Tissue Sentence Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of retina tissue in 46 abstracts.

PMID Senteces
32316719 Real-time PCR was performed to quantify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene expression in conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, iris, lens, retina, lung, heart, kidney, and liver from male mice.
32461407 The aim of this article is to develop preferred practice patterns, by developing a consensus amongst the lead experts, that would help the institutes as well as individual vitreo-retina and uveitis experts to restart their practices with confidence.
32461415 The majority of the queries were directed to the department of cornea (34.15%), followed by retina (24.74%).
32469258 To report the presence of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in human retina in deceased patients with confirmed novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] A sample of human retina was secured and fixed in RNAlater™. […] In three out of 14 eyes SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA was detected in the retina of deceased COVID-19 patients. […] As analysis for three different sequences (RdRp-gene, E-gene and Orf1 gene) revealed positive results in RT-PCR, the existence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in human retina is proven according to the standards of the World-Health-Organization. […] Viral RNA of SARS-CoV-2 is detectable in the retina of COVID-19 patients.
32526045 Most previous applications have used UVC light emitted from broad spectrum 254-nm low-pressure mercury lamps, which, however, has undesirable, harmful effects on the skin and retina of mammals due to, among other things, biomolecule damage by mutagenic and carcinogenic bipyrimidine photoproducts.
32567041 To evaluate the risk of transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after exposure to a COVID-19+ physician in a retina clinic. […] Records of 142 patients and 11 staff members from a single retina clinic that were exposed to a COVID-19+ ophthalmologist were reviewed.
32611912 Retinal screening is unnecessary for coronavirus patients taking chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine as the probability of toxic damage to the retina is less due to short-duration of drug therapy.
32637738 Postmortem tissue procurement and preparation were performed with personal protective equipment (PPE) and the necessary protective measures. qRT-PCR-testing was performed for the following ocular tissues and fluids: conjunctival fluid swabs, bulbar conjunctiva, corneal epithelium, corneal stroma, corneal endothelium, anterior chamber fluid, lens, iris, vitreous, retina, uvea, sclera, and optic nerve.
32674481 Effective treatment of retinal diseases with adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy is highly dependent on the proportion of successfully transduced cells. […] In this review, we explore the immunomodulatory activity of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, their impact on viral infections, and their potential to improve the efficacy and safety of retinal gene therapy by reducing AAV-induced immune responses. […] The safety and practicalities of delivering hydroxychloroquine into the retina will also be discussed.
32729633 ACE2 receptor is widely expressed in multiple organs, including the retina, an extension of the central nervous system. […] To assess whether there is any retinal disease associated with COVID-19. […] We have evaluated 27 asymptomatic subjects, with retinal fundoscopic, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography fourteen days after hospital discharge due to COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia.
32730210 Moreover, the proposed method can be easily extended to other similar clinical applications such as computer-aided detection and diagnosis of pulmonary nodules in CT images, glaucoma lesions in Retina fundus images, etc.
32735134 Papillophlebitis is a rare condition characterized by venous congestion and optic disc edema, which has been suggested to occur as a consequence of inflammation of the retinal veins or, possibly, the capillaries of the optic disc, leading to venous insufficiency and compression of the central retina vein. […] OS fundus examination showed dilated and tortuous retinal vessels, disc edema, and retinal hemorrhages.
32740067 To reduce disease transmission, national regulatory agencies temporarily recommended curtailment of all nonurgent office visits and elective surgeries in March 2020, including vitreoretinal outpatient care in the USA. […] The effect of these guidelines on utilization of vitreoretinal care has not been explored to date. […] Retinal outpatient visits, new patient visits, intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injections and in-office multimodal retinal imaging has seen a significant decline in utilization in the early phase of the pandemic. […] Telemedicine visits, enabled by new national legislation for all areas of medicine, have been adopted to a modest degree by the retina community. […] In-office retinal care declined in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and national regulatory guidelines limiting nonurgent care. […] These trends in practice patterns and care utilization may be of interest to vitreoretinal providers and all ophthalmologists at large.
32748176 To evaluate diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening with a portable handheld smartphone-based retinal camera and telemedicine in an urban primary healthcare setting and to evaluate the learning curve for image acquisition, performed by healthcare personnel without previous experience in retinal imaging. […] After a brief training in image acquisition, there was further continuous feedback given by a retina specialist during the remote image reading process. […] A total of 627 adult individuals with T2DM underwent retinal evaluation.
32763298 Also, regular control of retina should be considered for patients under HCQ treatment.
32796445 These preliminary results can help the retina specialist community to foresee this unique scenario and to develop successful management strategies.
32803018 Two patients with seizure history present to a retina clinic for routine follow up.
32860621 Despite advances in ophthalmic diagnostics, the direct ophthalmoscope remains a key clinical skill taught to medical students and is the tool of choice for retina examination among non-ophthalmic physicians.
32883010 The ocular surface and retina have the necessary proteins, Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2), CD147, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Cathepsin L (CTSL) necessary to be infected with SARS-CoV-2.
32908681 Some reports described a possible ritonavir-related retinal toxicity. […] The objective of this research was to review and analyze previous studies conducted on ritonavir administration and retinal impairment in a narrative synthesis. […] PubMed was used to perform a systematic review of ritonavir effects and retinal damage. […] Seven single cases and one case series, reporting a total of 10 patients affected by retinal changes secondary to long-term ritonavir treatment, were included in the review. […] Variable degrees of outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium changes were detected in most of the patients, with two patients showing macular telangiectasia, four patients presenting intraretinal crystal deposits, two patients disclosing a bull’s eye maculopathy, and two patients revealing midperipheral bone spicule-like pigment changes. […] We aimed to alert ophthalmologists on the importance of recognizing ritonavir-induced retinal impairment in SARS-CoV-2 patients.
32946292 Recent studies demonstrated not only retinal impairments but also detected SARS-CoV-2 in the retina of patients with COVID-19. […] This letter discusses the retinal tropism of SARS-CoV-2, describing possible routes for this coronavirus to reach the retina and cellular mechanisms involved in the retinal cell infection. […] Determining how SARS-CoV-2 can affect the retinal tissue is essential for the development of new therapeutic strategies and preventive measures, as well as for understanding the possible relationship between COVID-19 damage to the retina and to the brain.
32955690 Viral RNA of COVID-19 has been detected in the retina of affected patients and recent publications highlight the possibility of retinal microangiopathy in patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. […] Given the magnitude of the current pandemic, emphasis should be given to better reporting of clinically significant ocular symptoms, e.g. new scotoma, which could indicate the need for a retinal examination as well as follow-up testing after recovery from COVID-19.
32960319 To quantify the shrinking in outpatient and intravitreal injections’ volumes in a tertiary referral retina unit secondary to virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we reviewed the charts of all patients who had a visit at a medical retina referral center during the Italian quarantine (from 9th of March 2020 to 3rd of May 2020). […] The drop in intravitreal treatments was larger in patients with posterior uveitis, retinal vein occlusion, and diabetes (- 85.7%, - 61.9%, and - 59.6%, respectively).
32982151 To report the impact of COVID-19 on retina practices in three different “hot spot” cities in the United States. […] The authors assessed data of encounters and intravitreal injections from March 16th to May 8th 2020, at different offices specializing in retina in the United States. […] One practice was in an academic setting, one practice was in a private multispecialty setting, and one practice was a solo private vitreo-retina practice. […] The decline at Miami Ocular Oncology & Retina in Miami was 37% (1198 patients) in the encounters and 30% (867 patients) in the injections.
32983831 Viral RNA of COVID-19 has been detected in the retina of affected patients and recent publications highlight the possibility of retinal microangiopathy in patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. […] Given the magnitude of the current pandemic, emphasis should be given to better reporting of clinically significant ocular symptoms, e.g. new scotoma, which could indicate the need for a retinal examination as well as follow-up testing after recovery from COVID-19.
32984785 We screened the fundus of patients with COVID-19 to detect alterations of the retina and its vasculature and to assess possible correlations with clinical parameters. […] The presence of retinal alterations in patients with COVID-19 and subjects unexposed to the virus was assessed using fundus photographs and their prevalence was compared. […] The influence of clinical/lab parameters on retinal findings was tested in COVID-19 patients. 54 patients and 133 unexposed subjects were enrolled. […] Retinal findings in COVID-19 included: haemorrhages (9·25%), cotton wools spots (7·4%), dilated veins (27·7%), tortuous vessels (12·9%). […] COVID-19 can affect the retina. […] Retinal veins diameter seems directly correlated with the disease severity.
33021856 Funduscopic examination revealed several retinal hemorrhages. […] Thrombotic complications associated with Covid-19 infection have high incidence and may involve the retina. […] We described a case of retinal involvement associated with Covid-19 infection. […] Funduscopic examination revealed retinal hemorrhages in a man with loss of vision.
33067361 To identify retinal findings using dilated eye examination, which are possibly related to SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalised patients with confirmed severe COVID-19. […] In this cross-sectional study, hospitalised patients with confirmed severe COVID-19 in a single referral centre for the treatment of COVID-19, in Santo André, São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil, underwent dilated eye examination of both eyes performed by a retina specialist. […] Retinographies were analysed by two retina specialists. […] The main findings were flame-shaped haemorrhages (N=4; 22.2%; 95% CI 9.0 to 45.2) and ischaemic pattern lesions (cotton wool spots and retinal sectorial pallor) (N=4; 22.2%; 95% CI 9.0 to 45.2), with one patient having both cotton wool spots and flame-shaped haemorrhages. […] These findings suggest that patients with severe COVID-19 have acute vascular lesions of the inner retina including flame-shaped haemorrhages and cotton wool spots.
33116394 To present our hybrid telehealth medical retina clinic service with intravitreal injections (IVI) treatment as a safe alternative to in-person visits and examination during COVID-19 pandemic disease. […] Due to exposure to a COVID-19 positive retina fellow, our retina service, in quarantine, evaluated patients’ medical files and retinal scans using a telemedicine approach. […] During the 14-day quarantine period (between March 18th and March 31st 2020), the hybrid telehealth medical retina clinic performed 523 IVI to 394 patients with a mean age ± SD 70.96 ± 14.4 years. […] IVI were administered for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in 50.5% of the cases (199 patients), diabetic macular edema in 21.3% (84 patients), retinal vein occlusion in 17.5% (69 patients), and 10.7% for other retinal pathologies (42 patients). […] During disasters and pandemics, IVI can be provided safely using a hybrid telehealth medical retina clinic approach but only in the appropriate patient and health care system.
33117441 PubMed and Medline were searched for articles published from January 1970 to March 2020 using the terms ‘COVID-19’, ‘corona-virus 2019’, ‘hydroxychloroquine’, ‘hypertension’, ‘diabetes’, ‘cardiac disease’, ‘retina’ and ‘kidney disease’. […] Retina safety is not an issue with short term use of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19.
33120621 To study the prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 virus infection (COVID-19) among patients undergoing elective vitreoretinal surgeries at a tertiary care eye hospital. […] This cross-sectional, observational study was performed between July 16, 2020 and August 31, 2020, in the retina clinic of a tertiary care eye hospital in south India. […] All patients undergoing elective retinal surgical procedures underwent RT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 before being posted for surgery and after obtaining informed consent. […] The test positivity (prevalence) rate of asymptomatic COVID-19 infection among all elective vitreoretinal surgical patients in our hospital was 2.2%.
33140037 Intravitreal injections (IVI) of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents have become the most prevalent intraocular procedure as they represent the major therapeutic modality for prevalent retinal conditions such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. […] A total of 636 eyes received injections during a 4-week period of the COVID-19 outbreak in the Retina Clinic.
33231699 [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina.
33284032 Visual field defects due to retinal microangiopathy can occur during the late phase of COVID-19. […] Vascular changes observed in the retina may mimic what may be happening in other, less-accessible organs.
33395241 The impact expected was slightly higher in retina and ophthalmology practices than oncology.
33395587 Patients aged 18 or older with DME and/or PDR, nAMD, or RVO scheduled to be seen by a retina specialist during the mandated lock down period from March 14 - May 4, 2020 (COVID-19 period) and who had received an intravitreal injection in the 12 weeks prior.
33415590 Optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated hyper-reflectivity band, in the outer nuclear layer and outer plexiform layer, nasal to the fovea of the right eye, and hyperreflective patch in outer retina segmentation en-face OCT, suggestive of the diagnosis of AMN. […] Our findings support the role of ischemia in the outer retina, of which AML may contributed to the pathophysiological process.
33451352 Hyperreflective lesions at the level of ganglion cell (GCL) and inner plexiform retinal layers (IPL) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and cotton wool spots in the examination of the eye fundus have recently been described as findings in patients with COVID-19 infection. […] A placoid, hyperreflective band at the level of the GCL and IPL was visible in OCT which spared the outer retina, at the time of diagnosis and 1 month later. […] Ocular signs and symptoms in COVID-19 cases are rarely reported, but may be underestimated, especially those that affect the retina and occur in asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic cases. […] We present a case of COVID-19 diagnosis based on retinal ophthalmic examination.
33472206 In control eyes, ACE-2 was detectable in the conjunctiva, cornea, retina and in the choroidea, and displayed significantly lower amounts of stained cells as in COVID-19 eyes.
33497612 To examine the changes in choriocapillaris and retina caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by comparing optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings of COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. […] Reduced vessel density of the retinal capillary plexus was detected in COVID-19 patients who may be at risk for retinal vascular complications.
33499644 Medical retina is a subspecialty in which exciting and innovative advances in research were presented. […] Medical retina continues to be a rapidly advancing field within ophthalmology with new research findings having great implications for treatment burden and service delivery. […] This report summaries the highlights of advances within the medical retina subspecialty from free papers in WOC 2020.
33523252 There are several reasons to hypothesize that the eye, and the retina in particular, could be a target of organ damage in SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Nine patients (12.9%) featured retinal cotton wool spots and 10 patients had vitreous fibrillary degeneration. […] The prevalence of epiretinal membrane and macular hole was similar in the two groups. […] One case of extra papillary focal retinal hemorrhage was reported in the post-COVID-19 group. […] Macula and perimacular vessel density and perfusion resulted unaltered in mild post-COVID-19 patients at 1-month hospital discharge, suggesting no or minimal retinal vascular involvement by SARS-CoV-2.
33525682 However, evidence supporting that the retina is a target tissue for SARS-CoV-2 infection is still lacking. […] This present study aimed to investigate whether ACE2 expression plays a role in human retinal neurons during SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived retinal organoids and monolayer cultures derived from dissociated retinal organoids were generated. […] To validate the potential entry of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the retina, we showed that hiPSC-derived retinal organoids and monolayer cultures endogenously express ACE2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) on the mRNA level. […] Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the protein expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in retinal organoids and monolayer cultures. […] Furthermore, using the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus spike protein with GFP expression system, we found that retinal organoids and monolayer cultures can potentially be infected by the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. […] Collectively, our findings highlighted the potential of iPSC-derived retinal organoids as the models for ACE2 receptor-based SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33557602 Viral RNA was detected in conjunctival swabs of patients with and without ocular manifestations, after resolution of conjunctivitis, after nasopharyngeal swabs turned negative and in retina of deceased COVID-19 patients.
33568895 To determine secondary effects of the mandated COVID-19 pandemic closure period for elective treatment on non-elective, injection-based retina care and outcomes. […] Main outcome measures included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) assessment based on findings of intraretinal or subretinal fluid consistent with new or recurrent neovascular events.
33595507 The majority of the queries were directed to the department of cornea (58.93%) followed by retina (16.26%), cataract (13.04%), glaucoma (10.14%) & pediatric ophthalmology (1.61%).