Cell Sentence Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of macrophages tissue in 256 abstracts.

PMID Senteces
32171193 Another inhibitory cytokine is IL-38, the newest cytokine of the IL-1 family members, produced by several immune cells including B cells and macrophages.
32172546 The infiltrated immune cells in alveoli were majorly macrophages and monocytes. […] Immunohistochemical staining showed that part of the alveolar epithelia and macrophages were positive for 2019-nCoV antigen.
32188728 We engineered a DUB mutation (Asp1772 to Ala) into a murine coronavirus and evaluated the replication and pathogenesis of the DUB mutant virus (DUBmut) in cultured macrophages and in mice. […] We found that the DUBmut virus replicates similarly as the wild-type virus in cultured cells, but the DUBmut virus activates an IFN response at earlier times compared to the wild-type virus infection in macrophages, consistent with DUB activity negatively regulating the IFN response. […] We engineered a recombinant murine coronavirus to express the DUB mutant and showed that the DUB mutant virus activated an earlier type I interferon response in macrophages and exhibited reduced replication in mice.
32188729 We used transcriptomics approaches to compare the scope and kinetics of the host response to the wild-type, DUBmut, and EndoUmut viruses in infected macrophages. […] This study highlights the role of viral interferon antagonists in shaping the kinetics and magnitude of the host response during virus infection and demonstrates that inactivating a dominant viral antagonist, the coronavirus endoribonuclease, dramatically alters the host response in macrophages.ImportanceMacrophages are an important cell type during coronavirus infections because they “notice” the infection and respond by inducing type I interferons, which limits virus replication. […] This study reveals that EndoU activity substantially contributes to the ability of coronaviruses to evade the host innate response and to replicate in macrophages.
32199615 We found that macrophages frequently communicate with the CoVs targets through chemokine and phagocytosis signaling, highlighting the importance of tissue macrophages in immune defense and immune pathogenesis.
32229155 The pro-inflammatory metabolites of AA and EPA such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes induce inflammation whereas lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins derived from AA, EPA and DHA not only suppress inflammation but also enhance would healing and augment phagocytosis of macrophages and other immunocytes and decrease microbial load.
32270184 SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV were similar in cell tropism, with both targeting types I and II pneumocytes, and alveolar macrophages.
32289516 The pathological examination of Patient 1, who was infected the SARS-CoV-2 before the surgery, revealed that apart from the tumor, there was a wide range of interstitial inflammation with plasma cells and macrophages infiltration. […] High density of macrophages and foam cells in the alveolar cavities but no obvious proliferation of pneumocyte was found.
32293910 This leads to imbalance of the innate/acquired immune response, delayed viral clearance, and hyper stimulated macrophages and neutrophils.
32313824 Early in infection, CoVs infects epithelial cells, macrophages, T-cells, dendritic cells and also can affect the development and implantation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.
32318665 Viral antigens were detected mainly in alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages.
32335749 Immunological reactions to lung alveoles in particular (involving lung macrophages and alveolar epithelial cell damage) in late phase ARDS in SARS-like CoV diseases, so far may not have received enough attention.
32336612 ACE2 receptors are ubiquitous and widely expressed in the heart, vessels, gut, lung (particularly in type 2 pneumocytes and macrophages), kidney, testis and brain.
32338224 SARS-CoV binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2 which is present on nonimmune cells, such as respiratory and intestinal epithelial cells, endothelial cells, kidney cells (renal tubules) and cerebral neurons and immune cells, such as alveolar monocytes/macrophages [4-6].
32339157 ACE2 was significantly positively correlated with the type markers of B cells and neutrophils, macrophages in UCEC, while ACE2 in KIRP was positively correlated with the type markers of macrophages.
32340089 In 9 cases,CD68+ macrophages were no significant changes in the distribution and quantity.
32352535 Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2, following proteolytic cleavage of its S protein by a serine protease, binds to the transmembrane angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) -a homologue of ACE-to enter type 2 pneumocytes, macrophages, perivascular pericytes, and cardiomyocytes.
32353634 Infection of monocytes/macrophages and/or recruitment of uninfected immune cells can result in massive inflammatory responses later in the disease.
32356025 The main histologic findings observed were pneumocyte damage, alveolar hemorrhages with clustering of macrophages, prominent and diffuse neutrophilic margination within septal vessels, and interstitial inflammatory infiltrates, mainly represented by CD8+ T lymphocytes.
32365944 In the wild type mice, SARS-CoV SUD-MC triggered the pulmonary infiltration of macrophages and monocytes, inducing CXCL10-mediated inflammatory responses and severe diffuse alveolar damage symptoms.
32373721 SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia severely ill patients, develop a systemic inflammatory response with a Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS), that is characterized by a sudden increase in several pro-inflammatory cytokines, mainly IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alfa by activated macrophages (M1 phenotype). […] Low dose radiotherapy (0,5 Gy), is an evidence-based anti-inflammatory treatment, that could modify the immune landscape in the lung affected of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, through macrophages polarization to alternatively activated Macrophages (M2 phenotype).
32374419 Immunohistochemical staining results showed that an abnormal accumulation of CD4+ helper T lymphocytes and CD163+ M2 macrophages in the lung tissue.
32374474 In the present study, silvestrol down-regulated several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, CCL2, CCL18) and increased TNF-α during differentiation and activation of M1-macrophages, suggesting that the effects of silvestrol might cancel each other out. […] However, silvestrol amplified the anti-inflammatory potential of M2-macrophages by increasing expression of anti-inflammatory surface markers CD206, TREM2 and reducing release of pro-inflammatory IL-8 and CCL2.
32376901 Macrophages are a population of innate immune cells that sense and respond to microbial threats by producing inflammatory molecules that eliminate pathogens and promote tissue repair. […] Here we describe the potentially pathological roles of macrophages during SARS-CoV-2 infection and discuss ongoing and prospective therapeutic strategies to modulate macrophage activation in patients with COVID-19.
32380511 The typical histopathology was interstitial pneumonia with infiltration of significant macrophages and lymphocytes into the alveolar interstitium, and accumulation of macrophages in alveolar cavities. […] Viral antigens were observed in the bronchial epithelial cells, macrophages and alveolar epithelia.
32386571 Innate immune responses and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression were investigated in human alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages.
32388476 Cu is involved in the functions of critical immune cells such as T helper cells, B cells, neutrophils natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
32398875 Proinflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages were abundant in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with severe COVID-9.
32402107 The recent editorial by Rhodes et al considered latitude and mentioned one mechanism that vitamin D is important in regulating and suppressing the inflammatory response of cytokines of respiratory epithelial cells and macrophages to various pathogens, including respiratory viruses and preventing cytokine storm and the subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (1).
32412897 We detected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antigen in alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages.
32413619 In contrast, in activated THP-1 derived macrophages, the CL extract more effectively attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-2, IL-6, IL-22) as well as TGF-β and IL-10.
32418532 Recently, SARS-CoV-2 [8, 9], the causative agent of COVID-19, has been described to interfere with the RAS [2] by interacting -via its spike (S) glycoprotein- with the metallopeptidase Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor [9, 10] that is expressed at the surface of epithelial cells from blood vessels, lung, kidney (renal tubules), intestine, and heart, as well as on cerebral neurons and immune monocytes/macrophages [11-13]. […] The cellular targets of Angiotensin II are the vasoconstrictor type 1 (AT1R) and vasodilatator type 2 (AT2R) Angiotensin II receptors (AT1R is expressed at the surface of monocytes/macrophages and T-cells indicating that RAS acts on innate immunity in host).
32425712 Emerging evidence in COVID-19 suggests that the SARS-CoV-2 virus may both evade the innate immune response and kill macrophages. […] Delayed innate immune response and a depleted population of macrophages can theoretically result in a blunted antigen presentation, delaying and diminishing activation of the adaptive immune response.
32426001 In the SARS-CoV-2 infection different inflammatory pathways are altered where colchicine reduces cytokine levels as well as the activation of macrophages, neutrophils, and the inflammasome.
32437316 SARS-CoV-2 was detectable by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy in conducting airways, pneumocytes, alveolar macrophages, and a hilar lymph node but was not identified in other extrapulmonary tissues.
32441764 PARPi can tune macrophages towards a tolerogenic phenotype.
32449057 Hemorrhagic white matter lesions were present throughout the cerebral hemispheres with surrounding axonal injury and macrophages. […] The subcortical white matter had scattered clusters of macrophages, a range of associated axonal injury, and a perivascular acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like appearance.
32464584 Although information about the mechanisms of immunity are scant, it appears that monocyte/macrophages and then CD8 T cells are important in eliminating the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
32471272 COronaVIrus Disease (COVID-19) patients manifest exacerbated inflammatory and immune responses, cytokine storm, prevalence of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and increased levels of resident and circulating immune cells.
32469225 While adaptive immune responses are essential for SARS-CoV-2 virus clearance, the innate immune cells, such as macrophages, may contribute, in some cases, to the disease progression. […] Macrophages have shown a significant production of IL-6 suggesting they may contribute to the excessive inflammation in COVID-19 disease.
32470851 Receptor-mediated uptake of oxLDL by the monocyte-derived macrophages activates the long-term epigenetic reprogramming of innate immunity, which is termed “trained immunity.” The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanisms and treatment possibilities that can control the activities of these specific macrophages. […] When oxLDL-trained macrophages encounter SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) in the lung, it causes unregulated cytokine secretion, leading to the alveolar damage.
32476380 As in COVID-19, Kawasaki disease and its similar forms are mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by innate immunity cells such as macrophages and mast cells (MCs).
32485858 The main aim of this study is to find a therapeutic compound to inhibit IL-6, not TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, in macrophage-like cells, because the high-levels of IL-6 production by macrophages are reported to cause unfavorable outcomes under several disease conditions (e.g., autoimmune diseases, and acute viral infections, including COVID-19).
32486534 Many macrophages accumulated in the alveolar cavity.
32502135 Monocytes / macrophages are considered key immune cells in infections and downregulation of the surface expression of monocytic human leukocyte antigen-DR (mHLA-DR) expression within the major histocompatibility complex class II reflects a state of immunosuppression, also referred to as injury-associated immunosuppression.
32505910 IL-1β is generated by macrophages upon activation of intracellular NLRP3 (NOD-like, leucine rich repeat domains, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3), part of the functional NLRP3 inflammasome complex that detects pathogenic microorganisms and stressors, while neutrophils are enhanced by increasing levels of IL-1β.
32512493 Decreased immune system cells such as suppressed regulatory T cells, cytotoxic and helper T cells, natural killer cells, monocytes/macrophages and increased proinflammatory cytokines are the characteristic features.
32519164 Both TNF-α and AT-II have been implicated in promoting overexpression of tissue factor (TF) in platelets and macrophages.
32522666 Because it is known that the response to, and resolution of the SARS-CoV-2 infection depends mainly on the lung macrophages, we discuss the recent scientific findings, which may explain why and how nicotine may modulate lung macrophage response during COVID-19 infection.
32526193 The inflammatory infiltrate, observed in all cases, was largely composed of macrophages in the alveolar lumina (in 24 cases) and lymphocytes in the interstitium (in 31 cases).
32530160 Histopathological changes included edema of alveoli and interstitial substance, pneumorrhagia,shedding of alveolar epithelial cells, serous and (or) fibrous exudation in the alveoli, formation of viral inclusions, formation of transparent membranes, infiltration of inflammatory cells that mainly consisted of macrophages and lymphocytes in interstitial substance and alveoli.
32539627 Hypercytokinemia underlies the hyperinflammatory state leading to injury of alveolar epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells, as well as to lung infiltration sustained by neutrophils and macrophages.
32540605 Although the pathophysiology of this syndrome is still not fully understood, macrophages and their immune complex system seem to play a key role.
32543740 On admission, compared to patients with poor prognoses, those with good prognoses had significantly higher counts of monocytes (p < 0.05), macrophages (p < 0.05), higher frequency of CD3+ CD4+ CD45RO+ CXCR3+ subsets (p < 0.05), higher frequency of CD14+ CD11C+ HLA-DR+ subset of dendritic cells (DCs) (p < 0.05), and a lower count of neutrophils (p < 0.05).
32548209 Immunohistochemical analysis of nasal biopsy revealed the presence of infiltrative CD68+ macrophages harboring severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigen in the stroma. […] Mucosal infiltration by CD68+ macrophages expressing SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen may contribute to COVID-19-related OD.
32551464 Moreover, dexamethasone would block macrophages from clearing secondary, nosocomial, infections.
32551679 Two types of cellular nanosponges are made of the plasma membranes derived from human lung epithelial type II cells or human macrophages.
32552178 Multinucleated cells in alveolar spaces and alveolar walls, atypical enlarged cells, accumulation of macrophages in alveolar spaces, and congestion of vascular channels were the other histopathologic alteration of the lung.
32552811 Sub-chronic e-cig exposure with nicotine increased inflammatory cellular influx of macrophages and T-lymphocytes including increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in BALF and increased SARS-Cov-2 Covid-19 ACE2 receptor, whereas nAChRα7 KO mice show reduced inflammatory responses associated with decreased ACE2 receptor.
32559343 The immunopathology and acute lung injury orchestrated through the influx of pro-inflammatory macrophages and neutrophils can be directly activated by complement components to prime an overzealous cytokine storm.
32563187 Dendritic cells and macrophages are sentinel cells for innate and adaptive immunity that affect the pathogenesis of SARS and MERS. […] Herein, we investigated the infection and host response of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and macrophages (MDMs) infected by SARS-CoV-2.
32565763 The new virus infects and replicates in the lung parenchyma pneumocytes and macrophages in which the ACE-2 cell receptor resides.
32571951 We detected more demyelination in regions with larger numbers of T cells and microglia/macrophages compared to those with fewer infiltrating cells.
32574107 Overactivation of the STING-pathway promotes hyper-coagulability through release of interferon-β and tissue factor by monocytes-macrophages.
32574956 Flow cytometry analyses were performed to detect the direct binding of S protein and the expression of ACE2 on the cell surface of macrophages. […] The mucous plug with fibrinous exudate in the alveoli and the dysfunction of alveolar macrophages were characteristic abnormalities. […] The type II alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages in alveoli and pulmonary hilum lymphoid tissue were infected by SARS-CoV-2.
32581017 Morphoproteomic analysis from a case study of this COVID-19 pulmonary infection included immunohistochemical probes to detect phosphorylated p-STAT3 (Tyr 705), as part of the interleukin (IL)-6 pathway; cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes, Programmed Death (PD)-1 receptor+ lymphoid cells, CD56+ NK lymphoid cells, CD163+ (M2 polarized monocytes/macrophages), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression as part of the host response to interaction with the COVID-19 virus. […] Representative sections of the COVID-19 victim’s lung showed: nuclear expression of p-STAT3 (Tyr 705) in many of the alveolar pneumocytes and in occasional endothelial cells; COX-2 expression in the alveolar pneumocytes; a relative paucity of CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes; absence of CD56+ NK lymphoid cells; abundance of intra-alveolar and alveolar interstitial CD163+ macrophages/monocytes; PD-L1 expression on occasional macrophages, focally on collections of alveolar pneumocytes, and on cells in the alveolar interstitium; and rare PD-1+ lymphocytes in similar regions as CD8+ lymphocytes.
32582222 Herein we outline potential adverse effects of SARS-CoV2 on macrophages and dendritic cells, key cells of the immune system expressing ACE2. […] Specifically, we propose a new hypothesis that, while macrophages play an important role in antiviral defense mechanisms, in the case of SARS-CoV, they may also serve as a Trojan horse, enabling viral anchoring specifically within the pulmonary parenchyma. […] It is tempting to assume that diverse expression of ACE2 in macrophages among individuals might govern the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Moreover, reallocation of viral-containing macrophages migrating out of the lung to other tissues is theoretically plausible in the context of viral spread with the involvement of other organs.
32582401 Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their exosomes can affect immune cells by inducing anti-inflammatory macrophages, regulatory T and B cells, and regulatory dendritic cells, and can inactivate T cells.
32591762 Compared to moderate cases, critical cases exhibited stronger interactions between epithelial and immune cells, as indicated by ligand-receptor expression profiles, and activated immune cells, including inflammatory macrophages expressing CCL2, CCL3, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL3, CXCL10, IL8, IL1B and TNF.
32241072 Coronavirus was mostly detected in pneumocytes, but less in macrophages and bronchiolar epithelial cells.
32267072 Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) are increasingly recognized as being on a continuum of cytokine storm syndromes, with different initiating pathways culminating in cytotoxic dysfunction and uncontrolled activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes and macrophages.
32593832 This increase permeability further leads to translocation of microbial components such as MAMPs (microbial-associated molecular pattern), triggering an inflammatory immune response by TLR-expressing cells of the mesentery fat (mostly macrophages and adipocytes).
32606823 Besides, their effects on the regulation of scavenger receptors expression by macrophages may offer some benefits to the pulmonary antibacterial defense system after viral infection.
32611485 Alterations in genes involved in hyaluronan, glycosaminoglycan and mucopolysaccharides metabolism were over-represented in bronchoalveolar cells infected by SARS-CoV-2, as well as potential lung infiltration with neutrophils, T CD4+ cell and macrophages.
32615987 Immunohistochemistry demonstrates an endothelial overexpression of medium-size vessels (anti-CD31), while not in micro-vessels, with a remarkable activity of macrophages (anti-CD68) and T helper lymphocytes (anti-CD4) against gallbladder vessels.
32638022 Moreover, abundant lymphocytes and macrophages (some are SARS-CoV-2 positive) infiltrating the lamina propria were found with no significant mucosal damage.
32640120 The organoids can also be invested with mesoderm derivatives, differentiated from the same human pluripotent stem cells, such as alveolar macrophages and vasculature.
32641481 Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining against serpentovirus nucleoprotein demonstrated that the virus infects not only a broad spectrum of epithelia (respiratory and alimentary epithelium, hepatocytes, renal tubules, pancreatic ducts, etc.), but also intravascular monocytes, intralesional macrophages, and endothelial cells.
32641700 Histochemical studies of lung tissue from one fatality show sub-anatomical distributions of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and massive infiltration of T cells and macrophages.
32645660 Macrophages are innate immune cells that sense and respond to infections by producing a plethora of inflammatory molecules and by interacting with other inflammatory cells. […] Therefore, macrophages may be diriment on eliminating pathogens and promoting organ repair. […] However, macrophages can be a major player of the so called cytokine storm and may be damaging to the tissues. […] Are macrophages different in children compared to adults? […] It has been demonstrated that macrophages populate the lung in three “developmental waves”, and it has been suggested that similar waves may be observed in other important organs, such as the heart and kidney. […] It is most likely that macrophages heterogeneity is involved in determining the severity. […] There are no doubts that macrophages are important in determining life or death in these patients. […] Comparing macrophages of children with those of adults with different degrees of disease severity is, therefore, mandatory.
32646930 Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is a potential target of therapy in COVID-19 during the severe respiratory-inflammatory phase (“cytokine release syndrome”), when pulmonary macrophages are hyperactivated, releasing IL-1 and other cytokines.
32656939 Dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages are the first cell lineage against viruses’ infections.
32662949 Already at Day 8, 1.8-fold (P < 0.05), 1.4-fold (P < 0.05), 3.2-fold (P < 0.01), and 2.1-fold (P < 0.001) reduction in LV intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression, presence of monocytes/macrophages, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, respectively, was observed in eplerenone-treated vs. untreated CVB3-infected mice.
32662981 Acanthamoeba and macrophages exhibit significant parallels in biochemical, physiological, cellular, and functional aspects.
32675312 Single-cell sequencing analysis across nine independent studies demonstrated little to no ACE2 or TMPRSS2 expression in lymphocytes or macrophages.
32680957 Exacerbated production of cytokines, mainly IL-6, points to macrophages as key to understand differential COVID-19 severity. […] In addition to macrophages, lung cells express RAS components; also, some lung cells are able to produce IL-6.
32681650 The antibodies have protected humans and their ancestors for millions of years, because they inhibit replication of many kinds of microbes carrying αGal glycans and aid complements and macrophages to destroy them.
32684080 SARS-CoV-2 can activate monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, mast cells, neutrophils, and induce cytokine storm in the lung.
32687918 Monocytes and macrophages may be infected by SARS-CoV-2 through ACE2-dependent and ACE2-independent pathways. […] SARS-CoV-2 can effectively suppress the anti-viral IFN response in monocytes and macrophages. […] Since macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) act as antigen presenting cells (APCs), the infection of these cells by SARS-CoV-2 impairs the adaptive immune responses against the virus. […] Upon infection, monocytes migrate to the tissues where they become infected resident macrophages, allowing viruses to spread through all organs and tissues. […] The SARS-CoV-2-infected monocytes and macrophages can produce large amounts of numerous types of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which contribute to local tissue inflammation and a dangerous systemic inflammatory response called cytokine storm.
32690998 Furthermore, evidence on bronchoscopy and biopsy demonstrated intracellular lipid droplets in the patient’s macrophages.
32697943 Monocytes and macrophages are the most enriched immune cell types in the lungs of COVID-19 patients and appear to have a central role in the pathogenicity of the disease.
32698441 In situ hybridization in the lungs identified viral RNA in bronchial epithelium, alveolar epithelial cells type I and II, and macrophages.
32714336 However, in some patients, lung infection leads to the activation of alveolar macrophages and lung epithelial cells that will release proinflammatory cytokines.
32718282 MC1-R is found on macrophages, neutrophils and the renal tubule system.
32719685 GM-CSF is produced by many cells, including macrophages and T-cells. […] GM-CSF-derived signals are involved in differentiation of macrophages, including alveolar macrophages (AMs).
32721181 In particular, the alternative activation of M2-polarized macrophages plays a crucial role in cancer progression. […] In contrast, the macrophage-activation syndrome appears as the source of M1-related cytokine storm in severe COVID-19 disease, thus indicating macrophages as a source of distinct inflammatory states in the two diseases, nonetheless as a common therapeutic target.
32728975 The initial response is given mainly by type I interferons (IFN-I), which drive the action macrophages and lymphocytes, followed by lymphocyte action.
32731277 Hyperinflammation, which is triggered by activation of T cells and monocytes/macrophages, is essential for organ pathologies.
32735892 Overall, lung involvement and RDS could be generated by the activation and down regulation of diverse gene pathway involving respiratory cilia and muscle contraction, apoptotic phenomena, matrix destructuration, collagen deposition, neutrophil and macrophages recruitment.
32739471 Activated macrophages secrete proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and tend to polarise into the inflammatory M1 phenotype.
32743022 This storm is due to the release of high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and chemokines by respiratory epithelial and dendritic cells, and macrophages.
32744052 Activation of macrophages by coronavirus-19 leads to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, metalloproteinases and other proteolytic enzymes that can cause thrombi formation and severe respiratory dysfunction. […] In vitro enhanced thromboxane B2 release by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages after treatment with human recombinant interleukin 1. […] 1986 Jul;32(1):111-5), we reported for the first time that IL-1 induces thromboxane B2 (TxB2) releases in activated neutrophils and macrophages.
32752010 Oxidizing agents come from phagocytic leukocytes such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages and eosinophils that invade tissue.
32754163 Besides, excessive infiltration of pro-inflammatory cells, mainly involving macrophages and T-helper 17 cells, has been found in lung tissues of patients with COVID-19 by postmortem examination.
32760206 The drugs triciribine and kinetin riboside activate ACE2 expression or inhibit IL-6 production in macrophages to some extent.
32762083 In addition, a few small perivascular white matter lesions, with macrophages engulfing myelin, were found.
32763844 These drugs, through the inhibition of the RhoA/actin-dependent expression of virus receptors in the macrophages and macrophage recruitment to the lungs, have the potential to inhibit cytokine storm of lung macrophages, reduce or eliminate ARDS and improve the outcome of COVID-19 infection.
32765942 NLRP3 inflammasome is over-activated in aged individuals, through deficient mitochondrial functioning, increased mitochondrial Reactive Oxigen Species (mtROS) and/or mitochondrial (mt)DNA, leading to a hyper-response of classically activated macrophages and subsequent increases in IL-1 β.
32766543 All lungs exhibited diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) with a spectrum of exudative and proliferative phases including hyaline membranes, and pneumocyte hyperplasia, with viral inclusions in epithelial cells and macrophages.
32767259 We found a dominant presence of macrophages and a general deficiency of T cells and B cells in the lung tissues from deceased COVID-19 patients.
32779813 We investigated the phytochemical substituents (compounds 1-13) and newly purified 11-methoxy polisin A, and 13-methoxy bisaborosaol F using NMR and ESI-MS and to screened their effects on NO production in LPS-induced macrophages.
32785649 In contrast to DENV, SARS and MERS CoVs predominantly infect respiratory epithelium, not macrophages.
32789839 Notably, the macrophages expressing ACE2 as direct host cells of SARS-CoV-2 secrete chemokine and inflammatory cytokines, as well as a decrease in cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection due to elevated exhaustion levels and dysfunctional diversity of T cells, that may be accountable for the “hyperinflammation and cytokine storm syndrome” and subsequently acute cardiac injury and deteriorating cardiovascular disease in COVID-19 patients.
32801787 Emerging studies from SARS-CoV-2-infected patients indicate a preponderant role of monocytes/macrophages in the pathogenesis of this viral infection, in a similar way to that previously observed in other coronavirus outbreaks (SARS and MERS). […] The present review summarizes past evidence on the role of monocytes/macrophages in previous coronavirus outbreaks and the emerging knowledge on their role in COVID-19 pathogenesis.
32818801 SARS-CoV-2 antigens, RNA and/or particles morphologically consistent with coronavirus were identified in villous syncytiotrophoblast, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, in maternal macrophages, and in Hofbauer cells and fetal intravascular mononuclear cells. […] The placenta intervillous inflammatory infiltrate consisted of neutrophils and monocyte-macrophages expressing activation markers.
32828741 The microbial threat as induced by COVID-19 causes the activation of macrophages to produce a huge amount of inflammatory molecules and nitric oxide (NO). […] Activation of macrophages population into a pro-inflammatory phenotype induces a self-reinforcing cycle.
32848621 SARS-CoV-2 is reported to be able to infect the lungs, the intestines, blood vessels, the bile ducts, the conjunctiva, macrophages, T lymphocytes, the heart, liver, kidneys, and brain.
32848776 Differentiation of non-classic pathogenic T-cells and pro-inflammatory intermediate monocytes contributes to a skewed inflammatory profile, mediated by membrane-bound immune receptor subtypes (e.g., FcγRIIA) and downstream signaling pathways (e.g., NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK), followed by chemotactic infiltration of monocyte-derived macrophages and neutrophils into lung tissue.
32860297 Their commentary effectively explores the contribution of macrophages towards the coagulopathy observed in COVID-19, while highlighting the similarities between COVID-19 associated vascular lesions and veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) and commonly referred to as VOD/SOS.
32860465 Neopterin produced by macrophages on stimulation with interferon-gamma, which is an important cytokine in the antiviral immune response, hence it can be used to predict the severity of disease in COVID-19 cases.
32861199 Circulating monocytes and tissue macrophages participate in all stages of SARS COVID-19. […] Assays are available to detect viral infection and antibody responses, but no adequate tests have been developed to measure the activation level of monocytes and tissue macrophages, and the risk of progression to a fatal hyperinflammatory syndrome.
32863947 Dysfunctional macrophages appear to play an essential role in cytokine storm development, and therapeutic interventions that target these cells may be a more feasible approach than targeting specific cytokines. […] Nanomedicine-based therapeutics that target macrophages have recently been shown to reduce cytokine production in animal models of diseases that are associated with excessive proinflammatory responses. […] We also discuss engineering approaches that can improve nanocarriers targeting efficiency to macrophages, and key issues should be considered before initiating such studies.
32870735 AMPs stimulate TLR2 in macrophages, increasing the conversion of vitamin D into its active form by cytochrome P450 27B1.
32884871 Furthermore, Kawasaki disease may occasionally trigger macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), a condition in which there is uncontrolled activation and proliferation of macrophages and other cell types, and could lead to multiorgan system dysfunction.
32890371 MCs transverse the BBBs, while macrophages only trespass in “disease” (Faraco et al. 
32890967 This immunoregulation involves monocytes and macrophages, as well as Jak2/STAT3, NF-kB, and inflammasome pathways, reducing the risk of cytokine storm syndrome, a major mortality factor in advanced COVID-19 disease.
32896192 Here we review their interactions with neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages in infection and sepsis, stroke, myocardial infarction and venous thromboembolism.
32897537 We showed immunohistochemically that macrophages and CD4-positive T cells predominated in the villous tissue, although elevated numbers of CD8-positive cells were also present.
32899231 Recent evidence based on the cytokine profiles of severe COVID-19 cases suggests an overstimulation of macrophages and monocytes associated with reduced T-cell abundance (lymphopenia) in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.
32902005 There are many possible mechanisms through which GZ acts against viruses: increasing nitrous oxide production in macrophages, affecting transcription factors and cellular signalling pathways, directly altering the viral lipid-bilayer membrane, and binding to the ACE2 receptor.
32904944 This stemmed initially from the discovery that antigen presenting cells such as macrophages could actively metabolise precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) to active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D). […] At an innate level, intracrine synthesis of 1,25D by macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) stimulates expression of antimicrobial proteins such as cathelicidin, as well as lowering intracellular iron concentrations via suppression of hepcidin. […] Local synthesis of 1,25D by macrophages and DC also appears to play a pivotal role in mediating T cell responses to vitamin D, leading to suppression of inflammatory T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, and concomitant induction of immunotolerogenic T regulatory (Treg) responses.
32916371 The pathophysiology of overt hypercoagulability and the development of VTE is likely multifactorial, with evidence supporting the role of significant cell-mediated responses, including neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, endothelialitis, cytokine release syndrome, and dysregulation of fibrinolysis.
32916949 Activated macrophages play an important role during coronavirus infections. […] 18F-AzaFol binds to the folate receptor-beta (FRβ) that is expressed on activated macrophages involved in inflammatory conditions.
32919938 The basis for the imbalance between the innate and adaptive immune systems is not clearly defined, but highlights the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on macrophages. […] Here we discuss the potential underlying basis for the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on macrophages, both direct and indirect, and potential therapeutic targets. […] A better understanding of the molecular consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection of macrophages could lead to novel and more effective treatments for COVID-19.
32919977 The gross and microscopic pathologic findings as well as the alterations in the cytokine milieu, macrophages/monocytes, natural killer cells, T cells, and neutrophils in severe COVID-19 are summarized.
32925314 Monocytes/macrophages are considered key immune cells in infections and downregulation of the surface expression of monocytic human leukocyte antigen-DR (mHLA-DR) within the major histocompatibility complex class II reflects a state of immunosuppression, also referred to as injury-associated immunosuppression.
32929007 The results also demonstrate that microglial functions affected by depletion could not be compensated by infiltrating macrophages.
32939238 Bacterial or viral infections often cause acute and severe systemic inflammation, which affects the lungs lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a pathogenic component of the membrane of gram-negative bacteria, stimulates active innate immune cells, monocytes, macrophages to produce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).
32942131 The hyperactivation of M1 macrophages with a proinflammatory phenotype, which is linked to aerobic glycolysis, leads to the recruitment of monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets from circulating blood and plays a crucial role in thrombo-inflammation (as recently demonstrated in COVID-19) through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps and monocyte-platelet aggregates, which could be responsible for DIC. […] The modulation of glucose availability for activated M1 macrophages by means of a eucaloric ketogenic diet (EKD) could represent a possible metabolic tool for reducing adenosine triphosphate production from aerobic glycolysis in the M1 macrophage phenotype during the exudative phase. […] Second, an EKD could be advantageous for the metabolism of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages because these cells predominantly express oxidative phosphorylation enzymes and are best fed by the oxidation of fatty acids in the mitochondria. […] Third, an EKD, which could reduce high lactate formation by macrophages due to glycolysis, could favor the production of interferon type I, which are inhibited by excessive lactate production.
32945158 The pathology associated with pandemic infection is linked to an over-response of immune cells, including virus-activated macrophages and mast cells (MCs). […] Alveolar macrophages activated by SARS-CoV-2 through the TLR produce IL-1 which stimulates MCs to produce IL-6.
32952855 Specifically, MSCs can regulate the immune responses through the conversion of Th1 to Th2, activation of M2 macrophages, and modulation of dendritic cells maturation.
32968776 In SARS-CoV-2 there are increased interstitial macrophages in a majority of the cases and multifocal lymphocytic myocarditis in a small fraction of the cases.
32973814 Metformin, a widely used drug to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus and metabolic syndrome, has immunomodulatory activity that reduces the production of proinflammatory cytokines using macrophages and causes the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs).
32979342 Lung CD4 and CD8 T cells and macrophages expressed an even higher upregulation of activation markers than in blood.
32981754 This proposal is supported by the observation that (i) macrophages and T cells (including NK cells, cytotoxic killer cells and other immunocytes) release AA and other BALs especially in the lungs to inactivate various microbes; (ii) pro-inflammatory metabolites prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotrienes (LTs) and anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4 (LXA4) derived from AA (similarly, resolvins, protectins and maresins derived from eicosapentaenoic acid: EPA and docosahexaenoic acid: DHA) facilitate the generation of M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) macrophages respectively; (iii) AA, PGE2, LXA4 and other BALs inhibit interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) synthesis; (iv) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are of benefit in COVID-19 elaborate LXA4 to bring about their beneficial actions and (v) subjects with insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease and the elderly have significantly low plasma concentrations of AA and LXA4 that may render them more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and cytokine storm that is associated with increased mortality seen in COVID-19.
32989935 Recombinant proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) were used to stimulate the PBMCs and monocyte-derived macrophages, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantify the mRNA expressions of the pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines.
32992843 Surfactant protein (SP-) A modulates the functions of alveolar macrophages (AM) and ozone (O3) exposure in the presence or absence of SP-A and reduces mouse survival in a sex-dependent manner.
32999036 Furthermore, we identify potential genes involved in contributing to demyelination as well as remyelination being expressed by both microglia and macrophages.
33015591 To uncover these events, we performed transcriptome analyses of lung biopsies from patients with COVID-19, revealing a gene enrichment pattern similar to that of PPARγ-knockout macrophages.
33016027 In infections, IL-1 induces gene expression and synthesis of several cytokines/chemokines in both macrophages and mast cells (MCs). […] Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 induces IL-1 in macrophages and MCs causing the induction of gene expression and activation of other pro-inflammatory cytokines. […] Since IL-1 is toxic, its production from ubiquitous MCs and macrophages activated by SARS-CoV-2 can also provokes both gastrointestinal and brain disorders.
33016678 The acute neuroinflammatory response includes the activation of resident tissue macrophages in the CNS and the subsequent release of various cytokines and chemokines, which probably activates oxidative stress, causing long-term neuronal damage.
33017479 A similar mechanism has been reported in SARS-CoV-2 with the release of cytokines and chemokines by macrophages throughout the course of infection.
33019591 TOM70 is specifically targeted by the Bcl-2-related protein MCL-1 that acts as an anti-apoptotic protein in macrophages infected by intracellular pathogens, but also in many cancer cells.
33021506 While sampling differences in sex, collection timing, bacteria/fungal infection, and corticosteroid treatment limit interpretation, we believe that reprograming monocyte or macrophages by targeting immunometabolism, epigenetics, or the cytokine milieu holds promise in resolving lung-inflammation associated with COVID-19.
33022781 We have concluded that pollutant exposure may affect different stages of the viral life cycle, including inhibition of mucociliary clearance, alteration of viral receptors and proteases required for entry, changes to antiviral interferon production and viral replication, changes in viral assembly mediated by autophagy, prevention of uptake by macrophages, and promotion of viral spread by increasing epithelial permeability.
33026601 It has effects on lymphocytes (T-cells and B-cells), macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and lipids.
33029758 Massive cytokines including interleukin-6, nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) released from SARS-CoV-2-infected macrophages and monocytes lead inflammation-derived injurious cascades causing multi-organ injury/failure.
33033248 One pattern shows high local expression of interferon stimulated genes (ISGhigh) and cytokines, high viral loads and limited pulmonary damage, the other pattern shows severely damaged lungs, low ISGs (ISGlow), low viral loads and abundant infiltrating activated CD8+ T cells and macrophages.
33037393 Overproduced PAI-1 binds to TLR4 on macrophages, inducing the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines.
33040727 Nrf2 is a key transcription factor responsible for antioxidant defense in many tissues and cells, including alveolar epithelium, endothelium, and macrophages. […] Furthermore, Nrf2 functions as a transcriptional repressor that inhibits expression of the inflammatory cytokines in macrophages.
33041827 Moreover, SFH treatment could improve the phagocytosis of macrophages and enhance the expression of immune genes in an immune deficiency model.
33043235 FX is known to be primarily produced in the liver, but it is also expressed by multiple cells types, including alveolar epithelium, cardiac myocytes, and macrophages.
32971526 In the immune compartment, we identify cardiac-resident macrophages with inflammatory and protective transcriptional signatures. […] Furthermore, analyses of cell-to-cell interactions highlight different networks of macrophages, fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes between atria and ventricles that are distinct from those of skeletal muscle.
33054759 In this review, we summarize the literature regarding the effects of mechanical stress on the fundamental cells constituting the alveoli in the process of pulmonary fibrosis, particularly on epithelial cells, capillary endothelial cells, fibroblasts, mast cells, macrophages and stem cells.
33059711 In phase 1, SARS-CoV-2 binds with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2 receptor on alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells, triggering toll like receptor (TLR) mediated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-ƙB) signaling.
33071777 The interaction unit consisting of macrophages and the alveolar epithelial cells has recently revealed as the therapeutic basis targeting ALI. […] Furthermore, we established the macrophages-alveolar epithelial cells co-culture model and firstly proved that LHQW inhibited LPS-induced ER stress and TRAIL secretion in macrophages, thereby efficiently protected epithelial cells against TRAIL-induced apoptosis. […] Mechanistically, results showed that LHQW significantly deactivated NF-κB and reversed the SOCS3 expression in inflammatory macrophages.
33074885 All were identified to be preoperatively pre/asymptomatic, as 5 were with SARS-CoV-2 presenting in cytoplasm of enterocytes or macrophages from the colorectal tissues and 1 had symptom onset immediately after surgery.
33079210 The orf8b protein of the coronavirus SARS-CoV, analogous to SARS-CoV-2, triggers the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages in vitro.
33081421 The expression of ACE2 is low in mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells and cannot be detected in alveolar macrophages.
33088807 For those with a better prognosis, there were significant positive correlations between ACE2 expression and immune infiltrates, including B cells, CD8 + T cells, CD4 + T cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
33096114 The activation of alveolar cells and alveolar macrophages leads to the release of large quantities of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and their translocation into the pulmonary vasculature.
33101294 This sentinel response is mediated by the innate immune system: a heritable, highly evolutionarily conserved system comprising physical barriers, antimicrobial peptides (AMP) and a variety of immune cells-principally neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells-which express pattern-receptors that detect invariant molecular signatures unique to pathogenic micro-organisms. […] As well as coordinating the initial immune response, macrophages and dendritic cells present microbial antigens to lymphocytes, initiating and influencing the development of specific, long-lasting adaptive immunity.
33102261 We focus on alterations in the immune cells, especially monocytes and macrophages, involved in innate immune response and inflammatory processes, which differ in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). […] We also describe the DM-related changes in the monocyte/macrophages functions, how they could lead to the severe outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and importantly, if and how they could initiate DM in DM-susceptible patients.
33107217 macrophages.
33112036 Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are tissue-resident macrophages located within the lung.
33116043 Besides T-lymphocytes and macrophages, mast cells also contribute to the development of cytokine storm and thus stimulate the activity of fibroblasts.
33122784 Thus, our goal was to analyze tissue expression of interleukins 4, 13, (IL-4, IL-13), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and the number of M2 macrophages (Sphingosine-1) in patients who died by COVID-19, comparing with cases of severe pneumopathy caused by H1N1pdm09, and a control group without lung injury. […] The expression of IL-4, IL-13, TGF-β, and M2 macrophages score (Sphingosine-1) were identified through immunohistochemistry (IHC). […] Significantly higher IL-4 tissue expression and Sphingosine-1 in M2 macrophages were observed in the COVID-19 group compared to both the H1N1 and the CONTROL groups.
33126860 The phagocytic activity of macrophages was significantly increased by GTS-21 in a dose-dependent manner. […] In addition, GTS-21 significantly inhibited the cytoplasmic translocation and release of HMGB1 from RAW 264.7 cells and attenuated hyperoxia-induced NF-κB activation in macrophages and mouse lungs exposed to hyperoxia and infected with PA.
33134888 The top targets are lung AT2 cells and macrophages, then cardiomyocytes and adrenal gland stromal cells, followed by stromal cells in testis, ovary, and thyroid, whereas the kidney proximal tubule cells, cholangiocytes, and enterocytes are less likely to be the primary SARS-CoV-2 targets.
33143619 Unexpectedly, we found that caffeine can fight WARS by acting on multiple organs, which may lead to prevent the virus from entering the cell, stimulate the phagocytosis of macrophages, enhance breathing, and inhibit the cytokine storm.
33155525 The article describes the cellular immunology (macrophages, T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, NK cells and pulmonary epithelial cells (PEC) and vascular endothelial cells) and the associated immune response during COVID-19.
33159646 COVID-19 activation of transcription factor, NF-kappa B (NF-κB) in various cells such as macrophages of lung, liver, kidney, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system and cardiovascular system leads to production of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, LT-α, LT-β, GM-CSF, and various chemokines.
33159981 BMP is enriched in alveolar macrophages of lung, one of the target tissue of SARS-CoV-2.
33177848 The receptors for pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL6ST, were notably concentrated in endothelial cells, macrophages, spermatogonial stem cells in the testis, and renal endothelial cells, which suggested the occurrence of alternative damaging autoimmune mechanisms.
33178392 While mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) themselves are objects of cytokine regulation, they can secrete cytokines to modulate immune cells by inducing anti-inflammatory regulatory Treg cells, macrophages and neutrophils; and by reducing the activation of T and B cells, dendritic and nature killer cells.
33185926 SARS-CoV-2 infections activate cytototxic, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, as well as natural killer, B, helper T, and regulatory T cells, thus further stimulating innate and antigen-specific immune responses.
33189832 Aerobic glycolysis also supports activation of pro-inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and M1 macrophages. […] As the anti-inflammatory response and reparative process is performed by M2 macrophages reliant on oxidative metabolism, we speculated that the switch to oxidative metabolism in M2 macrophages would not occur at the appropriate time due to an uncontrolled pro-inflammatory cascade.
33193331 The immune system of infected patients has been demonstrated to suffer important alterations, such as lymphopenia, exhausted lymphocytes, excessive amounts of inflammatory monocytes and macrophages, especially in the lungs, and cytokine storms, which may contribute to its severity and difficulty of establishing an effective treatment.
33193337 This picture could be aggravated by the involvement of neutrophils and macrophages, releasing additional lytic and inflammatory factors.
33194755 DCCs reawakening may be promoted by several events associated to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, including activation of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, lymphopenia and an uncontrolled production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
33195415 We found that ACE2 expression was significantly correlated with the infiltrating levels of macrophages and dendritic cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and B cells in multiple tumors. […] However, elevated ACE2 is significantly correlated with immune infiltrating levels, including those of CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and DCs in multiple cancers, especially in lung and breast cancer patients.
33232783 Further, vitamin D modulates multiple mechanisms of the immune system to contain the virus that includes dampening the entry and replication of SARS-CoV-2, reduces concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increases levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, enhances the production of natural antimicrobial peptide and activates defensive cells such as macrophages that could destroy SARS-CoV-2.
33242791 Furthermore, we observed that MSCs were unable to induce the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in epithelial cells and macrophages.
33245005 The SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers inflammation via the JAK/STAT pathway leading to recruitment of pneumocytes, endothelial cells, macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes, natural killer cells and dendritic cells progressing towards cytokine storm.
33247138 Accumulation of macrophages is long-lasting and detectable even in animals with mild or no signs of disease.
33248385 There were three key findings: 1) high copy infectious virus was limited mostly to the alveolar macrophages and endothelial cells of the septal capillaries; 2) viral spike protein without viral RNA localized to ACE2+ endothelial cells in microvessels that were most abundant in the subcutaneous fat and brain; 3) although both infectious virus and docked viral spike protein was associated with complement activation, only the endocytosed pseudovirions induced a marked up-regulation of the key COVID-19 associated proteins IL6, TNF alpha, IL1 beta, p38, IL8, and caspase 3.
33253796 We found ACE2 might regulate immune response through immunological activation-associated pathways in the process of in both SARS-Cov and SARS-Cov-2 infection, where the activation of B cells, macrophages, helper T cells 1 (Th1 cells) and the inhibition of Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD8 + T cells were found to be prominent.
33259936 Abundant macrophages CD68+ were detected in the myocardial interstitium. […] The finding of diffuse contraction band necrosis supports the pathogenic role of increased catecholamine levels; the presence of a significant interstitial inflammatory infiltrate, made up by macrophages, remains of uncertain significance.
33277988 Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and dendritic cells (MDDCs) was abortive, but induced the production of multiple antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-α, IFN-β, TNF, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) and a chemokine (CXCL10). […] Together, these results indicate that infection of macrophages and dendritic cells potentially plays a major role in COVID-19 pathogenesis, even in the absence of productive infection.
33280254 The ACE2 expression was markedly upregulated on the activated type 1 macrophages (M1). […] Immunohistochemistry demonstrated high expressions of ACE2 on human tissue macrophages, such as alveolar macrophages, Kupffer cells within livers, and microglial cells in brain at steady state. […] The data suggest that alveolar macrophages, as the frontline immune cells, may be directly targeted by the SARS-CoV-2 infection and therefore need to be considered for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
33290288 During the past decades, macrophages and the complement pathway (as a part of the innate immune system) have been identified as important contributors to the development of AMD, and we suggest that these mechanisms are of similar importance for the clinical course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections.
33293514 Proof-of-principle observations included PBMC-based increases in cytokine storm-associated IL6, enhanced innate immunity (macrophages and neutrophils), and lower adaptive T and B cell immunity in patients with acute-like disease compared to those with recovery-like disease.
33293627 Gene Ontologies revealed regulation of viral life cycle, immune responses, pro-inflammatory responses- several interleukins such as IL6, IL1, IL20 and IL33, IFI16 regulating the interferon response to a virus, chemo-attraction of macrophages, and cellular stress resulting from activated Reactive Oxygen Species.
33300152 In this review, we comprehensively examine current evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in various neural cells including neurons, microglia/macrophages, astrocytes, pericytes/endothelial cells, ependymocytes/choroid epithelial cells, and neural stem/progenitor cells.
33302033 Although cytokines are messenger molecules of the immune system, but their increased concentration results in inflammation, infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils and lung injury in patients.
33305306 Using molecular docking simulations, we found that SARS-CoV2 ORF7a has the key structural determinants required to bind LFA-1 but also the related leukocyte integrin Mac-1, which is also known to be expressed by macrophages. […] This suggests that experimental investigation of ORF7a-mediated effects on immune cells such as T lymphocytes and macrophages (leukocytes) could help understand the disease further and develop effective treatments.
33306138 The histological morphology of endotheliitis comprises the accumulation of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages beneath the endothelial cells and within the perivascular spaces.
33307034 Host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated by examining inflammatory cytokines, macrophages, histopathology, and mucin barrier integrity.
33312178 Based on these hallmarks, and considering the pivotal role of macrophages in COVID-19 pathogenesis, we hypothesize that the transcription factors MAFB and MAF critically contribute to COVID-19 progression by shaping the response of macrophages to SARS-CoV-2. […] Our proposal stems from the recent identification of pathogenic lung macrophage subsets in severe COVID-19, and takes into consideration the previously reported ability of MAFB to dampen IFN type I production, as well as the critical role of MAFB and MAF in the acquisition and maintenance of the transcriptional signature of M-CSF-conditioned human macrophages. […] As a whole, we propose that a high MAFB/MAF expression ratio in lung macrophages could serve as an accurate diagnostic tool for COVID-19 progression.
33320635 Additionally, we have also discussed the essential biomaterial properties which polarize the immune system, including dendritic cells and macrophages, toward their inflammatory phenotype, which can thus serve as a reference for exhibiting the role of biomaterial in influencing the adaptive immune response involving B and T lymphocytes to foster a regenerative tissue microenvironment.
33323111 Surface S protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds to its target transmembrane receptor, named as angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2(, on various cells such as lymphocyte, alveolar cells, monocytes/macrophages, and platelets. […] SARS-COV-2 may directly infect monocytes/ macrophages.
33324210 Among them, macrophages play a central role in antiviral responses, tissue repair, and fibrosis. […] Macrophages can be reprogrammed by environmental cues, thus changing their phenotype during an antiviral immune response as the viral infection progresses. […] While M1-like macrophages are essential for the initial inflammatory responses, M2-like macrophages are critical for tissue repair after pathogen clearance.
33339110 The role of monocytes, erythrocytes, thrombocytes, and macrophages in diseases, including infectious and inflammatory diseases, cancer, and atherosclerosis, are better understood and have resulted in improved strategies for targeting and in some instances mimicking these cell types to improve therapeutic outcomes.
33345622 Critically-ill COVID-19 patients show a shift towards an immature myeloid profile in peripheral blood cells, including band neutrophils, immature monocytes, metamyelocytes, monocyte-macrophages, monocytoid precursors, and promyelocytes-myelocytes, together with mature monocytes and segmented neutrophils.
33349263 INAE inhibited virus replication on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and decreased nitric oxide (NO) production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages in vitro.
33359760 The vitamin D receptors are expressed in the macrophages and other immune cells, regulating the transcription of many different genes, including those coding the anti-microbial peptides. […] One of the most severe complications of the SARS-CoV-2 infection is the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by the hyperinflammatory response (commonly called cytokine storm) of the lung macrophages.
33361824 Macrophages and neutrophils of patients with hypertension, in particular under ARB treatment, exhibited higher expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines CCL3 and CCL4 and the chemokine receptor CCR1.
33381848 We generated an integrated host-virus genome-scale metabolic model of human alveolar macrophages and SARS-CoV-2.
33389315 Emerging studies in patients with COVID-19 are suggesting a key role of monocytes/macrophages in the pathogenesis of this viral infection, and there is a significant overlap between several features reported in severe COVID-19 and the features included in the HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria.
33391014 In addition, plasmin is involved in the pathophysiology of ARDS in SARS and promotes secretion of cytokine, such as IL-6 and TNF, from activated macrophages.
33391623 Preferentially phagocytosed by macrophages, nanoMn promotes M1 macrophage polarization and recruits monocytes into inflammatory foci, eventually augmenting antiviral immunity and ameliorating coronavirus-induced tissue damage.
33392206 This includes the induction of vascular hyper-permeability and vasogenic edema by exRNA via the activation of the “vascular endothelial growth factor” (VEGF) receptor-2 system, as well as the recruitment of leukocytes to the inflamed endothelium, the M1-type polarization of inflammatory macrophages, or the role of exRNA as a pro-thrombotic cofactor to promote thrombosis.
33392658 Microscopic examination of the heart revealed the existence of an intense multifocal inflammatory infiltration, in both ventricles and septum, composed in its majority of macrophages and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD4/CD8 ratio: 0.11).
33403965 Other findings included type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia, intra-alveolar macrophages and squamous metaplasia.
33414457 In the co-cultured human respiratory epithelial cells with macrophages to mimic lung microenvironment in vitro, IL-38 was able to alleviate inflammatory responses by inhibiting poly(I:C)-induced overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines through intracellular STAT1, STAT3, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, MEK, and NF-κB signaling pathways. […] Furthermore, the administration of recombinant IL-38 could mitigate poly I:C-induced lung injury, with reduced early accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, activation of lymphocytes, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and permeability of the alveolar-epithelial barrier.
33422505 Furthermore, image cytometry analysis revealed increased expression of these proteins, particularly, in the alveolar type 2 cells and macrophages, which are potential targets for SARS-CoV-2.
33429418 Bulk and single-cell transcriptomic profiling suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infects alveolar macrophages, which in turn respond by producing T cell chemoattractants. […] These T cells produce interferon-γ to induce inflammatory cytokine release from alveolar macrophages and further promote T cell activation. […] Collectively, our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 causes a slowly unfolding, spatially limited alveolitis in which alveolar macrophages containing SARS-CoV-2 and T cells form a positive feedback loop that drives persistent alveolar inflammation.
33431511 Through detection of reads to the viral genome, we were able to determine that replication of the virus in the lungs appeared to occur mainly in pneumocytes, whereas macrophages drove the inflammatory response. […] Monocyte-derived macrophages recruited to the lungs, rather than tissue-resident alveolar macrophages, were most likely to be responsible for phagocytosis of infected cells and cellular debris early in infection, with their roles switching during clearance of infection.
33437935 natural killer cells and M2 macrophages.
33438988 Neopterin is a surrogate marker for viral inflammation, and its production by macrophages is driven by interferon-γ.
33441152 The number of macrophages and inflammatory cells such as T cells, B cells and plasma cells in the placental villous was not significantly increased in all cases.
33454368 Monocytes and macrophages as the most important cells of the innate arm of the immune system play a substantial part in the body’s defense against viral infections. […] During the infection, monocytes and macrophages may be involved in the hypersensitive and exacerbated reactions that contribute to the tissue damage, especially lung injury resulted in its dysfunction and respiratory disorder. […] In this review, we discuss both advantageous and disadvantageous about the pathological potential of monocytes and macrophages during the infection of SARS-CoV-2 to clarify their mutual effects on immune processing as a fist line defender in the current disease.
33467441 Ibrutinib achieves a reduction in the production of TNFα, IL1, IL-6 and Monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by neutrophils and macrophages, that are key players in keeping the inflammatory process.
33467642 In fact, we discuss how circulating and resident macrophages alter their function due to mitochondrial signaling, and we propose how these effects can be triggered within skeletal muscle in response to exercise.
33467724 In the present work, we show that SARS-CoV-2 proteins induce the expression and secretion of IL-6 by human monocytes and macrophages, the first line cells of antiviral immune responses.
33473155 Monocyte-to-macrophage trajectories show that chronic hyperinflammatory monocytes are enriched in critical COVID-19, while alveolar macrophages, otherwise characterized by anti-inflammatory and antigen-presenting characteristics, are depleted. […] Finally, viral RNA-tracking reveals infected lung epithelial cells, and a significant proportion of neutrophils and macrophages that are involved in viral clearance.
33477969 However, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia can compromise bacterial clearance processes, due to oxidative stress-mediated impairment of macrophages, contributing to the increased susceptibility to pulmonary infections. […] The incubation of RAW 264.7 cells with GAT107 (3.3 µM) rescues hyperoxia-compromised phagocytic functions in cultured macrophages, RAW 264.7 cells, and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages. […] Similarly, GAT107 (3.3 µM) also attenuated oxidative stress in hyperoxia-exposed macrophages, which prevents oxidation and hyper-polymerization of phagosome filamentous actin (F-actin) from oxidation. […] Furthermore, GAT107 (3.3 µM) increases the (1) activity of superoxide dismutase 1; (2) activation of Nrf2 and (3) the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in macrophages exposed to hyperoxia.
33478655 It should be appreciated that myocardial inflammation alone by macrophages and T cells can be seen in noninfectious deaths and COVID-19 cases, but the extent of each is different, and in neither case do such findings represent clinically relevant myocarditis.
33483858 Covid-19 activates neutrophils, macrophages, but decreases T-helper cells activity.
33489899 Specifically, similarly to aGVHD, an induced tissue damage (caused by the virus) leads to increased cytokine release (TNFα and IL-6) which in turn leads to exaggerated dendritic cells, macrophages (like in HLH) and lymphocytes (as in CAR-T) activation, immune-cells migration, and tissue-damage (including late-stage fibrosis, similar to myelofibrosis).
33493287 We wondered if the myeloid compartment was affected during Covid-19 and if monocytes and macrophages could be infected by SARS-CoV-2. […] Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages from Covid-19 patients and controls were infected with SARS-CoV-2, and extensively investigated with immunofluorescence, viral RNA extraction and quantification, total RNA extraction followed by reverse transcription and q-PCR using specific primers, supernatant cytokines (IL-10, TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-β, TGF-β1 and IL-6), flow cytometry. […] SARS-CoV-2 drives monocytes and macrophages to induce host immunoparalysis for the benefit of Covid-19 progression.
33502471 SARS-CoV-2 RNA was localized by ISH in hyaline membranes, pneumocytes and macrophages of lungs, epithelial cells of airways, and in endothelial cells and vessels wall of brain stem, leptomeninges, lung, heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas.
33505216 Moreover, GA is capable of blocking prostaglandin-E2 synthesis via blockade of cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2 resulting in concurrent augmentation nitric oxide production through the enhancement of iNOS2 mRNA secretion in Leishmania-infected macrophages.
33521378 HIF-1α exerts detrimental effects on the immune system, characterized by unopposed pro-inflammation at the macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, and complement levels resulting in cytokines’ storm, which is linked to the poor outcomes of COVID-19.
33531712 We also identified a monocyte/macrophage interferon (IFN)-α-IL-18 cytokine shift and the ability of infected macrophages to induce the cytotoxicity of MAIT cells in an MR1-dependent manner.
33560382 Angiopoietin-2 and Tie2 were diffusely colocalized in small-vessel endothelia and alveolar new vessels and macrophages.
33561624 These include increasing serum IL-6 levels, the main mediator of cytokine storms, as well as affecting NK cells, Macrophages, Dendritic cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.
33562472 AhR activation dysregulates the initial pro-inflammatory cytokines production driven by neutrophils, macrophages, and mast cells, whilst AhR activation suppresses the endogenous antiviral responses of natural killer cells and CD8+ T cells.
33564258 Neopterin is a macrophage activation marker produced by monocytes and macrophages upon activation by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ).
33564310 ACE2 mRNA expression showed a positive correlation with the abundance of immune cells (B cells, CD8+ T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells) and the level of immune markers of different immune cells in KIRC.
33566210 Recognizing the therapeutic potential of Spirulina blue-green algae (Arthrospira platensis), in this in vitro stimulation study, LPS-activated macrophages and monocytes were treated with aqueous extracts of Spirulina, cultivated in either natural or controlled light conditions.
33569065 We review cellular approaches that target metabolism and the epigenetic reprogramming of dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, and other trained cells in the context of autoimmune inflammatory diseases.
33577121 In this article, we critically analyze the literature to understand how monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, including mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils, contribute to hypertension and hypertension-associated end-organ injury.
33578295 The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes elevated production of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) markers by macrophages. […] SARS-CoV-2 enters macrophages through its Spike-protein aided by cathepsin (Cat) B and L, which also mediate SASP production. […] Since M-CSF and IL-34 control macrophage differentiation, we investigated the age-dependent effects of the Spike-protein on SASP-related pro-inflammatory-cytokines and nuclear-senescence-regulatory-factors, and CatB, L and K, in mouse M-CSF- and IL-34-differentiated macrophages. […] The Spike-protein upregulated SASP expression in young and aged male M-CSF-macrophages. […] In contrast, only young and aged male IL-34-macrophages demonstrated significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in response to the Spike-protein in vitro. […] Furthermore, the S-protein elevated CatB expression in young male M-CSF-macrophages and young female IL-34-macrophages, whereas CatL was overexpressed in young male IL-34- and old male M-CSF-macrophages. […] Surprisingly, the S-protein increased CatK activity in young and aged male M-CSF-macrophages, indicating that CatK may be also involved in the COVID-19 pathology. […] Altogether, we demonstrated the age- and sex-dependent effects of the Spike-protein on M-CSF and IL-34-macrophages using a novel in vitro mouse model of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19.
33592054 Within the alveolated parenchyma, ACE2 expression is predominantly observed in type II pneumocytes (or alveolar type II / AT2 cells) and alveolar macrophages.
33596304 Sixty-four of the placentas from the SARS-CoV-2-positive group underwent immunohistochemical staining for SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein. -Pathologic findings were divided into maternal vascular malperfusion, fetal vascular malperfusion, chronic inflammatory lesions, amniotic fluid infection sequence, increased perivillous fibrin, intervillous thrombi, increased subchorionic fibrin, meconium-laden macrophages within fetal membranes, and chorangiosis.