaceous patches with a dusky center, and a pseudo-vesicle in the middle. […] All patients were treated with systemic corticosteroids with progressive resolution of the skin lesions within 2-3 weeks.
32385859 Novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV2) pandemic has particularly affected Italy, with a profound impact on the therapeutic strategy for complex disorder such as psoriasis, whose extensive skin damage might expose to an increased infective risk compared to the general population.
32385891 In this quick review we have analyzed the mechanisms of action and related infective risk of drugs used for the treatment of immune-mediated and oncologic skin conditions during the daily clinical practice. […] The COVID19 emergency pandemic does not imply an under-treatment of existing skin conditions, which together with the SARS-Cov2 infection may jeopardize the patient’s life.
32386447 We have read with great attention the article by Van Damme et al. considering urticarial lesions as a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated skin manifestation1 .
32386459 Since the beginning of the pandemic of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) an increasing number of skin manifestations have been reported.1,2 Most reports concern adult patients and describe various patterns of skin eruptions, in most of cases with low specificity and no univocal temporal association with the onset of systemic symptoms of COVID-19.1-3.
32386460 Different skin manifestations of COVID-19 are being reported. […] Pruritus and mild pain were the only skin symptoms elicited, and only 10 had mild respiratory and/or GI symptoms. […] Skin biopsies obtained in six patients were consistent with chilblains.
32387409 A total of 2.3% of patients reported mild adverse events (gastrointestinal or skin symptoms, headache, insomnia and transient blurred vision).
32388643 The purposes of this report are to familiarize dermatologists with the hygiene practices recommended for COVID-19 prevention, to highlight adverse cutaneous reactions associated with repeated exposures to detergents and disinfectants, and to discuss strategies which patients can implement during the COVID-19 pandemic to minimize skin irritation white still performing hygiene practices effectively.
32396675 Several dermatoses have been reported due to PPE, such as pressure injury, contact dermatitis, pressure urticaria, and exacerbation of pre-existing skin diseases, including seborrheic dermatitis and acne.
32396999 Skin biopsies performed on each of the 6 patients demonstrated near identical histopathologic findings to those of idiopathic perniosis, with a lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate without evidence of thromboembolism or immune complex vasculitis. […] We offer a clinical approach to evaluation of patients with this presentation and discuss the possibility that these skin findings represent a convalescent-phase cutaneous reaction to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32400366 Ichthyosis – also called fish scale disease – is a group of skin diseases, which are characterised by xerosis and scaling.
32400852 Our results strongly suggest that while amounts of alcohol sufficient to cause a DER may be inhaled when hand sanitizers are used in confined spaces, absorption can be avoided by dispersal of the fumes, and absorption from the skin alone does not occur in pharmacologically significant quantities. […] Warnings about absorption of alcohol through the skin from hand sanitizers and products such as perfumes, deodorants and after-shave (whose use is often warned against when disulfiram is prescribed) should be modified accordingly.
32401228 The controversial procedures in the care of Covid-19-suspected or -positive asymptomatic women in labor were: mode of delivery, companion during birth and labor, skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding, and visits during a hospital stay.
32401352 Though infection with the SARS-CoV2 virus predominantly manifests in the lung as an interstitial pneumonia (“ground glass opacities”), there is increasing evidence that the virus invades all compartments of the body, particularly the eyes, heart, skin, kidneys, and the central nervous system(CNS).1 This article is protected by copyright.
32404482 COVID-19 patients had a high proportion of organisms reflective of commensal skin microbiota, reducing the bacteremia rate to 1.6% when excluded.
32407551 Phototherapy is undoubtedly a long-established, relatively safe means of reducing the burden of inflammatory skin disease avoiding large doses of immunosuppression.
32407564 Many clinical manifestations of the virus are described, and new symptoms are emerging, only few cases of patients with skin manifestation were described since the pandemic was announced by the WHO on March.
32409976 With the evolution of the pandemic, skin lesions were observed. […] Viral skin lesions are frequent causes of exanthema.
32416014 New patient referrals from primary care into dermatology services usually enter via one of three routes: (i) 2 week wait for suspected serious skin malignancies, (ii) routine non-urgent cases and (iii) emergency referrals (via an on call service).
32418532 The main SARS-CoV-2-related COVID-19 symptoms/diseases reported hitherto are hypertension, atherosclerosis, thrombosis (coagulopathy), diarrhea, glaucoma, anosmia, ageusia, skin lesions (dermatitis), autoimmune inflammation of the central nervous system, and damages to various organs such as the lung, heart, kidney, and testicle [1, 2, 14].
32421479 To help support patients and frontline health professionals, JWC is republishing the consensus in a digital format, along with a new introductory article outlining the DRPU risks posed by PPE and other medical devices used by patients and health professionals during the pandemic, and how the skin damage can be avoided. […] The aim is to provide frontline staff with a clear, simple strategy on how to prevent the risk of personal skin damage and/or DRPU during the pandemic, as well as point them in the direction of more indepth guidance on long-term strategies for prevention, for both themselves and patients.
32421857 Since the outbreak of novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), reports concerning suspicious COVID-19 skin manifestations are progressively increasing.
32421877 Currently, several clinicians described an increasingly cases of coronavirus-positive patients reporting skin problems, either in early stage of infection or as late onset manifestation.
32421878 Our previous research revealed that long-term wearing of N95 masks could lead to various facial skin lesions, which might affect their routine work and mental health. […] More importantly, severe skin lesions (e.g. ulcers) might put them in danger of being infected.
32422693 In France, COVID-19 wasn’t known to cause cutaneous manifestations before April 6th 2020, when an alert about possible associated skin symptoms was raised to the general public and the professional social network2-4 .
32425356 •COVID-19 is associated with specific skin manifestations and drug eruption.
32425360 Some of the mechanisms and conditions underlying endothelial dysfunction.A-human skin capillaries, visualized with high-resolution intravital color microscopy in the finger of a patient with obesity, metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease.B- healthy control.
32436262 Nowadays hand hygiene practices with alcohol sanitizers are an unavoidable reality for many people which cause skin dryness and flaking.
32436617 While it is unclear whether the patients on ISAs for skin conditions are more prone to develop COVID 19, and what impact the ISA may have on the clinical outcome if a patient does get infected, rationalizations based on the specific immune effects of each drug, and existing literature on incidence of various infections with each, are possible.
32437936 The differential diagnosis of drug-induced skin rash and hand-foot-mouth disease was ruled out based on the patient’s previous history and course of the disease.
32438942 Due to the shortage of Covid-19 testing devices, passengers were screened by measuring skin temperature.
32441360 9 (37.5%) of these patients also had accompanying COVID-19 skin lesions (2 urticarial lesions, 2 livedo and necrosis, 2 maculopapular eruption, 2 vesicular rashes, 1 pseudo-chilblain).
32443177 We used MIA-US for tissue sampling of lungs, liver, heart, kidneys, spleen, brain, skin, skeletal muscle and testis for histology and RT-PCR to detect SARS-COV-2-RNA.
32445583 During examination of cases of chilblains in children and adolescents, we identified four patients who also showed skin lesions similar to erythema multiforme (EM). […] Skin biopsies from two patients showed features not typical of EM, such as deep perivascular and perieccrine infiltrate and absence of necrosis of keratinocytes.
32446866 The virus may bind to corneal and conjunctival angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors and potentially to the lipophilic periocular skin and superficial tear film with downstream carriage into the nasopharynx and subsequent access to the lungs and gut.
32447801 Herpes Zoster is a viral skin disease caused by varicella zoster that remains dormant in the dorsal root ganglia of cutaneous nerves following a primary chicken pox infection.
32447934 All patients had acro-ischemia presentations including finger/toe cyanosis, skin bulla and dry gangrene.
32449781 Subjects who reported sensitive skin and atopic predisposition, and those with facial dermatoses (acne, atopic dermatitis or seborrhoeic dermatitis) were at significantly higher risk of itch development.
32452036 The increase of hand sanitation during the COVID-19 pandemic impairs the skin of the hands across all HCWs, independent of direct intensive care of affected patients.
32452545 To establish the real prevalence of COVID-19 in patients with acral skin lesions, we firstly evaluated all the cases of acral lesions presented in dermatology and paediatrics departments and family doctors’ offices in an eastern Spanish region over a three-week period. […] Our study suggests that acral skin lesions are not a specific marker of SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Although larger prospective studies are needed, current evidence indicates that acral skin lesions should not be regarded as a sign of COVID-19 in otherwise asymptomatic patients.
32452563 In 2014, Woods et al. undertook a first-in-person study to assess the effect on skin of a 222 nm UVC emitting device (Sterilray disinfectant wand, Healthy Environment Innovations, Dover, NH, USA).
32453902 Colonna et al. reported four children with suspected COVID-19 cases with “[h]istology from one case showed signs of vasculitis with evident fibrin thrombus [1].” While various skin findings have been reported with COVID-19 infection, the chilblains lesions have been reported from Italy and Spain, and sporadically from China, the starting point of disease pandemic [2-5].
32455499 SARS-CoV-2 has been hypothesized as the aetiologic agent of CLL, on the basis of the temporal correlation between the “burst” of skin manifestations and the viral pandemic, even though we have scarce evidence of swab-confirmed infections.
32458530 We will focus on are skin disorders such as autoimmune connective tissue disorders, neutrophilic dermatoses and vasculitis.
32458536 Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis are common, chronic, inflammatory skin conditions, with immune dysregulation as a shared mechanism; therefore, mainstays of treatment include systemic immunomodulating therapies.
32458588 Because of the COVID-19 emergency, on March 9, 2020 Italy went in lock-down imposing the closure of non-urgent outpatient clinics devoted to care of chronic, severe, inflammatory skin diseases that require periodic follow-up. […] Remote monitoring was performed in 183 patients (126 moderate to severe psoriasis, 10 severe acne, 11 severe atopic dermatitis, 11 hidradenitis suppurativa, 9 blistering autoimmune diseases, 16 other autoimmune skin diseases). […] Our real-life experience shows that remote monitoring was effective in preventing unnecessary worsening of severe chronic skin diseases and poor outcomes due to withdrawal of current therapy.
32460421 The most frequent cancer worldwide is skin cancer, occurring at epidemic rates in countries exposed to high levels of chronic ultraviolet radiation such as Australia and New Zealand (ANZ). […] Australia has the highest incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in the world.
32461409 The increased frequency of ABHR use and the aerosols generated pose a potential threat to the skin and exposed mucosal surfaces, especially that of the eye due to the proximity of use.
32468052 CTSL was upregulated in lymphoid neoplasm diffuse large B‑cell lymphoma, oesophageal carcinoma, glioblastoma multiforme, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lower grade glioma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, skin cutaneous melanoma, stomach adenocarcinoma, and thymoma.
32468229 Herein we propose an alternative model of skin cancer screening and the organization of screening campaigns in order to detect malignant lesions early during this emergency period.
32471009 Mounting evidence shows that COVID-19 impacts several organ systems, including the skin.
32474160 While we would benefit from further research, efforts to increase direct, personal contact with biodiversity have clear benefits for multiple aspect of physical and mental health, the skin and gut microbiome, immune function, food choices, sleep, physical activity, and promotes environmental responsibility.
32474947 The relationship between this skin manifestation and COVID-19 infection has not been clarified yet. […] Following informed consent, patients underwent: (i) clinical evaluation, (ii) RT-PCR and serology testing for SARS-CoV-2, (iii) digital videocapillaroscopy of finger- and toe-nailfolds, (iv) blood testing to screen for autoimmune diseases and coagulation anomalies, and (v) skin biopsy for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence, and, in selected cases, electron microscopy. […] Nineteen patients, all adolescents (mean age: 14 years), were recruited. 11/19 (58%) of them and/or their cohabitants reported flu-like symptoms one to two months prior to skin manifestation onset. […] Though we could not formally prove SARS-CoV-2 infection in our patients, history data and the detection of anti-SARS-COV-2 IgA strongly suggest a relationship between skin lesions and COVID-19.
32475035 We conducted a systematic review to reveal the contribution of dermatologists in COVID-19 research. 298 articles were included and classified into cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19, operating experience against COVID-19, mechanisms and treatment of COVID-19, disinfection and personal protective equipment(PPE)-related skin diseases and other topics.
32478867 During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, providers and patients must engage in shared decision making regarding the pros and cons of early versus delayed interventions for localized skin cancer. […] They also have provided multidisciplinary recommendations regarding the timing of local therapy for early-stage skin cancers during this pandemic with input from experts at 11 different institutions.
32479659 Patients with BP and PV have higher potential risk factors for infections secondary to skin alterations, comorbidity and chronic treatment with immunosuppressing agents.
32479680 This narrative review summarizes the available data regarding clinical and histological features of COVID-19-associated skin manifestations.
32479979 Pernio-like skin changes of the feet and hands, without another explanation, may suggest COVID-19 infection and should prompt confirmatory testing.
32488318 Using MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) in PubMed, authors searched for articles cotaining information on COVID-19 and the skin. […] These systemic conditions may be associated with cutaneous lesions, that have polymorphic aspects, where at histopathological level show involvement in different skin changes. […] These lesions may be associated with multisystemic manifestations that could occur due to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and transmembrane serine protease action, allowing the pulmonary infection and possibly skin manifestation.
32488505 At least one feature of Kawasaki disease was found in all children (fever, n = 20, skin rash, n = 10; conjunctivitis, n = 6; cheilitis, n = 5; adenitis, n = 2), but none had the typical form.
32488910 Some of us are in the field, others are describing skin aspects related to this infection, either directly or indirectly caused (e.g: dermatoses resulting from prolonged contact with personal protective equipment and excessive personal hygiene).
32488946 Skins symptoms during COVID-19 have been recently described but their relation to SARS-CoV-2 is unclear while results for real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing were variable. […] Recalcati et al. reported 14 cases of patients with skin symptoms consistent with previous described COVID-19 lesions but all the patients were tested negative.
32490552 In Spain, the national COVID Piel study have reported 372 patients with skin manifestations related with COVID-19, including 71 patients with pseudo-chilblains, from April 3rd to April 16th [2].
32492559 Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between increased weight, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and inflammatory skin diseases. […] We suppose that due to aggressive isolation or restriction measures, in the next future dermatologist will face with a common worsening of chronic skin inflammatory conditions due to reduced physical activities, increased intake of calories with the derived increase body weight and always more frequent treatment discontinuation. […] It is time to start potential preventive strategies which could limit the expected negative impact of COVID-19 related quarantine on skin diseases.
32493473 Patients will be excluded for the following reasons: more than 72 hours from the onset of ARDS; age < 16 years; patient known to be pregnant; major trauma in previous 5 days; presence of any active malignancy (other than non-melanoma skin cancer); WHO Class III or IV pulmonary hypertension; venous thromboembolism currently receiving anti-coagulation or within the past 3 months; patient receiving extracorporeal life support; severe chronic liver disease (Child-Pugh > 12); Do Not Attempt Resuscitation order in place; treatment withdrawal imminent within 24 hours; prisoners; declined consent; non-English speaking patients or those who do not adequately understand verbal or written information unless an interpreter is available; previously enrolled in the REALIST trial.
32495393 We reviewed the most prevalent types of iatrogenic skin damage among health-care workers (HCWs), notably irritant, and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to PPE and hand-hygiene measures, as well as face mask induced pressure-related skin damage.
32496587 We performed RNA sequencing and explored available RNA-Seq databases to study gene expression and co-expression of ACE2, CD147 (BSG), CD26 (DPP4) and their direct and indirect molecular partners in primary human bronchial epithelial cells, bronchial and skin biopsies, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), monocytes, neutrophils, DCs, NK cells, ILC1, ILC2, ILC3, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells and plasmablasts. […] ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were coexpressed at the epithelial sites of the lung and skin, whereas CD147 (BSG), cyclophilins (PPIA and PPIB), CD26 (DPP4) and related molecules were expressed in both, epithelium and in immune cells. […] Interestingly, we also observed higher expression of ACE2- and CD147-related genes in the lesional skin of patients with atopic dermatitis.
32497796 A 68-year-old man with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was admitted to the intensive care unit with respiratory failure, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), and skin ischemia - microthrombosis. […] This was followed by resolution of the skin ischemia and CRS, while respiratory parameters improved.
32498128 The psychosocial effects of the pandemic, an increase in contact dermatitis and several other skin diseases because of stress, disinfectants and protective equipment use, especially in health care workers, the temporary limited access to dermatologic care, the dilemma whether or not to pause immunosuppressive therapy, and, finally, the occurrence of skin lesions in patients infected by COVID-19 all contribute to significant quality of life (QoL) impairment.
32500571 We investigated whether there had been a similar reduction in urgent cancer referrals (known in England as the Two Week Wait (TWW) pathway) and subsequent diagnosis of skin cancer in our dermatology service.
32500642 A test for SARS-CoV-2 was performed on a vesicle in two patients, and a direct immunofluorescence test on perilesional skin in one.
32500648 Although the skin is not the main target of the SARS CoV-2 infection, it is strongly involved both directly and indirectly, in many aspects of dermatological disease management, and particularly in pediatric dermatology.
32500852 Spraying individuals with disinfectant chemicals is strongly discouraged by various health authorities around the globe because of their propensity for eye and skin irritation, bronchospasm following inhalation, and gastrointestinal effects such as nausea and vomiting.
32502288 Early detection and definitive surgical treatment are key to improving MM prognosis, and in England there is a suspected skin cancer referral pathway that facilitates specialist Dermatology assessment within two weeks.
32502585 During the COVID-19 pandemic, several acral chilblain-like skin lesions (CBLL) were observed in young patients with suspected, but mostly unconfirmed, infection with SARS-CoV-2.
32506757 We discuss the anatomy, the critical issues of disinfection and reusability of masks, the alternative equipment available for the protection of the facial region from airborne diseases, such as face shields and powered air purifying respirators (PAPR), and the skin-health impact of prolonged wearing of facial protection by HCW.
32510821 (Guo et al., 2020; Zhang et al., 2020) In more recent studies, skin manifestations have also been reported in covid-19 patients.
32521564 They suggested that the skin lesions were similar to ones found in common viral diseases but emphasized that additional studies are necessary to confirm its association with COVID-19.
32524630 There is now also a growing body of literature regarding skin involvement in children, with reports of papulovesicular, petechial and widespread macular and papular lesions, as well as chilblains (pernio). […] We describe the case of a thirteen-year-old boy with confirmed COVID-19 in the United Kingdom who presented with skin findings localized to the plantar aspects of the feet, axillae and lower limbs.
32525251 The novel coronavirus, otherwise known as COVID-19 has fast become a major health concern.1 2 It has been reported that in addition to the conventional respiratory symptoms, patients also display skin manifestations such as Urticaria and angioedema.3 Here we present a case study of an elderly man who first presented with generalised pruritic hives ranging from 1.5 to 8.0 cm in diameter on the 5th of March 2020.
32525852 Thirty-nine percent of respondents reported engaging in nonrecommended high-risk practices with the intent of preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission, such as washing food products with bleach, applying household cleaning or disinfectant products to bare skin, and intentionally inhaling or ingesting these products. […] Messaging should also emphasize avoidance of high-risk practices such as unsafe preparation of cleaning and disinfectant solutions, use of bleach on food products, application of household cleaning and disinfectant products to skin, and inhalation or ingestion of cleaners and disinfectants.
32526040 Thus, we collected data from all COVID-19 cases presenting with skin manifestations in our hospital in Madrid during one month.
32526045 Most previous applications have used UVC light emitted from broad spectrum 254-nm low-pressure mercury lamps, which, however, has undesirable, harmful effects on the skin and retina of mammals due to, among other things, biomolecule damage by mutagenic and carcinogenic bipyrimidine photoproducts.
32530503 We found a significant increase in the frequency of diagnoses such as generalized pruritus, pityriasis rosea, alopecia areata, bacterial skin/mucosa diseases, and zona zoster after COVID-19. […] The frequency declined in diseases such as verruca vulgaris, hyperpigmentation, skin tag, melanocytic nevus, seborrheic keratosis/solar lentigo.
32530776 Pressure ulcers (PUs) involve the destruction of skin and underlying tissue due to prolonged pressure and shear forces. […] The skin assessment should be undertaken before proning and following positioning the patient back into the supine position. […] Although it is essential to keep the skin clean and moisturised, using pH-balanced cleansers, there is inconsistency in terms of the evidence to support the type of moisturiser. […] Further, using dressings such as hydrocolloids, transparent film and silicone may be of benefit in decreasing facial skin breakdown. […] Given the importance of PU prevention in this cohort of patients, adopting a focused prevention strategy, including skin assessment and care, offloading and pressure redistribution, and dressings for prevention may contribute to a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of these largely preventable wounds.
32530822 To determine if a repurposed silicone-based dressing used underneath a N95 mask is a safe and beneficial option for facial skin injury prevention without compromising the mask’s seal. […] At that time, without education enablers or resources that could be directly translated into practice, the hospital’s Pressure Injury Prevention Committee explored and created a stepwise process to protect the skin under these masks. […] Skin protection was achieved by repurposing a readily available silicone border dressing cut into strips. […] This was tested on 10 volunteer staff members of various skin types and both sexes who became part of this evidence generation project. […] This creative and novel stepwise process of developing a safe skin protection method by which staff could apply a repurposed silicone border dressing beneath an N95 mask was largely effective and aided by the creation of the enabler.
32533899 We reported demographical, laboratory and clinical features, history of close contact with COVID-19 patients, presence of similar skin lesions in other family members, precipitating and risk factors for chilblain onset. […] Skin lesion biopsy for histological and immunohistochemical evaluation was made in two cases and was consistent with chilblain. […] PCR-assay on skin lesion biopsy for Parvovirus B19, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and SARS-CoV-2 was performed in a patient and resulted negative.
32535943 Furthermore, different types of skin lesions have been described during the infection period of illness.1 In this exceptional situation of global health emergency, physicians are undertaking research work in order to achieve notions on the etiopathogenesis of these skin lesions. […] The first report of cutaneous manifestations described different forms of skin lesions such as erythematous rash, urticaria and chicken-pox-like vesicles.2 Further studies have classified 5 different type of skin lesions, and associated them with patient demographics, timing in relation to symptoms of the disease, severity and prognosis.
32535946 A Dermatology walk-in clinic available to all hospital staff (HS) was commenced to treat skin problems related to personal protective equipment (PPE) during the COVID-19 pandemic.
32541493 Due to the long-term use of PPE, many adverse skin reactions may occur. […] Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the adverse skin reactions among HCWs using PPE.Questionnaires were used for the research; a quantitative study was carried out to determine the incidence of adverse skin reactions among HCWs using PPE.A total of 61 valid questionnaires were collected. […] The most common adverse skin reactions among HCWs wearing N95 masks were nasal bridge scarring (68.9%) and facial itching (27.9%). […] The most common adverse skin reactions among HCWs wearing latex gloves were dry skin (55.7%), itching (31.2%), and rash (23.0%). […] The most common adverse skin reactions among HCWs wearing protective clothing were dry skin (36.1%) and itching (34.4%). […] When most HCWs wear PPE for a long period of time, they will experience adverse skin reactions. […] The incidence of adverse skin reactions to the N95 mask was 95.1%, that to latex gloves was 88.5%, and that to protective clothing was 60.7%.
32543296 Skin tissue may be a possible specific target for the SARS-CoV-2.
32543328 Different skin presentations and patterns of cutaneous signs were reported in COVID19 patients. […] Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection is responsible for two very common skin conditions. […] Cutaneous skin findings remain to be emerging every day as a marker or a complication of COVID 19.
32544288 Based on the currently available data, prolonged skin-to-skin contact and early and exclusive breastfeeding remain the best strategies to reduce the risks of morbidity and mortality for both the mother with COVID-19 and her baby.
32545409 Cancers that arise in the head and neck region are comprised of a heterogeneous group of malignancies that include carcinogen- and human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven mucosal squamous cell carcinoma as well as skin cancers such as cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. […] This review explores advances in diagnostic criteria, prognostic factors, and management for subsites including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and the various forms of skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and melanoma).
32550096 The patient was asymptomatic, hypothermic, his skin was jaundiced with the icteric sclera, with very high levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 4,933 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT; 4,758 U/L), and total bilirubin (183.9 mmol/L) levels.
32554425 Also, a characteristic lower extremity skin rash was present in our patient.
32554879 In this work we review the literature and identify details including nominal kilovoltage ranges, filtration, and focus-skin distances (FSDs).
32556449 These elastics cause constant compression on the skin and, consequently, on the cartilage of the auricle, leading to erythematous and painful lesions of the retroauricular skin when the masks are used for many hours a day.
32557847 Since December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 epidemic has spread all over the world.1 To date, few reports regarding the cutaneous involvement in COVID-19 have been published.2,3 Herein, we report a four cases series describing skin lesions probably related with COVID-19. […] At day 6 of hospitalization, an asymptomatic erythematous-pomphoid skin rash occurred on the trunk (Figure 1A).
32557889 He had bilateral and symmetrical well limited black skin on both legs (Figure).
32558435 PDE4 inhibitors (PDE4i) have anti-inflammatory properties with approved indications in inflammatory skin and joint diseases as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
32558979 Interestingly, a consistent number of COVID-19-associated skin manifestations seem to share a certain degree of vascular damage as common pathogenetic mechanism1 .
32559324 Clinically, many of these skin lesions are likely secondary to occlusion of small to medium blood vessels due to microthrombi formation or due to viral laden antigen-antibody immune complexes; and same explanation may hold true for possible hypoxemic injury simultaneously occurring in other vital organs like lungs, heart, brain and kidneys. […] The histopathology, immunoflorescence and RT-PCR analysis of skin biopsies can provide useful insights for ascertaining the pathogenesis of this complex viral syndrome.
32562567 We examined skin biopsies from 7 paediatric patients presenting with chilblains during the COVID-19 pandemic.
32563581 Coupled with dermoscopic images, diseases such as hair loss, pediculosis capitis, skin tumor, and scabies, were diagnosed promptly.
32564047 The immunomodulatory properties of chloroquine have led to its use in collagen diseases, rheumatic disease, chronic rheumatoid and ankylosing arthritis and autoimmune skin disease.
32565264 However, prolonged pressure on facial skin at the level of the bony structures may be responsible for facial pressure ulcers.
32565678 This article aims to evaluate a dataset of search terms to determine whether search queries and terms can be used to reliably predict skin disease breakouts. […] A Model was designed to distinguish a breakout in skin diseases based on the number of monthly discovered cases.
32567823 However, SARS-CoV-2 can affect several human organs due to high expressions of ACE2 receptor which is the main viral target and the virus may affect not only higher and lower respiratory tracts, but also heart, kidney, gastro enteric tract, liver, pancreas, nervous system and skin.
32569797 Dermatologists treating immune-mediated skin disease must now contend with the uncertainties associated with immunosuppressive use in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
32572334 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) appears with common symptoms including fever, dry cough, and fatigue, as well as some less common sysmptoms such as loss of taste and smell, diarrhea, skin rashes and discoloration of fingers.
32573990 At admission he was febrile, tachypnoeic, and mild hypoxic with dry cough; during hospitalization a diffuse morbilliform skin rash appeared. […] Skin rash, highly suggestive for COVID-19 cutaneous involvement, persisted for ten days despite tocilizumab administration.
32576055 Our review yielded in 10 categories (i) the risk of diagnostic procedures in suspected mothers on fetus/infant health, (ii) the risk of intrauterine or postpartum transmission to the fetus/infant, (iii) appropriate method and delivery time in women with confirmed COVID-19, (iv) umbilical cord clamping and skin to skin contact, (v) clinical manifestations of infected infants, (vi) confirmation of infection in a suspected neonate/infant, (vii) instructions for infant’s care and how to feed her/him, (viii) bathing the baby, (ix) the criteria of discharging baby from the hospital, (x) the impact of isolation on the maternal mental health.Results: Our findings showed that the possibility of intrauterine or perinatal transmission of COVID-19 is still questionable and ambiguous.
32576730 Skin manifestations of COVID-19 infections are diverse and are new to the dermatology community. […] What appears to be constant in all skin biopsies was the presence of prominent dilated blood vessels with a swollen endothelial layer, vessels engulfed with red blood cells, and perivascular infiltrates, consisting mainly of cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocytes and eosinophils.
32578309 Careful dermatological examination improves diagnostic accuracy in skin disorders and skin manifestations of COVID-19 infection that provides an early diagnosis and treatment, helps to improve the quality of the patient care and management.
32581288 Germicidal ultraviolet light, typically at 254 nm, is effective in this context but, used directly, can be a health hazard to skin and eyes.
32582327 Skin is the biggest organ and the first line of defense against different infections and external factors. […] Being the front line warriors, health care professionals are susceptible to various skin conditions due to prolonged use of personal protective equipment. […] These adverse skin conditions are redness, irritation, itching, contact dermatitis, and aggravation of underlying skin conditions like seborrheic dermatitis and acne vulgaris. […] These skin problems are manageable with the few precautionary measures. […] This article explores the different skin conditions that result from personal hygiene measures and usage of protective gear and will suggest some practical advice about how to manage and protect from these different adverse skin conditions.
32583301 Post-mortem surveillance in Ireland discloses skin-test negative cattle with presumptive evidence of infection of Mycobacterium bovis (lesions at routine slaughter (LRS)), the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). […] Here we report the proportion of herds with subsequent evidence of within-herd transmission, based on skin-test results. […] During the index tests of these breakdowns, 3931 revealed ≥1 skin-test reactor animals (19.54%; ≥1 standard reactors: 3827; 19.02%).
32584377 Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA on nasopharyngeal swabs for all patients and in skin biopsy specimens for 22 patients. […] Histologic (22 patients) and immunofluorescence examinations (15 patients) were performed on the skin biopsy specimens. […] Histopathologic analysis of skin biopsy specimens (22 patients) confirmed the diagnosis of chilblains and showed occasional lymphocytic or microthrombotic phenomena. […] In all patients, SARS-CoV-2 RNA remained undetected by RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs and in biopsy samples of the skin lesions.
32584397 In this context, some associated skin diseases have been described. […] Skin biopsies were performed in 6 patients.
32584760 A skin biopsy showed microthrombosis, interpreted as an activation of the coagulation system associated with COVID-19.
32585074 A consistent number of case reports and clinical series have been already published describing a complex spectrum of skin manifestations associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] The search of papers was conducted by using the key term ‘COVID-19’ or ‘SARS-CoV-2’ or ‘coronavirus’ combined with each of the following: ‘skin’, ‘cutaneous’, ‘dermatologic’ or ‘dermatology’, ‘manifestation’, ‘lesions,’ or ‘rash.’ […] Lastly, other skin manifestations to be considered are the cutaneous adverse reactions to the drugs prescribed for the treatment of COVID-19.
32585767 The patient stated that the skin of her feet acquired a bluish discoloration after standing for some time.
32588475 During the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several associated skin conditions were reported in infected patients, including; urticaria [1], exanthema [1], erythema multiforme [2], chickenpox-like vesicles [1], pityriasis rosea [3], herpes simplex reactivation [4], erythema nodosum like Sweet’s syndrome [5], Symmetrical Drug-Related Intertriginous and Flexural Exanthema [6], petechial rash [7], vasculitic purpura [7], acro-ischemia/necrosis [8], Kawasaki disease [2] and chilblain lesions [9].
32589293 Skin manifestations have been increasingly reported in the setting of COVID-19. […] Eight patients (1%, 6 males, 2 females, mean age 55.6) presented with skin lesions, mainly disseminated maculo-papular exanthema, but also digitate papulo-squamous rash (reported in1 ), herpes recurrence, papulo-vesicular rash and Grover’s disease.
32406064 In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, cases of adverse skin reactions related to the wearing of masks have been observed. […] To analyze the short-term effects of N95 respirators and medical masks, respectively, on skin physiological properties and to report adverse skin reactions caused by the protective equipment. […] Skin parameters were measured on areas covered by the respective masks and on uncovered skin 2 and 4 hours after donning, and 0.5 and 1 hour after removing the masks, including skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, pH, and sebum secretion. […] Skin hydration, TEWL, and pH increased significantly with wearing the protective equipment. […] Sebum secretion increased both on the covered and uncovered skin with equipment-wearing. […] This study demonstrates that skin biophysical characters change as a result of wearing a mask or respirator. […] N95 respirators were associated with more skin reactions than medical masks.
32594572 Herein, we performed a comprehensive review of literatures (from inception to 30 May 2020) using PubMed, CNKI, medRxiv and bioRxiv with the terms “((novel coronavirus) OR (2019 novel coronavirus) OR (2019-nCoV) OR (Coronavirus disease 2019) OR (COVID-19) OR (SARS-CoV-2)) AND ((Dermatology) OR (skin) OR (rash) OR (cutaneous))” and “((ACE2) OR (Angiotensin-converting enzyme)) AND ((skin) OR (epidermis) OR (dermis)).” […] The skin lesions were polymorphic, and erythema, chilblain-like and urticarial lesions were most common, occurring on an average of 9.92 days (range: 1-30) after the onset of systemic symptoms. […] The receptor of SARS-CoV-2, ACE2, was found to be expressed on skin, mainly on keratinocytes. […] Our review systematically presented the clinical characteristics of 507 patients and showed that skin might be the potential target of the infection according to ACE2 expression.
32594627 Increased psychosocial stress can affect the course of many common “stress-sensitive” skin conditions.
32599103 Since Vitamin D is known to be vital in regulating the immune system, and sunlight UV radiation exposure on the skin produces Vitamin D and UV intensity is highest nearest the equator, a study was done to examine the correlation between the latitude and COVID-19 fatality rates for countries.
32599968 The aim of this manuscript is to investigate skin diseases associated with COVID-19 under three main headings: Skin problems related to personal protective equipment and personal hygiene measures, skin findings observed in SARS-CoV-2 virus infection and finally skin findings due to COVID- 19 treatment agents. […] Pressure injury, contact dermatitis, itch, pressure urticaria, exacerbation of pre-existing skin diseases and new skin lesion occurence / new skin disease occurence may be due to personal protective equipment. […] Skin problems related to personal hygiene measures could cause itch, dryness and contact dermatitis. […] Skin findings could also be observed in SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. […] The incidence of skin lesions because of COVID-19 was reported between 0.2% and 29%. […] Many skin lesions such as maculopapular, urticarial, vesicular, chilblain- like, thrombotic / ischemic etc. could be observed in COVID-19. […] Some authors state that the SARS-CoV-2 virus infection specific skin finding is absent. […] But, especially in asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic COVID-19 patients, skin lesions can lead to the diagnosis of COVID-19. […] In addition skin lesions could occur due to COVID-19 treatment agents. […] As a result, many skin lesions could appear because of COVID-19. […] Even if there were no COVID-19 diagnosis, skin findings should be evaluated carrefully in this pandemic period. […] Key worlds: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, dermatology, skin findings.
32605056 The aim of the present study was to compare the facial skin temperature and the heat flow when wearing medical surgical masks to the same factors when wearing N95 respirators. […] The study results suggest that N95 respirators are able to induce an increased facial skin temperature, greater discomfort and lower wearing adherence when compared to the medical surgical masks.
32608380 In recent weeks, several reports have emerged of skin lesions with different clinical presentations in COVID-19 cases. […] From the cases described as case reports or series in 57 recent articles, it appears that skin lesions (i) are highly varied, (ii) may not be related to the severity of the condition and (iii) resolve spontaneously in a few days.
32614116 The terms “acne”, “hair loss”, “eczema”, “genital warts”, “molluscum contagiosum”, “botox”, “skin cancer”, and “sunscreen” were analyzed on April 1, May 1, June1, 2020, and the corresponding period of the previous year in Turkey and Italy by using Google Trends. […] The relative change of search term “acne” was +10, +29, +13/-1, +17,+33, “hair loss” was +14, +40, +16/+3, +16, +15, and “eczema” was +2, +34, -4/ +3, +25, +18, on the other hand, the relative change of the “genital warts” was -15, -48, +10/-44, -30, +18 and “molluscum contagiosum” was -12, -2, -4/-4, -1, -12 while “botox” was, -10, -43, -8/-41, -31, +4, “skin cancer” was -27, -38, -38/-22,+33, -7 and sunscreen was -6, -25, -71/-13, 0, -45 in Turkey/Italy on April 1, May 1, and June 1, 2020, respectively. […] The search terms including “acne”, “eczema”, “hair loss” appears to be increasing while “molluscum contagiosum”, “genital warts” “botox”, “skin cancer”, and “sunscreen” decreasing in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic.
32621284 Recommendations were made recently to limit or stop the use of oral and systemic immunotherapies for skin diseases due to potential risks to the patients during the current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) COVID-19 pandemic. […] Furthermore, reported risk of infections of biologic and non-biologic therapeutics for skin diseases from clinical trials and drug data registries were evaluated.
32622869 As the COVID-19 pandemic gradually comes under control, the members of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC) have drawn up a proposed list of the requirements, limitations, and conditioning factors affecting the resumption of work in contact dermatitis units.
32628051 New COVID-19 skin manifestations continue to be described.
32628270 A national survey was launched on 30 March 2020 by the French Society of Dermatology asking physicians to report cases of skin manifestations in patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 by using a standardized questionnaire. […] Histology of skin biopsies was consistent with chilblains.
32629995 The other tissues assessed were heart, kidney, marrow, bowel, jejunum, skin and fat, which all varied with respect to mRNA levels for the different PADI isozymes.
32639077 This systematic review focuses on all skin problems related to COVID-19, including primary and secondary COVID-related cutaneous presentations and the experts recommendations about dermatological managements especially immunomodulators usage issues.
32643111 All four products [antiseptic solution (PVP-I 10%), skin cleanser (PVP-I 7.5%), gargle and mouth wash (PVP-I 1%) and throat spray (PVP-I 0.45%)] achieved ≥ 99.99% virucidal activity against SARS-CoV-2, corresponding to ≥ 4 log10 reduction of virus titre, within 30 s of contact.
32643708 The lack of knowledge regarding the transmission mechanisms and the potential risks for the mother and the newborn, even when the vertical transmission of the virus has not been demonstrated, has led to the abandonment of practices such as skin-to-skin and the early initiation of breastfeeding (BF), which offer great benefits for maternal and child health.
32645478 HCQ caused significantly more skin pigmentation than placebo (Peto OR, 4.64; 95% CI, 1.13 to 19.00; P-value = 0.033; I2 = 0%). […] This meta-analysis of RCTs found a significantly higher risk of skin pigmentation in HCQ users versus placebo.
32649228 The cytokine storm hits different organs in the body, including the skin, leading to activation and degranulation of mast cells with resultant urticaria.
32649505 In both cases, fetal skin edema was observed on ultrasound examination while maternal SARS-COV-2 RT-PCR test results were positive and resolved when maternal SARS-COV-2 RT-PCR test results became negative. […] Transient fetal skin edema noted in these two patients with COVID-19 in the second trimester may represent results of fetal infection or altered fetal physiology due to maternal disease or may be unrelated to the maternal illness.
32652520 In our facility, an 11-year-old boy presented with typical features of GBS and, after 5 days, a morbilliform skin rash over the palms of both hands.
32653627 Here, we present two representative cases of patients with lung cancer and coronavirus disease 2019 without respiratory compromise and with atypical and severe skin manifestations-findings that could be influenced by the long-term use of anti-programmed cell death protein 1 antibody.
32655532 The aim of this review is to provide information, primarily to the food industry, regarding a range of biocides effective in eliminating or reducing the presence of coronaviruses from fomites, skin, oral/nasal mucosa, air, and food contact surfaces.
32657340 Pre-cruise advice for travellers planning small-vessel cruises to polar regions needs to include skin care, prevention and management of sea sickness and how to reduce the risk of injury.
32658359 Reports about the manifestation of various skin lesions and lesions of the vascular system in some subgroups of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients as such features outside the respiratory sphere, are rapidly emerging. […] In order to update information gained, we provide a systematic overview of the skin lesions described in COVID-19 patients, discuss potential causative factors, and describe differential diagnostic evaluations. […] Moreover, we summarize current knowledge about immunologic, clinical, and histologic features of virus- and drug-induced lesions of the skin and changes to the vascular system in order to transfer this knowledge to potential mechanisms induced by SARS-CoV-2.
32661780 The Italian College of Breast Radiologists by the Italian Society of Medical Radiology (SIRM) provides recommendations for breast care provision and procedural prioritization during COVID-19 pandemic, being aware that medical decisions must be currently taken balancing patient’s individual and community safety: (1) patients having a scheduled or to-be-scheduled appointment for in-depth diagnostic breast imaging or needle biopsy should confirm the appointment or obtain a new one; (2) patients who have suspicious symptoms of breast cancer (in particular: new onset palpable nodule; skin or nipple retraction; orange peel skin; unilateral secretion from the nipple) should request non-deferrable tests at radiology services; (3) asymptomatic women performing annual mammographic follow-up after breast cancer treatment should preferably schedule the appointment within 1 year and 3 months from the previous check, compatibly with the local organizational conditions; (4) asymptomatic women who have not responded to the invitation for screening mammography after the onset of the pandemic or have been informed of the suspension of the screening activity should schedule the check preferably within 3 months from the date of the not performed check, compatibly with local organizational conditions.
32662314 The aim of the present study was to evaluate how COVID-19 pandemic and PPE can affect operative time, operating room time, transfer into the operating room to delivery time and skin incision to delivery time in cesarean section. […] There were no significant differences in the operative time, transfer into the operating room to delivery time and skin incision to delivery time when wearing PPE in cesarean section.
32664161 Primary outcomes would be used to evaluate the mortality rate, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatine, troponin, liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), blood pressure, clinical symptoms (including fever, fatigue, myalgia, cough, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), and serum cytokine levels.
32664185 It can act on the subcutaneous muscular layer, enhance the local blood circulation and tissue metabolism of the skin, thus exert its effects on digestive systems and alleviate aversive diarrhea symptoms.
32669159 COVID-19 can cause inflammation reactions of multiple organs, which is similar to the systemic vasculitis of Kawasaki disease, and even COVID-19 can cause skin rash on the extremities of the limbs, which is also similar to Kawasaki disease.
32671009 VDD is common in those over 60 years of age, many with co-morbid conditions and in people with skin pigmentation sufficient to reduce synthesis of vitamin D.
32673940 Apart from the anti-monoclonal antibody, it is recommended to explore the use of grape seed and skin containing mouthwash as an adjunct, which could also have anti EMMPRIN effects in patients with OSCC and OPMDs.
32685905 Each patient had evidence of thrombosis (pulmonary embolism, upper extremity venous thromboses, and skin necrosis, respectively).
32686219 In preclinical models, senolytics delay, prevent or alleviate frailty, cancers and cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, liver, kidney, musculoskeletal, lung, eye, haematological, metabolic and skin disorders as well as complications of organ transplantation, radiation and cancer treatment.
32689925 Prolonged PPE usage led to cutaneous manifestations and skin damage (97%), with the nasal bridge (83%) most commonly affected site.
32692647 We have identified a novel antiviral formulation that is of great interest for the prevention and/or treatment of a broad range of enveloped viruses, particularly those of the skin and mucosal surfaces.
32699160 Indeed, patients with severe COVID-19 show prominent complement activation in their lung, skin, and sera, and those individuals who were treated with complement inhibitors all recovered with no adverse reactions.
32699167 In addition to fever and symptom surveillance in the control group, subjects in the intervention group will wear wearable biosensors on their arms to continuously monitor skin temperature, respiratory rate, blood pressure, pulse rate, blood oxygen saturation and daily activities.
32700813 It is often markedly manifest on the skin as acrocyanosis or as petechiae and purpura with progression to hemorrhagic bullae. […] Skin findings with DIC may be prominent.
32701511 No mortality was recorded in this cohort.CONCLUSIONMIS-C encompasses a broad phenotypic spectrum with clinical and laboratory features distinct from KD and MAS.FUNDINGThis work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Rheumatology Research Foundation Investigator Awards and Medical Education Award; Boston Children’s Hospital Faculty Career Development Awards; the McCance Family Foundation; and the Samara Jan Turkel Center.
32701690 Skin manifestations of COVID-19 infections are diverse and are new to the dermatology community. […] What appears to be constant in all skin biopsies was the presence of prominent dilated blood vessels with a swollen endothelial layer, vessels engulfed with red blood cells, and perivascular infiltrates, consisting mainly of cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocytes and eosinophils.
32705718 However, evidence is emerging that these practices are causing adverse effects on their skin integrity. […] The hands were the most commonly affected site (76.47%) and the most frequently reported symptom was dry skin (75.37%).
32707253 Hand hygiene products are available in a variety of forms, and while each of these formulations may be effective against COVID-19, they may also alter skin barrier integrity and function.
32709909 Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) of the joints, gut and skin are treated with inhibitors of inflammatory cytokines.
32711567 In the COVID-19 pandemic, the risk of maternal SARS-CoV-2 transmission needs to be weighed against the protection skin-to-skin contact, maternal proximity, and breastfeeding affords infants. […] It is clear that in order to maximise infant health and wellbeing, COVID-19 policies should support skin-to-skin contact, maternal proximity, and breastfeeding.
32711687 Mothers could practice skin-to-skin care and breastfeed in the delivery room, but had to wear a surgical mask when near their neonate and practice proper hand hygiene before skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding, and routine care.
32715448 This article provides a concise review of the current closure and wound management methods for each of the following three layers and dressing: 1) deep fascia layer, or arthrotomy; 2) subdermal layer or subcutaneous layer; 3) skin and subcuticular layer; and 4) dressing application.
32717116 We focus on common chronic inflammatory skin diseases with complex immunological pathogenesis: psoriasis, eczema including atopic dermatitis, type I allergies, autoimmune blistering and inflammatory connective tissue diseases, vasculitis, and skin cancers. […] Since several other inflammatory skin diseases display related or comparable immunological reactions, clustering of the various inflammatory dermatoses into different disease patterns may help with therapeutic decisions. […] Thus, following these patterns of skin inflammation, our review may supply treatment recommendations and thoughtful considerations for disease management even beyond the most frequent diseases discussed here.
32720223 The skin, the kidneys, the liver, the endocrine organs and the eyes are also affected by the systemic COVID-19 disease.
32723622 Tracking standards and recommendations of national and international government entities to answer the research question on the safe handling of clothing and skin hygiene in patients and in health professionals to avoid Covid-19 infection. […] The recommendations are structured in 5 sections on the management of clothing and skin hygiene of infected patients and health professionals in the hospital setting. […] Proper skin hygiene, especially hand cleansing, is one of the basic pillars for infection prevention and control.
32725501 Verified areas of care include treatment of chronic conditions, topical skin cancer therapy, wound monitoring, and post-procedural follow-up.
32726187 Once exposed, the HCWs would disinfect skin or mucous in time.
32731141 There are several types of skin findings described in association with COVID-19.
32731331 Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive drug, which is widely used in medicine, including in the treatment of autoimmune skin diseases in dermatology, rheumatology, ophthalmology and nephrology, and in organ transplantation.
32734626 Melanoma is the most severe form of skin cancer and its incidence has increased over the past few decades.
32736881 In addition, SARS-CoV-2 has been purportedly linked to multiple cutaneous manifestations, among them chilblain-like skin lesions, also known as “COVID toes.” […] Herein we review the rapid evolution of the literature regarding chilblain-like skin lesions early in the COVID-19 global pandemic.
32745237 Dermatology clinic staff may be at risk because protective equipment is not routinely available, and skin lesions might possibly transmit the virus indirectly. […] Nurse-led triage, to identify patients with possible COVID-19, at the entrances of hospital and skin clinics directs patients with a cough or fever to a specific COVID-19 area and a dermatologist is consulted if the fever might be related to skin disease. […] Skin disorders in COVID-19 inpatients can usually be managed remotely using photographs, email and teleconferencing.
32745249 The disease can affect different organ systems, and early reports have suggested skin symptoms. […] The researchers, working with dermatologists across Spain, reviewed 375 patients with suspected, or confirmed, COVID-19, with the aim of developing a detailed classification of the different types of skin symptoms associated with COVID-19 with corresponding images. […] Five common skin symptoms were identified this way. […] Livedo is a skin condition where circulation is impaired within the blood vessels of the skin, necrosis refers to the premature death of skin tissue. […] The researchers noted that some of the skin symptoms associated with COVID-19 are common and can have many causes, particularly wheals and rashes.
32745298 In a From the Cover article in this issue of Molecular Ecology, McDonald et al. (2020) compare transcriptomic responses to co-infection by the two chytrid fungi in the skin, liver and spleen of Eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens).
32754962 The UK healthcare system, including skin cancer departments, has been profoundly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. […] Despite service capacity and a worldwide increase in incidence, anecdotal reports suggest a decline in skin cancer diagnoses following COVID-19. […] To determine if there has been a decrease in skin cancer diagnosis in the UK in the COVID-19 era, we analysed data from the Northern Cancer Network from 23 March 2020 to 23 June 2020 and compared it with the same period in 2019 (pre-COVID). […] In the COVID period, there was a decrease of 68.61% in skin cancer diagnoses, from 3619 to 1136 (P < 0.01). […] Surprisingly, skin cancer waiting times were also reduced in the COVID period compared to the pre-COVID period (median of 8 and 12 days, respectively; P < 0.001). […] Collectively, these data highlight a statistically significant reduction in both skin cancer diagnoses and waiting times during the COVID period.
32756980 A 5-month-old male child presented with high-spiking fever for 5 days with skin rash, bilateral non-purulent conjunctivitis and irritability.
32757376 We aimed to characterize the adverse skin reactions occurring after hand hygiene and glove use in HCWs in a tertiary university hospital to determine the possible causative factors and whether the use of these measures is affected. […] The increase in general hand-skin problems during the pandemic period was statistically significant (P = .004). […] The incidence of other hand-skin conditions except for vesicles was statistically higher in women than in men (P < .001). […] Increased number of hand-skin conditions during the pandemic should not be ignored, since hand hygiene and glove use are expected to increase.
32761181 During COVID-19 quarantine, there was a significant decrease of moderate-intensity physical activity in Spanish people with chronic conditions (in both males and females, in those aged 18-24, 25-34, 35-44 and 55-64 years, in those with multimorbidity, in those with one/two chronic condition/s, and in those diagnosed with asthma/hypercholesterolemia/chronic skin disease/hemorrhoids).
32766539 Besides sociodemographic and background data, a set of valid and reliable instruments were used to measure outcomes of burnout, anxiety, depression, fear, skin lesion, self-efficacy, resilience, and social support via the online survey in February 2020. […] The majority of the nurses (n = 1,910, 94.8%) had one or more skin lesions, and 1,950 (96.8%) nurses expressed their frontline work willingness. […] Mental health outcomes were statistically positively correlated with skin lesion and negatively correlated with self-efficacy, resilience, social support, and frontline work willingness. […] Future interventions at the national and organisational levels are needed to improve mental health during this pandemic by preventing and managing skin lesions, building self-efficacy and resilience, providing sufficient social support, and ensuring frontline work willingness.
32767466 Admission rates for acne, dermatophytosis, and benign neoplasm of the skin significantly lower during the pandemic period (P values were .02, .04, and .006, respectively).
32769322 Not only does it weaken the immune system causing multi-organ involvement but also helps in its progression and spread to others.Multiple organs especially lungs, heart, kidney, gastrointestinal and hepatic system, brain and skin are affected varying in their severity.
32770592 This work focuses on management of various skin diseases individuals lacking immunity to COVID-19 but requiring a systemic immunosuppressant, keeping in view the challenge of the COVID 19 pandemic and that our knowledge of this virus and its effects on the immune system are incomplete including knowledge as to an individual’s immunity after COVID-19 infection.
32770717 However, cutaneous, skin histopathological manifestations of COVID-19 infection are not well described. […] Search terms “COVID-19,” “SARS-Coronavirus-2” and “Coronavirus” were used in combination with “cutaneous,” “rash,” “skin,” “dermatology.” […] Skin is one of target organs affected by COVID-19 infection.
32770999 Timely initiation and skin to skin contact at delivery room was performed in 54.5 and 59.1%, respectively.
32771488 Three critical COVID-19 patients recalcitrant to multiple interventions had skin biopsies documenting deposition of the terminal complement component C5b-9, the lectin complement pathway enzyme MASP2, and C4d in microvascular endothelium.
32772743 The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has an affinity for almost every organ system, including the skin.
32773807 Due to the protection of gloves, the incidence of hand or skin contamination was relatively low, about 14.1%.
32775112 Searching terms included were a combination of “dermatological” OR “skin” AND “symptoms” OR “manifestations” AND “SARS-CoV-2”. […] The following step was filtering the results to include only original research studies investigating the different types of skin and dermatological clinical manifestations in patients with SARS-CoV-2.
32777318 Although new skin manifestations caused by COVID-19 are continuously being described, other cutaneous entities should also be considered in the differential diagnosis, including adverse cutaneous reactions to drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19 infections. […] The skin reactions of antimalarials (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine), antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin with or without interferon, oseltamivir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and darunavir), and treatments for complications (imatinib, tocilizumab, anakinra, immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, colchicine and low molecular weight heparins) are analyzed. […] Information regarding possible skin reactions, their frequency, management, and key points for differential diagnosis are presented.
32779733 We hypothesize that in the thrombotic retiform purpura of critically ill patients with COVID-19, the vascular thrombosis in the skin and other organ systems is associated with a minimal interferon response allowing excessive viral replication with release of viral proteins that localize to extrapulmonary endothelium and trigger extensive complement activation.
32779817 The evidence was analyzed in PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, Web of Science and Scopus, with the search strategy (covid 19 OR covid-19 OR corona OR coronavirus OR sars-cov-2) AND (cutaneous or cutaneous manifestations OR), and 17 studies were included, involving 351 cases with COVID19 and skin manifestations.
32781247 Historically, the standard of care for total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) delivered 30 to 36 Gy over 5 to 10 weeks. […] Cumulative incidence of progressive skin disease at 3 months was 37.2%, at 6 months, 56.9%, and at 1 year, 81.5%. […] Toxicities from all courses were acceptable with the exception of 1 patient, who experienced grade 4 skin toxicity (moist desquamation requiring hospitalization).
32783664 Herein we report our experience of 23 psychological-video-consultations, which led to achieve a significant reduction of DLQI (from 4.4 ± 3.9 at baseline to 1.6 ± 2.5 at week-4) in patients suffering from chronic skin conditions during the COVID-19 era.
32785004 Males more often indicated various reasons for not handwashing, including that there is no need to do it, they do not feel like doing it, they have no time to do it, or they forget about it (p < 0.0001), while females pointed out side effects (e.g., skin problems) as the reason (p = 0.0278).
32785566 Conclusion prevent the transmission of the virus in the pregnancy-postpartum cycle, assess whether there is a need to interrupt pregnancies, decrease the circulation of people, avoid skin-to-skin contact and water births, prefer epidural over general anesthesia, keep mothers who tested positive or are symptomatic isolated from NB, and encourage breastfeeding.
32789106 Before start, screening by tuberculin skin test was negative.
32790187 Simultaneously, increased infection prevention measures for staff, which includes additional personal protective equipment (PPE) and more rigorous hand hygiene procedures, has resulted in an increased incidence of occupational skin disease in frontline staff (1).
32791117 The immediate newborn care practice of placing the baby skin-to-skin with their mother increased by 13·2% (12·1 to 14·5; p<0·0001), and health workers’ hand hygiene practices during childbirth increased by 12·9% (11·8 to 13·9) during lockdown (p<0·0001). […] Some behaviours improved, notably hand hygiene and keeping the baby skin-to-skin with their mother.
32792769 This document aimed to outline best practices that can be followed in this scenario to perform cutaneous surgeries and procedures to ensure safer skin surgery.
32794366 From the early days of the pandemic, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been linked to multiple different types of skin involvement. […] Eight persons presented COVID-19 symptoms, six were confirmed via SAR-CoV-2 chemoluminescent immunoassays, and the four related by blood presented skin manifestations.
32800064 In children without any prior symptoms of dermatitis, 42.4% experienced ICD (dry, red and itchy skin) due to increased hand hygiene.
32807696 The number of surgical operations for skin cancer decreased (24 vs. 9), while the total number of head and neck cancer surgeries remained stable (18 vs. 
32812055 Seven months into the COVID-19 pandemic, more skin biopsies of COVID-19 positive patients are taking place. […] We examined the histological features of 30 skin biopsies from two groups of patients: Ten specimens of patients tested positive for COVID-19 with an active systemic infection and associated dermatosis.
32814757 He also had erythematous skin lesions on the lower limbs for the 2 previous days. […] Due to the unique immune characteristics of pediatric and adolescent patients, the correct interpretation of the gustatory and skin symptoms associated with specific laboratory tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to the most appropriate management and supportive care.
32815148 A critical evaluation of patient skin preparation including skin asepsis, device disinfection, laser and electrosurgical plume management and PPE in regard to SARS-CoV-2 was performed. […] The adherence to a high standard of skin preparation and asepsis, device disinfection, laser and electrosurgical plume and aerosol management and appropriate PPE should help mitigate or reduce some of the inherent treatment risks.
32815493 Other potential risk factors include lack of exposure to sunlight, darker skin pigmentation, co-morbidities, poor diet, certain medications, disadvantaged social and economic status, and lifestyle factors such as smoking and excessive consumption of alcohol.
32825963 Herein, we thoroughly reviewed multiple organs including lung, gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, skin, heart, blood, spleen, lymph nodes, brain, blood vessels, and placenta in terms of COVID-19-related pathological alterations.
32826529 We evaluated FFPE sections from 8 COVID-19 autopsies, including 19 pulmonary and 39 extrapulmonary samples including the heart, liver, kidney, small intestine, skin, adipose tissue, and bone marrow.
32826703 Seventy-seven (92.8%) surgeons used povidone-iodine for skin area disinfection and 54 (65%) for conjunctival fornix disinfection.
32826754 ACE2 mRNA is expressed by a subset of nociceptors that express MRGPRD mRNA, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may gain access to the nervous system through entry into neurons that form free nerve endings at the outermost layers of skin and luminal organs.
32829607 The paper proposes the prevention and nursing strategies for device related pressure ulcers and other related skin injuries during application of medical-grade protective equipment. […] The paper aims to provide reference for the prevention and nursing of device related pressure ulcers and related skin diseases for clinical medical staff, especially to the respectable personnel in front line of fighting against coronavirus disease 2019.
32831324 Reports of dermatological manifestations in patients with COVID-19 suggest a possible cutaneous tropism of SARS-CoV-2; however, the capacity of this virus to infect the skin is unknown. […] To determine the susceptibility of the skin to SARS-CoV-2 infection based on the expression of viral entry factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in this organ. […] A comprehensive analysis of human tissue gene expression databases was carried out looking for the presence of the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes in the skin. mRNA expression of these genes in skin-derived human cell lines was also assessed. […] The analyses showed high co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the gastrointestinal tract and kidney, but not in the skin. […] Only the human immortalized keratinocyte HaCaT cell line expressed detectable levels of ACE2, and no cell line originating in the skin expressed TMPRSS2. […] It is possible that cutaneous blood vessels endothelial damage, as well as the effect of circulating inflammatory mediators produced in response to the virus, are the cause of skin involvement.
32835131 Skin biopsy favored a diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome.
32837297 Therefore, we created a color chart that includes the colors of the human skin and tongue as a tool to help doctors identify the color of patients more accurately when conducting a telemedicine examination.
32837499 Then determination of presence or absent of human skin will be determined. […] This technique is tested on two datasets; the first one contains 650 images of skin patches.
32838013 These skin findings occurred anywhere from days before respiratory symptom onset to weeks after recovery, and predominantly in child and adolescent populations.
32838100 All patients admitted to the burn center with burn injuries- including inhalation injury only- and desquamating skin disorders between March 10th to May 22nd, 2020 were eligible for inclusion.
32838174 At the same time, dermatologists had to manage the skin injuries of frontline healthcare workers; to characterize the cutaneous manifestations of Covid-19; to assess the optimal treatment of patients with skin diseases, especially those taking immunomodulating and immunosuppressant molecules; and finally to promote balanced precautions in healthy persons.
32839689 With the wide spread of the current SARS-Cov (Covid-19), It was found that about 2% of children was affected according to several studies, it should be mentioned that Those children are most often asymptomatic, but the current concern is about a vascular inflammatory disease which is similar to Kawasaki disease observed in children with Covid-19. we report a case of a 9-year-old girl, known to have idiopathic medullar aplasia, admitted to the emergency department for a pseudo appendicular syndrome with shock, neurological abnormalities and skin lesions.
32844112 Laser light with low-power intensity is applied to the surface of the skin to produce local and systemic effects.
32845850 The aim of this paper was to study the association of COVID-19 pandemic-related impacts with health-related quality of life in patients with skin diseases. […] This was a cross-sectional study among Chinese patients with skin diseases. […] A total of 506 patients with skin diseases completed the survey. […] Isolation, income loss, and unemployment are associated with impaired health-related quality of life in patients with skin diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic.
32849655 However, past experience from experimental animals, livestock, and humans showed that induction of immunity in the lung is limited following application of vaccines at peripheral sides such as skin or muscles.
32849867 Initially, no skin manifestations were observed among patients with COVID-19, but recently a few cases have been described. […] In this review, we discuss these various cutaneous manifestations and skin problems related to personal protective equipment, as well as different cutaneous anti-COVID-19 drug-associated reactions.
32852146 The purpose of this study was to understanding the impact of pandemic on the attitude of people toward facial skin rejuvenation. […] The dominant words in word cloud were “Botox,” “facelift,” “hyaluronic,” and “skin.”
32852785 Currently, teledermatology in the NHS plays a particularly important role in triaging referrals on the skin cancer 2-week-wait (2ww) pathway, given the necessity for rapid lesion assessment, the ever-increasing volume of 2ww referrals received by dermatology departments, and the significant proportion of benign lesions referred that do not require a face-to-face consultation. […] Skin cancer 2ww referrals to our centre have sharply increased by 44.1% over the last two years, and in the 12 months preceding the UK COVID-19 lockdown (March 2019 to February 2020) represented 41.8% of all referrals to the dermatology department.
32858870 Regarding different disease clusters, patients with chronic inflammatory skin diseases and infectious and malignant diseases were more likely to miss their consultation (p = 0.006).
32860474 In the United Hospital of Ancona, a specialist outpatient clinic dealing with diagnosis and treatment of immunomediated skin diseases has been operating since 1985, and 291 patients with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) are currently being treated.
32861186 Vitamin D synthesis in human skin is closely related to exposure to UVB radiation.
32863593 The long-term effects of healthcare reshuffling in the “COVID-19 era” imply a delay in the diagnosis and treatment of skin cancer and cancellation of many reconstructive procedures.
32865778 An evidence-based review of the PubMed database was conducted on 14 May, 2020 using the search terms “Covid-19 skin,” “Covid-19 rash,” “Covid-19 exanthem,” and “Covid-19 chilblains.”
32867008 Integumentary manifestations from COVID-19 include exanthemas and papular dermatoses, urticarial eruptions, atopic dermatitis, vesiculobullous lesions and skin signs of hypercoagulable states, such as acral ischemia, livedo and retiforme purpura. […] The objectives of this review are to discuss the role of human cell receptors described as interaction targets of SARS-CoV-2, as well to understand the current state of knowledge on skin expression of these receptors, in order to substantiate future research. […] The authors present a thorough literature review on SARS-CoV-2 and its possible interaction with cell receptors and human tissues including the skin. […] Distinct human cell receptors binding the virus appear to be less expressed in the skin compared to other organs. […] Additionally, the presence of resolvins and the desintegrin metalloprotease ADAM17 provide a putative protection to the skin, explaining the majority of COVID-19 manifestations to be extra cutaneous. […] This review represents an excellent opportunity for future studies using skin biopsies from COVID-19 patients to investigate molecular expression in the pathophysiology of cutaneous manifestations of the disease.
32868736 To mitigate pressure injuries, our hospital utilizes a bundle approach to prevent skin injury. […] This is a case report of 4 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who developed significant skin and mucosal injuries during their ICU admissions in the month of March 2020. […] We found that patients developed skin conditions that were initially thought to be deep-tissue injuries (DTIs) early in the admission. […] We also found that skin damage to the mucosa of the nares, tongue, lips, and urethra presented first as inflammation and then progressed to thick eschar. […] Despite maximum pressure relief with the use of a pressure-relieving turn and position system, bordered foam dressings, fluidized positioners, specialty beds, and leadership support for twice-a-week skin checks, our patients diagnosed with COVID-19 developed extensive skin damage across the fleshy portion of the buttocks and on the mucosa of the nares, tongue, lips, and urethra during minimal exposure to pressure. […] Although the initial presentation of the skin damage appeared to be related to pressure, the extent of the skin damage suggests a vascular inflammatory process beyond skin damage related to pressure.
32871902 In our case, the SARS-CoV-2 infection had lung, nasopharyngeal, neurological, digestive, and skin manifestations.
32875557 As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread, information about COVID-19 and skin disease or related biologics is still lacking. […] To identify the association between COVID-19 and skin diseases or biologics. […] Claim data related to skin diseases and relevant biologics were analysed to determine the association of COVID-19 with skin diseases and relevant biologics. […] Among various skin diseases and biologics, no significant increase in the presence of specific skin diseases or exposure to biologics was observed in the COVID-19-positive group, even after adjusting for or matching covariates. […] The presence of skin diseases and exposure to biologics also did not seem to affect clinical outcomes including mortality. […] Underlying skin diseases did not appear to increase susceptibility to COVID-19 or mortality from COVID-19.
32880961 Here, we briefly consider aspects of the shared and complementary pathways between skin sensitization induced by exposure to a contact allergen and the immune response to viruses, with particular reference to COVID-19.
32882743 We observed a significant association between newborns of SARS-CoV-2 positive and SARS-CoV-2 negative mothers regarding skin-to-skin contact (p < 0.001). […] However, neonatal critical illness due to SARS-CoV-2 is still a possibility; thus, isolation precautions (such as avoiding skin-to-skin contact and direct breastfeeding) and vertical transmission should be studied thoroughly.
32884675 Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, inflammatory, recurrent, and debilitating skin disease of the hair follicle unit that typically develops after puberty.
32889621 Following patient stabilisation, the conversion to the tracheostomy is undertaken with the following features: skin infiltration with vasoconstrictor, a vertical incision, avoidance of electrical devices in favour of classical manners of haemostasis, the advancement of the tube towards the carina, performing the tracheal window in complete apnoea following adequate oxygenation, the insertion of non-fenestrated canulla attached to a heat and moisture exchanger, the fixation of canulla with stitches and tapes, and the cricothyrotomy entrance closure.
32890029 Gastrointestinal and skin toxicity are underrecognized and could influence adherence.
32894602 The tropical climate in Singapore predisposes HCWs to more skin damage and pruritus due to intense heat, high humidity and sun exposure. […] The effects of friction, occlusion, hyperhidrosis and overheating on the skin in the tropics should not be neglected. […] We review the literature and discuss various preventive and management strategies for these occupational skin diseases for our frontline HCWs, especially those working in less controlled working environments beyond the hospital in Singapore. […] Duration of continuous PPE-usage should not exceed 6 h, with breaks in non-contaminated areas every 2-3 h to hydrate and mitigate the risk of skin reactions.
32895985 Yet, other studies have been unable to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in skin biopsies of “COVID toes” by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing. […] In order to address these apparently conflicting findings, we compared detection of SARS-CoV-2 SP, through RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) vs immunohistochemistry (IHC), in skin biopsies of acral perniotic lesions presenting during the COVID-19 pandemic.
32896915 Although most findings have been reported in the lungs, primarily due to catastrophic respiratory decline, other organs, including the skin, are affected.
32898410 Academic conferences, such as the annual Cochrane Skin Conference, faced similar challenges as large gatherings have been banned.
32898920 Current recommendations on infant care and feeding when mother has COVID-19 ranges from mother-infant separation and avoidance of human milk feeding, to initiation of early skin-to-skin contact and direct breastfeeding.
32901377 A retrospective descriptive study was performed collecting data on 36 patients under 14 years old, presenting suspicious acral skin manifestations for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] 30.55% of patients showed extracutaneous findings, preceding skin lesions in 12.62 days.
32902087 Cutaneous manifestations are among the heterogenous clinical features of the disease, and urticaria is one of the most common skin manifestations reported in COVID-19. […] A literature search in the PubMed and Scopus databases was conducted, till the cut-off date of 24th July 2020, using the following terms: “skin” or “cutaneous” or “urticaria” or “urticarial,” and “COVID-19” or coronavirus disease.
32904371 A number of studies indicate that microorganisms survive on textiles for extended periods of time and can transfer on to skin and other surfaces suggesting it is biologically plausible that HCAIs and other infectious diseases can be transmitted directly through contact with contaminated textiles.
32905500 Various skin manifestations including patchy erythematous rash are reported.
32907638 Current skin infection (eg, uncontrolled dermopiodermitis). i.
32909024 Viral interaction with polymeric body fluids, particularly mucus, and cell membranes controls their infectivity, while their interaction with skin and artificial surfaces underpins cleaning and disinfection and the efficacy of masks and other personal protective equipment.
32914465 Besides, symptoms of infection, adverse effects from the 600 mg hydroxychloroquine daily plus azithromycin, including insomnia, headaches, skin reactions, digestive upset with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, blurred vision, and local pain, may lead to increased anxiety and mental distress.
32920000 As expected, inflammation, cardiotoxicity, and dyslipidaemias were revealed as the main risks of lopinavir/ritonavir treatment, while chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin therapy was additionally linked to gastrointestinal and skin diseases.
32920452 One way to address this would be to use skin testing to measure the delayed-type hypersensitivity response in patients recovering from COVID-19.
32920868 Histopathological descriptions and clinical correlation of the histopathological findings of COVID-19 skin lesions are lacking.
32922297 Certain characteristic COVID-associated skin, sensory, and central nervous system manifestations may also be linked to viral activation of the RAAS, complement, coagulation, and KKS pathways.
32924651 Engineering systemic immunity by harnessing the cutaneous immune network has been particularly attractive since the skin is an easily accessible immune-responsive organ. […] Recent advances in skin-targeted drug delivery strategies have enabled safe, patient-friendly, and controlled deployment of vaccines to cutaneous microenvironments for inducing long-lived pathogen-specific immunity to mitigate infectious diseases, including COVID-19. […] This review briefly discusses the basics of cutaneous immunomodulation and provides a concise overview of emerging skin-targeted drug delivery systems that enable safe, minimally invasive, and effective intracutaneous administration of vaccines for engineering systemic immune responses to combat infectious diseases. […] In-situ engineering of the cutaneous microenvironment using emerging skin-targeted vaccine delivery systems offers remarkable potential to develop diverse immunization strategies against pathogens. […] Significant involvement of industry and/or government will be imperative for successfully bringing novel skin-targeted vaccine delivery methods to market for their widespread use.
32928250 To plan and support breastfeeding within the current pandemic, two areas need to be understood: 1) the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 as it applies to breastfeeding and 2) the protective properties of breastfeeding, including the practice of skin-to-skin care. […] Breastfeeding should be encouraged, mothers and infant dyads should be cared for together, and skin-to-skin contact ensured throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.
32928765 Touch expresses healing, extending beyond skin-to-skin contact to express humanity, caring, and connection.
32941186 With age, the ability of the skin to synthesize vitamin D decreases, and leads to vitamin D-deficits. […] If the skin is insufficiently exposed to sunlight, severe deficits can develop.
32949449 The aim of the study is to describe our management of these skin manifestations and to evaluate a possible correlation to SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Skin lesions observed were purplish, erythematous and oedematous, in some cases painful and itchy.
32952306 Measures should be taken to assess the skin regularly and avoid utilising devices that are associated with a high risk of facial pressure ulcers.
32954488 In the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, skin manifestations, if present, were not paid enough attention. […] Following patients with psoriasis on biological therapy, as well as other inflammatory and autoimmune cutaneous disorders such as atopic dermatitis, pemphigus, pemphigoid diseases, and skin cancer provoked the interest of dermatologists. […] Finally, an intriguing question to the dermatologic society was whether skin changes during COVID-19 infection exist and what could be their diagnostic or prognostic value. […] Here, we summarize skin conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic, patient information, and expert recommendations and give an overview about the registries launched to document skin changes during COVID-19, as well as details about certain patient groups infected with SARS-CoV-2, for example, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and autoimmune bullous diseases.
32956343 The following conditions were included in the scope of this review: gynecological tumors, breast cancer, gastrointestinal tumors, genitourinary tumors, head and neck tumors, skin cancer, tumors of the central nervous system, and lymphomas.
32969629 In the next future, dermatologists, endocrinologist and physicians may cope with the impact of extent SARS-CoV-2 (COVID 19) infection over chronic inflammatory skin diseases and their treatment. […] We searched for relevant studies (trials, real-life studies and case reports, meta-analysis, pooled data analysis, reviews) on endocrine disorders and inflammatory skin diseases. […] It has been demonstrated how these conditions correlate with the worsening of such chronic inflammatory skin diseases, such as psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa, and acne. […] Many evidences suggest an important role of adipose tissue in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Leptin, adiponectin, TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1, PAI-1), involved in the pathogenesis and the exacerbations of these skin diseases. […] Scientific evidences already show the important immunomodulating role of vitamin D in inflammatory skin diseases. […] Our study pays attention on medium-long term effects of COVID-19 outbreak on inflammatory skin disorders, due to the lifestyle changes.
32970391 Their expression levels were found to be significantly altered in cancer types, including colon, kidney, liver, testis, thyroid and skin cancers (P < 0.0001); AUC > 0.80 suggests that TMPRSS2, CLEC4M and DPP4 are relevant markers of kidney, liver, and thyroid cancer, respectively.
32970710 Healthcare workers around the world are experiencing skin injury due to the extended use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during the COVID-19 pandemic. […] These injuries are the result of high shear stresses acting on the skin, caused by friction with the PPE. […] A literature review into skin friction and skin lubrication was conducted to identify products and substances that can reduce friction. […] The response of skin to friction is a complex interplay between the lubricating properties and durability of the film deposited on the surface and the response of skin to the lubricating substance, which include epidermal absorption, occlusion, and water retention. […] Moisturising the skin results in excessive friction, and the use of products that are aimed at ‘moisturising without leaving a non-greasy feel’ should be prevented.
32970840 The objective of this study was to examine the skin of hospitalized patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 disease and describe the real prevalence of skin manifestations. […] Skin manifestations are frequent but mild with spontaneous resolution.
32972218 However, hand drying is integral to effective hand hygiene, and is important in controlling the spread of microorganisms and maintaining healthy skin integrity. […] This research commentary will focus on two issues of importance with regards to hand drying: microbial transmission and skin irritation, with implications for healthcare practitioners and practice considered.
32972810 COVID-19 has been associated with a myriad of clinical manifestations, including the lungs, heart, kidneys, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, skin, and blood coagulation abnormalities.
32973511 The cumulative incidences of bleeding complications, such as gastrointestinal tract and skin ecchymosis, were significantly higher in the UC group (12.4% vs. […] Remote pharmacist-led medication instruction of rivaroxaban could reduce bleeding complications of the gastrointestinal tract and skin ecchymosis and postpone the first outpatient revisit after discharge.
32974916 Dear Editor, Recalcati et al. conclude that chilblain-like lesions (CLLs) are part of the spectrum of COVID-19 based on reports of SARS-CoV-2 in endothelial cells of skin biopsies assessed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy (EM).1 Nevertheless, the conclusion does not seem to be adequately supported by the data.
32984564 OCHOS (detected by the tilt test with transcranial Doppler monitoring) and SFN (confirmed by skin biopsy), and both OCHOS/SFN were attributed to Post Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome of presumed autoimmune etiology.
32985745 The aim of this study was to evaluate the skin problems and dermatological life quality of the health care workers (HCWs) due to personal protection equipment (PPE) use, who are at high risk for COVID-19 infection. […] A questionnaire about HCWs’ PPE use, their skin symptoms, and prevention, management methods and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) was fulfilled. […] Skin problems were found to be 90.2%, the most common were dryness, itching, cracking, burning, flaking, peeling and lichenification. […] The presence of skin problems (P < .001) was higher in those who did not use moisturizers. […] Of all, 22.3% (n = 98) stated that the use of PPE increased the severity of their previously diagnosed skin diseases and allergies (P < .01). […] Only 28.0% (n = 123) stated that they know the skin symptoms that may develop by using PPE. […] Skin problems were higher in those using mask with metal nose bridge (P: .02 and P: .003, respectively). […] DLQI was significantly affected in women (P = .003), and with increased skin problems related to PPE (P < .001). […] It is important to organize trainings on prevention and management of possible skin symptoms due to PPE use according to guidelines.
32986289 Allowing PRISMA guidelines, a comprehensive literature search was carried out with Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane, and Google Scholar, using key MeSH words, which include “COVID-19,” “Coronavirus,” “SARS-Cov-2,” “Urticaria,” “Angioedema,” and “Skin rash” up to 01 August 2020. […] Skin lesions resolved from less than 24 hours to up to 2 weeks following treatment with antihistamines and/or steroids.
32988212 Frequent performance of hand hygiene may lead to skin rash if the hand sanitizer or hand rub is substandard.
32990872 This constant pressure and friction against the skin may contribute to increased wearer pain, irritation, and discomfort. […] We offer a modification of a 3D printed mask extender design that decreases discomfort and increases the wearability of isolation mask designs with ear loops thought to relieve posterior auricular skin pressure and ability to control strap tension.
32995855 Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer represented 56.7% of all missing diagnoses.
32998572 Maternal bonding was defined by events such as rooming-in, skin to skin contact (STSC), and breastfeeding.
33000462 The paper by Colmenero et al. presents a study of skin biopsies from paediatric patients presenting with chilblains during the COVID-19 pandemic.1 Seven cases were examined by histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques, and one of these was additionally studied by transmission electron microscopy.
33001051 However multi-systemic involvement including peripheral thromboembolic skin lesions, central nervous, gastrointestinal, circulatory, and urinary systems are reported.
33001220 A previously healthy 12-year-old-girl presented with a skin rash, headache, and fever.
33002210 Data on SARS-CoV-2 detection in lesional skin is controversial.1-8 We report a PCR-proven COVID-19 patient with a chilblain-like SARS-CoV-2 positive skin lesion.
33003194 We observed the associated AEs in different organs/systems, especially in skin and subcutaneous tissue, immune system and musculoskeletal and connective tissue.
33006886 Although alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) control the widespread transmission of such pathogens through dermal contact, excessive exposure to alcohol mists and vapors causes CNS disorders, apart from skin infections and negative impacts on the useful microbiome. […] Repeated hand cleansing with bentonite paste not only provides complete protection against any viruses but also improves the skin condition.
33007327 Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has been associated with a host of symptoms affecting numerous organ systems, including the lungs, cardiovascular system, kidney, central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and skin, among others.
33009907 The stability of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on human skin remains unknown, considering the hazards of viral exposure to humans. […] We generated a model that allows the safe reproduction of clinical studies on the application of pathogens to human skin and elucidated the stability of SARS-CoV-2 on the human skin. […] We evaluated the stability of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV), mixed with culture medium or upper respiratory mucus, on human skin surfaces and the dermal disinfection effectiveness of 80% (w/w) ethanol against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. […] SARS-CoV-2 and IAV were inactivated more rapidly on skin surfaces than on other surfaces (stainless steel/glass/plastic); the survival time was significantly longer for SARS-CoV-2 than for IAV [9.04 h (95% confidence interval: 7.96-10.2 h) vs. […] Moreover, both SARS-CoV-2 and IAV in the mucus/medium on human skin were completely inactivated within 15 s by ethanol treatment. […] The 9-h survival of SARS-CoV-2 on human skin may increase the risk of contact transmission in comparison with IAV, thus accelerating the pandemic.
33013103 We have used this novel technique in eight patients of T4a oral cancer involving anterior arch of mandible and skin over chin.
33014983 This includes the elderly, men, ethnic groups whose skin is naturally rich in melanin (if living outside the tropics), those who avoid sun exposure for cultural and health reasons, those who live in institutions, the obese, and/or those who suffer with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes.
33019935 This review focuses on autoimmune manifestations described during COVID-19, including pro-thrombothic state associated to antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), acute interstitial pneumonia, macrophage activation syndrome, lymphocytopenia, systemic vasculitis, and autoimmune skin lesions.
33020721 The most common disorders among the participants were found to be skin dryness (76.3%), obsession (42.2%), skin itching (41.2%), coughing (41.1%), and eyes irritation (39.5%).
33021333 Disease-related skin lesions have been reported in 8% to 20% of COVID-19 patients.
33024427 Moreover, the food cold-chain also promotes contamination because laboratory studies showed that SARS-CoV-2 remained highly stable under refrigerated, at 4 °C, and freezing conditions, from - 10 to - 80 °C, on fish, meat, poultry, and swine skin, during 14-21 days.
33024561 Ratios of spleen volume to patient (skin) volume were compared, with evidence that severe patients had more splenic shrinkage than mild patients.
33026745 To minimize the risk of COVID-19 infection, healthcare workers wear tight-fitting masks that lead to an excessive amount of pressure on the facial skin. […] Mechanical pressure, mask materials, and perspiration can all lead to various types of cutaneous lesions such as indentations of the face, skin tears, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, ulceration, crusting, erythema, and infection. […] The objective of this article is to provide effective and straightforward recommendations to those health care providers using facial masks in order to prevent skin-related complications.
33033459 After almost 3 weeks, the patient started to display a violaceous rash initially involving the flexural folds atypical targetoid lesions and showing a very fast extension, blister formation and skin detachments of approximately 70% of the total body surface area and mucous membranes involvement consistent with toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). […] The ALDEN algorithm was calculated inserting all drugs given to the patient in the 28 days preceding the onset of the skin manifestations. […] Given the activation of the immune system syndrome induced by the virus and the widespread off-label use of this drug, we suggest a careful monitoring of skin and mucous membranes in all COVID-19 positive patients treated with hydroxychloroquine in order to early detect early signs of toxicities.
33033963 These receptors are present in skin cells, musculoskeletal tissue, amniotic membranes, cardiovascular tissue and ocular tissues, including the cornea. […] Notably, gamma irradiation, which has already been employed to inactivate SARS and MERS, could be useful for sterilizing skin, amnion and musculoskeletal tissues against SARS-CoV-2.
33034169 Urticaria is a condition involving both skin and mucosal tissues characterized by the presence of wheals and/or angioedema.
33035150 In addition, personal protective equipment-related skin wounds are of serious concern since broken cutaneous barriers can create an opening for potential COVID-19 infections. […] This systematic review and photo atlas provide a detailed analysis of the skin pathologies related to COVID-19.
33036032 The study included 13 patients with cutaneous acral lesions resembling chilblains occurring in the setting of suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection with available skin biopsy.
33037759 Many patients sought care for skin cancer screening. […] In 131 patients (52%) dermoscopic skin examinations were performed. […] In 39 patients (15%), actinic keratosis or nonmelanoma skin cancer was detected, while melanoma was diagnosed in three patients, two of which were proven later as in situ melanoma. […] About 111 patients (44%) visited our clinic for other, nonurgent skin diseases. […] Our results imply that many patients felt that their skin problems required immediate attention, even if this could not be justified. […] Adequately taken photos with a dermoscope may be readily read without the presence of specialist in the emergency room to prevent unnecessary delay in diagnosing oncologic skin diseases.
33038363 We also show that taking into account probability distributions of other variables and parameters such as body weight, exposed skin area, skin adhesion, etc. does not significantly change the main result rather just slightly broadening the final Hazardous Index distribution function.
33038477 Delivery mode, skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding initiation did not differ between groups.
33038863 The side effects of ICIs are very different from conventional cytocidal anticancer and molecular target drugs, and may extend to the digestive organs, respiratory organs, thyroid gland, pituitary gland, skin, and others.
33040344 For the study subjects, the distribution of erythematous or skin-colored folliculocentric dome-shaped papules and pustules were all compatible with body parts covered by the gear.
33040422 There were lower odds during the post-restriction period for a retrievals of the respiratory system (OR 0.78 95% CI 0.67-0.93), and disease of the skin (OR 0.78 95% CI 0.6-1.0).
33040454 Frequency of hand disinfection and adverse skin reactions among health care workers dramatically increased since the COVID-19 outbreak and consensus recommendations on hand hygiene were presented. […] Prevalence of adverse skin reactions on hand disinfectants at baseline was 80.21%. […] In a month significant improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and self-assessed improvement of hand skin (P < .01 for both) was reported in “products” group only. […] Our results showed that recommendations of the EADV TF on CD may significantly improve HRQoL and hand skin status in health care professionals but provision with products mentioned in that recommendations is crucial.
33045596 It has been widely used in skin and oral care, and therapeutic products for its potent antiviral, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer applications.
33047260 Additionally, occupational dermatologic disease related to extended personal protective equipment (PPE) use, such as skin damage and irritant or allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), represents another emerging problem amidst the pandemic.
33048827 Logistic regression analysis indicated a signifcant relationship between > 4 hours length of use and the occurrence of the following: redness of the cheeks, dry mouth, redness of the nose bridge, and redness of the ears for N95 masks; dryness of the mouth when wearing surgical masks; skin dryness, sweating, and redness from wearing gloves; headaches from wearing goggles/face shields; and sweating when wearing overalls or a gown (P < .05 for all variables).
33049547 Analyses were adjusted for sex, age group, highest academic achievement, working status during quarantine, skin color, previous diagnosis of depression, and adherence to quarantine.
33053817 Data on the clinical patterns and histopathology of SARS-CoV-2 related skin lesions, as well as on their relationship with the severity of COVID-19 are limited. […] Clinical, microbiological and therapeutic characteristics, clinicopathological patterns of skin lesions, and direct immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical findings in skin biopsies were analyzed. […] Fifty-eight out of the 2761 patients (2.1%) either consulting to the emergency room or admitted to the hospital for COVID-19 suspicion during the study period presented COVID-19 related skin lesions. […] Skin biopsies were performed in 72.4%, including direct immunofluorescence in 71.4% and immunohistochemistry in 28.6%.
33054453 Despite this reduction in patient volume, the proportion of acute dermatologic issues, biopsies performed, and skin cancer concerns were all increased compared to pre-COVID.
33055537 In contrast to pernio-like lesions, the skin of the affected necrotic toes contained thrombi in vessels without prominent inflammation, suggestive of an embolic event. […] Our findings suggest that critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 have different pathological processes affecting skin at peripheral sites (ie, fingers, toes, ears, and nose), which may be due to thromboembolic events. […] The skin is a mirror of the body and skin pathology may shed light into overall pathogenesis of systemic illness and processes.
33058134 The initial clinical manifestations of COVID 19 in Wuhan was fever, cough and shortness of breath but early reports in Italy and Spain preceded emerging literature of skin involvement. […] Maculopapular exanthem was the most common pattern reported, accounting for 44.4% of skin manifestations. […] Anumber of the patients (9.5%) developed skin lesions at the time of diagnosis of Covid-19 or at the onset of Covid-19 respiratory symptoms while 75.1% developed the lesions after the onset of Covid-19 respiratory symptoms or after laboratory diagnosis of the disease had been made. […] There is no gainsaying that apart from the respiratory and other reported systems, Covid-19 also affects the skin. […] Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should therefore watch out for the already reported skin lesions and for possible yet to be discovered or reported skin lesions in patients with Covid-19. […] Dermatologists must bear in mind that patients presenting at skin clinics may actually be infected with Covid-19.
33058948 The purpose of this study was to examine the deltoid skin biopsy in twenty-three patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), most severely ill, for vascular complement deposition and correlate this with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral RNA and protein localization and ACE2 expression. […] Deltoid skin microvascular complement screening has been applied to patients with various systemic complement-mediated microvascular syndromes, best exemplified by atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. […] Microvascular complement deposition strongly colocalized in situ with the SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins including spike glycoproteins in the endothelial cells as well as the viral receptor ACE2 in lesional and nonlesional skin; viral RNA was not evident. […] Although the samples from severely ill patients with COVID-19 were from grossly normal skin, light microscopically focal microvascular abnormalities were evident that included endothelial cell denudement, basement membrane zone reduplication, and small thrombi. […] It is concluded that complement activation is common in grossly normal skin, especially in the subcutaneous fat which may provide a link between severe disease and obesity, in people with severe COVID-19, and the strong colocalization with the ACE2 receptor and viral capsid proteins without viral RNA suggests that circulating viral proteins (ie, pseudovirions) may dock onto the endothelial of these microvessels and induce complement activation.
33061551 Her skin lesions resolved 21 days after the onset of rash.
33063150 Our data suggest that the impact of coronavirus in Spain has affected dramatically tissue donation but with a moderate effect on stored tissues such as bone, valves, vessels or skin.
33063769 Chronic skin exposure to a wet work environment, as well as disinfectants are factors contributing to epidermal barrier damage. […] The aim of the paper was to analyze selected skin parameters and skin lesions in the hands of laboratory diagnosticians. […] After the interview, the skin pH and moisture content were examined. […] Measurements were performed on the dorsal side of the dominant hand using the Skin-ph-Meter® PH 905 and Corneometer® CM 825 devices. […] The obtained moisture level values were qualified as dry or very dry skin, and the skin pH was within the reference range. […] No correlation between the skin pH value and the features examined (professional experience, the number of hours spent in protective gloves during the day, the number of hand washing episodes during the day) was not indicated. […] The level of skin moisture content seems to positively correlate with the time of wearing gloves. […] The use of hand moisturizers after each hand washing episode correlated with the level of skin moisture content.
33063847 However, recent studies provide evidence for significant barrier damage effects of repeated exposure to 60% n-propanol in healthy, as well as atopic skin in vivo. […] While recent studies indicate a higher risk of skin irritation for n-propanol and isopropanol than reported in the past, this risk still seems to be lower than that for frequent handwashing with detergents, as recommended by some to prevent COVID-19 infections.
33064698 Skin manifestations remain a field of investigation.
33065184 Skin dose was estimated using radiochromic films.
33066459 Clinical symptoms included fever (100%), skin rashes (72%), cardiovascular involvement (86%), conjunctivitis (62%) and respiratory involvement (21%).
33069200 Observational study reporting 4 adolescents with skin lesions, 2 weeks after the occurrence of a flu-like syndrome. […] Fourteen days after a flu-like syndrome, adolescents exhibited skin lesions to toes and feet. […] In two patients, pharyngeal and nasal swabs were negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection, at the presentation of skin lesions.
33070314 Skin biopsies were performed on 10 of these patients who presented with recent lesions.
33075530 Positive anti-SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 immunostaining on skin biopsy of chilblains seem to confirm the presence of the virus in the lesions, but lack specificity and must be interpreted with caution.
33076733 As the COVID-19 pandemic emerged, skin manifestations have been reported as part of this disease’s multisystem manifestations. […] While a rash similar to chilblains in acral distribution has been the most commonly reported complication, we noted a pattern of more severe lower extremity skin complications, specifically large bullae, in a series of COVID-19 patients.
33083367 We report the case of an 18-year-old male patient presenting with a 72-hour history of abdominal pain, fever, erythematous skin rash, vomiting and diarrhoea.
33084483 The study aimed to explore the prevalence and possible risk factors to prevent the face mask related adverse skin reactions during the ongoing COVID-19 after a recommendation of face mask wearing for public use in Thailand. […] The prevalence of face mask related adverse skin reactions was 454 cases (54.5%), of which acne was the most frequent (399; 39.9%), followed by rashes on the face (154; 18.4%), and itch symptoms (130; 15.6%). […] Wearing a surgical mask showed a higher risk of adverse skin reaction compared to a cloth mask, OR (95% CI) = 1.54 (1.16-2.06). […] A duration of face mask wearing of more than 4 hours/day and the reuse of face masks increased the risk of adverse skin reactions compared to changing the mask every day, adjusted OR(95% CI) = 1.96 (1.29-2.98), and 1.5 (1.11-2.02). […] Suggestions were made for wearing a cloth mask in non-health care workers (HCW) to decrease the risk of face mask related adverse skin reactions.
33085086 Well-established prophylactic skin care might have spared a proportion of the children from developing hand eczema.
33085141 A growing number of skin lesions during the COVID-19 pandemic are being recognized.
33087204 Analyses were adjusted for sex, age group, highest academic achievement, per capita income, working status during the quarantine, skin colour and adherence to the quarantine.
33091817 Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe skin pustular drug reaction that can lead to life-threatening consequences. […] In this study, we have investigated the characteristics and outcomes of patients with AGEP in a tertiary skin hospital.
33093429 There was a 77% decrease in serious bacterial infections, and ≥50% decrease in most types of bacterial infections, especially osteoarticular and skin infections, followed by pneumonia and ENT infections.
33096349 To assess the presence of sublingual microcirculatory and skin perfusion alterations in COVID-19 pneumonia.
33097683 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with a variety of skin findings, including erythematous or patchy rash, urticaria, hives, blisters, petechiae, livedo reticularis, and even AGEP in a patient undergoing treatment with hydroxychloroquine. […] Skin biopsy of the rash revealed AGEP.
33110725 She presented with signs of acute illness: high-grade fever (39.6°C) for five days accompanied by sore throat, malaise, reduced oral intake, abdominal pain, diarrhea, skin rash, bilateral non-suppurative conjunctivitis, and erythematous, cracked lips.
33111514 Cancers are generally additional risk factors for COVID-19, and this has implications also for skin cancer patients. […] Diagnosis and treatment of skin cancers is a process that requires many procedures.
33119139 This includes recommendations on mode of birth, delayed umbilical cord clamping, skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding, rooming-in, antenatal corticosteroids, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, disease-modifying treatments (including dexamethasone, remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine), venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and advanced respiratory support interventions (prone positioning and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation).
33122236 Main skin manifestations of COVID-19 have been recently classified. […] However, little is known about cutaneous histopathological patterns and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in these skin lesions. […] We present a healthy 29-year-old man who developed a leucocytoclastic vasculitis for COVID-19 with positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR in skin biopsy.
33122237 A 50-year-old man presented to our dermatology clinic with itchy skin rash. […] Skin lesions disappeared on the ninth day of treatment.
33128425 The most avoided cosmetic procedures were application of skin care devices, lasers, chemical peeling, and thread lifting, while botulinum toxin injection was the most performed procedure.
33135997 Stone position, density and size, skin-to-stone distance, and body-mass index contribute to SFRs.
33137805 Analysis of skin specimens suggested direct SARS-CoV-2 viral-induced and complement-mediated vascular injury and thrombosis, consistent with prior reports.
33138853 Its morphologic features included erythema multiforme-like lesions with extensive skin sloughing in various regions of the head, neck, and trunk and mucosal involvement. […] Her Nikolsky sign was negative, and she had no evidence of lesions on areas of skin trauma. […] Patients who develop Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis require best supportive care with aggressive fluid and electrolyte replacement and prevention of further breakdown of the skin barrier.
33141443 Roughly one-tenth in both populations were otherwise asymptomatic or presented with only skin findings for the entirety of the disease course; 13.3% (pediatrics) and 5.3% (adults) presented with skin issues first.
33141476 Skin findings in patients with COVID-19 can range from petechiae to papulovesicular rashes to diffuse urticaria and can be confused with rashes of non-COVID-19 conditions. […] Herein, we discuss two pediatric cases, presenting with skin lesions, which tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, thus, briefly reviewing current literature for similar reports and related management. […] Although these lesions heal spontaneously in most cases, an adequate “targeted” therapeutic approach can shorten the time and the discomfort of the skin disease.
33142828 At this time, dark skin color, increased age, the presence of pre-existing illnesses and vitamin D deficiency are features of severe COVID disease.
33145296 The results indicated that the expression of ACE2 was the highest in the small intestines, higher in tissues such as salivary glands in the testicular, kidney, heart, thyroid and adipose tissues, while the expression of ACE2 was lower in tissues such as the spleen, brain, muscle, pituitary, and skin.
33147850 Skin hemorrhage, renal cell degeneration, and necrosis were also significantly attenuated by Coronil treatment.
33150651 Behçet disease (BD) is a multi-systemic vasculitis involving the skin, mucosa, eyes, joints, nervous system, cardiovascular system, and gastrointestinal system.
33150930 Severe reactions were observed with exposure to sanitizers in greater amounts, on moist skin or through inhalation.
33159236 Recently, preoccupation about the potential of the virus to infect the skin has been raised by dermatologists due to the increasing observations of cutaneous manifestations in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Although there is little evidence of the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the normal skin, the dermatological findings observed among COVID-19 patients warrants further investigation to delineate the mechanisms of skin affection after SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] In addition, we analyze possible mechanisms of skin injury in COVID-19 patients and discuss about the risk of individuals with chronic skin conditions for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33161030 We aimed to describe histological features of cutaneous eruptions occurring concomitantly to SARS-CoV-2 infection and assess by immunochemistry and in situ hybridization using RNAscope validation techniques the presence of the virus in skin lesions. […] We retrieved all skin biopsies received in the departments of pathology and dermatopathology, University Hospital of Strasbourg, performed in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected patients presenting concomitant cutaneous manifestations since March 2020. […] Skin biopsies from six patients presenting morbilliform eruption concomitant to SARS-CoV-2 infection were available for evaluation.
33161606 Five patients who underwent aesthetic resurfacing and/or skin tightening of the face and neck were treated with the Er:YAG (Sciton Joule, Palo Alto, CA) and/or fractional radiofrequency (Morpheus8, Lake Forest, CA) between April 1 and May 11, 2020.
33165123 This article addresses the issue of the psychological distress of ambulatory dermatologic patients on the ground of cancelation of nonurgent dermatology visits during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, as well as the risk of underestimating the emotional suffering of patients with chronic skin diseases, which traditionally would not qualify as urgent cases.
33165337 Subjects answered a questionnaire on household assets, schooling and self-reported skin color/ethnicity using the standard Brazilian classification in five categories: white, black, brown, Asian or indigenous. […] Indigenous individuals had 4.71 (3.65; 6.08) times higher prevalence than whites, as did those with black or brown skin color.
33166294 Here, we modeled stability of SARS-CoV-2 on skin, paper currency, and clothing to determine if these surfaces may factor in the fomite transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2. […] Skin, currency, and clothing samples were exposed to SARS-CoV-2 under laboratory conditions and incubated at three different temperatures (4°C± 2°C, 22°C± 2°C, and 37°C ± 2°C). […] SARS-CoV-2 was stable on skin through the duration of the experiment at 4°C (14 days). […] Virus remained stable on skin for at least 96 h at 22°C and for at least 8h at 37°C. […] Furthermore, virus stability on skin demonstrates the need for continued hand hygiene practices to minimize fomite transmission both in the general population as well as in workplaces where close contact is common.
33167921 The control group intervention, depending on the stage, will consist of preventive measures, skin care and exercise-prescribed training in the lymphedema workshop as well as compression garments (Stage I) or conservative Complex Decongestive Therapy treatment (skin care, multi-layer bandaging, manual lymphatic drainage and massage therapy) (Stage II).
33168054 Several recent studies suggest the possibility of a skin rash being a clinical presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] The purpose of this case report is to bring attention to skin manifestations in the early stage of COVID-19 in order to support frontline physicians in their crucial activity of case identification. […] Her skin manifestations disappeared completely 48 days after the onset of the disease, followed by the disappearance of the dry cough. […] In light of recent studies, this case report suggests that skin manifestations, when taken into account with other situational factors (such as profession and patient history) should be taken into proper consideration by frontline physicians as possibly being caused by SARS-CoV-2. […] To enhance this activity, further research is needed to establish frequency, symptoms, signs, and pathogenesis of skin manifestations in patients with COVID-19.
33174266 Closed and warm environments heighten the skin’s permeability and sensitivity to physical or chemical irritants, leading to chronic cumulative irritant contact dermatitis or, rarely, even allergic contact dermatitis. […] To minimize the skin breakdown, adherence to standards on wearing protective and safe equipments and avoidance of overprotection should be performed. […] At the same time, some measures of skin care are recommended.
33179534 The EMBASE, Medline, and Pubmed Central databases were searched from February 1, 2020 until April 25, 2020, using the search words “(COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2 OR coronavirus-19) AND (skin OR cutaneous OR dermatologic)”.
33179785 Given that the skin is affected by COVID-19 and the relative ease of its histological examination, we aimed to examine the histology of skin lesions in COVID-19 patients to better understand the disease’s pathology. […] Five skin lesions from COVID-19 adult patients were selected for a deep histological tissue examination.
33180327 We report five patients, who represented six incidences of skin eruption with four characteristics: maculopapular rash (50%), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (16.67%), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (16.67%) and urticarial vasculitis (16.67%). […] Therefore, drug allergy should always be ruled out, and skin manifestation in COVID-19-infected patients should be further observed.
33181098 In patients with no previous psychiatric history, a diagnosis of COVID-19 was associated with increased incidence of a first psychiatric diagnosis in the following 14 to 90 days compared with six other health events (HR 2·1, 95% CI 1·8-2·5 vs influenza; 1·7, 1·5-1·9 vs other respiratory tract infections; 1·6, 1·4-1·9 vs skin infection; 1·6, 1·3-1·9 vs cholelithiasis; 2·2, 1·9-2·6 vs urolithiasis, and 2·1, 1·9-2·5 vs fracture of a large bone; all p<0·0001).
33184730 •Breast milk and skin-to-skin contact are safe in COVID-19-infected mothers if performed with appropriate use of precautions such as hand and breast hygiene and masking.
33187026 The percentage of mothers who made skin-to-skin contact within the first 24 hours after delivery was significantly higher in the DCC group (84.3% versus 45.9%). […] The results of our study show no differences in perinatal outcomes when performing ECC or DCC, and skin-to-skin contact, or breastfeeding.
33187790 The present study was carried out as a comparative observational study in order to determine the effect of prophylactic dressing on the prevention of skin injuries due to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in health care workers (HCWs) working with COVID-19 patients. […] The evaluation of the facial skin was made once a day by a researcher with expertise in wound management. […] Overall rate of skin injuries associated with PPE use was 47.9%. […] Skin injuries developed in all participants in CG (n = 20), and in two and one participants in EG1 and EG2 respectively, with significant difference between groups. […] The most common skin injuries were Stage 1 pressure injury (29.2%), blanchable erythema of intact skin (27.1%) and itching (18.8%). […] In the present study, it was established that using prophylactic dressing under PPE prevents skin injuries on the facial skin and using nasal strip prevents discomfort in breathing with mask.
33188626 Complaints of the patients were 76.6% fatigue, 69.3% pain, 62% fever, 45.3% cough, 43.5% loss of taste and/or smell, 25% diarrhea, and 0.5% skin lesions respectively.
33192232 Safety study results showed dermal effects of UV-C exposure including DNA lesions, formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in cells, and effects on the skin’s stratum corneum.
33196004 The main features are high fever, extensive skin rash, cheilitis with red, cracking, bleeding lips and strawberry tongue, conjunctivitis, erythema and induration of hands and feet, subsiding with periungual peeling, cervical lymphadenopathy, and coronary artery dilation/aneurysms.
33196008 Patients with various inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, skin, liver, kidneys, and musculoskeletal system-connective tissues, often undergo different anti-inflammatory therapies to maintain remission and avoid serious and/or life-threatening complications.
33196750 With the recent availability of a novel accessory (Multi Micro DoseTM [MMD®] tip) for the 308nm excimer laser (XTRAC®, Strata Skin Sciences, Horsham, PA), which can determine and deliver an optimal therapeutic dose (OTDTM) of ultraviolet-B light in an improved protocol, the need for comparative health-economic assessment recurs.
33197843 He was treated with IVIg as the Electrophysiologic study showed sensorimotor polyradiculoneuropathy with demyelinating features and skin biopsy showed interface dermatitis and vasculopathic reaction.
33199221 Amongst the many factors causing delay, such as fear and uncertainty about COVID-19 transmission, reluctance to seek medical attention for cancer sypmtoms and avoiding additional pressure on NHS services, we anticipate a surge in urgent skin cancer referrals to our plastic surgery service as we enter a post-COVID recovery phase. […] On the basis of previous referral data and statistical forecasting, we share our predicted numbers against our actual number of urgent skin cancer referrals for the COVID-19 period and, based on this analysis, encourage all cancer services to prepare and allocate resources appropriately for the busy months to follow.
33201140 As WOC nurses, we were tasked with formulating procedures for protecting the facial skin integrity of healthcare workers (HCWs) using personal protective devices when caring for patients with suspected or active COVID-19, while avoiding contamination when the masks are donned or doffed. […] We evaluated 6 topical products (an alcohol-free liquid acrylate, thin film dressing, thin hydrocolloid dressing, hydrocolloid blister care cushion, thin foam transfer dressing, and thick foam dressing) applied to skin in contact with 3 N95 respirators; all are available on our facility’s formulary and all are in widespread clinical use. […] We also evaluated cutaneous responses (skin integrity, irritation, comfort) during this period. […] No skin irritation was noted with any of the tested products after a 10-hour wear time underneath the N95 respirator masks, but mild discomfort was experienced with 3 of the dressings (thin film dressing and both hydrocolloid dressings). […] Based on these experiences, we recommend application of an alcohol-free liquid acrylate film to prevent facial skin injury associated with friction from the extended use of an N95 respirator mask. […] For the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic, we recommend use of protective dressings to maintain skin integrity and protection from coronavirus infection as HCWs continue to provide care to all of patients under their care.
33204546 The supportive features were the history of starting of carbamazepine 2 weeks prior for seizure disorder, clinical findings in serial photographs of skin with 40 percent body surface area involvement of necrotic skin lesions and bulla, and involvement of oral mucosa and eyes.
33206625 At the beginning of the coronavirus disease-19 pandemic, health care staff at a level 1 trauma center in the state of New York experienced facial irritation and skin breakdown under their N95 respirators due to increased and prolonged use. […] Members of the Certified Wound and Ostomy Nurse, Nurse Practitioners staff were charged with developing recommendations within 48 hours to help prevent and manage facial skin issues using available products that would not compromise the seal of the respirators. […] With the assistance of a health care safety specialist from the Environmental Health and Safety Department of the hospital, an ambient particle counting device was used to measure the N95 fit factor following application of a liquid skin barrier, transparent film dressing, light silicone-based adhesive dressing, or an extra-thin hydrocolloid dressing on the bridge of the nose and the cheekbones underneath an N95 respirator of 2 hospital staff members who volunteered to test the dressings. […] The highest fit factors were seen with the liquid skin barrier in the 2 volunteers (200 and 198, respectively). […] Thin dressing use may help reduce skin complications among hospital staff during periods of extended N95 respirator wear time. […] Studies are needed to help health care facilities optimize N95 respirator use to protect staff from coronavirus disease-19 and respirator-related skin complications while supply shortages remain.
33209532 Data was collected using a standardized and validated Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire version 2002. […] The most commonly recorded symptoms were dryness (92.9%), itchiness (50%), and redness (46.4%) of the skin. […] Hand cleanser was the commonest substance implicated in the worsening of the skin changes (59.2%). […] The prevalence of reported skin changes during the pandemic was 46.4%.
33209764 A literature search was conducted using “PubMed” for original articles, case series, and case reports using the search terms “cutaneous manifestations” and “skin manifestations” in combination with “COVID-19” published up to 31 May. […] In 10% of cases, skin lesions appeared before systemic manifestations.
33210417 We searched published articles in PubMed database for key words of “children” or “pediatric” and “cutaneous” or “dermatology” or “skin” and “COVID-19” or “SARS-CoV-2” or “Coronavirus disease 2019” in abstract or title from December of 2019 until September 2020. […] Skin lesions faded between 3 and 88 days without any sequelae, spontaneously or with either topical or systemic corticosteroids. […] Skin manifestations were chilblain-like (pseudochilblain), erythema multiforme-like, dactylitis, acral erythema, acute urticaria, livedo reticularis, mottling, acro-ischemia, generalized maculopapular lesions, eyelid dermatitis, miliaria-like, varicelliform lesions, and petechiae and/or purpura.
33211432 However, it is not always easy to distinguish whether these skin manifestations are the result of a direct action of the virus on epidermal and/or dermal cell populations, represent a paraviral phenomenon or are a rather fortuitous association.
33213997 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes a wide range of symptoms, including several unexpected symptoms such as loss of taste, skin changes, and eye problems.
33215768 Data were collected using two instruments and related to demographic and professional characteristics and skin evaluation. […] There was no difference between the groups regarding skin conditions and discomfort (P > .05).
33217053 However, there are a few studies about the effects on skin characteristics after wearing a mask for non-healthcare workers. […] In this study, we evaluated the dermatologic effects of wearing a mask on the skin over time. […] Skin temperature, skin redness, sebum secretion, skin hydration, trans-epidermal water loss, and skin elasticity were measured. […] The skin temperature, redness, hydration, and sebum secretion were changed significantly after 1 and 6 hours of wearing a mask. […] Skin temperature, redness, and hydration showed significant differences between the mask-wearing area and the non-mask-wearing area. […] Mask-wearing conditions and time can change several skin characteristics.
33217763 The viral particles and/or its components have been specifically documented in endothelial cells of lung, kidney, skin, and CNS.
33218120 Similarly, the virus is stable on human skin, signifying the necessity of hand hygiene amidst the current pandemic.
33219572 SARS-CoV-2-induced lung injury due to inflammatory mediated thrombosis could be similar to the livedoid vasculopathy in the skin, supporting a translational comparison of these clinical settings.
33224961 Infection with 2019-nCoV may lead to skin manifestations with various clinical symptoms.
33230062 The most common cutaneous manifestation was acro-cutaneous (pernio or chilblain-like) lesions, and other skin lesions consist of maculopapular rash, vesicular lesions, livedoid/necrotic lesions, exanthematous rashes, and petechiae.
33230496 These factors include old age, obesity, dark skin tone and common genetic variants that impede vitamin D status. […] In regard to avoiding vitamin D deficiency, people with excess body fat, a dark skin tone or older age usually need to use a moderately dosed daily vitamin D supplement, particularly those living in a high-latitude region, getting little ultraviolet B exposure due to air pollution or staying mostly indoors. […] This finding should drive home the message that vitamin D supplementation is particularly important for individuals with dark skin tones.
33231925 The most common reported side effects were stomach pain, hypoglycemia, dizziness, itching, skin rash, QT prolongation, arrhythmia, and conjunctivitis.
33237291 Patients underwent a thorough general and dermatologic examination, including skin biopsies, vascular investigations, biologic analyses, interferon-alpha (IFN-α) stimulation and detection, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serologic analysis.
33237892 Among mothers with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, 14.0% of hospitals discouraged and 6.5% prohibited skin-to-skin care; 37.8% discouraged and 5.3% prohibited rooming-in; 20.1% discouraged direct breastfeeding but allowed it if the mother chose; and 12.7% did not support direct breastfeeding, but encouraged feeding of expressed breast milk.
33237918 Body temperature can be measured using thermal infrared imaging, a safe, non-contact method that relies on the emissivity of the skin being known to provide accurate readings. […] Skin pigmentation affects the absorption of visible light and enables us to see variations in skin colour. […] Human skin has an accepted emissivity of 0.98 but the effect of different skin pigmentation on this value is not known. […] In this study, we investigated the influence of different skin pigmentation on thermal emissivity in 65 adult volunteers. […] A reference object of known emissivity (electrical tape) was applied to participant’s skin on the inner upper arm. […] The emissivity was altered manually until the skin temperature using thermal imaging software was equal to the initial tape temperature. […] This provided the calculated emissivity value of the skin. […] Participants were grouped according to skin pigmentation, quantified using the Fitzpatrick skin phototyping scale and reflectance spectrophotometry. […] Differences in emissivity values between skin pigmentation groups were assessed by one-way ANOVA. […] No significant differences in emissivity were observed between participants when grouped by skin pigmentation according to the Fitzpatrick scale (p = 0.859) or reflectance spectrophotometry (p = 0.346). […] These data suggest that skin pigmentation does not affect thermal emissivity measurement of skin temperature using thermal infrared imaging.
33240733 Skin punch biopsy was done and he was diagnosed with AGEP but it was still not known if it was related to COVID-19 or a drug-induced condition.
33241256 In irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), the management strategies are selection of less irritating hand hygiene products, frequent use of moisturisers to rebuild the skin barrier, and education on proper hand hygiene practices.
33243230 A plethora of evidence suggests that they can regulate immune and digestive systems and also play roles in various diseases, such as mental, cardiovascular, metabolic and some skin diseases.
33244385 A 67-year-old Iranian woman was admitted to Taleghani Hospital with epigastric pain, vomiting, anosmia, rising liver enzyme levels, fever, itching, and skin rashes. […] Skin and liver biopsies were performed during the patient’s admission; the results suggested vasculopathy-related cutaneous lesion and liver cholestasis.
33245703 Some studies report that patients who are more susceptible to anxiety and stress during the pandemic, due to social confinement, may have disorders in the stomatognathic system such as: neuralgic pain in the face and teeth, fractures of teeth and dental prostheses, nibbled mucosa, stomatitis, ulcers, pain in the Temporal Mandibular Joint, otalgias, dental tightening, bruxism, xerostomia, peeling of the mucous membranes and skin, facial paralysis.
33248385 It is concluded that serious COVID-19 infection has two distinct mechanisms: 1) a microangiopathy of pulmonary capillaries associated with a high infectious viral load where endothelial cell death releases pseudovirions into the circulation, and 2) the pseudovirions dock on ACE2+ endothelial cells most prevalent in the skin/subcutaneous fat and brain that activates the complement pathway/coagulation cascade resulting in a systemic procoagulant state as well as the expression of cytokines that produce the cytokine storm.
33249696 We present five representative cases with KD-like presentation; Systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Mycoplasma-induced rash and mucositis, Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, BCGosis and the recently described Multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with SARS-CoV2.
33251007 This resulted in interruption of medical care and exacerbation of pre-existing skin diseases for many patients. […] After lockdown was lifted, patients taking systemic treatments were evaluated for continuity of care during lockdown period and how that affected their skin condition. […] Demographic data, details of skin condition, continuity of care and impact on skin condition data were collected and analyzed. 154 patients (120 males, 34 females) were included. […] Some patients (42%) had flare up of their skin condition as a result.
33251079 Results The most common problems associated with using PPE kits was excessive sweating (100%), fogging of goggles, spectacles, or face shields (88%), suffocation (83%), breathlessness (61%), fatigue (75%), headache due to prolonged use (28%), and pressure marks on the skin at one or more areas on repeated use (19%). […] Occasional problems reported were skin allergy/dermatitis caused by the synthetic material of the PPE kit, face shield impinging onto the neck during intubation, and nasal pain, pain at the root of the pinna, and slipperiness of shoe covers.
33251956 Identify, summarise and present key recommendations published in the literature to prevent skin damage in health professionals as a result of personal protective equipment (PPE) during the covid-19 pandemic. […] Hygiene, hydration and the use of skin barriers were highlighted as preventive measures. […] There were different views around the type of humectant/skin barrier recommended to avoid skin damage. […] More studies identifying the most suitable strategies to maintain health professionals’ skin integrity during the covid-19 pandemic are needed.
33259055 These devices pose a risk for UVC exposure to the operator with reported adverse effects generally limited to the eyes and skin.
33262599 In addition to its respiratory impact of SARS-CoV2, skin lesions of probable vascular origin have been described.
33273107 Physical impact included exhaustion, headache, skin changes, breathlessness and a negative impact on vision.
33274164 Variety of skin lesions have been reported in 0.2-20.4% of cases of COVID-19. […] In some cases of COVID-19, skin lesions have been reported as the initial or the only manifestation.
33274539 The relationship between the skin and the brain is based on their origin from the same ectodermal structure, as well as being affected by similar hormones and neurotransmitters.
33277105 By classifying materials according to virus stability on their surface, the following list is obtained (from long to short stability): polypropylene (mask), plastic, glass, stainless steel, pig skin, cardboard, banknote, cotton, wood, paper, tissue, copper.
33278049 It is debated if skin lesions could represent a diagnostic or prognostic indicator. […] Specifically, it is unclear whether skin lesions may be used to perform an early diagnosis and/or to predict worse outcomes.
33278056 Prospective, observational study in children <15 years of age evaluated for skin lesions in the ED of three pediatric hospitals. […] Of those 34 had acro-ischemic skin lesions and 28 a variety of skin rashes. […] Children with chilblains were older, had pain more frequently and more prolonged duration of skin lesions, while those with non-specific rashes had fever more frequently.
33278059 A 54-year-old female patient admitted April 2020 for diarrhea, skin rash and shock. […] She also complained of diffuse arthralgia affecting knees, elbows and shoulders, and reported a skin rash over her face, phalanges of both hands and calves that worsened on the day of admission.
33278457 Patients with COVID-19 underwent non-invasive evaluation of systemic endothelium-dependent microvascular reactivity - using laser Doppler perfusion monitoring in the skin of the forearm - coupled to local thermal hyperemia.
33281008 In this article, the authors report a case of a previously healthy patient with COVID-19 who was mistakenly diagnosed with dengue fever due to a skin rash.
33281225 It is reported about the case of a 3-year-old girl who was admitted to hospital with high fever, vomiting, skin rash, dehydration, suspected staphyloderma and for exclusion of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2-infection (SARS-CoV‑2 infection).
33283618 COVID-19 is said to be a pandemic that does not distinguish between skin color or ethnic origin.
33295741 Ninety-six patients (15 civilians and 81 Italian servicepeople) were enrolled: 34 (35.4%) patients developed cutaneous manifestations; 15 (16.0%) suffered from skin dryness; 5 (5.2%) irritant contact dermatitis; 4 (4.2%) seborrheic dermatitis; 4 (4.2%) morbilliform rashes; 3 (3.1%) petechial rashes and 3 (3.1%) widespread hives.
33297438 Moreover, subjects who reported sensitive skin, atopic predispositions and facial dermatoses tended to report itch more frequently.
33298746 It is generally well tolerated at therapeutic concentrations, although a variety of autoimmune-related adverse effects have been reported, including agranulocytosis, leukopenia, purpura, and visible necrotized skin tissue.
33298757 The entire cohort complained about a wide range of adverse reactions: respiratory symptoms affected 80.3% of respondents, 68.5% referred pressure-related skin lesions, fewer manifested a dermatosis of different grade or ocular symptoms.
33299126 Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is one condition where relatively few cytotoxic immune cells target skin stem cells to produce significant morbidity and mortality.
33301216 Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disease characterized by inflammation of skin (psoriasis) or joints (psoriatic arthritis) or both, resulting from a dysregulation in particular of the T helper (Th)17 functions.
33301232 Types of skin reactions are usually morbilliform/exanthematous maculopapular rashes or urticarial eruptions, which mostly may manage by steroids during few days. […] Lopinavir/ritonavir is the most prevalent used drug among antivirals with the highest skin adverse reaction; ribarivin and remdisivir also could induce cutaneous drug reactions but favipiravir has no or less adverse effects.
33313016 We describe several patients with COVID-19 who presented with skin changes. […] Larger series that also include patients with mild disease and skin biopsies may be useful.
33315008 More specifically, skin manifestations, seldom reported initially, have been increasingly described. […] This article describes the clinical and histological findings of the main skin lesions observed in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33320331 The extended use of protective measures (PM) can lead to ill effects on the skin. […] The study subjects were patients who presented to dermatology outpatient clinics or sought teleconsultation for skin problems related to the use of PMs against COVID-19. […] Diagnoses of the adverse skin effects were formulated based upon history and clinical examination. […] The enhanced use of different PMs against COVID-19 can result in a variety of adverse skin effects.
33323800 This enzyme is expressed in many human tissues including the lungs, but no research has demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 can infect human skin or subcutaneous fat tissue, despite the increasing number of reported skin manifestations. […] The aim of this study was to investigate ACE2 gene expression in skin using a public database. […] Human skin keratinocytes and basal cells express more ACE2 than lung epithelial cells. […] In contrast, both fibroblasts and melanocytes from human skin express less ACE2 than human lung epithelial cells. […] The high expression of ACE2 in keratinocytes and basal cells of human skin indicates that they may be directly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection via the ACE2 receptor, especially in conditions of skin barrier dysfunction, and are therefore a potential target for the coronavirus.
33323917 His venous duplex showed bilateral acute deep venous thrombosis, whereas his arterial Doppler scan was normal and his skin biopsy was negative for vasculitis.
33325788 The production of vitamin D in the skin, however, can be limited by latitude, skin-covering clothes, the use of sunblock, and skin pigmentation.
33327623 This pathologic process may occur in many different sites such as the skin, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle and fibrous tissue adjacent to joints, ligaments, walls of blood vessels, mesentery and other.
33330012 However, there are no previous experiences about COVID-19 in burn patients all over the world, and here we reported two burn cases at Amir-al-Momenin Burn Hospital Affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran with skin manifestations, which were detected as a rarely COVID-19 symptom. […] To confirm, skin biopsy specimens were either sent for histopathology examination or for real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as follow: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), chicken pox, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) for fungal infections.
33330564 Our objective was to determine the accuracy of teledermatology in the 10 most frequent skin neoplasms in our population, comparing telediagnosis to histopathological report and in-person dermatologists’ diagnosis. […] In the groups referred to the in-person dermatologist and biopsy, we looked for the 10 most frequent International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10 (ICD-10) of skin neoplasms, which resulted in 289 histopathologic reports and 803 in-person dermatologists’ diagnosis. […] This study supports that teledermatology for skin neoplasms has moderate accuracy.
33331602 Lethality was greater among the elderly, males and people of brown and black skin color in Rondônia.
33331733 The natural skin barrier function is damaged by washing hand or using disinfectants, because of this allergic and irritative hand eczema develops.
33332042 There are reports of multiple groups of skin lesions presenting in different stages of this diagnosis. […] It is unlikely that all these groups of skin lesions are distinctive of an infection with SARS-CoV-2. […] It is recommended to consider an infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with these groups of skin lesions. […] Consider testing for SARS-CoV-2 and consult the dermatologist if needed, especially in case of chilblains, to ensure histopathological evaluation of the skin lesions to increase knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology.
33341209 Pemphigus and its variants, viz., vulgaris, foliaceous, vegetans, Ig A pemphigus, paraneoplastic pemphigus and Senear-Usher syndrome are rare autoimmune blistering diseases of the skin and/or mucous membranes. […] The autoantibodies involved in the pathogenesis of pemphigus against desmoglein result in the breach of the skin and mucosal barrier, which acts as the first line of defence against pathogens.
33341210 Biopsy of the eruption revealed cytopathogenic viral effect, and thus there is a direct interaction of the virus with the skin; it is, therefore, a classic viral exanthema. […] Classic viral manifestations are the consequence of a direct interaction of the skin with the virus, whereas paraviral manifestations result from the activation of the immune system.
33341217 Several skin conditions have emerged, mainly as a result of prolonged contact with personal protective equipment and excessive personal hygiene. […] Pressure injury, contact dermatitis, itch, pressure urticaria, and exacerbation of preexisting skin diseases, including seborrheic dermatitis and acne, have been described. […] We have focused on the dermatologic aspects of the COVID-19 infection so that dermatologists are aware of the skin complications and preventive measures can be taken in the COVID-19 pandemic.
33345530 The number of skin tumour removals was halved (from 155 in 2019 to 58 in 2019) (p<0.001), and the number of emergency patients was unchanged in the 3-month period.
33349797 This study demonstrated that intradermal delivery of an S-RBD vaccine using a dissolvable microneedle skin patch can induce both significant B-cell and significant T-cell responses against S-RBD.
33351208 Considerations for skin and eye safety previously resulted in guidance on exposures in institutional and workplace settings. […] This report details the evolution of limits for skin exposures, with particular attention to the risk of skin neoplasia.
33351362 It was found that both TMPRSS2 expression and a more severe course of coronavirus infection are observed in men with hyperandrogenism - androgenic alopecia, acne, excessive facial hair growth and increased skin oiliness.
33355436 Furthermore, the heating layer enables the hybrid air filter to generate temperatures above 100 °C, and the insulation layer prevents the heat from being transferred to the other side (e.g., the human skin, if the hybrid air filter is used in a facemask).
33359476 Skin biopsies were not performed.
33364347 In the face-to-face class, live demos of procedures (e.g. performing skin and intestinal sutures) are presented by the teachers.
33365326 Thus, the present review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the roles of zinc and vitamins C and D in the immune response to viral infections, focusing on the synergistic action of these nutrients in the maintenance of physical tissue barriers, such as the skin and mucous membranes.
33369781 The influence of various environmental factors on skin properties is well known. […] However, there is a lack of research into the effect of quarantine masks on skin properties, even though the use of masks has significantly increased after the COVID-19 outbreak. […] Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of mask use on skin properties. […] We measured eight skin biophysical parameters: temperature, redness, pore volume, texture, elasticity, trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum content, and pH, and evaluated acne lesions before and after using quarantine masks. […] Skin temperature, redness, and TEWL increased significantly after a 6-hour mask use, while the sebum content increased marginally. […] Skin elasticity was reduced by the use of masks over 1 and 2 weeks, whereas the pore volume and the number of acne lesions increased after a 2-week mask use. […] The skin changes caused by mask use showed sex-based differences in the skin elasticity (after 6 hours), redness, and roughness (after 2 weeks). […] The use of quarantine masks causes a change in the skin temperature, redness, and TEWL in the short term and in skin elasticity, pores, and acne in the long term. […] This study revealed that prolonged mask use could have negative effects on the skin.
33369802 Around the planet, in many different scenarios, skin temperature is being used as a surrogate measure of deep body (core) temperature in the assessment of whether an individual is infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the coronavirus disease (Covid-19), as indicated by the presence of fever.
33376481 The frequent handwashing and use of sanitizers resulted in notable skin changes among some individuals. […] Of the total 2356 participants, 34.8% reported skin changes or symptoms over hands, and 15.3% reported skin changes on their face during this pandemic. […] There were significantly higher percentage of skin conditions in females (on hands (ScH): 42.6% and face (ScF):19.2%), individuals working in environments requiring frequent handwashing (ScH: 40.3% vs. […] It was found that during the pandemic, skin changes were common among the general population as well as among healthcare workers. […] Although hygiene is an extremely important preventive measure in this pandemic, maintaining skin integrity is also vital. […] Appropriate knowledge and good practice can prevent dermatitis in this pandemic, with regular hydration of the skin being a key factor.
33377313 Skin manifestations reported can be classified into (1) manifestations unspecifically indicating possible infectious diseases, i.e. maculopapular exanthem, urticaria and erythema multiforme, and (2) manifestations more specifically indicating COVID-19 infection, i.e. varicella-like, livedo reticularis or chilblain-like eruptions.
33389815 The most common dermatologic comorbidities were pruritus (8.1%), eczema (6.3%), skin infections (3.6%), leukocytoclastic vasculitis (1.8%), and urticaria (0.9%) in the COVID-19 group while they were skin infections (9.2%), eczema (3.4%), pruritus (2.3%), and urticaria (1.1%) in the control group. […] There were no significant differences between COVID-19 and control groups in terms of pruritus, eczema, skin infections, and urticaria (P values were .117, .517, .181, .505, and 1.000, respectively).
33391385 Coronavirus is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes acute respiratory syndrome and various skin lesions. […] Further studies are required to confirm and better characterize the skin reactions in COVID-19.
33391918 Results Surgical interventions were required for skin cancer, upper extremity trauma, soft tissue infections, maxillofacial trauma, lower extremity trauma and other causes.
33393841 During these times of uncertainty, it is critical for investigators conducting research to assess the possible transmission of pathogens through milk, whether by transfer through the mammary gland or contamination from respiratory droplets, skin, breast pumps, and milk containers, and/or close contact between mother and infant.
33398228 Restrictive airflow due to face mask is the main cause of retention of CO2 called hypercapnia that can lead to respiratory failure with symptoms of tachycardia, flushed skin, dizziness, papilledema, seizure and depression.
33399338 We describe the spectrum of clinicopathologic lesions in the skin that can be the only symptom or the first manifestation of COVID-19 and demonstrate the origin of the virus. […] We collected 25 patients with skin lesions in this context. […] In this study, we seek to draw a picture of the spectrum of clinicopathologic lesions that may appear in the skin in the context of COVID-19. […] Although apparently skin lesions are not correlated with disease severity, it may help in some cases to recognize and control the spread of the infection sooner.
33400417 While the COVID-19 illness is largely associated with respiratory consequences, there is increased reporting of other organ-specific disease sequelae that include the skin. […] To identify, describe, and classify the main skin manifestations of COVID-19 and associated protocols for management. […] Histopathogical analysis from skin biopsies and/or dermoscopy highlighted an inflammatory or vascular pathophysiology depending on the type of manifestation. […] While the first three types of COVID-19 skin manifestations preceded or coincided with other symptoms such as anosmia, fever, chills, chilblains, and livedo were found in later disease stages.
33401171 In particular, we investigated the cases of incident hematological autoimmune manifestations, connective tissue diseases, antiphospholipid syndrome/antibodies, vasculitis, Kawasaki-like syndromes, acute arthritis, autoimmune-like skin lesions, and neurologic autoimmune conditions such as Guillain-Barré syndrome.
33401712 SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread all over the world in the last year, causing millions of COVID-19 cases among humans with a large variability of symptoms and signs, including those on the skin.
33403572 Furthermore, about 30% of patients rated “showing their skin” to their provider as “hardest” on a ten scale.
33404146 Despite decades of research establishing the importance of breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact and mother-infant closeness, the response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has underscored the hidden assumption that these practices can be dispensed with no consequences to mother or child.
33405402 Dermal microvascular injury and thrombosis as described in skin damage by SARS-CoV-2 infection was not observed. […] A polymerase chain reaction for RNA SARS-CoV-2 performed on frozen skin was negative in 5 of 6 patients.
33407281 Anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS) is an uncommon immune-mediated entity characterized by myositis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), non-erosive arthritis, and less common features such as fever, Raynaud’s phenomenon, and skin changes in association with anti-aminoacyl-transfer-RNA antibodies, most commonly anti-Jo-1 antibodies.
33407828 Shock stage: ICU management required for mechanical ventilation, shock vitals or failure of organ(s) other than lungs Safety endpoints include numbness in the hands and/or feet, edema, skin rash or other allergic symptoms, and gastric discomfort.
33414643 Challenge with the spike protein caused changes in the swim bladder cytology with infiltrating pro-inflammatory cells, skin hemorrhage, and increase in behavioral fever.
33416113 Given that the vitamin D status is modulated by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including skin type (pigmentation), melanin polymers may also play a role in variable COVID‑19 outcomes among diverse population settings.
33419187 However, limits and issues of noncontact temperature measurement devices are not well known and technical-scientific literature itself sometimes provides conflicting reference values on the body and skin temperature of healthy subjects.
33420720 Inclusion criteria consisted of patients who, during the development of the pandemic, were clinically suspected and/or microbiologically confirmed of COVID-19 and had a recent-onset skin rash (within the last 4 weeks).
33423412 The primary outcome measure was risk factor analysis of skin related outcomes for severe COVID-19 disease.
33423415 Within US telehealth, skin conditions have become the fifth most common diagnosis.
33425278 She was admitted to the hospital with a rare, but serious presentation of temporary complete heart block with a skin rash after three weeks of treatment with an antiviral agent and hydroxychloroquine.
33431332 Skin-to-skin mother care was performed in 68% of newborns, 80% received exclusive maternal or donated breast milk during hospital stay.
33436105 Skin flora was isolated from most swabbed areas and Enterococcus faecium was detected on two keyboards.
33437752 A great heterogeneity of skin manifestations has been increasingly associated with SARS-CoV2 infection, and especially exanthematous eruptions are considered among early presenting signs in symptomatic patients. […] After a negative nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2, secondary syphilis was confirmed by serological tests and skin biopsy, underlining that, even during a global pandemic, other common and important diseases should not be overlooked.
33439939 The independent variables were sex, self-reported skin color, age group, residence in the capital, and the presence of comorbidities. […] Highest risk of death were observed in individuals aged 80 or older (HR = 8.06; p < 0.001), male (HR = 1.45, p < 0.001), non-white skin color (HR = 1.13; p < 0.033) or with no information (HR = 1.29; p < 0.001), with comorbidities (HR = 10.44; p < 0.001) or presence of comorbidities not reported (HR = 10.87; p < 0.001). […] The highest risk of occurrence of deaths from COVID-19 was observed in older adults, especially those over 80, patients who have comorbidities, men, and of non-white skin color.
33440251 Tolerance was assessed in terms of altered taste, staining of teeth or nasal skin or irritation in the nose.
33442282 COVID-19 can affect various organ systems including the skin. […] To summarize retrospectively the skin features of COVID-19 infection and to analyze the skin rash incidence rate, clinical onset time, cutaneous manifestations, pathological characteristics and relationship with the novel coronavirus pneumonia severity. […] Information on clinical features including skin manifestations, disease severity, stage and onset day, and cutaneous pathological characteristics was extracted. […] Inflammatory dermatosis, skin vasculitis and vascular dermatosis were the main lesion types of COVID-19 patients. […] Spearman rho analysis found no correlation between skin rash type, onset day and COVID-19 severity. […] COVID-19 induced skin changes are one of the manifestations of immune responses to the novel coronavirus. […] Clinical and pathological characteristics were identified as dermal inflammatory reactions and/or skin vascular injury. […] External or systematic use of anti-inflammatories, protection of blood vessels and circulation-improving medicines should be considered in the skin treatments for novel coronavirus pneumonia patients.
33443836 Ingenol mebutate : market withdrawal due to paradoxical risk of skin cancers.
33446414 However, many uncertainties are still present concerning the direct role of the SARS-CoV-2 on the different lesions observed in different organs, outside the lung, such as the heart, the brain, the liver, the gastrointestinal tract, the kidney and the skin.
33447107 Therefore, maintaining appropriate levels of Vitamin D through supplementation or natural methods, eg, sunlight on the skin, is recommended for the public to be able to cope with the pandemic.
33447480 Background Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by pruritic, dry, and eczematous lesions. […] Inability to get to sleep within half an hour (p-value=0.002), waking up at night (p-value=0.005), and not being able to sleep because of pain (p-value<0.001) were all significantly correlated to the occurrence of many or a lot of skin symptoms of atopic dermatitis.
33448030 Evaluate the diagnostic value of cutaneous manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection and investigate their duration and timing in relation to other COVID-19 symptoms METHODS: We used data from 336,847 UK users of the COVID Symptom Study app to assess the diagnostic value of body rash or an acral rash in SARS-CoV-2 infection, and data from an independent online survey of 11,546 respondents to investigate skin-specific symptoms and collect their photographs. […] Using data from the app, we show significant association between skin rashes and a positive swab test result (OR:1.67, 95% confidence interval:1.41-1.96). […] Strikingly, among the respondents of the independent online survey, we found that 17% of SARS-CoV-2-positive cases reported skin rashes as the first presentation, and 21% as the only COVID-19 clinical sign. […] Together with the British Association of Dermatologists, we have compiled a catalogue of images of the most common skin manifestations of COVID-19 from 400 individuals (, which we make publicly available to assist clinicians in recognition of this early COVID-19 clinical feature. […] Skin rashes cluster with other COVID-19 symptoms, are predictive of a positive swab test, and occur in a significant number of cases, either alone or before other classical symptoms.
33448667 Three of them investigated teledermatology in chronic dermatoses (acne, inflammatory skin diseases), one dealt with the care of oncological patients with dermatological complications, and one analyzed teleconsultation in suspected COVID-19 cases. […] The results indicate that the limitations of personal dermatological care of patients with skin diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic can be at least partially compensated by an extension of teledermatology.
33449481 Adverse skin reactions associated with PPE have been described, but there is no information regarding objective measures to assess skin impairment related to PPE. […] The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of using facial mask and nitrile gloves on epidermal barrier function and skin homeostasis. […] Skin homeostasis and epidermal barrier function may be impaired by gloves and mask use. […] High-quality PPE should be provided, and adequate skin prevention measures should be implemented to reduce epidermal barrier damage.
33451000 Herein, we aimed to describe the clinical and pathological findings of skin lesions in patients with COVID-19. […] In the future, we recommend close monitoring of all patients with skin lesions not attributable to other causal factors; in the diagnostic perspective, clinicians should aim to confirm if the skin lesions are associated with COVID-19.
33454668 Results: A long-term tendency towards a decrease in the incidence of skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases by 8,6% during 2000-2017 and the incidence of venereal diseases during 2000-2019 was revealed (for syphilis - by 15,5 times, gonorrhea - by 6,8 times).
33457205 Influenza-like syndrome with anosmia and ageusia was reported seven days before the skin lesions. […] The patient presented an improvement in skin lesions by the fifth day of prednisone therapy.
33458805 The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a quandary for the physician in terms of evaluating and treating cutaneous skin cancers, particularly melanomas. […] At the onset of the pandemic, many planned medical and surgical visits for skin cancers were postponed. […] Physicians and patients have had to balance the risk of exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with that of worsening morbidity and mortality due to delays in skin cancer treatments.
33460228 Blue light at various wavelengths and variable duration of exposure can cause oxidative damage to skin cells.
33463127 Out of 314 found articles, 16 articles with a total of 600 patients were included in the study, the most common presentation was fever (97%), followed by gastrointestinal symptoms (80%), and skin rashes (60%) as well as shock (55%), conjunctivitis (54%), and respiratory symptoms (39%). […] Less common presentations were neurologic problems (33%), and skin desquamation (30%), MIS-C was slightly more prevalent in males (53.7%) compared to females (46.3%).
33471372 These results combined with Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer computer modeling suggest that filtering longer ultraviolet wavelengths is critical for the human skin safety of far-UVC devices.
33471878 We present a 52-year-old patient with an ill-defined skin eruption that preceded mild gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and without respiratory symptoms who tested positive for COVID-19. […] Consequently, we propose an expansion of the criteria for COVID-19 testing when skin findings are associated with relatively mild GI symptoms.
33471879 A number of cutaneous skin manifestations have appeared in relation to the newly diagnosed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and continue to emerge every day.
33472783 The studies described that SARS-CoV-2 impacts significantly on HCW’s health and well-being, not only through infections (n=6), but also from a mental health perspective (n=16). 4 studies reported indirect risks such as skin injuries, one study described headaches to result from the use of personal protective equipment.
33474555 This may occur via saliva, skin or indirectly through air, water, and contaminated surfaces or instruments.
33474960 The incidence of facial pressure injury in phase II was lower than that in phase I (P<0.05); the facial skin comfort level among medical staff in phase II was higher than that in phase I (P<0.05). […] Hydrocolloid dressing combined with 3M Cavilon No-Sting Barrier Film for facial skin care can effectively reduce the incidence of facial pressure injury and can improve skin comfort level while ensuring isolation and a protective effect.
33476725 COVID-19 is associated with a wide range of skin manifestations. […] To describe the clinical characteristics of COVID-19-associated skin manifestations, and explore the relationships between the six main cutaneous phenotypes and systemic findings. […] Twenty-one Italian Dermatology Units were asked to collect the demographic, clinical and histopathological data of 200 patients with COVID-19-associated skin manifestations. […] After adjusting for age, there was no clear-cut spectrum of COVID-19 severity in patients with COVID-19-related skin manifestations although chilblain-like acral lesions were more frequent in younger patients with asymptomatic/paucisymptomatic COVID-19.
33477076 Our patient’s orbital abscess began to drain spontaneously through the skin, which is rare for orbital abscesses.
33478170 The study reveals that Polish HCW rarely adhere to all the 2020 WHO guidance criteria on the use of masks, whereas the adherence to particular criteria is variable and may be associated with the presence of skin-related conditions and other factors.
33479162 Almost one-half of neonates were left skin-to-skin after delivery, and delayed clamping of umbilical cords was performed in 43% of neonates. […] The current study indicates that there is no need for separation of mothers from neonates, allowing delayed cord clamping and skin-to-skin contact along with maintenance of breastfeeding in a high percentage of newborns from mothers with COVID-19.
33479703 Because of the increasing emergence of skin manifestations of COVID-19 worldwide, we investigated the published reports of these lesions. […] We identified 5 skin lesions common in patients with COVID-19: pseudo-chilblains, rashes containing macules and papules, and urticarial, vesicular, and vaso-occlusive lesions. […] Skin lesions were more prevalent among Europeans and United States residents than among Asians, as was pseudo-chilblain, and the morphology of the skin lesions varied among continents. […] Pseudo-chilblains were the most common COVID-19 skin manifestation in Europe and the United States, but there was only 1 reported case from Asian populations. […] Different cutaneous manifestations in patients with COVID-19 could reflect a wide spectrum of viral interactions with the skin, though reporting bias may play a role as well.
33480653 We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who presented with persistent fever and pancytopenia, associated to a skin rash.
33481314 In this systematic review, we anticipated in summarizing clinical features, histopathological hallmarks, and possible pathology behind the maculopapular skin eruptions occurring in Covid-19 patients. […] All eligible articles including observational studies, case reports, and case series reporting the maculopapular skin lesion in Covid-19 patients were included. […] As these skin lesions may have a possible association with diagnosis, management, prognosis, and severity of the disease, all health practitioners need to be well acquainted with these Covid-19 skin lesions.
33482337 These include conditions affecting the lung and respiratory tract, dermatoses and inflammatory skin disorders, systemic sclerosis, myocarditis, pericarditis, myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, inflammatory thrombosis, as well as complex multifactorial conditions such as COVID-19, vasculitis and Kawasaki disease, Behcet’s syndrome, Sjogren Syndrome, and cancer.
33485957 COVID-19 is commonly associated with skin manifestations, and may also exacerbate existing skin diseases, yet the relationship between COVID-19 and skin diseases remains unclear. […] By investigating this relationship through a multi-omics approach, we sought to ascertain whether patients with skin conditions are more susceptible to COVID-19. […] We conducted an epidemiological study and then compared gene expression across nine different inflammatory skin conditions and SARS-CoV-2 infected bronchial epithelial cell lines, then performed a GWAS trans-disease meta-analysis between COVID-19 susceptibility and two skin diseases (psoriasis and atopic dermatitis). […] Together our findings suggest association between inflammatory skin conditions and higher risk of COVID-19, but with less severe course, and highlight shared components involved in anti-COVID19 immune response.
33493433 By diagnosis, the largest reduction from 2019 to 2020 in treatment courses was for prostate cancer (77·0% in April) and non-melanoma skin cancer (72·4% in April).
33493639 ISAAC Phase 3 questionnaires were distributed together with a detailed history of environmental factors and an allergic evaluation including skin prick tests, specific IgE tests, and spirometry.
33499223 Finally, the decrease in the number of new cancer diagnoses was particularly pronounced among cancers of the skin and the respiratory and intrathoracic organs.
33501498 The study included 13 patients with cutaneous acral lesions resembling chilblains occurring in the setting of suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection with available skin biopsy.
33503163 The reactions manifested primarily in the cardiac system (38.8%), gastrointestinal system (14.4%), skin tissue (12.2%) and hepatic system (8.9%).
33503834 The oldest medical pharmacopeias of the African, Arabian, and Asian countries solely utilize plants and herbs to treat pain, oral diseases, skin diseases, microbial infections, multiple types of cancers, reproductive disorders among a myriad of other ailments.
33505734 Thus, this case is essential in expanding our current knowledge of COVID-19 and its many skin manifestations.
33505752 A previously healthy 14-month-old boy presented with fever, irritability, and skin rash, besides changes in the lips, conjunctiva, and tongue.
33507618 Human papillomavirus (HPV), a DNA virus, infects basal keratinocytes and causes common warts and as well as malignancies of skin and mucous membranes.
33507634 This has been associated with detrimental effects, especially in relation to the skin health. […] The present study describes a comprehensive survey of healthcare workers (HCWs) to describe their experiences using PPE in managing COVID-19 patients, with a particular focus on adverse skin reactions. […] A 24-hour prevalence study and multi-centre prospective survey were designed to capture the impact of PPE on skin health of hospital staff. […] Participants reported the nature and location of any corresponding adverse skin reactions. […] Various skin adverse reactions were reported for the prevalence study, with the bridge of the nose (69%) and ears (30%) being the most affected. […] Of the six adverse skin reactions recorded for the prospective study, the most common were redness blanching (33%), itchiness (22%), and pressure damage (12%). […] There were significant associations (P < .05) between the adverse skin reactions with both the average daily time of PPE usage and the frequency of PPE relief. […] The comprehensive study revealed that the use of PPE leads to an array of skin reactions at various facial locations of HCWs. […] Improvements in guidelines are required for PPE usage to protect skin health.
33512172 This unique strategy is promising for developing a skin-friendly, nontoxic, and convenient disinfectant to protect people from infection by SARS-CoV-2.
33519950 During an emergency like COVID-19, these products directly available to the public should be carefully analyzed in terms of efficacy and possible long-term effects on the wearers’ skin and lungs as well as on the environment.
33521167 Skin-to-skin mother care was performed in 68% of newborns, 80% received exclusive maternal or donated breast milk during hospital stay.
33521544 Guidance documents from 33 countries on the care of infants whose mothers were suspected or confirmed as having COVID-19 were assessed for alignment with WHO recommendations regarding: (1) skin-to-skin contact; (2) early initiation of breastfeeding; (3); rooming-in; (4) direct breastfeeding; (5) provision of expressed breastmilk; (6) provision of donor human milk; (7) wet nursing; (8) provision of breastmilk substitutes; (9) psychological support for separated mothers; and (10) psychological support for separated infants. […] Those developing guidance in the COVID-19 pandemic and other infectious disease outbreaks need to appropriately consider the importance of skin-to-skin contact, early initiation of breastfeeding, rooming-in and breastfeeding to maternal and infant physical and psychological health.
33521655 Additionally, we suggest that this mechanism represents a novel vasculitis mimic related to COVID-19 that might lead to cryptogenic strokes across multivessel territories, acute kidney injury with haematuria, a skin vasculitis mimic, intestinal ischaemia, and other organ ischaemic manifestations.
33522708 Lumpy skin disease is an emerging bovine viral disease, which is endemic in most African countries and some Middle East ones, and the elevated risk of the spread of disease into the rest of Asia and Europe should be considered.
33523551 We report here a 61-year-old male patient of primary myelofibrosis who underwent an allo-HSCT 6 years earlier, had chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) involving the liver, lung, eyes, and skin, (with recurrent episodes of pulmonary infections) who developed severe COVID-19.
33524604 The primary outcome variable was CMF manifestations grouped into 5 categories: (1) mouth and throat, (2) nose, paranasal sinus, and skull base (3) ocular/orbital and periorbital tissue, (4) ear, and (5) craniofacial skin.
33524996 In rare cases where allergy against vaccine components such as PEGs is considered, such PEGs can be tested using a skin-prick test.
33527560 During COVID-19 pandemic, wearing masks for prevention became mandatory but evidence suggest that is also detrimental for skin.
33527577 This has prompted us to investigate whether masks could also protect our skin from UV radiation.
33533036 However, other apparently less common clinical symptoms have been described, including skin lesions. […] We conducted a systematic review to evaluate skin involvement in COVID-19. […] Chilblains are very common among skin lesions and represent almost half of all skin lesions reported (46%); in 75% of patients with cutaneous manifestation, the latter presented before other typical clinical manifestation of COVID-19. […] Vasculitis or thrombosis was identified in almost 70% of patients who suffered from skin manifestations. […] The present study highlights the importance of skin involvement in COVID-19.
33533553 The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has implications for patients with inflammatory skin diseases on systemic immunotherapy who may be at increased risk of infection or more severe infection. […] We aim to provide practical guidance for dermatologists managing patients with inflammatory skin conditions on systemic therapies during the current pandemic and beyond.
33534939 The benefits of PPE far outweigh the risks, nonetheless, many clinicians are exhibiting skin injury caused by PPE worn incorrectly. […] These skin injuries, ranging from lesions to open wounds are concerning because they increase the susceptibility of viral infection and transmission to other individuals. […] The NPIAP positions, which were formed by conducting a systematic review of what was known at the time, include: (1) Prepare skin before and after wearing PPE with skin sealants, barrier creams and moisturizers; (2) Frequent PPE offloading to relieve pressure and shear applied to skin; (3) treat visible skin injuries immediately caused by PPE to minimize future infection; (4) non-porous dressings may provide additional skin protection, but lack evidence; (5) health systems should take care to educate clinicians about placement and personal hygiene related to handling PPE. […] These NPIAP positions provided early guidance to reduce the risk of skin injury caused by PPE based on available research regarding PPE injuries, a cautious application of evidence-based recommendations on prevention of device related pressure injuries in patients and the expert opinion of the NPIAP Board of Directors. […] Clinicians who adhere to these recommendations reduce the prospects of skin damage and long-term effects (e.g. scarring). […] These simple steps to minimize the risk of skin injury and reduce the risk of coronavirus infection from PPE can help.
33537398 Air pollution is being shown to play an increasing causation role in our most common skin diseases. […] It is important for pollution to be added as a risk factor for these skin disorders, and thus we must discuss mitigating its negative affects with patients. […] In this study, we detail the current evidence linking specific skin and health disorders to air pollution.
33539560 The objective of this research was to determine through RT-PCR whether SARS-CoV-2 was present in skin biopsies of patients with cutaneous manifestations related to COVID-19.
33539853 The highly accessible cutaneous microenvironment is an ideal target for vaccination since the skin harbors a high density of antigen-presenting cells and immune accessory cells with broad innate immune functions. […] Microarray patches (MAPs) are an attractive intracutaneous biocargo delivery system that enables safe, reproducible, and controlled administration of vaccine components (antigens, with or without adjuvants) to defined skin microenvironments. […] This review describes the structure of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and relevant antigenic targets for vaccination, summarizes key concepts of skin immunobiology in the context of prophylactic immunization, and presents an overview of MAP-mediated cutaneous vaccine delivery. […] Concluding remarks on MAP-based skin immunization are provided to contribute to the rational development of safe and effective MAP-delivered vaccines against emerging infectious diseases, including COVID-19.
33541953 A previously healthy 40-year-old man was referred to our emergency department with pruritic skin lesions and dyspnoea.
33542445 The major drug variant pairs that associated with variations in adverse effects include CQ/HCQ (G6PD; hemolysis and ABCA4; retinopathy), ATV (MDR1 and UGT1A128; hyperbilirubinemia; and APOA5; dyslipidemia), NVP (HLA-DRB101, HLA-B*3505 and CYP2B6; skin rash and MDR1; hepatotoxicity), and EFV (CYP2B6; depression and suicidal tendencies).
33542637 However, 84.5% of the respondents were confronted with challenges during alcohol-based hand sanitizer use due to it is unavailable 66 (68.8%), expensive 50 (52.1%), forgetting 11 (11.5%), experiencing health-associated risks (skin irritation (28.1%), skin dryness (62.5%), ocular irritation (11.5%)), etc.
33542871 Herpes zoster (HZ) is an infectious skin disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that, after a primary chickenpox infection, persists dormant in the dorsal root ganglia of cutaneous nerves.
33543338 Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune and multisystemic chronic inflammatory disease that can affect various organs, including skin, joints, kidneys, lungs and the nervous system.
33546739 The use of tocilizumab is not recommended if there are AST/ALT values greater than 10 times the upper limit of normal, neutrophils <500 cells/mm3, sepsis due to other pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2, presence of comorbidity that can lead to a poor prognosis, complicated diverticulitis or intestinal perforation, ongoing skin infection. […] Randomization process will be carried out electronically through the REDcap platform ( ) BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open label study.
33551341 The NHS questionnaire for neurological symptoms was completed and electrochemical skin conductance was measured using Sudoscan.
33553194 Frequent skin inspections and PI risk assessment in COVID-19 patients will be challenging due to hospital infection control measures aimed to reduce the risk for health professionals. […] Prior to positioning patients in prone position, the main recommendations are to (1) conduct a skin assessment, (2) use pressure redistribution devices, (3) select an appropriate mattress or an overlay, (4) ensure that the endotracheal tube securing device is removed and the endotracheal tube is secured with tapes, (5) use a liquid film-forming protective dressing, and (6) lubricate the eyes and tape them closed. […] Once a patient is in prone position, it is recommended to (1) use the swimmer’s position, (2) reposition the patient every 2 h, and (3) keep the skin clean.
33556030 Health conditions ranged from obesity (3/11), asthma (2/11), mental health (1/11), otitis media (1/11), skin conditions (1/11), type I diabetes (1/11), ADHD (1/11), and cystic fibrosis related pancreatic insufficiency (1/11).
33559328 Chytridiomycosis is an EID caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), that infects amphibian skin causing population declines to extinction in susceptible species.
33560451 We evaluate existing literature on allergic diseases (AD): allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy, drug allergy, and skin allergy, and potential underlying mechanisms for any interrelationship between AD and COVID-19.
33560783 Physicians should be aware of the known common cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 and future research is required to better understand the pathophysiology and prognosis of each COVID-19-related skin manifestation.
33562419 We measured the skin and internal temperature using 30 points identified on the body, for both lungs.
33563186 The clinical symptoms are varied from common manifestations which occurred in flu and cold, such as cough, fever, body-ache, trembling, and runny nose to severe conditions, like the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or even uncommon/unusual symptoms such as anosmia, skin color change, and stroke.
33563823 Here, we report that repeated milk samples collected from 18 women following COVID-19 diagnosis did not contain SARS-CoV-2 RNA; however, risk of transmission via breast skin should be further evaluated.
33565141 Both patterns revealed increased epididymal head, augmented Doppler flow and scrotal skin thickening.
33566880 Various skin manifestations have been reported in coronavirus disease. […] The variety of associated skin manifestations seen with COVID-19 makes it challenging to identify virus-specific skin manifestations. […] Petechiae, purpura, acrocyanosis and necrotic and non-necrotic purpura, which can be considered as manifestations of vascular involvement on the skin, have been reported.
33566990 Female sex, brown skin color, the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, and all three older age brackets showed stronger association with the class with all the symptoms (class 1).
33571145 Six healthcare workers wore the device weekly thus expressing a judgment regarding quality of work, respiratory and skin comfort.
33574714 At that point, there was inflammation in multiple organs and signs of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) and a Kawasaki-like disease with skin rash, scalded skin in hands and conjunctivitis.
33576511 Understanding of underlying pathophysiology directly relates to the novel skin microenvironment and textile-skin friction created by mask-wearing, distinct from nontextile-related acne mechanica previously linked to wearing of headgear. […] Additional textile-skin interactions include factors such as breathability, stickiness sensations, moisture saturation, and hygiene maintenance. […] Increased skin temperatures can trigger sweat/heat-related dermatoses, and ear loops potentially trigger pressure-induced dermatoses. […] Important therapeutic considerations include increased skin irritation potential of conventional acne treatments under occlusion, exacerbation of chronic dermatoses, that is, perioral dermatitis, rosacea, and eczema, and susceptibility of these same patient groups to heightened discomfort with mask-wearing. […] Prolonged textile-skin contact time, directly proportional to the risk of maskne, can be an opportunity for the application of biofunctional textiles.
33577095 During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, an outbreak of children with yellow-to-brown pigmentation on the skin was observed.
33577834 Two disinfectants, BIAKŌS™ Antimicrobial Skin & Wound Cleanser (AWC) and AWC2 (Sanara MedTech, Fort Worth, TX, USA) were tested to determine whether they can inactivate SARS-CoV-2 upon contact or as a coating applied before contact with the virus. […] The disinfectants were tested in liquid or dried form on plastic surfaces or porcine skin for their ability to inactivate SARS-CoV-2. -fold after treatment with AWC or AWC2, respectively. […] Application of AWC and AWC2 to skin reduces SARS-CoV-2 levels and the risk of infection.
33580478 Skin disinfection was done with an alcohol-based solution. […] Swabs for RT-PCR (real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) were taken from forehead and axilla skin after sweating patients for 30 min.
33585346 Our case report and review of the literature highlight the multifaceted response in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients to COVID-19 (respiratory symptoms, pancytopenia, severe haemolytic anaemia and haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, disseminated erythematous papular skin rash).
33594800 The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated intensified handwashing and mask usage, with an impact observed on skin damage. […] Firstly, to elucidate patterns of hand and face skin damage associated with handwashing and mask usage. […] Increased handwashing and PPE use is resulting in skin damage amongst healthcare workers during the pandemic, with associated effects on wellbeing.
33595849 A significantly decreased interest in skin cancers and certain dermatologic conditions (e.g. pityriasis rosea, scabies) was observed throughout the study period. […] Whereas a significant increase of interest in dry skin, hair shedding, oily hair, atopic dermatitis, and hand eczema was detected during the study.