Tissue Sentence Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of lung tissue in 3722 abstracts.

PMID Senteces
31981224 Gaining a deeper understanding of the interaction between Coronaviruses and the innate immune systems of the hosts may shed light on the development and persistence of inflammation in the lungs and hopefully can reduce the risk of lung inflammation caused by CoVs. […] In this review, we provide an update on CoV infections and relevant diseases, particularly the host defense against CoV-induced inflammation of lung tissue, as well as the role of the innate immune system in the pathogenesis and clinical treatment.
31986261 They and one asymptomatic child (aged 10 years) had radiological ground-glass lung opacities. […] Older patients (aged >60 years) had more systemic symptoms, extensive radiological ground-glass lung changes, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and increased C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels.
32017661 Typical CT findings included bilateral pulmonary parenchymal ground-glass and consolidative pulmonary opacities, sometimes with a rounded morphology and a peripheral lung distribution. […] Notably, lung cavitation, discrete pulmonary nodules, pleural effusions, and lymphadenopathy were absent. […] Follow-up imaging in a subset of patients during the study time window often demonstrated mild or moderate progression of disease, as manifested by increasing extent and density of lung opacities.
32020836 The two patients shared common clinical features including fever, cough, and multiple ground-glass opacities in the bilateral lung field with patchy infiltration.
32027573 Forty-four of 51 (86%) patients had bilateral lung involvement, while 41 of 51 (80%) involved the posterior part of the lungs and 44 of 51 (86%) were peripheral. […] There were more consolidated lung lesions in patients 5 days or more from disease onset to CT scan versus 4 days or fewer (431 of 712 lesions vs 129 of 612 lesions; P < .001). […] Patients older than 50 years had more consolidated lung lesions than did those aged 50 years or younger (212 of 470 vs 198 of 854; P < .001). […] Follow-up CT in 13 patients showed improvement in seven (54%) patients and progression in four (31%) patients.ConclusionPatients with fever and/or cough and with conspicuous ground-glass opacity lesions in the peripheral and posterior lungs on CT images, combined with normal or decreased white blood cells and a history of epidemic exposure, are highly suspected of having 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia.
32044814 Lung involvement was present in all cases, with most chest computed tomography scans showing lesions in multiple lung lobes, some of which were dense; ground-glass opacity co-existed with consolidation shadows or cord-like shadows.
32048163 The viral load of 2019-nCoV detected from patient respiratory tracts was positively linked to lung disease severity. […] ALB, LYM, LYM (%), LDH, NEU (%), and CRP were highly correlated to the acute lung injury. […] Age, viral load, lung injury score, and blood biochemistry indexes, albumin (ALB), CRP, LDH, LYM (%), LYM, and NEU (%), may be predictors of disease severity. […] Moreover, the Angiotensin II level in the plasma sample from 2019-nCoV infected patients was markedly elevated and linearly associated to viral load and lung injury.
32053470 Background Chest CT is used to assess the severity of lung involvement in COVID-19 pneumonia. […] The total CT score was the sum of lung involvement (5 lobes, score 1-5 for each lobe, range, 0 none, 25 maximum) was determined. […] Maximum lung involved peaked at approximately 10 days (with the calculated total CT score of 6) from the onset of initial symptoms (R2=0.25), p<0.001). […] Based on quartiles of patients from day 0 to day 26 involvement, 4 stages of lung CT were defined: Stage 1 (0-4 days): ground glass opacities (GGO) in 18/24 (75%) patients with the total CT score of 2±2; (2)Stage-2 (5-8d days): increased crazy-paving pattern 9/17 patients (53%) with a increase in total CT score (6±4, p=0.002); (3) Stage-3 (9-13days): consolidation 19/21 (91%) patients with the peak of total CT score (7±4); (4) Stage-4 (≥14 days): gradual resolution of consolidation 15/20 (75%) patients with a decreased total CT score (6±4) without crazy-paving pattern. […] Conclusion In patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia (without severe respiratory distress during the disease course), lung abnormalities on chest CT showed greatest severity approximately 10 days after initial onset of symptoms.
32054787 Prophylactic remdesivir treatment initiated 24 h prior to inoculation completely prevented MERS-CoV-induced clinical disease, strongly inhibited MERS-CoV replication in respiratory tissues, and prevented the formation of lung lesions. […] Therapeutic remdesivir treatment initiated 12 h postinoculation also provided a clear clinical benefit, with a reduction in clinical signs, reduced virus replication in the lungs, and decreased presence and severity of lung lesions.
32061066 Three patients were examined by chest X-ray examination, one of which was normal, one case showed infiltrates of right upper lung, and another showed in right lower lung. […] And 7 cases (7/9) showed multiple ground glass exudation, including 5 cases (5/7) involved bilateral lungs, 2 cases (2/7) involved unilateral lung, 3 cases (3/7) with patchy consolidation, and 2 cases (2/9) showed no abnormality. Conclusions: The patents with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in this study generally have an epidemiological history.
32062875 The CT images of these patients showed bilateral multiple patchy or nodular ground-glass opacities and/or infiltrating shadows in middle and outer zone of the lung or under the pleura.
32064855 Specific IgM antibody screening for patients whose pharyngeal swab nucleic acid test is negative but with ground glass-like lung lesions is very important for early detection and early isolation.
32072255 • Novel coronavirus (COVID-19)-infected pneumonia usually manifests as bilateral ground-glass opacities in the lung periphery on chest CT scans. […] • Role of radiologists includes not only early detection of lung abnormality, but also suggestion of disease severity, potential progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome, and possible bacterial co-infection in hospitalized patients.
32077440 For patients with lung occupying lesions, the whole process of diagnosis and treatment can not be carried out as usual due to the epidemic.
32077441 With the spread of COVID-19, the routine clinical diagnosis and treatment for lung cancer patients has been disturbed. […] Due to the systemic immunosuppressive of lung cancer patients caused by the malignancy and anticancer treatments, lung cancer patients are more susceptible to infection than healthy individuals. […] Lung cancer patients should be the priority group for COVID-19 prevention. […] The protection provisions and control measures aiming to protect lung cancer patients from COVID-19 have been increasingly concerned. […] During the COVID-19 outbreak period, it should be carefully differentiated for fever and respiratory symptoms for lung cancer patients receiving anti-tumor treatment, in order to evaluate the risk of COVID-19. […] Moreover, it is necessary to carry out meticulous and individualized clinical management for lung cancer patients to effectively protect the patients from COVID-19.
32077789 With a longer time after the onset of symptoms, CT findings were more frequent, including consolidation, bilateral and peripheral disease, greater total lung involvement, linear opacities, “crazy-paving” pattern and the “reverse halo” sign. […] Bilateral lung involvement was observed in 10/36 early patients (28%), 25/33 intermediate patients (76%), and 22/25 late patients (88%).
32081636 Bilateral lung involvement with ground-glass opacity was the most common finding from computed tomography images of the chest.
32088847 All patients had peripheral ground-glass opacities and/or lung consolidations in more than two pulmonary lobes. […] Lung lesions were characterized by a high 18F-FDG uptake and there was evidence of lymph node involvement.
32091414 Most of the lesions were multiple, with an average of 12 ± 6 lung segments involved. […] The most common involved lung segments were the dorsal segment of the right lower lobe (69/80, 86%), the posterior basal segment of the right lower lobe (68/80, 85%), the lateral basal segment of the right lower lobe (64/80, 80%), the dorsal segment of the left lower lobe (61/80, 76%), and the posterior basal segment of the left lower lobe (65/80, 81%). […] The common chest CT findings of COVID-19 are multiple ground glass opacity, consolidation, and interlobular septal thickening in both lungs, which are mostly distributed under the pleura.
32096366 The shape, number and distribution of lung shadows, as well as the characteristics of the lesions on the CT images were reviewed. […] The obvious shadows infiltrating the lungs were shown on CT images in 50 cases, for other 2 cases there was no abnormal changes in the lungs during the first CT examination.
32098422 This virus causes acute lung symptoms, leading to a condition that has been named as “coronavirus disease 2019” (COVID-19).
32100485 The peripheral and posterior lung fields were involved in 78% and 67% of the lesions, respectively. […] COVID-19 pneumonia in Korea primarily manifested as pure to mixed ground-glass opacities with a patchy to confluent or nodular shape in the bilateral peripheral posterior lungs.
32104915 Furthermore, some coronaviruses have been demonstrated able to spread via a synapse-connected route to the medullary cardiorespiratory center from the mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors in the lung and lower respiratory airways.
32105637 The mean number of involved lung segments was 10·5 (SD 6·4) overall, 2·8 (3·3) in group 1, 11·1 (5·4) in group 2, 13·0 (5·7) in group 3, and 12·1 (5·9) in group 4.
32107577 We analyzed the clinical characteristics of the patients, as well as the distribution characteristics, pattern, morphology, and accompanying manifestations of lung lesions. […] More than half of the patients presented bilateral, multifocal lung lesions, with peripheral distribution, and 53 (59%) patients had more than two lobes involved.
32112884 On chest computed tomography (CT), lung segments 6 and 10 were mostly involved. […] Lesions were more localized in the peripheral lung with a patchy form. […] The imaging pattern of multifocal peripheral ground glass or mixed opacity with predominance in the lower lung is highly suspicious of COVID-19 in the first week of disease onset.
32112966 Several recent case reports have described common early chest imaging findings of lung pathology caused by 2019 novel Coronavirus (SARS-COV2) which appear to be similar to those seen previously in SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infected patients. […] Moderate to severe progression of the lung infiltrates, with increasing percentage of high-density infiltrates sustained by a bilateral and multi-segmental extension of lung opacities, were seen. […] It could be an early alert radiological sign to predict initial lung deterioration. […] Finally, the pulmonary vessels enlargement in areas where new lung infiltrates develop in the follow-up CT scan, could describe an early predictor radiological sign of lung impairment.
32114094 Two patients who recently underwent lung lobectomies for adenocarcinoma were retrospectively found to have had COVID-19 at the time of the operation. […] Pathologic examinations revealed that apart from the tumors, the lungs of both patients exhibited edema, proteinaceous exudate, focal reactive hyperplasia of pneumocytes with patchy inflammatory cellular infiltration, and multinucleated giant cells. […] Because both patients did not exhibit symptoms of pneumonia at the time of operation, these changes likely represent an early phase of the lung pathology of COVID-19 pneumonia.
32114744 Their clinical material including placental tissue and lung CT, and laboratory results were collected, meanwhile, nucleic acid detection of 2019-nCoV of the placentas were performed by RT-PCR. Results: Three placentas delivered from pregnant women with confirmed 2019-nCoV infection, who were all in their third trimester with emergency caesarean section.
32118394 The diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer patients have been challenged greatly because of extraordinary public health measures since the lung cancer patients are a high-risk population during the COVID-19 outbreak period. […] Strict protection for lung cancer patients is needed to avoid infection. […] Lung cancer patients are difficult to differentiate from patients with COVID-19 in terms of clinical symptoms, which will bring great trouble to the clinical work and physical and mental health of lung cancer patients. […] This review will demonstrate how to applicate appropriate and individual management for lung cancer patients to protect them from COVID-19.
32124995 And we found that patients with a positive stool test did not experience gastrointestinal symptoms and had nothing to do with the severity of the lung infection.
32125130 In order to achieve the overall victory of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease epidemic in this ‘war’, especially to prevent the disease recurrence from rebounding during the resumption of labor, the government has not loosened any control of personnel mobility, which has obviously affected the normal examination and treatment of lung cancer patients under the influence of this epidemic. […] Among the infected cancer patients, lung cancer is the most common type. […] It is necessary to provide more appropriate individualized treatment recommendations for patients with lung cancer based on the epidemic situation of the patient’s location and in combination with the patient’s own condition. […] Through active prevention of infection, timely conversion of treatment strategies, online and offline joint control, and positive psychological counseling, we significantly hope to help patients with lung cancer to survive this difficult period.
32125131 The imaging data were reviewed and analyzed in detail. Results: (1) Distribution: the lesion detected in the lung unilaterally in 14 cases (10.7%) and bilaterally in 116 cases (89.3%). […] According to the distribution in the lobes of the lung, all cases could be classified into subpleural distribution (102 cases, 78.4%), centrilobular distribution (99 cases, 76.1%) and diffused distribution (8 cases, 6.1%).
32125132 Given the systemic immunosuppressive state caused by malignancy and anticancer treatments, patients with advanced lung cancer may be at a higher risk of COVID-19 infection. […] During epidemic of COVID-19, a guideline for the optimal management of patients with advanced lung cancer urgently needs to be proposed to distinguish the symptoms of COVID-19 and the side effects of antitumor drugs. […] This network questionnaire survey was conducted on the lung cancer group of the Chinese Thoracic Society, Chinese Medical Association; the lung cancer group of the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology Youth Committee; and the Chinese Respiratory Oncology Collaboration. 321 valid questionnaires were received. […] Based on the guidelines on lung cancer and the results of the questionnaires, a consensus was reached. […] 对于目前新冠肺炎疫情期间,晚期非小细胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer,NSCLC)患者管理、抗肿瘤药物使用的策略、具体注意事项、药物不良反应与新冠肺炎疑诊患者的鉴别诊断要点等方面给予了建议和推荐。
32125642 Currently there is no effective antiviral therapy for SARS-CoV-2 infection, which frequently leads to fatal inflammatory responses and acute lung injury. […] In the absence of a proven clinical FcR blocker, the use of intravenous immunoglobulin to block FcR activation may be a viable option for the urgent treatment of pulmonary inflammation to prevent severe lung injury.
32125873 Lesions present on CT images were more likely to have a peripheral distribution (88 [87.1%]) and bilateral involvement (83 [82.2%]) and be lower lung predominant (55 [54.5%]) and multifocal (55 [54.5%]). […] Lesions are more likely to have peripheral distribution and bilateral involvement and be lower lung predominant and multifocal.
32129583 In heart failure group, the ratio of the expansion of small pulmonary veins was also higher (3/7 vs. 0, P=0.013), and the lung lesions can be significantly improved after effective anti-heart failure treatment.
32129670 This study explains the findings from lung computed tomography images of some patients with COVID-19 treated in this medical institution and discusses the difference between COVID-19 and other lung diseases.
32129843 It is still unclear how fast the virus evolved and how the virus interacts with other microorganisms in the lung.
32134681 Compared with early-phase disease (≤ 7 days after the onset of symptoms), advanced-phase disease (8-14 days after the onset of symptoms) was characterized by significantly increased frequencies of GGO plus a reticular pattern, vacuolar sign, fibrotic streaks, a subpleural line, a subpleural transparent line, air bronchogram, bronchus distortion, and pleural effusion; however, GGO significantly decreased in advanced-phase disease. CONCLUSION. CT examination of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia showed a mixed and diverse pattern with both lung parenchyma and the interstitium involved. […] Lesions presented with a characteristic multifocal distribution in the middle and lower lung regions and in the posterior lung area.
32150618 Using the PBPK models, hydroxychloroquine concentrations in lung fluid were simulated under 5 different dosing regimens to explore the most effective regimen whilst considering the drug’s safety profile.
32157849 Take epidemiological history, fever, and the blood lymphocytes decline as clinical indicators, used CT to evaluate the possibility of COVID-19 and range of lung involvement.
32162081 Compared to reports in adults, we found similar but more modest lung abnormalities at CT in our small paediatric cohort.
32168162 The imaging findings of the 2019-nCoV infection in our young diabetic patient featured ground-glass opacities and consolidations in both lungs. […] The lung lesions may involute rapidly during the course.
32170560 Moreover, lung cells that have ACE2 expression may be the main target cells during 2019-nCoV infection. […] Through scRNA-seq data analyses, we identified the organs at risk, such as lung, heart, esophagus, kidney, bladder, and ileum, and located specific cell types (i.e., type II alveolar cells (AT2), myocardial cells, proximal tubule cells of the kidney, ileum and esophagus epithelial cells, and bladder urothelial cells), which are vulnerable to 2019-nCoV infection.
32170806 Lung lesions have been considered as the major damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32171193 Coronavirus-19 (COVI-19) involves humans as well as animals and may cause serious damage to the respiratory tract, including the lung: coronavirus disease (COVID-19). […] The binding of COVI-19 to the Toll Like Receptor (TLR) causes the release of pro-IL-1β which is cleaved by caspase-1, followed by inflammasome activation and production of active mature IL-1β which is a mediator of lung inflammation, fever and fibrosis.
32172546 Objective: To investigate the pathological characteristics and the clinical significance of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (termed by WHO as corona virus disease 2019, COVID-19). Methods: Minimally invasive autopsies from lung, heart, kidney, spleen, bone marrow, liver, pancreas, stomach, intestine, thyroid and skin were performed on three patients died of novel coronavirus pneumonia in Chongqing, China. […] Focal hemorrhage in lung tissue, organization of exudates in some alveolar cavities, and pulmonary interstitial fibrosiswere observed. […] Furthermore, degeneration and necrosis of parenchymal cells, formation of hyaline thrombus in small vessels, and pathological changes of chronic diseases were observed in other organs and tissues, while no evidence of coronavirus infection was observed in these organs. Conclusion: s The lungs from novel coronavirus pneumonia patients manifest significant pathological lesions, including the alveolar exudative inflammation and interstitial inflammation, alveolar epithelium proliferation and hyaline membrane formation. […] While the 2019-nCoV is mainly distributed in lung, the infection also involves in the damages of heart, vessels, liver, kidney and other organs.
32172669 The clinical features include fever, coughing, shortness of breath, and inflammatory lung infiltration.
32174095 Although there are no reports on the mechanism of COVID-19 inducing pulmonary fibrosis, based on the existing theoretical basis, we focus on the possible mechanism of COVID-19 sustained lung damaging, the key role of abnormal immune mechanism in the initiation and promotion of pulmonary fibrosis, and the corresponding therapeutic measures.
32174128 The median number of affected lung lobes and segments was higher in patients with positive RT-PCR results than in those with negative RT-PCR results (five vs 3.5 affected lobes and 15 vs nine affected segments; p < 0.05). […] Although the air bronchogram reticular pattern was more frequently seen in patients with positive results, centrilobular nodules were less frequently seen in patients with positive results. CONCLUSION. At the point during the COVID-19 outbreak when this study was performed, imaging patterns of multifocal, peripheral, pure GGO, mixed GGO, or consolidation with slight predominance in the lower lung and findings of more extensive GGO than consolidation on chest CT scans obtained during the first week of illness were considered findings highly suspicious of COVID-19.
32189015 Unlike other acute infectious diseases progressing to sepsis, the severe courses of COVID19 seemingly show prolonged progression from onset of first symptoms to life-threatening deterioration of (primarily) lung function.
32189175 Multiple patchy ground-glass opacities (GGOs) were seen in bilateral lung, mostly in subpleural areas. […] Our case of COVID-19 pneumonia showed multiple subpleural GGOs in bilateral lung, rapid progression, and it also accompanied nodular GGOs on chest CT.
32189428 We predict that these individuals are ‘primed’ to be at higher risk because nicotine can directly impact the putative receptor for the virus (ACE2) and lead to deleterious signaling in lung epithelial cells.
32191587 A total of 366 CT scans were acquired and reviewed by 2 groups of radiologists for the patterns and distribution of lung abnormalities, total CT scores and number of zones involved. […] Conclusion The extent of lung abnormalities on CT peaked during illness days 6-11.
32191588 Conclusions A deep learning model can accurately detect COVID-19 and differentiate it from community acquired pneumonia and other lung diseases.
32191764 CT findings of NCIP were featured by predominant ground glass opacities mixed with consolidations, mainly peripheral or combined peripheral and central distributions, bilateral and lower lung zones being mostly involved.
32191830 Severe forms of the infection, being an indication for treatment in the intensive care unit, comprise acute lung inflammation, ARDS, sepsis and septic shock.
32193037 Six patients (8%) were diagnosed as mild type pneumonia; these patients had no obvious abnormal CT findings or manifested mild changes of lung infection. […] All 43 patients (59 %) with common type presented unique or multiple ground-glass opacities (GGO) in the periphery of the lungs, with or without interlobular septal thickening. […] An extensive “white lung”, with atelectasis and pleural effusion were found in critical type patients (3, 4%).
32195705 Lung-protective ventilation, prone position ventilation, and adequate sedation and analgesia are essential components of ventilation management.
32196627 We report the case of a young man with documented nCoV-19 infection evaluated with lung ultrasound and discuss potential applications of lung ultrasound in this setting. […] Lung ultrasound allowed the identification of nCoV-19 infection at bed-side. […] Moreover, lung ultrasound can have several other advantages, such as reduced health worker exposition to infected patients, repeatability during follow-up, low-costs and easier application in low-resource settings.
32196933 For this family of viruses the host innate immune response appears the main driver of lung tissue damage during infection.
32197085 Therefore, we reinvestigated published data from pangolin lung samples from which SARS-CoV-like CoVs were detected by Liu et al. 
32198291 Based on the structure, we developed the lead compound into a potent inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro The pharmacokinetic characterization of the optimized inhibitor reveals a pronounced lung tropism and suitability for administration by the inhalative route.
32198915 The lung injury and repair caused by COVID-19 has many similarities with the onset and progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) .
32199615 Although ACE2 is reported to be expressed in lung, liver, stomach, ileum, kidney and colon, its expressing levels are rather low, especially in the lung. […] Consistent with other recent reports, we confirmed that ACE2 was mainly expressed in lung AT2, liver cholangiocyte, colon colonocytes, esophagus keratinocytes, ileum ECs, rectum ECs, stomach epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubules.
32199619 The lesions in each lung segment of the patient’s chest CT images were characterised. […] The lesions were located mainly in the subpleural area of the lungs (92.4%). […] Of the 80 cases, 76 patients (95%) had bilateral lung disease, four (5%) patients had unilateral lung disease, and eight (10%) patients had cord shadow. […] The chest CT of NCP patients is characterised by the onset of bilateral ground-glass lesions located in the subpleural area of the lung, and progressive lesions that result in consolidation with no migratory lesions. […] As patients can have inflammatory changes in the lungs alongside a negative early nucleic acid test, chest CT, in combination with epidemiological and laboratory tests, is a useful examination to evaluate the disease and curative effect.
32202256 Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with any one of the following criteria will be eligible to receive lopinavir/ritonavir for 14 days after obtaining written informed consent: (i) respiratory distress with respiratory rate ≥22/min or SpO2 of <94 per cent; (ii) lung parenchymal infiltrates on chest X-ray; (iii) hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or need for vasopressor/inotropic medication; (iv) new-onset organ dysfunction; and (v) high-risk groups - age >60 yr, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, chronic lung disease and immunocompromised persons.
32204751 Preventive treatment has an important role to control and avoid the spread of severe respiratory disease, but often is difficult to obtain and sometimes cannot be effective to reduce the risk of deterioration of the underlining lung pathology. […] For an appropriate and effective approach to treat severe pediatric respiratory diseases, two main different strategies can be proposed according to the stage and severity of the patient conditions: patient in the initial phase and with non-severe lung pathology and patient with severe initial respiratory impairment and/or with delay in arrival to observation.
32204987 High resolution computed tomography (CT) allows objective evaluation of the lung lesions, thus enabling us to better understand the pathogenesis of the disease.
32207208 Under specific circumstances, such as during the current COVID-19 outbreak, pregnant women can be a target for respiratory infection, and lung examination may be required as part of their clinical evaluation, ideally avoiding exposure to radiation. […] We propose a practical approach for obstetricians/gynecologists to perform lung ultrasound, showing potential applications, semiology and practical aspects, which should be of particular importance in emergency situations, such as the current pandemic infection of COVID-19.
32207255 We report a case where serial follow-up chest computed tomography revealed progression of pulmonary lesions into confluent bilateral consolidation with lower lung predominance, thereby confirming COVID-19 pneumonia.
32211920 Unlike other acute infectious diseases progressing to sepsis, the severe courses of COVID19 seemingly show prolonged progression from onset of first symptoms to life-threatening deterioration of (primarily) lung function.
32215613 Cardiovascular disease and pharmacologic RAS inhibition both increase ACE2 levels, which may increase the virulence of SARS-CoV-2 within the lung and heart.
32215622 Maximal clinical signs of rapid breathing, weight loss, histopathological changes from the initial exudative phase of diffuse alveolar damage with extensive apoptosis to the later proliferative phase of tissue repair, airway and intestinal involvement with virus nucleocapsid protein expression, high lung viral load, and spleen and lymphoid atrophy associated with marked cytokine activation were observed within the first week of virus challenge. […] The lung virus titre was between 105-107 TCID50/g. […] Immunoprophylaxis with early convalescent serum achieved significant decrease in lung viral load but not in lung pathology.
32215691 CT visual quantitative evaluation was based on summing up the acute lung inflammatory lesions involving each lobe, which was scored as 0 (0%), 1 (1-25%), 2 (26-50%), 3 (51-75%), or 4 (76-100%), respectively.
32216717 A severity index was determined for each lung. […] The lung scores were summed to produce the final severity score.
32216961 Chest CT revealed abnormal lung shadows in 110 patients. […] Regarding lesion distribution, multi-lobe lesions in both lungs were present in most patients (80 cases; 72.7%).
32217117 This leads to a cytokine storm and subsequent progression to acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and often death.
32220574 Both patients had no identified comorbidities and developed mild illness with temporal fever, persistent cough, and lung interstitial infiltrates.
32221983 ACE2 is widely distributed in the heart, kidneys, lungs, and testes. […] Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical high-mortality disease, and ACE2 has a protective effect on this type of acute lung injury.
32222121 The inflammation indicators and fever of this patient were effectively controlled and the lung lesions remained stable after active anti-viral treatment, then the radical colorectomy was performed after the viral negative conversion for twice.
32222986 Furthermore, we observed that the lesion regions in SARS-Cov-2 infected lungs with severe-/critical-type of medical staff were more likely to exhibit lesions in the right upper lobe (31.7% vs 0%; P = .028) and right lung (61% vs 18.2%; P = .012).
32223665 CT scores were determined according to CT findings and lung involvement.
32224151 Lung cancer was the most frequent cancer type (7, 25.0%).
32226695 Patients with HAPE also exhibit patchy infiltrates throughout the pulmonary fields, often in an asymmetric pattern and CT findings reveal increased lung markings and ground glass-like changes as well.
32227357 Clinical trials should also be undertaken to use statins, which are lipid-lowering drugs but have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties to prevent acute lung injury in COVID-19 infection.
32227492 Growing evidence is showing the usefulness of lung ultrasound in patients with the 2019 new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). […] In this study, we share our experience and propose a standardized approach to optimize the use of lung ultrasound in patients with COVID-19.
32227511 A 57-year-old man was diagnosed with acute aortic dissection (AAD), but had marked infiltration shadows in his right lung. […] Intraoperative findings showed that large subadventitial hematomas had spread from the ascending aorta to the right pulmonary artery, which may have caused the infiltration of the lung.
32228252 Recognition that ACE2 is the coreceptor for the coronavirus has prompted new therapeutic approaches to block the enzyme or reduce its expression to prevent the cellular entry and SARS-CoV-2 infection in tissues that express ACE2 including lung, heart, kidney, brain, and gut.
32228825 In addition, germicidal UV radiation “breaks down” the oxygen O2 which then aggregate into O3 (ozone) molecules creating the ozone layer, capable of inhibiting viral replication and improving lung respiration.
32235187 Characteristic CT findings included the lobes of bilateral lung extensively involved, ground-glass opacity and ground-glass opacity with consolidation in the peripheral area, sometimes accompanied by interlobular septal thickening, and subpleural line and pleural thickening. […] Compared with the younger group, the proportion of extensive involvement of lung lobes was higher in the elderly group (71.4% vs. […] Elderly and younger patients with corona virus disease have some common CT features, but older patients are more likely to have extensive lung lobe involvement, and subpleural line and pleural thickening.
32235945 This severe presentation corresponds to the usage of a virus receptor that is expressed predominantly in the lung2,4. […] Infectious virus was readily isolated from throat- and lung-derived samples, but not from stool samples, in spite of high virus RNA concentration. […] Sequence-distinct virus populations were consistently detected in throat and lung samples from the same patient, proving independent replication.
32236856 U-HR-CT has a larger matrix size of 1024 × 1024 thinner slice thickness of 0.25 mm and can demonstrate terminal bronchioles in the normal lungs; as a result, Reid’s secondary lobules and their abnormalities can be identified. […] The distribution and hallmarks (ground-glass opacity, consolidation with or without architectural distortion, linear opacity, crazy paving) of the lung opacities on U-HRCT were visually evaluated on a 1 K monitor by two experienced reviewers. […] The CT lung volume was measured, and the ratio of the measured lung volume to the predicted total lung capacity (predTLC) based on sex, age and height was calculated. […] In these lesions, the secondary lobules were smaller than those in the un-affected lungs. […] CT lung volume decreased in two cases comparing predTLC. […] U-HRCT can evaluate not only the distribution and hallmarks of COVID-19 pneumonia but also visualize local lung volume loss.
32238223 This case report underlines the appearance of a “walking pneumonia” in a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patient, with evidence of progressive lung involvement on chest imaging studies.
32238232 Like the SARS-CoV disease, COVID-19 is a systematic disease and targets the lungs, vasculatures, and the immune system. […] The basic pathogenesis involves two interlinked processes: a severe lung inflammation and immune deficiency, both of which are related to an inappropriate immune response and over-production of cytokines.
32238438 While the majority of infected cases appear mild, in some cases individuals present serious cardiorespiratory complications with possible long-term lung damage.
32238757 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes serious respiratory illness such as pneumonia and lung failure, was first reported in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei, China.
32239472 SNR and CNR were significantly different in several thoracic structures between HD-DECT and LDCT, with exception of lung parenchyma.
32239532 Lung ultrasound (LU) has rapidly become a tool for assessment of patients stricken by the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). […] Over the past two and a half months (January, February, and first half of March 2020) we have used this modality for identification of lung involvement along with pulmonary severity in patients with suspected or documented COVID-19 infection.
32240123 The most commonly reported conditions were diabetes mellitus, chronic lung disease, and cardiovascular disease.
32240913 We aimed to compare chest HRCT lung signs identified in scans of differently aged patients with COVID-19 infections. […] Patients aged 45-59 years and aged ≥60 years had more bilateral lung, lung lobe, and lung field involvement, and greater lesion numbers than patients <18 years.
32242947 COVID-19 is a new clinical infectious disease that mainly causes bilateral pneumonia and lung function deteriorates rapidly.
32243697 After the diagnosis of COVID-19, immunosuppressive agents were discontinued and methylprednisolone with prophylactic antibiotics were initiated, however, the lung injury progressed.
32243911 It is therefore necessary to explore biomarkers to determine the extent of lung lesions and disease severity. […] We aimed to assess the usefulness of CRP levels in the early stage of COVID-19 and to correlate them with lung lesions and severe presentation. […] On admission CRP levels were collected, and the diameter of the largest lung lesion was measured in the most severe lung lesion by lung CT scan. […] CRP levels and the diameter of the largest lung lesion in the moderate group were higher than those in the mild group (Mann-Whitney test=-2.647, -2.171, P˂0.05), those in the severe group were higher than those in the moderate group (Mann-Whitney test=0.693, -2.177, P˂0.05), and those in the critical group were higher than those in the severe group (Mann-Whitney test=-0.068, -1.549, P˂0.05). […] CRP levels were positively correlated with the diameter of lung lesion and severe presentation (correlation coefficient=0.873, 0.734, P˂0.001). […] In the early stage of COVID-19 CRP levels were positively correlated with lung lesions and could reflect disease severity.
32244059 Ever since the first case was reported at the end of 2019, the SARS-COV-2 virus and associated lung disease COVID-19 has spread throughout the world and has become a pandemic.
32245904 Patients with lung cancer are at risk of pulmonary complications from COVID-19. […] We hereby propose a tool to support oncologists and physicians in treatment decision for patients with lung cancer.
32246819 Two of the 6 patients (33.3%) had bilateral lung involvements and 4 (66.7%) had single-lung involvement.
32246845 Here, we investigate ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels and their distribution across cell types in lung tissue (twelve donors, 39,778 cells) and in cells derived from subsegmental bronchial branches (four donors, 17,521 cells) by single nuclei and single cell RNA sequencing, respectively.
32247317 Early Lessons on the Importance of Lung Imaging in Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19).
32248675 Most of these patients recover and survive to ICU discharge with supportive care using lung protective ventilation strategies, avoiding excess fluids, screening and treating bacterial co-infection, and timely intubation.
32248966 COVID-19 results in mild symptoms in the majority of infected patients, but can cause severe lung injury, cardiac injury, and death.
32249471 We report a case of positive lung ultrasound findings consistent with COVID-19 in a woman with an initial negative RT-PCR result. […] The lung ultrasound-imaging findings were present between the negative and subsequent positive RT-PCR tests and correlated with CT findings. […] The point-of-care lung-ultrasound examination was easy to perform and, as such, could play an important role in the triage of women with suspected COVID-19.
32250244 To the contrary, compelling evidence exists that the ACE-1/angiotensin(Ang)II/ATR-1 pathway is involved in SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS, while the ACE-2/Ang(1-7)/ATR2/MasR pathway counteracts the harmful actions of AngII in the lung. […] A reduced ACE-1/ACE-2 ratio is, in fact, a feature of ARDS that can be rescued by human recombinant ACE-2 and Ang(1-7) administration, thus preventing SARS-CoV-2-induced damage to the lung.
32251003 Lung transplantation (LT) as the sole therapy for end-stage pulmonary fibrosis related to acute respiratory distress syndrome has been considered as the ultimate rescue therapy for these patients. […] The pathological results of the explanted lungs were concordant with the critical clinical manifestation, and provided insight towards better understanding of the disease. […] Lung transplantation can be performed in end-stage patients with respiratory failure due to COVID-19-related pulmonary fibrosis.
32251805 Multiple organ dysfunction can be observed, the most common organ damage was lung, followed by heart, kidney and liver.
32252784 Most of the lesions identified in chest CT images were multiple lesions of bilateral lungs, lesions were more localized in the peripheral lung, 109 (83%) patients had more than two lobes involved, 20 (15%) patients presented with patchy ground glass opacities, patchy ground glass opacities and consolidation of lesions co-existing in 61 (47%) cases.
32253318 Radiological examinations showed varying degrees of absorption of lung lesions within 7 d. 
32253400 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease with few successful treatments, and is strongly associated with cigarette smoking (CS). […] Since the novel coronavirus has spread worldwide seriously, there is growing concern that patients who have chronic respiratory conditions like COPD can easily be infected and are more prone to having severe illness and even mortality because of lung dysfunction. […] Loquat leaves have long been used as an important material for both pharmaceutical and functional applications in the treatment of lung disease in Asia, especially in China and Japan. […] The present study uses a CS-induced mouse model to estimate the morphological changes in lung tissue. […] The results demonstrated that TF suppressed the histological changes in the lungs of CS-challenged mice, as evidenced by reduced generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and diminished the protein expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). […] Interestingly, TF could inhibit CS-induced oxidative stress in the lungs of COPD mice. […] Taken together, our findings showed that the protective effect and putative mechanism of the action of TF resulted in the inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress through the regulation of TRPV1 and the related signal pathway in lung tissues.
32255437 Peripheral distribution (45%) of lung lesions was predominant. […] Most of the lesions were multilobar (68%), with an average of three lung segments involved. […] Children with COVID-19 had relatively milder symptoms and less severe lung inflammation than adults.
32257554 Therefore, MSC therapy inhibiting the overactivation of the immune system and promoting endogenous repair by improving the lung microenvironment after the SARS-CoV-2 infection found in this study is striking.
32264791 ACE2 is widely expressed, including, in the lungs, cardiovascular system, gut, kidneys, central nervous system, and adipose tissue. […] The ACE2 system is a critical protective pathway against heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction including, myocardial infarction and hypertension, and against lung disease and diabetes.
32265310 Limited pre-clinical data suggest that systemic MSC administration can significantly reduce respiratory virus (Influenza strains H5N1 and H9N2)-induced lung injury, however, there are no available data in models of coronavirus respiratory infection.There are a rapidly increasing number of clinical investigations of cell-based therapy approaches for COVID-19. […] To provide a rationale strategy to maximise potential therapeutic use, it is critically important to understand the relevant pre-clinical studies and postulated mechanisms of MSC actions in respiratory virus-induced lung injuries.
32265331 A single intranasal administration of 104 PFU PIV5-MERS-S provided complete protection against a lethal challenge with mouse-adapted MERS-CoV (MERSMA6.1.2) and improved virus clearance in the lung. […] Intriguingly, an influx of eosinophils was observed only in the lungs of mice immunized with inactivated MERS-CoV, suggestive of a hypersensitivity-type response.
32267139 Brain metastasis is a major cause for cancer death in patients with lung cancer. […] Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and hsa-miR-217 has been identified to mediate the development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). […] This axis might be a potential target for the treatment of brain metastasis of lung cancer.
32267998 There is evidence in both animals and humans that fibrinolytic therapy in Acute Lung Injury and ARDS improves survival, which also points to fibrin deposition in the pulmonary microvasculature as a contributory cause of ARDS and would be expected to be seen in patients with ARDS and concomitant diagnoses of DIC on their laboratory values such as what is observed in more than 70% of those who die of COVID-19 (8-10).
32268018 The main medication characteristics are clearing heat, entilating lung, removing toxicity and removing turbidity.
32268454 Chest CT of two patients showed bilateral lung texture was thickening, and chest CT of other patients was normal.
32268515 In the present study we investigated in silico the basic mechanism of ACE2 in the lung and provided evidences for new potentially effective drugs for Covid-19.
32270184 We comprehensively investigated the replication, cell tropism, and immune activation profile of SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung tissues with SARS-CoV included as a comparison. […] SARS-CoV-2 infected and replicated in human lung tissues more efficiently than that of SARS-CoV. […] Within the 48-hour interval, SARS-CoV-2 generated 3.20 folds more infectious virus particles than that of SARS-CoV from the infected lung tissues (P<0.024). […] Importantly, despite the more efficient virus replication, SARS-CoV-2 did not significantly induce types I, II, or III interferons in the infected human lung tissues. […] Our study provided the first quantitative data on the comparative replication capacity and immune activation profile of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection in human lung tissues.
32270479 Fifteen (65.2%) patients were asymptomatic with patchy ground-glass opacity in a single lung lobe.
32271459 Compared with the non-severe group, the severe group showed statistical significance in older age, hypertension, bilateral lung plaque shadow, decrease in lymphocyte count, increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase. […] Age, combined hypertension, oxygenation index, double lung patch, decreased lymphocyte count, and elevated levels of C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase can be used as predictors of the disease severity.
32271942 Experiments were conducted on two test lungs with different compliances (0.02 and 0.04 l.cmH2 O-1 ). […] The ventilator was used in both pressure and volume control modes and was set to ventilate the low compliance lungs at end-tidal volumes of 500 ± 20 ml. […] A flow restrictor apparatus consisting of a Hoffman clamp and tracheal tube was connected in series to the inspiratory limb of the high compliance test lungs and the resistance modified to achieve end-tidal volumes of 500 ± 20 ml. […] The restriction apparatus successfully modified the inspiratory pressure, minute ventilation, and volume delivered to the high compliance test lungs in both pressure control (27.3-17.8 cm H2 O, 15.2-8.0 l.min-1 and 980-499 ml, respectively), and volume control (21.0-16.7 cm H2 O, 10.7-7.9 l.min-1 and 659-498 ml, respectively) ventilation modes. […] However, these experiments demonstrate the capacity to simultaneously ventilate two test lungs of different compliances, and using only standard hospital equipment, modify the delivered pressure, flow, and volume in each test lung.
32272262 Chest CT showed abnormal attenuation in bilateral multiple lung lobes, distributed in the lower and/or periphery of the lungs (94.98%), with multiple shapes. […] While chest HRCT provided the distribution, shape, attenuation and extent of lung lesions, as well as some typical CT signs of COVID-19 pneumonia.
32272630 However, asymptomatic lung involvement has not been reported. […] We hereby present the case of a 44-year-old health-care worker, who was found to be infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus after a CT-scan performed for an unrelated condition revealed a lesion in the lung field compatible with COVID-19 infection.
32274773 COVID-19, a new viral disease affecting primarily the respiratory system and the lung, has caused a pandemic with serious challenges to health systems around the world. […] Therapy is based on established recommendations issued for patients with acute lung injury (ARDS). […] Lung protective ventilation, prone position, restrictive fluid management and an adequate management of organ failures are the mainstays of therapy. […] In case of fulminant lung failure, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be used as a rescue in experienced centres.
32275257 The SARS-CoV-2 causes changes in blood cells and factors and makes lung abnormalities in patients, which can be detected by serological, molecular, and radiological techniques by detecting these changes and injuries.
32275347 Endomyocardial biopsy demonstrated low-grade myocardial inflammation and viral particles in the myocardium suggesting either a viraemic phase or, alternatively, infected macrophage migration from the lung.
32275452 More patients had multiple lung lobe involvement and pleural effusion in the critical group as compared to moderate group. […] Involvement of multiple lung lobes and pleural effusion were associated with the severity of COVID-19.
32275742 He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on postmortem nasopharyngeal and lung parenchymal swabs. […] Postmortem nasopharyngeal swab was positive for SARS-CoV-2; lung parenchymal swabs were negative.
32275753 Lungs from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have shown typical signs of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), formation of hyaline membrane mainly composed of fibrin, and ‘ground-glass’ opacity. […] We aimed to investigate whether plasminogen can improve lung lesions and hypoxemia of COVID-19. […] Levels of their lung lesions, oxygen saturation and heart rates were compared before and after treatment by CT scanning images and patient monitor. […] After plasminogen inhalation, conditions of lung lesions in 5 clinically moderate patients have quickly improved, shown as the decreased range and density of ‘ground glass’ opacity. […] Whereas it is reported that plasminogen is dramatically increased in adults with ARDS, this study suggests that additional plasminogen may be effective and efficient in treating lung lesions and hypoxemia during COVID-19 infections.
32275766 Ultrasound imaging of the lung and associated tissues may play an important role in the management of patients with COVID-19 associated lung injury. […] Compared to other monitoring modalities, such as auscultation or radiographic imaging, we argue lung ultrasound has high diagnostic accuracy, is ergonomically favourable and has fewer infection control implications. […] By informing the initiation, escalation, titration and weaning of respiratory support, lung ultrasound can be integrated into COVID-19 care pathways for patients with respiratory failure. […] Given the unprecedented pressure on healthcare services currently, supporting and educating clinicians is a key enabler of the wider implementation of lung ultrasound. […] This narrative review provides a summary of evidence and clinical guidance for the use and interpretation of lung ultrasound for patients with moderate, severe and critical COVID-19 associated lung injury. […] Mechanisms by which the potential lung ultrasound workforce can be deployed are explored, including a pragmatic approach to training, governance, imaging, interpretation of images and implementation of lung ultrasound into routine clinical practice.
32277351 However, in a subgroup of patients, the secondary immune response may be exaggerated, leading to inflammatory-induced lung injury and other complications including pneumonitis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory failure, shock, organ failure, and potentially death.
32277387 Recently, the new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has affected nearly 200 countries worldwide. 2019-nCov can cause severe lung disease, multiple-organ damage, and significant mortalities.
32278065 ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are not only expressed in lung, but also in the small intestinal epithelia.
32278670 The most common comorbidities identified were obesity (n = 48%), arterial hypertension (n = 44%) and chronic lung disease (n = 37%).
32281052 After the intravenous transplantation of MSCs, a significant population of cells accumulates in the lung, which they alongside immunomodulatory effect could protect alveolar epithelial cells, reclaim the pulmonary microenvironment, prevent pulmonary fibrosis, and cure lung dysfunction.
32281268 HCov-229E is one of the four flu-causing coronaviruses which share great sequence similitude, while many symptoms of patients infected with COVID-19 resemble those of patients infected with these known flu-causing coronaviruses.2 A previous study reported that human lung epithelial A549 cells treated with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) interfering RNA (RNAi) to lower G6PD activity displayed augmented (12-fold) viral production in comparison to normal counterparts when infected with coronavirus HCov-229E.
32281328 Rhei Radix et Rhizoma screened by Mpro and Trichosanthis Fructus screened by PLP were contained in Maxing Shigan Decoction and Xuanbai Chengqi Decoction, and could be applied to the syndromes of epidemic virus blocking lung. […] Mori Folium, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Forsythiae Fructus obtained by ACE2 inhibitors screening were included in the Sangju Decoction and Yinqiaosan, which might be applicable to the syndromes of warm pathogen attacking lung and cough and dyspnea.
32281329 With the exudation of inflammatory factors, cytokines increase abnormally in tissues and organs, interfering with the immune system, causing excessive immune response of the body, resulting in diffuse damage of lung cells, pulmonary fibrosis, and multiple organ damage, even death.
32281331 The pathogeny of COVID-19 in TCM is damp-toxin, with the core pathogenesis of damp-toxin retention in lung and Qi repression. […] The location of the disease is lung, always involving spleen and stomach, and may further affect heart and kidney in severe cases.
32281332 Among them, the four properties were mainly concentrated in temperature, cold and level, the five tastes were mainly concentrated in bitter, hot and sweet, and the meridians were mainly concentrated in lung, stomach and spleen.
32281333 The pungent medicines are mostly found in the early stage, the bitter drugs are the main flavor in the middle and severe stage, and the sweet medicines are mostly used in the recovery stage; ③the meridian of the drug is more concentrated at the lung, stomach, and heart, and most of drugs are into the lung meridian, accounting for 24.55%; these medicines are mostly into the lungs and stomach in the initial and middle stages, and into the heart and kidney in severe stages; ④oral drugs are mostly non-toxic, among which only 6 kinds are toxic, namely Armeniacae Semen Amarum, Dryopteridis Crassirhizomatis Rhizoma, Paridis Rhizoma, Pinelliae Rhizoma, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia; ⑤most of the drugs have five types of functions: treating exterior syndromes, resolving dampness, clearing heat, replenishing deficiency, resolving phlegm, cough, and asthma.
32283052 The most anatomic distributions were bilateral lung infection (78.2%) and peripheral distribution (76.95%). […] The most common CT features in patients affected by COVID-19 included ground glass opacities and consolidation involving the bilateral lungs in a peripheral distribution.
32285974 Here, we investigate ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels and their distribution across cell types in lung tissue (twelve donors, 39,778 cells) and in cells derived from subsegmental bronchial branches (four donors, 17,521 cells) by single nuclei and single cell RNA sequencing, respectively.
32286679 A lung-saving ventilation strategy must be implemented in acute respiratory distress syndrome and mechanically ventilated patients.
32289051 Lung US findings were consistent with diffuse B lines (100%) and subpleural consolidations (27.3%).
32289516 Here we report seven cases who were confirmed infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the perioperative period of lung resection. […] Retrospective analysis suggested that one patient had been infected with the SARS-CoV-2 prior to the surgery, the other 6 patients contracted the infection after the lung resection. […] Fever, lymphopenia and ground-glass opacities on computerized tomography (CT) are the most common clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in patients after lung resection surgery. […] Three out seven patients died from COVID-19 pneumonia, suggesting that lung resection surgery might be a risk factor for death in patients with COVID-19 in the perioperative period.
32291399 To gain knowledge about the pathology that may contribute to disease progression and fatality, we performed postmortem needle core biopsies of lung, liver, and heart in four patients who died of COVID-19 pneumonia. […] Histologically, the main findings are in the lungs, including injury to the alveolar epithelial cells, hyaline membrane formation, and hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes, all components of diffuse alveolar damage.
32291968 Lung cancer has the highest morbidity and mortality in China and the world. […] Most patients with lung cancer are smokers with poor underlying lung conditions and low immunity, thus it is vital to protect them from epidemic diseases during cancer treatment. […] It is necessary to provide individualized medical treatment and management of treatment-related adverse events for patients with lung cancer based on patients’ conditions and regional epidemic patterns.
32292213 The clinical course of the disease known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ranges from mild respiratory symptoms to severe lung failure.
32292624 The degree of lesions was visually scored by the radiologist, as follows, for each of the 5 lung lobes: 0, no lesion present; 1, <1/3 involvement; 2, >1/3 and < 2/3 involvement; and 3, >2/3 involvement. […] The parameters obtained using the computer tool included lung volume (mL), lesion volume (mL), lesion percentage (%), and mean lesion density (HU) of the whole lung, right lung, left lung, and each lobe. […] A Chi-square test was used to test the consistency of radiologist- and computer-derived lesion percentage in the right/left lung, upper/lower lobe, and each of the 5 lobes.
32292627 Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), lung failure, and fulminant pneumonia are major lung diseases in H7N9 patients. […] Because H7N9 and the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) share similar complications (such as ARDS and lung failure) and corresponding multi-organ dysfunction, MSC-based therapy could be a possible alternative for treating COVID-19.
32292866 This latter stage is characterized by the development of progressive lung involvement with increasing oxygen requirements and occasionally signs of the haemophagocitic syndrome.
32292901 Failure of SARS and MERS vaccines in animal trials involved pathogenesis consistent with an immunological priming that could involve autoimmunity in lung tissues due to previous exposure to the SARS and MERS spike protein.
32293003 We provide a critical review on the relationship of hypertension, RAS, and risk of lung injury. […] We also review in detail the molecular mechanisms linking the RAS to lung damage and the potential clinical impact of treatment with RAS blockers in patients with COVID-19 and a high cardiovascular and renal risk. […] This is related to the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells, and expression of ACE2 in the lung, cardiovascular system, kidney, and other tissues.
32293710 COVID-19 infection and its severity can be explained by the concentration of glycosylated SARS- CoV-2 viral particles in the lung epithelium, the concentration of glycosylated angiotensin converting enzyme receptor 2 (ACE2) in the lung epithelium, and the degree and control of the pulmonary immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at approximately day 8-10 after symptom onset, which may be related to both.
32293716 Only 25.8% of patients had lesions involving single lung and 75.7% of patients had lesions involving bilateral lungs. […] Bilateral lungs involvement was common.
32294796 This study was conducted to explore the clinical value of noninvasive assessment of bedside ultrasound in the diagnosis of lung lesions of Coronavirus Disease-19. […] All cases were examined by lung ultrasound and CT. […] Lung lesions were reviewed by blinded observers, with imaging scores being used to analyze the ultrasound findings of lung lesions in patients with Coronavirus Disease-19 and with chest CT being used as the reference standard. […] The clinical value of ultrasound in the noninvasive assessment of lung lesions was evaluated. […] Lung ultrasound signs in patients with Coronavirus Disease-19 were mainly manifested as interstitial pulmonary edema (90.0 %, 27/30) and pulmonary consolidations (20.0 %, 6/30). […] The lung lesions were mainly distributed in the subpleural and peripheral pulmonary zones. […] There was moderate agreement (Kappa = 0.529) between the noninvasive assessment of bedside ultrasound for lung lesions in patients with Coronavirus Disease-19 and CT. […] The ultrasound scores to evaluate mild, moderate and severe lung lesions exhibited sensitivity of 68.8 % (11/16), 77.8 % (7/9), 100.0 % (2/2), specificity of 85.7 % (12/14), 76.2 % (16/21), 92.9 % (26/28), and diagnostic accuracy of 76.7 % (23/30), 76.7 % (23/30), 93.3 % (28/30), respectively. […] The follow-up dynamic ultrasound examination showed that the condition of all patients worsened gradually, with the ultrasound scores of lung lesions increasing to varying degrees. […] Bedside ultrasound has important clinical significance for noninvasive assessment and dynamic observation of lung lesions in patients with Coronavirus Disease-19, which is worth further consideration. […] ZIEL: Diese Studie wurde durchgeführt, um den klinischen Wert der nicht-invasiven Beurteilung von Ultraschall direkt am Krankenbett bei der Diagnose von Lungenläsionen bei COVID-19-Erkrankung zu untersuchen. […] Alle Fälle wurden mittels Lungenultraschall und CT untersucht. […] Die Lungenläsionen wurden von verblindeten Beobachtern überprüft, wobei die sonografischen Befunde der Lungenläsionen bei COVID-19-Patienten mittels Bildgebungs-Scores analysiert wurden und Thorax-CT als Referenzstandard diente. […] Der klinische Nutzen der Sonografie bei der nicht-invasiven Beurteilung von Lungenläsionen wurde bewertet. […] Bei COVID-19-Patienten manifestierten sich die Lungenultraschallzeichen in erster Linie als interstitielles Lungenödem (90,0 %, 27/30) und Lungenkonsolidierungen (20,0 %, 6/30). […] Die Läsionen der Lunge waren überwiegend in den subpleuralen und peripheren Lungenzonen verteilt. […] Die Übereinstimmung zwischen der nicht-invasiven Beurteilung des Ultraschalls am Krankenbett und der CT für Lungenläsionen bei COVID-19-Patienten war moderat (Kappa = 0,529). […] Die Beurteilung mittels Ultraschall von leichten, moderaten und schweren Lungenläsionen ergab eine Sensitivität von 68,8 % (11/16), 77,8 % (7/9), 100,0 % (2/2), eine Spezifität von 85,7 % (12/14), 76,2 % (16/21), 92,9 % (26/28) und eine diagnostische Genauigkeit von 76,7 % (23/30), 76,7 % (23/30) bzw. […] Die anschließende dynamische Ultraschalluntersuchung zeigte, dass sich der Zustand aller Patienten allmählich verschlechterte, wobei die Ultraschall-Scores der Lungenläsionen in unterschiedlichem Maße anstiegen. […] Ultraschall direkt am Krankenbett hat eine wichtige klinische Bedeutung für die nicht-invasive Beurteilung und die dynamische Beobachtung von Lungenläsionen bei COVID-19-Patienten und sollte weiter in Betracht gezogen werden.
32294816 The results showed that the positive rate of bronchoalveolar lavage for detection of new coronavirus nucleic acid was high, and bronchoalveolar lavage for suspected or confirmed new coronavirus pneumonia patients with negative detection of nucleic acid in pharynx swabs but still residual lung lesions was helpful for early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
32294817 Clinical deterioration accompanied by decreasing viral load in the second week after symptom onset was noted both in SARS and COVID-19, suggesting that the lung damage at this phase is more related to excessive host immune response rather than uncontrolled viral replication.
32294858 There were 3 cases of mild type, 27 cases of common type and 3 cases of severe type.There were 2 cases with hypertension, 1 case with postoperative lung,1 case with diabetes, 1 case with chronic bronchitis, and 1 case with bronchiectasis.SPSS25.0 Chi-square test was used to analyze the distribution of lesions in each lung lobe; SPSS25.0 Spearman correlation coefficient was used to analyze the image score and clinical classification. Results: There were 3 cases (9.1%) with normal lung and 30 cases (90.9%) with Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia(COVID-19) of the 2019-nCoV infected patients. […] In the distribution of COVID-19, 29 cases (87.9%) were involved in bilateral lung and 1 case (3.0%) in unilateral lung. […] Among the 22 cases, 10 cases had more lesions, 6 cases had no changes and 6 cases had less lesions. Conclusion: Most of the patients with 2019-nCoV infection have pulmonary inflammation.CT manifestations include multiple parts, subpleural area or middle and lateral field of lung, ground glass shadow and consolidation, or coexistence.
32295322 Of the cases showing “white lung”, 87% were sever ill or critically ill. 
32296808 There is emerging evidence to suggest that lung protective ventilation for ARDS can be further optimised while receiving ECMO so as to minimise ventilator-induced lung injury and subsequent contributions to multi-organ failure.
32297175 Thoracic ultrasound seems to adapt to the screening for lung involvement of patients with suspected or ascertained SARS-COVID-19 infection due to its characteristics of easy applicability. […] B lines are early finding of COVID-19, even in mild-symptomatic subjects; in the most serious cases such as pre-ARDS or ARDS, the B lines end up filling the ultrasound image almost completely, until it merges, so as to create a single hyperechoic image named as “white lung”, with distortion and irregularity of the pleural line. […] In advanced stage, lung consolidations are present, representing pulmonary pathological areas that are no longer normally ventilated.
32297671 Lymphocyte subsets and cytokines were detected on the first day of hospital admission and lung computed tomography results were quantified by PII.
32297988 Treatment with HCQ resulted in less number of cases showing the radiological progression of lung disease (odds ratio [OR], 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.9).
32298251 Among 178 (12%) adult patients with data on underlying conditions as of March 30, 2020, 89.3% had one or more underlying conditions; the most common were hypertension (49.7%), obesity (48.3%), chronic lung disease (34.6%), diabetes mellitus (28.3%), and cardiovascular disease (27.8%).
32298273 Meanwhile, ACE2 was also expressed in specific cell types of human fetal heart, liver and lung, but not in kidney. […] And in a study containing series fetal and post-natal mouse lung, we observed ACE2 was dynamically changed over the time, and ACE2 was extremely high in neonatal mice at post-natal day 1~3.
32299776 We examined skin and lung tissues from 5 patients with severe COVID-19 characterized by respiratory failure (n= 5) and purpuric skin rash (n = 3).
32300971 Besides ground-glass opacities (p = 0.032) and consolidation (p = 0.001) in the lung periphery, the lesion size (1-3 cm) is also significant for the diagnosis of COVID-19 (p = 0.027). […] Lung score presents no significant difference (p = 0.417).
32301099 Even among asymptomatic patients, 5 (62.5%) cases had lung injuries including 3 (60%) cases with bilateral involvement, which was not different compared with that of symptomatic cases (p = 0.58, p = 0.74). […] The clinical symptoms of children are mild, there is substantial lung injury even among children, but that there is less clinical disease, perhaps because of a less pronounced inflammatory response, and that the occurrence of this pattern appears to inversely correlate with age.
32301631 OBJECTIVE. This series of patients presented to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain, without the respiratory symptoms typical of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and the abdominal radiologist was the first to suggest COVID-19 infection because of findings in the lung bases on CT of the abdomen. CONCLUSION. COVID-19 infection can present primarily with abdominal symptoms, and the abdominal radiologist must suggest the diagnosis when evaluating the lung bases for typical findings.
32301647 Background Computed tomography (CT) of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease depicts the extent of lung involvement in COVID-19 pneumonia. […] Purpose The aim of the study was to determine the value of quantification of the well-aerated lung obtained at baseline chest CT for determining prognosis in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. […] CT was analyzed for quantification of well aerated lung visually (%V-WAL) and by open-source software (%S-WAL and absolute volume, VOL-WAL). […] Conclusion In patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia, visual or software quantification the extent of CT lung abnormality were predictors of ICU admission or death.
32301766 Pre-clinical models suggest that ACE2 upregulation confers protective effects in acute lung injury.
32302401 We show lung infiltration of neutrophils in an autopsy specimen from a patient who succumbed to COVID-19.
32302927 However, due to infection control issues related to patient transport to CT suites, the inefficiencies introduced in CT room decontamination, and lack of CT availability in parts of the world, portable chest radiography (CXR) will likely be the most commonly utilized modality for identification and follow up of lung abnormalities. […] The purpose of this pictorial review article is to describe the most common manifestations and patterns of lung abnormality on CXR in COVID-19 in order to equip the medical community in its efforts to combat this pandemic.
32302956 However, early nucleic acid tests were identified to be negative in some patients, whereas the patients exhibited characteristic CT changes of lung, and positive test results appeared after repeated nucleic acid tests, having caused the failure to diagnose these patients early. […] The study aimed to delve into the relationships between initial nucleic acid testing and early lung CT changes in patients with COVID-19. […] The consistency between the first COVID-19 nucleic acid test positive and lung CT changes was studied. […] The Kappa coefficient of initial nucleic acid positive changes and lung CT changes was -1.52. […] With a positive nucleic acid test as the gold standard, the sensitivity of lung CT was 12.00 %, 95 % CI: 4.6-24.3; with the changes of CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity of nucleic acid positive was 30.16 %, 95 % CI: 19.2-43.0. […] The consistency between the initial positive nucleic acid test and the CT changes in the lungs is poor; low sensitivity was achieved for initial nucleic acid detection and CT changes.
32303365 The potential effect of vitaminC in reducing inflammation in the lungs could play a key role in lung injury caused by coronavirus infection.
32303590 In SARS-CoV infection, lung lesions were typically more severe, whereas they were milder in MERS-CoV infection, where virus was detected mainly in type II pneumocytes.
32303609 For instance, it is an important question to understand whether patients with IBD (eg, due to intestinal ACE2 expression) might be particularly susceptible to covid-19 and the cytokine release syndrome associated with lung injury and fatal outcomes.
32304265 The working parties of TROG (head/neck/skin, genitourinary, breast and lung) were also sampled.
32304402 Depending on the severity of the disease, the number of involved lung segments and lobes, the frequencies of consolidation, crazy-paving pattern and air bronchogram increased in more severe cases. […] Qualitative indicators including total severity score for the whole lung and total score for crazy-paving and consolidation could distinguish groups B and C from A(69% sensitivity, 83% specificity and 73% accuracy) but were similar between group B and group C. […] Critical cases had higher total severity score(>10) and higher total score for crazy-paving and consolidation(>4) than ordinary cases, and had higher mean lung density(>-779HU) and full width at half maximum(>128HU) but lower relative volume of normal lung density(≦50%) than ordinary/severe cases. […] In our critical cases, eight patients with relative volume of normal lung density smaller than 40% received mechanical ventilation for supportive treatment, and two of them had died.
32304747 ARBs directly protect the lung from the severe acute respiratory syndrome as a result of viral infections, including those from coronavirus.
32305401 Based on the anti-inflammatory benefits of the upregulation of the ACE2/Ang1-7/Mas axis and previously demonstrated benefits of lung function improvement in SARS-CoV infections, we hypothesize that the benefits of treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in SARS-COV2 may outweigh the risks and at the very least should not be withheld.
32305501 Increasing evidence points to host Th17 inflammatory responses as contributing to the severe lung pathology and mortality of lower respiratory tract infections from coronaviruses.
32305506 Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a component of the renin-angiotensin system, whose expression dominates on lung alveolar epithelial cells, is the human cell receptor of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19.
32307268 Lung-toxin Dispelling Formula No. 1, referred to as Respiratory Detox Shot (RDS), was developed based on a classical prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the theoretical understanding of herbal properties within TCM. […] Twelve disease pathways attributed to the Lung-Large Intestine meridians, with six and five attributed to the Kidney-Urinary Bladder and Stomach-Spleen meridians, respectively. […] RDS acts primarily in the Lung-Large Intestine, Kidney-Urinary Bladder and Stomach-Spleen meridians, with other Zang-fu viscera strategically covered by all nine ingredients.
32307320 Except for one case with normal lung appearance, all the other four cases had certain characteristics, including ground-glass opacity (GGO), consolidation and atoll sign. […] The lesions were mainly distributed in the peripheral portion of lung.
32307653 Moreover, resident lung progenitor/stem are extensively differentiated into myofibroblasts during pulmonary fibrosis, a complication observed in COVID-19 patients. […] This process, and the possible direct viral invasion of progenitor/stem cells via CD147 or ACE2, could result in the decline of these cellular stocks and failing lung repair. […] Clinical tests with allogeneic MSCs from healthy individuals are underway to enhance endogenous lung repair and suppress inflammation.
32310715 Acute kidney injury, a marked hypercoagulable state, and sometimes myocarditis can be features of COVID-19 in addition to the characteristic severe acute lung injury.
32310920 Chest X-ray is characterized by low sensitivity in identifying earlier lung changes.
32312025 Variable CT features were observed: consolidation with ground-glass opacities, ground-glass opacities with subpleural reticular bands, and an anterior-posterior gradient of lung abnormalities resembling that of acute respiratory distress syndrome. […] In one patient, we noted evolution of CT findings, where there was interval resolution of bilateral lung consolidation with development of bronchiolectasis and subpleural fibrotic bands. […] While sensitive for detecting lung parenchymal abnormalities in COVID-19 pneumonia, CT for initial diagnosis is discouraged and should be reserved for specific clinical indications.
32312064 For patient 2 (son), the clinical symptoms were not obvious, but CT imaging clearly displayed dynamic changes of the lung lesions.
32312363 A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 115 children who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Wuhan Children’s Hospital, including general information, history of close contact with individuals of SARS-CoV-2 infection, early clinical symptoms, laboratory examination results, and lung CT results. […] Lung CT findings showed ground glass opacity, fiber opacities, patchy changes, and pulmonary consolidation in 49 children (42.6%), among whom 2 children had “white lung”; 39 children (33.9%) only had lung texture enhancement and 27 children (23.5%) had no pulmonary imaging changes.
32313662 On day 10, her chest radiography and lung compliance improved. […] Treatment of severe pneumonia in COVID-19 by ECMO should recognize lung plasticity considering time to ECMO introduction and interstitial biomarkers.
32313883 However, the inhalation of rapamycin, with its well-documented lung toxicity, could be contraindicated. […] Another class of drug, biguanides, can also inhibit mTOR, but have no lung toxicity.
32314010 Chest X-ray showed increased opacity on the right lower lung area, and C-reactive protein level was slightly elevated.
32314329 ACE2 counteracts ACE and angiotensin II in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and has critical functions in the lung and cardiovascular system.
32314503 The underlying pathophysiology is likely multi-stranded, ranging from complement system hyperactivation, increased Interleukin-6 secretion, chronic inflammation, presence of comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension, and a possible local, detrimental effect within the lung.
32314805 The results of the meta-analysis showed that most patients presented bilateral lung involvement (73.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 65.9%-81.1%) or multilobar involvement (67.3%, 95% CI: 54.8%-78.7%) and just little patients showed normal CT findings (8.4%). […] The lung lesions of patients with COVID-19 were mostly bilateral lungs or multilobar involved.
32316712 The aims were to investigate medical needs of lung cancer patients and their mental health status during the epidemic periods, so as to provide rational recommendations for subsequent diagnosis and treatment. […] During novel coronavirus pneumonia, 40%-75% of lung cancer patients have mental health problems, and more than 95% of patients support government’s prevention and control measures. […] During the emergence of NCP, the medical needs of patients with lung cancer have not been enough, especially those who discontinued chemotherapy or immunotherapy.
32316719 Real-time PCR was performed to quantify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene expression in conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, iris, lens, retina, lung, heart, kidney, and liver from male mice. […] The expression of these two genes in conjunctiva were lower than that in kidney and lung.
32317591 At each positive end-expiratory pressure level, we assessed arterial blood gases, respiratory mechanics, ventilation inhomogeneity, and potential for lung recruitment by electrical impedance tomography. […] Potential for lung recruitment was assessed by the recently described recruitment to inflation ratio. […] The ventilation-perfusion mismatch was elevated (median, 34% [32-45%] of lung units) and, in six out of seven patients, ventilated nonperfused units represented a much larger proportion than perfused nonventilated ones. […] In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome from coronavirus disease 2019, potential for lung recruitment presents large variability, while elevated dead space fraction may be a specific pathophysiological trait.
32318665 Viral replication of nasopharyngeal swabs, anal swabs and lung in old monkeys was more active than that in young monkeys for 14 days after SARS-CoV-2 challenge.
32318891 Pneumonia in COVID-19 has peculiar features and can be studied by lung ultrasound in the early approach to suspected patients.
32318916 There were 83 cases (55.33%) involving both lungs, 67 cases (44.67%) involving a single lung (left 25 cases and right 42 cases).
32319424 In these patients, lung protective ventilation is essential.
32319446 In the meanwhile, to prevent hospitals from risking collapse, it is crucial to stratify patients at high risk of poor lung progression, to find effective monitoring strategies, even at home, for the positive patients and/or those highly at risk of positivity of CoViD-19.
32319792 OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to report unanticipated lung base findings on abdominal CT in 23 patients concerning for coronavirus disease (COVID-19). […] Seventeen patients underwent polymerase chain reaction testing, which returned positive results for all 17. CONCLUSION. Unsuspected coronavirus disease may be strongly suggested on the basis of lung findings on abdominopelvic CT.
32319956 Male sex, advanced age, and lung diseases were associated with a higher risk of fever in the general population with a history of contact.
32320211 Recent reports suggest that it is not just the lung that the virus may be targeting; the human brain may soon emerge as the new abode of the virus.
32321232 The chest X-ray taken initially showed no lung affection.
32323287 Regarding the pathophysiological aspects of acute respiratory insufficiency (ARI), the pulmonary infection with SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 runs through three phases: early infection, pulmonary manifestation and severe hyperinflammatory phase.There are differences between advanced COVID-19-induced lung damage and those changes seen in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndromes (ARDS) as defined by the Berlin criteria. […] Versorgungskontinuum zur Behandlung der ARIZentrale Punkte wurden hierbei als Kernaussagen und Feststellungen herausgehoben. […] Bezüglich pathophysiologischer Aspekte der akuten respiratorischen Insuffizienz (ARI) verläuft die pulmonale Infektion mit SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 in drei Phasen: Frühe Infektion, pulmonale Manifestation und schwere hyperinflammatorische Phase.Der fortgeschrittene COVID-19-induzierte Lungenschaden weist häufig Unterschiede zu den bekannten Veränderungen entsprechend der Definition des Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) nach den Berlin-Kriterien auf.In einem pathophysiologisch plausiblen – zur Zeit aber noch nicht histopathologisch untermauerten – Modell wird in zwei Typen (L-Typ und H-Typ) unterschieden, die einer frühen und späten Phase entsprechen. […] Kommt es unter CPAP/NIV zur weiteren Progression des ARI, sollte ohne zeitliche Verzögerung die Intubation und nachfolgende invasive Beatmung erfolgen, wenn keine DNI-Order vorliegt.Bei Patienten, bei denen eine invasive Beatmung unter Ausschöpfung aller leitliniengerechter Maßnahmen nicht ausreicht, um eine ausreichende Sauerstoffaufnahme und CO2-Abgabe zu gewährleisten, soll ein extrakorporales Lungenersatzverfahren erwogen werden (ECMO).
32323565 Human lungs single-cell RNA sequencing data from healthy donors (elderly and young; GEO accession no. […] Other redox-active genes that were also downregulated in cells from the elderly included activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and metallothionein 2A (M2TA). ATF4 is an endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor that defends lungs via induction of heme oxygenase 1. […] These downregulated candidates were subjected to enrichment using the Reactome Database identifying that in the elderly, the ability to respond to heme deficiency and the ATF4-dependent ability to respond to endoplasmic reticulum stress is significantly compromised. SOD3-based therapeutic strategies have provided beneficial results in treating lung disorders including fibrosis. […] The findings of this study propose the hypotheses that lung-specific delivery of SOD3/ATF4-related antioxidants will work in synergy with promising antiviral drugs such as remdesivir to further improve COVID-19 outcomes in the elderly.
32324360 At the initial phase, the atypical presentations of the virus infection are multiplex, peripheral ground glass opacities situated in the right lower lobe of the lung evolving rapidly into a bilateral involvement of the middle and basal zones.
32325282 To evaluate lung abnormalities on thin-section computed tomographic (CT) scans in patients with COVID-19 and correlate findings to duration of symptoms. […] Each lung lobe was evaluated for extent affected by ground-glass opacities (GGO), crazy-paving pattern and consolidation, in five categories of percentual severity. […] Summation of scores from all five lung lobes provided the total CT score (maximal CT score, 25). […] The predominant patterns of lung abnormalities were GGOs, crazy-paving pattern, consolidation and linear opacities.
32326602 In addition, a clinically proven protease inhibitor, camostat mesylate, has been demonstrated to inhibit Calu-3 infection with SARS-CoV-2 and prevent SARS-2-spike protein (S protein)-mediated entry into primary human lung cells.
32327383 Ultrasound, although not used in the diagnosis of COVID-19 may be utilised by practitioners at the point of care (POC) or on the intensive care units (ITUs) where rapid assessment of the lung condition may be required. […] The aim of this article was to review current literature surrounding the use of lung ultrasound in relation to COVID-19 and provide Sonographers with a quick and digestible reference guide for lung pathologies. […] Ultrasound is being used in Italy and China to help review lung condition during the COVID-19 outbreak however not strictly as a diagnostic tool as Computed Tomography (CT) of the chest and chest radiographs are currently gold standard. […] Ultrasound is highly sensitive in the detection of multiple lung pathologies which can be demonstrated in conjunction with COVID-19 however to date there are no specific, nor pathognomonic findings which relate to COVID-19 on ultrasound. […] Lung ultrasound is highly sensitive and can quickly and accurately review lung condition creating potential to assess for changes or resolution over time, especially in the ITU and POC setting. […] The adoption of lung ultrasound to monitor lung condition during the COVID-19 outbreak may reduce the need for serial exposure to ionising radiation on the wards and in turn reduce the number of radiographers required to attend infected wards and bays, protecting both patients and the workforce.
32329246 The increase in proinflammatory cytokines within the lung leads to recruitment of leukocytes, further propagating the local inflammatory response. […] A consistent finding in ARDS is the deposition of fibrin in the air spaces and lung parenchyma. […] Fibrin deposits are found in the lungs of patients due to the dysregulation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. […] Tissue factor (TF) is exposed on damaged alveolar endothelial cells and on the surface of leukocytes promoting fibrin deposition, while significantly elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) from lung epithelium and endothelial cells create a hypofibrinolytic state. […] However, to degrade pre-existing fibrin in the lung it is essential to promote local fibrinolysis.
32329589 Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new disease characterized by lung damage and involvement in multiple tissues and organs in the whole body.
32330073 Amid efforts to care for the large number of patients with COVID-19, there has been considerable speculation about whether the lung injury seen in these patients is different than ARDS from other causes. […] One idea that has garnered considerable attention, particularly on social media and in free open access medicine is the notion that lung injury due to COVID-19 is more similar to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). […] Despite some similarities in clinical features between the two entities, such as hypoxemia, radiographic opacities and altered lung compliance, the pathophysiological mechanisms of HAPE and lung injury due to COVID-19 are fundamentally different and the entities cannot be viewed as equivalent.
32330308 Although the pathophysiology underlying severe COVID19 remains poorly understood, accumulating data suggest that a lung-centric coagulopathy may play an important role.
32330343 Forty-six were kidney recipients, 17 lung, 13 liver, 9 heart, and 5 dual-organ transplants.
32330356 We report four cases of COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients including recipients of kidney, liver, lung, and heart transplants.
32332319 F-FDG PET/CT spotted multiple ground glass opacity (GGO) lesions in the lungs, with increased tracer uptake in both lung GGOs and the whole colon. […] Serial CT examinations showed the emersion and dissipation of lung GGOs.
32333024 Intensive care respirators were specifically developed for the use in patients with pathological lung mechanics.
32333544 The utility of point-of-care ultrasound has been suggested, but detailed descriptions of lung ultrasound findings are not available. […] We evaluated lung ultrasound findings in 10 patients admitted to the internal medicine ward with COVID-19. […] All of the patients had characteristic glass rockets with or without the Birolleau variant (white lung). […] Point-of-care lung ultrasound has multiple advantages, including lack of radiation exposure and repeatability. […] Also, lung ultrasound has been shown to be more sensitive than a chest radiograph in detecting alveolar-interstitial syndrome. […] The utilization of lung ultrasound may also reduce exposure of healthcare workers to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 and may mitigate the shortage of personal protective equipment. […] Further studies are needed to evaluate the utility of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19.
32333546 Challenges and Opportunities for Lung Ultrasound in Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19).
32333836 We have previously provided the first genetic evidence that angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the critical receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and ACE2 protects the lung from injury, providing a molecular explanation for the severe lung failure and death due to SARS-CoV infections.
32333929 There are multiple ways that the COVID-19 pandemic will directly affect patients with fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD), particularly given their common risk factors for poor outcomes.
32335067 The risks from potential exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and resource reallocation that has occurred to combat the pandemic, have altered the balance of benefits and harms that informed current (pre-COVID-19) guideline recommendations for lung cancer screening and lung nodule evaluation. […] Consensus statements were developed to guide clinicians managing lung cancer screening programs and patients with lung nodules during the COVID-19 pandemic. […] The panel was provided with an overview of current evidence, summarized by recent guidelines related to lung cancer screening and lung nodule evaluation. […] Twelve statements related to baseline and annual lung cancer screening (n = 2), surveillance of a previously detected lung nodule (n = 5), evaluation of intermediate and high-risk lung nodules (n = 4), and management of clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer (n = 1) were developed and modified. […] The consensus statements provide guidance about situations in which it was believed to be appropriate to delay screening, defer surveillance imaging of lung nodules, and minimize nonurgent interventions during the evaluation of lung nodules and stage I non-small cell lung cancer. […] There was consensus that during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is appropriate to defer enrollment in lung cancer screening and modify the evaluation of lung nodules due to the added risks from potential exposure and the need for resource reallocation.
32335338 All of 10 patients showed lung abnormalities by pulmonary CT images after delivery.
32335367 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 can attack lung cells because there are many conserved receptor entries, namely Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2.
32335426 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly contagious, mainly causing inflammatory lesions in the lungs, and can also cause damage to the intestine and liver. […] The current gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19 is the detection of coronavirus nucleic acids, but imaging has an important role in the detection of lung lesions, stratification, evaluation of treatment strategies, and differentiation of mixed infections.
32335609 The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) cause various symptoms such as pneumonia, fever, breathing difficult and lung infection.
32335749 Immunological reactions to lung alveoles in particular (involving lung macrophages and alveolar epithelial cell damage) in late phase ARDS in SARS-like CoV diseases, so far may not have received enough attention.
32336007 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), also known as cluster of differentiation 26 (CD26), is a serine exopeptidase expressed ubiquitously in several tissues, including but not limited to lung, kidney, liver, gut, and immune cells.
32336564 The great pulmonary affectation produced by the COVID-19 infection, requires a fast diagnostic tool that complements the diagnostic test by PCR and which is also useful in evaluating the progression of lung lesions. […] Since most of these are peripheral, in this consensus document we propose the use of thoracic ultrasound for early diagnosis and for the daily evaluation of the progression of lung lesions by a single explorer without the need to use the chest CT.
32336612 ACE2 receptors are ubiquitous and widely expressed in the heart, vessels, gut, lung (particularly in type 2 pneumocytes and macrophages), kidney, testis and brain. […] In the lungs, such dysregulation would favor the progression of inflammatory and thrombotic processes triggered by local angiotensin II hyperactivity unopposed by angiotensin1-7.
32337769 Therefore, any treatment which can decrease the severe symptoms due to lung damage may help attenuate mortality rates. […] Inactivation of ACE2 during virus fusion into the host cell may be one of the underlying reasons for intense immunological reaction seen in the lung tissue.
32337795 Lung ultrasound has recently been suggested by the Chinese Critical Care Ultrasound Study Group and Italian Academy of Thoracic Ultrasound as an accurate tool to detect lung involvement during COVID-19. […] Although chest Computer Tomography (CT) represents the gold standard to assess lung involvement, with a specificity even superior to the nasal/pharyngeal swab for diagnosis, lung ultrasound examination can be a valid alternative to CT scan, with some advantages, particularly desirable for pregnant women. […] In the present study, we reported four cases of pregnant women affectd by COVID-19 infection who have been monitoring with lung ultrasound examination. […] All patients showed ultrasound features indicative of COVID-19 pneumonia at admission: irregular pleural lines and vertical artifacts (B-lines) were observed in all four cases, whereas patchy areas of white lung in two cases. […] Three patients had resolution of lung pathology at ultrasound after 96 h of admission.
32338224 From a pathogenic point of view, evidence has been provided that binding of S2 to ACE2 receptor leads to its down-regulation with subsequent lung damage in the course of SARS-CoV infection [17]. […] Down-regulation of ACE2 causes excessive production of angiotensin (ANG) II by the related enzyme ACE with stimulation of ANG type 1a receptor (AT1R) and enhanced lung vascular permeability [18]. […] In particular, same authors have reported that recombinant ACE2 could attenuate severe acute lung injury in mice [18]. […] There is evidence that ACE2 protects from severe acute lung failure and operates as a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) [18, 37]. […] Taken together, these evidences suggest that CoV-induced down-regulation of ACE2 activates RAS with collateral damage to organs, such as lungs, in the course of SARS-related pneumonia.
32338347 Pneumonia, severe disease and critical illness require admission and aggressive management for acute lung injury and shock and/or multiorgan dysfunction, if present.
32338605 We propose that this is due to a local vascular problem because of activation of bradykinin 1 receptor (B1R) and B2R on endothelial cells in the lungs. […] Without ACE2 acting as a guardian to inactivate the ligands of B1R, the lung environment is prone for local vascular leakage leading to angioedema. […] Here, we hypothesize that a kinin-dependent local lung angioedema via B1R and eventually B2R is an important feature of COVID-19. […] Common symptoms include a fever and persistent cough and COVID-19 patients also often experience an excess of fluid in the lungs, which makes it difficult to breathe. […] In some cases, this develops into a life-threatening condition whereby the lungs cannot provide the body’s vital organs with enough oxygen. […] The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, enters the lining of the lungs via an enzyme called the ACE2 receptor, which is present on the outer surface of the lungs’ cells. […] The related coronavirus that was responsible for the SARS outbreak in the early 2000s also needs the ACE2 receptor to enter the cells of the lungs. […] In SARS, the levels of ACE2 in the lung decline during the infection. […] However, other mouse studies have shown that ACE2 protects against a build-up of fluid in the lungs caused by a different molecule made by the body. […] This led van de Veerdonk et al. to propose that the excess of fluid in the lungs seen in COVID-19 patients may be because kinins are not being neutralized due to the shortage of the ACE2 receptor. […] If this hypothesis is correct, it would mean that directly inhibiting the receptor for the kinins (or the proteins that they come from) may be the only way to stop fluid leaking into the lungs of COVID-19 patients in the early stage of disease.
32339081 To classify COVID-19 versus other pneumonia for each patient, abnormal CT slices were input into the EfficientNet B4 deep neural network architecture after lung segmentation, followed by two-layer fully-connected neural network to pool slices together.
32339082 Methods The Dutch Radiological Society (NVvR) developed CO-RADS based on other efforts for standardization, such as Lung-RADS or BI-RADS.
32339221 The lungs are the target organ for COVID-19; patients develop acute lung injury which can progress to respiratory failure, although multiorgan failure can also occur.
32339391 This may significantly increase the severity of the local response to COVID-19 in the lung.
32340018 The patient’s symptoms and lung imaging changes were atypical.
32340583 Objectives: In the context of COVID-19 pandemic, the aim of this manuscript is to provide a standard of care of patients with ARDS for non-emergency medicine trained physicians who are not customary with mechanical ventilation.Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature to investigate the best practice recommendations regarding the mechanical ventilation of patients with ARDS.Conclusion: We summarized the principal strategies for lung-protective ventilation of patients with ARDS.
32341078 To report that patients who subsequently test positive for COVID-19 may present with acute abdominal pain and no pulmonary symptoms, although they already have typical lung lesions on computed tomography (CT) scan. […] CT scans demonstrated no abdominal anomaly, but bilateral lung lesions at the lung bases, typical of COVID-19 lesions, were observed.
32341103 This review discusses the role of the RAAS-SCoV-axis in acute lung injury and the effects, risks, and benefits of pharmacologic modification of this axis. […] There may be an opportunity to leverage the different aspects of RAAS inhibitors to mitigate indirect viral-induced lung injury. […] While relevant preclinical, experimental models to date favor a protective effect of RAAS-SCoV-axis inhibition on both lung injury and survival, clinical data related to the role of RAAS modulation in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 remains limited. […] We propose a preponderance of evidence that supports clinical equipoise regarding the efficacy of RAAS-based interventions, and the imminent need for a multisite randomised controlled clinical trial to evaluate the inhibition of the RAAS-SCoV-axis on acute lung injury in COVID-19.
32341111 Many intubated patients present with phenotype 4, characterised by pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction, being associated with severe hypoxaemia with “normal” (>40 mL·cmH2O-1) lung compliance and likely representing pulmonary microvascular thrombosis. […] Phenotype 5 is often associated with high plasma procalcitonin and has low pulmonary compliance, Which is a result of co-infection or acute lung injury after noninvasive ventilation.
32341442 On the other hand, animal data suggested a potential protective effect of ARBs against COVID-19 pneumonia because an ARB prevented the aggravation of acute lung injury in mice infected with SARS-CoV, which is closely related to SARS-CoV-2.
32341722 Even though prognosis is associated with lung injury, digestive symptoms seem significantly more frequent in patients presenting with severe COVID-19 infection.
32341785 The available data from the first 14 cases demonstrated that the median age of patients was 71 and the median PaO2/FIO2 ratio, positive end-expiratory pressure, mean airway pressure, and lung compliance were 70, 15 cmH2O, 21 cmH2O, and 28 mL/cmH2O, respectively. […] There seemed to be two phenotypes of COVID-19: one with impaired lung compliance and one with preserved lung compliance.
32342191 Peripheral lung consolidations and/or ground-glass opacities in two or more lobes were found. […] Lung abnormalities displayed increased [18F]FDG uptake (SUVmax 4.3-11.3).
32342863 The COVID-19 pandemic has caused radiotherapy resource pressures and led to increased risks for lung cancer patients and healthcare staff. […] An international group of experts in lung cancer radiotherapy established this practice recommendation pertaining to whether and how to adapt radiotherapy for lung cancer in the COVID-19 pandemic. […] For this ESTRO & ASTRO endorsed project, 32 experts in lung cancer radiotherapy contributed to a modified Delphi consensus process. […] The first, an early pandemic scenario of risk mitigation, is characterized by an altered risk-benefit ratio of radiotherapy for lung cancer patients due to their increased susceptibility for severe COVID-19 infection, and minimization of patient travelling and exposure of radiotherapy staff. […] Six common lung cancer cases were assessed for both scenarios: peripherally located stage I NSCLC, locally advanced NSCLC, postoperative radiotherapy after resection of pN2 NSCLC, thoracic radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation for limited stage SCLC and palliative thoracic radiotherapy for stage IV NSCLC. […] In a risk-mitigation pandemic scenario, efforts should be made not to compromise the prognosis of lung cancer patients by departing from guideline-recommended radiotherapy practice. […] This joint ESTRO-ASTRO practice recommendation established pragmatic and balanced consensus recommendations in common clinical scenarios of radiotherapy for lung cancer in order to address the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.
32344056 Third, do eosinophils contribute to the lung pathology induced during COVID-19 and will they contribute to immunopotentiation potentially associated with emerging COVID-19 vaccines?
32344177 Here we demonstrate that the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin has a synergistic effect in vitro on SARS-CoV-2 at concentrations compatible with that obtained in human lung.
32344438 The mean reduction in the last three weeks for PET/CT, scintigraphies of bone, myocardium, lung thyroid, sentinel lymph-node are -14.4 %, -47.2 %, -47.5 %, -40.7 %, -58.4 %, and -25.2 % respectively. […] Die Vorbereitungen der Gesundheitssysteme auf die Aufnahme einer großen Zahl schwerkranker COVID-19-Patienten im März/April 2020 haben erhebliche Auswirkungen auf nuklearmedizinische Abteilungen und Praxen, deren Ausmaß unbekannt ist. […] Ziel dieser Online-Umfrage ist es, den aktuellen Status der nuklearmedizinischen Abteilungen in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz zu erfassen. […] Ein webbasierter Fragebogen wurde entwickelt, um die Auswirkungen der Pandemie auf stationäre und ambulante nuklearmedizinische Abteilungen zu erfassen. […] Die Fragen bezogen sich auf die folgenden Themen: Merkmale der nuklearmedizinischen Abteilung, Auswirkungen auf die nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik und Therapie, Anwendung von Empfehlungen, persönliche Schutzausrüstung (PSA) und organisatorische Anpassungen an die neuen Rahmenbedingungen. […] Die durchschnittliche Abnahme in den letzten drei Wochen für PET/CT, Szintigraphien von Knochen, Myokard, Lunge, Schilddrüse, Sentinel-Lymphknoten beträgt –14,4 %, –47,5 %, –40,7 %, –58,4 % beziehungsweise –25,2 %. 76 % der Teilnehmer berichten über einen Rückgang der Therapien.
32344526 Previous evidence suggests that RAS may represent an important target for the treatment of lung pathologies, especially for acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic fibrotic disease.
32345328 Recent studies have reported that COVID-19 patients with lung cancer have a higher risk of severe events than patients without cancer. […] In this study, we investigated the gene expression of angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) with prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). […] Lung cancer patients in each age stage, subtype, and pathological stage are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, except for the primitive subtype of LUSC.
32345594 Patients with hematologic cancer, lung cancer, or with metastatic cancer (stage IV) had the highest frequency of severe events.
32345741 We designed a simulation-based study to allow complete control over the relevant variables to determine the effects of various degrees of resistance-compliance imbalance on tidal volume (VT), end-expiratory lung volume (EELV), and imputed pH. […] Evidence-based lung models simulated a range of differences in resistance and compliance (6 pairs of simulated patients).
32346594 Firstly, a quantitative method based on multi-scale convolutional neural networks was used to assess the infected lung segments and this was compared with the semi-quantitative method.
32347747 The programmed cell death coronaviruses cause, which can result in significant lung damage, is also inhibited by melatonin. […] Coronavirus causes inflammation in the lungs which requires inflammasome activity.
32347972 We concluded that elevations of serum cancer biomarkers positively correlated with the pathological progressions of COVID-19, demonstrating diffuse and acute lung injuries.
32349055 The potential prothrombotic action of the SARS-CoV-2 is supported by the topographical involvement of the lung regions with a predilection for the lower lobe with peripheral involvement.
32349982 Due to the frequent presence of interstitial lung disease and widespread use of immunosuppressive treatment, systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients may be considered at risk for a more severe disease course and higher mortality when they develop Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus infection.
32350134 CT scans manifested that the lung lesion opacity absorbed in 19 patients (90.5%).
32351851 A computed tomography scan of the thorax revealed multifocal bilateral ground-glass lung opacities with areas of subpleural sparing.
32352308 OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to review new pediatric lung disorders-including disorders that have occurred in recent years years such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), swine-origin influenza A (H1N1), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI), and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia-to enhance understanding of the characteristic imaging findings. CONCLUSION. Although the clinical symptoms of SARS, H1N1, MERS, EVALI, and COVID-19 pneumonia in pediatric patients may be nonspecific, some characteristic imaging findings have emerged or are currently emerging. […] It is essential for radiologists to have a clear understanding of the characteristic imaging appearances of these lung disorders in pediatric patients to ensure optimal patient care.
32352944 The administration of glucocorticosteroids and research drugs (tocilizumab) is acceptable for massive infiltrative lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma causing severe lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
32353252 Here, we demonstrate a CRISPR-Cas13-based strategy, PAC-MAN (prophylactic antiviral CRISPR in human cells), for viral inhibition that can effectively degrade RNA from SARS-CoV-2 sequences and live influenza A virus (IAV) in human lung epithelial cells.
32353597 The lungs are the target of the primary infection and patients with lung cancer seem to have a poor prognosis. […] To our knowledge, this is the first reported investigation of a possible role of interleukin-17 target therapy in patients with lung cancer and concomitant severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection.
32356025 Here we describe the pathologic features of early lung involvement by Covid-19 in a surgical sample resected for carcinoma from a patient who developed SARS-CoV-2 infection soon after surgery.
32356672 COVID-19 - More Lung Pocus and Sparing Use of Stethoscope, Chest X-Ray and Lung CT Abstract. For an optimal management of COVID-19 (Coronary Virus Disease) we depend on a fast and reliable diagnosis and severity assessment. […] In addition to oxygen saturation for severity classification, stethoscope, chest X-ray and lung computer tomography are routinely used. […] In view of the contagiousness of SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus), lung point-of-care ultrasound (Lu-PoCUS) is a still underutilized valuable alternative, especially when using pocket devices. […] In this review the current value and role of stethoscope, pulsoxymetry, chest x ray, lung computer tomography and lung point-of-care ultrasound will be determined based on the available literature. Zusammenfassung. Für ein optimales Management der COVID-19 (Coronary Virus Disease 19) sind wir auf eine schnelle und zuverlässige Diagnose sowie Schweregradeinschätzung angewiesen. […] Neben der Sauerstoffsättigung zur Schweregradeinteilung werden das Stethoskop, das Thoraxröntgen und die Lungen-Computertomografie routinemässig für die Diagnose eingesetzt. […] Angesichts der Kontagiosität des SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus) ist der Lungen-Point-of-Care-Ultraschall (PoCUS), insbesondere in der Anwendung als Taschenkittelgerät, eine noch zu wenig genutzte, wertvolle Alternative. […] In dieser Review werden die aktuelle Wertigkeit und Rolle von Stethoskop, Pulsoximetrie, Thoraxröntgen, Lungen-Computertomografie und Lungen-Point-of-Care-Ultraschall anhand der vorliegenden Literatur bestimmt.
32356760 Lung infection or pneumonia is the common complication of COVID-19, and imaging techniques, especially computed tomography (CT), have played an important role in diagnosis and treatment assessment of the disease. […] CT, positron emission tomography - CT (PET/CT), lung ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used for detection, treatment, and follow-up.
32356926 In late 2019, a new coronavirus emerged in Wuhan Province, China, causing lung complications similar to those produced by the SARS coronavirus in the 2002-2003 epidemic. […] High levels of angiotensin II on the lung interstitium can promote apoptosis initiating an inflammatory process with release of proinflammatory cytokines, establishing a self-powered cascade, leading eventually to ARDS.
32357994 A total of 61 (28%) cancer patients died from COVID-19 with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 37% (20/54) for hematologic malignancies and 25% (41/164) for solid malignancies. 6/11 (55%) lung cancer patients died from COVID-19 disease.
32358689 At present, chest-computed tomography imaging is considered the most effective method for the detection of lung abnormalities in early-stage disease and quantitative assessment of severity and progression of COVID-19 pneumonia. […] Although chest X-ray (CXR) is considered not sensitive for the detection of pulmonary involvement in the early stage of the disease, we believe that, in the current emergency setting, CXR can be a useful diagnostic tool for monitoring the rapid progression of lung abnormalities in infected patients, particularly in intensive care units.
32358691 To improve the risk stratification of patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an experimental chest X-ray (CXR) scoring system for quantifying lung abnormalities was introduced in our Diagnostic Imaging Department. […] Nonparametric statistical tests were used to examine the relationship between the severity of lung disease and the age or sex. […] Males aged 50 years or older and females aged 80 years or older showed the highest risk of developing severe lung disease.
32359188 During the coronavirus outbreak in China, our center performed 16 organ transplants (10 kidney, 4 liver and 2 lung transplants, from January 24 to March 11, 2020) harvested from deceased donors. […] Our approaches aiming to interrupt the spread of coronavirus within the transplantation wards were successful and allowed us to maintain the transplantation program for deceased liver, kidney and lung recipients.
32359210 We also highlight the role of lung ultrasonography in early diagnosis of the inflammatory phase of COVID-19.
32360111 Lung ultrasound examination has been demonstrated to be an accurate imaging method to detect pulmonary and pleural conditions. […] During pregnancy, there is a need for a rapid assessment of the maternal lung in patients suspected to have COVID-19. […] We report our experience on lung ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of Sars-Cov-2 pneumonia in a pregnant woman. […] Typical ultrasound features of this pulmonary pathology, including diffuse hyperechoic vertical artifacts with thickened pleural line and “white lung” with patchy distribution, were observed. […] We suggest point of care lung ultrasound examination as a diagnostic imaging tool in pregnant women with suspected COVID-19.
32360205 Even though prognosis is associated with lung injury, digestive symptoms seem significantly more frequent in patients presenting with severe COVID-19 infection.
32360516 While a “cytokine storm” involving IL-6 and other cytokines has been documented, complement C3 activation has been implicated as an initial effector mechanism that exacerbates lung injury in preclinical models of SARS-CoV infection.
32360578 The overarching goals of these approaches are the following: (1) reduce the number of visits to a health care facility, (2) reduce the risk of exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2, (3) attenuate the immunocompromising effects of lung cancer therapies, and (4) provide effective oncologic therapy.
32360729 Here, we report the postmortem lung findings from a 37-year-old man with asthma, who met the clinical criteria for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and died of COVID-19 less than 2 weeks after presentation to the hospital. […] His lungs showed mucus plugging and other histologic changes attributable to asthma, as well as early diffuse alveolar damage and a fibrinous pneumonia. […] The presence of diffuse alveolar damage is similar to descriptions of autopsy lung findings from patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and the absence of a neutrophil-rich acute bronchopneumonia differs from the histologic changes typical of influenza.
32361001 This activity is possibly able to provoke a robust proinflammatory response via TLR7/8 recognition and cause acute lung injury.
32361911 Being infected by SARS-CoV-2 may cause damage to multiple organs in patients, such as the lung, liver and heart.
32362061 The hyper-activation of these cells may cause the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that may result in lung impairment.
32362314 Here, we report that the cellular protease furin cleaves the spike protein at the S1/S2 site and that cleavage is essential for S-protein-mediated cell-cell fusion and entry into human lung cells.
32362440 Rationale of the treatment is to mitigate the local inflammation with inhaled steroid that stays in the lung and to inhibit proliferation of the virus by antiviral activity.
32362644 Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with any one of the following criteria will be eligible to receive lopinavir/ritonavir for 14 days after obtaining written informed consent: (i) respiratory distress with respiratory rate ≥22/min or SpO2of <94 per cent; (ii) lung parenchymal infiltrates on chest X-ray; (iii) hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or need for vasopressor/inotropic medication; (iv) new-onset organ dysfunction; and (v) high-risk groups - age >60 yr, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, chronic lung disease and immunocompromised persons.
32363143 His chest X-ray revealed ground-glass opacity in the right middle and lower zone of the lung.
32363726 What was initially a lung infection epidemic in the metropolitan area of Wuhan followed by a now contained extension to mainland China has now spread to all continents as a major pandemic with current hotspots in Europe and the USA.
32364028 Among others, a triage process to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity in patients with cancer was developed consisting of high-resolution low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan followed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of SARS-CoV-2 in nose-throat swabs whenever CT was suggestive of lung infection.
32364961 To enter airway and lung epithelia, SARS-CoV-2 attaches to ACE2 receptors by spike (S) glycoproteins.
32365046 We also confirmed that 54% of the asymptomatic patients with a positive RT-PCR result had lung opacities on chest computed tomography.
32365556 This mechanism has been recognized as a critical mediator of influenza-induced lung disease, and it could be pivotal for COVID-19 infections.
32365944 Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) initiates the cytokine/chemokine storm-mediated lung injury. […] The chemokine profile analysis indicated that SARS-CoV SUD significantly up-regulated the expression of CXCL10, CCL5 and interleukin (IL)-1β in human lung epithelial cells and in the lung tissues of the mice intratracheally instilled with the recombinant plasmids.
32366279 Notably, overexpression of ACE2 have been observed in including colon adenocarcinoma (COAD), kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD), rectum adenocarcinoma (READ), stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD), and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD).
32366290 The main pathologic features of severe or critical COVID-19 were consistent with acute lung injure (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), characterized by cellular fibromyxoid exudates, extensive pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema, and hyaline membrane formation.
32366740 However, available data from limited studies show administration of recombinant ACE2 improves lung damage caused by respiratory viruses, suggesting ibuprofen use may be beneficial in COVID-19 disease.
32367319 Asymptomatic patients may also have lung lesions on imaging. […] Thoracic VCAR offers quantitative measurements of the lung involvement. […] Therefore, keeping in mind that CT has high diagnostic sensitivity in identifying lesions, but not specific for Covid-19 and similar to other infectious viral diseases, it is mandatory to have an AI software that expresses objective evaluations of the percentage of ventilated lung parenchyma compared to the affected one.
32367418 Four patients with lung abnormalities on CT first showed negative RT-PCR result and turned positive afterwards. […] • In the early rapid progressive stage, GGO plus a reticular pattern, GGO plus consolidation, and GGO were all common signs; in the advanced stage, signs of progression and absorption coexisted; lung abnormalities showed an asynchronous process with parts with absorption and parts progressing. […] • Lung abnormalities mainly showed predominantly peripheral, middle, and lower distribution.
32367422 Among the 130 patients, we can see (1) distribution: 14 cases with unilateral lung disease and 116 cases with bilateral disease, the distribution was mainly lobular core (99 cases) and subpleural (102 cases); (2) number: 9 cases with single lesion, 113 cases with multiple lesions, and 8 cases with diffuse distribution; (3) density: 70 cases of pure ground glass opacity (GGO), and 60 cases of GGO with consolidation; (4) accompanying signs: vascular thickening (100 cases), “parallel pleura sign” (98 cases), “paving stone sign” (100 cases), “halo sign” (18 cases), “reversed halo sign” (6 cases), pleural effusion (2 cases), and pneumonocele (2 cases).
32367431 Based on previous studies of neuroinvasive human respiratory coronaviruses, it is proposed that after physical contact with the nasal mucosa, laryngopharynx, trachea, lower respiratory tract, alveoli epithelium, or gastrointestinal mucosa, SARS-CoV-2 can induce intrinsic and innate immune responses in the host involving increased cytokine release, tissue damage, and high neurosusceptibility to COVID-19, especially in the hypoxic conditions caused by lung injury.
32367558 According to the current studies, numerous diseases including lung disease, cardiovascular disease, and immunosuppression appear to be at higher risk for severe forms of the COVID-19.
32368550 However, CT findings of some lung contusions are similar to those of COVID-19, as shown in the present case. […] CT performed on February 7, 2020 revealed that both lungs were scattered with patchy ground-glass opacity. […] Differential diagnosis of lung contusion and COVID-19 must be emphasized.
32368875 After the lung computerized tomography (CT) findings which are important in the diagnosis of COVID-19 are described, protection measures against infection were defined in radiology departments. […] These lung findings detected in hybrid images will be helpful in the early diagnosis of pulmonary involvement.
32369209 Lung cancer was the most frequent cancer type (10, 19.2%).
32369611 Airway management for such patients during the COVID-19 pandemic including tracheal intubation, lung isolation, one-lung ventilation and flexible bronchoscopy may pose a significant risk to healthcare professionals and patients. […] That said, there remains a need for timely thoracic surgery for patients with lung cancer or thoracic trauma.
32373237 There was an association of older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.06; P = 0.003), larger consolidation lesions in the upper lung (Right: OR, 1.13; 95%CI: 1.03-1.25, P =0.01; Left: OR,1.15; 95%CI: 1.01-1.32; P = 0.04) with increased odds of adverse endpoints. Conclusion: There was an association of older age and larger consolidation in upper lungs on admission with higher odds of poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19.
32373721 Low dose radiotherapy (0,5 Gy), is an evidence-based anti-inflammatory treatment, that could modify the immune landscape in the lung affected of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, through macrophages polarization to alternatively activated Macrophages (M2 phenotype).
32374007 Especially, we also presented several novel techniques for diagnosing COVID-19 like lung ultrasound. […] We suggest clinicians further explore the saliva’s utility as a specimen for nuclear acid test and the use of lung ultrasound.
32374419 The aim of this study was to explore pulmonary pathology of early phase COVID-19 pneumonia in a patient with a benign lung lesion. […] We analyzed the pathological changes of lung tissue from a 55-year-old female patient with early phase SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] This case was confirmed to have preoperative SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time RT-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization on surgically removed lung tissues. […] Immunohistochemical staining results showed that an abnormal accumulation of CD4+ helper T lymphocytes and CD163+ M2 macrophages in the lung tissue.
32374430 The current pandemic and its pleotropic effects can be explained in part by interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S, the ACE2/L-SIGN/CD209 receptor on the type II alveolar cell of the lung, and the DC-SIGN receptor on the respiratory dendritic cell (DC) and associated endothelial cells.
32374457 These results are in agreement with published pathology observations of extensive syncytia formation in lung tissues of patients with COVID-19.
32374540 However, lung function testing and nebulisers should be performed with caution during the COVID-19 pandemic due to a potential risk of virus aerosolisation and contagion during the procedure. […] Asthma and COPD treatments should be pursued and adapted to ensure optimal control of the lung disease throughout the epidemic, thus reducing the risk of severe COVID-19 disease.
32374815 Postmortem computed tomography revealed reticular infiltration of the lungs with severe bilateral, dense consolidation, whereas histomorphologically diffuse alveolar damage was seen in 8 patients. […] In all patients, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the lung at high concentrations; viremia in 6 of 10 and 5 of 12 patients demonstrated high viral RNA titers in the liver, kidney, or heart.
32374823 In addition, lung metagenomic studies on infected patients revealed overrepresented Prevotella spp. producing certain proteins in abundance.
32375446 In order to achieve the overall victory over 2019 novel coronavirus disease epidemic, especially to prevent the disease recurrence from rebounding during the resumption of labor, the government has not loosened any control of personnel mobility, which has obviously affected the normal examination and treatment of lung cancer patients under the influence of this epidemic. […] Among the infected cancer patients, lung cancer is the most common type. […] It is necessary to provide more appropriate individualized treatment recommendations for patients with lung cancer based on the epidemic situation of the patient’s location and in combination with the patient’s own condition. […] Through active prevention of infection, timely conversion of treatment strategies, online and offline joint control, and positive psychological counseling, we do our best to help patients with lung cancer to survive this difficult period.
32375845 Some of these patients might have a relatively normal lung compliance.
32376402 The present study identified a specific set of biological pathways altered in primary human lung epithelium upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a comparison with SARS-CoV from the 2003 pandemic was studied.
32376543 Seven of the SARSCoV-2-associated pneumonia patients had multiple lesions in bilateral lungs, compromising mainly the lung field and the subpleural area and showing patchy, lumpy, and umbrella-shaped ground glass opacity, often accompanied by pulmonary vascular thickening and increased microvessels, interlobular septal thickening and fibrosis and lined with grid-like and small-bubble-like “crazy-paving” patterns.
32376573 To investigate the correlation between the clinical classification of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the imaging characteristics of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) volume scanning of the lungs. […] The imaging characteristics including the lung sides of the lesions, lung segment involved, lesion distribution, and lesion number and density were compared among the patients with different clinical types of COVID-19. […] Two patients presented with no obvious abnormality in the first CT examinations; in the remaining 100 patients, 89.0% had bilateral lung lesions, 16.0% had diffuse lesions, involving a mean of 6.56±4.22 lung segments. […] Compared with the patients with the common type, the severe and critical patients had a significantly greater number of lung segments involved (P < 0.05), and were also more likely to show diffuse lesions (P < 0.05).
32376589 The differences in chest CT signs and the lung injury scores based on CT findings were compared among the 4 stages.ResultsIn stage 1, ground-glass opacities (GGO) was found frequently in the subpleura, and the CT score was the lowest at 4.00±0.40. […] Stage 2 was characterized by an increased and mixed density (crazy-paving pattern) with mild consolidation of the lungs, and the CT score reached its peak level of 7.38±3.34 (P < 0.05). […] In stage 3, an expanded range of consolidation and linear lesions were found in the lungs, and the total CT score averaged 6.86±2.91. […] In stage 4, a gradual resolution of the consolidation occurred with more linear lesions in the lungs, and the total CT score was 6.21±1.56.
32376697 Hu, et al., Nature 579:270-273, 2020,, we note a strong homology to numerous sequence reads in metavirome data sets generated from the lungs of deceased pangolins reported by Liu et al. […] While analysis of these reads indicates the presence of a similar viral sequence in pangolin lung, the similarity is not sufficient to either confirm or rule out a role for pangolins as an intermediate host in the recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2.
32377597 Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a common toxicity of thoracic radiotherapy with overlapping clinical and imaging features with COVID-19, however, RP is treated with high-dose corticosteroids, which may exacerbate COVID-19-associated lung injury.
32378737 Plasma total Cmax was determined and then multiplied by the lung:plasma ratio reported in cattle to predict the lung Cmax after administration of each single dose. […] Even with the high lung:plasma ratio, ivermectin is unlikely to reach the IC50 in lungs after single oral administration of the approved dose (predicted lung: 0.0873 µM) or at doses 10x higher that the approved dose administered orally (predicted lung: 0.820 µM).
32379637 The following outcomes were measured: pulmonary function tests including plethysmography and diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), functional tests (6-min walk distance test), Quality of life (QoL) assessments (SF-36 scores), activities of daily living (Functional Independence Measure, FIM scores), and mental status tests (SAS anxiety and SDS depression scores).
32380511 Weight loss and virus replication in lung were observed in hACE2 mice infected with SARS-CoV-2.
32380844 The role of chest radiography (CXR), computed tomography (CT), and lung ultrasound is discussed.
32382146 Compared with the lung A549 cells, similar expression was noted in conjunctival and pterygium cells. […] In addition, mouse cornea had comparable expression of Tmprss2 gene and lower but prominent Ace2 gene expression compared with the lung tissue.
32384397 All of severe children displayed the lesions on chest CT, more lung segments were involved in severe children than in non-severe children, which was only risk factor associated with severe COVID-19 pneumonia in multivariable analysis. […] More than 3 lung segments involved were associated with greater risk of development of severe COVID-19 in children.
32384516 Chest X-rays revealed bilateral infiltrates worse at the lung bases and CT scan of the chest showed bilateral ground-glass opacities consistent with COVID-19.
32385976 However, with predominant respiratory manifestations of COVID-19, particularly in more severe cases, chest imaging using computed tomography (CT) plays a major role in detecting viral lung infection, evaluating the nature and extent of pulmonary lesions, and monitoring the disease activity.
32386014 In the case of inner-middle zone distribution, the long axis of the lesion was mostly parallel and surrounded the bronchial vascular bundle, or distributed along the lung lobules (31.58%).
32386015 The early CT images of lung in 187 cases (100%) showed multiple patchy and ground-glass opacities with fine mesh and consolidation shade, which mainly distributed in pulmonary band or under the pleura. […] Severe pulmonary CT images in 15 cases (8%) showed diffuse lesions in both lungs, displaying consolidation, or “white lung”. […] The imaging features of 6 times of lung CT examination in one case showed continuous progress. […] The original lesion in one case was obviously absorbed, but new lesions appeared under the pleura of both lungs at the third review of CT scanning.
32386449 Lung injury has been reported as the major outcome of COVID-19 infection.
32386571 We isolated SARS-CoV-2 from a patient with confirmed COVID-19, and compared virus tropism and replication competence with SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 (H1N1pdm) in ex-vivo cultures of human bronchus (n=5) and lung (n=4). […] SARS-CoV-2 infected ciliated, mucus-secreting, and club cells of bronchial epithelium, type 1 pneumocytes in the lung, and the conjunctival mucosa. […] In the lung, SARS-CoV-2 replication was similar to SARS-CoV and H1N1pdm, but was lower than MERS-CoV.
32386675 The time from contact symptomatic case to illness was 7.7 days, and 88 patients (64.7%) were cluster cases, radiological evidence found bilateral lung involvement was common (57.4%).
32387040 While the majority of infected cases appear mild, in some cases individuals present respiratory complications with possible serious lung damage.
32387682 The laboratory indicators and lung lesion on chest CT were mild.
32387756 Instead, the rate of transmission is significative higher, with a faster spread of the virus responsible of the worldwide outbreak and a significative higher mortality rate due to the development of a severe lung injury. […] The CD4 + memory exploiting could help immune system to recall immunity of already know antigens against coronaviruses, avoiding or limiting “lung crash” until virus specific immunity develops and making it faster and prolonged.
32388326 Secondly, it could improve respiratory system functions by acting as an antibiotic, antioxidant, and antimycotic, restoring normal lung tissue elasticity and strength.
32388330 The RAS has an essential role in glucose homeostasis and may have a role in COVID-19-induced lung injury. […] Some antihyperglycemic medications modulate RAS and might hypothetically alleviate the deleterious effect of angiotensin II on lung injury. […] Furthermore, most antihyperglycemic medications showed anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of lung injury. […] Some antihyperglycemic medications might have protective effects against COVID-19-induced lung injury. […] Early insulin therapy seems very promising in alleviating lung injury.
32388451 Recent reports suggest that ACE2, which is the target protein to invade the host, has a ubiquitous presence in human organs, including lung parenchyma, gastrointestinal tract, nasal mucosa, renal and urinary tract, airway epithelia, lymphoid tissues, reproductive organs, vascular endothelium and neurons.
32388486 Moreover, in patients, red light has been shown to alleviate chronic obstructive lung disease and bronchial asthma.
32388937 There was also no significant difference in the rate of negative conversion rate of 2019-nCoV nucleic acid, the improvement ration in clinical symptoms, and the improvement ration of pulmonary infection in the lung CT imaging (P> 0.05).
32388947 Specific IgM antibody screening for patients whose pharyngeal swab nucleic acid test is negative but with ground glass-like lung lesions is very important for early detection and early isolation.
32391282 In particular, lung cancer patients were reported to be at high risk of pulmonary complications related to SARS-CoV2 infection. […] Potential risks associated with COVID-19 infection should be considered, considering tumor histology and natural course, disease setting, clinical conditions, and disease burden, together with the expected benefit, toxicities (e.g., myelosuppression or interstitial lung disease), and response obtained from the planned or ongoing treatment. […] In this study, we report the results of proactive measures including social media, telemedicine, and telephone triage for screening patients with lung cancer during the COVID-19 outbreak in the European Institute of Oncology (Milan, Italy).
32391519 Severe infection was defined according to published criteria by patient reported dyspnea, respiratory rate > 30 per minute, blood oxygen saturation ≤ 93% on room air, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen <300 and/or lung infiltrates >50% within 24 to 48 hours on chest imaging.
32391663 The shape, number and distribution of lung shadows, as well as the characteristics of the lesions on the CT images were reviewed. […] The obvious shadows infiltrating the lungs were shown on CT images in 50 cases, for other 2 cases there was no abnormal changes in the lungs during the first CT examination.
32391671 Cough, fever, fatigue, lung imaging changes were the main manifestations.
32391672 The inflammation indicators and fever of this patient were effectively controlled and the lung lesions remained stable after active anti-viral treatment, then the radical colorectomy was performed after the viral negative conversion for twice.
32391675 The main medication characteristics are clearing heat, entilating lung, removing toxicity and removing turbidity.
32391741 Patients without known COVID-19 were included who presented to the emergency room (ER) with primary non-respiratory [gastrointestinal (GI) or neurological] symptoms, had lung parenchymal findings suspicious for COVID-19 on a non-chest CT but no concurrent chest CT and had COVID-19 testing in the ER.
32391742 Background Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a target of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), demonstrates its highest surface expression in the lung, small bowel, and vasculature, suggesting abdominal viscera may be susceptible to injury.
32392461 In the last decades lung ultrasound (LUS) has become of crucial importance in the evaluation and monitoring of a widely range of pulmonary diseases. […] Specific LUS findings have proved useful and predictive of acute respiratory distress syndrome which is of particular relevance in the suspicion and monitoring of patients with lung disease. […] Furthermore, several studies have confirmed the role of LUS in the screening of interstitial lung diseases in connective tissue diseases. […] Herein, we provide a summary on emerging role of lung ultrasound in COVID-19 pneumonia.
32392859 We report two different radiological findings on computed tomography (CT) in two patients affected by SARS-CoV-2: a lung acute embolism (APE) in the first case and a radiological picture of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the second case.
32393591 It is unclear if specific patient populations such as lung transplant patients are at higher risk for COVID-19. […] Recommendations for the care of lung transplant patients during the COVID-19 pandemic are discussed and will likely change as the pandemic evolves.
32394639 COVID-19 disease severity is worse in older obese patients with comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic lung disease.
32395098 Besides, IFN-γ and anti-antigen IgG2a enriched in immunized mice which meanwhile showed no obvious lung inflammation indicated balanced Th1/Th2 responses were safely induced.
32395550 There was a development of multiple ground-glass shadows and infiltrative shadows in both lungs with mild pleural effusion. […] We presume that 2019-nCoV can also manifest in the nervous system alone, and lung CT, which has relative specificity, should be used as a routine screening method.
32395673 Volumetric CT image-guidance is commonly employed in patients undergoing radiotherapy and presents a unique opportunity to screen for COVID-specific lung changes.
32395696 To explore lung involvement in patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). […] In the early-stage (0-3 days), the percentage of lung involvement was 4%, with a mean density of - 462 ± 99 HU. […] In the intermediate-stage (4-6 days), the mean percentage of lung involvement noticeably increased compared with that in early stage (7%, p < 0.05). […] In late stage (7-14 days), the percentage of lung involvement decreased to 5%.
32395910 It has been hypothesized that COVID-19 lung involvement could represent not only a viral effect but also an immune response induced by the infection, causing epithelial/endothelial lesions and coagulation disorders.
32396922 Pulmonary infiltrates, a hallmark of human disease, were visible in lung radiographs.
32396996 It should be noted that many aspects of severe patients are unique to COVID-19 and are rarely observed in other respiratory viral infections, such as severe lymphopenia and eosinopenia, extensive pneumonia and lung tissue damage, a cytokine storm leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure.
32397951 After entering, the viral RNA interrupts the cell proliferation system to activate self-proliferation.However, having all the information about the prevalence of the SARS-COV-2, it is not still clear which factors determine the severity of lung and heart function impairment induced by COVID-19. […] In this review, the structure and origin of CoV, the role of ACE2 as a receptor of SARS-COV-2 on the surface of host cells, and the ACE2 distribution in different tissues with a focus on lung and cardiovascular system has been discussed.
32398243 To address this uncertainty, we examined consecutive patients with lung cancers who were diagnosed with COVID-19 and examined severity based on no or prior receipt of PD-1 blockade. […] Overall, the severity of COVID-19 in patients with lung cancer was high, including need for hospitalization in more than half of patients and death in nearly a quarter. […] PD-1 blockade does not appear to impact the severity of COVID-19 in patients with lung cancers.
32398268 At this moment, the role of lung ultrasound (LUS) has yet to be explored.
32399481 Chest CT revealed multiple ground glass opacities in both lungs, mainly distributed subpleurally and in the middle and lateral lung fields, particularly in the right lung, where they had partially fused into patches.
32399620 Severity of lung changes on chest CT of early, progressive, peak, and absorption stages was scored according to the percentage of lung involvement (5 lobes, scores 1-5 for each lobe, range 0-20). […] Severity of lung abnormalities quantified on chest CT might correlate with laboratory parameters in the early and progressive stages.
32399710 Pneumonia in 50 patients with COVID-19 (45%) distributed in the peripheral regions of the lung, while it showed mixed distribution in 26 patients (74%) with influenza (p = 0.022).
32399901 The recruitment-to-inflation (R/I) ratio (i.e. the ratio between the recruited lung compliance and CRS at PEEP 5 cmH2O) was used to assess lung recruitability.
32400017 For those who work in the field of islet transplantation, the micro vascular COVID-19 lung vessels obstructive thrombo-inflammatory syndrome (recently referred to as MicroCLOTS) is familiar, as one cannot fail to recognize the presence of similarities with the instant blood mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) occurring in the liver hours and days after islet infusion.
32400074 In this paper we report anamnestic data, clinical features and therapeutic management of two lung transplant recipients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia.
32400084 Lung transplant recipients may be particularly at risk due to the high degree of immunosupression and the lung being the organ primarily affected by COVID-19. […] We describe a 16-year old male and a 64-year old female recently lung transplanted patients with COVID-19 during inpatient rehabilitation. […] In conclusion, our report of patients with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild COVID-19 respectively, may indicate that lung transplant recipients are not per se at risk for severe COVID-19. […] Further observations and controlled trials are urgently needed to study SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung transplant recipients.
32400087 The isolation of SARS-CoV-2 from non-lung clinical specimens, the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in autopsy specimens, previous experience with the related coronaviruses SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and the vast experience with other common RNA respiratory viruses are all addressed.
32401352 Though infection with the SARS-CoV2 virus predominantly manifests in the lung as an interstitial pneumonia (“ground glass opacities”), there is increasing evidence that the virus invades all compartments of the body, particularly the eyes, heart, skin, kidneys, and the central nervous system(CNS).1 This article is protected by copyright.
32401360 Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group; Australasian Lung Cancer Trials Group; Australian and New Zealand Children’s Haematology/Oncology Group; Australia and New Zealand Society of Palliative Medicine; Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases; Bone Marrow Transplantation Society of Australia and New Zealand; Cancer Council Australia; Cancer Nurses Society of Australia; Cancer Society of New Zealand; Clinical Oncology Society of Australia; Haematology Society of Australia and New Zealand; National Centre for Infections in Cancer; New Zealand Cancer Control Agency; New Zealand Society for Oncology; and Palliative Care Australia.
32401673 Lethality of Covid-19 during the 2020 pandemic, currently still in the exponentially-accelerating phase in most countries, is critically driven by disruption of the alveolo-capillary barrier of the lung, leading to lung edema as a direct consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] We argue for inhibition of the TRPV4 calcium-permeable ion channel as a strategy to address this issue, based on the rationale that TRPV4 inhibition is protective in various preclinical models of lung edema, and that TRPV4 hyperactivation potently damages the alveolo-capillary barrier, with lethal outcome. […] A clinical trial using a selective TRPV4 inhibitor demonstrated a benign safety profile in healthy volunteers and in patients suffering from cardiogenic lung edema. […] We argue for expeditious clinical testing of this inhibitor in Covid-19 patients with respiratory malfunction and at risk for lung edema.
32402766 During the infection of alveolar epithelial cells of the lung, the ACE2 receptor has a central function. […] In a first clinical trial, CQ was effective in inhibiting exacerbation of pneumonia, improving lung imaging findings, promotion of virus-negative conversion, and shortening the disease. […] Concretely, this relates to (a) the inconsistent individual bioavailability of these drugs at the alveolar target cells, depending on intestinal resorption, hepatic first-pass metabolism and accumulation in liver, spleen and lung, and (b) the need for a relatively high concentration of 1-5 µM at the alveolar surface.
32403153 Pulmonary auscultation showed basal soft crackling noises of the left lung FINDINGS AND DIAGNOSIS: Laboratory examination showed increased values for LDH, pro-BNP and CRP and normal values for leucocytes and procalcitonin. […] Bei Verdacht auf Pneumonie wurde zunächst ein konventionelles Röntgenbild der Lunge durchgeführt, das laterale Verschattungen in beiden Lungen zeigte, verdächtig auf eine atypische Pneumonie.
32403194 This commentary addresses the key paired issues of minimizing performance of diagnostic/staging bronchoscopy in patients with suspected/known lung cancer while maximizing the safety of the procedure with respect to HCW transmission of COVID-19.
32403201 Recent articles published in Obesity (1-3) discuss the possible effects of increased proinflammatory cytokines and disturbances of lung function in people with obesity, but we believe that they overlook an important player in this scenario, which is endothelial dysfunction.
32404786 There were only 13 cases with abnormal CT imaging, most of which were located in the subpleural area of the bottom of the lung.
32404799 The diagnosis of COVID-19 on the basis of the imaging features may be more challenging in patients with preexisting cardiothoracic conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung disease, cardiovascular disease, and malignancies with cardiothoracic involvement.
32404898 Similarly, despite the recognition of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2), and the role of ACE2 in lung injury; there are conflicting results with the use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) in these patients.
32405081 The present analytical paper on the role of point-of-care lung ultrasound in this pandemic examines its diagnostic accuracy, clinical utility, and physical practicality in the intensive care unit.
32405160 Pneumonia with respiratory failure represents the main cause of death in COVID-19, where hyper inflammation plays an important role in lung damage.
32405226 The use of artemisinins against different respiratory diseases has been investigated in lung cancer models and inflammatory-driven respiratory disorders.
32405877 C3 knockout mice infected with SARS-CoV had less lung disease than wild-type mice, suggesting that complement may play a role in coronavirus pathogenesis.
32406081 With significant relevance to the Covid-19 pandemic, this paper contributes to emerging ‘aerographic’ research on the socio-materialities of air and breath, based on an in-depth empirical study of three hospital-based lung infection clinics treating people with cystic fibrosis.
32406140 Evidence from animal studies is limited, with a single study suggesting viral particles on the eye can travel to the lung, resulting in very mild infection.
32406420 Critical cases had multiple consolidation surrounded by wide range of GGOs distributed in the whole lung fields.
32406829 Deep learning (DL) has proved successful in medical imaging and, in the wake of the recent COVID-19 pandemic, some works have started to investigate DLbased solutions for the assisted diagnosis of lung diseases. […] While existing works focus on CT scans, this paper studies the application of DL techniques for the analysis of lung ultrasonography (LUS) images.
32407255 Each patient’s ED CXR was divided into 6 zones and examined for opacities by two cardiothoracic radiologists with scores collated into a total concordant lung zone severity score.
32408155 As an S1P analogue, fingolimod might enhance lung endothelial cell integrity.
32408222 We trained a multi-view fusion model using deep learning network to screen patients with COVID-19 using CT images with the maximum lung regions in axial, coronal and sagittal views.
32408338 Immunohistochemistry demonstrated viral antigens in nasal mucosa, bronchial epithelial cells, and in areas of lung consolidation on days 2 and 5 post-inoculation (dpi), followed by rapid viral clearance and pneumocyte hyperplasia on 7 dpi.
32409114 A combination of consolidation and ground glass opacity was the most predominant (75%) pattern of lung involvement on computed tomography (CT).
32409232 Recent evidence indicates the usefulness of lung ultrasound (LUS) in detecting coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pneumonia. […] LUS revealed signs of lung involvement during COVID-19 infection. […] In particular, vertical artifacts (70%), pleural irregularities (60%), areas of white lung (10%) and subpleural consolidations (10%) were the main findings in patients with COVID-19.
32409313 We report the case of an asymptomatic patient undergoing a spine CT examination for trauma who was incidentally found to have lung abnormalities later confirmed to be COVID-19.
32409430 Risk factors for a more severe course of COVID-19 include age 65 and older, living in a nursing home or long term care facility, chronic lung disease, and others.
32409431 Lung ultrasound has the potential to aid the diagnosis and management of patients with COVID-19 infection.
32409436 Analyses of COVID-19 patients with preexisting interstitial lung disease (ILD) or pulmonary sarcoidosis is lacking but registries are ongoing.
32409443 These patients need to be managed according to guidelines for the low-tidal-volume lung-protective ventilation.
32409498 Here, we describe the clinical characteristics of and outcomes in patients with diabetes in whom COVID-19 has been confirmed or clinically diagnosed (with typical features on lung imaging and symptoms), and their association with glucose-lowering or blood pressure-lowering medications.
32410003 ACE-2 has lung protective effects by limiting angiotensin-2 mediated pulmonary capillary leak and inflammation.
32410412 Baseline CT findings including lobar distribution, presence of ground glass opacities, consolidation, linear opacities, and lung severity score were evaluated. […] After controlling for age, onset time, lesion characteristics, number of lung lobes affected, and bilateral involvement, the lung severity score on baseline CT (> 4 vs. ≤ 4 [reference]: adjusted HR = 0.41 [95% confidence interval, CI = 0.18-0.92], p = 0.031) and initial lymphocyte count (reduced vs. normal or elevated [reference]: adjusted HR = 0.14 [95% CI = 0.03-0.60], p = 0.008) were two significant independent factors that influenced recovery and discharge. […] Lung severity score > 4 and reduced lymphocyte count at initial evaluation were independently associated with a significantly lower rate of recovery and discharge and extended hospitalization in patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia.
32412159 Overall, 21 patients were included with a median age of 56 years (10 kidney, 5 liver, 1 pancreas, 1 lung, 1 heart and 3 combined transplantations).
32412511 Intubation per se induces lung damage, increases the risk of superinfection, and the number of days of ICU stay.
32412514 To communicate the results of a mechanical ventilation exercise with a ventilator in a lung simulator, and simultaneously in two and four. […] No statistically significant differences were observed between programmed, recorded and measured positive end-expiratory pressure, mean airway pressure and peak pressure, except when simultaneously ventilating four lung simulators.
32412811 Delay requirements were statistically more frequent among patients with prostate or breast cancer compared with those with lung or pancreatic cancer.
32412897 An autopsy of a patient in Japan with coronavirus disease indicated pneumonia lung pathology, manifested as diffuse alveolar damage.
32413319 We identify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within lung type II pneumocytes, ileal absorptive enterocytes, and nasal goblet secretory cells. […] Our data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 could exploit species-specific interferon-driven upregulation of ACE2, a tissue-protective mediator during lung injury, to enhance infection.
32413619 Coronavirus pneumonia is accompanied by rapid virus replication, where a large number of inflammatory cell infiltration and cytokine storm may lead to acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and death. […] Specifically, the impact on the immunomodulatory and cytoprotective properties of our novel in ‘house’ (IH-Lentinan, IHL) and a commercial (Carbosynth-Lentinan, CL) Lentinan extract were investigated using in vitro models of lung injury and macrophage phagocytosis.
32414594 Remittent fever and resected lung segments ≥5 were associated with fatality.
32414646 This molecule is a peptidase expressed at the surface of lung epithelial cells and other tissues, that regulates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
32414711 COVID-19, caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, is a disease characterised by cough, fever and fatigue, which progresses to life-threatening lung injury in approximately 5% of patients. […] However, ACE2 is protective against lung injury while ANG II (which is catabolised by ACE2) is associated with lung injury both in mice and humans. […] Here we give an overview of the RAS pathway with respect to COVID-19 and argue that strategies which manipulate this pathway might reduce the destructive lung manifestations of COVID-19 and improve patient outcomes.
32416318 Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) technique used for its portability, widespread availability, and ability to provide real-time diagnostic information procedural guidance. […] LUS outperforms lung auscultation and chest X-ray, and is an alternative to chest computed tomography in select cases.
32416433 Aiming to reduce hospitalization of our patients with advanced lung cancer, vinorelbine in its metronomic formulation is one of the best strategy.
32417304 The inflammatory process, cytokine storm, and lung injury that are associated with COVID-19 can put patients at an increased risk of thrombosis.
32418532 Recently, SARS-CoV-2 [8, 9], the causative agent of COVID-19, has been described to interfere with the RAS [2] by interacting -via its spike (S) glycoprotein- with the metallopeptidase Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor [9, 10] that is expressed at the surface of epithelial cells from blood vessels, lung, kidney (renal tubules), intestine, and heart, as well as on cerebral neurons and immune monocytes/macrophages [11-13]. […] The main SARS-CoV-2-related COVID-19 symptoms/diseases reported hitherto are hypertension, atherosclerosis, thrombosis (coagulopathy), diarrhea, glaucoma, anosmia, ageusia, skin lesions (dermatitis), autoimmune inflammation of the central nervous system, and damages to various organs such as the lung, heart, kidney, and testicle [1, 2, 14].
32418550 SARS-CoV-2 and mustard gas inducing oxidative stress, immune system dysregulation, cytokine storm, and overexpression of ACE2 receptor in lungs that act as functional entry receptors for SARS-CoV-2. […] Therefore, in this review, we discussed the different pathologic aspects of lung injury caused by mustard gas and also the relationship between these damages and the increased susceptibility of Iranian mustard gas exposed survivors to Covid-19.
32418728 In 2019, a multi-source analysis of complementary pharmacological data showed that using NSAIDs in these indications (potentially indicative of an underlying infection) increases the risk of a severe bacterial complication, in particular in the case of lung infections.
32418885 These agents could attenuate ARDS and help control SARS-CoV-2 via multiple mechanisms including: 1) inhibition of viral replication; 2) decrease of iron availability; 3) upregulation of B cells; 4) improvement of the neutralizing anti-viral antibody titer; 5) inhibition of endothelial inflammation and 6) prevention of pulmonary fibrosis and lung decline via reduction of pulmonary iron accumulation.
32420305 Chest imaging revealed bilateral ground-glass lung changes.
32420932 We had 21/61 (34.4%) patients resulted positive for COVID-19 and 11/61 in Parma (18.3%), based on nasal-pharyngeal swab, chest CT scan and/or lung US findings.
32420958 According the limited experimental evidences, it is hypothesized that sofosbuvir might be a potential option to improve care of patients with COVID-19 especially at the start of the disease and before invasion of the virus into the lung parenchymal cells.
32421539 Continuous, unresolved dyspnea often indicates the progression of lung lesions. […] However, our clinical observations showed that although some patients had significant chest distress and dyspnea, the lesions that were observed in the lungs during computed tomography were milder and not completely consistent with clinical symptoms.
32422081 Congruent with the ARDS clinical impression, autopsy findings were remarkable for extensive and markedly severe acute lung injury consistent with viral pneumonia, characterized by diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary infarction, severe pulmonary edema, desquamation of pneumocytes with intraalveolar aggregation, and pneumocyte morphological alterations suspicious for viral cytopathic effect.
32422178 Furthermore, several licensed and potential antifibrotic compounds have been assessed in models of acute lung injury and viral pneumonia.
32422280 ACE2 expression increases on lung alveolar epithelial cells and adipose tissue due to obesity, smoking and air pollution.
32422305 The leading cause of death is severe acute respiratory syndrome as a consequence of exacerbated inflammatory response accompanied by uncontrolled oxidative stress as well as the inflammatory reaction at the lung level.
32422320 COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is a major source of morbidity and mortality due to its inflammatory effects in the lungs and heart. […] The p38 MAPK pathway plays a crucial role in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and has been implicated in acute lung injury and myocardial dysfunction. […] ACE2 is highly expressed in the lungs and heart and converts Angiotensin II into Angiotensin 1-7.
32422364 Lung cancer patients, especially those with reduced lung function and cardiopulmonary comorbidities are more likely to have increased risk and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 as one of its common manifestations is as an acute respiratory illness. […] The purpose of this manuscript is to present a practical multidisciplinary and international overview to assist in treatment for lung cancer patients during this pandemic, with the caveat that evidence is lacking in many areas.
  1. Background: Combating viral disease outbreaks has doubtlessly been one of the major public health challenges for the 21st century. (2) Methods: The host entry machinery required for COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was examined for the gene expression profiles and polymorphism. (3) Results: Lung, kidney, small intestine, and salivary glands were among the tissues which expressed the entry machinery coding genes Ace2, Tmprss2, CtsB, and CtsL.
32423435 One case (12.5%) was classified as critical type and showed bronchial pneumonia-like changes in the bilateral lungs, presenting blurred and messy bilateral lung markings and multiple patchy shadows scattered along the lung markings with blurry margins.
32423449 Inflammation, pulmonary edema and an over-reactive immune response can lead to hypoxia, respiratory distress and lung damage. […] Multiple in vivo studies in animal models and ex vivo human lung models have demonstrated the MSC’s impressive capacity to inhibit lung damage, reduce inflammation, dampen immune responses and aid with alveolar fluid clearance. […] Upon administration by the intravenous route, the cells travel directly to the lungs where the majority are sequestered, a great benefit for the treatment of pulmonary disease.
32423499 Radiology Departments have been directly involved form the beginning of the COVID-19 emergency to provide imaging lung assessment of suspected and positive patients while ensuring the execution of other routine and emergency examinations for non-COVID-19 patients.To limit the risk of the infection spread, the Radiology Department should be reconfigured.
32423664 COVID-19 mainly invades the lungs, causing its serious damage. […] In the process of management of COVID-19 infections, close attention should be paid on both lung and cardiovascular damage, especially on those with only symptoms of cardiovascular diseases.
32423888 More lung lobes were involved in the third week. […] Although CT score had correlations with arterial blood gas indices, long-term follow-up of pulmonary function test is needed to determine the recovery of lung.
32423911 A repeat chest radiograph demonstrated lung re-expansion, and the patient was admitted to a COVID-19 specific ward for further observation.
32425009 We present an unusual case of a patient with bilateral-lung transplantation due to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who subsequently suffered complications with acute myocardial infarction and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
32425305 DEC has inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid metabolism to prostaglandins, little known anti-viral effects on animal retroviruses and demonstrated anti-inflammatory actions in animal models of lung inflammation indicating the need to explore this hypothesis further.
32425307 The resultant cytokine storm is responsible for the severe lung injury leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome seen in COVID 19 patients.
32425337 All thin-section CT scans of the lungs were performed in all of patients. […] On initial CT scans, the bilateral lung involved was shown in 24 cases (70.59%), while 29 (82.35%) cases were distributed in peripheral. […] Follow-up imaging in 19 patients during the study time window demonstrated mild, moderate or severe progression of disease, as manifested by increasing extent and density of lung opacities.
32425701 Here, we show that cigarette smoke causes a dose-dependent upregulation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, in rodent and human lungs. […] Furthermore, our work identifies ACE2 as an interferon-stimulated gene in lung cells, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infections could create positive-feedback loops that increase ACE2 levels and facilitate viral dissemination.
32426292 The global COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted healthcare delivery, particularly for patients with advanced lung cancer. […] While certain aspects of care can be safely omitted or delayed, systemic therapy plays an important role in survival and quality of life for patients with advanced lung cancer; limiting access to systemic therapy will compromise cancer-related outcomes. […] Here, we review currently available oral cytotoxic agents with a potential role in the treatment of lung cancer.
32426653 Several case series from Italy and China have highlighted the lung ultrasound findings of this disease process and may demonstrate its clinical utility during the current pandemic. […] As the lung involvement of COVID-19 is primarily a peripheral process it is readily identifiable via lung ultrasound.
32426877 Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) is now a pandemic disease with lung manifestations, which can bring severe acute respiratory distress.
32427192 The treatment of patients with chronic lung diseases must be adapted during the pandemic, but must still be guaranteed.
32427582 SARS-CoV-2 was demonstrated to infect type II, type I pneumocytes and endothelial cells, leading to severe lung damage through cell pyroptosis and apoptosis. […] In severe cases, lymphopenia, neutrophilia, depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, and massive macrophage and neutrophil infiltrates were observed in both blood and lung tissues.
32427651 Specifically, patchy ground-glass opacities in the periphery of the lower lungs may be present initially, eventually undergoing coalescence, consolidation, and organization, and ultimately showing features of fibrosis. […] Familiarity with these findings and their evolution will help radiologists recognize potential COVID-19 and recognize the significant overlap with other causes of acute lung injury.
32428291 A minority, especially patients with chronic lung disease, develops lethal disease including severe pneumonia, pulmonary edema, rapidly developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple organ failure and septic shock.
32428379 Given that most viruses use endocytosis to enter the host cell, mechanistic investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infection needs to consider the diversity of endocytic pathways available for SARS-CoV-2 entry in the human lung epithelium.
32428864 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is not only an entry receptor of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the virus that causes COVID-19, but also can protect from lung injury.
32428957 The clinical examination shows fine crackles over both lungs and a respiratory failure of the husband. […] Radiologically lung infiltrates of different severity. […] Notfallmäßige Vorstellung eines Ehepaars in der zentralen Notaufnahme. […] In der klinischen Untersuchung fallen feinblasige Rasselgeräusche über beiden Lungen beider Patienten und eine respiratorische Insuffizienz des Ehemanns auf. […] Intubation und Beatmung des männlichen Patienten bei mittelschwerem ARDS mit langer intensivmedizinischer Behandlung.
32429580 Normal human fibroblast lung cells (MRC-5) were used to determine the cytotoxicity of the compounds.
32430279 Although, SARS-Cov-2 primarily causes lung infection through binding of ACE2 receptors present on the alveolar epithelial cells, yet it was recently reported that SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in the faeces of infected patients. […] Role of the gut microbiota in influencing lung diseases has been well articulated.
32430459 We aimed to explore risk factors affecting susceptibility to infection and prioritize drug repositioning candidates, based on Mendelian randomization (MR) studies on ACE2 lung expression. […] We conducted a phenome-wide MR study to prioritize diseases/traits and blood proteins causally linked to ACE2 lung expression in GTEx. […] Other diseases/traits having nominal significant associations with increased expression included inflammatory bowel disease, (estrogen receptor-positive) breast cancer, lung cancer, asthma, smoking, and elevated alanine aminotransferase.
32430481 Authors have noticed an increase in lung apex abnormalities on CT angiography (CTA) of the head and neck performed for stroke workup during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. […] Assessment of COVID-19 related lung findings on CTA was made blinded to COVID-19 status. […] Among all code patients who had a stroke, 28% (33/118) had COVID-19 related lung findings. […] The incidence of COVID-19 related lung findings in stroke CTA scans was 28% in all code patients who had a stroke and 37.5% in patients with a stroke confirmed by imaging. […] Stroke teams should closely assess the lung apices during this COVID-19 pandemic as CTA findings may be the first indicator of COVID-19 infection.
32432121 According to the number of lung segments involved in the lesion, the lesions range from <30% of the lung area (Common type), 30-50% (Severe type), and> 50% (Critical type). […] During this study, a total of 173 patients (64.08%) were recovered after treatment. Conclusion: In some epidemiological backgrounds, CT imaging manifestations and evolutionary characteristics are of great significance for early warning of lung injury, assessment of disease severity, and assistance in clinical typing and post-treatment follow-up.
32432787 From two COVID-19-related deaths, samples of lung, heart and kidney were collected and processed for Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy (TEM and SEM) with the aim of identifying the virus.
32433160 We present the case of an asymptomatic patient referred for FDG PET/CT imaging of a lung nodule who demonstrated the typical CT findings of COVID-19 infection and was subsequently found to be positive on testing.
32433293 There are currently no guidelines for the conduct of elective lung resection surgery in this context. […] A working group composed of 1 thoracic surgeon, 2 anesthesiologists and 1 critical care specialist assessed the risk for aerosol during lung resection surgery and proposed steps for mitigation. […] The working group divided the risk for aerosol into 6 time-points: (1) intubation and extubation; (2) Lung isolation and patient positioning; (3) access to the chest; (4) conduct of the surgical procedure; (5) procedure termination and lung re-expansion; (6) chest drainage. […] In the context of lung resection surgery, specific time points during the procedure seem to pose specific risks for the genesis of aerosol and thus should be the focus of attention.
32433817 On admission GCS was 14/15, vital signs were within the normal limits and bilateral crepitation at the lung base. […] This case illustrates acute confusion may be the only presenting symptom of COVID-19 without overt lung disease.
32434416 It is time for public health agencies to revisit regulation on transplantation of human pluripotent stem cells for the possibility of the development of a humanized mice model with a humanized lung.
32434788 The SARS-CoV-2 could in some case induce excessive and aberrant non-effective host immune responses that are associated with potentially fatal severe lung injury and patients can develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). […] Acute lung injury results from inflammatory monocyte and macrophage activation in the pulmonary luminal epithelium which lead to a release of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α.
32435065 COVID-19, a new viral disease affecting primarily the respiratory system and the lung, has caused a pandemic posing serious challenges to healthcare systems around the world. […] Therapy is based on established recommendations issued for patients with acute lung injury (ARDS). […] Lung protective ventilation, prone position, restrictive fluid management and adequate management of organ failure are the mainstays of therapy. […] In case of fulminant lung failure, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be used as a rescue in experienced centres.
32435607 As a crucial enzyme of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), ACE2 not only mediates the virus entry but also affects the pathophysiological process of virus-induced acute lung injury (ALI), as well as other organs’ damage. […] ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) have been shown to increase the level of expression of ACE2 and could be potential strategies in protecting lungs, heart, and kidneys.
32435925 The CT images were evaluated for the number, type and distribution of the opacity, and the affected lung lobes. […] Forty patients (83.6%) had two or more opacities in the lung. […] The first follow-up CT scans showed that twelve patients (30%) had improvement, 26 (65%) patients had mild-moderate progression, and two patients (5%) had severe progression with “white lungs.” The second follow-up CT showed that 22 patients (71%) showed improvement compared with the first follow-up CT, four patients (12.9%) had aggravated progression, and five patients (16.1%) showed unchanged radiographic appearance. […] The common CT features of COVID-19 pneumonia are multiple lung opacities, multiple types of the opacity (ground-glass, ground-glass and consolidation, and consolidation alone), and multiple lobes especially the lower lobe involved. […] • The predominant CT features of COVID-19 pneumonia are multiple ground-glass opacities with or without consolidation and, with both lungs, multiple lobes and especially the lower lobe affected.
32436229 It was found that ACE2, Angiotensin (1-7) and its MAS receptors are present, over in the lung, also in the testicles, in particular in Leydig and Sertoli cells.
32436847 The lower lobes of both lungs were the most commonly involved. […] In the follow-up, the progression group showed more involvement of the upper lobe of the left lung than the recovery group.
32437596 Despite widespread interest in the pathophysiology of the disease, relatively little is known about the associated morphologic and molecular changes in the peripheral lung of patients who die from Covid-19. […] We examined 7 lungs obtained during autopsy from patients who died from Covid-19 and compared them with 7 lungs obtained during autopsy from patients who died from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to influenza A(H1N1) infection and 10 age-matched, uninfected control lungs. […] The lungs were studied with the use of seven-color immunohistochemical analysis, micro-computed tomographic imaging, scanning electron microscopy, corrosion casting, and direct multiplexed measurement of gene expression. […] In patients who died from Covid-19-associated or influenza-associated respiratory failure, the histologic pattern in the peripheral lung was diffuse alveolar damage with perivascular T-cell infiltration. […] The lungs from patients with Covid-19 also showed distinctive vascular features, consisting of severe endothelial injury associated with the presence of intracellular virus and disrupted cell membranes. […] In lungs from patients with Covid-19, the amount of new vessel growth - predominantly through a mechanism of intussusceptive angiogenesis - was 2.7 times as high as that in the lungs from patients with influenza (P<0.001).
32437667 Ultrasound has been suggested as a reliable and accurate tool for assessing the lungs in patients with suspected pneumonia. […] Lung ultrasound can show specific signs of interstitial pneumonia, which is characteristic of COVID-19 pulmonary infection. […] We present a systematic approach to lung examination, simplified to encourage its adoption by obstetricians and gynecologists, together with an example of a recent pregnant woman with COVID-19 infection, in which lung ultrasound was useful in the management.
32437696 The distribution of lung lesions was peripheral in 85.0% of patients, multifocal in 69.4%, and bilateral in 68.2%.
32437706 On day 9, after admission, the chest computed tomography scan showed diffuse ground-glass shadows in the patient’s bilateral lungs. […] Lung biopsy showed areas of diffuse alveolar damage, characterized by extensive acute alveolitis with numerous intra-alveolar neutrophil, lymphocyte, and macrophage infiltrations.
32438383 Inhaled modified recombinant human ACE2, may bind SARS-CoV-2 and mitigate lung damage.
32438446 However, this has not been accompanied by a comprehensive evaluation of the target plasma and lung concentrations of these drugs following approved dosing in humans. […] An unbound lung to plasma tissue partition coefficient (Kp Ulung ) was also simulated to derive a lung Cmax/EC50 as a better indicator of potential human efficacy. […] Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, mefloquine, atazanavir (ritonavir-boosted), tipranavir (ritonavir-boosted), ivermectin, azithromycin and lopinavir (ritonavir-boosted) were all predicted to achieve lung concentrations over 10-fold higher than their reported EC50 . […] Nitazoxanide and sulfadoxine also exceeded their reported EC50 by 7.8- and 1.5-fold in lung, respectively. […] Future studies should focus on EC90 values and discuss findings in the context of achievable exposures in humans, especially within target compartments such as the lung, in order to maximise the potential for success of proposed human clinical trials.
32438620 These include the presence of poor nutritional status and pre-existing noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes mellitus, chronic lung diseases, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), obesity, and various other diseases that render the patient immunocompromised.
32440666 To date, only a few studies have reported the distribution of lung lesions by segment. […] COVID-19 mainly affects the lower lobes of the lungs. […] GGO and consolidation in the lung periphery is the imaging hallmark in patients with COVID-19 infection.
32440906 We propose a management algorithm that combines the respiratory rate and oxygenation index with bedside lung ultrasound examination and monitoring that could help determine earlier the requirement for intubation and other surveillance of COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure.
32441764 PARPi’s can effectively decrease IL-6, IL-1 and TNFα levels (key interleukins in SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storm) and can alleviate subsequent lung fibrosis, as demonstrated in murine experiments and clinical trials. […] PARPi’s had beneficial effects in animal models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), asthma and ventilator-induced lung injury.
32441783 ARDS is caused and sustained by an uncontrolled inflammatory activation characterized by a massive release of cytokines (cytokine storm), diffuse lung edema, inflammatory cell infiltraton and disseminated coagulation.
32441805 Acute lung injury (ALI) represents the most severe form of the viral infection sustained by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] In particular, antiviral treatment used for the treatment of several viral infections (eg, hepatitis C, HIV, Ebola, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus) are today used with a mild or moderate effect on the lung injury. […] In this article reviewing literature data related to the use of escin, an agent having potent anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects in lung injury, we suggest that it could represent a therapeutic opportunity as add-on therapy in ALI related to COVID-19 infection.
32442030 Two cardiothoracic radiologists and a cardiothoracic imaging fellow characterized and scored the extent of lung involvement. […] Positive CT findings seen in children included ground-glass opacities with a peripheral lung distribution, a crazy paving pattern, and the halo and reverse halo signs.
32442105 These data indicate that auranofin could be a useful drug to limit SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated lung injury due to its antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-reactive oxygen species (ROS) properties.
32442317 We hypothesize that the intrinsic circadian clock of the lung and the immune system may regulate individual components of CRS and thus chronotherapy may be used to effectively manage ARDS in COVID-19 patients.
32443442 Two radiologists evaluated the severity of findings in computed tomography (CT) images on a scale from 1 (no characteristic signs of COVID-19) to 5 (confluent ground glass opacities in over 50% of the lung parenchyma). […] The volume of affected lung was quantified using commercially available software. […] The need for ICU treatment is independently associated with affected lung volume, radiological severity score, CRP, and IL-6.
32444393 Comparing patients on hemodialysis with controls, creatine kinase-muscle and brain type, myoglobin, hypersensitive troponin I, B-type natriuretic peptide, and procalcitonin were increased, and the percentage of abnormalities in bilateral lung was higher in computed tomographic scan (82% versus 69%, P=0.15) and unilateral lung was lower (10% versus 27%, P=0.03).
32444412 Firstly, 4106 patients with computed tomography images were used to pre-train the DL system, making it learn lung features.
32444415 Patients with pre-existing interstitial lung disease showed massive fibrous stripes and crazy-paving signs at an early stage.
32446305 Further, TB patients often have underlying co-morbidities and lung damage that may make them prone to more severe COVID-19.
32447007 Chronic exposure to air pollutants have been associated with lung ACE-2 over-expression which is known to be the main receptor for SARS-coV2. […] High atmospheric NO2 may provide a second hit causing a severe form of SARS-CoV-19 in ACE-2 depleted lungs resulting in a worse outcome.
32448136 The lung window was reconstructed by Karl 3D iterative technique in the study group.
32448282 Pulmonary function testing should be performed in children with chronic lung disease only if it is needed to guide management and limited to the necessary tests, namely spirometry.
32448377 Acute lung injury (ALI), an increasingly devastating human disorder, is characterized by a multitude of lung changes arising from a wide variety of lung injuries. […] In this review, we detail the present stem cell-based therapeutics for lung injury caused by influenza virus and the outlook for the future state of stem cell therapy to deal with emerging influenza and coronaviruses.
32448391 Lung lesions in COVID-19 pneumonia patients can be absorbed completely during short-term follow-up with no sequelae.
32448880 Physical activity is useful in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and lung diseases, metabolic diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, cancer and depression.
32449333 In fatal COVID-19 cases the balance between the immune response and the inflammatory outcome fails, due to which the patients at risk, mostly aged, have higher levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and an enhanced inflammatory process in the lung.
32449782 Lung function abnormalities, psychological impairment and reduced exercise capacity were common in SARS and MERS survivors.
32450107 After controlling for multiple confounding factors (age, sex, race or ethnicity, body-mass index, underlying cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, diabetes, underlying lung disease, smoking, immunosuppressed condition, and baseline disease severity), when compared with mortality in the control group (9·3%), hydroxychloroquine (18·0%; hazard ratio 1·335, 95% CI 1·223-1·457), hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide (23·8%; 1·447, 1·368-1·531), chloroquine (16·4%; 1·365, 1·218-1·531), and chloroquine with a macrolide (22·2%; 1·368, 1·273-1·469) were each independently associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality.
32450165 It is associated with the other organ damage such as cardiovascular risk via an increased level of hypertension through ACE2, gastrointestinal dysfunction, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, liver dysfunction, lung injury, CNS risk, ocular risks such as chemosis, conjunctivitis, and conjunctival hyperemia, cancer risk, venous thromboembolism, tuberculosis, aging, and cardiovascular dysfunction and reproductive risk.
32450344 The effects might be sustained by the prevention and interference on forming clots in lung capillary vessels and by modulating megakaryocytes’ function and platelet adhesion.
32450346 The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause acute lung injury (ALI) and even acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); with a fatality of 7.0 %.
32450727 There were no significant differences in the number of lesions, bilateral lung involvement, large irregular/patchy opacities, rounded opacities, linear opacities, crazy-paving patterns, halo signs, interlobular septal thickening or air bronchograms.
32451194 Lung ultrasound gained a leading position in the last year as an imaging technique for the assessment and management of patients with acute respiratory failure. […] We performed a complete daily examination with lung ultrasound score computation and systematic search of complications (pneumothorax, ventilator-associated pneumonia); on-duty physicians were free to perform CT or chest X-ray when deemed indicated.
32451533 SARS-CoV-2 viral genome was sequenced by next-generation sequencing (NGS) from FFPE lung tissue blocks. […] Viral RNA was detected in lungs, bronchi, lymph nodes, and spleen in both cases using qRT-PCR method.
32451626 Patients with COVID-19 ARDS are divided into two phenotypes (L phenotype and H phenotype) according to their lung compliance. […] Heart-lung interaction methods can be used only in patients with L phenotype ARDS. […] Evaluation of the volume status should be comprehensive; therefore, the presence of signs of volume overload such as lower limb edema, lung edema, and severe hypoxemia should be considered beside the usual indices for fluid responsiveness.
32452050 SARS-CoV2 elicits infections from the common cold to severe conditions accompanied by lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and other organ destruction.
32452947 All cannulations were performed at the bedside in the intensive care unit in patients who had undergone a trial of rescue therapies for acute respiratory distress syndrome including lung protective ventilation, paralysis, prone positioning, and inhaled nitric oxide.
32453656 Patients with lung cancer are a particularly vulnerable population, where the risk of mortality from cancer must now be balanced by the potential risk of a life-threatening infection. […] We have developed guidelines at our academic cancer center to standardize management of patients with lung cancer across our health care system and provide guidance to the larger oncology community. […] We recommend that general principles of lung cancer treatment continue to be followed in most cases where delays could result in rapid cancer progression. […] In principle, however, treatment paradigms must continue to be individualized, with careful consideration of risks and benefits of continuing or altering lung cancer-directed therapy.
32453889 During critical care, at least until the late stage of the disease, severely ill COVID-19 patients may have relatively well preserved lung compliance but remain severely hypoxaemic.
32454090 Longitudinal outcome data can then be combined with other epidemics and old-age health data, to discover the best biomarkers to predict (i) coping with infection & inflammation and thus hospitalization or intensive care, (ii) long-term health challenges, e.g. deterioration of lung function after intensive care, and (iii) treatment & vaccination response. […] Further, there are universal triggers of old-age morbidity & mortality, and the elimination of senescent cells improved health in pilot studies in idiopathic lung fibrosis & osteoarthritis patients alike.
32454807 Nine studies reported radiographic imaging, including 5 with images of pneumonia, increased lung marking, thickened texture, or high-density nodular shadow.
32455515 Objective: To analyse the clinical history, laboratory tests and pathological data of a patient who suffered from novel coronavirus pneumonia(COVID-19) and provide reference for the clinical treatment of similar cases. Methods: Data of clinical manifestation, laboratory examination, bronchoscopy, echocardiography and cardiopulmonary pathological results were retrospectively reviewed in a case of COVID-19 with rapid exacerbation from mild to critical condition. Results: This patient hospitalized at day 9 post 2019 novel coronavirus(2019-nCoV) infection, experienced progressive deterioration from mild to severe at day 11, severe to critical at day 18 and underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation(ECMO) and continuous renal replacement therapy(CRRT) as well as heart lung transplantation during day 28-45 day post infection, and died on the second day post heart and lung transplantation. […] The patient underwent lung and heart transplantation and finally died of multi organ failure at the second day post lung and heart transplantation. […] The pathological changes were mainly diffused pulmonary hemorrhagic injuries and necrosis, fibrosis, small vessel disease with cardiac edema and lymphocyte infiltration. Conclusions: The clinical course of COVID-19 can exacerbate rapidly from mild to critical with lung, liver and heart injuries.
32455539 We analyzed sequencing data from lung and oral epithelial samples obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). […] We found that the receptor and transmembrane protease necessary for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, respectively, were upregulated in smoking samples from both lung and oral epithelial tissue.
32458044 In the setting of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, only few data regarding lung pathology induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is available, especially without medical intervention interfering with the natural evolution of the disease. […] Diagnosis was made at necropsy and lung histology showed diffuse alveolar damage, edema, and interstitial pneumonia with a geographically heterogeneous pattern, mostly affecting the central part of the lungs. […] This death related to COVID-19 pathology highlights the heterogeneity and severity of central lung lesions after natural evolution of the disease.
32458279 This analysis is based on the following observations: plasma exposures of remdesivir and its active metabolite are unlikely to be correlated with its clinical efficacy; remdesivir and its active metabolites are unlikely to be adequate in the lung to kill the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
32459123 In brief, we propose a model wherein dysregulated type I interferon signalling leads to aberrant recruitment and accumulation of innate immune lineages in the lung, impairing establishment of productive adaptive responses, and permitting a pathologic pro-inflammatory state.
32460208 Sodium Chromo-Glycate (SCG) described as a MC stabilizer, prevents the release of inflammatory chemical compounds, improve mouse survival and respiratory pathological changes in lung viral infection and suppresses inflammation. […] Here, we hypothesize for the first time, that SCG and/or PEA suppress MC activation and pro-inflammatory mediators release, playing an anti-inflammatory therapeutic role in the inflamed lung of patients with COVID-19.
32460302 However, due to specific characteristics of COVID-19 (e.g., rapidly expanding lung lesions), a single imaging method such as lung POCUS will have significant limitations. […] Herein, we suggest a Tri-POCUS approach that represents concurrent bedside assessment of the lungs, heart, and the venous system.
32460390 A total of 23 SOT transplant recipients suffering from COVID-19 were identified (n = 3 heart; n =15 kidney; n = 1 kidney-after-heart; n = 3 lung and n = 1 liver transplant recipient).
32460624 In severe phenotype, resembling a “cytokine-release syndrome”, SARS-CoV2 causes the lysis of the immune-mediators leading to a cytokine storm able to induce lung epithelium damage and acute respiratory distress syndrome.
32460829 COVID-19 patients were defined as those with either a positive RNA test or typical, newly appeared lung CT scan abnormalities. […] We found no association between prior radiation therapy fields or extent of radiation therapy sequelae and extent of COVID-19 lung lesions.
32461141 The novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 originates in the lungs, but may extend to other organs, causing, in severe cases, multiorgan damage, including cardiac injury and acute kidney injury. […] COVID-19-associated tissue injury is not primarily mediated by viral infection, but rather is a result of the inflammatory host immune response, which drives hypercytokinemia and aggressive inflammation that affect lung parenchymal cells, diminishing oxygen uptake but also endothelial cells, resulting in endotheliitis and thrombotic events and intravascular coagulation. […] The complement system represents the first response of the host immune system to SARS-CoV-2 infection, but there is growing evidence that unrestrained activation of complement induced by the virus in the lungs and other organs plays a major role in acute and chronic inflammation, endothelial cell dysfunction, thrombus formation and intravascular coagulation, and ultimately contributes to multiple organ failure and death. […] In this review we will discuss the relative role of the different complement activation products in the pathogenesis of COVID-19-associated tissue inflammation and thrombosis and propose the hypothesis that blockade of the terminal complement pathway may represent a potential therapeutic option for the prevention and treatment of lung and multi-organ damage.
32462378 Chest CT revealed ground-glass-like lesions in 18 cases, unilateral lung patchiness in 7 cases, bilateral lung patchiness in 7 cases, and pleural effusion in 2 cases.
32462412 Both had a history of lung disease and during their hospitalization tested positive for SARS-CoV-2.
32462705 The younger patient with a mild upper respiratory illness and a brief viral shedding, while the elderly with multi-morbidity had pneumonia, prolonged viral shedding, and residual lung damage.
32463562 Obesity has various negative consequences relative to the course of COVID-19, including adverse effects on lung physiology, and induces comorbidities such as type II diabetes or hypertension.
32463794 Pathological signaling in the lung induced by particulate matter (PM) air pollution partially overlaps with that provoked by COVID-19, the pandemic disease caused by infection with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.
32464579 Thirty-four (35.8%) patients were classified in the ‘progression stage’ based on CT imaging; these patients typically showed lesions in multiple lung segments and lobes (21/34,61.8%), and an uneven increase in ground-glass opacity density accompanied by consolidation and grid-like or cord-like shadows(30.5%). […] These showed diffuse bilateral lung lesions, mixed ground-glass opacities and consolidation with cord-like interstitial thickening and air bronchograms, entire lung involvement with a “white lung” presentation, and mild pleural effusion.
32466623 Home monitoring of lung function in asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF) may help to detect deterioration of lung function at an early stage, but the reliability is unclear. […] We investigated whether lung function measurements at home were comparable to measurements during clinical visits.
32466822 Since December 2019, a number of new infectious diseases, mainly lung diseases caused by novel coronavirus infections, have been discovered in Wuhan, Hubei province.
32467422 Due to the delay in the reporting of the PCR test results, our postprocedural triage regarding COVID-19, followed by the isolation strategy, was based on lung CT scan results.
32468193 However, it is assumed that these patients are at high risk, because of respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function.
32468775 Respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, dyspnoea, myalgia, fatigue, breathing difficulties and bilateral lung infiltrates on C.T are common findings.
32469732 Lung lesions primarily manifested as interstitial opacities (71.7%) and AO opacities (60.5%), more frequently bilateral (64.5%) and with a peripheral predominance (62.5%). […] Patients admitted to the emergency radiology department after 5 days from symptoms onset, more frequently had interstitial and AO opacities, in comparison to those admitted within 5 days, and lung lesions were more frequently bilateral and peripheral.
32470148 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced direct cytopathic effects against type I and II pneumocytes mediate lung damage. […] Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) is mainly produced by damaged or regenerating alveolar type II pneumocytes.
32470948 In the clinic, COVID-19 patients most commonly present with fever, cough and dyspnea, and from there the disease can progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung consolidation, cytokine release syndrome, endotheliitis, coagulopathy, multiple organ failure and death.
32471272 SARS-CoV-2 causes mild to severe respiratory tract inflammation, often developing into lung fibrosis with thrombosis in pulmonary small vessels and causing even death.
32471278 A subsequent progression to acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can take place, which is often followed by death. […] Moreover, fenretinide administration by pulmonary delivery systems could further increase its therapeutic value by carrying high drug concentrations to the lungs and triggering a rapid onset of activity.
32471650 Computed tomographic findings ranged from massive acute pulmonary embolism to a segmental or sub-segmental pattern; furthermore, thrombosis of sub-segmental pulmonary arteries within lung infiltrates were occasionally seen, suggesting local mechanisms.
32471794 The laboratory findings revealed normal WBC and CRP despite apparent lung infiltrations, and typical observations on CT imaging were important diagnostic clues.
32472516 Our clinical evaluation was consistent with an involvement of the brainstem and especially of respiratory centre thus possibly explaining the weaning failure in patients that were awake and had recovered from lung involvement.
32472653 A trend was found of improved radiographic findings, pulmonary function (lung compliance, tidal volumes, PaO2 /FiO2 ratio, alveolo-capillary injury), and inflammatory biomarker levels.
32467189 Their initial work-up did not suggest COVID-19 as a diagnosis but showed unsuspected/incidental lung findings, which led to further investigations and a diagnosis of COVID-19.
32469164 Patients with lung cancer are highly susceptible to infection compared to healthy individuals because of systemic immunosuppression induced by malignancy and anticancer therapy. […] Hence, patients with lung cancer should be considered a priority group for COVID-19 prevention. […] Here, we provide some suggestions for early identification of COVID-19 and differential diagnosis in patients with lung cancer who have fever and respiratory symptoms. […] Our medical team also provide clinical recommendations on lung cancer management during the COVID-19 pandemic, for carrying out meticulous and individualized clinical management of lung cancer patients and maximum protection to effectively prevent COVID-19. […] KEY POINTS: Significant findings of the study This article provides suggestions for early identification of COVID-19 and differential diagnosis in patients with lung cancer with fever and respiratory symptoms. […] What this study adds This article makes clinical recommendations on lung cancer management during the COVID-19 pandemic.
32470167 All severe and critical patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 showed bilateral lung involvement and have more multiple lobes involvement than common patients (p<0.001). […] In addition, COVID-19 patients with bilateral lung involvement or multiple lobes involvement should be taken seriously and actively treated to prevent deterioration of the disease.
32470851 When oxLDL-trained macrophages encounter SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) in the lung, it causes unregulated cytokine secretion, leading to the alveolar damage.
32471004 Herein, we report the first case of COVID-19 in a lung transplant recipient in the immediate posttransplant period, and we describe the epidemiologic challenges in identifying the source of infection in this unique situation.
32473964 On the basis of three representative cases, it is possible to propose the following hypotheses: (i) how patients are positioned has a strong influence on their oxygen saturation levels; (ii) saturation-optimalised positions are patient-specific; (iii) prone positions require ergonomic devices; and (iv) saturation-optimalised positions should aim to place the most affected part(s) of the lung(s) on top.
32474064 Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are common lung disorders characterized by alveolar-capillary barrier disruption and dyspnea, which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. […] However, the direct visualization of lung epithelial injuries caused by NETs, and the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of this damage are still lacking. […] Therefore, we established a cell-based assay for detecting NETs during lung epithelial cells-neutrophils co-culture using the xCELLigence system, a recognized real-time, dynamic, label-free, sensitive, and high-throughput apparatus. […] Our results demonstrated that lung epithelial injuries, reflected by declines in cell index (CI) values, could be induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated PMNs, or NETs in a time and dose-dependent manner.
32474629 Their clinical and medical records were analyzed, and the chest CT images were assessed to determine the involvement of lobes and the distribution of lesions in the lungs between the patients who recovered from the illness and those who died. […] Older patients with comorbidities such as diabetes and emphysema, and higher CRP and NLRs with diffuse lung involvement were more likely to die of COVID-19. […] • Almost all patients critically ill with COVID-19 pneumonia had five lung lobes involved. […] • Medial or parahilar area involvement and degree of lung involvement were more serious in the deceased patients when compared with those who recovered from treatment. […] • Chronic lung disease, e.g., emphysema, diabetes, and higher serum CRP and NLR characterized patients who died of COVID-19.
32474630 • The predominant lung changes were GGO and reticular alteration, while consolidation was less frequent. […] • Chest radiography showed lung abnormalities in 75% of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, range varied from 63.3 to 83.9%, respectively, at 0-2 days and > 9 days from the onset of symptoms.
32474885 Early recognition and appropriate treatment of immunologic complications will decrease the morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 infection, which requires the collaboration of infectious disease, lung, and intensive care unit specialists with other experts such as immunologists, rheumatologists, and hematologists.
32475230 Given the high levels of cytokines induced by SARS-CoV-2, treatment to reduce inflammation-related lung damage is critical.
32475597 Some traditional Chinese medicines, especially the Lung Cleansing and Detoxifying Decoction (Qing Fei Pai Du Tang), have shown therapeutic effects on mild and ordinary COVID-19 patients. […] This review summarizes the potential pharmacological activities of polysaccharides isolated by hot water extraction from Lung Cleansing and Detoxifying Decoction, which is consistent with its production method, to provide the theoretical basis for ongoing research on its application.
32475876 In all seven patients with COVID-19, ground glass opacity (GGO) was found in the HRCT images, mainly distributed in the subpleural region of the lungs. […] The right lung was more extensively involved than the left lung in six patients, and the lower lobe was more extensively involved than the upper lobe in five patients. […] The initial chest HRCT images of the lungs of COVID-19 patients had specific characteristics; the typical manifestations of the bilateral lungs showed extensive GGO-type infiltrate, with thickened vascular bundles and focal center consolidation.
32476258 We describe our institutional experience with COVID-19 among ten SOT patients, including the clinical presentation, treatment modalities, and outcomes of seven renal transplant recipients, one liver transplant recipient, one heart transplant recipient, and one lung transplant recipient.
32476308 A proper combination of antiviral agents, immune modulators such as prednisolone, and anticoagulants such as heparin and anti-C5a antagonists could be employed to minimize lung damage and prevent systemic involvements.
32476472 In various experimental models of lung injury, the imbalance between angiotensin II over-activity and of antiotensin1-7 deficiency triggered inflammation, thrombosis and other adverse reactions.
32478445 Lung ultrasound (LUS) is an effective tool to detect and monitor patients infected with 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). […] A routinely performed LUS examination revealed serious lung involvement in 7 cases: 2 were initially asymptomatic; 3 have chest computed tomography; 1 had initial negative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results; and 1 had initial negative computed tomographic findings.
32479771 A risk score was developed incorporating twelve characteristics: age>40, male, non-white ethnicity, oxygen saturations<93%, radiological severity score>3, neutrophil count>8.0 x109/L, CRP>40 mg/L, albumin<34 g/L, creatinine>100 µmol/L, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and chronic lung disease.
32479787 The most common solid tumour types were breast (40 [20%] patients), colorectal (28 [14%]), and lung cancer (24 [12%]). 54 (30%) of 182 patients received antitumour therapies within 4 weeks before symptom onset. 30 (15%) of 205 patients were transferred to an intensive care unit and 40 (20%) died during hospital admission.
32481381 He sought medical consultation for right lower lung nodules found by CT scan. […] The patient’s postoperative pathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma of the right lower lung.
32482483 Lung ultrasound is well-established as an important means of evaluating lung pathology in patients in the emergency department and in intensive care units. […] Here we present a case series of a group of physician patients with COVID-19 who monitored themselves daily while in home isolation using lung point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS). […] Lung POCUS findings corresponded with symptom onset and resolution in all 3 patients with confirmed COVID-19 during the 14-day isolation period. […] Lung POCUS may offer a feasible means of monitoring patients with COVID-19 who are on home isolation.
32482538 The outcome of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection fundamentally affects the lung field, causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
32483490 The selectivity determines susceptibility of clinical disease and extent of pathogenesis, including fatal lung and myocardial injury, and may be more cogent than the recently reported risk factors.
32483500 Consequently, the use of respiratory devices that may potentially promote aerosolization like non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) for diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), advanced chronic obstructive lung disease, pulmonary hypertension (PH), and neuromuscular respiratory disease has been called into question.
32484232 We here describe the current knowledge about the radiologic and histologic pulmonary features of covid-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, and present lung histology from a case with fatal disease. […] The posterior parts of the lungs and the lower lobes are typically more markedly affected.
32484966 Some cases rapidly develop deteriorating lung function, which causes deep hypoxaemia and requires urgent treatment. […] Therefore, this mini review has prioritised previous and ongoing research to find explanations based on three scientific areas: gravity, lung structure and fractal geometry and vascular regulation. […] It concludes that gravity is one of the variables responsible for ventilation/perfusion matching but in concert with lung structure and fractal geometry, ventilation and regulation of lung vascular tone. […] Since ventilation distribution does not change between supine and prone positions, the higher expression of nitric oxide in dorsal lung vessels than in ventral vessels is likely to be the most important mechanism behind enhanced oxygenation in the prone position.
32485147 The risks from potential exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and resource reallocation that has occurred to combat the pandemic, have altered the balance of benefits and harms that informed current (pre-COVID-19) guideline recommendations for lung cancer screening and lung nodule evaluation. […] Consensus statements were developed to guide clinicians managing lung cancer screening programs and patients with lung nodules during the COVID-19 pandemic. […] The panel was provided with an overview of current evidence, summarized by recent guidelines related to lung cancer screening and lung nodule evaluation. […] Twelve statements related to baseline and annual lung cancer screening (n = 2), surveillance of a previously detected lung nodule (n = 5), evaluation of intermediate and high-risk lung nodules (n = 4), and management of clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer (n = 1) were developed and modified. […] The consensus statements provide guidance about situations in which it was believed to be appropriate to delay screening, defer surveillance imaging of lung nodules, and minimize nonurgent interventions during the evaluation of lung nodules and stage I non-small cell lung cancer. […] There was consensus that during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is appropriate to defer enrollment in lung cancer screening and modify the evaluation of lung nodules due to the added risks from potential exposure and the need for resource reallocation.
32485164 In comparison with wild-type C57BL/6 mice, both young and aged hACE2 mice sustained high viral loads in lung, trachea, and brain upon intranasal infection.
32485335 The percentage of lung involvement (range <25 % to 75-100 %) was also calculated. […] Lung lesions in patients with SARS-Cov2 pneumonia primarily manifested as alveolar and interstitial opacities and were mainly bilateral (60.8 %). […] Lung abnormalities were more frequent and more severe by symptom duration and by increasing age.
32486534 Objectives: To observe the pulmonary changes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in postmortem needle specimens, to detect the presence of 2019 novel coronavirus(2019-nCoV) in the lung tissues, and to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics. Methods: For 10 decedents with 2019-nCoV infection in Wuhan, bilateral lungs underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous multi-point puncture autopsy, and pulmonary pathological changes were described in routine hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) slides. […] The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to detect 2019-nCoV nucleic acid in lung tissue, and the pathological characteristics were demonstrated in combination with clinical data analysis. Results: Of the 10 deaths associated with COVID-19, 7 were male and 3 were female.
32486557 The differences in CT typing at different time were statistically significant (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The clinical features of COVID-19 and HRCT images are diverse, extensive GGO and infiltrates in both lungs are typical. […] In some epidemiological backgrounds, CT imaging manifestations and evolutionary characteristics are of great significance for early warning of lung injury, assessment of disease severity, and assistance in clinical typing and post-treatment follow-up. 目的: 探讨新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)临床表现及高分辨率CT(HRCT)影像分型和影像演变特征的临床意义。
32487005 The COVID-19 virus directly targets the lungs, leading to pneumonia-like symptoms and shortness of breath with life-threatening consequences. […] The acquired breathing sounds can be analyzed using advanced signal processing and analysis in tandem with new deep/machine learning and pattern recognition techniques to separate the breathing phases, estimate the lung volume, oxygenation, and to further classify the breathing data input into healthy or unhealthy cases.
32488318 The pathophysiology of the disease is multifactorial: association with innate immune response, hypercoagulability state, lung tissue damage, neurological and/or gastrointestinal tract involvement, monocytic/macrophage activation syndrome, culminating in exaggerated cytokine secretion, called “cytokine storm”, which leads to worsening and death.
32488686 In this review, we share our experience in using point-of-care ultrasound, particularly lung ultrasound, to indicate the probability of COVID-19 in patients with end-stage renal disease treated by hemodialysis. […] We also propose recommendations for the application of lung ultrasound, focused echocardiography and inferior vena cava ultrasound in the management of patients in hemodialysis.
32488958 Demographic features, medical histories, clinical symptoms, lung computerized tomography (CT) findings, and laboratory indexes on admission were collected.
32489022 In the previous research, our laboratory established a mouse model combining disease with syndrome of human coronavi-rus pneumonia with pestilence attacking the lung syndrome, based on the national traditional Chinese medicine clinical classification of Novel Coronavirus Infected Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Plan. […] In this study, a mouse model combining disease with syndrome of human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking the lung syndrome was used to evaluate the effectiveness of Reyanning Mixture to provide animal experimental support for clinical application. […] Blood was collected on the 4 th day and the lung tissue was dissected to calculate the lung index and inhibition rate; flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage of T and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood; RT-PCR was used to detect the nucleic acid virus load in lung tissue; ELISA was used to detect motilin and gastrin in serum, and inflammatory factors TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 in lung tissue proteins. […] Reyanning Mixture could reduce the lung index(P<0.01) of coronavirus pneumonia mice with pestilence attacking the lung; it could significantly increase the percentage of CD8~+ T lymphocytes and CD4~+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood of model mice(P<0.05, P<0.01). […] The low dose of Reyanning could effectively increase the percentage of total B lymphocytes(P<0.05), reduce virus load in lung tissue of model mice(P<0.01), reduce the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 in the lung tissue of model mice(P<0.01), reduce the content of motilin in the serum of model mice(P<0.01). […] Reyanning Mixture convey a better effect in treating coronavirus pneumonia mice with pestilence attacking the lung. […] It manifested obvious effects in improving lung lesions, enhancing the gastrointestinal function of mice, improving the autoimmune function of mice, and reducing the expression of inflammatory factors in vivo, which could provide evidences for clinical research.
32489023 The aim of this paper was to investigate the therapeutic effect of Compound Qinlan Oral Liquid recommended by Provincial Novel Coronary Virus Pneumonia Treatment Scheme on the treatment of BALB/c mice with combining disease with syndrome of human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking lung syndrome and to explore its clinical application in the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia, and to provide laboratory data support for clinical Chinese medicine. […] According to the classification of syndromes of novel coronavirus pneumonia by the national competent department of traditional Chinese medicine, this study determined that human coronavirus 229 E(HCoV-229 E)-infected mouse model of cold and dampness syndrome can be used to study human coronavirus pneumonia combined with pestilence attacking the lung syndrome model. […] On the last dosing day, the lung tissue was dissected, and the lung index and inhibition rate were calculated. […] The nucleic acid of lung tissue was extracted and the HCoV-229 E virus load was detected by RT-PCR. […] Lung tissue protein was extracted and the contents of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ were detected by ELISA. […] Histopathological analysis was performed with lung tissue. […] The high and low doses of Compound Qinlan Oral Liquid significantly reduced the lung index(P<0.01) of mice with combining disease with syndrome of human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking lung syndrome, and the inhibition rates were 59.01% and 47.72%, respectively. […] Compared with the model control group, the high and low doses of Compound Qinlan Oral Liquid significantly reduced lung tissue viral load(P<0.01), increased cross blood CD4~+ T lymphocytes, CD8~+ T lymphocytes and total B lymphocyte percentage(P<0.01), reduced serum motilin content(P<0.01), reduced IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in lungs(P<0.01) and reduced lung tissue inflammation. […] Compound Qinlan Oral Liquid has a better effect on the mouse model with combining disease with syndrome of human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking lung syndrome, which may attribute to its function of in virus replication inhibition, gastrointestinal function improvement, immunity enhancement, and inflammatory factor reduction.
32489024 Pulmonary fibrosis, which may be one of the sequela caused by COVID-19, not only brings dyspnea and deterioration of lung function, but also affects patients’ life because of its high mortality and poor prognosis. […] The potential herbs for treating pulmonary fibrosis mostly belong to lung(degree=14) and spleen(degree value=8), and the efficacy is focused on reinforcing deficiency(degree=9). […] The main symptom of COVID-19 is damp-heat stagnating in the lung, which always causes impairment of body fluid and Qi.
32489027 Viral pneumonia is caused by a spreading of lung infection caused by respiratory viruses. […] Some virus infections were found to be highly aggressive, leading to lung inflammation and severe damage in respiratory system with high fatality rate.
32489692 The MSCs therapy outcomes reported, are striking, as these cells inhibit the over-activation of the immune system, promoting endogenous repair, by improving the lung microenvironment after the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32489696 A cytokine storm induced by SARS-Cov2 may produce pneumonitis which may be fatal for older patients with underlying lung disease. […] Hyper-elevation of Interleukin1 (IL-1), Tumor necrosis factor-1alfa (TNF-1 alfa), and Interleukin 6 (IL-6) produced by inflammatory macrophage M1 may damage the lung alveoli leading to severe pneumonitis, decreased oxygenation, and potential death despite artificial ventilation. […] Low dose total lung (LDTL) irradiation at a single dose of 50 cGy may stop this cytokine cascade, thus preventing, and/or reversing normal organs damage.
32489929 Chest computed tomography (CT) is frequently used in diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for detecting abnormal changes in the lungs and monitoring disease progression during the treatment process. […] Pulmonary lesions more often involved bilateral lungs (78%, 95% CI: 45-100%) and were more likely to have a peripheral (65.35%, 95% CI: 25.93-100%) and peripheral plus central distribution (31.12%, 95% CI: 1.96-74.07%), but less likely to have a central distribution (3.57%, 95% CI: 0.99-9.80%). […] CT has low specificity in differentiating pneumonia-related lung changes due to significant overlap between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients with no significant differences in most of the imaging findings between these two groups (P>0.05).
32490715 The aim of the present bioinformatics study was to assess expression changes of the RAS and non-RAS genes, particularly immune response genes, in the lung epithelial cells after infection with SARS-CoV. […] The whole-genome expression data of the lung epithelial cells infected with SARS-CoV for 12, 24, and 48 hours were analyzed, and a total of 15 RAS family and 29 immune genes were found to be highly correlated with the exposure time to the virus in the studied groups.
32490829 Of the 70 patients, 84.3% showed bilateral lung involvement on CT; 27 cases (38.6%) showed ground-glass opacity (GGO), which was mostly distributed in the subpleural area (55.7%), and this sign was mainly observed in early COVID-19 patients. […] In addition, 41 cases (58.6%) manifested GGO combined with focal consolidation opacity, 2 (2.8%) had flake-like consolidation opacity, with involvements of the periphery of lung field and the central zone (44.3%), and this sign was mostly observed in severe or critical patients.
32490931 Considering that female sexual hormones may modulate the inflammatory response and also exhibit direct effects on the cells of the immune system, herein, we intend to discuss the sex differences and the role of estradiol in modulating the lung and systemic inflammatory response, focusing on its possible application as a treatment modality for SARS-CoV-2 patients. […] Studies showed that the viral infection induces a vascular process in the lung, which included vasodilation and endothelial dysfunction.
32491919 Asymptomatic infection may be associated with subclinical lung abnormalities, as detected by computed tomography.
32491949 The differences in the clinical course are highlighted by the lack of progression of the SARS-CoV-2 infection beyond mild symptoms in a majority of children, whereas in adults the disease progresses to acute lung injury and an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like phenotype with high mortality. […] The pathophysiological mechanisms leading to decreased lung injury in children may involve the decreased expression of the mediators necessary for viral entry into the respiratory epithelium and differences in the immune system responses in children. […] Notably, the developing lung in children may have a greater capacity to recover and repair after viral infection. […] Understanding the relative contributions of the above processes to the protective phenotype in the developing lung can guide the trial of the appropriate therapies in adults.
32492203 Recent days have seen growing evidence of cancer’s susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and of the effect of genomic differences on the virus’ entrance genes in lung cancer. […] Genetic confirmation of the hypotheses regarding gene expression and mutation pattern of target genes, including angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), basigin (CD147/BSG) and paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme (FURIN/PCSK3), as well as correlation analysis, was done in relation to lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC) using in silico analysis. […] The challenge for today is building the assessment of genomic susceptibility to COVID-19 in lung cancer, requiring detailed experimental laboratory studies, in addition to in silico analyses, as a way of assessing the mechanism of novel virus invasion that can be used in the development of effective SARS-CoV-2 therapy.
32492485 Evidence supports the chest CT scans for confirmed asymptomatic cases to evaluate the extent of lung involvement.
32492557 Our case series documents four patients who presented with abdominal symptoms whose abdominopelvic CT revealed incidental pulmonary parenchymal findings in the imaged lung bases and were subsequently confirmed positive for COVID-19 via laboratory testing. […] While it is possible that the patients’ abdominal complaints are coincidental with CT findings, it is interesting that patients can have such extensive incidental disease in the lungs on CT without respiratory symptoms.
32492560 DEC has inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid metabolism to prostaglandins, little known anti-viral effects on animal retroviruses and demonstrated anti-inflammatory actions in animal models of lung inflammation indicating the need to explore this hypothesis further.
32493030 The devastating third phase is in the gas exchange units of the lung, where ACE2 expressing alveolar type II cells and perhaps type I cells are infected. […] Repair might be normal, but if the type II cells are severely damaged, alternative pathways for epithelial repair may be activated, which would result in some residual lung disease.
32493443 Increased use of radiotherapy or chemoradiation instead of surgical treatment was recommended for defined patient groups with head-and-neck cancer, lung cancer, cervix cancer, esophageal cancer and prostate cancer.
32493514 This inflammation is supposed to be the main driver in the pathogenesis of lung failure (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) in COVID-19.
32494330 Physical examination showed bilateral rales on the lung exam, yet no lower extremity edema.
32495027 Thrombocytopenia was resulting from the consumption and/or the reduced production of platelets in damaged lungs. […] The activation of monocyte-macrophage system aggravates the immune damage of lung and other tissues, which leads to the increase of D-dimer, prothrombin time, and platelet consumption.
32495299 It has been recently observed that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), the receptor for MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus) and ACE2 have similar expression profiles in the lung.
32495372 Emerging evidence suggests that activation of the complement system is critical in the pathogenesis of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 related lung injury.
32495574 The lung inhibition index reached up to 86.86%. […] The lung CT showed more than 50% of lesion absorption rate, and the viral nucleic acid test showed the average clearance time of patients was 16.6 days, and the average length of hospital stay was 25.9 days. […] According to the chest CT for short-term review, the absorption of lung lesions was faster than before, especially for grid-like and fibrotic lesions.
32495577 As a result, ten of the 13 herbs in XFBD belonged to the lung meridian, and 326 of the 1 224 putative XFBD targets were associated with the disease target of COVID-19, among which 109 targets were enriched in the disease pathways of viral infection and lung injury. […] In conclusion, the therapeutic mechanism of XFBD in COVID-19 showed a multi-herb, multi-constituent, multi-target pattern, with lung as the chief targeted organ.
32495578 The main meridian of these TCM is lung, heart, spleen, liver, and stomach meridian.
32496357 Solid organ transplant recipients (SOT) comprise a large proportion of this group, yet there is limited knowledge about the presentation, clinical course and immunosuppression management of this novel infection among heart, lung, liver, pancreas and kidney transplant recipients.
32496364 ACE2 is an enzyme found in the heart, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and lung and is a coreceptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2), the virus responsible for COVID-19. […] However, several studies have also shown that ACE2 exhibits reno- and cardioprotection and preserves lung function in acute respiratory distress syndrome, which would favor ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy.
32496422 Corticosteroid might have a negative effect on lung injury recovery in non-severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients, however the results of this study must be interpreted with caution because of confounding factors.
32496430 We add to current knowledge and testing capacity for ventilator splitters by reporting the ability to examine the functionality of ventilator splitters by using 2 high-fidelity lung simulators. […] Data obtained by the high-fidelity lung simulators included: tidal volume, respiratory rate, minute ventilation, peak inspiratory pressure, peak plateau pressure, and positive end-expiratory pressure.
32496587 ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were coexpressed at the epithelial sites of the lung and skin, whereas CD147 (BSG), cyclophilins (PPIA and PPIB), CD26 (DPP4) and related molecules were expressed in both, epithelium and in immune cells.
32497257 Our attention has been focused on the role of ACE2 in that its blockade by the virus increases Bradykinin and its metabolites, well known to facilitate inflammation in the lung (responsible for cough and fever), facilitate both the coagulation and complement system, three mechanisms that are typical of angioedema, cardiovascular dysfunction and sepsis, pathologies which symptoms occur in COVID-19 patients.
32497535 Due to their mechanism of action targeting an early stage of the inflammatory response and ameliorating lung inflammation, we believe that selective PDE4 inhibitors may represent a promising treatment option for the early phase of COVID-19 pneumonia before the cytokine storm and severe multiorgan dysfunction take place.
32497778 The SARS-CoV-2 virus infects cells of the airway and lungs in humans causing the disease COVID-19. […] We hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 infection drives changes in immune cell-derived factors that then interact with receptors expressed by the sensory neuronal innervation of the lung to further promote important aspects of disease severity, including ARDS. […] We sought to quantify how immune cells might interact with sensory innervation of the lung in COVID-19 using published data from patients, existing RNA sequencing datasets from human dorsal root ganglion neurons and other sources, and a genome-wide ligand-receptor pair database curated for pharmacological interactions relevant for neuro-immune interactions. […] Our findings reveal a landscape of ligand-receptor interactions in the lung caused by SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and point to potential interventions to reduce the burden of neurogenic inflammation in COVID-19 pulmonary disease.
32499154 SARS-CoV2 viral manifestation poses a serious human life risk by causing acute lung injury and various respiratory outcomes and has become a global concern.
32499236 The initial mechanism for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is the binding of the virus to the membrane-bound form of ACE2, which is mainly expressed in the lung.
32499314 Interleukin 6 is involved in the cytokine cascade, which originates as a consequence of an excessive immune response secondary to viral infection, aggravating lung affectation.
32500199 In six cases, SARS-CoV-2 infection was diagnosed postmortem by a positive PCR test in a nasopharyngeal or lung tissue swab. […] All deceased, except for two women, in whom no significant pre-existing conditions were found autoptically, had relevant comorbidities (in descending order of frequency): (1) diseases of the cardiovascular system, (2) lung diseases, (3) central nervous system diseases, (4) kidney diseases, and (5) diabetes mellitus.
32500509 This paper reports the CT findings with some hints on the temporal changes over the course of the disease: the CT hallmarks of COVID-19 are bilateral distribution of ground glass opacities with or without consolidation in the posterior and peripheral lung, but the predominant findings in later phases include consolidations, linear opacities, “crazy-paving” pattern, “reversed halo” sign and vascular enlargement.
32500700 All patients underwent CT examination and a total CT score and the number of involved lung lobes were calculated and compared against collected laboratory and clinical information. […] By univariable analysis, in-hospital mortality was higher in patients with lower O2 saturation on admission (<88%), higher CT scores and higher number of lung lobes (> 4) involved with a diffuse parenchymal pattern. […] By multivariable analysis, in-hospital mortality was higher in patients with O2 saturation below 88% on admission and a higher number of lung lobes involved with diffuse parenchymal pattern.
32500773 On computed tomography scans, she had extensive interstitial lung fibrosis in addition to a positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction test requiring 6 L of oxygen via nasal cannula on admission.
32500849 Recent data suggested the utility of lung ultrasound (LUS) in the diagnosis of COVID-19 by detecting an interstitial pattern (B-pattern). […] Hence, we aimed to pool the proportion of various reported lung abnormalities detected by LUS in symptomatic COVID-19 patients. […] The pooled proportion (PP) of B-pattern detected by lung ultrasound (US) was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94-1.00 I2 0%, Q 4.6). […] Our meta-analysis revealed that almost all SARS-CoV-2-infected patients have abnormal lung US.
32501218 The presence of more than one Cav-1 binding sites on coronavirus is an important finding supporting the possible relationship between SARS-CoV-2-mediated lung injury.
32501315 Respiratory viral infections such as coronavirus (COVID-19) will cause a great mortality, especially in people who underly lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary and asthma.
32501511 Additionally, unbound interstitial lung concentrations were simulated. […] Simulated unbound hydroxychloroquine concentrations in lung interstitial fluid mirrored those in unbound plasma and were notably lower than in vitro concentrations needed to mediate antiviral activity.
32503620 Hospitalized patients with positive nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19 infection (RT -PCR) and lung Computed tomography scan involvement compatible with COVID-19 pneumonia. […] Primary: Time for clinical improvement and lung CT score changes 14 days after treatment.
32503657 Lung image improved.3.
32503663 The hypothesis of the proposed intervention is that Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has profound effects on antiviral immunity, and can provide the stimulus to restore immune homeostasis in the lung with acute lung injury post COVID-19, and can promote lung repair mechanisms, that lead to a 25% improvement in lung oxygenation parameters.
32503707 Lung ultrasound also facilitates successful weaning from mechanical ventilation. […] Ultrasonography of the lung, pleura, and diaphragm are easily mastered by experienced echocardiographers.
32503815 COVID-19 is viral respiratory infection with frequently fatal lung complications in the elderly or in people with serious comorbidities. […] Lung destruction appears to be associated with a cytokine storm related to an increased level of interleukin-6 (IL6).
32504135 Our objective was to describe the ultrasonographic lung pattern on newborns with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the COVID-19 pandemic. […] Newborns who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 PCR in respiratory samples and were evaluated with point-of-care lung ultrasound (LU) from March to April 2020 were included. […] We describe the findings of lung ultrasound monitoring during the first week following diagnosis in three neonates with SARS-CoV-2 infection.What is known:• Lung ultrasound (LU) is a useful tool in COVID-19 management in adults.
32504146 Patients with COVID-19 mainly have a mild disease course, but severe disease onset might result in death due to proceeded lung injury with massive alveolar damage and progressive respiratory failure.
32504751 Acute lung injury (ALI) and the subsequent multi-system organ failure is a serious health problem with devastating impacts on the health care systems. […] Indeed, the world has been facing an un-preceded situation in the past couple of months following COVID-19 infestation and the associated high-mortality rates mainly attributed to sepsis and the associated multiple organ failures of particular concern; acute respiratory distress syndrome post lung injury. […] Nifuroxazide administration was associated with a significant improvement in lung and heart histopathological characteristics and architecture with retraction of LPS-induced inflammatory-infiltration. […] Nifuroxazide administration was associated with a significant improvement in both lung and heart oxidative status. […] Such positive outcomes were underlined by a significant inhibitory effect of nifuroxazide on lung and heart contents of toll-like receptor (4) (TLR4)/the inflammasome NALPR3/interleukin- 1β (IL-1β).
32504925 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease with fast spreading all over the world caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus which can culminate in a severe acute respiratory syndrome by the injury caused in the lungs. […] ACE2 is then downregulated in lung tissues with augmented serum levels of ACE2 in SARS-CoV-2 patients.
32505070 It has been proposed that COVID-19-related hyperinflammation and dysregulated immune response might play a critical role in developing a cytokine storm which usually progresses to a life-threatening acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome in infected individuals. […] It is proposed that nebulized lidocaine might be beneficial in reducing cytokines, protecting patients’ lungs and improving outcomes in COVID-19 patients when administered via inhalation as an adjunctive treatment for severe respiratory symptoms in patients fighting the novel Coronavirus.
32505076 Currently there are no reported series determining the Covid-19 infected lung cancer patient´s characteristics and outcome that allow us to clarify strategies to protect our patients. […] In our study we determine whether exists differences in cumulative incidence and severity of Covid-19 infection between lung cancer patients visiting our Medical Oncology department and the reference population of our center (320,000 people), in the current epicenter of the pandemic in Europe (Madrid, Spain). […] We retrospectively reviewed 1878 medical records of all Covid-19 patients who were admitted at Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor of Madrid between March 5, 2020 and April 7, 2020, in order to detect cumulative incidence of Covid-19 in lung cancer patients. […] We also described Covid-19 treatment outcome, mortality and associated risk factors using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. 17/1878 total diagnosis in our center had lung cancer (0.9 %) versus 1878/320,000 of the total reference population (p = 0.09). 9/17 lung cancer patients with Covid-19 diagnosis died (52.3 %) versus 192/1878 Covid-19 patients in our center (p < 0.0001). […] Dead lung cancer patients were elderly compared to survivors: 72 versus 64.5 years old (p = 0.12). […] Combined treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin improves the outcome of Covid-19 in lung cancer patients, detecting only 1/6 deaths between patients under this treatment versus others treatment, with statistical significance in the univariate and multivariate logistic regression (OR 0.04, p = 0.018). […] Lung cancer patients have a higher mortality rate than general population.
32505492 We discuss how the classical ethical principles of utility, justice, and efficiency may need to be adapted, and we give specific recommendations for thoracic transplantation and mechanical circulatory support centers to balance their clinical decisions and strategies for advanced heart and lung disease during the current pandemic.
32505910 The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and its pathology of associated acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis, coagulopathy and multiorgan failure is not known. […] In a closely related coronavirus (SARS-CoV), the transmembrane E protein exerts an important role in membrane-ionic transport through viroporins, deletion of which reduced levels of IL-1β and a remarkably reduced lung edema compared to wild type. […] However, uncontrolled NET production can cause acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), coagulopathy, multiple organ failure, and autoimmune disease.
32506142 In orthopaedic or trauma emergency, abdomen, pelvis, cervical, dorsal, and lumbar spine CT are performed to investigate patients; the result is a thoracic CT scan incorporating usually the thorax; however, information about lung parenchyma can be obtained on this thorax CT, and manifestations of COVID-19 can be diagnosed.
32506195 The DPP4 family/system was implicated in various physiological processes and diseases of the immune system, and DPP4/CD26 is variously expressed on epithelia and endothelia of the systemic vasculature, lung, kidney, small intestine and heart. […] The use of DPP4 inhibitors, such as gliptins, in patients with COVID-19 with, or even without, type 2 diabetes, may offer a simple way to reduce the virus entry and replication into the airways and to hamper the sustained cytokine storm and inflammation within the lung in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection.
32507536 The most frequent associated tumor was lung (8/15 patients, 53.3%), 11 with metastatic disease (11/15, 73.3%).
32508022 According to the clinical data of infected patients, radiologic evidence of lung edema is common and deserves clinical attention. […] Lung edema is a manifestation of acute lung injury (ALI) and may progress to hypoxemia and potentially acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). […] In this article, we focus on the lung edema and ALI of patients with this widely transmitted COVID-19 infection in order to provide clinical indications and potential therapeutic targets for clinicians and researchers.
32508062 Critically ill COVID-19 patients have relatively well-preserved lung mechanics despite severe gas exchange abnormalities, a feature not consistent with classical ARDS but more consistent with pulmonary vascular disease.
32508311 TMPRSS2 and ACE2 are expressed in multiple human tissues beyond the lung including the testes where predisposition to SARS-CoV-2 infection may exist.
32510155 On admission, the patient underwent a computed tomography scan which demonstrated interstitial infiltration in the left lung, highly suspicious for a COVID-19 infection that could not be confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing.
32510771 Limited data are currently available regarding the course of COVID-19 in lung and solid organ transplant recipients. […] We hereby present four cases of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in lung transplant recipients from our center, set in Milan, Italy.
32510978 Approach and Results: Cytokine-driven vascular leak in the lung alveolar-endothelial interface facilitates acute lung injury in the setting of viral infection.
32511867 A population pharmacokinetic model was implemented to predict lung, intracellular poly/mononuclear cell (PBM/PML), and alveolar macrophage (AM) concentrations using published data and compared against preclinical EC90 for SARS-CoV-2. […] Consistent with its known properties, concentrations were higher in AM and PBM/PML, followed by lung tissue, and lowest systemically.
32512291 Although it has been suggested that ARBs might lead to a higher susceptibility and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection, experimental data suggest that ARBs may reduce acute lung injury via blocking angiotensin-II-mediated pulmonary permeability, inflammation, and fibrosis.
32512383 The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by SARS-CoV-2-mediated cytokine storm (CS) in lungs leads to the high mortality in COVID-19 patients. […] Here, a potential radiation-mediated CS regulation is raised by reevaluating the radiation-mediated pneumonia control in the 1920s, with the following latent advantages of lung radiotherapy (LR) in treatment of COVID-19: (1) radiation accesses poorly circulated tissue more efficiently than blood-delivered medications; (2) low-dose radiation (LDR)-mediated metabolic rewiring and immune cell activation inhibit virus loading; (3) pre-consumption of immune reserves by LDR decreases CS severity; (4) higherdose radiation (HDR) within lung-tolerable doses relieves CS by eliminating in situ overactive cytokine-releasing cells.
32512929 SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity in humans leads to increased mortality rates due to alterations of significant pathways, including some resulting in exacerbated inflammatory responses linked to the “cytokine storm” and extensive lung pathology, as well as being linked to a number of comorbidities.
32513299 High-resolution CT of the lung (HRCT) indicates pulmonary fibrosis (thickness of lobular septum, honeycomb-like changes, with or without bronchial / pleural distraction);4. […] Combined with severe heart, lung (diagnosed with interstitial lung disease, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc.), liver and kidney disease or with endocrine, rheumatic, neurologic, malignant and other systemic diseases;2. […] Changes in high-resolution computer tomography of the lung Changes in ground-glass shadows, interstitial or air nodules found on high-resolution computer tomography [Time Frame: 3 months] 2.
32513515 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammation in the lungs that causes obstruction in the airway, poor airflow, and irreversible loss of lung function. […] The diagnosis is based on symptoms, dyspnea and lung function impairment and can be mild to very severe. […] These measures include the addition of long-acting inhaler therapies, pulmonary rehabilitation, oral therapies, oxygen and lung transplantation.
32513566 In the most severe cases, the prognosis can be markedly worsened by the hyperproduction of mainly proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, preferentially targeting lung tissue.
32513797 Suramin also decreased the viral load by 2-3 logs when Vero E6 cells or cells of a human lung epithelial cell line (Calu-3) were treated.
32513850 In this review, we discuss the earliest knowledge and hypotheses of the mechanisms of immune pathology in the lung during acute infection as well at the later stages of disease resolution, recovery, and immune memory formation.
32514674 The COVID-19 infection might complicate the clinical scenario of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in SSc because it determines a severe pneumonia characterized by radiological features similar to SSc-ILD. […] • COVID-19 pneuminia is hard to distinguish from an interstitial lung disease due to SSc lung involvment.
32515387 The role of portable lung ultrasound, reported to be useful in emergency, is yet to be established in the guidelines.
32515982 Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a novel gasotransmitter has been shown to protect against lung damage via its anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, anti-viral, pro-survival, and anti-aging effects. […] It is suggested that H2S may block SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells by interfering with ACE2 and TMPRSS2, inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication by attenuating virus assembly/release, and protect SARS-CoV-2-induced lung damage by suppressing immune response and inflammation development.
32516107 In the present report, we described a patient with the chief complaints of dyspnea and dry cough referred to the oncology center at Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran with the differential diagnosis of lung cancer who was diagnosed and treated for COVID-19 infection in follow up. […] The patient had been referred to this center with the differential diagnosis of lung cancer due to the massive pleural effusion in initial chest CT scan. […] The CT report indicated the clear pattern of COVID-19’s lung involvement in the absence of pleural effusion. […] Therefore, we recommend ruling out the COVID-19 infection in all the patients with any pattern of lung involvement to avoid missing the potential cases of this vicious infection.
32516119 Immunosuppressives and biological treatments multiply the chances of opportunistic and lung infections, especially in combination therapy, so due to the new coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) epidemic, which primarily causes respiratory disease, it is advisable to use different therapeutic considerations for effective and safe patient care.
32516506 Advanced organ support for lung and heart offers the possibility to buy the time needed for recovery.
32516571 Viral quantification revealed the lungs as the major site of infection, although viral RNA could also be found in the eye, heart, and brain in some mice. […] Virus identical to SARS-CoV-2 in full-genome sequences was isolated from the infected lung and brain tissues.
32516704 This could be attributed to immunosuppression, co-existing medical conditions and underlying pulmonary compromise which is often the case in lung malignancy.
32516797 At necropsy, lung viral loads of remdesivir-treated animals were lower and there was a reduction in damage to the lungs.
32517769 In lung cancer patients infected with COVID-19, pathological features are not easy to distinguish. […] These ‘pure’ cases differ in the time of presentation of symptoms, the phase of lung anatomopathological patterns (acute lung injury versus diffuse alveolar damage) and the mechanism of death.
32518987 Of the 34 (50%) patients, 17 had five lobes of lung involvement, while the 23 (68%) patients had lower lobe involvement.
32518989 Clinical classification, lung involvement of COVID-19 pneumonia, and CT total severity score were compared between APE group and non-APE group. […] There was no significant difference between APE and non-APE groups concerning clinical type, COVID-19 pneumonia lung lesions (ground-glass opacity: 85% vs. 97%; consolidation: 69% vs. 68%; crazy paving: 38% vs. 37%; linear reticulation: 69% vs. 
32519256 The following alterations were more commonly observed: 135 patients with lung consolidations (57.7%), 147 (62.8%) with GGO, 55 (23.5%) with nodules and 156 (66.6%) with reticular-nodular opacities.
32519302 By releasing a variety of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles, MSC can exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-microbial, and pro-angiogenic effects, promote bacterial and alveolar fluid clearance, disrupt the pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, eventually avoiding the lung and distal organ injuries to rescue patients with ARDS. […] Since low cell engraftment and survival in lung limit MSC therapeutic potentials, several strategies have been developed to enhance their engraftment in the lung and their intrinsic, therapeutic properties.
32519753 We suggest the hypothesis that Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid, has the potential to limit the severity and progression of the disease for several reasons: 1) High-CBD Cannabis Sativa extracts are able to downregulate the expression of the two key receptors for SARS-CoV2 in several models of human epithelia 2) CBD exerts a wide range of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and it can mitigate the uncontrolled cytokine production featuring Acute Lung Injury 3) Being a PPARγ agonist, it can display a direct antiviral activity 4) PPARγ agonists are regulators of fibroblast/myofibroblast activation and can inhibit the development of pulmonary fibrosis, thus ameliorating lung function in recovered patients.
32519786 Our 2 patients with a confirmed influenza SARS-CoV-2virus infection had respiratory distress with lung crackles on auscultation of one or both lungs and with alveolar pulmonary edema on the chest CT-Scan.
32519892 Pannexin1 (PANX1) is a ubiquitously expressed, channel-forming protein found in a number of tissues thoughout the body (e.g. lung, vasculature, liver, central nervous system, immune system) that is important in many key physiological and immune responses.
32520406 Lung ultrasound could facilitate the triage of patients with suspected COVID-19 infection admitted to the emergency room. […] We developed a predictive model for COVID-19 diagnosis based on lung ultrasound and clinical features. […] We used ultrasound to image the lung bilaterally at two anterior sites, one and two hands below each clavicle, and a posterolateral site that was the posterior transverse continuation from the lower anterior site.
32520506 It showed intense avid FDG subpleural mixed ground-glass and consolidative lesions, especially in the left lung.
32520509 All patients except one had bilateral ground-glass opacities and/or lung consolidations in at least 2 pulmonary lobes. […] All lung lesions had an increased FDG uptake corresponding to the interstitial pneumonia, and in one case, mediastinal nodal involvement was registered.
32520888 There were only 13 cases with abnormal CT imaging, most of which were located in the subpleural area of the bottom of the lung.
32521074 Management of lung transplant recipients can be particularly challenging given high levels of maintenance immunosuppression, high incidence of rejection, constant exposure of the graft to the external environment, and diagnostic uncertainty in patients with respiratory symptoms. […] There is currently limited data on manifestations, management, and outcomes in lung transplant recipients who develop this novel infection (1).
32521120 Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which induced the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), mainly invades respiratory tract and lung.
32522282 There will be stratification for age (>70 years vs. <=70 years), site of recruitment and whether the patient has any of the following chronic lung diseases: COPD, asthma, bronchiectasis, interstitial lung disease (Yes vs. 
32522666 This suggests that nicotine may have some preventive or modulatory effect on the inflammatory response in the lungs. […] Because it is known that the response to, and resolution of the SARS-CoV-2 infection depends mainly on the lung macrophages, we discuss the recent scientific findings, which may explain why and how nicotine may modulate lung macrophage response during COVID-19 infection.
32522754 No GI symptoms were reported during hospitalisation, but a lung contrast-enhancement CT (CE-CT) excluding thromboembolism showed, as collateral finding, intraperitoneal free bubbles not present on a previous CT examination; the subsequent abdominal CE-CT described pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) involving the caecum and the right colon.
32522830 PRCV has a tissue tropism for the upper and lower respiratory tracts and a cellular tropism for type 1 and 2 pneumocytes in lung, but is generally a mild infection unless complicated by other exacerbating factors, such as bacterial or viral co-infections and immunosuppression (corticosteroids).
32522846 ACE2 antagonises the activation of the classical RAS ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis and protects against lung injury. […] In the meantime, however, the use of RAS blockers such as ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers that inhibit the damaging (ACE-Ang II) arm of the RAS cascade in the lung may also be promising.
32523145 The drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are in many cases the backbone for the management of these diseases, it has been known for a long time that these drugs significantly increase the expression of receptors for angiotensin conversion enzyme type 2 in the lung tissue.
32523872 Here, we report a 40 year old female who presented with acute onset nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and vague abdominal pain as a clinical picture of appendicitis, but her CT abdomen image showed normal appendix, bilateral patchy peripheral lung basal consolidation, and ground-glass attenuation, so she was tested for coronavirus disease-19, which was positive.
32523929 We describe an overweight COVID-19 patient with respiratory distress preceded by anosmia/dysgeusia with no lung injury shown on CT, angio-CT or ventilation/perfusion scans.
32523933 Lung ultrasound showed diffuse bilateral B lines with irregular pleural thickening, and consolidation with air bronchogram and slight pleural effusion in the lower left lobe.
32524223 Following disease onset, posteroinferior subpleural area of the lung was the most common location for pulmonary opacities.
32524743 Our current communication shares a protocol for donor and transplant recipient selection during the COVID-19 pandemic to continue life-saving solid organ transplantation for heart, lung, liver and kidney recipients.
32524792 Unilateral lung involvement was observed in two patients, and one patient showed bilateral lung involvement. […] Small patches of ground-glass opacity with subpleural distribution and unilateral lung involvement were common findings on CT scans of pediatric patients in the early stage of the disease.
32525726 Introduction: Thoracic surgery in children with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pulmonary disease is rare, as very limited virus-related lung lesions require intervention. […] However, some patients may suffer from other pulmonary abnormalities that can be worsened by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and they may consequently require lung surgery.
32525844 Of the 36 reported SAEs, there were 25 reported incidences of related SAEs, including mortality (n = 4), transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO; n = 7), transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI; n = 11), and severe allergic transfusion reactions (n = 3).
32526012 who died from COVID-19 often had comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, and chronic obstructive lung disease. […] Although angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is crucial for SARS-CoV2 to bind and enter host cells, no study has systematically assessed the ACE2 expression in the lungs of patients with these diseases. […] Here, we analyzed over 700 lung transcriptome samples of patients with comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19 and found that ACE2 was highly expressed in these patients, compared to control individuals. […] Correlation and network analyses revealed many potential regulators of ACE2 in the human lung, including genes related to histone modifications, such as HAT1, HDAC2, and KDM5B.
32526079 Interestingly, MSCT preclinical data specifically on immune/inflammatory disorders of the lungs were among the earliest to be reported in 2003, with the first clinical use of MSCT for graft-vs-host disease reported in 2004. […] There is much preclinical evidence for MSCT in noninfectious-including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-as well as infectious bacterial immune/inflammatory lung disorders, with data generally demonstrating therapeutic effects; however, for infectious viral pulmonary conditions, the preclinical evidence is more scarce with some inconsistent outcomes.
32526193 Analysis of the pathological features in the lung tissues of patients who have died with COVID-19 could help us to understand the disease pathogenesis and clinical outcomes. […] We systematically analysed lung tissue samples from 38 patients who died from COVID-19 in two hospitals in northern Italy between Feb 29 and March 24, 2020. […] The most representative areas identified at macroscopic examination were selected, and tissue blocks (median seven, range five to nine) were taken from each lung and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for at least 48 h. […] The predominant pattern of lung lesions in patients with COVID-19 patients is diffuse alveolar damage, as described in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses.
32526206 COVID-19 autopsied lung studies identified focal disease and, congruent with culture data, SARS-CoV-2-infected ciliated and type 2 pneumocyte cells in airway and alveolar regions, respectively. […] These findings highlight the nasal susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 with likely subsequent aspiration-mediated virus seeding to the lung in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis.
32526252 Severity of lung and liver (according to CLIF-C, CLIF-OF and MELD scores) diseases independently predicted mortality.
32527136 However, two days later, the patient had a sudden chest stuffiness, CT images indicted: his lung didn’t heal like others, but developed a large pulmonary cavity in the lower lobe of right lung. […] This case suggested: it is important to follow convalescent COVID-19 patients, especially their lung CT images, to make sure a fully recovery.
32527255 In a subset of patients with CT images within the first week, higher total severity score, and more involved lung lobes (5 involved lobes) in CT images within the first week were significantly associated with fatality.
32527257 Thus, about the pneumonia of Covid-19, we might speculate that the complicated alveolar-capillary network of lungs could be targeted by T2DM micro-vascular damage. […] In addition, pro-inflammatory pathways as that involving interleukin 6 (IL-6), could be a severity predictor of lung diseases. […] To date, an ongoing experimental therapy with monoclonal antibody against the IL-6 receptor in Italy seems to have beneficial effects on severe lung disease and prognosis in patients with Covid-19 infection.
32527340 About 2/3 of doctors would perform lung recruitment or prone position treatment for critical patients with invasive ventilation.
32527344 The routine blood test and biochemical results of two groups were observed, and the efficacy evaluation was performed by monitoring the time for significant improvement of symptoms, negative conversion time of throat swab virus nucleic acid, lung lesion absorption time, adverse drug reactions and the length of hospital stay of the two groups. […] 6.68±3.76), lung lesion absorption starting time (days: 5.39±2.36 vs. […] 7.48±3.78), lung lesion absorption greater than 70% time (days: 14.11±4.16 vs. 
32527347 To achieve good therapeutic effect, the main experience was to choose the proper timing and mode of ECMO; intact transportation vehicles and equipment to reduce or avoid mechanical complications; the effective management of respiration and circulation during the transportation to avoid ventilation-associated lung injury (VALI) and serious hypoxemia; the appropriate space for the transfer team to quickly handle various critical situations; and personal protection to avoid infection.
32527471 Furthermore, pleural and lung ultrasound can be an alternative diagnostic test to assess the degree of involvement of the lung parenchyma by means of the evaluation of specific ultrasound patterns, identification of pleural effusions and barotrauma.
32527925 In mice, we demonstrate IFN-λ produced by lung dendritic cells in response to a synthetic viral RNA induces barrier damage, causing susceptibility to lethal bacterial superinfections.
32527928 Excessive cytokine signaling frequently exacerbates lung tissue damage during respiratory viral infection. […] Here we show that IFN signaling interferes with lung repair during influenza recovery, with IFN-λ driving these effects most potently. […] Thus, excessive or prolonged IFN-production aggravates viral infection by impairing lung epithelial regeneration.
32528233 Evidences suggest that the S1 domain of the SARS-CoV-2 (causative agent of COVID-19) membrane spike has a high affinity towards the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor found on the host’s lung epithelium. […] This mini-review provides a consolidated account on the role of inflammation and immune responses, proteases, and epithelial permeability by smoking and vaping during SARS-CoV2 infection with future directions of research, and provides a list of the potential targets for therapies particularly controlling cytokine storms in the lung.
32529595 Although COVID-19 is an infectious disease primarily affecting the lung, its multi-organ involvement requires an interdisciplinary approach encompassing virtually all branches of internal medicine and geriatrics.
32529815 A three-dimensional slicer was used to precisely quantify the volume and CT value of the lung and lesions.
32530507 Severe COVID-19 is characterized by an excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine storm, resulting in acute lung injury and development of ARDS.
32531256 A novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently spreading globally, causing severe pneumonia and acute lung injury in many patients.
32531548 We observed that all thrombotic lesions in COVID-19 patients were found to be in lung parenchyma affected by COVID-19.
32531806 Notably, with respect to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI), evidence is mounting that obesity is a risk factor for ARDS/ALI, but among people with ARDS/ALI, obesity is associated with better outcome, a phenomenon which has been called the “obesity paradox” [4,5].
32531808 We use a mechanistic lung model to demonstrate that accumulation of chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) in the lungs is sensitive to changes in lung pH, a parameter that can be affected in patients with COVID-19. […] A reduction in pH from 6.7 to 6 in the lung, as observed in respiratory disease, led to 20-, 4.0- and 2.7-fold increases in lung exposure of CQ, HCQ and AZ, respectively. […] Simulations indicated that the relatively high concentrations of CQ and HCQ in lung tissue were sustained long after administration of the drugs had stopped. […] Our simulations indicate that renal impairment (plus lung pH reduction) caused 30-, 8.0- and 3.4-fold increases in lung exposures for CQ, HCQ and AZ, respectively, with relatively small accompanying increases (20 to 30%) in systemic exposure. […] Although a number of different dosage regimens were assessed, the purpose of our study was not to provide recommendations for a dosing strategy, but to demonstrate the utility of a PBPK modelling approach to estimate lung concentrations.
32532094 We previously found that nafamostat mesylate, an existing drug used for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), effectively blocked Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) S protein-mediated cell fusion by targeting transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), and inhibited MERS-CoV infection of human lung epithelium-derived Calu-3 cells.
32532356 Twenty serious COVID-19 cases will be enrolled in the trial from April 6th to December 31st 2020. hospitalised patients at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University satisfy all criteria as below: 1)Adults aged 18-65 years;2)Voluntarily participate in this clinical trial and sign the “informed consent form” or have consent from a legal representative.3)Diagnosed with severe pneumonia of COVID-19: nucleic acid test SARS-CoV-2 positive; respiratory distress (respiratory rate > 30 times / min); hypoxia (resting oxygen saturation < 93% or arterial partial pressure of oxygen / oxygen concentration < 300 mmHg).4)COVID-19 featured lung lesions in chest X-ray image.
32532449 In most symptomatic individuals, the disease is a mild immune-mediated syndrome, with limited damage to the lung tissues.
32532946 Most of the lesions were bilateral (97%), posterior (95%) and located near pleura (50%) or lung fissures (45%), mainly involving the lower right lobe (56%) and lower left lobe (23%).
32533443 The treatment of patients with chronic lung diseases has to be adapted during the pandemic but must still be guaranteed.
32533777 Since the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia, many patients with underlying disease, such as interstitial lung disease (ILD), were admitted to Tongji hospital in Wuhan, China.
32534244 Along with direct viral pathogenicity, in some individuals, CoV infection triggers an uncontrolled aberrant inflammatory response, leading to lung tissue damage.
32534337 The mortality related to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ failure in COVID-19 patients has been suggested to be connected with cytokine storm syndrome (CSS), an excessive immune response that severely damages healthy lung tissue.
32534598 Daily Evaluation of COVID-19 Patients Primarily Based on Lung Ultrasound: In Times of Emergency, It’s Time to Change Some Paradigms.
32535188 Median Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE) score was 9 (IQR 4-16).
32535725 Also, some uncommon imaging findings were seen, such as a tree-in-bud and lung collapse. […] CT imaging also has a lower sensitivity in detecting abnormal lungs compared to adult patients.
32535787 In recent years, point-of-care lung ultrasound has gained significant popularity as a diagnostic tool in the acutely dyspnoeic patients. […] In the era of Sars-CoV-2 outbreak, lung ultrasound seems to be strongly adapting to the follow-up for lung involvement of patients with ascertaining infections, till to be used, in our opinion emblematically, as a screening test in suspected patients at the emergency triage or at home medical visit. […] In this brief review, we discuss the lung ultrasound dichotomy, certainties and uncertainties, describing its potential role in validated clinical contexts, as a clinical-dependent exam, its limits and pitfalls in a generic and off-label clinical context, as a virtual anatomical-dependent exam, and its effects on the clinical management of patients with COVID-19.
32536988 SARS-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of the new lung disease COVID-19 is closely related to SARS-CoV, and together with MERS-CoV are three new human coronaviruses that emerged in the last 20 years.
32537478 To investigate the expression level of these SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry genes in the lung airway, we used public gene expression datasets. […] Moreover, the lung airway expression of both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was found to be significantly upregulated in smokers compared with non-smokers, and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with healthy subjects.
32537610 Acute respiratory failure due to widespread lung inflammation progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with an altered pulmonary and alveolar function that can lead to disability, prolong hospitalizations, and adverse outcomes. […] While there is no specific treatment for severe acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS due to the COVID-19 and the management is mostly supportive, it is very important to better understand the pathophysiological processes activated by the inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and metalloproteinases with the aim of their subsequent inhibition in the course of the complex treatment.
32537957 Nosocomial acquisition, diabetes, chronic lung diseases, and chronic neurologic diseases were significant risk factors for both death and MV/HFNC.
32537960 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the coronavirus responsible for our recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, is driving a lung immunopathology that strongly resembles a severe form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP).
32538098 We present the case of a critically ill 47-year-old man diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) who developed extensive pneumatosis intestinalis and portal venous gas in conjunction with an acute abdomen during the recovery phase of his acute lung injury.
32538830 Digital storage of cine sequences of the lung sound with abdomen for independent assessment with the subsequently performed contrast-enhanced dual-source CT.
32538893 In the progression state, GGOs increase in number and/or size, and lung consolidations may become visible. […] The main manifestation in the absorption stage is interstitial change of both lungs, such as fibrous cords and reticular opacities.
32539019 To communicate the results of a mechanical ventilation exercise with a ventilator in a lung simulator, and simultaneously in two and four. […] No statistically significant differences were observed between programmed, recorded and measured positive end-expiratory pressure, mean airway pressure and peak pressure, except when simultaneously ventilating four lung simulators.
32539257 Severe patients with COVID-19 are characterized by persistent lung damage, causing respiratory failure, secondary circulatory changes and multiple organ dysfunction after virus invasion. […] The recommendations mainly cover the following aspects: (1) lung ultrasound in patients with COVID-19 is mainly manifested by thickened and irregular pleural lines, different types of B-lines, shred signs, and other consolidation like dynamic air bronchogram; (2) Echocardiography may show right heart dysfunction, diffuse cardiac function enhancement, stress cardiomyopathy, diffuse cardiac depression and other multiple abnormalities; (3) Critical ultrasonography helps with initiating early treatment in the suspect patient, screening confirmed patients after intensive care unit admission, early assessment of sudden critical events, rapid grading assessment and treatment based on it; (4) Critical ultrasonography helps to quickly screen for the etiology of respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19, make oxygen therapeutic strategy, guide the implementation of lung protective ventilation, graded management and precise off-ventilator; (5) Critical ultrasonography is helpful for assessing the circulatory status of patients with COVID-19, finding chronic cardiopulmonary diseases and guiding extracorporeal membrane oxygenation management; (6) Critical ultrasonography Contributes to the management of organs besides based on cardiopulmonary oxygen transport; (7) Critical ultrasonography can help to improve the success of operation; (8) Critical ultrasonography can help to improve the safety and quality of nursing; (9) When performing critical ultrasonography for patients with COVID-19, it needs to implement three-level protection standard, pay attention to disinfect the machine and strictly obey the rules from nosocomial infection.
32539283 To minimize the production of airborne droplets, including pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), from the endotracheal tube during procedures requiring lung deflation, we devised a technique to mitigate the risk of infection transmission to health care personnel.
32539446 In this review, we summarize aspects involved with obesity, such as changes in the immune response, nutritional factors, physiological factors, and the gut-lung axis, that impact the viral response and the COVID-19 prognosis.
32539627 The lung is a key target of the cytokine storm that can be triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for the widespread clinical syndrome known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Hypercytokinemia underlies the hyperinflammatory state leading to injury of alveolar epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells, as well as to lung infiltration sustained by neutrophils and macrophages.
32539661 We performed a series of 30-second ventilation experiments on porcine larynx-trachea-lung specimens.
32539692 Compared with group 1, patients in group 2 presented with smaller lesions, and all lesions were distributed in fewer lung segments.
32539942 Eligibility criteria were the presence of any thoracic cancer (non-small-cell lung cancer [NSCLC], small-cell lung cancer, mesothelioma, thymic epithelial tumours, and other pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms) and a COVID-19 diagnosis, either laboratory confirmed with RT-PCR, suspected with symptoms and contacts, or radiologically suspected cases with lung imaging features consistent with COVID-19 pneumonia and symptoms. […] Between March 26 and April 12, 2020, 200 patients with COVID-19 and thoracic cancers from eight countries were identified and included in the TERAVOLT registry; median age was 68·0 years (61·8-75·0) and the majority had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1 (142 [72%] of 196 patients), were current or former smokers (159 [81%] of 196), had non-small-cell lung cancer (151 [76%] of 200), and were on therapy at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis (147 [74%] of 199), with 112 (57%) of 197 on first-line treatment. 152 (76%) patients were hospitalised and 66 (33%) died. 13 (10%) of 134 patients who met criteria for ICU admission were admitted to ICU; the remaining 121 were hospitalised, but were not admitted to ICU.
32539986 Patients with COVID-19 can develop asymptomatic lung infection with viral shedding and those with evidence of pneumonia on imaging tend to have an increased antibody response.
32540605 It is now becoming more apparent that Covid-19 is not solely a lung disease, but a complex systemic disease involving several organs and systems. […] This is due to an abnormal inflammatory response which eventually leads to multisystemic coagulopathy which mainly, but not uniquely, targets the lungs. […] If the hypothesis is confirmed experimentally, 18F-Fluorocholine PET/CT could be used to in vivo image and quantify the degree of lung inflammation and potentially stratify the gravity of this disease.
32540737 Medications, including pioglitazone, that upregulate tissue expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), might have a dual role in COVID-19; on the one hand they might increase risk of infection as SARS-CoV2 uses ACE2 as a coreceptor to enter alveolar cells, but on the other hand, by reducing angiotensin II levels, they can protect against acute lung injury. […] There is no evidence to date that pioglitazone upregulates ACE2 in the alveolar cells; rather, there is evidence from animal studies of upregulation of ACE2 in insulin sensitive tissues, which might have a protective effect on lung injury.
32540903 We showed that passive transfer of a nAb provides protection against disease in high-dose SARS-CoV-2 challenge in Syrian hamsters, as revealed by maintained weight and low lung viral titers in treated animals.
32542102 On a computed tomography scan examination of the abdomen to rule out bowel ischemia, an incidental finding of a typical appearance of COVID-19 pneumonia was found at the visualized lung bases. […] Conclusion: Typical COVID-19 findings can be suggested on lung bases at abdominal CT.
32542396 (Lond.) (2020) 134, 543-545) it was suggested that soluble recombinant ACE2 could be used as a novel biological therapeutic to intercept the virus, limiting the progression of infection and reducing lung injury.
32542743 Here, we assess lung autopsy findings in COVID-19 inpatients and untreated, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive individuals who died in the community to understand the relative impact of medical intervention on lung histology. […] Lung sections from autopsy cases were reviewed by three pulmonary pathologists, including two who were blinded to patient cohort. […] DAD is the primary histologic manifestation of severe lung disease in COVID-19 patients who die both in the hospital and in the community, suggesting no contribution of hyperoxemic mechanical ventilation to the histologic changes.
32543119 These spectacularly raised D-dimer levels may actually signify the failing attempt of the fibrinolytic system to remove fibrin and necrotic tissue from the lung parenchyma, being consumed or overwhelmed in the process.
32543176 The key processes were integrated, including viral shedding, dispersion, deposition in air, biologic decay, lung deposition, and the infection risk based on the dose-response model.
32544216 Severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung fibrosis, cardiovascular events, acute kidney injury, stroke, hospitalization, and mortality have been reported that result from pathogen-host interactions.
32544615 Mesenchymal stem cells can suppress nonproductive inflammation and improve/repair lung cells including endothelial and alveolar cells, which damaged by COVID-19 virus infection.
32544911 However, there is a concern regarding both vaccine-induced eosinophilic lung disease and eosinophil-associated Th2 immunopotentiation following infection after vaccination.
32546125 EPO is expected to: (1) improve respiration at several levels including lung, brainstem, spinal cord and respiratory muscles; (2) counteract overshooting inflammation caused by cytokine storm/ inflammasome; (3) act neuroprotective and neuroregenerative in brain and peripheral nervous system.
32546365 To evaluate the diagnostic utility of additional whole-chest computed tomography (CT) in identifying otherwise unheralded COVID-19 lung disease as part of an acute abdominal pain CT imaging pathway in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. […] CT examinations in the latter two categories were further divided into one of three anatomical distributions (lung base, limited chest [below carina], whole chest [above carina]) based on location of findings. […] All COVID-19 positive cases could be identified on review of the lung base alone. […] All COVID-19-positive patients in our cohort were identified on review of the lung bases on the abdominal CT and this offers an alternative imaging approach in this patient group.
32546764 Lung injury and fibrosis represent the most significant outcomes of severe and acute lung disorders, including COVID-19. […] However, there are still no effective drugs to treat lung injury and fibrosis. […] In this study, we report the generation of clinical-grade human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-derived immunity- and matrix-regulatory cells (IMRCs) produced under good manufacturing practice requirements, that can treat lung injury and fibrosis in vivo. […] Moreover, intravenous delivery of IMRCs inhibits both pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mouse models of lung injury, and significantly improves the survival rate of the recipient mice in a dose-dependent manner, likely through paracrine regulatory mechanisms. […] In light of public health crises involving pneumonia, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, our findings suggest that IMRCs are ready for clinical trials on lung disorders.
32547309 NCP patients (43males and 27 females) with a mean age of 48.57±17.80 (9~82) years and only 4.3% of patients have lung-related diseases.
32549071 The patients presented clinical symptoms of dry cough, fever, dyspnea, and bilateral lung infiltrates on imaging.
32549125 SARS was characterized by severe lung injury due to virus-induced cytopathic effects and dysregulated hyperinflammatory state.
32549531 While early observational studies highlighted the role of the virus in lung failure, in a second moment thrombosis emerged as a possible explanation of the worse clinical course in some patients.
32550040 Here, we aimed to clarify the potential role of ACE2 in SARS-CoV-2-induced acute lung injury and its underlying mechanism. […] On the other hand, ACE2 negatively regulates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) primarily by converting angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, which exerts a beneficial effect on coronavirus-induced acute lung injury.
32550056 Radiological changes show lung changes such as consolidations and opacities, and the pathological findings were infiltration of inflammatory cells and hyalinization.
32550066 The patient had no lung involvement throughout the illness. […] We report this case to highlight that COVID-19 can lead to multi-organ failure in patients with DM even in the absence of lung involvement which all physicians should be mindful of.
32550139 Many studies have described lung lesion computed tomography (CT) features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients at the early and progressive stages. […] In this study, we aim to evaluate lung lesion CT radiological features along with quantitative analysis for the COVID-19 patients ready for discharge. […] Compared with the pre-discharge CT results, quantitative analysis shows the lung lesion volume regressed significantly at follow-up.
32551679 Two types of cellular nanosponges are made of the plasma membranes derived from human lung epithelial type II cells or human macrophages.
32551862 Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with inflammation, hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage and lung coagulopathy promoting endothelial dysfunction and microthrombosis.
32552110 Most common sites of cancer were breast (n = 114), lung (n = 44), ovary (n = 34), and colon (n = 20).
32552178 We performed postmortem core needle biopsies from lung, heart, and liver on 7 deceased patients who had died of coronavirus disease 2019. […] Diffuse alveolar damage was the main pathologic finding in the lung tissue samples. […] Multinucleated cells in alveolar spaces and alveolar walls, atypical enlarged cells, accumulation of macrophages in alveolar spaces, and congestion of vascular channels were the other histopathologic alteration of the lung. […] Similar to the previous coronavirus infection in 2003, the main pathologic finding in the lung was diffuse alveolar damage with a pattern of organization in prolonged cases.
32552296 It is not necessary for the patient to cough or sneeze. Results: The exhaled aerosol particles are generated by normal breathing in the deep lung through reopening of collapsed small airways during inspiration. […] These mucus/surfactant aerosols (size range between 0.2 and 0.6 μm) can transport viruses out of the lungs of patients and be present in the room air for hours. Conclusion: These aerosol particles are difficult to filter out of the air; because of their physical properties, new strategies must be developed to protect people from these virus aerosols.
32552811 Adult wild-type (WT), nAChRα7 knockout (KO), and lung epithelial cell-specific KO (nAChRα7 CreCC10) mice were exposed to e-cig aerosol containing propylene glycol (PG) with or without nicotine. […] Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and lung tissues were collected to determine e-cig induced inflammatory response and ECM remodeling, respectively. […] Overall, sub-chronic e-cig exposure with or without nicotine affected lung inflammation and repair responses/ECM remodeling, which were mediated by nAChRα7 in a sex-dependent manner.
32553273 Here, we transduced replication-defective adenoviruses encoding human ACE2 via intranasal administration into BALB/c mice and established receptor expression in lung tissues. hACE2-transduced mice were productively infected with SARS-CoV-2, and this resulted in high viral titers in the lung, lung pathology, and weight loss. […] Passive transfer of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody reduced viral burden in the lung and mitigated inflammation and weight loss.
32554285 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which affects the lung and other organs.
32554825 However, patients developing acute secretory syndromes due to functional neuroendocrine neoplasms (such as of the pancreas, intestine or lung), phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, will require prompt treatment.
32554879 The approximate sources were projected through a radiologically anthropomorphic phantom to provide detailed dose distributions within a targeted lung volume (approximate right middle lobe). […] After accounting for the reported exposure levels, mean lung doses fell in a relatively narrow range: 30 - 80 cGy.
32555006 Imaging features from whole-lung images from baseline computed tomography (CT) scans were extracted and dimensionality reduction was performed. […] The radiomics signature of the whole lung based on machine learning may reveal the changes of lung microstructure in the early stage and help to indicate the progression of the disease.
32555134 Among 287,320 (22%) cases with sufficient data on underlying health conditions, the most common were cardiovascular disease (32%), diabetes (30%), and chronic lung disease (18%).
32556323 A working group conducted a purposive scan of the literature and drafted initial recommendations based on the knowledge of symptoms in patients with COVID-19, and current practice for physical therapist management for patients hospitalized with lung disease and patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).
32556400 We also noted several characteristics of the perfusion and ventilation depending on the lung lesions on the CT scan.
32557270 Here we summarize applications of conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRCs), long-term cultures of normal airway epithelial cells from human nose to lung generated by conditional cell reprogramming (CR) technology, as an ex vivo model in studies of emerging viruses.
32557557 In the lung, it seems that pro-resolving molecules or strategies that promote their increase tend to decrease inflammation and lung injury and facilitate control of bacterial or viral burden.
32558360 CDC stating that 40/345 (~11.5%) children with data on chronic conditions had “chronic lung diseases including asthma”, and one from a tertiary hospital in New York that reported asthma in 11/46 (~23.9%) children hospitalized for COVID-19.
32558435 Furthermore, multiple animal models demonstrate strong anti-inflammatory effects of PDE4i in respiratory models of viral and bacterial infection and also after chemically mediated lung injury.
32558645 Lesions were distributed predominantly at peripheral (87.1%) and posterior (46.3%) areas of lung parenchyma. […] Multifocal and bilateral GGO infiltration predominantly distributed in peripheral, posterior, and lower lung areas was the most common infiltration pattern.
32558956 Lung abnormalities are noted in almost all of the patients, presenting with encephalopathy.
32559026 Understanding the latest literature in ventilator management can improve patient outcomes by ensuring optimal oxygenation and ventilation and reducing the potential for ventilator-induced lung injury.
32559338 These include increased thromboembolism and vascular dysfunction (Lax et al, 2020; Menter et al, 2020; Wichmann et al, 2020), infection of endothelial cells (Varga et al, 2020), viral spread in different organs (Puelles et al, 2020), or the pathological mechanisms of lung injury (Ackermann et al, 2020; Schaller et al, 2020).
32559343 The immunopathology and acute lung injury orchestrated through the influx of pro-inflammatory macrophages and neutrophils can be directly activated by complement components to prime an overzealous cytokine storm.
32560665 In this viewpoint, we summarize the relevance of thromboinflammation in COVID-19 and discuss potential mechanisms of endothelial injury as a key point for the development of lung and distant organ dysfunction, with a focus on direct viral infection and cytokine-mediated injury.
32560745 Anti-inflammatory drugs including corticosteroids can be used to effectively reduce the effect of this cytokine storm and lung damage. […] They will be hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 who have positive RT-PCR test and have blood oxygen saturation levels (SpO2) less than 90% and respiratory rate higher than 24 per minute or have involvement of more than 50% of their lung when viewed using computed tomography (CT)-scan.
32560746 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may trigger severe pneumonia in coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) patients through release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and recruitment of neutrophils in the lungs. […] This drug might make lung mucus thinner and looser, promoting improved clearance of secretions and reduce extracellular double-stranded DNA-induced hyperinflammation in alveoli, preventing further damage to the lungs.
32561291 Once inside the cells, SARS-CoV-2 exploits the endogenous transcriptional machinery of alveolar cells to replicate and spread through the entire lung.
32561366 Even though pulmonary involvement is not widely appreciated by clinicians, an obstructive lung disease is another recognized component of Fabry disease.
32561401 Patients with lung cancers may have disproportionately severe COVID-19 outcomes. […] We examined consecutive patients with lung cancer and confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 (n=102) at a single center from March 12-May 6, 2020. […] HLA alleles were inferred from MSK-IMPACT (n=46) and compared to controls with lung cancer and no known non-COVID-19 (n=5166). […] COVID-19 was severe in patients with lung cancer (62% hospitalized, 25% died). […] Although severe, COVID-19 accounted for a minority of overall lung cancer-deaths during the pandemic (11% overall). […] COVID-19 is associated with high burden of severity in patients with lung cancer.
32561657 Mortality in COVID-19 cases is strongly associated with progressive lung inflammation and eventual sepsis.
32561849 We examine in situ expression of SARS-CoV-2 in airways and lung obtained at autopsy of individuals with confirmed COVID-19 infection. […] In two patients with organizing DAD (>14 days from onset of respiratory failure), no virus was detected in lungs or airways. […] The findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection of epithelial cells in lungs and airways of patients with COVID-19 who developed respiratory failure can be detected during the acute phase of lung injury and is absent in the organizing phase.
32562109 In diagnosis, chest computed tomography most commonly showed ground-glass opacity with or without consolidative patterns.Herein, we report a case of a patient affected by COVID-19 pneumonia referred in the emergency department of our institution on April 4, 2020, with peculiar lung ultrasound findings.
32562483 Current COVID-19 data clearly highlight that cytokine storm and activated immune cell migration to the lungs characterize the early immune response to COVID-19 that causes severe lung damage and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. […] Such immunotherapies based on inflammatory cytokine neutralization, immunomodulation, and passive viral neutralization not only reduce inflammation, inflammation-associated lung damage, or viral load but could also prevent intensive care unit hospitalization and dependency on mechanical ventilation, both of which are limited resources.
32562701 We believe that, in parallel to the attempts for direct blockade of the SARS-CoV-2 penetration into host cell and repurposing drugs, finding new therapeutic strategies for patients with lung injury or cardiovascular complications/coagulopathies associated with COVID-19 should be paid particular attention. […] These drugs have potential to improve acute lung injury and cardiovascular/coagulopathy complications in COVID-19 which are associated with elevated Ang-II/Ang(1-7) ratio.
32562764 Recent analysis concerning the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)- angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) receptor interaction in enterocytes, the definition of gut-lung axis, as well as the molecular basis of sialic acid-related dual recognition concept in gastrointestinal SARS-CoV-2 infection, have brought a new perspective to potential therapeutic targets.
32562826 In this context, resveratrol may have potential value for its anti-inflammatory activity, since most of the severe virus-associated complications are related to the overactivation of the host-immune response, leading to lung damage.
32562911 MSCs suppress inflammation and reduce lung injury through their immunomodulatory properties. […] MSCs also have the potential to prevent apoptosis of the lung cells and regenerate them. […] In the final section, lung function assessment, histological examination, micro-CT, differential leukocyte, viral load analysis, cytokine assay, and CRP level analysis can be investigated. […] Since the pathogenesis of this disease was identified in previous studies and can cause lung injury with ARDS, investigation of the therapeutic approaches that can suppress inflammation, cytokine storm and ARDS can be helpful in finding a novel therapeutic approach for this disease.
32562915 The arrival of SARS-CoV-2 in the lungs causes severe primary interstitial viral pneumonia that can lead to the “cytokine storm syndrome”, a deadly uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response triggered by the activation of interleukin 6 (IL-6), whose effect is extensive lung tissue damage and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), that are life-threatening for patients with COVID-19.
32563600 Patient-reported anosmia and the presence of bilateral B lines on lung ultrasonography had the highest positive likelihood ratio for the diagnosis of COVID-19 (7.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.36 to 24.36; and 7.09, 95% CI 2.77 to 18.12, respectively). […] The absence of a high clinical probability determined by the emergency physician and the absence of bilateral B lines on lung ultrasonography had the lowest negative likelihood ratio for the diagnosis of COVID-19 (0.33, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.43; and 0.26, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.45, respectively). […] Anosmia, emergency physician estimate of high clinical probability, and bilateral B lines on lung ultrasonography increased the likelihood of identifying COVID-19 in patients presenting to the ED.
32564028 Two types (type L and type H) are differentiated, corresponding to early- and late-stage lung damage.
32564306 While 10% of the patients have asymptomatic infection, 15-20% have lung involvement, 5-10% have multiple organ failure, and macrophage activation syndrome.
32565134 We found that the gene and protein expression of DPPIV, MERS-CoV receptor, were more dominantly located in nasal and bronchial epithelium although human nasal mucosa exhibited relatively lower DPPIV expression than lung parenchymal tissues.
32565152 Cough and fever, increased blood CRP levels, and CT findings of bilateral ground-glass opacities predominantly in the peripheral lung were characteristic of the COVID-19 cases in this study.
32565362 Nonetheless, the differences in ACE2 expression pattern in lung versus other normal and solid tumor tissues remain incompletely characterized.
32565512 This study aimed to determine the clinical significance of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) in patients with COVID-19, so as to find a marker with high sensitivity, specificity and easy detection to evaluate the lung injury and inflammation of COVID-19. […] In conclusion, KL-6 could be an indicator to evaluate the progression of COVID-19, which is parallel to the level of lung injury and inflammation in patients.
32565763 The new virus infects and replicates in the lung parenchyma pneumocytes and macrophages in which the ACE-2 cell receptor resides.
32565838 Exposure to particulate matter (PM) and harmful gases contributes to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, including allergies and obstructive lung disease.
32565968 We have outlined our clinical experience in managing patients with gastrointestinal, hematological, gynaecological, dermatological, neurological, thyroid, lung and paediatric cancers in the COVID-19 era and have reviewed the emerging literature around barriers to care of oncology patients and how this crisis affects them.
32566237 Furthermore, the patient received lung protective ventilation with a tidal volume of 6-8 mg/kg (predicted body weight). […] Serial chest computed tomography revealed a change from ground-glass opacity to consolidation pattern in both lungs.
32566476 All 3 cases involved older adults (age >65 years), one of whom was immunosuppressed in the setting of lung transplantation (Case 3).
32566483 In this article, we argue for the potential benefits of using doxycycline with either hydroxycholoroquine or other putative agents for COVID-19 treatment, as doxycycline has antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities by dampening the cytokine storm and to prevent lung damage.
32566564 In adults with COVID-19, the use of systemic glucocorticoid did not reduce mortality [risk ratio (RR) =2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69 to 5.75, I2=90.9%] or the duration of lung inflammation [weighted mean difference (WMD) =-1 days, 95% CI: -2.91 to 0.91], while a significant reduction was found in the duration of fever (WMD =-3.23 days, 95% CI: -3.56 to -2.90). […] In patients with SARS, glucocorticoids also did not reduce the mortality (RR =1.52, 95% CI: 0.89 to 2.60, I2=84.6%), duration of fever (WMD =0.82 days, 95% CI: -2.88 to 4.52, I2=97.9%) or duration of lung inflammation absorption (WMD =0.95 days, 95% CI: -7.57 to 9.48, I2=94.6%). […] Glucocorticoid therapy was found to reduce the duration of fever, but not mortality, duration of hospitalization or lung inflammation absorption.
32566621 The VB-Ne model was sensitive and stable for pulmonary lesion segmentation, and quantitative analysis indicated that the total volume and average density of the lung lesions were not related to ARDS.
32567171 RAAS has also been implicated in acute lung injury as well as myocardial injury and has thus attracted interest as a potential regulator of COVID-19 severity.
32568102 A chest CT showed a patchy high-density shadow surrounded by ground-glass opacity in the lower portion of his right lung.
32568186 In COVID-19 ICU patients massive aggression of lung with severe pulmonary failure, as well as kidney and liver injuries, heart, brain, bowel and spleen damages with lymph nodes necrosis and even cutaneous manifestations have been observed.
32568687 The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is again argued to be a convenient model pharmacophore perhaps representing an ensemble of targets, and it is noted that it occurs both in lung and alimentary tract.
32569635 Chronic lung disease and steroids were associated with virus detection in sputum, and diabetes mellitus was associated with virus detection in both NPS and sputum.
32570174 Viral infection-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury occur because of dysregulation of the immune response. […] Mesenchymal stem cells appear to be a promising cell therapy given that they favorably modulate the immune response to reduce lung injury. […] The use of exogenous stem cells may lead to lung repair. […] Therefore, intervention by transplantation of exogenous stem cells may be required to replace, repair, remodel, and regenerate lung tissue in survivors infected with coronavirus.
32570265 Lung ultrasound (LUS) is an accurate, safe, and cheap tool assisting in the diagnosis of several acute respiratory diseases.
32571455 Lung CT of 18 children with subclinical COVID-19 showed ground-glass opacities, linear opacities, and patchy opacities, with relatively limited lesions.
32571747 Cumulative incidence of fortuitous diagnosis if COVID-19 pneumonia did not exceed 3% during the highest pandemic phase and was predominantly associated with limited lung involvement.
32571748 Lung disease extent on CT correlates with clinical severity.
32571934 SARS-CoV-2 isolates replicated efficiently in the lungs of hamsters, causing severe pathological lung lesions following intranasal infection. […] In addition, microcomputed tomographic imaging revealed severe lung injury that shared characteristics with SARS-CoV-2-infected human lung, including severe, bilateral, peripherally distributed, multilobular ground glass opacity, and regions of lung consolidation. […] Moreover, passive transfer of convalescent serum to naïve hamsters efficiently suppressed the replication of the virus in the lungs even when the serum was administrated 2 d postinfection of the serum-treated hamsters.
32572155 Moreover, low and high elastance phenotypes can be distinguished in mechanically ventilated patients, based on lung mechanics, ventilation-to-perfusion ratio, and CT scans; these two phenotypes have presumed differences in their underlying pathophysiology. […] In lung samples (n = 131 cases), we identified three main histological patterns: epithelial (n = 110, 85%), with reactive epithelial changes and DAD; vascular (n = 76, 59%) with microvascular damage, (micro)thrombi, and acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia; and fibrotic (n = 28, 22%) with interstitial fibrosis.
32572532 The IAPA case definitions may be useful to classify patients with COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), while awaiting further studies that provide more insight into the interaction between Aspergillus and the SARS-CoV-2-infected lung.
32572707 The initial chest X-ray was graded on a scale of 0-3 with grade 0 representing no alveolar opacities, grade 1: < 1/3 alveolar opacities of the lung, Grade 2: 1/3 to 2/3 lung with alveolar opacities and grade 3: > 2/3 alveolar opacities of the lung.
32573353 Pneumonia was identified in 97.5% (314/322) of cases by chest CT scan; 42.9% had bilateral lung involvement.
32573419 Retrospective analysis of a case series of patients with COVID-19-ARDS, evidenced by RT-PCR and lung CT-scan.
32573776 Lung (21 patients; 19.6%), gastrointestinal (20 patients; 18.7%), and genitourinary (20 patients; 18.7%) cancers were the most common cancer diagnoses.
32574237 There is an urgent need to identify effective strategies that can stop or reverse the inflammatory process that causes acute lung injury, ARDS, and multi-organ failure in COVID-19. […] This article summarizes the insights and lessons learned from clinical immune-oncology trials as well as lung transplantation that are informing the clinical development of promising new strategies aimed at reducing the fatality rate in COVID-19.
32574272 We aim to describe how the lung and systemic host innate immune responses affect survival either positively, through downregulating initial viral load, or negatively, by triggering uncontrolled inflammation.
32574274 The progression of this viral infection occurs in the airways of the lungs with an exaggerated inflammatory response referred to as the “cytokine storm” that can lead to lethal lung injuries.
32574277 Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) have revolutionized the management and prognosis of fit patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
32574284 Chest CT images of all the patients showed patches or ground-glass opacities in the lung periphery or near the pleura, even large consolidations.
32574292 This stimulates a systemic inflammatory response, thus forming a cytokine storm, which leads to lung tissue injury.
32574297 The grid-form shadow was a typical presentation of COVID-19 on the lung CT image, and the disease usually progressed quickly within a week. Conclusion: Influenza pneumonia and COVID-19 are two different types of respiratory viral pneumonia with very similar clinical manifestations. […] Glass-ground density exudation shadow located peripherally is the typical sign of COVID-19 on the lung CT image, and the shadow often with grid-form sign.
32574317 While these treatments can improve patient’s recovery and survival, these therapeutic strategies do not lead to unequivocal restoration of the lung damage inflicted by this disease. […] Stem cell therapies and, more recently, their secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs), are emerging as new promising treatments, which could attenuate inflammation but also regenerate the lung damage caused by COVID-19. […] In this review article, we outline the mechanisms of cytokine storm and lung damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus leading to COVID-19 disease and how mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their secreted EVs can be utilized to tackle this damage by harnessing their regenerative properties, which gives them potential enhanced clinical utility compared to other investigated pharmacological treatments.
32574321 Among patients with lung changes on admission, the risk of lesions was 13.8 times greater in the left lower lobe than in the right middle lobe. […] Most lung lesions appeared within 2 weeks of onset (median 4-5 days). […] The predominant sites of lung lesions are both lower lungs, whereas the lowest risk region is the right middle lobe.
32574328 CT images displayed ground-glass opacification (GGO) patterns (80%) as well as bilateral lung involvement (69%).
32574336 ACE2 protects the lung and heart from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute myocarditis and arrhythmias, because it breaks down Angiotensin II, which has inflammatory effects in the lung and heart as well as in the kidney. […] Drugs that prevent the inflammatory actions of Angiotensin II (i.e., Angiotensin receptor blockers, ARBs) prevent acute lung injury caused by SARS-CoV.
32574694 To study the and correlations of lymphocytes and cytokines between changes of lung lesion volumes in patients with COVID-19, and to predict their correlation. 93 patients with COVID-19 were divided into mild and severe groups. […] The lung CT lesion volume of all patients was 241.45 ± 282.92 cm3, among which the mild group was 151.29 ± 226.04 cm3 and the severe group was 405.38 ± 304.90 cm3, respectively. […] In critically ill patients, the decrease of absolute value of CD4 + T cells and increase of IL-6 level are significantly correlated with the volume of lung lesions. […] The severity of lung lesions predicts poor clinical outcomes and may be a predictor of the transition from mild to severe.
32574840 Our data show that patients with persistent viral presence (>16 days) have more severe disease outcomes including extensive lung involvement and requirement of respiratory support.
32574956 We report the fundamental pathological investigation in the lungs and other organs of fatal cases for the mechanistic understanding of severe COVID-19 and the development of specific therapy in these cases. […] Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) staining and Masson staining were performed for the examinations of mucus, fibrin and collagen fiber in lung tissues. […] Immunohistochemical staining were performed on the slides of lung tissues from two patients. […] The main pathological features in lungs included extensive impairment of type I alveolar epithelial cells and atypical hyperplasia of type II alveolar cells, with formation of hyaline membrane, focal hemorrhage, exudation and pulmonary edema, and pulmonary consolidation. […] Infection of Alveolar macrophage by SARS-CoV-2 might be drivers of the “cytokine storm”, which might result in damages in pulmonary tissues, heart and lung, and leading to the failure of multiple organs .
32575076 Upregulation of inflammatory response proteins is in line with the propagation of inflammatory reaction and lung injury that is observed in advanced stages of COVID-19 patients and which worsens with age.
32575554 COVID-19 patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are often critically ill and show lung injury and hemolysis.
32575825 Cardiovascular diseases, chronic lung diseases and diabetes mellitus showed a significant association with the outcome.
32576343 Latent structure model was established based on 53 symptoms with frequency over 10, and 14 latent variables and 7 syndromes were concluded by comprehensive clustering, including syndrome of pathogenic heat invading lung, internal block and outward desertion, syndrome of dampness heat accumulating lung, syndrome of Qi and Yin deficiency, syndrome of epidemic virus closing lung, syndrome of cold dampness closing lung and syndrome of Qi deficiency of lung and spleen. […] Symptoms with load coefficient over 0.3 were clustered and 6 syndromes were obtained, including syndrome of epidemic virus closing lung, syndrome of pathogenic heat invading lung, syndrome of Qi and Yin deficiency, internal block and outward desertion, syndrome of cold dampness closing lung, and syndrome of dampness heat accumulating lung. […] The literatures included 25 syndromes, and the syndromes with constituent ratio over 5% were internal block and outward desertion (14.62%), syndrome of epidemic virus closing lung (13.68%), syndrome of dampness heat accumulating lung (12.74%), syndrome of Qi deficiency of lung (10.85%), spleen and syndrome of cold dampness closing lung (8.50%), syndrome of Qi and Yin deficiency (8.50%), syndrome of pathogenic heat invading lung (8.02%) and syndrome of dampness repressing defensive Qi of lung (5.66%). […] According to the results above, the common syndromes and their symptoms of COVID-19 were: (1) syndrome of pathogenic heat invading lung: fever, cough, throat-drying, headache, all of the body distressed and constipation, etc.; (2) syndrome of cold dampness closing lung: aversion to cold, all of the body distressed, nausea and vomiting, abdominal distention and loose stool, etc.; (3) syndrome of dampness heat accumulating lung: cough, sticky phlegm, anorexia, thirst without desire to drink and constipation, etc.; (4) syndrome of epidemic virus closing lung: fever, cough, yellow phlegm, wheezing, suffocation and purple lips, etc.; (5) internal block and outward desertion: coma, feel fidgety, suffocation, sweating and feel cold and purple lips, etc.; (6) syndrome of Qi and Yin deficiency: dry cough, sweating, fatigue, thirsty, feverish feeling in palms and soles and loose stool, etc.; (7) syndrome of Qi deficiency of lung and spleen: cough, wheezing, sweating, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, and loose stool, et al. […] The common syndromes of COVID-19 were syndrome of pathogenic heat invading lung, syndrome of cold dampness closing lung, syndrome of dampness heat accumulating lung, syndrome of epidemic virus closing lung, internal block and outward desertion, syndrome of Qi and Yin deficiency and syndrome of Qi deficiency of lung and spleen.
32576345 The differences of clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory examination indexes and CT image features of lung in different clinical types were analyzed and compared, and the relationship between clinical and imaging features and clinical types of diseases were analyzed. […] Compared with the ordinary patients, the lesions increase, and the scope of the lesion expanded to show double lungs. […] Critical type was mainly manifested as diffuse consolidation of both lungs with multiple patchy density increase shadows, multiple leafy patchy density increase shadows were seen on each leaf, most of them were ground glass-like density, and some were shown separately lung consolidation.
32576357 The imbalance of RAS takes part in the development of organ injury of different systems through pro-inflammation, oxidative stress, cell proliferation and so on. 2019-nCoV not only attacks the lung, but also influences many other systems.
32576712 The mean age was 78 ± 7.8 years, 55.5% were men, CT scan lung damage was observed in 76% of the patients (mild 23%, moderate 38%, extensive 22%, and severe 7%).
32576928 By using the DREAM-in-CDM approach, lapatinib has been identified as a promising mPGES-1 inhibitor which may have significant anti-inflammatory effects to relieve various forms of pain and possibly treat various inflammation conditions involved in other inflammation-related diseases such as the lung inflammation caused by the newly identified COVID-19.
32576980 Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a myelopoietic growth factor and pro-inflammatory cytokine, plays a critical role in alveolar macrophage homeostasis, lung inflammation and immunological disease.
32577056 COVID-19 is a new viral illness that can affect the lungs and airways with lethal consequences leading to the death of the patients. […] The ACE2 receptors were widely disturbed among body tissues such as lung, kidney, small intestine, heart, and others in different percent and considered a target for the nCOVID-19 virus. […] We used method of analysis of the published papers with described studies about COVID-19 connected with pharmacological issues and aspects which are included in global fighting against COVID-19 infection, and how using DMF (Nrf2 activator) in clinical trial for nCOVID-19 produce positive effects in patients for reduce lung alveolar cells damage. we are found that Nrf2 activators an important medication that’s have a role in reduce viral pathogenesis via inhibit virus entry through induce SPLI gene expression as well as inhibit TRMPSS2, upregulation of ACE2 that’s make a competition with the virus on binding site, induce gene expression of anti-viral mediators such as RIG-1 and INFs, induce anti-oxidant enzymes, also they have a role in inhibit NF-κB pathway, inhibit both apoptosis proteins and gene expression of TLRs. […] We are concluded that use DMF (Nrf2 activator) in clinical trial for nCOVID-19 positive patients to reduce lung alveolar cells damage.
32577525 The vaccine protected against respiratory injury and pneumonia and reduced viral load in lung tissue by several orders of magnitude.
32577901 We recorded the prevalence of OCMT and related it to age, sex, need for invasive ventilation during hospital stay, outcome, length of hospital stay, diffusion of lung SARS-CoV-19 lesions and outcome. 63 eligible patients were identified (39 male, 24 female; median age 77.82 ± 17.77 years). […] It is associated with a worse disease course irrespective of age, sex and diffusion of lung lesions, although with no direct effect on survival.
32578131 This study was performed retrospectively using data from Coronial autopsies over the period 2012-2019 from which swabs from the nasopharyngeal region, trachea and lung parenchyma, in addition to samples of lung tissue, had been submitted for multiplex PCR detection of respiratory pathogens.
32578167 However, emerging evidence suggests that it has a significant impact on the cardiovascular (CV) system by direct myocardial damage, severe systemic inflammatory response, hypoxia, right heart strain secondary to ARDS and lung injury, and plaque rupture secondary to inflammation.
32578826 Although the virus is not restricted to the lung parenchyma, the use of chest imaging in COVID-19 can be especially useful for patients with moderate to severe symptoms or comorbidities. […] The structured report can also contain an estimate of the extent of lung involvement (e.g., more or less than 50% of the lung parenchyma).
32578829 Patients with lung cancer are at risk of pulmonary complications from COVID-19, and as such, the risk/benefit ratio of local and systemic anticancer treatment has to be considered. […] In this regard, the Brazilian Thoracic Oncology Group has developed recommendations to guide decisions in lung cancer treatment during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
32579043 However, the human and animal studies cited as supportive evidence have significant limitations, and whether LDRT produces anti-inflammatory effects in the inflamed lung or exacerbates ongoing COVID-19 damage remains unclear.
32580215 Clinical information about patients undergoing lung resection while infected with this virus and pathological information about early COVID-19 pneumonia are still scarce. […] A 69-year-old male patient underwent a right pneumonectomy for squamous cell lung carcinoma. […] From this day, the COVID-19 test, which was performed after the appearance of symptoms such as fever and shortness of breath, lymphopenia and diffuse ground glass opacity in the left lung on computed tomography, was reported to be positive. […] He was discharged on the 17th postoperative day with healing of the lung lesions.
32580257 The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak that began in 2019 and spread rapidly across the globe has been observed to cause acute lung injury and multiorgan system failure. […] SARS-CoV-2 infects host cells by targeting the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, which is present on endothelial cells in the lung, heart, kidney, and gastrointestinal tissue. […] The pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in SARS-CoV-2 infection has a component of lung perfusion dysregulation and is described as a “cytokine storm” that causes increased vascular permeability and disease severity. […] Treatment recommendations have outlined ventilation goals to minimize further lung injury.
32580258 COVID-19 can manifest with cytokine storm - an exaggerated systemic inflammatory phenomenon due to over-production of proinflammatory cytokines by immune cells that results in diffuse inflammatory lung disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome.
32580440 Moreover, PM induces inflammation in lung cells and exposure to PM could increase the susceptibility and severity of the Covid-19 patient symptoms.
32581017 This study’s objective was to apply morphoproteomics to pulmonary lung sections from a forensic autopsy of an untreated COVID-19 victim, so that we may better define its biology from the perspective of its interaction with the host and provide options for therapeutic targets. […] Representative sections of the COVID-19 victim’s lung showed: nuclear expression of p-STAT3 (Tyr 705) in many of the alveolar pneumocytes and in occasional endothelial cells; COX-2 expression in the alveolar pneumocytes; a relative paucity of CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes; absence of CD56+ NK lymphoid cells; abundance of intra-alveolar and alveolar interstitial CD163+ macrophages/monocytes; PD-L1 expression on occasional macrophages, focally on collections of alveolar pneumocytes, and on cells in the alveolar interstitium; and rare PD-1+ lymphocytes in similar regions as CD8+ lymphocytes.
32581069 Within this framework, it is crucial to ensure no disruption to essential oncological services and guarantee the optimal care.This is a structured proposal for the management of lung cancer, comprising three levels of priorities, namely: tier 1 (high priority), tier 2 (medium priority) and tier 3 (low priority)-defined according to the criteria of the Cancer Care Ontario, Huntsman Cancer Institute and Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale.The manuscript emphasises the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on lung cancer care and reconsiders all steps from diagnosis, staging and treatment.These recommendations should, therefore, serve as guidance for prioritising the different aspects of cancer care to mitigate the possible negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the management of our patients.As the situation is rapidly evolving, practical actions are required to guarantee the best patients’ treatment while protecting and respecting their rights, safety and well-being.
32581077 COVID-19 is often related to hyperinflammation that drives lung or multiorgan injury. […] Second, analysis of RNA-seq data sets of lung cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 revealed that infected cells expressed neutrophil-attracting chemokines.
32581854 The death upon respiratory failure may be also associated with the local inflammation- and thrombi-derived damages to the respiratory reflexes in both the lung neuronal network and brainstem center.
32582134 Changes in the lung microbiota were identified in COVID-19 patients, and the enrichment of the lung microbiota with bacteria found in the intestinal tract is correlated with the onset of acute respiratory distress syndrome and long-term outcomes. […] In turn, respiratory viruses are known to influence microbial composition in the lung and intestine.
32582138 Role of the “gut-lung axis” has also been well-articulated.
32582222 Moreover, reallocation of viral-containing macrophages migrating out of the lung to other tissues is theoretically plausible in the context of viral spread with the involvement of other organs.
32582307 The mortality accounted for 2.8% cases at Hyderabad isolation center and all were having smoking history and co-morbidities as ischemic heart diseases, diabetes mellitus, obstructive lung disease and cerebrovascular accident whereas no mortality was observed at Sukkur isolation center.
32582309 Two (7%) patients had normal and seven (23%) had classical COVID CXRs. 21 (70%) patients were in indeterminate group with only one (3%) having unilateral lung disease. […] Three (10%) patients had diffuse lung involvement and 18(60%) had peripheral lung involvement. […] In this study, COVID-19 CXRs generally manifested a spectrum of pure ground glass, mixed ground glass opacities to consolidation in bilateral peripheral middle and lower lung zones.
32582324 As COVID-19 transmits through salivary droplets and causes severe lung pneumonia, tobacco smokers are also at high risk of severe COVID-19 infection due to poor lung function, cross-infection and susceptible hygiene habits.
32582574 We review the physiological functions of ACE2 in the cardiovascular system and the lungs, and how the activation of ACE2/MAS/G protein coupled receptor contributes in reducing acute injury and inhibiting fibrogenesis of the lungs and protecting the cardiovascular system. […] Furthermore, we speculate the potential of exploiting the modulation of ACE2/MAS pathway as a natural protection of lung injury by modulation of ACE2/MAS axis or by developing targeted drugs to inhibit proteases required for viral entry.
32582576 SARS-CoV-2 enters the lungs through the ACE2 enzyme, a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). […] Although there are no data for the lung, the expressions of RAS components in other tissues are modulated by sex hormones, androgens, and estrogens. […] If there is a sex difference in the expression of ACE2 in the lung, this could theoretically explain the gender disparity in COVID-19 disease.
32582615 In the other model, patients with the lung CT feature (e.g., ground-glass opacity, reticular/linear, air bronchogram, or consolidation shadow) were more likely to reach the endpoint. Conclusion: Older age, comorbidity, special chest CT features (e.g., ground-glass opacity, reticular/linear, air bronchogram, or consolidation shadow) are associated with poor prognosis for mild-moderate patients.
32583169 The most involved area was middle cerebral artery (MCA) (five in MCA versus one in basal ganglia) and the majority of our patients had a low lung involvement score (mean ± SD: 13.16 ± 6.49 out of 24). […] Stroke may be unrelated to age and the extent of lung involvement.
32583640 Italy and Spain reported a lung disease that causes severe oxidative disruption but no disruption in ventilation unlike ARDS.
32584322 Chest X-rays improved in 7/10 cases and in 6/10, computerized tomography scans also revealed improvement of the lung injury.
32584421 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by novel SARS-CoV-2, leads to significant mortality and morbidity with increasing evidence for inflammatory pathways being implicated in the lung damage it causes.
32584441 We also summarize known and potential SARS-CoV-2 receptors on epithelial barriers, immune cells, endothelium and clinically involved organs such as lung, gut, kidney, cardiovascular and neuronal system.
32584474 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), serves as the major entry point into cells for SARS-CoV-2 which attaches to human ACE2, thereby reducing the expression of ACE2 and causing lung injury and pneumonia. […] It can induce ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis activity and inhibits renin and the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis, thereby increasing expression and concentration of ACE2, MasR and Ang-(1-7) and having a potential protective role against acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
32584604 Although the reported imaging findings of coronavirus infection are variable and nonspecific, the most common initial chest radiograph (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) findings are ground-glass opacities and consolidation with peripheral predominance and eventually spread to involve both lungs as the disease progresses. […] CT is more sensitive to detect early parenchymal lung abnormalities and disease progression, and can provide an alternative diagnosis.
32584795 Chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease were more commonly reported among pregnant women than among nonpregnant women.
32585295 Patients with severe COVID-19 experience elevated plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can result in cytokine storm, followed by massive immune cell infiltration into the lungs leading to alveolar damage, decreased lung function, and rapid progression to death.
32585497 The coronavirus is more dangerous to the elderly and those with certain pre-existing medical conditions which is precisely the profile of lung cancer patients. […] An international panel with expertise in the management of lung cancer in high-volume comprehensive centres has come together to share its experience on COVID-19 preparedness to deliver optimal care in such exceptional circumstances. […] Twelve recommendations including, among others, the consideration of shorter courses, delays, and the omission of RT for lung cancer are proposed by the panel. […] In summary, we recommend the screening of every single person accessing the treatment room, the consideration of hypofractionation and to delay postoperative RT for non-small cell lung cancer, to avoid twice-daily treatments and delay or deliver prophylactic cranial irradiation during radio(chemo)therapy for limited-stage small cell lung cancer, review image guided RT images for suspicious image findings, and the use of single-fraction RT for the palliative treatment of stage IV lung cancer patients. […] Given that lung cancer is one of the most common and severe pathologies in radiation oncology departments, the following recommendations require particularly urgent consideration. […] The decision-making paths strongly depend on locally available resources, and a tailored approach should be used to attend lung cancer patients during this pandemic.
32585699 Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of non-communicable disease globally and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lung disease.
32586724 Multivariate logistic analyses model confirmed the predictive value of severe neutropenia (odds ratio [OR] 16.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-190.9, p 0.025), bilateral infiltrates (OR 32.83, CI 95% 3.51-307, p 0.002) and tumour lung involvement (OR 4.34, CI 95% 1.2-14.95, p 0.02).
32586885 Major epidemics including some that qualify as pandemics, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle-Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Human Immunodeficiency Virus, pandemic H1N1/09 and most recently COVID-19 affect the lung. […] The aim of this consensus-based document is to describe the effects of the viral infections resulting in epidemics and pandemics that affect the lung (MERS, SARS, HIV, influenza A (H1N1)pdm/09 and COVID-19) and their interactions with TB.
32587093 The recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the devastating COVID-19 lung disease pandemic.
32588801 Based on the results of Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) logistic regression, age, and suggestive chest X-ray (CXR) findings for SARS-CoV-2 infection, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, chronic lung diseases, and intensive care units admission had significant associations with positive RT-PCR results for COVID-19 infection. […] It seems that patients with underlying disease(s), such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and chronic lung diseases, had a higher probability to have positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 infection than those with no underlying disease(s).
32589264 COVID-19 patients are more fragile with underlying metabolic illness, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, chronic lung diseases (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and emphysema), and metabolic syndrome.
32589448 Our protocol, consisted of a rhino-pharingeal and a tracheal swab in order to search for the virus in the upper airways and of two swabs on the parenchyma of each lung. […] We also performed a fifth swab on the parenchyma of both lungs in order to search for other viruses that could evolve in a clinical picture of interstitial pneumonia Results Overall we found that 9 out of 12 cases had at least one postmortem swab to be positive for Sars-CoV-2.
32589718 Second, over 90% of individuals who contract and die from COVID-19 have co-morbidities, most notably cardiovascular disease, hypertension, chronic lung disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity.
32589760 Seven transplanted patients (two liver, three kidneys, one double lung, one heart) admitted to the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich because of COVID-19 and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were included. […] One kidney and the lung transplant recipients were required to intubate after ten and 15 days, respectively.
32589990 The COVID-19 pandemic has caused radiotherapy resource pressures and led to increased risks for lung cancer patients and healthcare staff. […] An international group of experts in lung cancer radiotherapy established this practice recommendation pertaining to whether and how to adapt radiotherapy for lung cancer in the COVID-19 pandemic. […] For this ESTRO & ASTRO endorsed project, 32 experts in lung cancer radiotherapy contributed to a modified Delphi consensus process. […] The first, an early pandemic scenario of risk mitigation, is characterized by an altered risk-benefit ratio of radiotherapy for lung cancer patients due to their increased susceptibility for severe COVID-19 infection, and minimization of patient travelling and exposure of radiotherapy staff. […] Six common lung cancer cases were assessed for both scenarios: peripherally located stage I NSCLC, locally advanced NSCLC, postoperative radiotherapy after resection of pN2 NSCLC, thoracic radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation for limited stage SCLC and palliative thoracic radiotherapy for stage IV NSCLC. […] In a risk-mitigation pandemic scenario, efforts should be made not to compromise the prognosis of lung cancer patients by departing from guideline-recommended radiotherapy practice. […] This joint ESTRO-ASTRO practice recommendation established pragmatic and balanced consensus recommendations in common clinical scenarios of radiotherapy for lung cancer in order to address the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.
32590326 In the lung, the ACE2 receptor sits on the top of lung cells known as alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells. […] Pulmonary surfactant is believed to regulate the alveolar surface tension in mammalian lungs. […] The coronavirus can survive in the lung tissue because of the exhaustion of pulmonary surfactant.
32591166 Lung ultrasound (LUS) imaging has become a safe bedside imaging alternative that does not expose the patient to radiation and minimizes the risk of contamination.
32591393 In a murine model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 2B04 protected challenged animals from weight loss, reduced lung viral load, and blocked systemic dissemination.
32591762 The transcriptional differences in critical cases compared to moderate cases likely contribute to clinical observations of heightened inflammatory tissue damage, lung injury and respiratory failure.
32591839 Reports that the ACE2 receptor - critical for virus entry into lung cells - is found in different neurons supports this expectation.
32591888 Lungs were divided by Hounsfield unit intervals. […] Compromised lung (%CL) volume was the sum of poorly and non-aerated volumes (- 500, 100 HU). […] Compromised lung volume was the most accurate outcome predictor (logistic regression, p < 0.001). […] The compromised lung volume is accurate in predicting the need for oxygenation support and intubation and is a significant risk factor for in-hospital death. […] • The compromised lung volume measured in the - 500, 100 HU interval predicts oxygenation support and intubation and is a risk factor for in-hospital death. […] • Compromised lung values in the 6-23% range prompt oxygenation therapy; values above 23% increase the need for intubation.
32591890 Lung lesion development on chest CT reflects the clinical time course of COVID-19 progression over 1-6 days, followed by clinical improvement and the resorption of lesions.
32592113 This altered immune profile may induce important clinical consequences, including increased susceptibility to lung infections; and enhanced local inflammatory response. […] Furthermore, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) enzyme is highly expressed in the lung, and that it may have additional actions besides its effects on glucose metabolism, which might exert profound pro-inflammatory effects.
32592118 From 1 to 22 March 2020, patients with pneumonia symptoms, positive lung CT scan, and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were consecutively enrolled.
32592836 The chest computed tomography (CT) score was defined by the summation of individual scores from 5 lung lobes: scores of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were respectively assigned for each lobe if pulmonary involvement was 0%, less than 5%, 5%-25%, 26%-49%, 50%-75%, or more than 75% of each region.
32592841 Metformin, as a strong base, a potential regulator of Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) and endosomal Na+/H+ exchangers (eNHEs), additionally a regenerative agent for lung fibrosis, seems to be beneficial for patients in acute, chronic and recovery phases of COVID-19.
32164091 Three patients were examined by chest X-ray examination, one of which was normal, one case showed infiltrates of right upper lung, and another showed in right lower lung. […] And 7 cases (7/9) showed multiple ground glass exudation, including 5 cases (5/7) involved bilateral lungs, 2 cases (2/7) involved unilateral lung, 3 cases (3/7) with patchy consolidation, and 2 cases (2/9) showed no abnormality.
32294809 We suggest the use of MicroCLOTS (microvascular COVID-19 lung vessels obstructive thromboinflammatory syndrome) as a new name for severe pulmonary coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32578933 In this article, we will describe three lung ultrasound algorithms for the emergency diagnosis of patients presenting with respiratory symptoms during a COVID-19 pandemic: (i) LUSC19: lung ultrasound to assess the severity of COVID-19; (ii) LUSAC: lung ultrasound to exclude alternative causes of respiratory distress; and (iii) LUSI: lung ultrasound following intubation.
32593409 To determine the incidence of possible COVID-19-related lung changes on preoperative screening computed tomography (CT) for COVID-19 and how their findings influenced decision-making. […] Lung findings were categorised according to the British Society of Thoracic Imaging (BSTI) guidelines. […] There was a 7% (32/439) incidence of potential COVID-19-related lung changes in patients having preoperative CT.
32593832 As the visceral fat possesses an intense immune activity, is involved in metabolic syndrome and is at the crossroad between the intestines, the systemic circulation and the lung, we hypothesized that it plays a major role in severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32593867 We performed 2,065 low-dose computed tomography (CT) scans highlighting lung lesions in 592 of the 991 (59.7%) patients with minimal clinical symptoms (NEWS score = 0). […] A discrepancy between spontaneous dyspnoea, hypoxemia and lung lesions was observed.
32594204 SARS-CoV-2 infection has been divided by scientific opinion into three phases: the first as asymptomatic or slightly symptomatic and the second and the third with greater severity, characterized by a hyperinflammatory and fibrotic state, responsible for lung lesions, in some cases fatal.
32595353 We analysed transcriptome of SARS-CoV-2 infected human lung epithelial cells, compared it with mock-infected cells, used network-based reporter metabolite approach and integrated the transcriptome data with protein-protein interaction network to elucidate the early cellular response.
32595361 Although SARS-CoV-2 mainly causes lung infection, gastrointestinal symptoms described in COVID-19 patients and detection of the viral RNA in feces of infected patients drove attentions to a possible fecal-oral transmission route of SARS-CoV-2. […] Growing evidence indicates the crosstalk between gut microbiota and lung, that maintains host homeostasis and disease development with the association of immune system. […] This gut-lung interaction may influence the COVID-19 severity in patients with extrapulmonary conditions. […] We believe that gut microbiota contributes to the course of COVID-19 due to its bidirectional relationship with immune system and lung. […] Conversely, disruption of the gut barrier integrity due to dysbiosis may lead to translocation of SARS-CoV-2 from the lung into the intestinal lumen via circulatory and lymphatic system.
32595362 Discovery of novel and broad-acting immunomodulators is of critical importance for the prevention and treatment of disorders occurring due to overexuberant immune responseincluding SARS-CoV-2 triggered cytokine storm leading to lung pathology and mortality during the ongoing viral pandemic.
32596085 The patient had significant comorbidities, including a history of lung and esophageal cancer status-post resection, cerebrovascular accident with neurological deficits, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and peripheral vascular disease.
32596244 Coronavirus infection, including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV2, causes daunting diseases that can be fatal because of lung failure and systemic cytokine storm. […] The development of coronavirus-evoked pneumonia is associated with excessive inflammatory responses in the lung, known as “cytokine storms,” which results in pulmonary edema, atelectasis, and acute lung injury (ALI) or fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). […] No drugs are available to suppress overly immune response-mediated lung injury effectively.
32597100 Amongst the chronic lung diseases, most patients with COVID-19 reported so far had asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and interstitial lung disease. […] Herein, we discuss the significance of restrictive lung disease during the COVID-19 pandemic as a potential risk factor via an example of a patient with kyphoscoliosis who succumbed to death due to COVID-19 pneumonia.
32597954 Three COVID-19 lung autopsies were examined for NETs and platelet involvement.
32598985 We also discuss effects of ebselen in lung inflammation.
32599375 Among the cancer patients infected by SARS-COX-2, the proportion of patients with the lung, colorectal, breast, esophagus, bladder, pancreatic and cervical cancer were 24.7 %, 20.5 %, 13.0 %, 7.6 %,7.3 %,6.1 %,and 6.0 %, respectively. […] Compared with other types of cancer, lung cancer and colorectal cancer are more susceptible to SARS-COX-2 infection.
32600045 The consolidation of lung parenchyma precipitates the alterations in blood gases in COVID-19 patients that are known to complicate and cause hypoxemic respiratory failure.
32600316 Extracellular HMGB1 plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury of infectious as well as sterile origin including hyperoxia. […] This comprehension was recently reinforced by results reported in Molecular Medicine by Sitapara and coworkers demonstrating that administration of an α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist attenuated hyperoxia-induced acute inflammatory lung injury by alleviating the accumulation of HMGB1 in the airways and the circulation. […] Activating the cholinergic antiinflammatory path might be considered to alleviate severe COVID-19 with or without concurrent oxygen-induced lung injury.
32600344 This study investigated the influence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on lung function in early convalescence phase. […] A retrospective study of COVID-19 patients at the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were conducted, with serial assessments including lung volumes (TLC), spirometry (FVC, FEV1), lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO),respiratory muscle strength, 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and high resolution CT being collected at 30 days after discharged. […] Compared with non-severe cases, severe patients showed higher incidence of DLCO impairment (75.6%vs42.5%, p = 0.019), higher lung total severity score (TSS) and R20, and significantly lower percentage of predicted TLC and 6MWD. […] Impaired diffusing-capacity, lower respiratory muscle strength, and lung imaging abnormalities were detected in more than half of the COVID-19 patients in early convalescence phase.
32600350 Chest CT revealed bilateral pulmonary parenchymal ground-glass and consolidative pulmonary opacities, with a peripheral lung distribution.
32600410 Amino-bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid (ZA) can possibly ameliorate or prevent severe COVID-19 disease by at least three distinct mechanisms: (1) as immunostimulants which could boost γδ T cell expansion, important in the acute response in the lung; (2) as DC modulators, limiting their ability to only partially activate T cells; and (3) as prenylation inhibitors of small GTPases in the endosomal pathway of the DC to prevent expulsion of lysosomes containing SARS-CoV-2 virions.
32601923 Deep knowledge about the interaction between coronaviruses and the host factors could be useful to provide a better support for the disease sufferers and be advantageous for managing and treatment of the lung infection caused by the virus.
32602678 Patients with older age and associated comorbid conditions (COPD and diabetes) seem to have greater risk for lung injury.
32602679 The lung pathological changes were evaluated by HRCT imaging and by assigning CT severity score.
32602683 Other important co-morbidities that adversely affect outcomes include pre-existing diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic lung disease and malignancy.
32603515 The number of involved lung lobes was (2 [1, 2.5] vs 3 [2, 4] days; P = .004), and the lung damage severity score was (3 [2.5, 4.5] vs 5 [4, 9] days; P = .007), which was lighter in the nucleic acid false-negative group.
32603531 On admission, fever (66.7%), cough (87%), tachypnoea (44.4%), dyspnoea (35%), elevated CRP value (94.4%) and lung involvement according to chest CT (100%) were documented in enrolled patients with insignificant difference between FBX and HCQ groups. […] The mean percentages of lung involvement were significantly reduced to 7.3% and 8% after 14 days of treatment with FBX and HCQ, respectively. […] In adult outpatients with moderate COVID-19 infection, the effectiveness of FBX and HCQ was not different in terms of resolution of clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and lung CT findings.
32603707 Emerging studies on radiological findings in COVID-19 patients report a high incidence of bilateral lung involvement, with GGOs imaging being the most common pattern on CT. […] We report a case of a COVID-19 patient successfully treated by lung resections for infected pneumatoceles.
32604125 Because of elevated D-dimer (1.5 mg/L), a lung scintigraphy (V/Q scan) was performed as SPECT/CT.
32604407 Effective initial host defense in the lung is associated with mild symptoms and disease resolution. […] Viral evasion of the immune response can lead to refractory alveolar damage, ineffective lung repair mechanisms, and systemic inflammation with associated organ dysfunction.
32605182 Recently, there has been an outbreak associated with the use of e-cigarette or vaping products, associated lung injury (EVALI). […] The primary components of vaping products, vitamin E acetate (VEA) and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), may be responsible for acute lung toxicity. […] We hypothesized that these e-cig vape cartridges and their constituents (VEA and MCT) induce pulmonary toxicity, mediated by oxidative damage and inflammatory responses, leading to acute lung injury.
32605278 Further, preclinical data support a beneficial effect for the lung.
32605700 Underlying lung disease, especially asthma, has recently been found to be associated with a higher risk of hospitalization with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection.
32606886 The extensive synthesis of cytokines and chemokines in coronavirus diseases was suggested as a major factor in exacerbating lung damage and other fatal complications.
32607420 We performed a lung transplant and a liver transplant successfully during the COVID-19 era.
32607467 Elevated levels were strongly associated with viral load and lung injury in patients with severe COVID-19.
32607555 GS-441524 levels in lung and CNS suggest compartmental differences in drug exposure.
32607684 We present the pulmonary findings in four cases of fatal COVID-19 with a spectrum of lung pathology reflecting disease course and duration, invasive therapies, and laboratory features. […] Viral RNA is encountered in the lung, with virus particles in endothelial cells and pneumocytes.
32608159 However, excess C5a can result in a pro-inflammatory environment orchestrated through a plethora of mechanisms that propagate lung injury, lymphocyte exhaustion, and an immune paresis. […] Fatal COVID-19 has been associated with a systemic inflammatory response accompanied by a pro-coagulant state and organ damage, particularly microvascular thrombi in the lungs and kidneys.
32609971 Background: Point-of-care bedside lung ultrasound is a diagnostic adjunct in the management of respiratory diseases. […] We describe the clinical progress and lung ultrasound findings of a Singaporean COVID-19 intensive care unit patient who was diagnosed with COVID-19 infection. […] Serial point-of-care bedside lung ultrasound was performed by the managing intensivist daily, and correlated with the clinical progress and chest X-ray imaging done for the patient. […] Results: The patient exhibited lung ultrasound findings consistent with that described for viral pneumonias. […] Coalescing B-lines leading on to the development of bilateral “white lung” were associated with worsening acute respiratory distress syndrome. […] Conclusions: Trained clinicians, who are familiar with point-of-care lung ultrasonography, may consider point-of-care bedside ultrasound as an important adjunct to history and physical examination for the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 when advanced imaging is not available because of logistical reasons or infectious control. […] Background: Point-of-care bedside lung ultrasound is a diagnostic adjunct in the management of respiratory diseases. […] We describe the clinical progress and lung ultrasound findings of a Singaporean COVID-19 intensive care unit patient who was diagnosed with COVID-19 infection. […] Serial point-of-care bedside lung ultrasound was performed by the managing intensivist daily, and correlated with the clinical progress and chest X-ray imaging done for the patient. […] Results: The patient exhibited lung ultrasound findings consistent with that described for viral pneumonias. […] Coalescing B-lines leading on to the development of bilateral “white lung” were associated with worsening acute respiratory distress syndrome. […] Conclusions: Trained clinicians, who are familiar with point-of-care lung ultrasonography, may consider point-of-care bedside ultrasound as an important adjunct to history and physical examination for the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 when advanced imaging is not available because of logistical reasons or infectious control.
32610043 Although SARS-CoV-2 primarily targets lung epithelium cells, there is growing evidence that the intestinal epithelium is also infected.
32610564 The ultrasound imaging patterns at both the lung and peripheral vascular level can also be very useful weapons that have the advantage of being able to monitor longitudinally the clinical picture, something that real-time PCR/nasopharyngeal swab is not able to do and that CT can only pursue with significant radiation exposure.
32610859 Patients with older age and associated comorbid conditions (COPD and diabetes) seem to have greater risk for lung injury thereby requiring oxygen support during the course of disease and these patients also had greater derangement in their biochemical profile.
32611485 Alterations in genes involved in hyaluronan, glycosaminoglycan and mucopolysaccharides metabolism were over-represented in bronchoalveolar cells infected by SARS-CoV-2, as well as potential lung infiltration with neutrophils, T CD4+ cell and macrophages.
32612128 The atmospheric pressure that decreases with altitude affects lung physiology.
32613089 This multicentric prospective clinical trial seeks to evaluate the efficacy of bilateral lung LD-RT therapy as a treatment for interstitial pneumonia in patients with COVID-19 for improving respiratory function.This prospective study will have 2 phases: I) an exploratory phase enrolling 10 patients, which will assess the feasibility and efficacy of low-dose lung irradiation, evaluated according to an increase in the PaO2/FiO2 ratio of at least 20% at 48-72 h with respect to the pre-irradiation value. […] Secondary objectives will include the safety of bilateral lung LD-RT, an improvement in the radiology image, overall mortality rates at 15 and 30 days after irradiation and characterizing anti-inflammatory mechanisms of LD-RT by measuring the level of expression of adhesion molecules, anti-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress mediators.Trial registration: NCT-04380818
32613681 SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection ranges from asymptomatic through to fatal COVID-19 characterized by a ‘cytokine storm’ and lung failure. […] Experimentally, vitamin D increases the ratio of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to ACE, thus increasing angiotensin II hydrolysis and reducing subsequent inflammatory cytokine response to pathogens and lung injury.
32614086 Histopathologic findings in post-mortem lung tissue from eight patients who died from COVID-19 pneumonia were reviewed. […] Presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA by NGS early in the disease course and expression of viral antigen by IHC exclusively in the acute, but not in the organising phase of DAD, suggests that the virus may play a major role in initiating the acute lung injury of DAD, but when DAD progresses to the organising phase the virus may have been cleared from the lung by the patient’s immune response.
32614178 In COVID-19, lung manifestations present as a slowly evolving pneumonia with insidious early onset interstitial pulmonary edema that undergoes acute exacerbation in the late stages and microvascular thrombosis.
32614854 Two patients showed small patchy ground glass opacity (GGO) involving single lung, while eight patients showed multilobe GGO in both the lungs, with partial consolidation.
32615182 The virus affects the respiratory system, produces an inflammatory storm that causes lung damage and respiratory dysfunction.
32615987 In addition, SARS-CoV-2 may affect organs other than the lung, such as the liver, with frequent onset of late cholestasis.
32616134 The proportion of lesions in peripheral lung was significantly higher in mild/moderate group than in severe/critical group (78.38% vs.34.61%; χ2=13.43, P<0.001), and the proportion of diffusely distributed lesions was significantly higher in severe/critical group than in mild/moderate group (65.38% vs.10.81%; χ2=20.47, P<0.001). […] Conclusions The CT features in the recovery stage differ between mild/moderate and severe/critical COVID-19 patients.The lung infiltration is remarkably more severe in the latter.
32616135 Methods A total of 13 patients with COVID-19 confirmed at PUMCH from January 20 to February 6,2020 were selected as the research subjects.Their epidemiological histories,clinical characteristics,laboratory tests,and chest CT findings were analyzed retrospectively.The location,distribution,density,and other accompanying signs of abnormal lung CT lesions were recorded,and the clinical types of these patients were assessed. […] Ten patients had a travel history to Wuhan or direct contact with patients from Wuhan,2 cases had recent travel histories,and 1 case had a travel history to Beijing suburb.The white blood cell(WBC)count was normal or decreased in 92.3% of the patients and the lymphocyte count decreased in 15.4% of the patients.Twelve patients(92.3%)had a fever,among whom 11 patients were admitted due to fever and 2 patients(15.4%)had low fever.Eight patients(61.5%)had dry cough.The CT findings in these 13 patients were all abnormal.The lesions were mainly distributed along the bronchi and under the pleura.The lesions were relatively limited in 8 patients(affecting 1-3 lobes,predominantly in the right or left lower lobe),and diffuse multiple lesions of bilateral lungs were seen in 5 patients.The CT findings mainly included ground glass opacities(GGOs)(n=10,76.9%),focal consolidation within GGOs(n=7,53.8%),thickened vascular bundle passing through the lesions(n=10,76.9%),bronchial wall thickening(n=12,92.3%),air bronchogram(n=10,76.9%),vacuole signs in the lesions(n=7,53.8%),fine reticulation and interlobular septal thickening(n=3,23.1%),reversed halo-sign(n=2,15.4%),crazy-paving pattern(n=2,15.4%),and pleural effusion(n=2,15.4%). […] Conclusions Most of our patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at PUMCH had a travel history to Wuhan or direct contact with patients from Wuhan.The first symptoms of COVID-19 mainly include fever and dry cough,along with normal or reduced counts of WBC and lymphocytes.CT may reveal that the lesions distribute along the bronchi and under the pleura;they are typically localized GGOs in the early stage but can become multiple GGOs and infiltrative consolidation in both lungs in the advanced stage.Scattered vacuole signs may be visible inside the lesions in some patients.
32616594 While severe coronavirus infections, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cause lung injury with high mortality rates, protective treatment strategies are not approved for clinical use. […] Importantly, oral application of CsA reduced MERS-CoV replication in vivo, correlating with elevated lung IFNλ levels and improved outcome.
32617169 One such medication includes the antimalarial hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which recently reported as a possible therapy for shortening the duration of COVID-19 symptoms, reducing inflammatory reactions to infection, impairing the exacerbation of pneumonia and boosting lung imaging findings.
32617299 Chest CT characteristics of each patient were evaluated and a CT scoring system was applied to grade the lung involvement. […] Peripheral lung distributed GGO and consolidation, without subpleural sparing, are the most common manifestations on chest CT of COVID-19.
32617690 While for per-lung lobe basis, the algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 0.96 (95% CI 0.94, 0.98) and a slightly inferior F1 score of 0.86. […] • The deep learning model can automatically calculate the volume of the lesions and whole lung.
32618262 Lung abnormalities and their distribution were analyzed. […] A score of CXR severity was assigned by two radiologists, independently, according to the extent of lung involvement, with a maximum score of 8 for CXR.
32618402 Similar to those illnesses, the lung injury and acute respiratory distress shown in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are the result of a disruption in the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines.
32619007 In the U.S., White adults have better average lung function and worse hearing than Black adults. […] Both impaired lung function and hearing are criteria for Worker’s compensation, which is ultimately paid by industry.
32620144 The inclusion criteria were: (1) Age 18-65 years, (2) COVID-19 nucleic acid test is positive, (3) Lung CT showed multiple patchy ground glass shadows or other typical manifestations of both lungs. […] The exclusion criteria were: (1) Patients who need ICU management, (2) Positive tests for other pathogens such as Tuberculosis, Mycoplasma, (3) Patients with respiratory failure or requiring mechanical ventilation, (4) Patients with metal implants or pacemakers, (5) Those with shock (6) Those that have bleeding tendency or active bleeding in the lungs, (7) Patients with multiple organ failure who need ICU monitoring and treatment, (8) Cancer patients and those with severe underlying diseases, (9) Pregnant or lactating women, (10) Patients with severe cognitive impairment who cannot follow the instructions to complete the treatment, (11) Those without signed informed consent and (12) Those with other contraindications to short wave.
32620500 In our experience, we reevaluated the negative predictive value of lung ultrasound to rule out lung involvement.
32620597 Baseline PaO2/FiO2 ratio >100 mm Hg and lung consolidation <17% at CT scan predicted clinical improvement in patients treated with sarilumab. […] Median time to clinical improvement in patients with lung consolidation <17% was shorter after sarilumab (10 days) than after standard treatment (24 days; p=0.01). […] Sarilumab was associated with faster recovery in a subset of patients showing minor lung consolidation at baseline.
32621065 Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) represents a valuable therapeutic option in patients with severe heart or lung failure.
32621237 Radiomics features were extracted from the lung parenchyma window.
32621621 The multivariable Cox proportional hazards model showed that the hazards ratio of resolution in lung involvement was 1.878 (P = .020) for patients administered lopinavir/ritonavir, compared with those not administered lopinavir/ritonavir (95% confidence interval: 1.103-3.196). […] There was no difference in lung involvement between influenza coinfected and noninfected groups. […] Lopinavir/ritonavir eliminated the difference of lung involvement between influenza coinfected and noninfected groups, indicating that lopinavir/ritonavir is associated with pneumonia resolution in COVID-19.
32621718 Effective ACE-II, GAK, AAK1, and protease 3C blockers can serve as a novel therapeutic approach to block the binding and attachment of the main COVID-19 protease (PDB ID: 6LU7) to the host cell and thus inhibit the infection at AT2 receptors in the lung.
32622449 Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression in adipose tissue is higher than that in lung tissue, which means that adipose tissue may be vulnerable to COVID-19 infection.
32622684 To investigate the feasibility of lung ultrasound in evaluating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and distinguish the sonographic features between COVID-19 and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), a total of 12 COVID-19 patients and 20 CAP patients were selected and underwent lung ultrasound. […] The modified Buda scoring system for interstitial lung disease was used to evaluate the severity and treatment effect of COVID-19 on ultrasonography. […] The differences between modified lung ultrasound (MLUS) score and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) Warrick score were analyzed to evaluate their correlation. […] Differences of ultrasonic features, including lesion range, lung signs and pneumonia-related complications, between COVID-19 and CAP were statistically significant (p˂ 0.05 or 0.001).
32622723 Our meta-analyses found that comparing CHM group and conventional western medicine group, CHM group has improvements in several clinical parameters including lung CT, clinical cure rate, ranging from mild to critical cases, length of hospital stay, total score of clinical symptoms, fever reduction time, symptom score of fever, number of cough reduction cases, symptom score of cough, number of fatigue reduction cases, symptom score of fatigue, disappearing time of fatigue, TCM syndrome, viral nucleic acid testing, and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein).
32622819 Health-care providers worldwide in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic have been confronted with an unprecedented number of viral lung infections, with great variance in symptoms and severity.
32622952 Most cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are identified as moderate, which is defined as having a fever or dry cough and lung imaging with ground-glass opacities.
32622963 Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been tested during the last two decades for the treatment of various pathologic conditions, including acute and chronic lung diseases, both in animal models and in patients.
32623113 Prevalence, distribution, extent and type of abnormal lung findings were recorded. […] We observed lung parenchymal abnormalities in 51 (34.7 %) cases whereas 96 (65.3 %) RT-PCR positive cases had a normal chest CT. […] Among the patients with abnormal CT findings bilateral 39/51 (76.5 %), multilobar (88.2 %) lung involvement with a predominant peripheral and posterior distribution was commonly observed.
32623470 In patients with severe COVID-19, we assessed the association between chronic ACEI/ARB use and the occurrence of kidney, lung, heart, and liver dysfunctions and the severity of the inflammatory reaction as evaluated by biomarkers kinetics, and their association with disease outcomes.
32623503 To describe demographic, clinical, and lung base CT findings in COVID-19 patients presenting with abdominal complaints. […] CT lung base assessment was performed by a cardiothoracic radiologist. […] Lung base CT findings included ground-glass opacities (95.2%) in a multifocal (95.2%) and peripheral (66.1%) distribution. […] There was no difference in lung base CT findings between discharged and hospitalised patients (p > 0.165). […] Lung base findings on abdominal CT are consistent with published reports. […] • There was no difference in lung base CT findings between patients who were discharged and those who were hospitalised. […] • Lung base CT findings included multifocal and peripheral ground-glass opacities, consistent with published reports.
32623568 One heart and one lung transplant were performed in this period.
32624074 The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of lung abnormalities evaluated by quantitative CT techniques in patients with COVID-19 infection from initial diagnosis to recovery. […] We measured total volume and mean CT value of lung lesions in each patient per scan, and then calculated the mass, which equals to volume × (CT value + 1000). […] According to the fitting curves, we redefined the evolution of lung abnormalities: progressive stage (0-5 days), infection emerged and rapidly aggravated; peak stage (5-15 days), the greatest severity at approximate 7-8 days after onset; and absorption stage (15-30 days), the lesions slowly and gradually resolved.
32624257 SARS-CoV-2 uses the receptor-binding domain of its spike protein S1 to attach to the host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in lung and airway cells.
32624431 Lung ultrasound (LU) has a multitude of features and capacities that make it a useful medical tool to assist physicians contending with the pandemic spread of novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] Furthermore, a new algorithm has been published, which enables the automatic detection of B-lines as well as quantification of the percentage of the pleural line associated with lung disease.
32626554 Considering the role of cigarette smoking in the pathogenesis of lung diseases and the effect of nicotine on expression of the entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), it is important to determine the implications of smoking in COVID-19.
32626626 The involvement of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the evolution and pathogenesis of lung diseases has been implicated in recent years. […] The ACE-induced AGII has vasoconstrictor and pro-inflammatory properties via AT1R, whereas ACE2 has been shown to protect against lung injury. […] The less spoken about AGII receptor, angiotensin receptor type 2 (AT2R), has anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects in lung tissue and may be of significance in light of the lung pathology presentation in COVID-19. […] Lung involvement in both SARS and COVID-19 has been very severe and suggestive of severe inflammatory and immune reactions. […] They have been shown to protect against and revert acute lung injuries.
32627515 Given that inflammatory immune cells may induce severe lung injury, the involvement of immunological factors in the pathogenesis of the disease cannot be overestimated.
32627524 However, very little evidence has been so far reported on the presence of COVID-19 in the brain, and the potential exploitation, by this virus, of the lung to brain axis to reach neurons has not been completely understood.
32628969 Moreover, a brain-lung-brain axis is been proposed from the scientific community where severe neurological dysfunction and injury are associated with lung injury, and vice versa. […] Therefore, is important to make clear whether SARS-CoV-2 lung damage can cause direct or indirect neuronal effects.
32629100 The optimal management of respiratory failure and the role of lung ultrasound imaging in the evaluation of efficacy of treatment are unknown. […] All patients underwent lung ultrasound imaging to verify the entity of lung recruitment after NI-CPAP initiation. […] Notably, only 50 % of them reached an effective improvement in lung aeration detectable with lung ultrasound. […] Lung recruitment detected by means of lung ultrasound is a relevant but not the exclusive mechanism that underlies the therapeutic efficacy of NI-CPAP in this clinical setting.
32629531 Similarly, the lung injury observed in severe COVID-19 cases appears to be related to a massive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
32629670 Critically ill Coronavirus Disease 19 requiring tracheal intubation owing to respiratory failure with lung.javascript.
32629817 By attaching to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein on lung and intestinal cells, Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) can cause respiratory and homeostatic difficulties leading to sepsis.
32629875 Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses, is a transmembrane protein expressed by lung alveolar epithelial cells, enterocytes, and vascular endothelial cells, whose physiologic role is to induce the maturation of angiotensin I to generate angiotensin 1-7, a peptide hormone that controls vasoconstriction and blood pressure.
32629995 In the current study we describe putative roles for PADs in COVID-19, based on in silico analysis of BioProject transcriptome data (PRJNA615032 BioProject), including lung biopsies from healthy volunteers and SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, as well as SARS-CoV-2-infected, and mock human bronchial epithelial NHBE and adenocarcinoma alveolar basal epithelial A549 cell lines. […] We report a high individual variation observed for all PADI isozymes in the patients’ tissue biopsies, including lung, in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, while PADI2 and PADI4 mRNA showed most variability in lung tissue specifically. […] In vitro lung epithelial and adenocarcinoma alveolar cell models revealed that PADI1, PADI2 and PADI4 mRNA levels were elevated, but PADI3 and PADI6 mRNA levels were reduced in SARS-CoV-2-infected NHBE cells. […] Our findings indicate a link between PADI expression changes, including modulation of PADI2 and PADI4, particularly in lung tissue, in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32630707 COVID-19 pneumonia is mainly monitored with chest X-ray, however, lung ultrasound (LUS) is an emerging tool for pulmonary evaluation.
32631666 In this critical scenario, lung cancer patients scheduled for surgical treatment need to continue to receive optimal care while protecting them from an eventual severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.
32631958 This case report describes the care of a 59-year-old woman with metastatic small cell lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who was highly symptomatic with an intractable cough.
32632355 We had experience in treating five critically ill patients with severe lung injury who were COVID-19 positive with tocilizumab.
32633162 More importantly, in Covid-19 patients with early lung involvement colchicine may be an appropriate candidate to prevent CRS in adjunction with routine antiviral agents.
32633594 BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the cause of a pandemic disease, with severe acute respiratory syndrome by binding target epithelial lung cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in humans.
32633729 This study showed that LDH could be identified as a powerful predictive factor for early recognition of lung injury and severe COVID-19 cases.
32633856 Symptoms such as fever or cough, and signs such as oxygen saturation or lung auscultation findings, are the first and most readily available diagnostic information.
32634459 Age (OR = 7.86, 95% CI 5.46-11.29), diabetes comorbidity (OR = 3.73, 95% CI 2.35-5.90), chronic lung disease (OR = 3.43, 95% CI 1.80-6.52) and hypertension (OR = 3.38, 95% CI 2.45-4.67) were the mortality risk factors.
32634734 Unlike patients with other forms of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, these patients do not exhibit increased lung stiffness or dramatic dyspnea., even in the presence of arterial blood oxygen levels lower than that seen normally in mixed venous blood. […] As hypoxemia without acidosis is a rather weak stimulus of dyspnea or increased ventilation, and opening of such an intracardiac shunt would not worsen lung mechanical properties, the absence of dramatic symptom changes would not be surprising.
32634855 None had typical chest CT phenotypes during the early stage, except the critically ill patient mentioned who had developed “white lung” and then died.
32636454 We also identified SARS-CoV-2 RNA in respiratory tract tissues, including trachea, bronchus and lung; and viruses were also re-isolated from oropharyngeal swabs, bronchus and lung, respectively.
32637365 The airway epithelial barrier is a major barrier protecting against clinically significant infections of the lung. […] Understanding how these cytokines work in the mucosal defenses of the respiratory system may suggest potential targets to prevent invasive infections of the damaged lung.
32638018 Compared with the lung or respiratory tract, the human heart exhibits greater ACE2 expression. […] With public single-cell sequence data analysis, ACE2 expression in the adult human heart is higher than that in the lung (adjusted P < 0.0001). […] Inversely, the most important S protein cleavage protease TMPRSS2 (transmembrane protease serine protease-2) in the heart exhibits an extremely lower expression than that in the lung (adjusted P < 0.0001), which may restrict entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cardiac cells. […] Furthermore, we discovered that other S protein proteases, CTSL (cathepsin L) and FURIN (furin, paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme), were expressed in the adult heart at a similar level to that in the lung, which may compensate for TMPRSS2, mediating cardiac involvement in COVID-19. […] Compared with the lung, ACE2 is relatively more highly expressed in the human heart, while the key S protein priming protease, TMPRSS2, is rarely expressed.
32638333 Lung Ultrasonography (LUS) has been signaled as a potential useful tool in this pandemic contest either to intercept viral pneumonia or to foster alternative paths. […] LUS could be useful in determining early lung involvement suggestive or not of COVID-19 pneumonia and potentially plays a role in managing decisions for hospitalization in isolation or admission in general ward.
32639084 Strikingly, ACE2 was up-regulated in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, oesophageal carcinoma, kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma and uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma compared to controls.
32639236 A single ventilator in pressure control mode was used with flow control valves to simultaneously ventilate two patients with different lung compliances. […] Pair 1 was a 49-yr-old woman, ideal body weight 46 kg, and a 55-yr-old man, ideal body weight 64 kg, with lung compliance 27 ml/cm H2O versus 35 ml/cm H2O. […] Pair 2 was a 32-yr-old man, ideal body weight 62 kg, and a 56-yr-old woman, ideal body weight 46 kg, with lung compliance 12 ml/cm H2O versus 21 ml/cm H2O.
32639848 Indeed, after cells in the lungs become infected by SARS-CoV-2, effector CD4+ T cells reach the small intestine through the gut-lung axis, causing intestinal immune damage and diarrhea; early extensive use of antibacterial and antiviral drugs can also lead to diarrhea in patients.
32639866 A dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been involved in the genesis of lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome from different causes, including several viral infections. […] The ACE2 downregulation, as a result of SARS-coronaviruses binding, enhances the classic RAS, leading to lung damage and inflammation with leaky pulmonary blood vessels and fibrosis, when the attenuation mediated by the anti-RAS arm is reduced. […] ACE inhibitors (ACE-I) and Ang II type 1 receptor blockers (ARB), effective in cardiovascular diseases, were found to prevent and counteract acute lung injury in several experimental models by restoring the balance between these two opposing arms.
32640120 Human lung development and disease have been difficult to study due to the lack of an in vitro model system containing cells from the large airways and distal alveolus. […] This article describes a system that allows human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to differentiate and form three-dimensional (3D) structures that emulate the development, cytoarchitecture, and function of the lung (“organoids”), containing epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations, and including the production of surfactant and presence of ciliated cells. […] Such lung organoids may be used to study the impact of environmental modifiers and perturbagens (toxins, microbial or viral pathogens, alterations in microbiome) or the efficacy and safety of drugs, biologics, and gene transfer. […] Basic Protocol: hESC/hiPSC dissection, definitive endoderm formation, and lung progenitor cell induction.
32640172 The concept that PARP1 becomes activated in acute lung injury (ALI), and pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of this enzyme can provide therapeutic benefits has emerged over 20 years ago.
32640492 The risk factors associated with severity of disease include older age, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and lung diseases, and immune suppression.
32641296 The ratio of calculated unbound drug fraction to published SARS-CoV-2 50% effective concentrations (EC50) indicated insufficient LPV concentrations in the lung.
32641700 Histochemical studies of lung tissue from one fatality show sub-anatomical distributions of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and massive infiltration of T cells and macrophages.
32641989 Firstly, we proposed an automatic segmentation method to extract lung volume for radiomics feature extraction.
32642005 ACE2 is expressed by epithelial cells of the lungs at high level, a major target of the disease, as seen in post-mortem lung tissue of patients who died with COVID-19, which reveals diffuse alveolar damage with cellular fibromyxoid exudates bilaterally.
32642347 Patients with certain conditions like diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and chronic lung diseases have been reported to develop serious complications from COVID-19.
32642391 We presume that acute lung injury leading to SARS-CoV-2 with associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) predisposes patients to this rare complication.
32642770 Based on collected proteomic datasets from human lung, colon, kidney, liver and heart, we constructed a virus-receptor network, a virus-interaction network and a virus-perturbation network.
32643133 In a multivariate logistic analysis, age and the presence of chronic lung disease and Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) were the only significant parameters for predicting COVID-19 non-survival (p < 0.05). […] Clinicians should closely monitor and manage the symptoms of COVID-19 patients who are over the age of 70 years or have chronic lung disease or AD.
32643551 The SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) coronavirus has emerged as a highly contagious respiratory pathogen causing severe acute lung injury. […] We report the use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to lung recovery in a pediatric patient with severe pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome due to COVID-19.
32643664 Elderly patients with comorbidities, like hypertension, diabetes, or lung and cardiac disease, are more likely to have severe disease and deaths.
32645311 Personalised lung-protective mechanical ventilation reduces mortality and has become the mainstay of treatment in ARDS.
32645630 Type I interferons seem to improve respiratory distress, relieve lung abnormalities, present better saturation, reduce needs for supplemental oxygen support.
32645660 It has been demonstrated that macrophages populate the lung in three “developmental waves”, and it has been suggested that similar waves may be observed in other important organs, such as the heart and kidney.
32645661 The morbidity and mortality of lung cancer are increasing. […] Moreover, hypoxemia may be developed, resulting in the up-regulation of HIF-1 α expression, which can be involved in the occurrence, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis of lung cancer. […] Therefore, we speculate that COVID-19 may be a risk factor of secondary lung cancer.
32646047 Gene ontology and functional annotation of differently expressed genes in patient lung tissues with COVID-19 revealed activation of antiviral response as the hallmark.
32646061 Based on studies in a range of in vitro and in vivo models, ergothioneine has exhibited the ability to modulate inflammation, scavenge free radicals, protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome, prevent endothelial dysfunction, protect against ischemia and reperfusion injury, protect against neuronal damage, counteract iron dysregulation, hinder lung and liver fibrosis, and mitigate damage to the lungs, kidneys, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and testis, amongst many others.
32646502 Patients will be followed-up by specialist physicians and Primary Health Care professionals. - Men and women. - Age between 18 and 75 years old. - Diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection, by PCR and/or IgM+ antibody test and/or antigen test. - Clinical diagnosis of lung involvement: (respiratory symptoms +/- pathological auscultation +/- O2 desaturation) - Chest X-ray with mild-moderate alterations or normal. - Patients who give their verbal informed consent in front of witnesses, which will be reflected in the patients’ medical records. - Oxygen desaturation below 93% or P02 < 62. - Moderate-severe dyspnea or significant respiratory or general deterioration that makes admission advisable. - Chest X-ray with multifocal infiltrates. - Insulin-dependent diabetes with poor control or glycaemia in the emergency room test greater than 300 mg/ml (fasting or not). - Other significant comorbidities: Severe renal failure (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min); cirrhosis or chronic liver disease, poorly controlled hypertension. - Heart rhythm disturbances (including prolonged QT). - Severe immunosuppression (HIV infection, long-term use of immunosuppressive agents); cancer. - Pregnant or breast-feeding women. - Patients under use of glucocorticoids for other diseases. - History of allergy or intolerance to any of the drugs in the study (prednisone, azithromycin or hydroxychloroquine). - Patients who took one or more of the study drugs in the 7 days prior to study inclusion. - Patients taking non-suppressible drugs with risk of QT prolongation or significant interactions. - Patients unwilling or unable to participate until study completion. - Participation in another study. […] Treatment will be assigned according to stratified randomization by the presence or absence of radiological data of lung involvement (previously performed by random sequence 1:1 generated with Epidat and kept hidden by opaque, sealed envelopes, which will only be opened after inclusion and basal measurement). […] The percentage of patients with incipient lung involvement is unknown, but given that pulmonary involvement already exists it is estimated to be around 20%.
32646657 Finally, the immunosuppressive effect of immunomodulating drugs (tocilizumab and similar) administered to patients with severe lung disease should be taken into account.
32647360 Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and lung disease.
32647807 Convalescent plasma seems to be a safe option, but potential risks such as transfusion-related acute lung injury and antibody-dependent enhancement are discussed.
32648389 Acupoints of governor vessel, lung meridian, bladder meridian and stomach meridian are mainly used in this program.
32648959 Other serious adverse events reported in all studies were predominantly allergic or respiratory in nature, including anaphylaxis, transfusion-associated dyspnoea, and transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).
32649791 Prevalent comorbidities included hypertension (95%), diabetes (52%), obesity (49%), heart (28%) and lung (19%) disease.
32650158 Knowing that air pollution causes approximately 29% of lung cancer deaths, 43% of COPD deaths, and 25% of ischemic heart disease deaths, it is important to know the effects of quarantines in cities regarding air quality to take measures that favor populations and urban ecosystems when the emergency ends.
32650197 Counterproductive lung inflammation and dysregulated thrombosis contribute importantly to the lethality of advanced COVID-19.
32650215 Relevant information has emerged regarding the higher risk of poor outcomes in lung cancer patients. […] As such, lung cancer patients must be prioritized in terms of prevention, detection and treatment. […] Patients with lung cancer represent a particularly vulnerable population during this time.
32650969 We describe the implementation of a COVID-19 Autopsy Programme in our Hospital, report the main findings from the first autopsy of the programme and briefly review the reports of lung pathology of these patients.
32650970 Histological examination revealed typical changes of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) in both the exudative and proliferative phase of acute lung injury.
32651218 This review describes evidence linking risk factors for critical illness in COVID-19 with increased Th17 cell activation and IL-17 signaling that may lead to increased likelihood for lung injury and respiratory failure.
32651741 Overall, the number of differentially expressed genes was higher in human lung cells infected with MERS-CoV than in cells with SARS-CoV-2. […] Importantly, these results were virus-specific and not conditioned by differences in viral load, and viral growth curves were similar in human lung cells infected with both viruses.
32652095 Because these mitigation strategies may be necessary for the next 6 to 18 months to prevent recurrent peaks in disease prevalence, fewer objective measurements of lung function will alter the diagnosis and care of patients with chronic respiratory diseases. […] PFT, which includes spirometry, lung volume, and diffusion capacity measurement, is essential to the diagnosis and management of patients with asthma, COPD, and other chronic lung conditions. […] However, the coronavirus disease 19 pandemic also presents a unique opportunity to augment conventional testing by including innovative and emerging approaches to measuring lung function remotely in patients with respiratory disease.
32652454 On CT images, 89.3% (25/28) confirmed and 100% (7/7) suspected patients had ground-glass opacities (GGOs), and GGOs with mixed consolidations were observed in 35.7% (10/28) confirmed and 42.9% (3/7) suspected cases, most of these lesions were distributed under the peripheral of both lungs. 17 confirmed and 4 suspected cases had a history of participating in Ningbo Tian-tong Temple rituals and all had GGOs in their lungs during the initial CT scan. […] As of March 25, 2020, the lung lesions of our cases were significantly resolved and all patients have been discharged from the hospital. […] The most common chest CT features are multiple bilateral and peripheral GGOs with mixed consolidations or not in the lungs of patients with COVID-19.
32653469 The most severe form of the disease presents with fever and shortness of breath, which rapidly deteriorates to respiratory failure and acute lung injury (ALI).
32653568 All patients underwent a 5G-based robot-assisted remote ultrasound system examination of the lungs and heart following an established protocol. […] Distribution characteristics and morphology of the lung and surrounding tissue lesions, left ventricular ejection fraction, ventricular area ratio, pericardial effusion, and examination-related complications were recorded. […] Bilateral lung lesions were evaluated by using a lung ultrasound score. […] Peripheral lung lesions were clearly evaluated. […] Severe cases of COVID-19 had significantly more diseased regions (median [interquartile range], 6.0 [2.0-11.0] vs 1.0 [0.0-2.8]) and higher lung ultrasound scores (12.0 [4.0-24.0] vs 2.0 [0.0-4.0]) than nonsevere cases of COVID-19 (both, P < .05).
32653627 As a consequence, patients with malignancies, especially those with lung cancer who develop coronavirus disease 2019, experience more difficult outcomes. […] A recent multicenter study carried out by the Hubei Anti-Cancer Association has also documented that patients with lung cancer had an increased risk of death, intensive care unit requirement, risk of presenting severe or critical symptoms, and use of invasive mechanical ventilation. […] Here, we present two representative cases of patients with lung cancer and coronavirus disease 2019 without respiratory compromise and with atypical and severe skin manifestations-findings that could be influenced by the long-term use of anti-programmed cell death protein 1 antibody.
32653736 Moreover, lung surfactants have already shown benefits in respiratory viral infections.
32654006 Despite considerable advances in our knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of ARDS, insights into the biologic mechanisms of lung injury and repair, and advances in supportive care, particularly ventilatory management, there remains no effective pharmacological therapy for this syndrome.
32654049 If they showed COVID-19 related symptoms, high resolution CT scan of lungs was requested. […] However, in 72 cases of colon cancer, 11 cases of lung cancer, 5 cases brain tumors and 12 cases ovarian cancer; 4 cases of COVID-19 were observed.
32654244 We report here two cases of COVID-19 in a cohabiting couple of lung transplant recipients for cystic fibrosis, who had different ISDs management and who developed discordant courses of their disease.
32654350 In patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, the development of cytokine storm induces extensive lung damage, and monocytes play a role in this pathological process.
32654359 Although lungs seem to be the main target of the infection, very few information are available about liver involvement, possibly evocating a systemic disease. […] Histopathological findings are highly suggestive for marked derangement of intrahepatic blood vessel network secondary to systemic changes induced by virus that could target not only lung parenchyma but also cardiovascular system, coagulation cascade and endothelial layer of blood vessels.
32654656 Chest computed tomography is clearly impractical, but ultrasound has shown comparable sensitivity for lung involvement, with major advantages of short and simple procedures, low cost, and excellent repeatability. […] Conclusions: Lung sonography can be easily performed by motivated nonmedical caregivers when directed and supervised in real time by experts.
32655581 A common feature of coronavirus infections is that significant morbidity and mortality is associated with lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting from an exaggerated immune response, of which NK cells are an important component.
32655582 In severe cases, fatality is caused by the rapid development of severe lung injury characteristic of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
32656223 Most patients showed no clinical symptoms and negative nucleic acid tests, while one patient had an itchy throat, her CT scan showed a light density shadow in the right lower lobe of the lung, and the nucleic acid was once again positive.
32657436 Moreover, since these Basidiomycota also have anti-inflammatory properties, they may be suited for treatment of the severe lung inflammation that often follows COVID-19 infection. […] Hence, such mushroom extracts could have prophylactic or therapeutic effect against the pneumonic superinfection and severe lung inflammation that often complicates COVID-19 infection.
32657473 This suggests ARBs could potentially be used to treat acute lung injury caused by coronavirus infection.
32657623 Targeting these different pathways may reduce thrombosis and improve lung function in COVID-19 patients.
32659175 COVID-19 infection primarily affects the lungs and airways. […] Previous reports have linked 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency with subclinical interstitial lung disease.
32659729 Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a dynamically developing diagnostic method used in intensive care, cardiology and nephrology, it can also be helpful in diagnosing and monitoring pneumonia. […] We present 4 case reports of COVID-19 involving the lungs, in which transthoracic lung ultrasound was successfully utilized as a constituent of bedside diagnostics and a review of the literature concerning potential use of LUS in COVID-19 diagnostics.
32659857 Several case reports and small case series have been published on coronavirus disease 2019 infection after solid organ transplantation; however, thus far there are limited data on coronavirus disease 2019 infections in lung transplant patients. […] In the present single-center case series we discuss 10 lung transplant patients with a documented severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, diagnosed with nasopharyngeal swab in 8 and bronchoalveolar lavage in 2.
32660204 This study investigated interobserver agreement in lung ultrasonography (LUS) in pregnant women performed by obstetricians with different levels of expertise, with confirmation by an expert radiologist. […] Two blinded experienced obstetricians performed LUS on pregnant women separately and noted their scores for 14 lung zones. […] The overall weighted Cohen’s kappa values ranged from 0.706 to 0.912 for the 14 lung zones. […] There were only seven instances of major disagreement (>1 point) in the evaluation of 14 lung zones of 52 patients (n=728).
32660611 Key Inclusion criteria • Confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection (eg, via polymerase chain reaction [PCR] and/or antibody test) presenting as severe COVID-19 requiring hospitalization • Severe pneumonia, acute lung injury, or ARDS confirmed by computed tomography (CT) or X-ray at Screening or within the 3 days prior to Screening, as part of the patient’s routine clinical care • Respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation, which can be either invasive (requiring endotracheal intubation) or non-invasive (with continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP] or bilevel positive airway pressure [BiPAP]) Key Exclusion criteria • Patient is not expected to survive for more than 24 hours • Patient is on invasive mechanical ventilation with intubation for more than 48 hours prior to Screening • Severe pre-existing cardiac disease (ie, NYHA Class 3 or Class 4, acute coronary syndrome, or persistent ventricular tachyarrhythmias) • Patient has an unresolved Neisseria meningitidis infection Excluded medications and therapies • Current treatment with a complement inhibitor • Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) within 4 weeks prior to randomization on Day 1 Excluded prior/concurrent clinical study experience • Treatment with investigational therapy in a clinical study within 30 days before randomization, or within 5 half-lives of that investigational therapy, whichever is greater • Exceptions a.
32660650 We have reviewed previously published studies on SARS and recent studies on SARS-CoV-2 infection, named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO), confirming that many other organs besides the lungs are vulnerable to the virus. […] SARS-CoV-2 enters lung cells via the ACE2 receptor.
32661498 In addition to the common lung and quite common pulmonary embolism and kidney injuries, he presented ocular and intestinal injuries that, to our knowledge, have not been described in COVID-19 patients.
32661867 There have been reports evaluating the safety and feasibility of these exosomes in various lung diseases, thereby proposing them as a cell-free therapeutic agent. […] Furthermore, this review will highlight and discuss mechanistic role of exosomes to combat severe lung pathological conditions.
32662041 Child patients are mostly negative for chest CT or with involvement of only one lobe of the lung; while in older patients, there was a higher incidence of involvement of four or five lung lobes.
32662060 In the setting of an immunocompromised status due to recent chemotherapy cycles for lung adenocarcinoma and prolonged corticosteroid therapy (due to frequent exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in recent months), we actively searched for the pathological agent and found it to be Pneumocystis jirovecii. […] The patient started specific antibiotic treatment but finally had a negative outcome due to the progression of the lung adenocarcinoma.
32662394 Lung consolidation is the most common radiologic finding of COVID-19 pneumonia.
32663071 The daily case rate is now declining in many states and there is a need for guidance about the resumption of elective clinical services for patients with lung disease or sleep conditions.
32663073 SARS-CoV-2 infections were confirmed by detection of viral RNA in throat swabs and by immunohistochemical detection of viral antigen in nasal conchae, trachea, and lung.
32664179 However, no literature has reported a case with cavities in the lungs. […] The unique chest CT manifestation in this case was the small cavities in both lungs during the absorption phase of this disease. […] Although 2 consecutive nucleic acid tests returned negative in this patient, the small cavity changes in the lungs were observed, so the patient was quarantined for 14 days. […] However, follow-up CT after the first 14 days’ quarantine showed new small cavity changes on the lungs, a further 14 days of quarantine was recommended. […] Therefore, in some COVID-19 cases, even if the nucleic acid tests turns negative, the disappearance of lung lesions may take a long time.
32664709 It has been suggested that in viral pneumonia, virus itself is not a direct cause of acute lung injury; rather, aberrant immune reactions of the host to the insults from viral infection are responsible. […] Since the immunopathogenesis of pneumonia may be the same for all patients regardless of age or severity and the critical immune-mediated lung injury may begin in the early stage of the disease, early immunomodulator treatment, including corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin, can help reduce morbidity and possibly mortality rates of older patients with underlying conditions.
32664711 Clinical symptoms and radiological findings of both viral pneumonia and lung adenocarcinoma may overlap resulting in diagnostic and clinical challenges.We present the case of a women admitted to our department presenting with an acute manifestation of coronavirus OC43 pneumonia with underlying undiagnosed lung adenocarcinoma.
32664810 Although there is no clarity in the principal mechanism of lung damage and ARDS development, it has been suggested that one of the main reasons of this pathology is the hyperactivation of the immune system, better known as cytokine storm syndrome.
32664919 Hypertension (64%), hyperlipidemia (62%), obesity (37%), diabetes mellitus (28%), chronic kidney disease (24%), and lung disease (21%) were the most common comorbidities.
32664949 Clinically, SARS-CoV-2 infection may result in acute lung injury and lung fibrosis, but the underlying mechanisms of COVID-19 induced lung fibrosis are not fully understood. […] Their gene and protein expressions were measured in human epithelial cells after 24 h SARS-CoV-2 infection, or in existing datasets of lung fibrosis patients. […] TMPRSS2, ADAM17, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)3, angiotensinogen (AGT), transformation growth factor beta (TGFB1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A and fibronectin (FN) were interacted with ACE2, and the mRNA and protein of these molecules were expressed in lung epithelial cells. […] SARS-CoV-2 infection increased ACE2, TGFB1, CTGF and FN1 mRNA that were drivers of lung fibrosis. […] These changes were also found in lung tissues from lung fibrosis patients. […] Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 binds with ACE2 and activates fibrosis-related genes and processes to induce lung fibrosis.
32664991 Patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical findings, chest CT results, and CT scores of affected lung parenchyma were recorded. […] COVID-19 infection is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response that affects the lungs, blood, digestive system, and circulatory systems.
32665633 CT signs of pulmonary lesions and the score of lung involvement were expounded.
32665786 Based on traumatology experience, we propose that immunoprotective protocols including lung protective ventilation, optimal thrombosis prophylaxis, secondary infection prevention and calculated antibiotic therapy are likely also beneficial in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections.
32665932 A diagnosis of pneumothorax and diffuse interstitial lung involvement was promptly made by lung ultrasound and confirmed by an HRCT scan.
32665934 Blood gas analysis and lung ultrasound allowed the correct diagnosis to be reached. […] COVID-19 pneumonia is associated with cardiovascular complications and pulmonary embolisms.Lung ultrasound can aid diagnosis by visualizing small peripheral pulmonary embolisms.
32666230 The lungs of the deceased contained high concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and displayed the typical radiological signatures of COVID-19. […] Furthermore, a morphological pattern was found displaying hyperaemic areas interspersed by normally perfused areas affecting the whole lung. […] We also report a finding suggestive of micro-thrombotic events in the lung, which is compatible with the recently described coagulation changes and increased incidence of pulmonary artery embolisms seen in COVID-19 patients as reported by Wichmann et al. 
32666395 CT scans of 2215 patients (90%) showed multiple lesions of which 36 (1%) and 50 patients (2%) had left and right lung infections, respectively (> 50% of each affected lung’s volume), while 27 (1%) had total lung infection (> 50% of the total volume of both lungs).
32666917 We report a case of COVID-19 pneumonia with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax with no known underlying lung disease or risk factors.
32667077 Moreover, we need a keen eye on deciding which pathologies have to be treated with priority: Coronary artery Disease showed a higher mortality rate in patients affected by COVID19, but it is, however, reasonable to think that all the cardiac pathologies affecting the lung circulation-such as symptomatic severe mitral diseases or aortic stenosis-might deserve a priority access to treatment, to increase the survival rate in case of an acquired-Coronavirus infection later on.
32667207 Rationale: Clinical and epidemiologic data in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have accrued rapidly since the outbreak, but few address the underlying pathophysiology.Objectives: To ascertain the physiologic, hematologic, and imaging basis of lung injury in severe COVID-19 pneumonia.Methods: Clinical, physiologic, and laboratory data were collated. […] Radiologic (computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography [n = 39] and dual-energy CT [DECT, n = 20]) studies were evaluated: observers quantified CT patterns (including the extent of abnormal lung and the presence and extent of dilated peripheral vessels) and perfusion defects on DECT. […] Coagulation status was assessed using thromboelastography.Measurements and Results: In 39 consecutive patients (male:female, 32:7; mean age, 53 ± 10 yr [range, 29-79 yr]; Black and minority ethnic, n = 25 [64%]), there was a significant vascular perfusion abnormality and increased physiologic dead space (dynamic compliance, 33.7 ± 14.7 ml/cm H2O; Murray lung injury score, 3.14 ± 0.53; mean ventilatory ratios, 2.6 ± 0.8) with evidence of hypercoagulability and fibrinolytic “shutdown”. […] The mean CT extent (±SD) of normally aerated lung, ground-glass opacification, and dense parenchymal opacification were 23.5 ± 16.7%, 36.3 ± 24.7%, and 42.7 ± 27.1%, respectively.
32668165 This is surprising since comorbidities including preexisting lung disease have been reported to be associated with worse outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infections. […] Thus, increased ACE2 would reduce inflammation and lung damage due to SARS-CoV-2. […] Second, many CF patients are treated with azithromycin, which suppresses viral infection and lung inflammation and inhibits the activity of furin, a serine protease. […] Finally, the CF lung contains high levels of serine protease inhibitors including ecotin and SERPINB1, which are predicted to reduce the ability of TMPRSS2 to facilitate SARS-CoV-2 entry into airway epithelial cells.
32668216 We report that remdesivir (RDV) potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in human lung cells and primary human airway epithelial cultures (EC50 = 0.01 μM). […] In mice infected with the chimeric virus, therapeutic RDV administration diminishes lung viral load and improves pulmonary function compared with vehicle-treated animals.
32668514 Current evidence supports lung ultrasound as a point-ofcare alternative diagnostic tool for various respiratory diseases. […] We sought to determine the utility of lung ultrasound for early detection of pneumonia and for assessment of respiratory failure among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] All had undergone chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) on the day of admission and underwent multiple point-of-care lung ultrasound scans over the course of their hospitalization. […] Lung ultrasound detected early abnormal findings of representative B-lines in a patient with a normal chest X-ray, corresponding to ground-glass opacities on the chest CT scan. […] Lung ultrasound is feasible and useful as a rapid, sensitive, and affordable point-of-care screening tool to detect pneumonia and assess the severity of respiratory failure in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
32668763 Chills had been proved to be positively correlated with chest tightness, lung abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) scans, neutrophil/lymphocyte/platelets count, D-dimer and CRP, cough was positively correlated with sputum production, and pulmonary abnormalities were positively correlated with CRP.
32669360 Two filters were tested on three CPAP systems at two levels of CPAP in a mechanical lung model.
32669391 As suggested by the recent reports regarding the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), upon entry into the host, this virus binds to the extracellular domain of ACE2 in nasal, lung, and gut epithelial cells through its spike glycoprotein subunit S1. […] We put forth the hypothesis that during this process, reduced ACE2 could result in clinical deterioration in COVID-19 patients with diabetes via aggravating Ang-II-dependent pathways and partly driving not only lung but also bone marrow and gastrointestinal pathology. […] In addition to systemic RAS, the pathophysiological response of the local RAS within the intestinal epithelium involves mechanisms distinct from that of RAS in the lung; however, both lung and gut are impacted by diabetes-induced bone marrow dysfunction.
32669938 The Quebec Lung Cancer Network, which oversees thoracic oncology services in the province of Quebec under the direction of the Ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux, convened to develop recommendations to deal with the potential disruption of services in thoracic oncology in the province of Quebec.
32670091 The ability of beneficial microorganisms to enhance type I interferons and antiviral factors in the respiratory tract, stimulate Th1 response and antibodies production, and regulate inflammation and coagulation activation during the course of viral infections reducing tissue damage and preserving lung functionally, clearly indicate the potential of immunobiotics to favorably influence the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 virus.
32670193 However, specific comorbidities in individuals with CP, such as chronic lung disease, are known as COVID-19 risk factors.
32670298 A BTM-driven meta-analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from COVID-19 patients showed significant enrichment for neutrophils and chemokines, which were also significant in data from lung tissue of one deceased COVID-19 patient.
32671009 Conclusion: Vitamin D plays an important role reducing the impact of viral lung disease processes.
32671013 Clinical symptoms suggest SARS-CoV-2 infection with typical ground glass like a lung in computed tomography.
32671086 We reviewed the literature to highlight the typical manifestations and advantages of chest computed tomography and lung ultrasound in COVID-19 pneumonia in order to assist clinical researchers in the management of this disease.
32671348 Ventilation of mechanical test lungs. […] Each patient circuit consisted of a flexible bag in a rigid container connected via one-way valve to a test lung, along with an inline positive end-expiratory pressure valve, connected to the ventilator’s expiratory limb. […] During inspiration, gas from the ventilator, in pressure control mode, enters the containers and displaces gas from the bags to the test lungs. […] We varied tidal volume, “respiratory system” compliance, and positive end-expiratory pressure in one lung and observed the effect on the tidal volume of the other. […] We were able to obtain different tidal volume, dynamic driving pressure, and positive end-expiratory pressure in the two lungs under widely different compliances in both lungs. […] Complete obstruction, or disconnection at the circuit connection to one test lung, had minimal effect (< 5% on average) on the ventilation to the co-ventilated lung. […] A secondary circuit “bag-in-the-box” system enables individualized ventilation of two lungs overcoming many of the concerns of ventilating more than one patient with a single ventilator.
32672430 Patients received, at the admission to the ED, a diagnostic work-up including: patient history, clinical examination, an arterial blood gas analysis (whenever possible performed on room air), laboratory blood tests, including serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), lung ultrasound examination and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the thorax.
32673191 Primary outcome was severity of lung disease on admission CXR, measured by modified Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (mRALE) score.
32674001 We performed postmortem needle core lung biopsies in seven patients with COVID-19 related ARDS.
32674114 Independent factors associated with in-hospital mortality included ages 50-64, 65-74, 75-84 and ≥85 years versus 18-39 years (aRR 3.11, 5.77, 7.67 and 10.98, respectively); male sex (aRR 1.30); immunosuppression (aRR 1.39); renal disease (aRR 1.33); chronic lung disease (aRR 1.31); cardiovascular disease (aRR 1.28); neurologic disorders (aRR 1.25); and diabetes (aRR 1.19).
32674190 CT of the lung showed extensive bilateral ground glass opacities.The patient was treated according to a predefined standard, including oxygen supplementation and, after intermittent worsening, with CPAP-ventilation. […] Six weeks after discharge the patient was fully recovered and lung function as well as CT of the lungs were normal.Our case demonstrates that invasive ventilation can successfully be avoided in patients with severe hypoxemia caused by COVID-19 with bilateral pneumonia.
32674191 We report the case of a 60-year old female patient with advanced severe lung injury as a consequence of COVID-19-pneumonia. […] Our case demonstrates that severe COVID-19-associated lung injury can be reversible even after prolonged ECMO.
32674356 We found that kurarinone inhibited HCoV-OC43 infection in human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 3.458 ± 0.101 μM.
32675206 To determine the expression and in situ localisation of candidate SARS-CoV-2 receptors in the respiratory mucosa, we analysed gene expression datasets from airway epithelial cells of 515 healthy subjects, gene promoter activity analysis using the FANTOM5 dataset containing 120 distinct sample types, single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) of 10 healthy subjects, proteomic datasets, immunoblots on multiple airway epithelial cell types, and immunohistochemistry on 98 human lung samples.We demonstrate absent to low ACE2 promoter activity in a variety of lung epithelial cell samples and low ACE2 gene expression in both microarray and scRNAseq datasets of epithelial cell populations. […] Consistent with gene expression, rare ACE2 protein expression was observed in the airway epithelium and alveoli of human lung, confirmed with proteomics. […] We present confirmatory evidence for the presence of TMPRSS2, CD147 and GRP78 protein in vitro in airway epithelial cells and confirm broad in situ protein expression of CD147 and GRP78 in the respiratory mucosa.Collectively, our data suggest the presence of a mechanism dynamically regulating ACE2 expression in human lung, perhaps in periods of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and also suggest that alternative receptors for SARS-CoV-2 exist to facilitate initial host cell infection.
32675217 Patients with PH were older and had a higher burden of pre-existing cardiac comorbidities and signs of more severe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (radiological lung involvement, laboratory findings and oxygenation status) compared with those without PH.
32675285 By expression in human embryonic kidney 293, esophageal EC9706, and lung epithelial A549 and 16HBE cells, Western blotting, and site-directed mutagenesis, we found that the activation cleavage of human TMPRSS11A was mediated by autocatalysis.
32675503 All cannulations were performed at the bedside in the intensive care unit in patients who had undergone a trial of rescue therapies for acute respiratory distress syndrome including lung protective ventilation, paralysis, prone positioning, and inhaled nitric oxide.
32675514 There are currently no guidelines for the conduct of elective lung resection surgery in this context. […] A working group composed of 1 thoracic surgeon, 2 anesthesiologists and 1 critical care specialist assessed the risk for aerosol during lung resection surgery and proposed steps for mitigation. […] The working group divided the risk for aerosol into 6 time-points: (1) intubation and extubation; (2) Lung isolation and patient positioning; (3) access to the chest; (4) conduct of the surgical procedure; (5) procedure termination and lung re-expansion; (6) chest drainage. […] In the context of lung resection surgery, specific time points during the procedure seem to pose specific risks for the genesis of aerosol and thus should be the focus of attention.
32675741 The largest reductions in SOT and waitlist deaths were seen in kidney and lung transplantation.
32676372 A series of radiologic signs were identified in bilateral lungs with a bias towards segment VI, I + II and X. […] The lesions of COVID-19 pneumonia distributed mainly in the back-lung segments, which characteristic may light new ideas in clinical treatment and nursing strategy.
32676824 We observed moderately decreased respiratory system compliance: 39.5 [33.1-44.7] mL/cmH2O and end-expiratory lung volume: 2100 [1721-2434] mL.
32676976 After 2-week treatment, adverse events, time to fever resolution, ARDS development, and lung injury on newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients were assessed.
32677384 A three-dimensional slicer was used to precisely quantify the volume and CT value of the lung and lesions.
32677459 In addition, pulmonary microvascular thrombosis has been reported and may play a role in progressive lung failure.
32677909 On admission, chest computed tomography showed multiple ground-glass opacities in right lower lung field. […] After 18 days of treatment, he was discharged with improved symptoms, lung lesions and negative results of nasopharyngeal swab.
32677909 On admission, chest computed tomography showed multiple ground-glass opacities in right lower lung field. […] After 18 days of treatment, he was discharged with improved symptoms, lung lesions and negative results of nasopharyngeal swab.
32677909 On admission, chest computed tomography showed multiple ground-glass opacities in right lower lung field. […] After 18 days of treatment, he was discharged with improved symptoms, lung lesions and negative results of nasopharyngeal swab.
32677909 On admission, chest computed tomography showed multiple ground-glass opacities in right lower lung field. […] After 18 days of treatment, he was discharged with improved symptoms, lung lesions and negative results of nasopharyngeal swab.
32677909 On admission, chest computed tomography showed multiple ground-glass opacities in right lower lung field. […] After 18 days of treatment, he was discharged with improved symptoms, lung lesions and negative results of nasopharyngeal swab.
32677909 On admission, chest computed tomography showed multiple ground-glass opacities in right lower lung field. […] After 18 days of treatment, he was discharged with improved symptoms, lung lesions and negative results of nasopharyngeal swab.
32677909 On admission, chest computed tomography showed multiple ground-glass opacities in right lower lung field. […] After 18 days of treatment, he was discharged with improved symptoms, lung lesions and negative results of nasopharyngeal swab.
32677909 On admission, chest computed tomography showed multiple ground-glass opacities in right lower lung field. […] After 18 days of treatment, he was discharged with improved symptoms, lung lesions and negative results of nasopharyngeal swab.
32678017 We note that the intravenous infusion of CP and MSCs for the treatment of severe COVID-19 patients may have synergistic characteristics in inhibiting cytokine storm, promoting the repair of lung injury, and recovering pulmonary function.
32678530 Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with diffuse lung damage. […] Glucocorticoids may modulate inflammation-mediated lung injury and thereby reduce progression to respiratory failure and death.
32679148 Cytokine storm is among the most critical pathological events in patients affected with coronaviruses (CoVs), i.e., severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and COVID-19, causing inflammation-induced lung injury and also occurring as a result of dysregulation of immune responses to the mentioned viruses. […] IL-6, along with some other inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1 beta (β), IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), as well as inflammatory chemokines, can significantly contribute to, fever, lymphopenia, coagulation, lung injury, and multi-organ failure (MOF).
32679589 COVID-19 has high transmissibility and could result in acute lung injury in a fraction of patients.
32680838 We believe combining swab testing with real-time lung ultrasound (LUS) would improve the ability to rule-in COVID-19 infection in those requiring screening.
32680957 In addition to macrophages, lung cells express RAS components; also, some lung cells are able to produce IL-6.
32681986 Interventions that are protective against acute lung injury and ARDS can play a critical role for patients and health systems during this pandemic.
32682658 Significant differences between children and adults were found in exposure history (p < 0.001, χ2 = 166.890), fever (p = 0.016, χ2 = 5.757), white cell count (p < 0.001, χ2 = 14.043), and CT features in the initial (p < 0.001, χ2 = 60.653) and follow-up stages (p < 0.001, χ2 = 52.924); and the involved lung in the follow-up stage (p < 0.001, χ2 = 16.776).
32683320 Statins, with their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, and anti-oxidant properties, have the potential to reduce severity of lung injury in, and mortality from, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infections. […] Statin-induced upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) has the potential to reduce lung injury from excess angiotensin II.
32683343 Chest computed tomography scans showed bilateral lung involvement, and ground-glass opacity was more likely observed in the confirmed patients.
32683550 In this retrospective study, an AI system was developed to automatically segment and quantify the COVID-19-infected lung regions on thick-section chest CT images. […] The automatically segmented lung abnormalities were compared with manual segmentation of two experienced radiologists using the Dice coefficient on a randomly selected subset (30 CT scans). […] The dice coefficient between the segmentation of the AI system and two experienced radiologists for the COVID-19-infected lung abnormalities was 0.74 ± 0.28 and 0.76 ± 0.29, respectively, which were close to the inter-observer agreement (0.79 ± 0.25). […] A deep learning-based AI system built on the thick-section CT imaging can accurately quantify the COVID-19-associated lung abnormalities and assess the disease severity and its progressions. […] • A deep learning-based AI system was able to accurately segment the infected lung regions by COVID-19 using the thick-section CT scans (Dice coefficient ≥ 0.74).
32683882 The study was performed on patients with real-time polymerase chain reaction and computed tomography lung diagnosis.
32684080 SARS-CoV-2 can activate monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, mast cells, neutrophils, and induce cytokine storm in the lung.
32684109 The spike glycoprotein binds to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (hACE2) cell surface receptor abundantly expressed in lung tissues, and this binding phenomenon is a primary determinant of cell tropism and pathogenesis.
32684209 A total of 33 TCM syndromes of COVID-19 were sorted out by combining the TCM syndromes with the same disease position and pathogenic syndrome in the included 18 literatures, and there were 10 types of TCM syndromes of which the number of occurrences was ≥ 50, the incidence rate was ≥ 10%, and had statistical significance [indicated that 95% confidence interval (95%CI) didn’t cross the meaningless line 0], including cold dampness syndrome (469 cases, incidence rate was 28.2%, 95%CI was 5.9%-50.6%), damp heat syndrome (247 cases, incidence rate was 32.1%, 95%CI was 10.7%-53.6%), epidemic closed lung syndrome (228 cases, incidence rate was 28.9%, 95%CI was 12.5%-45.2%), pulmonary and spleen Qi deficiency syndrome (202 cases, incidence rate was 22.1%, 95%CI was 9.5%-34.7%), dampness stagnation lung syndrome (180 cases, incidence rate was 41.2%, 95%CI was 18.4%-64.1%), dampness obstructing lung and spleen syndrome (81 cases, incidence rate was 56.3%, 95%CI was 48.1%-64.4%), evil heat syndrome lung syndrome (76 cases, incidence rate was 31.1%, 95%CI was 25.3%-36.9%), dampness-blocking lung and stomach syndrome (70 cases, incidence rate was 13.4%, 95%CI was 10.4%-16.3%), heat poisoning lung closure syndrome (55 cases, incidence rate was 16.9%, 95%CI was 8.3%-25.5%), and Qi-Yin deficiency syndrome (53 cases, incidence rate was 13.7%, 95%CI was 2.7%-24.8%). […] Subgroup analysis showed that there were 6 types of TCM syndromes that met the above conditions in cross-sectional studies, namely cold and damp lung syndrome (200 cases, incidence rate was 20.9%, 95%CI was 12.6%-29.2%), damp heat syndrome (221 cases, incidence rate was 41.8%, 95%CI was 9.4%-74.2%), dampness-disease lung syndrome (120 cases, incidence rate was 41.4%, 95%CI was 8.6%-74.3%), lung and spleen Qi deficiency syndrome (115 cases, incidence rate was 19.2%, 95%CI was 6.8%-31.7%), heat-fever lung syndrome (76 cases, incidence rate was 31.1%, 95%CI was 25.3%-36.9%) and Qi-Yin deficiency syndrome (53 cases, incidence rate was 13.7%, 95%CI was 2.7%-24.8%). […] There were 3 kinds of TCM syndromes in case series studies, which were virus closed lung syndrome (133 cases, incidence rate was 44.0%, 95%CI was 24.5%-63.4%), lung and spleen Qi deficiency syndrome (87 cases, incidence rate was 38.7%, 95%CI was 32.3%-45.0%), and dampness and depression lung syndrome (60 cases, incidence rate was 40.6%, 95%CI was 29.3%-52.0%). […] The main TCM syndromes were cold dampness syndrome, damp heat syndrome, epidemic closed lung syndrome, pulmonary and spleen Qi deficiency syndrome, dampness stagnation lung syndrome, dampness obstructing lung and spleen syndrome, evil heat syndrome lung syndrome, dampness-blocking lung and stomach syndrome, heat poisoning lung closure syndrome, Qi-Yin deficiency syndrome, which can provide reference for the standard of TCM syndrome differentiation of COVID-19.
32684301 Two observers scored the pattern and extent of lung parenchymal disease including potential fibrotic features, as well as lymph node enlargement and pleural effusions.
32685049 A 65-year-old female patient with sarcoidosis, cronic obstructive lung disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure presented to the emergency department with shortness of breath and fever.
32685326 There was no history of smoking, emphysema, or chronic lung diseases.
32685436 This, combined with its tropism for endothelium and lung structures, may explain its association with thrombotic events, reduction of pulmonary gas exchange, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and a composite end-point (intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, death).
32685883 There appear to be high rates of venous thromboembolism and also, what has been poorly described before in acute lung injury, a high rate of pulmonary immunothrombosis (thrombosis secondary to inflammation).
32686219 In preclinical models, senolytics delay, prevent or alleviate frailty, cancers and cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, liver, kidney, musculoskeletal, lung, eye, haematological, metabolic and skin disorders as well as complications of organ transplantation, radiation and cancer treatment.
32686373 This disease, which is quickly spreading worldwide, has high potential for infection and causes rapid progression of lung lesions, resulting in a high mortality rate. […] The lower mortality rate in SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with previous Middle East respiratory syndrome and SARS-CoV infections is thought to be associated with a low incidence of dysfunction in organs other than the lungs.
32687449 Clinicopathologic reports have demonstrated associations between severe COVID-19 and viral coagulopathy, resulting in pulmonary embolism; venous, arterial, and microvascular thrombosis; lung endothelial injury; and associated thrombotic complications leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome.
32687823 Patients were cannulated at bedside and were managed with protective lung ventilation, early tracheostomy, bronchoscopies, and proning, as clinically indicated.
32687919 Using an ASL 5000 Lung Simulator, we obtained flow, pressure, and volume waveforms at different lung compliances. […] At a static lung compliance of 50 mL/cm H2O and an airway resistance of 6 cm H2O/L/s, ventilated at a PIP and PEEP of 16 and 5 cm H2O, respectively, tidal volumes of approximately 540 mL were achieved. […] At a static lung compliance of 20 mL/cm H2O and an airway resistance of 6 cm H2O/L/s, ventilated at a PIP and PEEP of 38 and 15 cm H2O, respectively, tidal volumes of approximately 495 mL were achieved.
32688107 Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of severe COVID-19 associated with age(OR 1.59, 95 %CI 1.13-2.08), SOFA score(OR 5.89, 95 %CI 3.48-7.96), APACHEⅡ score(OR 3.13, 95 %CI 1.85-5.62), platelet count<125 × 109/L(OR 2.36, 95 %CI 1.03-4.14), d-dimer (OR 4.37, 95 %CI 2.58-7.16), creatinine>133 μmol/L(OR 1.85, 95 %CI 1.12-3.04), interleukin-6(OR 4.32, 95 %CI 2.07-7.13), and lung consolidation(OR 1.94, 95 %CI 1.45-4.27) on admission.
32688346 Compared to the non-ICU group, the incidence of pulmonary consolidation and ground-glass opacity with consolidation was significantly higher in the ICU group, all lung lobes were more likely to be involved, with higher number of lung lobes and areas surrounding the bronchi. […] All intubated patients involved lung lobes, and a large number of lesions were observed in the area around the bronchial vessels.
32689643 ACE2 is expressed in several tissues including lung alveolar cells, gastrointestinal tissue, and brain.
32690628 A prime/boost regimen induced potent T cell responses in mice including antigen-specific responses in the lung and spleen.
32690988 Respiratory manifestations from the induced acute lung injury were the most common reported findings.
32690998 Several cases have recently been reported concerning the development of a syndrome of acute lung injury associated with the use of electronic cigarettes, leading to respiratory failure and several deaths. […] We present a case of a young veteran who presented with e-cigarette vaping associated lung injury (EVALI) to a primary care clinic and who required subsequent inpatient admission and home oxygen therapy after discharge.
32691007 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is associated with higher concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines that lead to lung damage, respiratory failure, and resultant increased mortality.
32691641 This study aimed to present the prevalence of overall and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in pregnant women admitted to the hospital, and assess the diagnostic accuracy of maternal symptoms and lung ultrasound (LUS) findings in detecting the infection. […] Using lung ultrasound was found more predictive in detecting the infection than the use of symptomatology solely.
32692000 Complementary test findings that were directly associated with outcomes were bilateral lung infiltrates, lymphopenia, a high platelet count, a D-dimer concentration over 500 mg/dL, and a lactate-dehydrogenase concentration over 250 IU/L in blood.
32692176 Elimination of elastase-related neutrophil proteases may reduce the progression of lung injury in these patients.
32692230 The patients in critically severe group had longer duration from symptom to confirmation, more severe infections, more severe lung injury, and a lower percentage of lymphocytes.
32692769 Lung ultrasound is well suited to this interstitial, subpleural involvement, and it is now broadly used in intensive care units (ICUs). […] The extension and severity of lung infiltrates can be described numerically with a reproducible and validated lung ultrasound score (LUSS). […] LUSS helped with the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), showing an increased score and the presence of new lung consolidations in all 5 patients with VAPs. […] There was also a good agreement between CT-scans and LUSS as for the presence of lung consolidations.
32692815 Unilateral lung involvement (55%) was frequent when compared with bilateral and ground-glass opacities were the most frequent (40%) definitive radiological findings. […] Interstitial infiltration being the most frequent lung ultrasound finding.
32692862 The most common malignancies were lymphoid (17.8%), gastrointestinal (15.6%), lung (13.3%), and genitourinary (13.3%).
32692945 Results: Compared with the abnormalities found on the the last CT scans before discharge, the abnormalities in the lungs at the first and second follow-ups after discharge had been gradually absorbed. […] The lung lesions of 25.5% patients were shown to be fully absorbed on the first CT scans after discharge, and the rate of lung recovery increased to 64.7% after the second follow-up. […] The lung damage was fully absorbed in 55.6% of discharged patients with recurrence of positive test results for SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid.Conclusions: The lung damage due to COVID-19 could be reversible for patients with common COVID-19.
32693241 Exaggerated inflammatory responses are thought to be more responsible for infiltrated immune cells accumulation, organ damage especially lung, dyspnea, and respiratory failure rather than direct effect of viral replication.
32693650 Lung changes improved in 21 (84%) patients within two weeks of treatment; 19 had minimal or no changes upon final examination.
32694127 Understanding the “gut-lung axes,” where gut microbiome composition influences the lung’s susceptibility to viral infections and viral infections of the lung alter gut microbiome composition toward proinflammatory functional dysbiosis, will be critical in addressing COVID-19, including disease progression, the importance of preexisting conditions, and the risk for developing complications.
32694244 This combination was used to abate the surge of inflammatory mediators leading to the lung damage.
32694498 Comprehensive workup uncovered coagulopathy with multiple thrombotic events involving the brain and lungs as well as radiographic evidence of severe lung disease.
32695025 We dissect the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 in human lung host from the initial phase of receptor binding to viral replication machinery. […] Two independent lung protein interactome were constructed to reveal the signaling process on receptor activation and host protein hijacking machinery in the pathogenesis of virus.
32695683 Analysis of the reported results from clinical trials clearly show an involvement of specific cellular immunity (predominantly leucopenia, decreased counts of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocytes, changes of T cell compartment) and the so-called cytokine storm, which is associated with worsening of symptoms and the promotion of lung damage.
32695804 Following the administration of the CT as per preferred route, these play pivotal role in modifying the microenvironment of the lung tissue with their distinct sets of mechanism. […] Evidences have shown how their immunomodulatory action repairs and prevents lung injury which in turn improvise the compliance of lungs.
32696008 Initial ventilator parameters were positive end-expiratory pressure 14 cm H2o and target plateau pressure 29 cm H2o to maximize lung recruitment.
32696116 To evaluate the prevalence and features of lung apical findings on neck and cervical spine CTs performed in patients with COVID-19. […] The lung apices included in the field of view on these CT scans were reviewed for the presence of findings suspicious for COVID-19 pneumonia, including ground-glass opacities, consolidation, or crazy-paving pattern. […] Of this group, 17 (50%) had unknown COVID-19 status at the time of neck or spine imaging and 10 (59%) of their CT studies had findings in the lung apices consistent with COVID-19 pneumonia. […] Lung apical findings on cervical spine or neck CTs consistent with COVID-19 infection are common and may be encountered on neuroimaging performed for non-respiratory indications.
32696396 Cases of 10 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients of moderate type with obvious opacity in the lung were included.
32696426 Most deaths are due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), as a result of an excessive immune response and a cytokine storm elicited by severe SARS-CoV-2 lung infection, rather than by a direct cytopathic effect of the virus.
32696759 Currently COVID-19 is highly contagious and harmful to people, and easy to cause irreversible lung damage.
32696812 Of 78 cases, the CT scans of 48 (61.5%) showed lung opacities. […] Rounded lung opacities were observed most frequently (70.8%).
32696884 This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of lung computed tomography (CT) of four integrated Chinese and Western medicines in the treatment of COVID-19 using network meta-analysis (NMA).
32697482 At each positive end-expiratory pressure level, we assessed arterial blood gases, respiratory mechanics, ventilation inhomogeneity, and potential for lung recruitment by electrical impedance tomography. […] Potential for lung recruitment was assessed by the recently described recruitment to inflation ratio. […] The ventilation-perfusion mismatch was elevated (median, 34% [32-45%] of lung units) and, in six out of seven patients, ventilated nonperfused units represented a much larger proportion than perfused nonventilated ones. […] In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome from coronavirus disease 2019, potential for lung recruitment presents large variability, while elevated dead space fraction may be a specific pathophysiological trait.
32697943 COVID-19 can result in severe lung injury. […] Monocytes and macrophages are the most enriched immune cell types in the lungs of COVID-19 patients and appear to have a central role in the pathogenicity of the disease.
32698190 Here we show that engineered expression of TMPRSS2, a cellular protease that activates SARS-CoV-2 for entry into lung cells4, renders SARS-CoV-2 infection of Vero cells insensitive to chloroquine. […] Moreover, we report that chloroquine does not block infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the TMPRSS2-expressing human lung cell line Calu-3. […] These results indicate that chloroquine targets a pathway for viral activation that is not active in lung cells and is unlikely to protect against the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in and between patients.
32698440 In addition to these pathways, lung fibrosis, keratinization/cornification, rheumatoid arthritis, and negative regulation of interferon-gamma production pathways were also significantly upregulated.
32698441 In situ hybridization in the lungs identified viral RNA in bronchial epithelium, alveolar epithelial cells type I and II, and macrophages. […] In contrast, we observed rapid lung recovery at day 14 after infection only in young hamsters.
32698853 Trials in patients with acute lung injury and related conditions found inhaled UFH reduced pulmonary dead space, coagulation activation, microvascular thrombosis and clinical deterioration, resulting in increased time free of ventilatory support.
32698898 Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been reported to be promising treatments for lung diseases.
32698948 DetectED-X repurposed its platform to educate physicians around the world on the appearances of COVID-19 on Lung Computed Tomography scans, introducing CovED to clinicians worldwide free of charge as a multi-national consortium of collaboration to help fight COVID-19, showing how research-based evidence can create effective and scalable change globally.
32699094 This virus infects airway and lung cells causing fever, dry cough, and shortness of breath. […] Severe cases of COVID-19 can result in lung damage, low blood oxygen levels, and even death.
32699160 Indeed, patients with severe COVID-19 show prominent complement activation in their lung, skin, and sera, and those individuals who were treated with complement inhibitors all recovered with no adverse reactions.
32700223 After recovery, patients remain at risk for lung disease, heart disease, frailty, and mental health disorders.
32700269 This paper discusses about the role of machine learning techniques for getting important insights like whether lung computed tomography (CT) scan should be the first screening/alternative test for real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), is COVID-19 pneumonia different from other viral pneumonia and if yes how to distinguish it using lung CT scan images from the carefully selected data of lung CT scan COVID-19-infected patients from the hospitals of Italy, China, Moscow and India?
32701240 Patients of critical type more frequently have bacterial infection with more serious inflammatory reactions, severer heart, lung and kidney damages, and much higher levels of DD and LDH than those of the common type.
32701249 Lung infiltrates were visible in X-ray radiographs in most infected animals. […] Viral RNA was consistently detected in lung tissues from infected animals at 3, 5, and 7 dpi, along with alterations in related parameters from routine blood tests and serum biochemistry, including increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). […] Histological analysis of lung tissues from animals at 3 dpi (adult group) and 7 dpi (old group) showed thickened alveolar septa and interstitial hemorrhage.
32701913 The multidisciplinary assessment comprises a complete physical examination, respiratory evaluation (peripheral oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, dyspnoea assessment, lung ultrasound and pulmonary function), cardiovascular assessment (electrocardiography, echocardiography), nutritional assessment (anthropometrics, mini Nutritional Assessment screening tool), neurological examination including cognitive tests, and mental health assessment.
32701934 If uncorrected, phenotypic conversion can induce a rapid downward spiral towards progressive lung injury, vasoplegia, and pulmonary shrinkage, risking ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) known as the “VILI vortex”. […] No cases of in-hospital phenotypic conversion have been reported, while ventilation strategies in these patients differ from the lung-protective approaches seen in classic ARDS. […] Further research into monitoring lung dynamics, modifying ventilation strategies, and understanding response to various modes of ventilation in CARDS are required to mitigate these adverse outcomes.
32702087 Imaging of the heart, lung, and kidneys will include multiparametric, stress perfusion, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography coronary angiography.
32702310 In this national population-based modelling study, we used linked English National Health Service (NHS) cancer registration and hospital administrative datasets for patients aged 15-84 years, diagnosed with breast, colorectal, and oesophageal cancer between Jan 1, 2010, and Dec 31, 2010, with follow-up data until Dec 31, 2014, and diagnosed with lung cancer between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2012, with follow-up data until Dec 31, 2015. […] We collected data for 32 583 patients with breast cancer, 24 975 with colorectal cancer, 6744 with oesophageal cancer, and 29 305 with lung cancer. […] For colorectal cancer, we estimate 1445 (1392-1591) to 1563 (1534-1592) additional deaths, a 15·3-16·6% increase; for lung cancer, 1235 (1220-1254) to 1372 (1343-1401) additional deaths, a 4·8-5·3% increase; and for oesophageal cancer, 330 (324-335) to 342 (336-348) additional deaths, 5·8-6·0% increase up to 5 years after diagnosis.
32702940 Although computed tomography remains the gold standard for diagnosing lung diseases, its usefulness for infected, critically ill patients has been largely limited during the pandemic. […] Reports from those countries in which the healthcare systems were most seriously overloaded with patients with COVID-19-induced pneumonia stress the key role of point-of-care lung ultrasound performed by clinicians first during preliminary diagnostics and then while monitoring disease dynamics. […] This consensus, worked out by an interdisciplinary team of specialists forming the Study Group for Point-of-Care Lung Ultrasound in the Intensive Care Management of COVID-19 Patients, presents a broad spectrum of aspects regarding the analysed issue.
32703421 Our results show that four variants (rs464397, rs469390, rs2070788 and rs383510) affect expression of TMPRSS2 in lung tissue.
32706089 At present, no specific antiviral drug or vaccine is available for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and current research is aimed at preventing and mitigating damage to the target organs, mainly the lungs. […] These properties could help to prevent or mitigate the inflammatory response and hypercoagulability that develop with SARS-CoV-2 infection, decreasing multi-organ dysfunction manifesting primarily as acute lung injury.
32706108 Lung damage in the course of this disease often leads to acute hypoxic respiratory failure and may eventually lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). […] The main therapeutic goal is to main-tain gas exchange, mainly oxygenation, at an appropriate level and prevent the intensification of changes in the lung parenchyma.
32706819 The purpose of this study was to describe the temporal evolution of quantitative lung lesion features on chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with common and severe types of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. […] The quantitative CT features of lung lesions were automatically calculated using artificial intelligence algorithms, and the percentages of ground-glass opacity volume (PGV), consolidation volume (PCV) and total lesion volume (PTV) were determined in both lungs.
32707230 However, detailed characterization of the host-virus interplay in infected human lung and intestinal epithelial cells is lacking. […] We utilized immunofluorescence assays, flow cytometry, and RT-qPCR to delineate the virological features and the innate immune response of the host cells against SARS-CoV-2 infection in two prototype human cell lines representing the human lung (Calu3) and intestinal (Caco2) epithelium when compared with SARS-CoV. […] Lung epithelial cells were significantly more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 compared to SARS-CoV. […] Despite robust infection in both human lung and intestinal epithelial cells, SARS-CoV-2 could attenuate the virus-induced pro-inflammatory response and IFN response.
32707264 This pilot study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of low-dose whole-lung radiation therapy in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. […] Participants were treated with whole-lung irradiation in a single fraction of 0.5 Gy plus the national protocol for the management of COVID-19. […] Between May 21, 2020 and June 24, 2020, 5 patients received whole-lung irradiation. […] With a response rate of 80%, whole-lung irradiation in a single fraction of 0.5 Gy had encouraging results in oxygen-dependent patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
32707573 Notably, MDL-28170, ONO 5334 and apilimod were found to antagonize viral replication in human pneumocyte-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, and apilimod also demonstrated antiviral efficacy in a primary human lung explant model.
32707942 Although considered a lung infection since its emergence, COVID-19 is now causing multiple organ failure, requiring a continuous adjustment in the procedures.
32708334 Thrombotic and bleeding or thrombotic pathologies are significant accompaniments to acute respiratory syndrome and lung complications in COVID-19.
32708495 Many of these individuals are complicated by underlying health conditions, such as cardiovascular and lung diseases and undermined immune systems.
32709193 Lung injury with COVID-19 may be due to a complex underlying pathophysiology. […] Cytokine release syndrome appears to be a catalyst of different inflammatory pathways promoting lung parenchymal injury and thromboembolic phenomena (“dual hit” injury). […] Recently, severe neurological manifestations such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, which may be not linked to lung pathology, have been identified in COVID-19, contributing thus further to the versatility of its clinical features.
32709482 These results exceed the threshold set by the Advisory Board of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.
32709733 PET/CT scans decreased by an average of 36%, whereas sentinel lymph-node procedures decreased by 45%, lung scans by 56%, bone scans by 60%, myocardial studies by 66%, and thyroid studies by 67%.
32709838 Her vital signs were normal except for oxygen saturation of 87% and bilateral rhonchi on lung auscultation.
32710250 Except for lung injury, it is possible that COVID-19 patients develop liver injury.
32710297 With this correspondence, we would like to briefly outline a practical perspective about a possible integrative and effective management in spa settings of COVID-19 long-term sequelae, with a keen focus on post-infective lung damage and fibrosis, which is expected to become epidemiologically relevant in the general population. […] In order to outline a standard/baseline model of care, we think that it can be useful to refer to already existing rehabilitative plans with a long-standing tradition in Italy, such as those ones prescribed for work-related respiratory diseases like pneumoconiosis, in which long-term outcomes share some clinical characteristics with post-infective lung fibrosis. […] Such programs include diagnostic procedures (spirometry, ECG, blood tests) and treatments like respiratory physio-kinesiotherapy and postural drainage of the lungs; mechanical pulmonary ventilation for rehabilitative purposes, with or without drugs, along with standard medical and, when required, oxygen therapy; inhalation therapies with mineral waters; physical activity and psychological support.
32710575 Current evidence of ACEI/ARB-ACE2 interaction as well as the effects of ACEIs/ARBs on viral-associated acute lung injury is summarized and discussed in this review.
32711925 Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is largely the result of a dysregulated host response, followed by damage to alveolar cells and lung fibrosis.
32712031 This article seeks to provide emergency physicians with a guide to sonographic findings in COVID-19 and an algorithm by which point-of-care lung ultrasound may assist emergency physicians caring for these patients during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. […] Point-of-care lung ultrasound is rapid and accessible in most emergency departments in the United States, and even in many resource-poor settings.
32712222 Visceral fat (VAT) was significantly higher in patients requiring intensive care (p = 0.032), together with age (p = 0.009), inflammation markers CRP and LDH (p < 0.0001, p = 0.003, respectively), and interstitial pneumonia severity as assessed by a Lung Severity Score (LSS) (p < 0.0001).
32712272 Most outcomes of COVID-19 are associated with dysfunction of the vascular system, particularly in the lung.
32712582 The overall objective of this study is to utilize a computational model of mechanically ventilated lungs to assess how patient-specific lung mechanics and ventilator settings impact lung tidal volume (VT). […] We used this model to evaluate how patient-specific lung compliance and resistance would impact VT under 4 ventilator settings of pressure control level, PEEP, breathing frequency, and inspiratory:expiratory ratio. […] Assigning patients to preset ventilators based on their required level of support on the lower PEEP/higher [Formula: see text] scale of the National Institute of Health’s National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ARDS Clinical Network (ARDSNet), secondary to lung mechanics, could be used to overcome some of the legitimate concerns of placing multiple patients on a single ventilator.
32712702 Maximum standardized uptake values ranged from 4.7 to 16.3 in lungs. […] There was no correlation between PET lung inflammatory status and chest CT evolution or short-term clinical outcome. […] Glucose uptake is heterogeneous and typically focused on lungs.
32713123 SARS-CoV-2 binds to its target cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, which is expressed in a broad variety of tissues including the lung, brain, and kidney.
32713618 Lung point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is a critical tool for evaluating patients with dyspnea in the emergency department (ED), including patients with suspected coronavirus disease (COVID)-19. […] Here, we review the lung POCUS findings in patients with COVID-19. […] In doing so we present a scanning protocol for lung POCUS in COVID-19 that maximizes clinical utility and provider safety. […] In COVID-19 lung, POCUS findings are predominantly located in the posterior and lateral lung zones bilaterally. […] Lung POCUS can offer valuable clinical data when evaluating patients with COVID-19.
32713715 Chest CT is not suitable for critically ill patients with COVID-19 and lung ultrasound (LUS) may play an important role for these patients. […] Our scoring system provides a more quantitative use of LUS findings and accurate evaluation of lung damage for critically ill patients with COVID-19.
32713821 Very few cases of lung transplant patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported to date. […] A 31-year-old patient who underwent bilateral lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis in 2012 was admitted for severe acute lower limb pain.
32714336 However, in some patients, lung infection leads to the activation of alveolar macrophages and lung epithelial cells that will release proinflammatory cytokines. […] IL-6, TNF, and IL-1β increase expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and VEGF, thereby increasing permeability of the lung endothelium and reducing barrier protection, allowing viral dissemination and infiltration of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes. […] In the blood, these cytokines will stimulate the bone marrow to produce and release immature granulocytes, that return to the lung and further increase inflammation, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). […] This lung-systemic loop leads to cytokine storm syndrome (CSS). […] The combination of acute lung injury with RAS-KKS unbalance is herein called COVID-19 Associated Lung Injury (CALI). […] This conservative two-hit model of systemic inflammation due to the lung injury allows new intervention windows and is more consistent with the current knowledge.
32714844 A preterm emergency Caesarean section was performed, after steroid treatment for foetal lung maturation. […] Antenatal steroids may be of benefit for foetal lung maturation but should not delay delivery in severe cases.
32714874 Patients with lung cancer are particularly vulnerable to complications from coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). […] As immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) constitute the therapeutic backbone for the vast majority of patients with advanced lung cancer in the absence of actionable driver oncogenes, there have been intense discussions within the oncology community regarding risk-benefit of delaying these treatments or use of alternative extended-interval treatment strategies to minimize the risk of viral transmission secondary to unintended nosocomial exposures. […] Herein, we summarize the evidence from the in silico pharmacokinetic modeling/simulation studies supporting extended-interval dosing strategies for the ICIs used in lung cancer.
32715628 Severe COVID-19, however, is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome and extensive damage to the alveoli in the lung parenchyma.
32715661 Pre-clinical data support pentoxifylline as effective in cytokine-driven lung damage. […] Clinical studies of pentoxifylline in radiation and cytokine-induced lung damage in humans are positive and consistent with anti-inflammatory efficacy.
32716517 This mathematical modeling study combined the size-distribution of exhaled breath microdroplets for coughing and normal breathing with viral swab and sputum concentrations as approximation for lung lining liquid to obtain an estimate of emitted virus levels.
32716553 Lung tissue sections from patients suffering from lung cancer were used for immunohistochemistry study of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) expression.
32716647 Of the cancer types analyzed, lung, colorectal, and hematologic cancer cohorts exhibited smaller decreases in size in April 2020 versus 2019 (-39.1%, -39.9%, -39.1%, respectively) compared with cohort size decreases for breast cancer, prostate cancer, and melanoma (-47.7%, -49.1%, -51.8%, respectively).
32716893 Studies that investigated the diagnostic roles and imaging features of patients with COVID-19, using either chest CT, lung ultrasound, chest x-ray, or positron emission topography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan, were discussed.
32717417 The main objective of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of early systematic chest computed tomography (CT) with quantification of lung lesions in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. […] Visual quantification was used to classify patients as per the percentage of lung parenchyma affected by COVID-19 lesions: normal CT, 0-10%, 11-25%, 26-50%, 51-75% and >75%. […] Most patients with lung involvement >50% (66/95, 69.5%) developed severe disease compared to patients with lung involvement of 26-50% (70/171, 40.9%) and ≤25% (70/306, 22.9%) (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively).
32718282 This study opens up the possibility to further develop an αMSH targeted theranostic delivery to different clinically relevant applications in IBD inflammation but also opens possibilities for use in other inflammations like lung inflammation in Covid 19.
32718560 This small molecule, which has been evaluated in multiple Phase 1-2 clinical trials for cancer as well as a Phase 3 clinical trial for the treatment of small cell lung cancer called REPLATINUM (NCT03699956), is minimally toxic and demonstrates clear evidence of antitumor activity. […] During the course of these clinical trials it was noted that the rate of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation and pneumonia in actively smoking small cell lung cancer patients treated with RRx-001 is less than 1%. […] Due to extensive history of tobacco use, 40%-70% of patients with lung cancer have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the expected rate of pulmonary infection in this population is 50%-70%, which was not observed in RRx-001 clinical trials. […] The potential pulmonary protective effects of RRx-001 in patients with recurrent lung infections coupled with preclinical models demonstrating RRx-001-mediated reversal of pulmonary hypertension suggests RRx-001 may have therapeutic activity in patients with acute respiratory symptoms due to COVID 19.
32718772 The highly transmissible novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has infected over 8.8 million people globally and has upended the delivery of health care in the United States, creating unprecedented challenges to providing care to patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
32718835 In recent years, a number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated that exposure to air pollution is associated with several adverse outcomes, such as acute lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cardiovascular diseases, and lung cancer among other serious diseases.
32719039 To evaluate the clinical pictures, laboratory tests and imaging of patients with lung involvement, either from severe COVID-19 or macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), in order to assess how similar these two diseases are. […] The present work has been designed as a cross-sectional single-centre study to compare characteristics of patients with lung involvement either from MAS or severe COVID-19. […] Ten patients with MAS and 47 patients with severe COVID-19 with lung involvement were assessed.
  1. Lesions in all lobes of the lung were observed as the main chest CT findings (76%).
32719685 Most of the lung damage is driven by a surge in inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-6, interferon-γ, and granulocyte-monocyte stimulating factor (GM-CSF)]. […] The inhibition of GM-CSF signaling may be beneficial in improving the hyperinflammation-related lung damage in the most severe cases of COVID-19.
32719750 Among her family members, she had the highest viral loads and the fastest progression on lung injury and developed severe pneumonia.
32720223 Lung involvement is the most common serious manifestation of the disease, ranging from asymptomatic disease or mild pneumonia, to severe disease associated with hypoxia, critical disease associated with shock, respiratory failure and multiorgan failure or death.
32720259 Patients who died from COVID-19 were older (median age 78.4 IQR 74.5-83.5) than those who survived COVID-19 (median age 75.1 IQR 69.3-75.8) and more likely to have arterial hypertension (9 [90%] vs 14 [50%] patients; OR 9 (95% CI 1.0-80.8), p 0.049), dyslipidaemia (9 (90%) vs 12 (43%); OR 12 (95% CI 1.33-108), p 0.03), diabetes ((9 (90%) vs 6 (28%) patients; OR 33, p 0.002), interstitial lung disease (6 (60%) vs 6 (21%); OR 5.5 (95% CI 1.16-26), p 0.03), cardiovascular disease (8 (80%) vs 11 (39%); OR 6.18 (95% IC 1.10-34.7, p 0.04) and a moderate/high index of rheumatic disease activity (7 (25%) vs 6(60%); OR 41.4 (4.23-405.23), p 0.04). […] In the multivariate analysis, the following risk factors were associated with mortality: rheumatic disease activity (p = 0.003), dyslipidaemia (p = 0.01), cardiovascular disease (p = 0.02) and interstitial lung disease (p = 0.02). […] Rheumatic disease activity was significantly associated with fever (p = 0.05), interstitial lung disease (p = 0.03), cardiovascular disease (p = 0.03) and dyslipidaemia (p = 0.01).
32720612 Introduction Coronavirus pneumonia not only severely affects the lung tissue but is also associated with systemic autoimmune inflammation, rapid overactivation of cytokines and chemokines known as “cytokine storm”, and a high risk of thrombosis and thromboembolism. […] The study primary endpoint was the aggregate dynamics of patients’ condition as evaluated by an original CCS-COVID scale, which included, in addition to the clinical status, assessments of changes in the inflammation marker, C-reactive protein (CRP); the thrombus formation marker, D-dimer; and the extent of lung injury evaluated by computed tomography (CT). […] Patients had signs of lung injury (53.2 % and 25.6 %), increases in CRP 27 and 19 times, and a more than doubled level of D-dimer (to 1.41 µg/ml and 1.15 µg/ml) in the active therapy and the control groups, respectively. […] The dynamics of lung injury by CT was better in the treatment group but the difference did not reach a statistical significance (р=0.062).
32720761 Lung cancer patients who contract the new coronavirus, appear to have a greater risk for severe COVID-19 illness along with early deterioration and death. […] Establishing updated treatments and care management regulations for lung cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, based on worldwide clinical experience. […] This article reviews the main recommendations described by the American and European Oncology Societies managing lung cancer patients infected by COVID-19. […] In the current pandemic setting, attempts should be made to avoid jeopardizing the prognosis of lung cancer patients, by maintaining current guidelines in oncology practice. […] For other patients, due to the aggressive nature of lung cancer, the guidelines suggest not to delay curative treatments in non-metastatic disease and provide palliative treatment in shortened protocols. […] The present summary of guideline recommendations provides different management strategies for patients with lung cancer.
32720978 In this review, we synthesize the present and future impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the gastrointestinal system and on gastroenterology practice, hypothesizing a potential role of the “gut-lung axis” and perhaps of the gut and lung microbiota into the interindividual differential susceptibility to COVID-19 19 disease.
32722697 This study employed deep-learning convolutional neural networks to stage lung disease severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on portable chest x-ray (CXR) with radiologist score of disease severity as ground truth. […] Three expert chest radiologists scored the left and right lung separately based on the degree of opacity (0-3) and geographic extent (0-4). […] Deep-learning convolutional neural network (CNN) was used to predict lung disease severity scores. […] In conclusion, deep-learning CNN accurately stages disease severity on portable chest x-ray of COVID-19 lung infection. […] This approach may prove useful to stage lung disease severity, prognosticate, and predict treatment response and survival, thereby informing risk management and resource allocation.
32722908 Active viral replication and viral genomes in bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid and nasal swab specimens were assessed by polymerase chain reaction, and histopathological analysis and viral quantification were performed on lung-tissue specimens. […] No viral replication was detectable in the nose of any of the eight animals in the 100-μg dose group by day 2 after challenge, and limited inflammation or detectable viral genome or antigen was noted in lungs of animals in either vaccine group. […] Vaccination of nonhuman primates with mRNA-1273 induced robust SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing activity, rapid protection in the upper and lower airways, and no pathologic changes in the lung.
32722946 Features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents some common points with interstitial lung disease (ILD) both idiopathic and related to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), typically characterized by a chronic progression over time and possibly complicated by acute exacerbation (AE).
32723027 It predominantly affects the lung as well as the kidney.
32723427 All infected mice showed high viral titers in the lungs as well as altered lung histology associated with proteinaceous debris in the alveolar space, interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration, and alveolar septal thickening.
32723449 Early intubation with pre-oxygenation, modified rapid sequence intubation and intubation using a video laryngoscope has been advised as a strategy including lung protective ventilation, prone position ventilation, adequate sedation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
32723452 Key Words: Pneumonia, Lung CT scan, COVID-19, Coronavirus infection.
32723453 Point-of-care (POC) lung ultrasound has already proven to be a reliable tool in diagnosing lung inflammatory processes: the results are immediate and the examination is safe, repeatable, and cheap. […] Early use of POC lung ultrasound could prove invaluable in COVID-19 patients, leading to early correct diagnoses and appropriate management. […] The author suggests a tool that incorporates various aspects in clinical history, POC lung ultrasound findings and hemodynamic parameters for identification and management of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. […] Key Words: COVID-19, Sars CoV-2, Emergency department, Screening, Point-of-care, Lung ultrasound.
32723996 They remained clinically stable with no deterioration of their respiratory symptoms suggesting stability in lung involvement.
32724296 This molecule is released by damaged lung cells and can induce a robust innate immunity response.
32725087 Compared to the Brazilian population, patients hospitalized for SARI-COVID showed a higher proportion of males, elderly individuals and those aged 40 to 59 years, comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and chronic lung diseases), and pregnant/postpartum women. […] Compared to the general population, Brazilians hospitalized for SARI-FLU showed higher prevalence rates of ages 0 to 4 years or over 60 years, white race/color, comorbidities (diabetes, chronic kidney disease, asthma, and other chronic lung diseases), and pregnant/postpartum women.
32725691 Lung infiltration was bilateral (46/52, 88.46%) and multilobe (47/52, 90.38%), and ground-glass opacity (36/37, 97.30%) was the most common pattern in radiological images. […] Moreover, COVID-19 patients with diabetes were prone to be classified as severe or critical cases (46.30%, 25/54) and had complications such as acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and acute kidney injury.
32725833 The system has great potential for lung, heart, and vasculature information, medical staff protection, and resource sharing, can be a valuable tool for treating patients during the pandemic, and can be expected to expand to more specialized fields.
32726005 The meridian of the drug is more into the lung, stomach and spleen, with lung accounting for 22.87%.
32726007 According to the classification of traditional Chinese medicine syndromes of coronavirus disease 2019 by the national competent authority, this study determined that human coronavirus 229 E(HCoV-229 E) was infected in a mouse model of cold and dampness syndrome, so as to build the human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking lung syndrome model. […] Lung tissues were collected the day after the last dose, and the lung index and inhibition rate were calculated. […] The nucleic acid of lung tissue was extracted, and the HCoV-229 E virus load was detected by Real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR. […] Lung tissue protein was extracted, and IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ contents were detected by ELISA. […] High and low-dose Chaiyin Particles significantly reduced the lung index(P<0.01) of mice of human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking the lung syndrome, and the inhibition rates were 61.02% and 55.45%, respectively. […] Compared with the model control group, high and low-dose Chaiyin Particles significantly increased cross blood CD4~+ T lymphocytes, CD8~+T lymphocytes and total B lymphocyte percentage(P<0.05, P<0.01), and reduced IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in lungs(P<0.01). […] Chaiyin Particles has a better effect on the mouse model with human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking the lung syndrome, and could play a role by enhancing immunity, and reducing inflammatory factor expression.
32726146 In 2019, the United States experienced the emergence of the vaping-associated lung injury (VALI) epidemic. […] Vaping is now known to result in the development and progression of severe lung disease in the young and healthy. […] E-cigarette use is associated with a higher risk of developing crippling lung conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which would develop several years from now, increasing the already existent smoking-related burden. […] The role of vaping and virus susceptibility is yet to be determined; however, vaping can increase the virulence and inflammatory potential of several lung pathogens and is also linked to an increased risk of pneumonia. […] E-cigarettes and their modifiable nature are harmful, as the lungs are not designed for the chronic inhalation of e-cigarette vapor.
32726206 Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious lung injury in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32726240 Our primary objective was to determine whether lung ultrasound (LUS) B-lines, when excluding patients with alternative etiologies for B-lines, are more sensitive for the associated diagnosis of COVID-19 than CXR.
32726296 Most patients had bilateral (94.4%) and multifocal (91.0%) lung involvement with peripheral distribution (60.7%). […] We also found that as the time interval between symptoms and CT scan evaluation increased, the predominant pattern changed from GGO to mixed pattern and then to elongated-containing and band-like-opacities-containing pattern; on the other hand, the percentage of lung involvement increased.
32726800 Anti-C5aR1 therapeutic monoclonal antibodies prevented the C5a-mediated recruitment and activation of human myeloid cells, and inhibited acute lung injury in human C5aR1 knock-in mice. […] These results suggest that blockade of the C5a-C5aR1 axis could be used to limit the infiltration of myeloid cells in damaged organs and prevent the excessive lung inflammation and endothelialitis that are associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with COVID-19.
32727175 Chest CT showed bilateral lung involvement in 505 patients (87%).
32727176 Pulmonary imaging of ordinary patients mainly showed unilateral or bilateral multiple infiltrates, while severe and critically ill patients showed diffuse exudation and consolidation of both lungs, and a few patients showed signs of “white lungs”. […] In severe and critically ill patients, diffuse infiltration and consolidation or even “white lung” were present.
32727465 The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between cytokine profiles and lung injury in COVID-19 pneumonia. […] CT severity score and PaO2/FiO2 ratio were used to assess lung injury. 106 patients with 12 COVID-19 without pneumonia and 94 COVID-19 with pneumonia were included. […] Elevation of circulating cytokines was significantly associated with presence of pneumonia in COVID-19 and the severity of lung injury in COVID-19 pneumonia. […] Circulating IL-6 independently predicted the severity of lung injury in COVID-19 pneumonia.
32728692 However, patient should not be placed at an increased risk of dying of lung cancer just to avoid COVID-19. […] If this ‘cancer amnesia’ situation persists, the mortality from lung neoplasms would far exceed that directly associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.
32728901 Chest radiographs in 13 (93%) demonstrated parenchymal lung disease with a predominant perihilar and basilar distribution. […] Pulmonary disease dominated the radiographic features of COVID-19-positive adolescents in their second decade in whom radiographs demonstrated predominantly perihilar and basilar distribution of lung opacities.
32728965 The main characteristics of mechanically ventilated ARDS patients affected with COVID-19, and the adherence to lung-protective ventilation strategies are not well known. […] In this large series, COVID-19 ARDS patients have features similar to other causes of ARDS, compliance with lung-protective ventilation was high, and the risk of 28-day mortality increased with the degree of ARDS severity.
32728966 The relationship between lung ultrasound (LUS) and chest computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia is not clearly defined.
32729028 Mixed GGO and consolidation pattern with peripheral and bilateral distribution, multifocal or diffuse abnormalities localized in both upper lung and lower lung, in association with interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening and air bronchogram, showed higher frequency in COVID-positive patients.
32729248 Further top ACE2 regulators in vivo or in primary cells include erlotinib and bleomycin in the lung and vancomycin, cisplatin, and probenecid in the kidney.
32729548 The functional similarities between COVID-19 and COVID-2 in inducing acute respiratory syndrome lightened our mind to find a diagnostic mechanism based on early traces of mitochondrial ROS overproduction as lung cells’ dysfunctions induced by the virus.
32729811 The evidence review was supplemented by a survey of stakeholders regarding their views on the acceptability, feasibility, impact on equity and resource use of the relevant chest imaging modalities (chest radiography, chest CT and lung ultrasound).
32730210 The framework can efficiently predict whether or not a CT scan contains pneumonia while simultaneously identifying pneumonia types between COVID-19 and Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) caused by other viruses. […] More specifically, one 3D-ResNet branch is trained as a binary classifier using lung images with and without pneumonia so that it can highlight the lesion areas within the lungs.
32730213 Automated detection of lung infections from computed tomography (CT) images offers a great potential to augment the traditional healthcare strategy for tackling COVID-19. […] To address these challenges, a novel COVID-19 Lung Infection Segmentation Deep Network (Inf-Net) is proposed to automatically identify infected regions from chest CT slices.
32730216 We argue that such structural relationships play a critical role in the accurate delineation of pulmonary lobes when the lungs are affected by diseases such as COVID-19 or COPD. […] Experimental results show that RTSU-Net outperforms three baselines and performs robustly on cases with severe lung infection due to COVID-19.
32730380 ECMO (Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation) is an extracorporeal life support system in catastrophic lung failure, shock and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, in different age groups, with multiple physiologic features.
32731284 Radiological and histopathological data on COVID-19 and observational studies after the SARS-CoV-1 pandemic 2003/2004 suggest that in a proportion of COVID-19 patients, functional limitations due to pulmonary fibrosis and other patterns of lung damage may persist.
32731285 When COVID-19 is suspected, lung sonography is a valuable component of initial diagnosis when used systematically, performed hygienically and correctly.
32732280 The resulting mouse-adapted strain at passage 6 (called MASCp6) showed increased infectivity in mouse lung and led to interstitial pneumonia and inflammatory responses in both young and aged mice after intranasal inoculation.
32732294 Among these challenges is the risk of aerosol generation during the traditional apnea testing using the insufflation technique in addition to the risk of complications due to SARS-CoV-2-related lung disease.
32733448 The role of autophagy in non-immune and immune cells both lead to the pathogenesis of lung inflammation. […] Viral-induced lung inflammation, such as that caused by SARS-CoV-2, also may involve autophagic modulation leading to inflammation mediated by lung resident cells. […] In this review, we will be discussing the role of autophagy in non-immune cells, myeloid cells, and lymphoid cells for their implications into lung inflammation and asthma. […] Finally, we will discuss autophagy’s role viral pathogenesis, immunometabolism, and asthma with insights into autophagic modulators for amelioration of lung inflammation.
32733706 Among COVID-19 patients with abnormal chest CT findings, 80% (3952/4940) had bilateral lung involvement. […] Frequent involvement of bilateral lung infections, ground-glass opacities, consolidation, crazy paving pattern, air bronchogram signs, and intralobular septal thickening were common CT imaging features of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
32733785 The expression level of hACE2 protein was determined to be high in hearts, kidneys, and brains of dTg mice, whereas lung, liver, and testis tissues expressed low levels.
32733907 All the patients had fever, required non-invasive oxygen therapy and presented a CT lung involvement on imaging more than 50%. […] These results also stress the importance of the gut-lung axis in controlling the COVID-19 disease.
32733980 Prevalence of comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, chronic kidney disease, malignancies, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic liver disease and smoking were extracted to measure the pooled estimates.
32734876 A post-mortem CT disclosed ground-glass opacities with focal consolidation in both lungs. […] At autopsy, the lungs were dark and heavy with increased consistency and without pleural fibrin. […] Microscopy of lung tissue showed diffuse alveolar damage with hyaline membranes, sparse chronic interstitial inflammation and foci of bronchopneumonia.
32735163 The median lung ‘total severity score’ of chest CT was 6.
32735170 Amid efforts to care for the large number of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19), there has been considerable speculation about whether the lung injury seen in these patients is different than acute respiratory distress syndrome from other causes. […] One idea that has garnered considerable attention, particularly on social media and in free open-access medicine, is the notion that lung injury due to COVID-19 is more similar to high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). […] Despite some similarities in clinical features between the two entities, such as hypoxemia, radiographic opacities, and altered lung compliance, the pathophysiological mechanisms of HAPE and lung injury due to COVID-19 are fundamentally different, and the entities cannot be viewed as equivalent.
32735457 Further imaging and pathological investigations confirm that the COVID-19 syndrome is explained by perfusion disturbances first in the lung, but consecutively in all organs of the body.
32735524 In an attempt of conceptualizing the reasons for a so dramatic situation, four key elements have been identified: COVID-19 itself, old age, lung disease, and heart failure.
32735883 Higher USP13 levels were correlated with improved survival in breast and lung cancers, while resulting in poor prognosis in ovarian and gastric cancers. […] Furthermore, copy number variations of USP13 significantly affected the infiltration levels of distinct subtypes of immune cells in head & neck, lung, ovarian and stomach cancers. […] Although our results suggested a tumor suppressor role for USP13 in lung cancer, in other cancers, its role seemed to be context-dependent.
32735889 The etiology of susceptibility to severe lung injury remains unclear. […] Angiotensin II, converted by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) from angiotensin I and metabolized by ACE 2 (ACE2), plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of lung injury. […] Considering that the ACE insertion (I)/deletion (D) gene polymorphism contributes to the ACE level variability in general population, in which mean ACE level in DD carriers is approximately twice that in II carriers, we propose a hypothesis of genetic predisposition to severe lung injury in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. […] It is plausible that the ACE inhibitors and ACE receptor blockers may have the potential to prevent and to treat the acute lung injury after SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially for those with the ACE genotype associated with high ACE level.
32735892 Overall, lung involvement and RDS could be generated by the activation and down regulation of diverse gene pathway involving respiratory cilia and muscle contraction, apoptotic phenomena, matrix destructuration, collagen deposition, neutrophil and macrophages recruitment.
32736307 Downregulation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas1R axis leaves the lung without a critical defense mechanism and turns the scale to the inflammatory side of the RAS. […] The result is a hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable state producing acute immune-mediated lung injury and eventually, adult respiratory distress syndrome.
32736468 Surgical treatment of lung cancer in the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic poses new challenges to ensure the perioperative safety of patients. […] In the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic within two months (March-April 2020) 138 patients underwent surgical treatment for malignant tumors, including 22 videothoracoscopic operations: 3 (13.6%) segmentectomies, 16 (72.7%) lobectomies, and 5 (22.7%) bilobectomies for non-small cell lung cancer. […] Following the principles that ensure the prevention of infection and the prevention of severe COVID-19, we managed to avoid the first stage of the pandemic (March-April 2020) cases of infection with a new coronavirus infection in patients who underwent surgical treatment for lung cancer.
32736832 As ACE2 is known to protect the lung from injuries, SARS-CoV-2-induced ACE2 deficiency may expose patients to lung damage. […] Therefore, a combination of AT1R antagonists and vitamin D may offer protection against COVID-19 induced lung injury.
32737043 In most cases, the opacities are predominantly in the peripheral and lower lung zones, and several have rounded morphology.
32737190 Lung cancer predictive biomarker testing is essential to select advanced-stage patients for targeted treatments and should be carried out without delays even during health emergencies, such as the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. […] The workload of molecular testing for patients with advanced-stage lung cancer during the lockdown showed little variations.
32740890 It primarily affects the respiratory tract and lungs in some cases causing severe organ damage and pneumonia due to overwhelming immune responses. […] Results from clinical trials are encouraging as patients treated with MSCs, regain lung functions and have restored levels of cytokines and trophic factors underscoring the fact that stem cell therapy can be, at least, a complementary therapy to alleviate sufferings in COVID-19 patients.
32741802 Moreover, the total CT score and the sum of lung involvement were determined for every CT scan.
32742314 Proper recommendations have been proposed for a wide range of respiratory disorders including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and interstitial lung diseases, regarding the continuation or not of the treatment during this period and ways to maintain stability.
32742475 In this study, by exploring the TCGA and GTEx public databases, we investigated ACE2 expression and its association with prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most susceptible caner type. […] We found that lung was one of the major organs with highly expressed ACE2. […] Furthermore, ACE2 expression was significantly elevated in lung adenocarcioma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) compared to normal tissues. […] Taken together, we observed ACE2 was highly expressed in LUAD and LUSC despite the controversial role of ACE2 expression in predicting prognosis in these two common lung cancer types.
32742564 Mesenchymal stromal cells, endothelial progenitor cells, peripheral blood stem cells, and lung progenitor cells have been applied to clinical trials. […] In this review, we systematically summarize the global trends for the cell therapy of common airway and lung diseases registered for clinical trials.
32743882 The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of COVID-19 and the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak on the personal hygiene and expectations in heart and lung transplant recipients. […] A telephone survey of heart (n = 69) and lung (n = 41) transplant patients and a group of controls (n = 41) was conducted concerning personal hygiene before and after the outbreak; the impact on subjective expectations regarding graft outcome; symptoms possibly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection; and diagnosis of COVID-19. […] A higher percentage of Lung transplant (LTX) were convinced that SARS-CoV-2 could have a negative impact on the outcome of their graft. 28% declared that they were afraid to come to the hospital for routine examinations and asked to postpone. […] In our study, we observed a low incidence of COVID-19 in heart and lung transplant patients (0.9%), similar to that of the general population of our Region.
32743901 We report the complex clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient on maintenance dialysis who presented with fever and lung edema.
32744052 In these patients the lungs are the most critical target organ as it can present an increase in the degradation products of fibrin, fibrinogen and D-dimer, with organ lesions and respiratory failure. […] All these events are supported by the large increase in neutrophils that adhere to the lung and the decrease in lymphocytes.
32744707 In pediatric SARS-CoV-19 effusions are frequent but easily unnoticed unless lung and echo POCUS are performed.
32744714 Overall, 53 patients had lung disease confirmed at CT scan (60.9%).
32745895 Lung volume involvement was significantly higher in critically ill patients (38.5 % vs. […] A cut-off of 23.0 % of lung involvement showed 96 % sensitivity and 96 % specificity in distinguishing critically ill patients from patients with less severe disease. […] The fraction of involved lung was related to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, PaO2/FIO2 ratio and SaO2 (p < 0.05). […] Lung disease extension, assessed using quantitative CT, has a significant relationship with clinical severity and may predict the need for invasive ventilation in patients with COVID-19.
32746195 Recent works highlighted the significant potential of lung ultrasound (LUS) imaging in the management of subjects affected by COVID-19.
32746805 In most patients, lung lesions can disappear around 4 weeks after discharge.
32747391 The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has elicited a swift response by the scientific community to elucidate the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced lung injury and develop effective therapeutics.
32747425 In a mouse model of MERS-CoV infection, administration of a lead compound 1 day after virus infection increased survival from 0 to 100% and reduced lung viral titers and lung histopathology.
32747912 The infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on the lung tissue which was obtained during autopsy. […] The histopathological examination of the lung revealed a process of productive proliferation, proteinaceous and fibrin-macrophagic interalveolar spaces exudate, and lesions consistent with vasculitis.
32748212 For cancer patients, especially those with lung cancers, their immune systems are compromised due to the disease itself as well as the treatment for cancer. […] In this study, through a literature review and data collection, we focus on the selection and consideration of antitumor treatment strategies for advanced lung cancer during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic.
32748568 In unadjusted and adjusted analysis, the factors most associated with ICU admission in this sample were age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.073; 95% CI: 1.033-1.114), BMI (aOR: 1.115; 95% CI: 1.052-1.182), and lung disease (aOR: 3.097; 95% CI: 1.137-8.437).
32748797 No variation of the lung ultrasound pattern before and after prone ventilation has been detected.
32749247 Timely diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary involvement need a comprehensive imaging strategy, which includes standard chest X-ray, chest computed tomography and lung ultrasound (LUS). […] In the last 10 years, LUS has become a useful, bedside and easily reproducible tool for lung examination.
32749530 Lung ultrasound and chest magnetic resonance imaging were rarely utilized.
32749576 Lung ultrasound has become an essential tool for rapid bedside assessment in critically unwell patients, proving helpful in assessment of COVID-19 due to logistics of cross-sectional imaging. […] It is predicted that lung CEUS in COVID-19 may help guide prognosis and management.
32750366 Damage to organs and tissues, including general lung dysfunction, develops as a consequence of ischemia, which, in turn, is caused by thrombosis in small blood vessels and hypoxia, leading to oxidative stress and inflammation.
32750889 It is confused that ACE2 is widely expressed across a variety of organs and is expressed moderately but not highly in lung, which, however, is the major infected organ. […] Here we found that AGTR2 (angiotensin II receptor type 2), a G-protein coupled receptor, has interaction with ACE2 and is highly expressed in lung with a high tissue specificity.
32752010 Although antioxidant therapy has not been tested in corona virus disease-19, the consequences of antioxidant therapy in sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury are known. […] It reduces mechanical ventilation time, the length of stay in the intensive care unit, multiple organ dysfunctions and the length of stay in the hospital and mortality rates in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome and could thus help patients with corona virus disease-19.
32752936 A diffuse inflammation, with acute onset, on the lung tissue accompanied by release of biochemical signal and inflammatory mediators (TNFα, IL-1 and IL-6) leading to hypoxemia, low PaO2/FiO2 ratio and the chest radiological expression of bilateral infiltrates in ARDS.
32753145 The proposed primary culprit of COVID-19 is the intense inflammatory response-an augmented immune response and cytokine storm-severely damaging the lung tissue and rendering some patients’ conditions severe enough to require assisted ventilation.
32754161 These identified molecules may effectively assist in controlling the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 by not only potentially inhibiting the virus at entry step but are also hypothesized to act as anti-inflammatory agents, which could impart relief in lung inflammation.
32754163 Besides, excessive infiltration of pro-inflammatory cells, mainly involving macrophages and T-helper 17 cells, has been found in lung tissues of patients with COVID-19 by postmortem examination.
32754224 The therapeutic benefits of Cold‒Damp Plague Formula (CDPF) against COVID-19, which was used to treat “cold‒dampness stagnation in the lung” in Trial Versions 6 and 7 of the “Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19”, have been demonstrated, but the effective components and their mechanism of action remain unclear.
32754375 From February-April 2020, 14 radiologists retrospectively evaluated a pool of 312 chest X-ray exams to test a new software function for lung imaging analysis based on radiological features and graded on a three-point scale. […] Implementing this tool with scores weighed on the number of lung pathological areas, a useful parameter for clinical monitoring could be available.
32754569 Methods: A total of 37 overseas young and middle-aged people, who tested as SARS-CoV-2 positive upon their return to Shanghai, were enrolled for an analysis of their clinical symptoms, blood routine indexes, and lung CT images. […] The pneumonic changes referred to the latticed ground glass imaging and similar white lung imaging accompanied by consolidated shadows.
32755198 Although chest CT is the standard imaging modality in early diagnosis and management of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the use of lung ultrasound (US) presents some advantages over the use of chest CT and may play a complementary role in the workup of COVID-19. […] Lung US was performed, and the imaging features were analyzed. […] All 28 patients (100.0%, 28/28) had positive lung US findings. […] Typical lung US findings in patients with COVID-19 included B-lines, pulmonary consolidation, and a thickened pleural line. […] In addition, our results indicate that lung US findings can be be used to reflect both the infection duration and disease severity.
32755287 CT manifestation of bilateral lung involvement (OR, 4.55; 95% CI, 2.17 to 9.51) was associated with the severe cases. […] Furthermore, CT manifestation of bilateral lung involvement was associated with the severe cases.
32755393 We show that, in COVID-19, inflammatory microvascular thrombi are present in the lung, kidney, and heart, containing neutrophil extracellular traps associated with platelets and fibrin.
32755395 Levels of MDM2 were increased and those of ACE2 decreased in lung tissues or pulmonary arterial endothelial cells from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and rodent models of experimental PH.
32756114 During the period of novel coronavirus, according to the observation of limited autopsy and biopsy pathological results, pulmonary interstitial fibrosis appeared in some pathological changes of lung. […] Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive interstitial pneumonia with unknown etiology and pathological changes limited to the lung.
32756215 The critically ill status was characterized by worsening dyspnea, progressing bilateral lung consolidation, and poor oxygenation (SiO2/FiO2:110 mm Hg).
32758014 COVID-19 pneumonia is a newly recognized lung infection. […] Nonetheless, radiologists are interpreting lung imaging in unsuspected patients as well as in suspected patients with imaging obtained to rule out other relevant clinical indications. […] We briefly address the known pathological findings of the COVID-19 lung disease that may help better understand the imaging appearance, and we provide a demonstration of novel display methodologies and artificial intelligence applications serving to support clinical observations.
32758155 There were differences in the CT severity score of the right lung in the initial CT, and total CT severity score in the initial and follow-up CT between the moderate group and the severe and critical group (all p < 0.05).
32758871 Our proposed mechanism of lung injury provides an explanation for early hypoxia without reduction in lung compliance and suggests a need for revision of treatment protocols to address vasoconstriction, thromboprophylaxis, and to minimize additional small airways and alveolar trauma via ventilation choice. […] Our model predicts long term sequelae of scarring/fibrosis in vessels, lungs, renal and cardiac tissue with protracted illness in at-risk individuals.
32758889 The rationale for this approach includes commitment to the concept that inflammation is a cause of lung damage in COVID-19 and belief that IL-6 is a pro-inflammatory molecule.
32758897 The development of a hydrosoluble form of ibuprofen can be a strategy to reach a high concentration in the lungs by using modern inhalation devices. […] Therefore, the development of an inhalable formulation with high bioavailability in the lungs was the leitmotiv of our investigation. […] Furthermore, reorganization of the actin filaments is a key step in lung inflammation induced by systemic inflammatory responses caused by SARS-CoV-2.
32758904 Lung injury being the main clinical manifestation, it is likely to cause COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome).
32759311 ACE2 is expressed in numerous tissues especially the lung alveolar epithelial cells, heart, kidney and gastrointestinal tract. […] ACE2 may have a protective effect in the lung and kidney as knockout mice display susceptibility to acute respiratory distress and hypertensive nephropathy.
32759459 We report the case of an elderly female where the sum of such factors - together with massive findings in the computed tomography of the lung - led us to a therapy with hydroxychloroquine as a compassionate use.
32759719 Moreover, obesity is well known to be associated with reduced lung function and poor response to mechanical ventilation, thus placing these individuals at high risk of severe illness and mortality from COVID-19.
32761402 Abdominal pain was the most common indication, provided in 54% (43/80) and 74% (45/61) of patients with and without reported positive abdominopelvic findings, respectively (p = 0.015). 70% (98/141) of patients overall had reported findings in the lung bases.
32761491 Additionally, the patients’ chest computed tomography showed that bilateral lung exudate lesions were adsorbed after MSC infusion.
32762081 In December 2019, the world was introduced to a new betacoronavirus, referred to as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) for its propensity to cause rapidly progressive lung damage, resulting in high death rates.
32762135 This leads to insulin resistance as well as lung and endothelial damage, two severe outcomes of COVID-19.
32762171 ACE2 and CLEC4M are expressed in alimentary system, heart, kidney, lung and placenta.
32762443 Thus, this study aimed to identify tissue biomarkers associated with endothelial activation/dysfunction and the pyroptosis pathway in the lung samples of patients with COVID-19 and to compare them to pandemic influenza A virus H1N1 subtype 2009 and control cases. […] Approach and Results: Postmortem lung samples (COVID-19 group =6 cases; H1N1 group =10 cases, and control group =11 cases) were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and the following monoclonal primary antibodies: anti-IL (interleukin)-6, anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-α, anti-ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1), and anticaspase-1.
32762885 Integrated heart and lung multimodality imaging plays a central role in different clinical settings and is essential in the diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of patients with COVID-19. […] The aims of this review are to summarize imaging-oriented pathophysiological mechanisms of lung and cardiac involvement in COVID-19 and to provide a guide for integrated imaging assessment in these patients.
32763660 COVID-19 due to the SARS-CoV-2 infection is a multi-systemic immune syndrome affecting mainly the lungs, oropharyngeal region, and other vascular endothelial beds. […] Topical ABS as a biological response modifier may lessen SARS-CoV-2 associated microthrombosis, endothelial dysfunction, oropharyngeal inflammation and mucosal lung damage.
32763844 These drugs, through the inhibition of the RhoA/actin-dependent expression of virus receptors in the macrophages and macrophage recruitment to the lungs, have the potential to inhibit cytokine storm of lung macrophages, reduce or eliminate ARDS and improve the outcome of COVID-19 infection.
32764118 Since stimulation of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis protects the endothelial barrier in acute lung injury (ALI), we hypothesised that increased Ang-(1-7)/Mas signalling may protect females over males in ALI/ARDS.Clinical data were collected from Charité inpatients. […] Endothelial permeability was assessed as weight change in isolated lungs and as trans-endothelial electrical resistance in vitroIn 734 090 Charité inpatients (2005-2016), ARDS had a higher incidence in men as compared to women. […] In murine ALI, male WT mice had more lung edema, protein leak, and histological evidence of injury than female WT mice. […] Lung weight change in response to platelet-activating factor (PAF) was more pronounced in male WT and female Mas-/- mice than female WT, whereas Mas receptor expression was higher in female WT lungs. […] In vitro, estrogen increased Mas receptor expression and attenuated endothelial leak in response to thrombin; this effect was alleviated by Mas receptor blockade.Improved lung endothelial barrier function protects female mice from ALI-induced lung edema.
32764454 In general, SARS-CoV-2 causes symptoms ranging from the common cold to severe conditions accompanied by lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome in addition to other organs’ destruction. […] Thus, lung cancer patients are identified as a particularly high-risk group for SARS-CoV-2 infection and its complications. […] Thus, manipulation of key entry genes of this virus especially in lung cancer patients could be one of the best approaches to manage SARS-CoV-2 infection in this group of patients. […] We herein provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the role of ACE-2 and TMPRSS2 genes, as key entry elements as well as therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 infection, which can help to better understand the applications and capacities of various remedial approaches for infected individuals, especially those with lung cancer.
32765283 Yet, dynamic changes in IL-6 levels and their prognostic value as an indicator of lung injury in COVID-19 patients have not been fully elucidated. […] To validate whether IL-6 levels are associated with disease severity and mortality and to investigate whether dynamic changes in IL-6 levels might be a predictive factor for lung injury in COVID-19 patients. […] Increased IL-6 level may be an independent risk factor for disease severity and in-hospital mortality and dynamic IL-6 changes may serve as a potential predictor for lung injury in Chinese COVID-19 patients.
32765748 Potent clinical and laboratory biomarkers should be studied to be able to predict the subgroup of patients that are going to deteriorate or develop lung fibrosis.
32765942 Recent studies suggest a role for the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine rich repeat containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in lung inflammation and fibrosis in SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infections. […] Increased NLRP3/ apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) mRNA expression and increased caspase-1 activity, have been observed in aged lung, provoking increased and heightened expression levels of mature Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 in aged individuals.
32766497 The current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic creates a unique opportunity to incorporate lung POCUS into the evaluation of a broader range of children. […] It has increased the utility of lung POCUS in both evaluation and follow-up of pediatric coronavirus cases. […] An increased use of lung POCUS creates an opportunity for earlier diagnosis while allowing the opportunity for overdiagnosis of small infiltrates and atelectasis. […] We collated a case series to demonstrate the benefit of lung POCUS in a very broad range of children. […] Routine lung POCUS in ill children will allow treating physicians to identify and follow a pulmonary infiltrate consistent with CAP quickly. […] Further study is required to improve the specificity of lung POCUS in the evaluation of CAP.
32766535 Chest computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated to investigate lung manifestations. […] Twelve patients were included; all had fever, cough, and fatigue at presentation, and all had at least one comorbidity (hypertension, six patients; diabetes, five patients; chronic obstructive lung disease, four patients). […] Seven patients received high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy and five received non-invasive mechanical ventilation for lung complications of COVID-19. […] Follow-up CT scans 7 to 10 days after tocilizumab treatment showed improvement of lung manifestations in all patients. […] Tocilizumab administered subcutaneously to patients with COVID-19 and CRS is a promising treatment for reduction in disease activity and improvement in lung function.
32766537 Patients with lung infiltrates and elevated inflammatory markers received a single dose of tocilizumab if no contraindication was present.
32766542 Patchy lesions (21·0%) and ground-glass opacities (32·9%) depicted lung radiograph and computed tomography findings, respectively.
32766567 Analyze the diagnostic test characteristics of point-of-care lung ultrasound for patients suspected to have novel coronavirus disease 2019. […] Emergency department patients receiving lung ultrasound for clinical suspicion of coronavirus disease 2019 during the study period. […] Receiver operating characteristics, area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity with 95% CIs were calculated for five lung ultrasound patterns coded by a blinded reviewer and chest radiograph. […] Two lung ultrasound patterns had a statistically significant area under the curve: symmetric bilateral pulmonary edema (area under the curve, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.50-0.64), and a nondependent bilateral pulmonary edema pattern (edema in superior lung ≥ inferior lung and no pleural effusion; area under the curve, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.68-0.90). […] The strongest combination of clinical, chest radiograph, and lung ultrasound factors for diagnosis was nondependent bilateral pulmonary edema pattern with temperature and oxygen saturation (area under the curve, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.94; sensitivity = 77% [58-93%]; specificity = 76% [53-94%] at the ideal cutoff), which was superior to chest radiograph alone. […] Lung ultrasound diagnosed severe presentations of coronavirus disease 2019 with similar sensitivity to chest radiograph, CT, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (on first testing) and improved specificity compared to chest radiograph. […] Diagnostically useful lung ultrasound patterns differed from those hypothesized by previous, nonanalytical, reports (case series and expert opinion), and should be evaluated in a rigorous prospective study.
32766805 As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact communities worldwide, this novel disease is leaving many survivors with severe lung damage. […] Among older patients, advanced lung damage is more likely. […] Survivors of all ages who have extensive lung impacts are likely to be new to managing those issues. […] Supporting healthy aging for these patients will require both gathering data about their unique experiences and using the existing evidence basis about adapting to managing obstructive lung disease. […] This article outlines key priorities for research with COVID-19 survivors aging with permanent lung damage, and highlights unique considerations for people older at age of onset. […] It also outlines the relevance of findings from this research for clinical care supporting people newly aging with advanced lung disease from COVID-19. […] In the process, it summarizes lessons from established patient populations aging with progressive lung disease-using cystic fibrosis as a prominent example from the author’s lived experience-that may enhance the experiences of older COVID-19 survivors.
32766815 Four hundred eighty-two SOT recipients from >50 transplant centers were included: 318 (66%) kidney or kidney/pancreas, 73 (15.1%) liver, 57 (11.8%) heart, and 30 (6.2%) lung. […] Specific underlying comorbidities (age >65 [aOR 3.0, 95%CI 1.7-5.5, p<0.001], congestive heart failure [aOR 3.2, 95%CI 1.4-7.0, p=0.004], chronic lung disease [aOR 2.5, 95%CI 1.2-5.2, p=0.018], obesity [aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.4, p=0.039]) and presenting findings (lymphopenia [aOR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.5, p=0.033], abnormal chest imaging [aOR 2.9, 95%CI 1.1-7.5, p=0.027]) were independently associated with mortality.
32767018 The PMCT showed bilateral and diffuse crazy-paving lung opacities, with bilateral pleural effusions. […] Post-mortem virology studies detected the presence of SARS-CoV-2 (B.1 lineage) in the nasopharynx, plasma, lung biopsies, pleural effusion and faeces confirming the persistence of viral ribonucleic acid 48 h after death. […] Microscopic examination showed that severe lung damage was responsible for his death. […] This case is one of the first to describe complete post-mortem data for a COVID-19 death and highlights the ability of PMCT to detect severe involvement of the lungs before autopsy in an apparently natural death.
32767203 Cancer patients are at particular risk from COVID-19 since they usually present multiple risk factors for this infection such as older age, immunosuppressed state, comorbidities (e.g., chronic lung disease, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases), need of frequent hospital admissions and visits.
32767259 In this study, we examined the immune cell compositions in the lung tissues and hilar lymph nodes using immunohistochemistry on 6 deceased COVID-19 patients and 4 focal organizing pneumonia (FOP) patients who underwent lung surgery and served as controls. […] We found a dominant presence of macrophages and a general deficiency of T cells and B cells in the lung tissues from deceased COVID-19 patients.
32767262 A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the clinical characteristics, lung CT scan, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test and serum antibodies of hospitalized children with hemato-oncological diseases from January 23 to April 24, 2020. 299 children were enrolled in this study, including 176 males (58.9%) and 123 females (41.1%), aged from 2 months to 16 years. 255 cases (85.3%) received chemotherapy or other immunosuppressive therapies, and there were 44 cases (14.7%) of other benign diseases. […] Lung CT scan was performed on 247 children (82.6%), and 107 of them showed infectious changes.
32767351 The CT imaging features of the patients with different clinical types of COVID-19 types were analyzed, and the volume percentage of pneumonia lesions with respect to the lung lobes (where the lesion was located) and to the whole lung was calculated with the use of AI software. […] CT imaging features: there were 48 patients (94.1%) with lesions distributed in both lungs and 46 patients (90.2%) had lesions most visible in the lower lungs; the primary manifestations in patients with common type COVID-19 were ground-glass opacities (GGOs) (23/34, 67.6%) or mixed type (17/34, 50.0%), with lesions mainly distributed in the periphery of the lungs (28/34, 82.4%); the primary manifestations of patients with severe/critical type COVID-19 were consolidations (13/17, 76.5%) or mixed type (14/17, 82.4%), with lesions distributed in both the peripheral and central areas of lungs (14/17,82.4%); other common signs, including pleural parallel signs, halo signs, vascular thickening signs, crazy-paving signs and air bronchogram signs, were visible in patients with different clinical types, and pleural effusion was found in 5 patients with severe/critical COVID-19. […] AI software was used to calculate the volume percentages of pneumonia lesions with respect to the lung lobes (where the lesion was located) and to the whole lung. […] There were significant differences in the volume percentages of pneumonia lesions for the superior lobe of the left lung, the inferior lobe of the left lung, the superior lobe of the right lung, the inferior lobe of the right lung and the whole lung among patients with different clinical types (p<0.05). […] The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the volume percentage of pneumonia lesions for the whole lung for the diagnosis of severe/critical type COVID-19 was 0.740, with sensitivity and specificity of 91.2% and 58.8%, respectively.
32767684 Since antiviral efficacy could be altered in different cell lines, we developed an antiviral screening assay with human lung cells, which is more appropriate than Vero cell. […] The comparative analysis of antiviral activities revealed that nafamostat is the most potent drug in human lung cells (IC50 = 0.0022 µM).
32767755 Although recent reports suggest that lopinavir exhibits in vitro efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, it is a highly protein-bound drug and it remains unknown if it reaches adequate in vivo unbound (free) concentrations in lung tissue. […] Our aim was to perform pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic correlations by comparing simulated free plasma and lung concentration values achieved using different dosing regimens of lopinavir/ritonavir with unbound half-maximal effective concentration (EC50,unbound) and unbound effective concentration 90% values of lopinavir against SARS-CoV-2. […] Using the current lopinavir/ritonavir regimen of 400/100 mg twice daily, lopinavir does not achieve sufficient free lung concentrations for efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. […] Although the Chinese population reaches greater plasma and lung concentrations as compared with whites, our simulations suggest that a significant dose increase from the current clinically used dosing regimen is necessary to reach the EC50,unbound value for both populations.
32767868 Lung segmentation using volumetric quantitative computed tomography (CT) analysis may help predict outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). […] In the total cohort, male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 9.264; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.021-42.457; p = 0.004), C-reactive protein (CRP) (HR, 1.080 per mg/dL; 95% CI, 1.010-1.156; p = 0.025), and COVID-affected lung proportion (CALP) (HR, 1.067 per percentage; 95% CI, 1.033-1.101; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with CEFS. […] Normally aerated lung proportion (NALP) (HR, 0.872 per percentage; 95% CI, 0.794-0.957; p = 0.004) and NALP volume (NALPV) (HR, 1.002 per mL; 95% CI, 1.000-1.004; p = 0.019) were associated with a lower risk of critical events in the severe pneumonia group (n = 28).
32768311 Adult patients with CF, lung-transplanted (LTX) CF patients and parents of children with CF completed an online questionnaire, securely linked to their medical files.
32768699 A percutaneous lung biopsy was performed under ultrasound guidance. […] Morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of the patient’s lungs are presented, along with details of some important changes in inflammatory biological markers, in order to help better understand the disease and provide clues to allow members of the multidisciplinary team to save more people.
32768938 The present study investigates the differences in inflammatory agents alterations, immune function, and leukocyte differential count evaluation in severe pneumonia of SARS-COV-2 patients with Yidu-toxicity blocking lung syndrome after the recommended Chinese medicine prescription of Yidu-toxicity blocking lung decoction. […] A total of 40 patients with yidu-toxicity blocking lung syndrome, diagnosed as severe pneumonia of SARS-COV-2 following the latest Chinese national recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia caused by SARS-COV-2 (the 5th edition), were recruited. […] The general strategies were given to both groups according to the national recommendations, and the ICW group was given Yidu-toxicity blocking lung decoction extraorally. […] Taken together, we conclude that Yidu-toxicity blocking lung decoction could relieve inflammation of SARS-COV-2 patients with yidu-toxicity blocking lung syndrome by eliminating inflammatory agents.
32768975 The clinical characteristics and blood laboratory indices (blood routine, inflammatory factors, and multi-organ biochemical indices) were examined, and the total lung severity scores were evaluated in each patient by reviewing chest computed tomography before treatment and at the end of treatment.
32769398 Emerging data suggest severe lung injury in COVID-19 is associated with higher levels of TNF-α and IL-6, T-cell lymphopenia and exhaustion, hypercoagulability, and a macrophage-predominant immune response.
32769623 Thirteen patients (33%) were diagnosed of pulmonary embolism, which was bilateral in six patients and localized in the right lung in seven patients.
32769760 Lung injury causing acute respiratory distress syndrome seems to be a most dreaded complication occurring in ∼30%. […] Although the precise mechanisms involved in the development of lung injury have not been fully elucidated, the role of the extended renin-angiotensin system seems to be pivotal.
32770367 Lung scores were assigned to patients based on CT chest findings. […] Then, the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine cutoff values for lung scores. […] The area under the curve for a lung score cutoff of 12 was 0.790.
32770392 The ongoing pandemic caused by the Betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) demonstrates the urgent need of coordinated and rapid research towards inhibitors of the COVID-19 lung disease.
32770687 The purpose of this study was to assess whether lung ultrasound (LUS) is an effective indicator of subclinical residual lung damage in patients with COVID-19 who meet discharge criteria. […] Lung ultrasound can identify the persistence of subclinical residual lung damage in patients with severe COVID-19 even if they meet discharge criteria.
32770858 The viral infection leads to severe lack of oxygen, lung oxidative stress because of reactive oxygen species generation, and overactivation of the immune system by activating immune mediators.
32771222 At present, the role of lung ultrasonography (LUS) has yet to be explored. […] LUS exhibited similar accuracy compared with chest CT in the detection of lung abnormalities in COVID-19 patients.
32771867 Conticini et al. hypothesized that the surplus of lethality of the novel SARS-CoV-2 in Northern Italy may be at least in part explained by the evidence of highest pollution reported in this area, as both severe COVID-19 and smog exposure are correlated to an innate immune system hyper-activation with subsequent lung inflammation and injury. […] First, obesity is a predisposing factor for SARS-Cov-2 infection and worse COVID-19 outcomes, and unequivocal evidence demonstrated that fat mass excess is independently associated with several pulmonary diseases and lung inflammation. […] Moreover, it has been shown that obesity may intensify the detrimental effects of air pollution on the lungs, and this is not surprising if we consider that these conditions share an excessive activation of the immune system and a lung inflammatory infiltrate. […] In conclusion, although many variables must be taken into account in the analysis of the pandemic, our observations suggest that obesity may act as effect modifier of smog-induced lung-injury, and the concomitant presence of these two factors could better explain the higher virulence, faster spread and greater mortality of SARS-CoV-2 in Northern Italy compared to the rest of the country.
32772513 Results indicated that infected young macaques manifested impaired respiratory function, active viral replication, severe lung damage, and infiltration of CD11b + and CD8 + cells in lungs at one-week post infection (wpi), but also recovered rapidly at 2 wpi. […] In contrast, aged macaques demonstrated delayed immune responses with a more severe cytokine storm, increased infiltration of CD11b + cells, and persistent infiltration of CD8 + cells in the lungs at 2 wpi.
32773098 Lung is an important target of the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing eventually acute respiratory distress syndrome associated to a thromboinflammatory state.
32773100 In this review, we will examine the role of NK cells in SARS-COV2 infections causing the ongoing COVID19 pandemic, keeping in mind the controversial role of NK cells specifically in viral respiratory infections and in inflammatory-driven lung damage.
32773297 The COVID-19 patients were 59.80% male and had comorbidities such as hypertension (51.51%), diabetes (30.3%), cardiovascular disease (16.66%), lung disease (15.99%), renal disease (7.49%), cancer (5.07%), and immunosuppression (1.8%). […] For patients with severe complications, the overall pooled event rates were 56.2% (random; 95% CI: 35.3-75.1; p = 0.015; I2 = 71.461) for obesity, 23.6% (random; 95% CI: 17.9-30.5; p = 0.000; I2 = 87.705) for type 2 diabetes, 45.9% (random; 95% CI: 38.0-53.9; p = 0.000; I2 = 90.152) for hypertension, 20.0% (random; 95% CI: 7.9-42.0; p = 0.000; I2 = 94.577) for smoking, 21.6% (random; 95% CI: 14.1-31.4%; p = 0.000, I2 = 92.983) for lung diseases, and 20.6% (random; 95% CI: 15.2-27.5; p = 0.000, I2 = 85.735) for cardiovascular diseases. […] Obese patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, smoking habit, lung disease, and/or cardiovascular disease should be cared for with increased attention.
32773486 Chest radiography is often used to detect lung involvement in patients with suspected pneumonia.
32773818 The patient’s symptoms (such as fever, chills, dry cough, muscle aches), laboratory tests (such as decreased white blood cell count, elevated liver enzymes and D-dimer, positive viral nucleic acid test), and chest CT (multiple left lower lung plaque ground glass shadow) were similar to those of non-transplanted novel coronavirus pneumonia patients.
32773987 The COVID-19 outbreak causing reduced lung function and increased psycho-emotional stress in the community worldwide.
32774998 We suggest corresponding decoctions that exhibit antiviral activity and anti-inflammatory effects in the early stage of infection; preventing the disease from progressing from an intermediate to severe stage of infection; restoring normal lung function and improving consciousness in the severe stage; and ameliorating pulmonary and vascular injury in the convalescent stage.
32775071 Patients presenting with ARDS need mechanical ventilation, as their lungs are unable to oxygenate blood on their own due to fluid accumulation. […] One way to manage this excess pressure of fluid build-up around the lung tissues is to relieve the dorsal alveoli by prompting the patient to lie face down on the stomach; this is called awake proning. […] It is a procedure that is directed towards the recruitment of lung parenchyma when infected with pneumonia or when the condition has worsened into ARDS. […] This helps in relieving the pressure from the dorsal lung surface that has markedly higher perfusion than the ventral surface.
32775778 In this report, we assess whether extent of prior lung irradiation is a risk factor for death as a result of COVID-19 infection. […] Patient characteristics and metrics describing the extent of lung irradiation were tabulated. […] A logistic model was used to characterize the association between mean lung radiation therapy dose and 14-day mortality risk after COVID-19 diagnosis. […] Increasing mean lung dose (hazard ratio [HR] per Gy = 1.1, P = .002), lung cancer diagnosis (HR = 3.0, P = .034), and receiving radiation therapy between 1 month and 1 year before COVID-19 testing (HR = 3.4, P = .013) were associated with increased risk of death. […] Our survival model demonstrates a near linear relationship between mortality risk after COVID-19 diagnosis and mean lung radiation therapy dose. […] COVID-19 patients with a history of radiation therapy for cancer have a poor prognosis, and mortality risk appears to be associated with extent of lung irradiation.
32775781 Lung windows of daily CBCT scans were reviewed with diagnostic radiology to survey for changes consistent with COVID-19. […] Prompt review of the lung windows is recommended to identify such changes, with the hope that presymptomatic diagnosis leads to expedited patient management, improved outcomes, and a reduction of inadvertent COVID-19 dissemination.
32775790 Single-fraction SBRT for peripheral early-stage non-small cell lung cancer is supported by randomized data and is strongly endorsed during the COVID-19 pandemic by the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology-American Society for Radiation Oncology practice guidelines. […] Single-fraction SBRT should be strongly considered for peripheral early-stage non-small cell lung cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic to mitigate the potentially severe consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 transmission.
32775837 Only 2 deaths of the COVID-19 HD patients were associated with pneumonia/lung failure, others were ascribed to cardiovascular/cerebrovascular diseases or hyperkalemia.
32776614 The study included 359 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and assessed by clinical evaluation, nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction, and lung computed tomography.
32776617 SARS-CoV-2 enters the blood stream by breaching the blood-air barrier via the lung capillary adjacent to the alveolus, and then attaches to the angiotensin-converting enzyme II receptors on the endothelial cells.
32777054 We then expose openly-available experimental repository data that demonstrate the gene for ACE2 lies in a novel cluster of interegulated genes on the X chromosome including PIR encoding pirin (quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase), and VEGFD encoding the predominantly lung-expressed vascular endothelial growth factor D.
32778136 Deterioration of lung function during the first week of COVID-19 has been observed when patients remain with insufficient respiratory support. […] Patient self-inflicted lung injury (P-SILI) is theorized as the responsible, but there is not robust experimental and clinical data to support it. […] Given the limited understanding of P-SILI, we describe the physiological basis of P-SILI and we show experimental data to comprehend the role of regional strain and heterogeneity in lung injury due to increased work of breathing.In addition, we discuss the current approach to respiratory support for COVID-19 under this point of view.
32778174 Median age of COVID-19 patients was 69.7 years, the large majority were male and smokers (84.6%); lung cancer was the most common tumor type (61.5%), 84.6% of subjects were stage III-IV and 92.3% had comorbidities.
32778329 The majority of patients with COVID-19 who received ECMO had areas of ischaemia within consolidated lungs, almost half of these without subtending pulmonary artery thrombosis. […] Although the prognostic significance of these findings is unclear, they are highly suggestive of lung ischaemia due to isolated microvascular immune thrombosis.
32778633 These patients usually have primary pulmonary problem of acute lung injury.
32778962 In the absence of a vaccine, the goal is to target the viral life cycle and alleviate the lung-damaging symptoms of infection, which can be life-threatening.
32779813 In addition, RA was evaluated in LPS-mediated acute lung injury (ALI) model similar to acute pneumonia.
32779824 Volatile molecules are characterized by a high vapor pressure and are consequently easily exhaled by the lungs after ingestion. […] In this way, a hypothetical molecule for COVID-19 should have a balance between its lung exhalation characteristics and both antiviral and anti-inflammatory pharmacological action.
32779878 So far, no specific antiviral therapeutic agent has been demonstrated to be effective for COVID-19; therefore, the clinical management is largely supportive and depends on the patients’ immune response leading to a cytokine storm followed by lung edema, dysfunction of air exchange, and ARDS, which could lead to multiorgan failure and death.
32779891 In Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), higher morbidity and mortality are associated with age, male gender and comorbidities, such as chronic lung diseases, cardiovascular pathologies, hypertension, kidney diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. […] All of the above conditions are characterized by increased sympathetic discharge, which may exert significant detrimental effects on COVID-19 patients, through actions on the lungs, heart, blood vessels, kidneys, metabolism and/or immune system.
32780299 Recent clinical evidences suggest increased level of cytokines and chemokines targeting lung tissue as a prominent etiological factor.
32780765 Hospitalization risk was increased with older age, black race, male sex, former smoking history, diabetes, hypertension, chronic lung disease, poor socioeconomic status, shortness of breath, diarrhea, and certain medications (NSAIDs, immunosuppressive treatment).
32781034 Interstitial lung infiltrates were common in both groups, but pleural effusion was more prevalent in the multisystemic inflammatory syndrome group (43% vs. 
32781377 We also used a technique to generate heatmaps of lung regions potentially infected by COVID-19 and show that the generated heatmaps contain most of the infected areas annotated by our board certified radiologist.
32783099 Comorbidities included arterial hypertension (71.4%), dyslipidemia (71.4%), diabetes mellitus (33.3%), chronic kidney failure requiring dialysis (28.6%) and chronic-obstructive lung disease/asthma (19.0%).
32783196 Presently, the pivotal role of H2 S in modulating the inflammatory response and pro-inflammatory cytokine cascade is well recognized, and the usefulness of some H2 S-donors for the treatment of acute lung inflammation has been reported.
32783207 This study was based on our experiences and demonstrated that EBUS and/or bronchoscopy should not be postponed in patients with known or suspected lung cancer.
32783643 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) characterized by immuno-pathological host responses including pneumonia, lymphopenia, and cytokine storm that leads to severe lung inflammation, developed in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
32783758 ACE2 is a major player in the protective arm, highly expressed in lungs and gut with the ability to mitigate cardiopulmonary diseases such as inflammatory lung disease. […] It illustrates new analyses of the structure of ACE2 that provides better understanding of its actions particularly in lung and gut, shedding of ACE2 by ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metallopeptidase domain 17 protein), and role of TMPRSS2 (transmembrane serine proteases 2) in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 entry into host cells.
32784133 In this article, we present a novel method for line artifacts quantification in lung ultrasound (LUS) images of COVID-19 patients.
32784238 On initial assessment the patient was hypoxic (arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) of 86% on room air), requiring 10 L/min of oxygen to maintain 98% SaO2 Examination demonstrated left-sided tracheal deviation and absent breath sounds in the right lung field on auscultation.
32784290 In addition, the role of CD8+ T cells present in the lung of COVID-19 patients and relevant for viral control has not been characterized. […] Here, we have studied the frequencies and activation profiles of dendritic cells and monocytes present in the blood and lung of COVID-19 patients with different clinical severity in comparison with healthy individuals. […] Furthermore, these subpopulations and their association with antiviral effector CD8+ T cell subsets were also characterized in lung infiltrates from critical COVID-19 patients. […] Our results indicate that inflammatory transitional and non-classical monocytes and CD1c+ conventional dendritic cells preferentially migrate from blood to lungs in patients with severe COVID-19.
  1. Methods: In this paper, the lung examination of two subjects who died from COVID-19 are discussed, comparing the obtained data with those of the control, a newborn who died from pneumonia in the same pandemic period.
32785086 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection causes acute lung injury, resulting from aggressive inflammation initiated by viral replication.
32785855 While a definite diagnosis is based on microbiological evidence, the relationship between lung ultrasound (LU) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 is less clear. […] Lung ultrasound is a point-of-care imaging tool that proved to be useful in the identification and severity assessment of different pulmonary conditions, particularly in the setting of emergency and critical care patients in intensive care units; HRCT of the thorax is regarded as the mainstay of imaging evaluation of lung disorders, enabling characterization and quantification of pulmonary involvement.
32785961 SARS-Cov2 outbreak has deeply impacted French lung transplant programs by the decreased number of lung donors, the scarcity of intensive care unit (ICU) beds and most importantly, the assumed worse prognosis of Covid-19 in recipients during perioperative period. […] Despite no evidence has been published to suggest that lung transplant recipients were at high-risk of acquiring the virus or developing severe Covid-19, immunosuppression may worsen the prognosis of such infection in patient transplanted for end-staged lung diseases.
32786284 Interestingly, although an EC50 of 23.17 ± 3.22 μM was not prominent among the tested compounds, lumefantrine showed therapeutic promise due to high plasma and lung drug concentrations after multiple dosing.
32786691 COVID-19 has been characterized by elevated mortality (over 100 thousand people have already died in the US alone), mostly due to thromboinflammatory complications that impair lung perfusion and systemic oxygenation in the most severe cases.
32787378 Follow-up chest CT showed that the lung lesions disappeared within a short period of time.
32787470 These observations could be reinforced by the more and more evident existence of a lung-gut axis, suggesting the modulation of gut microbiota among the approaches to the COVID-19 prevention and treatment.
32787701 Distribution and severity of lung involvement was visually assessed using an 8-point scale (chest radiography score). […] The final risk model’s variables included gender, chronic obstructive lung disease, symptom duration, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein level, lactate dehydrogenase level, distribution of lung disease and chest radiography score at hospital presentation.
32787748 COVID-19 patients may display a cytokine release syndrome, which causes severe lung inflammation, leading, in many instances, to death. […] TNF-α, in turn, activates other inflammatory genes such as Nos2, Icam or IL-6, which regulate migration and infiltration of neutrophils into the pulmonary interstitial tissue, causing injury to the lung parenchyma.
32787909 Presence of SARS-CoV-2 was evaluated with immunohistochemistry (IHC) in lung samples and with real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test in the lung and other organs. […] Pulmonary findings revealed early-stage diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) in 15 out of 17 patients and microthrombi in small lung arteries in 11 patients. […] Four lung infarcts, two acute myocardial infarctions, and one ischemic enteritis were observed. […] IHC revealed positive cells with a heterogeneous distribution in the lungs of 11 of the 17 (65%) patients; RT-PCR yielded a wide distribution of SARS-CoV-2 in different tissues, with 8 patients showing viral presence in all tested organs (i.e., lung, heart, spleen, liver, colon, kidney, and brain).
32787926 This could also happen in patients with lung infections, with or without SARS-CoV-2.
32788101 However, a growing body of data suggests that the initial events occur in the lung.
32788312 SARS-CoV-2 primarily targets the lung and enters the body through ACE2 receptors.
32788945 Although these findings are typically nonspecific for an atypical lung infection, early recognition of COVID-19 in the setting of a global pandemic (even in the asymptomatic patient) is critical in order to limit the spread of disease.
32788946 We report the case of a 78-year-old man presenting with pseudo-tumoral focal lesion of the left lung which switched shortly to severe and diffuse COVID-19 induced pneumonia.
32789049 While much has been described in the literature about lung infiltrates and respiratory failure associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), pneumothorax remains a relatively rare presentation with current literature indicating a rate of one percent. […] None of these patients had a history of lung disease and one patient was a previous smoker.
32789143 In these cases, lung ultrasound helped to raise clinical suspicion of COVID-19 pneumonia and facilitate diagnosis. […] During the current COVID-19 pandemic, lung ultrasound (LUS) is being used extensively to evaluate and monitor lung damage in infected patients.Several patients have been described with negative PCR swabs who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.Typical signs of interstitial pneumonia on LUS strongly indicate COVID-19 pneumonia, thus suggesting further investigation and invasive tests to confirm the diagnosis.
32789756 One hundred twenty chest CT scans from subjects with lung infiltrates were used for training deep learning algorithms to segment lung regions and vessels. […] The algorithm included (1) automated lung boundary and vessel segmentation, (2) registration of the lung boundary between serial scans, (3) computerized identification of the pneumonitis regions, and (4) assessment of disease progression.
32790028 Many patients with lung cancer are thought to be affected by this situation. […] Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on lung cancer treatment scheduling. […] We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of lung cancer patients who were undergoing anticancer treatment at the National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center (600 beds) in Kyoto, Japan, between 1 March 2020 and 31 May 2020. […] After the medical records were reviewed, the patients were assigned to one of two groups, depending on whether their lung cancer treatment schedule was delayed. […] A total 15 (9.1%) patients experienced a delay in lung cancer treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. […] We determined that 9.1% lung cancer patients suffered anxiety and requested a treatment delay during the COVID-19 pandemic.
32790652 We describe a new presentation of COVID-19 infection in children consisting of multisystem inflammation with decreased left ventricular function and evidence of lung disease.
32791938 Breast cancer (BC) treatments, including chemotherapy (CT), targeted therapy and immunotherapy can weaken the immune system and possibly cause lung problems.
32792046 Multiple and peripheral areas of parenchymal injury is the hallmark of COVID-19 lung infection, seen as ground-glass opacification and consolidation on CT, as hazy opacities on CXR, and as multiple B-lines and subpleural consolidations on US. […] Lung US training programs are needed to provide clinicians with the ability to better implement this technique.
32792254 Compared to SC alone, CHM plus SC had a superior effect on the change of symptom and sign score (-1.30 by SMD, 95% CI [-2.43, -0.16]; 3 studies; n = 261, P = 0.03), on inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP, mg/L; -11.82 by MD, 95% CI [-17.95, -5.69]; 5 studies; n = 325, P = 0.0002), on number of patients with improved lung CT scans (1.34 by risk ratio, 95% CI [1.19, 1.51]; 4 studies; n = 489, P < 0.00001).
32793246 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is a betacoronavirus, and is associated with cytokine storm inflammation and lung injury, leading to respiratory distress.
32793357 Oxygenation and lung compliance gradually improved during prone ventilation, and both patients were successfully extubated.
32793618 In contrast, in patients after discharge, chest physiotherapy in the form of respiratory muscle training, cough exercise, diaphragmatic training, stretching exercise, and home exercise have resulted in improved FEV1 (L), FVC (L), FEV1/FVC%, diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO%), endurance, and quality of life, and a reduction in anxiety and depression symptoms.
32793619 Lung injury is the main outcome of COVID-19 infection; however, damage can occur in other organs including the liver.
32793703 The predictive performance was evaluated in fifth center (test dataset) on lung lobe- and patients-level.
32794113 In multivariate analysis, male sex (odds ratio [OR], 8.63; p = 0.018), previous lung disease (OR, 27.47; p = 0.042), and glucocorticoids use (> 5 mg/day) (OR, 9.95; p = 0.019) were significantly associated to hospitalization. […] Being male, previous lung disease and exposure to glucocorticoids were associated with higher odds of hospitalization in RMDs patients.
32794180 IL-18 may participate in this hyperinflammation, as it was previously found to be able to cause injury in the lung tissue of infected animals.
32795195 Of posts where a specific type of surgery was identified (196), the most common type mentioned was breast cancer (50; 25.5%), followed by lung cancer (37; 18.9%) and urologic cancer (22; 11.2%).
32795225 Patients with lung cancer also demonstrated higher rates of severe or critical COVID-19 events (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.20 to 3.30). […] Patients with active hematologic or lung malignancies, peri-COVID-19 lymphopenia, or baseline neutropenia had worse COVID-19 outcomes.
32795830 The delayed lung damage after SARS-CoV-2 infection may be caused by an autoimmune response to ACE2 induced by forced presentation of the ACE2 protein in a complex with CoV Spike in Fc Receptor positive Antigen Presenting Cells in the lung. […] 1) Autoantibodies and T cells to ACE2 may be found in patients with the lung damage but not in those without 2) There may be an HLA linkage with the delayed lung disease 3) Vaccines based on the spike protein might initiate the process by amplifying Fc mediated uptake of ACE2-Spike complexes into APCs.
32795834 Interleukins that cause the chronic low-grade inflammatory state of obesity, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant peptide (MCP)-1, and, in particular, IL-17A and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), also play very important roles in lung damage in ARDS.
32795835 IGF-1 has been implicated in ARDS, yet its role in relation to COVID-19-related lung injury has not been investigated. […] We hypothesize that blockage of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) mitigates lung injury and decreases the risk of death in patients COVID-19-related ARDS. […] Patients with fibroproliferative ARDS have been shown to have increased IGF-1 and IGF-1R staining in lung tissue specimens. […] Rising levels of IGF-1 in bronchioalveolar fluid (BAL) and increased IGF-1 mRNA expression in lung tissues (but declining serum IGF-1 levels) have been found in late stage ARDS compared with early lung injury. […] Blockage of IGF-1R decreases lung tissue damage and increases survival in bleomycin-induced as well as H1N1 influenza-related lung injury in animal models. […] In order to determine if teprotumumab may reduce lung injury and death related to ARDS in the setting of COVID-19, preliminary clinical data is needed. […] Histopathology from lung samples from patients with COVID-19-related ARDS must be examined for increased expression of the IGF-1R.
32795897 These results suggest that treatment with thymosin α1 can markedly decrease 28-day mortality and attenuate acute lung injury in critical type COVID-19 patients.
32796045 Ageing, male sex and previous comorbidity (obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular or lung disease) increased the risk in the rheumatic cohort by bivariate analysis.
32796217 We performed 1 : 1 matching for BMI, diabetes, hypertension, chronic lung diseases, chronic kidney disease, race, history of nicotine dependence and sex.
32796809 Chest imaging revealed ground-glass opacities (GGO) distributed in both lung fields. […] Four days after admission, bilateral lung shadows worsened, with a slight reduction in SpO₂ levels.
32796848 Chest CT is emerging as a valuable diagnostic tool for clinical management of COVID-19 associated lung disease. […] Here we show that a series of deep learning algorithms, trained in a diverse multinational cohort of 1280 patients to localize parietal pleura/lung parenchyma followed by classification of COVID-19 pneumonia, can achieve up to 90.8% accuracy, with 84% sensitivity and 93% specificity, as evaluated in an independent test set (not included in training and validation) of 1337 patients.
32797352 In the presence of respiratory system infection signs such as cough and weakness in patient who present with sudden loss of consciousness, performing lung imaging as well as performing brain computerized tomography scan can allow the detection of an underlying Covid-19 infection.
32797661 To perform a prospective longitudinal analysis of lung ultrasound findings in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] The thorax was scanned in 12 lung areas: anterior, lateral, and posterior (superior/inferior) bilaterally. […] Five to six weeks after ICU admission, follow-up POCUS examinations detected significantly lower rates (P < .05) of lung abnormalities in survivors. […] Lung ultrasound findings were significantly decreased by ICU discharge, suggesting persistent but slow resolution of at least some COVID-19 lung lesions.
32798003 Lung ultrasound (LUS) has recently been advocated as an accurate tool to diagnose coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. […] Patients in our sample had a median of 6 lung areas with pathologic findings (inter-quartile range [IQR]: 6, range: 0-14), defined as a score different from 0. […] The median rate of lung areas involved was 71% (IQR: 64%, range: 0-100), while the median average score was 1.14 (IQR: 0.93, range: 0-3). […] A higher rate of pathologic lung areas and a higher average score were significantly associated with death, with an estimated difference of 40.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4%-68%, p = 0.01) and of 0.47 (95% CI: 0.06-0.93, p = 0.02), respectively.
32798170 Anesthesia for thoracic surgery requires specialist intervention to provide adequate operating conditions and one-lung ventilation.
32798345 One of the mainmanifestations of this infection is varied degree of involvement of lung causing a spectrum of illness from mild lower respiratory tract infection to severe Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS).
32798445 Upon challenge with a human isolate of SARS-CoV-2, mice that expressed human ACE2 and were immunized with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 show profoundly reduced viral infection and inflammation in the lung, indicating protection against pneumonia.
32798660 TCZ was used in patients in critical condition (oxygen therapy flow at TCZ onset was 10.5 L/min and 14/30 patients had ≥ 50% lung involvement on CT scan) as a rescue treatment (8/30 patients who died were not admitted in USC in regard to their comorbidities).
32798764 Placental extract treatment is proposed as a suitable therapeutic approach consideringthe above properties which could protect against initial viral entry and acute inflammation of alveolar epithelial cells, reconstitute pulmonary microenvironment and regenerate the lung.
32799217 BACKGROUND Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifests primarily as a lung infection, its involvement in acute kidney injury (AKI) is gaining recognition and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.
32799894 It primarily affects the respiratory tract and particularly the lungs. […] Though the majority of symptomatic patients have mild flu-like symptoms, a significant minority develop severe lung injury with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), leading to considerable morbidity and mortality. […] From these reports, we know that the virus can be found in various organs but the most striking tissue damage involves the lungs resulting almost always in diffuse alveolar damage with interstitial edema, capillary congestion, and occasional interstitial lymphocytosis, causing hypoxia, multiorgan failure, and death.
32801207 The ability of lung ultrasound (LUS) and its evolving applications in the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia are widespread.
32801943 This is the first report from Iran that presented two cases of liver transplantation with COVID-19, neither of which had pulmonary signs and symptoms, but after diagnostic imaging, both had lung involvement.
32802606 Initial evaluation revealed a temperature of 101°F, and on auscultation, the patient had scattered wheezing and rales in left lung fields. […] CT of the chest revealed pneumonic patches in the upper and lower segment of the left lung.
32803670 This virus primarily affects the respiratory tract and causes lung injury characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome.
32804639 Qualitative interpretation is a good thing when it comes to reading lung images in the fight against coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19), but quantitative analysis makes radiology reporting much more comprehensive.
32804789 Lung function, lung scarring, sepsis, shortness of breath, and oxygen level in the blood were common to the top 10 outcomes across all three groups (mean > 7.5, median ≥ 8, and > 70% of respondents rated the outcome as critically important).
32804792 “Distinguishing overlap, correlation and collinearity” meant recognizing that symptoms such as shortness of breath had distinct value and minimizing overlap (e.g. lung function and pneumonia were on the continuum toward respiratory failure).
32804917 Coronavirus infection is associated with extensive lung inflammation and microvascular thrombosis, which can result in hypoxia.
32805726 In addition, an obvious resolution of lung inflammation after surgery was observed in five COVID-19 patients (83.3%).
32806722 In addition to obesity-related deregulated immune response, chronic inflammation, endothelium imbalance, metabolic dysfunction, and its associated comorbidities, dysfunctional mesenchymal stem cells/adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells may also play crucial roles in fueling systemic inflammation contributing to the cytokine storm and promoting pulmonary fibrosis causing lung functional failure, characteristic of severe COVID-19.
32807075 Infection of lung cells by the corona virus results in a loss of the balance between, on the one hand, angiotensin II-mediated stimulation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and, on the other hand, stimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor and/or the Mas receptor.
32807431 COVID-19 has shown to be a systemic illness, not localized to the respiratory tract and lung parenchyma.
32807570 Lung ultrasound (LUS) is an emerging non-invasive bedside technique that is used to diagnose interstitial lung syndrome through evaluation and quantitation of the number of B-lines, pleural irregularities and nodules or consolidations. […] In patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, LUS reveals a typical pattern of diffuse interstitial lung syndrome, characterized by multiple or confluent bilateral B-lines with spared areas, thickening of the pleural line with pleural line irregularity and peripheral consolidations.
32808079 CT signs that are evocative of lung COVID-19 infections have been extensively described, whereas 18F-FDG-PET signs have not. […] Our current study aimed to identify specific COVID-19 18F-FDG-PET signs in patients that were (i) suspected to have a lung infection based on 18F-FDG-PET/CT recorded during the COVID-19 outbreak and (ii) whose COVID-19 diagnosis was definitely established or excluded by appropriate viral testing. […] Twenty-two consecutive patients referred for routine 18F-FDG-PET/CT examinations during the COVID-19 outbreak (March 25th to May 15th 2020) and for whom CT slices were evocative of a lung infection were included in the study. […] The maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of lung areas with CT abnormalities were however significantly lower in the COVID+ than the COVID- group (3.7 ± 1.9 vs. […] Among CT abnormalities evocative of lung infection, those related to COVID-19 are associated with a more limited 18F-FDG uptake.
32808094 Published autopsy studies that reveal alterations in the lung immune microenvironment, morphological, and pathological changes are also explored within the context of the review.
32808185 Besides lung drastic involvement, SARS-CoV-2 severely affected other systems including liver.
32808759 The study cohort included 49 confirmed COVID-19 patients, 58 healthy controls, and 33 non-COVID lung infection controls. […] The training and test set data exhibited respectively 94% and 76% accuracy in differentiating patients from controls as well as 90% and 95% accuracy in differentiating between patients with COVID-19 and patients with other lung infections.
32808988 Immune-mediated lung injury and systemic hyperinflammation are characteristic of severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults.
32809870 We provide an overview on the pathophysiological changes occurring in patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure and a treatment strategy to reverse these changes thereby preventing progressive lung injury and death.
32811514 The level of SARS-CoV-2 replication and lung pathology was not quite as pronounced as previously reported with AGMs exposed by the combined i.n. and i.t. routes; however, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in nasal swabs of some animals as late as day 15 and rectal swabs as late as day 28 after virus challenge. […] Of particular importance to this study, all three AGMs that were followed until the early convalescence stage of COVID-19 showed substantial lung pathology at necropsy as evidenced by multifocal chronic interstitial pneumonia and increased collagen deposition in alveolar walls despite the absence of detectable SARS-CoV-2 in any of the lungs of these animals.
32811531 CRP and IL-6 levels were significantly lower from day 3 of infusion, the time for the lymphocyte count to return to the normal range was significantly faster, and lung inflammation absorption was significantly shorter on CT imaging in the hUC-MSC group than in the control group.
32811894 Chinese herbal formulas including the lung-cleaning and toxicity-excluding (LCTE) soup have played an important role in treating the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic (caused by SARS-CoV-2) in China. […] We predict the general effect of LCTE is to affect the pathways involved in viral and other microbial infections, inflammation/cytokine response, and lung diseases.
32812721 A virally-induced cytokine storm syndrome, associated with a massive and overwhelming systemic inflammation, burdens a subgroup of patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which leads to pulmonary inflammation and extensive lung damage.
32813065 Further, the regulatory role of probiotics on gut-lung axis and mucosal immune system for the potential antiviral mechanisms is reviewed and discussed.Key points• Gut microbiota role in antiviral diseases• Factors influencing the antiviral mechanism• Probiotics and Covid-19.
32813683 He also had lung infiltrates and was diagnosed with a co-infection by SARS-CoV-2, by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the GeneXpert system.
32815517 We present a three-dimensional (3D) approach for virtual histology and histopathology based on multi-scale phase contrast x-ray tomography, and use this to investigate the parenchymal architecture of unstained lung tissue from patients who succumbed to Covid-19.
32815519 Deep learning models were then trained for two tasks: lung segmentation and opacity detection.
32815523 Widespread ground-glass opacities, consolidation, air bronchograms, central involvement of lung parenchyma, mediastinal lymphadenopathy are more common in patients with the severe form of the disease.
32815618 Lung ultrasound (LUS) could be a useful tool for physicians detecting a bilateral heterogeneous patchy distribution of pathologic findings in a symptomatic suggestive context. […] To assess the quantity and severity of lung disease, a comprehensive LUS examination is recommended. […] Omitting areas of the chest misses involved lung.
32815796 Strategically, Noscapine, an approved antitussive drug with positive effects on lung linings may show favorable outcomes synergistically with antiviral drugs in trials.
32816059 Compassionate treatment with a single 1‑Gy dose to the bilateral whole-lung volume was administered, with gradual daily improvement of ventilatory function and decrease in serum inflammatory markers and oxygen support needs, including intubation. […] Whole-lung low-dose radiotherapy seems to be a promising approach for avoiding or delaying invasive respiratory support.
32816409 Unfortunately, there is an almost complete overlap between COVID-19 risk factors and conditions that are already represented as health disparities, such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, lung disease and immune disorders.
32816437 Lung basal changes were also visualized and subsequently proven to be secondary to Covid-19 infection.
32817445 It has not been tested in conditions of severe lung injury or with added PEEP. […] 1) To assess the performance and reliability of the device in simulated and experimental conditions of severe lung injury, and 2) to derive monitoring methods allowing the delivery of a safe individualized ventilation during situations of surge. […] The device was further tested on a porcine model (n=4) with normal lungs and after inducing lung injury and was compared with conventional ventilation modes. […] Simulating lung injury resulted in relatively low tidal volumes (330 mL with compliance of 20 mL/cmH2O). […] The Oxylator is a simple device that delivers stable ventilation with tidal volumes within a clinically acceptable range in bench and porcine lung models with low compliance.
32817769 However, in the emergency setting CXR can be a useful diagnostic tool for monitoring the rapid progression of lung involvement in COVID-19, especially in patients admitted to intensive care units. […] The rapid course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the severity and progression of lung aberrations require a method of radiological evaluation to implement and manage the appropriate treatment for infected patients. […] Computed tomography (CT) imaging is considered to be the most effective method for the detection of lung abnormalities, especially in the early stage of the disease. […] In this review, we present and discuss currently available scales that can be used to assess the severity of lung involvement in COVID-19 patients in everyday work, both for CXR and CT imaging.
32818075 We investigated the digestive symptoms of 48 patients with COVID-19 and explored ACE2 expression in digestive tract and lung cancers, based on a series of bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing data obtained from public databases. […] The bulk tissue RNA sequencing analysis indicated that digestive tract organs had higher ACE2 expression levels compared to the lung, and the expression of ACE2 in the lung increased with age. […] Single-cell RNA-Seq results showed that the ACE2-positive-cell ratio in digestive tract organs was significantly higher compared to the lung.
32818606 Chest computed tomography scans of patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have revealed different stages of respiratory involvement, with extremely variable lung presentations, which require individualized ventilatory strategies in those who become critically ill. 
32821132 Patients with worsening symptoms had higher involvement of lung segments (mean: 6.5 ± 5.0, range: 1-13) than asymptomatic patients (mean: 1.5 ± 0.6, range: 1-2) (P = 0.057).
32821174 Despite primary normal lung imaging, the second imaging was typical for the disease on the third day of admission.
32821569 Cystic fibrosis (CF) represents a form of severe chronic lung disease in young adults and is the major fatal hereditary disorder of Caucasians in the United States.
32821902 Studies of postmortem COVID-19 lungs largely report diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and capillary fibrin thrombi, but we have also observed other patterns. […] To report demographic and radiographic features along with macroscopic, microscopic, and microbiologic postmortem lung findings in patients with COVID-19 infections. […] Lungs were microscopically reviewed independently by 4 thoracic pathologists. […] The median lung weight was 1,220 g (range, 960-1,760); consolidations were found in 5 of 8 (62.5%) patients; gross thromboemboli were noted in one of 8 (12.5%) patient. […] Postmortem bacterial lung cultures were positive in 4 of 8 (50%) patients.
32822073 This interaction is known to play a key role in the SARS-CoV pathology and suspected to affect the integrity of the lung epithelia.
32822224 Within a given disease area, the texture and material of the lung parenchyma in the XCAT were modified to match the properties observed in the clinical images.
32822225 The use of spectral CT with electron density imaging could improve the assessment of lung lesion extent in patients with early-stage COVID-19.
32822883 The most prominent risk factors for death were male sex (hazard ratio (HR) 1.45; 95%CI 1.15-1.83), pre-existing lung disease (HR 1.61; 95%CI 1.20-2.16), and increased patient age (HR 4.11 (95%CI 2.57-6.58) for age >79 years versus <60 years). […] The most prominent risk factors for death were male sex, pre-existing lung disease, and greater patient age.
32824985 The binding of SARS-CoV-2 to TLR (Toll-like receptor) causes the release of pro-IL-1β, which is cleaved by caspase-1, followed by the formation and activation of the inflammasome, which is a mediator of lung inflammation, fever, and fibrosis.
32825060 The Dutch Radiological Society developed CO-RADS as a diagnostic indicator for assessing suspicion of lung involvement of COVID-19 on a scale of 1 (very low) to 5 (very high).
32825954 Because ACE receptor is also present in the endothelium of other districts as well as in different cell types, and as porphyrins are transporters in the blood and other biological liquids of iron forming heme, which is important in the assembly of the hemoglobin, myoglobin and the cytochromes, multiorgan damage occurs both primitive and secondary to lung damage.
32825963 Herein, we thoroughly reviewed multiple organs including lung, gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, skin, heart, blood, spleen, lymph nodes, brain, blood vessels, and placenta in terms of COVID-19-related pathological alterations.
32826529 Lungs from 37 autopsies performed before the COVID-19 pandemic served as negative controls. […] Within the postmortem lung, detected viral protein and RNA were often extracellular, predominantly within hyaline membranes in patients with diffuse alveolar damage. […] Among individual cases, there was regional variation in the amount of detectable virus in lung samples. […] In the lung, viral RNA and nucleocapsid protein is predominantly extracellular and within hyaline membranes in some cases, while intracellular locations are more prominent in others.
32826625 Given that COVID-19 can severely impair lung function, regional anesthesia techniques avoiding phrenic nerve paralysis are relevant in the anesthetic management of suspected/confirmed COVID-19 patients requiring shoulder and clavicle surgical procedures. […] Existing diaphragm-sparing brachial plexus regional anesthesia techniques used for shoulder and clavicle surgery may help minimize pulmonary complications by preserving lung function, especially in patients prone to respiratory compromise.
32826796 We present 53 SOT recipients (31 kidney, 8 liver, 5 heart, 5 lung, 3 liver-kidney and one kidney-after-heart), transplanted at a Swedish high-volume transplant center and each diagnosed with COVID-19 between February 21, 2020, and June 22, 2020.
32827163 All patients underwent real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), lung ultrasound (LUS) and clinical evaluation on the same day. […] In healthcare professionals with COVID-19, LUS plays a key role in the characterization of lung involvement.
32828577 The purpose of this study is to observe the potential of lung ultrasound in evaluating the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. […] Lung ultrasound was performed in ten zones of the patients’ chest walls. […] The features of the ultrasound images were observed, and a lung ultrasound score (LUS) was recorded. […] In COVID-19 patients, lung ultrasound is a promising diagnostic tool in diagnosing patients with refractory pneumonia.
32829047 The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has introduced the medical community to a lung disease heretofore unknown to most clinicians. […] In much of the discourse about COVID-19 lung disease, the more familiar clinical entity of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been used as the guiding paradigm. […] Reflecting on studies in ARDS, particularly that caused by influenza, and on data from the SARS-CoV and MERS epidemics, many authorities, including those within the discipline of infectious diseases, were initially passionate in their opposition to the use of corticosteroids for lung involvement in COVID-19. […] The voice of the pulmonology community-the community of lung experts-has continued to be among the quietest in this conversation. […] We encourage a conceptual separation between early COVID-19 lung involvement and ARDS. […] We draw on history with other immune cell-mediated lung diseases, on insights from the SARS-CoV experience, and on frontline observations in an attempt to allay the skepticism towards corticosteroids in COVID-19 lung disease that is likely to persist even as favorable study results emerge.
32829467 Clinical evolution in the blood was marked by an increase (2-3-fold) in differentiated effector T cells expressing exhaustion (PD-1) and senescence (CD57) markers, an expansion of antibody-secreting cells, a 15-fold increase in γδ T cell and proliferating NK-cell populations, and the total disappearance of monocytes, suggesting lung trafficking.
32829859 Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a lung disease with highly heterogeneous and mortality rate, but its therapeutic options are now still limited.
32830527 The occurrence of a cytokine storm in the lungs is a critical step in the disease pathogenesis, as it causes pathological lesions, pulmonary edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, potentially resulting in death. […] Intravenous injection of clinical-grade MSCs into COVID-19 patients can induce an immunomodulatory response along with improved lung function.
32830893 During the COVID-19 pandemic Lung Ultrasound (LUS) has clearly succeeded as a formidable tool in the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32831151 Exclusion criteria include pregnant and breastfeeding women, atopy or allergies to Shenfu Injection (SFI), severe underlying disease (malignant tumor with multiple metastases, uncontrolled hemopathy, cachexia, severe malnutrition, HIV), active bleeding, obstructive pneumonia caused by lung tumor, severe pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, alveolar proteinosis and allergic alveolitis, continuous use of immunosuppressive drugs in last 6 months, organ transplantation, expected death within 48 hours, the patients considered unsuitable for this study by researchers.
32831327 Considering the great similarity between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, and that the severity of the condition that leads to death cannot be explained solely by lung involvement, it is important to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 potential invasion to the central nervous system is partially responsible for the severe respiratory component observed in patients with COVID-19.
32831518 This beta coronavirus potentially infects the alveolar cells of the lung leading to pneumonia.
32833367 In the lung, mucociliary clearance (CMC) and alveolar clearance (CA) depend on the transport of sodium through the plasma membrane of epithelial cells.
32833833 One doctor had a low fever and cough in January, and CT showed a small nodule in the lower left lung.
32834523 It covers more than 160 contributions and surveys in this field, all issued between February 2017 and May 2020 inclusively, highlighting various deep learning tasks such as classification, segmentation, and detection, as well as different pulmonary pathologies like airway diseases, lung cancer, COVID-19 and other infections.
32834556 Features examined included details of the individuals concerned, e.g., age, gender, observation of fever, history of travel, and clinical details such as the severity of cough and incidence of lung infection. […] Statistical analyses revealed that the most frequent and significant predictive symptoms are fever (41.1%), cough (30.3%), lung infection (13.1%) and runny nose (8.43%).
32834634 The similarity of COVID-19 disease with other lung infections makes the diagnosis difficult.
32834651 In this paper, we used three deep learning-based methods for the detection and diagnosis of COVID-19 patients with the use of X-Ray images of lungs. […] For the diagnosis of the disease, we presented two algorithms include deep neural network (DNN) on the fractal feature of images and convolutional neural network (CNN) methods with the use of the lung images, directly. […] In the segmentation process, we presented a CNN architecture to find infected tissue in lung images.
32834698 From the perspective of modern medical mechanism, during the prevention and treatment of novel coronaviral infection, moxibustion may be able to prevent and treat COVID-19 by improving the body’s immunity so as to conquer virus, by anti-inflammation to alleviate the inflammatory response of COVID-19 and by improving lung function to inhibit pulmonary fibrosis.
32834892 SARS-CoV-2 infection causes this strong inflammation within the lung and propagates to respiratory and, ultimately, systemic organ malfunction.
32834893 The depletion of ACE2 results in the accumulation of des-Arg (9)-bradykinin and possible bradykinin, both of which bind to bradykinin receptors and induce vasodilation, lung injury, and inflammation.
32834950 The novel PBPK model allows in-depth description of the pharmacokinetics of CQ in several key organs (lung, heart, liver, and kidney), and was applied to design dosing strategies in patients with acute COVID-19 (Day 1: 750 mg BID, Days 2-5: 500 mg BID, CQ phosphate), patients with moderate COVID-19 (Day 1: 750 mg and 500 mg, Days 2-3: 500 mg BID, Days 4-5: 250 mg BID, CQ phosphate), and other vulnerable populations (e.g., renal and hepatic impairment and elderly patients, Days 1-5: 250 mg BID, CQ phosphate).
32835066 In CT images, they were inclined to present lesions with clear border (94.7% v 64.7%, P = 0.012), pure peripheral distribution (89.5% v 39.2%, P < 0.001), without bilateral lungs involved (57.9% v 29.4%, P = 0.028) especially with left lung involved only (42.1% v 17.6%, P = 0.034).
32835077 Lung disease is common throughout the world. […] Timely diagnosis of lung disease is essential. […] Different forms of existing deep learning techniques including convolutional neural network (CNN), vanilla neural network, visual geometry group based neural network (VGG), and capsule network are applied for lung disease prediction. […] Hence, the proposed VDSNet framework will simplify the detection of lung disease for experts as well as for doctors.
32835126 Articles have alluded that the level of ACE2 gene expression in adipose tissue is higher than lung tissue, but a PubMed search found no results in articles to demonstrate this. […] The aim of this study was to investigate ACE2 gene expression in adipose tissue and lung tissue using a public database. […] The gene expression profile demonstrated that ACE2 gene expression was higher in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues than human lung tissue. […] This study demonstrates that ACE2 gene expression is higher in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue than that in lung tissue, a major target tissue affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32835132 Thus, the mTOR inhibitors and p53 activators or microRNAs that functions as p53 and can target 3’-UTR of mTOR and RPS6KB1 might effectively inhibit viral replication in the human respiratory tract and lung cells.
32835135 The disease begins as an infection of lungs, which is self-limiting in the majority of infections; however, some develop severe respiratory distress and organ failures. […] Lung microbiome, though neglected previously have received interest recently because of its association with several respiratory diseases and immunity. […] Lung microbiome can modify the risk and consequences of COVID-19 disease by activating an innate and adaptive immune response. […] In this review, we examine the current evidence on COVID-19 disease and lung microbiome, and how lung microbiome can affect SARS-CoV-2 infection and the outcomes of this disease. […] To date there is no direct evidence from human or animal studies on the role of lung microbiome in modifying COVID-19 disease; however, related studies support that microbiome can play an essential role in developing immunity against viral infections. […] Future studies need to be undertaken to find the relationship between lung microbiome and COVID-19 disease.
32835141 Experimental results after testing on an artificial lung for peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), respiratory rate (RR), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), tidal volume, proximal pressure, and lung pressure demonstrate repeatability and accuracy exceeding human capabilities in BVM-based manual ventilation.
32835245 Patients were included in the prospective cohort if they were aged 18 years or older and admitted to Groupe Hospitalier Paris Saint-Joseph with severe COVID-19-related bilateral pneumonia on chest x-ray or lung CT scan. […] The other inclusion criteria were either laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 or typical lung infiltrates on a lung CT scan, and either an oxygen saturation of 93% or less under oxygen 6 L/min or more, or aggravation (saturation ≤93% under oxygen 3 L/min) with a loss of 3% of oxygen saturation in ambient air over the previous 24 h.
32835247 The lung pathology seen in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows marked microvascular thrombosis and haemorrhage linked to extensive alveolar and interstitial inflammation that shares features with macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). […] We have termed the lung-restricted vascular immunopathology associated with COVID-19 as diffuse pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy, which in its early stages is distinct from disseminated intravascular coagulation.
32835265 A 34-year-old man was admitted with acute lung injury and COVID-19 pneumonia.
32835427 Alcohol now also poses specific concerns, such as increased risk of severe lung infections, domestic violence, child abuse, depression and suicide.
32835709 Given the general utility of lung ultrasound for the evaluation of respiratory failure in acutely ill patients, it is logical to consider its specific advantages in coronavirus disease 2019-related pulmonary disease.
32836613 The CT scan images display several small patches of shadows and interstitial shifts, particularly in the lung periphery.
32836855 Long-term exposure to ambient air pollutant concentrations is known to cause chronic lung inflammation, a condition that may promote increased severity of COVID-19 syndrome caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).
32836897 The first German case of death due to a proven SARS-CoV‑2 infection is presented with global multifocal reticular consolidation in the post-mortem computed tomography (CT) scan, a macroscopic and microscopic viral pneumonia and viral RNA of SARS-CoV‑2 in pharyngeal mucosa and lung tissue.
32836899 Pathological changes are primarily found in lung tissues but there are also reports concerning direct or indirect (histo)pathological changes due to SARS-CoV‑2 infections in samples from the kidneys, liver and myocardium.
32837045 Patients undergoing cardiovascular and thoracic procedures are at an accentuated risk of higher morbidity and mortality, which are a consequence of the proliferative nature of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on the lung vasculature, which in turn reflects as a cascading effect on the interdependent physiology of the cardiovascular and pulmonary organ systems.
32837053 COVID-19 has emerged as a pandemic with lung being the primarily afflicted organ.
32837209 A new ventilation strategy has been set up to prevent ventilator induced lung injury (VILI).
32837568 This is an opinion piece on the role of POCUS in COVID-19, with a focus on lung ultrasound. […] Whether to embrace POCUS and lung ultrasound during this pandemic is an important decision.
32837591 To support the current combat against the disease, this research aims to propose a machine learning-based pipeline to detect COVID-19 infection using lung computed tomography scan images (CTI).
32837601 Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) represents a valuable therapeutic option in patients with severe heart or lung failure.
32837666 Computed tomography (CT) revealed ground-glass opacities in both lungs. […] CT revealed ground-glass opacities in the lower left lung.
32837671 A systematic review of CT abdomen, including inspection of the lung bases using the lung window in all CT abdomen, is essential to detect findings suggestive of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients requiring a CT abdomen study.
32837750 Secondary outcomes include clinical improvement rate, time to alleviation of fever, mean time and proportion of obvious inflammatory absorption in the lung, conversion rate of repeated negative virus nucleic acid tests, mortality rate, and conversion rate to severe and critically severe patients.
32837848 Furthermore, a series of studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 induces clusters of severe respiratory illnesses (i.e., pneumonia, acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)) resembling SARS-CoV.
32837984 Further research should be conducted to define the exact mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, suitable animal models or ex vivo human lung tissues aid in studying replication, transmission and spread of the novel viruses, thereby facilitating highly effective therapies.
32838006 The first CT scan of 1 patient revealed large ground-glass opacity in the lungs involving the inner and middle bands. […] The first CT scan of lung lesions has a certain predictive effect on the outcome and prognosis of patients.
32838027 An AI-based platform is used to interrogate a massive 12 drug/dose parameter space, rapidly identifying actionable combination therapies that optimally inhibit A549 lung cell infection by vesicular stomatitis virus within three days of project start.
32838040 The most frequent associated tumor was lung (8/15 patients, 53.3%), 11 with metastatic disease (11/15, 73.3%).
32838045 We obtained information on demographics; weight; height; smoking history; diabetes; hypertension; and cardiovascular, lung, and renal disease.
32838083 Independent risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection were being older than 65 years, having manifestation of lung infection in imaging examinations, and having a lower level of serum albumin.
32838144 We would like to encourage the use of CPAP, better tolerated for extended hours with lower oxygen flows, in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, where acute respiratory distress all too often leads to patient intubation and the genesis of deleterious lung lesions.
32838168 The COVID-19-positive patient who is subject to a hyperinflammatory condition associated with lung injury with the development of pneumonia is hospitalized in the intensive care unit.
32838177 SARS-COV-2 mostly affected the respiratory tract, causing a severe acute lung failure.
32838196 Its pathogenesis appears to be the initiation of an immune response and resulting cytokine storm that damages the healthy lung tissue of the host.
32838199 Two radiologists evaluated the distribution and CT features of the lesions and also scored the extent of lung involvement as the sum of three zones in each lung.
32838206 Preliminary results suggest that other approaches such as convalescent plasma therapy and lung radiation therapy may have some efficacy.
32838215 Evidence has accumulated that ANP administered to pulmonary endothelial cells, isolated lungs, and patients suffering from ARDS reduces endothelial damage and preserves the endothelial barrier, thereby reducing pulmonary edema and inflammation. […] Epidemiologic and pharmacologic data suggest that deficiencies in the natriuretic peptide hormone system may contribute to the development of severe lung pathology in COVID-19 patients, and treatments that augment natriuretic peptide signaling may have potential to limit progression to ARDS.
32838235 Pneumonia with severe respiratory failure represents the principal cause of death in COVID-19, where hyper-inflammation plays an important role in lung damage.
32838236 COVID-19 survivors were recruited for high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the thorax, lung function and serum levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody tests 3 months after discharge. […] Lung function abnormalities were detected in 14 patients and the measurement of D-dimer levels at admission may be useful for prediction of impaired diffusion defect (P = 0.031, OR 1.066, 95% CI 1.006 to 1.129).
32838294 Higher CRP, NT-proBNP, lower immune CD3, CD4 and CD8 cell account and more involved lobes detected by CT scan in the lung were observed in increased TnI group.
32838307 Glucocorticoids were used for severe respiratory manifestations related to lung involvement in 17 (65%) of 26 cases and tocilizumab in six (23%) of 26; thrombotic events occurred in four (15%) of 26 cases.
32838342 Severe disease of SARS-CoV-2 is characterized by vigorous inflammatory responses in the lung, often with a sudden onset after 5-7 days of stable disease. […] We describe an IFNγ-eosinophil axis activated before lung hyperinflammation and changes in cell-cell co-regulation during different stages of the disease.
32838346 Viral RNA was also identified in the trachea, lung, and lung-associated lymphatic tissue in two animals euthanised at day 4.
32838371 Chronic lung disease (OR 0.68, [0.52-0.90]) and histories of alcohol (0.64 [0.42-0.99]) or substance abuse (0.39 [0.25-0.62]) were less likely to be associated with a positive COVID-19 result.
32838381 Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) of the lungs has been thrust into the forefront of resources that could be used in the management of COVID-19 acute care patients. […] This article presents 2 cases of generally healthy patients who were noted to have classic COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia findings on lung ultrasound and incidentally discovered to have unsuspected left ventricular dysfunction likely resulting from myocarditis.
32838382 Placing a patient in the prone position helps to improve ventilation-perfusion matching, dorsal lung recruitment, and ultimately gas exchange.
32838389 Early publications showed agreement between chest computed tomography (CT) and lung sonography: widespread ground-glass findings resembling acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on CT of COVID-19 patients matched lung ultrasound signs and patterns. […] Well-established accuracy of bedside sonography for lung conditions and its advantages (such as no ionizing radiation; low-cost, real-time bedside imaging; and easier disinfection steps) prompted a wider adoption of lung ultrasound for daily assessment and monitoring of COVID-19 patients. […] Growing literature, webinars, online materials, and international networks are promoting lung ultrasound for the same purpose. […] We propose 11 lung ultrasound roles for different medical settings during the pandemic, starting from the out-of-hospital setting, where lung ultrasound has ergonomic and infection control advantages. […] Then we describe how medical wards and ICUs can safely integrate lung ultrasound into COVID-19 care pathways. […] Finally, we present outpatient use of lung ultrasound to aid follow-up of positive case contacts and of those discharged from the hospital.
32838397 Recently, pathologic studies conducted by two teams in China revealed immunopathologic abnormalities in lung tissue. […] This review discusses the clinical and pathological features of COVID-19, the roles of immune cells in pathological processes, and the possible avenues for induction of immunosuppressive T regulatory cells attenuating lung inflammation due to viral infection.
32839287 With the pattern of thoracic imaging abnormalities and growing clinical experience, it is envisaged that interstitial lung disease and pulmonary vascular disease are likely to be the most important respiratory complications.
32839288 Lung histopathology shows features of acute and organising diffuse alveolar damage.
32839612 Although animal models have been evaluated for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, none have fully recapitulated the lung disease phenotypes seen in humans who have been hospitalized. […] Intranasal inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 in K18-hACE2 mice results in high levels of viral infection in lungs, with spread to other organs. […] SARS-CoV-2-infected lung tissues show a massively upregulated innate immune response with signatures of nuclear factor-κB-dependent, type I and II interferon signaling, and leukocyte activation pathways. […] Thus, the K18-hACE2 model of SARS-CoV-2 infection shares many features of severe COVID-19 infection and can be used to define the basis of lung disease and test immune and antiviral-based countermeasures.
32839667 Besides primary liver malignancies, almost all solid tumours are capable to spread metastases to the liver, in particular, gastrointestinal cancers, breast and genitourinary cancers, lung cancer, melanomas and sarcomas.
32840240 A detailed workup, including lung biopsy, revealed drug-induced pneumonitis as the cause of his presentation. […] CONCLUSIONS This case highlights the importance of early, rapid, and accurate testing for SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic for patients presenting with acute respiratory symptoms, so that accurate diagnosis and early patient management are not delayed for patients with treatable causes of acute and severe lung diseases. […] Timely identification of rifampicin-induced pneumonitis via a high clinical suspicion, detailed workup, and histopathological analysis is required to avoid permanent damage to the lungs.
32840385 To identify exercise tests that are suitable for home-based or remote administration in people with chronic lung disease. […] Rapid review of studies that reported home-based or remote administration of an exercise test in people with chronic lung disease, and studies reporting their clinimetric (measurement) properties. 84 studies were included.
32840663 Intensive care is needed for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2-induced organ failure, whereby lung failure in these patients requires differentiated ventilation therapies. […] Adjunctive diagnostic measures which enhance diagnostic specificity are lung ultrasound, x‑ray, and computed tomography of the lungs.
32841167 The main outcome was survival, secondary outcomes were clinical severity and lung damage. 91 patients were included, of which 21 (23.3%) died.
32841215 In contrast to nontransgenic mice, intranasal exposure of K18-hACE2 animals to 2 different doses of SARS-CoV-2 resulted in acute disease, including weight loss, lung injury, brain infection, and lethality. […] Vasculitis was the most prominent finding in the lungs of infected mice. […] Transcriptomic analysis from lungs of infected animals showed increases in transcripts involved in lung injury and inflammatory cytokines.
32841294 The laboratory results and dynamic changes of imaging features and severity scores of lung involvement based on chest CT were analyzed. […] GGO with consolidation was the most common feature for the five lung lobes (47%-53% among the various lobes), with total severity score of 12.97±5.87 for the both lungs. […] The severity score was rated as severe (white lung) in 13% patients on initial CT scans, and in 60% on follow-up CT scans.
32841519 Patients with Cystic fibrosis are considered of major risk, as respiratory tract infections are more severe than in the general population, with a higher risk of complications and a negative impact on lung function.
32842058 The entire lung volume was segmented on thin-section Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine images to derive whole-lung radiomics.
32842719 Compared with the survivor group, age, and the proportions of diabetes, chronic lung disease and FPG were significantly higher in the deceased group.
32842909 In this coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) era, when pneumonitis occurs in patients with lung cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), a major challenge is to make a rapid and correct differential diagnosis among drug-induced pulmonary toxicity, tumour progression, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced pneumonitis. […] Physicians need a collaborative effort to develop and share a common database reporting clinical (anosmia, dysgeusia), serologic, and radiologic data in ICI-treated patients with lung cancer developing interstitial disease to create an evidence-based clinical diagnostic algorithm.
32843064 A correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between COVID-19 and age, size of lung lesions, number of involved lobes, and CT findings of patients. […] The follow-up results showed that 67.8% (112/165) of COVID-19 patients had abnormal changes in their lung parameters, and the severity of the pulmonary sequelae of patients over 60 years of age worsened with age.
32843180 COVID-19 was diagnosed in eight CF patients, one of whom had received a lung transplant.
32843733 However, the neuroimmune interactions in the lung in the context of ARDS are poorly understood. […] In this Perspectives article, we propose the concept of the neuroimmune unit as a critical determinant of lung function in the context of COVID-19, inflammatory conditions and ageing, focusing particularly on the involvement of the vagus nerve.
32843887 According to the X-ray analysis, bilateral pulmonary parenchymal ground-glass and consolidative pulmonary opacities can be caused by COVID-19 - sometimes with a rounded morphology and a peripheral lung distribution.
32844126 Leptin receptors in the lungs are now more activated to enhance local pulmonary inflammation. […] Visceral fat, lung tissue and leptin production play an interconnecting role.
32844161 Thrombotic features were observed in at least one major organ in all full autopsies, predominantly in the lung (eight [89%] of nine patients), heart (five [56%]), and kidney (four [44%]). […] Diffuse alveolar damage was the most consistent lung finding (all ten patients); however, organisation was noted in patients with a longer clinical course.
32844172 In this critical scenario, patients with lung cancer need to continue to receive optimal care and at the same be shielded from infection with the potentially severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. […] Moreover, thoracic anaesthesia usually requires highly complex airway management procedures because of the need for one-lung isolation and one-lung ventilation. […] Therefore, in the current pandemic, providing a fast-track algorithm for scientifically standardized diagnostic criteria and treatment recommendations for patients with lung cancer is urgent.
32844364 The GGO regressed over the course of the antiviral treatment; however, new non-segmental patchy consolidations emerged, which resembled those of interstitial lung disease (ILD), specifically collagen vascular disease-associated ILD. […] In COVID-19 lung injury, there may be a presence of autoimmunity factors in addition to the known effects of cytokine storms.
32844375 Lung ultrasound is an essential tool in critical care, made more so by the enhanced precautions associated with the Covid-19 pandemic.
32845042 Findings associated with increased disease severity and/or mortality include age > 55 years, multiple pre-existing comorbidities, hypoxia, specific computed tomography findings indicative of extensive lung involvement, diverse laboratory test abnormalities, and biomarkers of end-organ dysfunction.
32845609 As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic unfolds, neurological signs and symptoms reflect the involvement of targets beyond the primary lung effects.
32846167 Inflammation of the lungs is the main factor leading to respiratory distress in patients with chronic respiratory disease and in patients with severe COVID-19. […] Several studies have shown that inflammation of the lungs in general and Type 2 diabetes are accompanied by the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), especially heparan sulfate (HS). […] Several studies have also shown the importance of countering the degradation of HS in lung infections and Type 2 diabetes. […] D-xylose and xylitol have demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antiglycemic, antiviral, and antibacterial properties in lung infections, alone or in combination with antibiotics.
32846329 Cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) and acute lung injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection severely threaten the patients. […] The acute lung injury was also alleviated and the survival time was prolonged in mice.
32847033 This leads to a cytokine storm and subsequent progression triggering acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and often death.
32847034 These catabolic pathways have been known to be involved in respiratory exacerbations and the pathogenesis of various lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis (CF), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). […] Briefly, proteostasis and autophagy processes are known to decline over time with age, cigarette or biomass smoke exposure, and/or influenced by underlying genetic factors, resulting in the accumulation of misfolded proteins and cellular debris, elevating apoptosis and cellular senescence, and initiating the pathogenesis of acute or chronic lung disease. […] Moreover, autophagic dysfunction results in an impaired microbial clearance, post-bacterial and/or viral infection(s) which contribute to the initiation of acute and recurrent respiratory exacerbations as well as the progression of chronic obstructive and restrictive lung diseases. […] In addition, the autophagic dysfunction-mediated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) immune response impairment further exacerbates the lung disease. […] Recent studies demonstrate the therapeutic potential of novel autophagy augmentation strategies, in alleviating the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive or restrictive lung diseases and exacerbations such as those commonly seen in COPD, CF, ALI/ARDS and COVID-19.
32848621 SARS-CoV-2 is reported to be able to infect the lungs, the intestines, blood vessels, the bile ducts, the conjunctiva, macrophages, T lymphocytes, the heart, liver, kidneys, and brain. […] The proposed model clarifies a wide range of clinically observed phenomena in CoVID-19 patients, such as neurological symptoms unassociated with lung pathology, protracted presence of the virus in samples obtained from recovered patients, exaggerated immune response, and multiple organ failure in severe cases with variable course and dynamics of the disease.
32848729 The properties of the top 10 CPMs included antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic, anti-acute lung injury, anti-shock, immune regulation, and enhancement of pulmonary function.
32848776 Differentiation of non-classic pathogenic T-cells and pro-inflammatory intermediate monocytes contributes to a skewed inflammatory profile, mediated by membrane-bound immune receptor subtypes (e.g., FcγRIIA) and downstream signaling pathways (e.g., NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK), followed by chemotactic infiltration of monocyte-derived macrophages and neutrophils into lung tissue.
32848893 We draw parallels and divergences between COVID-19-induced respiratory distress and bacterial sepsis-induced lung injury and recommend the road ahead with respect to identification of endothelium-based biomarkers and plausible treatments for COVID-19.
32849438 Lung hypoxia, typical symptoms of COVID-19, would favor the growth of anaerobes and facultative anaerobes originating from the oral microbiota. […] SARS-CoV-2 may aggravate lung disease by interacting with the lung or oral microbiota via mechanisms involving changes in cytokines, T cell responses, and the effects of host conditions such as aging and the oral microbiome changes due to systemic diseases. […] Because the oral microbiome is closely associated with SARS-CoV-2 co-infections in the lungs, effective oral health care measures are necessary to reduce these infections, especially in severe COVID-19 patients.
32849655 The lung is the vital target organ of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] In the majority of patients the most active virus replication seems to be found in the upper respiratory tract, severe cases however suffer from SARS-like disease associated with virus replication in lung tissues. […] Due to the current lack of suitable anti-viral drugs the induction of protective immunity such as neutralizing antibodies in the lung is the key aim of the only alternative approach-the development and application of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. […] However, past experience from experimental animals, livestock, and humans showed that induction of immunity in the lung is limited following application of vaccines at peripheral sides such as skin or muscles.
32849666 B1-receptors, binding the metabolite [des-Arg9]-BK (DABK), are up-regulated during infections and mediate lung inflammatory responses. […] Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme (ACE) 2 displays lung protective effects: it inactivates DABK and converts Angiotensin II (Ang II) into Angiotensin-(1-7) and Angiotensin I into Angiotensin-(1-9).
32849976 As in vitro models for such studies, lung-on-a-chip (LOAC) devices can represent key physical and physiological aspects of alveolar tissues.
32850151 Although pulmonary fibrosis can occur in the absence of a clear-cut inciting agent, and without a clinically clear initial acute inflammatory phase, it is more commonly associated with severe lung injury. […] Pulmonary fibrosis is associated with permanent pulmonary architectural distortion and irreversible lung dysfunction. […] The aim of this review is to explore the current literature on the pathogenesis of lung injury in COVID-19 infection. […] We evaluate the evidence in support of the putative risk factors for the development of lung fibrosis in the disease and propose risk mitigation strategies. […] With no proven effective targeted therapy against pulmonary fibrosis, risk reduction measures should be directed at limiting the severity of the disease and protecting the lungs from other incidental injuries.
32850225 Performance was further subdivided into five categories: resuscitation integration, lung ultrasound, transthoracic echo, disease recognition, and treatment. […] Post-test scores also improved in each category, with lung ultrasound being the most significant improvement (P = 0.04).
32850241 Objective The objective of the present study is to describe high-resolution CT (HRCT) chest manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients presenting to a tertiary healthcare facility in Punjab, Pakistan, and to analyze the distribution of the disease in lung fields. […] Additionally, CT-SS was calculated by dividing each lung into 20 zones.
32850265 Objectives Clinically suspicious novel coronavirus (COVID-19) lung pneumonia can be observed typically on computed tomography (CT) chest scans even in patients with a negative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. […] Conclusion Lung parenchymal changes related to COVID-19 can be seen on chest CT clearly despite repeated RT-PCR negative results.
32850560 We aimed to use 3D lung reconstruction of a young lady affected by Sars-CoV2 infection and interstitial pneumonia, to better visualize, and quantitatively assess the parenchymal involvement. […] Methods: Volumetric Chest CT scan was performed in a 15 years old girl with interstitial lung pneumonia, Sars-CoV2 infection related. […] 3D modeling of the lungs, with differentiation of healthy and affected parenchymal area were obtained by using multiple software. […] Results: 3D reconstruction imaging allowed us to quantify the lung parenchyma involved, Self-explaining 3D images, useful for the understanding, and discussion of the clinical case were also obtained. […] Conclusions: Quantitative Assessment of Parenchymal Involvement Using 3D Lung Model in Covid-19 Infection is feasible and it provides information which could play a role in the management and risk stratification of these patients.
32850607 Current epidemiological studies suggest that COVID-19 affects older patients with multiple comorbidities, such as hypertension, obesity, and chronic lung diseases. […] However, it remains unknown whether the expression of ACE2 differs in the lungs of male or female patients.
32850752 The pulmonary system and lungs in particular are most prone to damage caused by the SARS-CoV-2 infection, which leaves a destructive footprint in the lung tissue, making it incapable of conducting its respiratory functions and resulting in severe acute respiratory disease and loss of life. […] Given the urgency to address lung failure in COVID-19, we summarize the feasibility of delivering promising therapies by the inhalational route, with the expectation that this route will provide the most effective intervention to halt viral spread.
32850977 The mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 induced acute lung injury are still undefined; however, the term cytokine storm has now been recognized to be closely associated with COVID-19. […] In particular, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 appears to be the key mediator in early phase of virus-receptor interaction; however, secreted IL-6 might not be representative of lung inflammation.
32850978 Once internalized into host cells, such as lung alveolar cells, GapmeR molecules can bind to the viral RNA.
32850989 The cardiovascular damage may be related to the imbalance of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) as this virus binds the Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme 2 (ACE2), expressed on the lung alveolar epithelial cells, to enter into cells. […] An imbalance between these angiotensins may be responsible for the lung and heart damage.
32851078 A total of 399 segments were involved and distributed bilaterally (left lung: 186 segments [46.6%], right lung: 213 segments [53.4%]) and peripherally (38 [71.7%] patients).
32851183 Here we show that mice with lung epithelial cell-specific loss of function of Miz1, which we identified as a negative regulator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling, spontaneously develop progressive age-related changes resembling COPD. […] Miz1 protein levels are reduced in the lungs from patients with COPD, and in the lungs of mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke. […] Our data suggest that Miz1 down-regulation-induced sustained activation of NF-κB-dependent inflammation in the lung epithelium is sufficient to induce progressive lung and airway destruction that recapitulates features of COPD, with implications for COVID-19.
32851931 We report a case series of seven neonates with congenital heart and lung malformations born to women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during their pregnancy at a single academic medical center in New York City. […] In this case series, maternal infection with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy did not result in adverse outcomes in neonates with complex heart or lung malformations.
32852112 We intended to assess whether lung ultrasound (LUS) examinations performed by PC physicians are a useful tool to detect lung injury and may help in decisions about hospital referral. […] Its use can reduce uncertainty during clinical evaluations of moderate patients, facilitate early detection of lung involvement, allow early appropriate referral, and avoid unnecessary referral.
32852586 Patients with a/parenchymal lesion characteristics of COVID-19 involving at least 50% of lung parenchyma and b/positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 were retrospectively included. […] Out of the 219 patients with critical (n = 52) and severe lung (n = 167) parenchyma lesions, 51 (23%) had CT scan signs of AAI, which was bilateral in 45 patients (88%).
32852883 Using the LHS-integrated electronic medical records system, we were able to collect a large amount of clinical information including age, sex, socio-economic status, weight, height, body mass index, HbA1c, prior diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease, depression/anxiety, schizophrenia, dementia, hypertension, cerebrovascular accident, congestive heart failure, smoking, and chronic lung disease. […] A prior diagnosis of cerebrovascular accident and chronic lung disease conferred an increased risk of hospitalization but not obesity or smoking status.
32853024 Enhanced survival of Sendai virus pneumonia with Pam2-ODN treatment was associated with reductions in lung virus burden and with virus inactivation prior to internalization. […] We noted that mortality in sham-treated mice corresponded with CD8+ T cell lung inflammation on days 11-12 after virus challenge, after the viral burden had declined. […] Stimulation of local innate immunity within the lungs by TLR agonists early in disease or suppression of adaptive immunity by systemic CD8+ T cell depletion late in disease improves outcomes of viral pneumonia in mice.
32853038 Its immunomodulatory properties include the ability to downregulate cytokine production, maintain epithelial cell integrity or prevent lung fibrosis.
32853490 Included in this article are data on clinical outcomes that highlight the role of pre-existing (health disparities) conditions like diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and lung disease, as barriers to optimal outcomes among African-Americans who are hospitalized with COVID-19.
32853545 Emerging knowledge on the basic biological pathways that underlie differences in immune responses between women and men needs to be incorporated into research efforts on SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and pathology to identify targets for therapeutic interventions aimed at enhancing antiviral immune function and lung airway resilience while reducing pathogenic inflammation in COVID-19.
32853631 Covid-19 was diagnosed in symptomatic patients who had a positive PCR assay for SARS-CoV-2 or having typical lung lesions on imaging.
32853823 Since ACE2 is expressed in various tissues, such as brain, gut, heart, kidney, and lung, and since these organs represent obvious targets for the SARS-CoV-2 infection, therapeutic approaches were developed to either inhibit ACE2 or reduce its expression as a means of prevention of the virus entry into the corresponding host cells.
32853989 Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with severe inflammation in mainly the lung, and kidney.
32854088 Lung weight was significantly higher in COVID- patients, but all COVID+ patients presented supranormal lung weight values. […] Noninflated lung tissue was significantly higher in COVID- patients (36 ± 14% vs. 26 ± 15% of total lung weight at end-expiration, p < 0.01). […] Lung density histograms of 5 COVID+ patients with high elastance (type H) were similar to those of COVID- patients, while those of the 8 COVID+ patients with normal elastance (type L) displayed higher aerated lung fraction.
32854247 The severe oxidative environment that occurs in obesity due to chronic inflammation permits viral activation of further inflammation leading to severe lung disease. […] Moreover, because of the observed diversity in the expression of COVID-19 inflammation, the role of genetics of innate immune molecules, surfactant protein A (SP-A)1 and SP-A2, and their differential impact on the local lung microenvironment and host defense is reviewed as genetics may play a major role in the diverse expression of the disease.
32854630 To explain these pathophysiological features and discuss the ventilatory strategy during the late phase of severe ARDS in COVID-19 patients, we first used a metabolic module on a General Electric R860 ventilator (Engstrom Carestation; GE Healthcare, USA) to monitor parameters related to gas metabolism, lung mechanics and physiological dead space in two COVID-19 patients.
32854774 Initially the magnitude of lung devastation, clinical deterioration and the need for mechanical ventilation suggested unfavorable prognosis. […] Current and future research should also investigate the impact of experimental therapies on lung tissue healing and regeneration, as well as long-term treatment toxicities.
32854921 To determine whether findings from lung ultrasound and chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) correlate when evaluating COVID-19 pulmonary involvement. […] All patients were assessed using HRCT and ultrasound of the lungs by distinct operators blinded to each other’s findings. […] The number of areas (0-12) with B-lines and/or consolidations was evaluated using ultrasound and compared to the percentage and classification (absent or limited, <10%; moderate, 10-25%; extensive, 25-50%; severe, 50-75%; critical, >75%) of lung involvement on chest HRCT. […] Data were analysed for 21 patients with COVID-19 (median [range] age 65 [37-90] years, 76% male) and excellent correlation was found between the ultrasound score for B-lines and the classification (p<0.01) and percentage of lung involvement on chest HRCT (r=0.935, p<0.001). […] The present study suggests that among COVID-19 patients, lung ultrasound and HRCT findings agree in quantifying lung involvement and oxygen parameters. […] In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, lung ultrasound could be a relevant alternative to chest HRCT.
32856063 There is currently a lack of clinical data on the novel beta-coronavirus infection [caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)] and concomitant primary lung cancer. […] Our goal was to report our experiences with 5 patients treated for lung cancer while infected with SARS-CoV-2. […] We retrospectively evaluated 5 adult patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 who were admitted to our thoracic surgery unit between 29 January 2020 and 4 March 2020 for surgical treatment of a primary lung cancer. […] Two patients (1 with a right pneumonectomy, 74 years old; 1 with a lobectomy with chest wall resection and reconstruction, 70 years old), developed SARS-CoV-2-related lung failure leading to death 60 and 32 days after surgery, respectively. […] Lung cancer surgery may represent a high-risk factor for developing a severe case of coronavirus disease 2019, particularly in patients with advanced stages of lung cancer. […] Additional strategies are needed to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection during treatment for lung cancer.
32857175 The initially identified pulmonary damage patterns, such as diffuse alveolar damage in acute lung failure, are accompanied by new findings that draw a more complex scenario. […] Patient 1 showed a relative hypoperfusion in lung regions that did not have typical COVID-19 infiltrates; the targeted post-mortem correlation also showed subtle signs of microvascular damage even in these lung sections. […] Patient 2 showed both radiologically and pathologically advanced typical COVID-19 destruction of lung structures and the case illustrates the damage patterns of the blood-air barrier.
32857671 The virus affects not only the lungs but also other tissues, thus lending support to the idea that COVID-19 is a systemic disease. […] The current vaccine and treatment development strategies ought to consider such systems medicine perspectives rather than a narrower focus on the lung infection only.
32857693 When it became clear that the virus mainly attacks the lungs by causing parenchymal changes in the form of multifocal pneumonia of different levels of severity, imaging became paramount in the assessment of disease severity, progression, and even response to treatment. […] As a result, there was a need to establish protocols for imaging of the lungs in these patients. […] US is a highly versatile, portable, and inexpensive imaging modality that has application across a broad spectrum of conditions and, in this way, is ideally suited to assess the lungs of COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). […] This article presents a basic introduction to COVID-19 and the use of the US for lung imaging. […] It further provides a high-level overview of the existing US technologies that are driving development in current and potential future US imaging systems for lung, with a specific emphasis on portable and 3-D systems.
32858551 Lung ultrasound (LUS) is widely used in intensive care units because it provides timely information noninvasively. […] LUS initially revealed extensive consolidation in the bilateral lower lung (BLL) fields with coalescent B-lines. […] The LUS findings were more sensitive than those of the CXR in detecting re-expansion of the lungs by showing B-lines instead of consolidations in the BLL fields immediately after recruitment maneuver (RM). […] Compared with physiological parameters, LUS findings provided more precise information about the parts of the lungs that had been recruited by RM.
32858940 Here, we briefly introduce the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and its implications in the heart and lungs. […] Next, we describe some of the most significant clinical evidence of the successful use of MSC-derived exosomes in animal models of lung and heart injuries, which might strengthen our hypothesis in terms of their utility for also treating critically ill COVID-19 patients.
32858958 The purpose of this study was to identify microRNA with predicted binding sites in the SARS-CoV-2 genome, compare these to their microRNA expression profiles in lung epithelial tissue and make inference towards possible roles for microRNA in mitigating coronavirus infection. […] We hypothesize that high expression of specific coronavirus-targeting microRNA in lung epithelia may protect against infection and viral propagation, conversely, low expression may confer susceptibility to infection. […] We have identified 128 human microRNA with potential to target the SARS-CoV-2 genome, most of which have very low expression in lung epithelia.
32859121 K562 and lung epithelial cells were transfected with spike proteins and co-cultured with NK cells. […] On the contrary, SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 protein (SP1) intracellular expression by lung epithelial cells resulted in NK cell-reduced degranulation. […] Further experiments revealed a concomitant induction of HLA-E expression on the surface of lung epithelial cells and the recognition of an SP1-derived HLA-E-binding peptide. […] Simultaneously, there was increased modulation of the inhibitory receptor NKG2A/CD94 on NK cells when SP1 was expressed in lung epithelial cells. […] We show for the first time that NK cells are affected by SP1 expression in lung epithelial cells via HLA-E/NKG2A interaction.
32859545 These cases highlight that host responses and mechanisms of lung injury might be different in severe acute pancreatitis and COVID-19.
32859733 An increasing observation is that some patients with COVID-19 have normal lung compliance but significant hypoxaemia different from typical acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
32860069 Information regarding the use of lung ultrasound (LUS) in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is quickly accumulating, but its use for risk stratification and outcome prediction has yet to be described. […] Clinical deterioration was associated with increased follow-up LUS scores (p = 0.0009), mostly due to loss of aeration in anterior lung segments.
32860074 To assess the rate and pattern of incidental interstitial lung abnormalities suggestive of COVID-19 on 18F-FDG PET/CT in asymptomatic cancer patients during the period of active COVID-19 circulation between March and April 2020 in a geographic area of low prevalence of the virus. […] We observed a 1.6% increase in interstitial lung abnormalities during the period of COVID-19 circulation. […] All had < 50% lung involvement.
32860146 We evaluated lung and kidney perfusion abnormalities in patients with COVID-19 by dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and investigated the role of perfusion abnormalities on disease severity as a sign of microvascular obstruction. […] Patient characteristics and laboratory findings were compared between those with and without lung perfusion deficits (PDs). […] We found that a large proportion of patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 had PDs in their lungs and kidneys, which may be suggestive of the presence of systemic microangiopathy with micro-thrombosis. […] • A cutoff value of 0.485 μg/L for D-dimer plasma levels predicted lung perfusion deficits with 100% specificity and 87% sensitivity (AUROC, 0.957).
32860252 This article summarizes the effects of sivelestat on acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) or ARDS with coagulopathy, both of which are frequently seen in patients with COVID-19.
32860358 Hydroxychloroquine seems to promote a reduction in viral load, in vivo studies, preventing the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into lung cells, and the safety of its administration is questioned due to the toxic effects that it can develop, such as retinopathy, hypoglycemia and even cardiotoxicity.
32860393 For example patients with cardiovascular disease and others referred for nuclear cardiology procedures are frequently greater than 60 years of age and have other comorbidities (e.g. hypertension, diabetes, chronic lung disease, and chronic renal disease) that place them at a high-risk for adverse outcomes with COVID-19, providing unique challenges for their management in healthcare facilities, as well as for the care of health care personnel.
32860909 This study included 390 allo-HCT recipients at our center for whom lung CT images and PFT results before allo-HCT were available.
32861174 The evolution of lung abnormalities over time, the uncommon findings, the possible complications, and the main differential diagnosis occurring in the pandemic phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection are also discussed.
32861230 In this retrospective study, the data including demographic features and the patient’s clinical background in terms of co-morbidities such as diabetes, cancer, chronic lung disease (CLD), coronary heart disease (CHD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and weak immune system (WIS) were extracted from electronic medical records.
32861276 Lung CT scans and CT angiograms were done when clinically indicated. […] Total lung weight did not differ between the two cohorts.
32861340 Using publicly available expression data, we show that both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed in many host tissues, including lung. […] We show that expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are overall comparable between men and women in multiple tissues, suggesting that differences in the expression levels of TMPRSS2 and ACE2 in the lung and other non-sex-specific tissues may not explain the gender disparities in severity of SARS CoV-2.
32861887 Emergency tracheal intubation was performed, and the initial ventilator mode and parameters were set up based on the lung-protective ventilation strategy, but the P/F ratio could not be improved, and then the prone position ventilation was carried out for four consecutive days, as long as 16 hours every day, the P/F ratio rose to 180mmHg approximately, which still did not reach to the standard of extubation.
32862224 However, there was no consensus about surgical priorities in lung cancer patients, demonstrating the need for the production of specific guidelines.
32862411 This is the first study to show a stepwise increase in venous thrombotic events according to COVID-19 coagulopathy (COVID-19-associated hemostatic abnormalities [CAHA]) staging and lung injuries assessed by chest computed tomography.
32862474 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by severe lung involvement and hemodynamic alterations.
32863034 The resulting cytokine storm leads to the development of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS).
32863364 For rapidly progressive COVID-19 cases, the early use of PMX-DHP may avoid the need for mechanical ventilation by suppressing local inflammation of the lung.
32863618 The method proposed in the present work is simple, cost-effective, and sensitive, with a far-reaching potential of addressing and diagnosing the current issue of COVID 19 through lung auscultation.
32863636 This immunopathogenesis leads to acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
32863816 At the beginning of the SARS-CoV‑2 pandemic the focus of attention was on children and adolescents with chronic lung diseases. […] In the majority of cases, children and adolescents with chronic lung diseases show a milder course of SARS-CoV‑2 infections.
32864178 The lung is the main target organ attacked by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) while immune organs, liver, blood vessels and other organs are damaged to varying degrees.
32864270 Such a tool can gauge the severity of COVID-19 lung infections (and pneumonia in general) that can be used for escalation or de-escalation of care as well as monitoring treatment efficacy, especially in the ICU. […] Methods Images from a public COVID-19 database were scored retrospectively by three blinded experts in terms of the extent of lung involvement as well as the degree of opacity. […] Results This study finds that training a regression model on a subset of the outputs from this pre-trained chest X-ray model predicts our geographic extent score (range 0-8) with 1.14 mean absolute error (MAE) and our lung opacity score (range 0-6) with 0.78 MAE. […] Conclusions These results indicate that our model’s ability to gauge the severity of COVID-19 lung infections could be used for escalation or de-escalation of care as well as monitoring treatment efficacy, especially in the ICU.
32864406 The main dynamic evolution characteristics were as follows: ① Imaging findings of the progression process: the main CT changes were increased GGOs with consolidation (118/126, 93.7%), an increased “crazy paving pattern” (104/126, 82.5%), an increased “vascular thickening sign” (105/126, 83.3%), and an increased “air bronchogram sign” (95/126, 75.4%); ② Imaging findings of the absorption process: the main CT changes were the obvious absorption of consolidation displayed as inhomogeneous partial GGOs with fibrosis shadows, the occurrence of a “fishing net on trees sign” (45/126, 35.7%), an increased “fibrosis sign” (40/126, 31.7%), an increased “subpleural line sign” (35/126, 27.8%), a decreased “crazy paving pattern” (19.8%), and a decreased “vascular thickening sign” (23.8%); and ③ In the stage of discharge, the main CT manifestations were further absorption of GGOs, consolidation and fibrosis shadows in the lung, and no appearance of new lesions, with only a small amount of shadow with fibrotic streaks and reticulations remaining in some cases (16/126, 12.7%).
32864572 Based on these facts, we presume that SARS-CoV-2 like SARS-CoV downregulates ACE2, and in absence/reduced activity of ACE2, level of angiotensin (1-7) and angiotensin (1-9) is decreased while that of angiotensin II is increased and increased level of angiotensin II has been found to correlate with lung injury and viral load.
32864588 National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Heart Lung Blood Institute, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, Chan Zuckerberg Initiative.
32864934 As ACE2 is highly expressed in lung tissue, patients have been progressing to acute respiratory injury at an alarming frequency during the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic. […] It seems that an overwhelming inflammatory and thrombogenic condition is responsible for a mismatching of ventilation and perfusion, with a somewhat near-normal static lung compliance, which describes two types of pulmonary conditions.
32865300 Infections range from asymptomatic to severe (increased respiratory rate, hypoxia, significant lung involvement on imaging) or critical (multi-organ failure or dysfunction or respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation or high-flow nasal cannula).
32865490 The histomorphological changes of lung damage in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not yet been adequately characterized. […] The autopsies revealed characteristic COVID-19-induced pathological changes in the lungs, which were regarded as the cause of death in most patients. […] Diffuse lung damage was seen exclusively in invasively ventilated patients. […] The autopsy findings suggest that focal damage of the microvascular pulmonary circulation is a main mechanism of lethal lung disease due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. […] It may also be a cause of persistent lung damage in patients who recover from severe COVID-19.
32865522 BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with lung inflammation and cytokine storm. […] Adjunct PBMT has been employed in treating patients with lung conditions. […] Human studies and experimental models of respiratory disease suggest PBMT reduces inflammation and promotes lung healing. […] The patient was evaluated before and after treatment via radiological assessment of lung edema (RALE) by CXR, pulmonary severity indices, blood tests, oxygen requirements, and patient questionnaires.
32866536 An increased body of epidemiological and clinical evidences has shown modulating effects of vitamin D in lung injuries through several mechanisms.
32867617 The lung is the most vulnerable target for the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and respiratory failure causing acute respiratory distress syndrome is its foremost outcome. […] In this study, we show preliminary data on how human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived lung epithelial cell system could emerge as a relevant and sensitive platform for modeling SARS-CoV-2 infection and drug screening.
32867652 In addition, MSCs have a strong ability to repair tissue damage and reduce the risk of severe complications such as acute lung injury and ARDS, and hopefully reduce the fatality rate in these patients.
32868193 As for radiological findings by chest CT scan, ground-glass opacities (GGO)s, peripheral distribution, bilateral lung involvements were seen in 88 (96%), 76 (83%) and 78 (85%), respectively.
32868956 The first DL was developed to extract lung features from chest X-ray radiographs for COVID-19 discrimination and trained using 3548 chest X-ray radiographs. […] The second DL was trained with 406-pixel patches and applied to the recognized X-ray radiographs to localize and assign them into the left lung, right lung or bipulmonary.
32868970 The main clinical feature of COVID-19 ranges from asymptomatic disease to mild lower respiratory tract illness to severe pneumonia, acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple organ dysfunction, and death.
32868978 The preprint of day-7 interim results by the investigators concluded, “In a small pilot trial of 5 oxygen-dependent patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, low-dose whole-lung radiation led to rapid improvement in clinical status, encephalopathy, and radiographic infiltrates without acute toxicity or worsening the cytokine storm. […] Low-dose whole-lung radiation appears to be safe, shows early promise of efficacy, and warrants larger prospective trials.”
32868999 The principles derived include (i) targeting the appropriate specificity and effector function of the humoral response, (ii) eliciting a T cell response, especially a cytotoxic T cell response, to achieve safe, yet effective, immune protection from COVID-19, and (iii) monitoring for the possibility of acute lung injury during SARS-CoV-2 infection post-vaccination in preclinical and clinical studies.
32869273 Reports have also shown that vitamin D deficiency was associated to exacerbations and hospital admissions, as well as lung function.
32869550 He was diagnosed with lung cancer.
32870787 Critical care ultrasound (CCUS) can rapidly acquire the image of lung and other organs and demonstrate the pathophysiological changes to guide precise therapy in COVID-19 pneumonia without radiation or interfering with personal protective equipment.
32871306 In this review, we survey papers addressing issues related to severe COVID-19, characterized by enhanced lung microvascular loss, hypercytokinemia, hypoxemia and thrombosis.
32871900 They also presented with pulmonary fibrosis findings, including traction bronchiectasis and marked lung volume reduction.
32871902 In our case, the SARS-CoV-2 infection had lung, nasopharyngeal, neurological, digestive, and skin manifestations.
32871990 Despite the lack of the presence of a fever or cough, lung pulmonary lesions were present in this child.
32872009 This systematic review will evaluate the existing evidence of pediatric massage therapy for restoring pediatric lung function from COVID-19.
32872332 Additionally, cells isolated from the lungs were used to perform single-cell RNA sequencing and transcriptome analysis. […] The treatment of SEB-mediated ARDS mice with THC led to a 100% survival, decreased lung inflammation, and the suppression of cytokine storm. […] A transcriptomic analysis of immune cells from the lungs revealed an increase in mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes following THC treatment.
32873175 Infection with novel SARS-CoV-2 carries significant morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary compromise, such as lung cancer, autoimmune disease, and pneumonia.
32873611 Baseline pulmonary levels of antiviral leukocytes, already residing in the lung prior to infection, may orchestrate an effective early immune response and prevent severe symptoms. […] Here, “in silico flow cytometry” was used to deconvolute the levels of all seven types of antiviral leukocytes in 1,927 human lung tissues. […] Baseline levels of CD8+ T cells, resting NK cells, and activated NK cells, as well as cytokines that recruit these cells, are significantly lower in lung tissues with high expression of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] Both SARS-CoV-2-infected lung cells and COVID-19 lung tissues show upregulation of CD8+ T cell- and NK cell-recruiting cytokines. […] Thus, the results suggest that some individuals may be exceedingly susceptible to develop severe COVID-19 due to concomitant high preexisting ACE2 and TMPRSS expression and low baseline cytotoxic lymphocyte levels in the lung.IMPORTANCE COVID-19 is caused by the highly contagious coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and currently has detrimental human health, community, and economic impacts around the world. […] This study finds that if the lungs of healthy individuals have high levels of ACE2, they typically have low levels of the immune cells that eliminate viruses. […] Therefore, some individuals may develop severe COVID-19 due to simultaneous high levels of the virus receptor and low levels of immune cells that eradicate the virus in their lungs.
32873700 As TMPRSS2 is expressed outside of the lung, and can therefore contribute to extrapulmonary spread of viruses, it warrants further exploration as a potential target for limiting viral spread and infectivity.
32874801 While patients might meet the Berlin criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), not all patients experience the same decrease in lung compliance as typically seen with ARDS. […] We have observed patients meeting ARDS criteria with higher lung compliance as measured through peak pressures at our institution.
32874986 Upon resolution of lung changes evidenced by CT, the patients were sequentially weaned using a weaning screening test, spontaneous breathing test, and airbag leak test.
32875276 Data from previous coronavirus outbreaks such as SARS-CoV (2003 outbreak) and emerging epidemiological data from the current global COVID-19 pandemic suggest that there could be substantial tissue fibrotic consequences following SARS-CoV-2 infection, responsible for severe and in some cases fatal lung lesions. […] Some data show that even patients cured of viral infection have lung fibrotic tissue residues responsible for incorrect respiratory function even after healing.
32875776 Lung Ultrasound (LUS) is regarded to be potentially useful to diagnose lung injury in older adults living in nursing homes with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia. […] We aimed at evaluating presence lung injury among senior nursing home residents by LUS performed with portable wireless scanner echography. […] Positive subjects to LUS scanning were considered those with non-coascelent B-lines in >3 zones, coalescent B-lines in >3 zones and with iperdensed patchy non-consolidated lungs. […] Sixteen percent of residents tested negative for SARSCoV-2 carried the signs of COVID-19 lung injury at LUS. […] We conclude that assessment of LUS by portable wireless scanner echography can be profitability utilized to diagnose lung injury among senior nursing home residents with or without symptoms compatible with COVID-19 pneumonia.
32876154 This paper aims to present a brief review of the literature and discuss, based on evidence, the role of vitamin D in the lung function and in the prevention of respiratory infections.
32876213 The predominant radiological presentation was bilateral interstitial lung infiltrate.
32876222 In lung biopsies of severe patients, the most noticeable finding is diffuse alveolar damage.
32876569 The aim of this study was to evaluate visual and software-based quantitative assessment of parenchymal changes and normal lung parenchyma in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. […] Visual quantitative assessment score (VQAS) was performed according to the extent of lung opacities. […] Software-based quantitative assessment of the normal lung parenchyma percentage (SQNLP) was automatically quantified by a deep learning software.
32876680 Although diffuse alveolar damage, a subtype of acute lung injury (ALI), is the most common microscopic pattern in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), other pathologic patterns have been described.
32876689 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with severe lung damage.
32876695 Dexamethasone use might attenuate lung injury in these patients.
32877308 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome and lung failure, is caused by the novel coronavirus, also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
32877380 A chest CT scan showed an acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD) and bilateral lung involvement with ground-glass opacity, compatible with interstitial pneumonia.
32877391 In December 2019, a new strain of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus was reported in Wuhan, China, which produced severe lung involvement and progressed to respiratory distress.
32878480 Patients with severe COVID-19 are managed with oxygen support, as are at-risk individuals with chronic lung disease. […] To address this, steady-state mRNA levels for genes encoding these SARS-CoV-2 receptors were assessed in the lungs of mouse pups chronically exposed to elevated FiO2, and in the lungs of preterm-born human infants chronically managed with an elevated FiO2.
32878732 This study was designed to investigate health-related aspects of individuals with CF, with and without lung transplantation (LTX), their communication with their specialist healthcare providers during the pandemic, potential changes in peoples’ individual therapy regimes and daily physical activity levels. […] Distress regarding a potential SARS-CoV-2 infection or worsening of lung disease were no major concerns for subjects. […] Our study reveals that the direct impact of SARS-CoV-2 on clinical outcomes of individuals with CF was mild although people with chronic lung diseases like CF are considered a high-risk population; overall, this is reassuring.
32879082 Of the 71 patients, the lung was involved in 60 (84.5%) patients, the double lung was involved in 47 (66.2%) patients, and the single lung was involved in 13 (18.3%) patients.
32879115 The perioperative management for such patients needs to fully consider the possible lung injury factors caused by anesthesia and surgery. […] It also needs to choose the suitable timing of the operation, carry out preoperative infection screening and evaluation, and implement lung protection strategies during and after the operation to avoid aggravating the lung injury.
32879413 We systematically evaluated lungs of 68 autopsies from 3 institutions in heavily hit areas (2 USA, 1 Italy). […] In a subset of cases, virus was detected using different tools (immunohistochemistry for SARS-CoV-2 viral spike protein, RNA in situ hybridization, lung viral culture, and electron microscopy). […] IHC or in situ detection, as well as viable form (lung culture positive) was associated with the presence of hyaline membranes, usually within 2 weeks but up to 4 weeks after initial diagnosis. […] Viral infection in areas of ongoing active injury contributes to persistent and temporally heterogeneous lung damage.
32879841 There is an urgent need to share experiences and offer guidance on decision-making with regard to the indications and standards for radiation therapy in the treatment of lung cancer. […] In the present article, the Oncological Group for the Study of Lung Cancer of the Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology reviews the literature and establishes a series of consensus-based recommendations for the treatment of patients with lung cancer in different clinical scenarios during the present pandemic.
32879862 Some works have highlighted pathological changes on lung microvasculature with local pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy that may explain pulmonary artery thrombosis found on pulmonary computed tomography (CT) angiography. […] The objective of our study was to describe lung perfusion disorders assessed by pulmonary dual-energy CT (DECT) angiography in severe COVID-19 patients. […] The lung parenchyma was divided into volumes based on HU values. […] DECT analysis included lung segmentation, total lungs volume and distribution of lung perfusion assessment. […] Lung parenchyma was divided between normal parenchyma (59%, of which 34% was hypoperfused), ground glass opacities (10%, of which 20% was hypoperfused) and consolidation (31%, of which 10% was hypoperfused).
32880993 The results of biopsy showed that the epithelium of lung was exfoliated and the mucosa was edematous.
32881059 An inhaled plasmid DNA vaccine replicates the route of lung infection taken by coronavirus with transfected cells secreting spike protein portions to induce immunity. […] Lung specific production of vaccine particles by inhaled plasmid DNA is appealing since it may have limited systemic side-effects, and may induce both humoral and cytotoxic immunity.
32881214 Natural products like ginger, turmeric, garlic, onion, cinnamon, lemon, neem, basil, and black pepper have been scientifically proven to have therapeutic benefits against acute respiratory tract infections including pulmonary fibrosis, diffuse alveolar damage, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, as well as associated septic shock, lung and kidney injury, all of which are symptoms associated with COVID-19 infection.
32881315 There are limited data describing COVID-19 in lung transplant recipients. […] We performed a single center, retrospective case series study of lung transplant patients followed by the Columbia Lung Transplant program who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between March 19-May 19, 2020. 32 lung transplant patients developed mild (16%), moderate (44%), or severe (41%) COVID-19. […] The median age of patients was 65 years, and the median time from lung transplant was 5.6 years. […] COVID-19 is associated with severe illness and a high mortality rate in lung transplant recipients.
32881359 BRH tablets may potentially have a beneficial effect in patients with COVID-19, especially for those with lung or hepatic injury.
32881412 As brain metastases are a common presentation in lung cancer, during the pandemic, it potentially can pose a major management challenge to clinicians.
32881685 Lung ultrasound, brief echocardiography, and blood volume assessment were performed. […] Lung ultrasound indicated signs of pneumonia with varying degrees in all cases and mild pleural effusion in one case.
32881950 To investigate the role of lung ultrasound score (LUS) in assessing intubation timing for patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. […] All patients underwent bedside lung ultrasonography one to two times per day. […] Bedside lung ultrasound was performed daily after intubation, and patients received mechanical ventilation. […] Lung ultrasound was performed on days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 after patients were admitted to the ICU; if the patient was intubated, LUS determination was performed before intubation within 24 h (T1) and on days 1, 2, 5, and 7 after intubation (T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively). […] The goal of this study was to evaluate the severity of lung aeration loss in intubated and non-intubated patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia by ultrasound at different time points within one week.
32881982 We did not find a clinical benefit associated with the use of azithromycin, in terms of lung function 48 hours after treatment or length of hospital stay.
32882150 As an outcome, a mass-producible prototype of the AmbuBox has been devised, characterized, and validated in a bench test setup using a lung simulator.
32882823 In this study, we analyzed RNA-seq transcriptome data from Calu-3 human lung epithelial cells infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to five other viruses namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-MERS), influenzavirus A (FLUA), influenzavirus B (FLUB), and rhinovirus (RHINO) compared to mock-infected cells and characterized their coding and noncoding RNA transcriptional portraits.
32883081 We found out that there is a complexity of interactions between coexisting idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/interstitial lung disease (ILD) and COVID-19 disease.
32883116 Myocardial, lung and hepatorenal injury in patients with COVID-19 could be due to cytokine storm, hypoxic injury, or/and direct endothelial/vascular injury.
32883596 Lung ultrasonographic (LUS) imaging may play an important role in the management of patients with COVID-19-associated lung injury, particularly in some special populations. […] For each of the 12 zones (2 posterior, 2 anterior, 2 lateral, for both left and right lungs), the possible score ranged from 0 to 3 (1 = presence of B lines, separated, with <50% of space from the pleural line; 2 = presence of B lines, separated, with >50% of space from the pleural line; 3 = lung thickening with tissuelike aspect).
32883938 SARS-CoV-2 predominantly involves the lungs producing acute lung injury, but it can also give rise to a variety of complications involving the central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, kidney and also viral sepsis. […] With this case report, we are discussing unusual series of complication from acute lung injury, followed by viral sepsis then encephalitis, followed by progressive macrophage activation syndrome.
32883951 These results collectively suggest that SREBP-2 can serve as an indicator for severity diagnosis and therapeutic target for preventing cytokine storm and lung damage in severe COVID-19 patients.
32884308 The predominant patterns of lung lesions were pure ground-glass opacity (GGO), GGO with consolidation or reticulation, and pure consolidation in both groups.
32884519 There were no changes regarding COVID-19 in the spiral lung CT scan.
32886159 In spring 2020 imaging findings of the lungs were found in several radiological practices and in outpatient clinic patients, which indicated acute or previous viral pneumonia. […] In this case study it was investigated to what extent SARS-CoV‑2 can cause lung involvement even with minor symptoms. […] The lung images were evaluated with respect to features specific for COVID-19 . […] A SARS-CoV‑2 infection leads to lung involvement more often than previously assumed, namely not only in severely ill hospitalized patients but also in cases with only mild or even non-specific symptoms.
32886292 Among them, the CT score evaluation was the sum of the lung involvement in five lobes (0-5 points for each lobe, with a total score ranging from 0 to 25). […] In recovered patients with COVID-19, the positive CT manifestations were found within 4 days, lung involvement peaking at approximately 11 days, and discharged at about 19 days. […] The patients with more severe the lung injury was, the later the peak time appeared and the longer the recovery time was.
32886711 We also shared a semiquantitative scoring of affected lung segments, which was recommended by our local medical association. […] Therefore, chest CT is a valuable tool for facilitating the diagnosis of COVID-19 and semiquantitative scoring of affected lung segments may further elucidate diagnosis and assessment of disease severity.
32886755 COVID-19 includes lung infection ranging from mild pneumonia to life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). […] Dysregulated host immune response in the lung is a key feature in ARDS pathophysiology.
32887532 Expert opinion: Several TTSPs of the respiratory tract represent attractive pharmacological targets in the treatment of respiratory infectious diseases (notably COVID-19 and influenza), but also against idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer.
32887660 The pregnant state, with alterations in hormone levels and decreased lung volumes due to a gravid uterus and slightly immunocompromised state may predispose patients to a more rapidly deteriorating clinical course and can get a greater risk of harm for both the mother and fetus.
32887670 They covered topics of chemoprophylaxis (including agents and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) agents), diagnosis (including clinical manifestations, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respiratory tract specimens, IgM and IgG antibody tests, chest computed tomography, chest x-ray, and CT features of asymptomatic infections), treatments (including lopinavir-ritonavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, interferon, remdesivir, combination of antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, glucocorticoid, qingfei paidu decoction, lianhua qingwen granules/capsules, convalescent plasma, lung transplantation, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)), and discharge management (including discharge criteria and management plan in patients whose RT-PCR retesting shows SARS-CoV-2 positive after discharge).
32888056 Moreover, these human genes have the codon composition perfectly correlated with the SARS-CoV-2, and were extraordinarily highly expressed in human lung tissues, demonstrating that the SARS-CoV-2 genes have similar GC usage as compared to the lung expressed human genes. […] RSCU (relative synonymous codon usage) and CAI (codon adaptation index) profiles further support the matching between SARS-CoV-2 and lungs. […] Our study indicates that SARS-CoV-2 might have adapted to the human lung environment by observing the high correlation between GC usage of SARS-CoV-2 and human lung genes, which suggests the GC content of SARS-CoV-2 is optimized to take advantage of human lung tissues.
32889378 These were: ADS, gender, education, domestic situation, employment, age, ethnicity, lung and heart problems, and diabetes. […] ADS, non-native ethnic background, (partial) work disabilities and lung problems were predictive of both ADS and lack of ES in March 2019 and 2020.
32890139 Median age of SOT recipients(9-heart, 3-lung, 16-kidney, 8-liver, 5-dual-organ) was 60 years, 80% were male and 67% were Black.
32890338 Acute lung injury in COVID-19 is likely a result of a syndrome of hyperinflammation-driven coagulopathy occurring through immunothrombosis. […] Microvascular thrombosis as a result of CAC may be a defining feature increasing multiple organ failure and worsening acute lung injury. […] This current opinion report addresses the mechanisms by which CAC may develop, discusses how CAC may worsen lung injury, and treatment strategies under investigation.
32890817 The positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result or compatible lung computed tomography (CT) scan was acceptable for COVID-19 diagnosis. 4647 patients answered the phone contact.
32890967 This mechanism involves PAK1 overexpression, which is a kinase that mediates coronavirus-induced lung inflammation, fibrosis, and immune system suppression.
32891630 Plasma and lung ivermectin concentrations vs. time profiles in cattle were used to determine the apparent plasma to lung tissue partition coefficient of ivermectin. […] The mPBPK model was also used to simulate human lung exposure to ivermectin after 12, 30, and 120 mg oral doses. […] The simulated ivermectin lung exposures reached a maximum concentration of 772 ng/mL, far less than the estimated 1750 ng/mL IC50 reported for ivermectin against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
32892477 Patients’ demographic characteristics, comorbidities, clinical manifestations of COVID-19 infection, medication use, and history of lung malignancy were retrieved from their medical history.
32892893 A subset of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and lung involvement pose a disposition challenge, particularly when hospital resources are constrained. […] Hypoxemia may be a late presentation and is often preceded by abnormal lung findings on ultrasound. […] With the goal of safely isolating infected patients while providing advanced monitoring, we present a first report of patient self-performed lung ultrasound in the home with a hand-held device under the guidance of a physician using a novel teleguidance platform.
32893786 There were no cases of bronchial stenosis, and all bronchial segments located in normal lung regions appeared normal. […] Moreover, bronchi located in unaffected lung regions have a normal appearance.
32894449 CXRs were rated as positive (CXR+) or negative (CXR-), and features reported included presence and distribution of airspace opacities, pleural effusion and reduction in lung volumes.
32894583 Blinded to the results of real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing, lung ultrasound (LUS) examinations and chest computed tomography (CT) were performed, and the specific characteristics of these imaging studies were assessed. […] Lung ultrasound had good reliability compared to chest CT.
32894621 Lung ultrasound has become an important tool in diagnosis and follow-up of patient with COVID-19 infection.Here we review available, up to date literature on ultrasound use for COVID-19 suspected pediatric patients and contrast it to published findings in adult patients.
32894641 Amidst significant regional variations in COVID-19, lung transplantation (LTx) remains a critical life-saving operation. […] At our institution, pretransplant COVID-19 testing, use of local donor lungs, and avoidance of donors from areas of increased community penetration supported a safe and effective LTx practice during the early COVID-19 pandemic.
32894853 Additionally, the lung lesions were dominant on the right side in all patients. […] In conclusion, considering our results that the lung is affected in asymptomatic patients, it will be necessary to extend the indications of COVID-19 testing for effective management of COVID-19 during the pandemic.
32894907 At the same time, we should learn from the lessons on pulmonary function loss of the SARS patients and MERS patients, some of whom had persistent impaired lung function after discharge.
32895161 Patients of critical type more frequently have bacterial infection with more serious inflammatory reactions, severer heart, lung and kidney damages, and much higher levels of DD and LDH than those of the common type.
32895294 Lung ultrasound has been described for over a decade and international protocols exist for its application. […] We discuss the basics and evidence behind the use of lung ultrasound in respiratory failure, and what role we see it playing in the current 2019 novel coronavirus pandemic.
32895628 Chest x-ray revealed right lung pneumothorax, which was treated with a pigtail chest tube leading to successful lung reexpansion.
32895641 Although the pathophysiology of this virus is complex and largely unknown, we employed a network-biology-fueled approach and integrated transcriptome data pertaining to lung epithelial cells with human interactome to generate Calu-3-specific human-SARS-CoV-2 interactome (CSI).
32895676 Since 1983, etoposide (VP-16) is being used in frontline cancer therapy against various cancer types, such as small cell lung cancer and testicular cancer.
32895900 MSCs are theoretically capable of reducing inflammation and promote lung regeneration in severe COVID-19 patients.
32896206 E-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury was recognized in the United States in the summer of 2019 and is typified by acute respiratory distress, shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, and fever, associated with vaping. […] Some investigators have suggested that E-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury was due to tetrahydrocannabinol or vitamin E acetate oil mixed with the electronic cigarette liquid. […] In experimental rodent studies initially designed to study the effect of electronic cigarette use on the cardiovascular system, we observed an E-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury-like condition that occurred acutely after use of a nichrome heating element at high power, without the use of tetrahydrocannabinol, vitamin E, or nicotine. […] Lung lesions included thickening of the alveolar wall with foci of inflammation, red blood cell congestion, obliteration of alveolar spaces, and pneumonitis in some cases; bronchi showed accumulation of fibrin, inflammatory cells, and mucus plugs. […] Electronic cigarette users should be cautioned about the potential danger of operating electronic cigarette units at high settings; the possibility that certain heating elements may be deleterious; and that E-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury may not be dependent upon tetrahydrocannabinol, vitamin E, or nicotine.
32897438 Chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) of the chest are the imaging modalities primarily used for assessment of the lung manifestations, extent, and complications of COVID-19 pneumonia. […] Follow-up examinations after recovery from COVID-19 pneumonia should focus on fibrotic changes of the lung parenchyma.
32898894 We aimed to provide a cross-sectional overview of current limitations or adaptions in lung transplant programs in Germany in from January to May 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. […] A cross-sectional survey assessing various aspects of lung transplant activity was sent to all active lung transplant programs (n = 12) in Germany. […] The overall lung transplant activity in Germany from January to May 2020 contains 128 bilateral and 11 single lung transplantations, which is similar to the same period in the year 2019 (126 bilateral transplantations and 12 single lung transplantations). […] The results suggest that the influence of the COVID-19 pandemia on lung transplantation activity in Germany has been moderate so far.
32899063 Total clinical effective rate, improvement rate of lung CT, adverse events were evaluated as the main outcomes.
32899833 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can differentially infect multiple tissues (i.e., lung, vessel, heart, liver) in different stages of disease, and in an age- and sex-dependent manner.
32901220 We present a case of a 46-year-old woman with breast cancer who was found positive for SARS-CoV-2 in a screening test and developed massive rhabdomyolysis (creatinine kinase 87,456 U/liter) as well as new-onset lymphopenia and signs of lung disease starting on the 16th day of clinical surveillance, one month after the last administration of chemotherapy.
32901353 Lung involvement in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) undergoing PET-CT has been previously reported. […] However, FDG uptake outside lung parenchyma was poorly characterized in detail. […] We evaluated the extra-parenchymal lung involvement in asymptomatic cancer patients with COVID-19 pneumonia through 18F-FDG PET-CT. […] Nonmetastatic extra-parenchymal lung PET-CT findings were evaluated through qualitative (visual), quantitative (measurements on CT), and semiquantitative (maximum standardized uptake value: SUVmax on PET) interpretation. […] Extra-parenchymal lung findings were found in 42.9% of patients with COVID-19, most frequently as mediastinal and hilar nodes with 18F-FDG uptake (35.7%), followed by incidental pulmonary embolism in two patients (14.3%).
32901940 ACE2 also plays a crucial role in lung injury.
32902736 The patient was hemodynamically stable and pulmonary auscultation revealed coarse rales in the entire lung.
32902940 The management strategy includes monitoring fetal heart rate and uterine contractions; early oxygenation if O2 saturation is less than 95%; empiric antibiotics for prevention of secondary infection; corticosteroid to treat maternal SARS-CoV-2 disease routinely is not suggested, only for fetal lung maturation in selected cases; and consideration of delivery is according to the obstetric indication, gestational age, and severity of the disease.
32903031 Alveoli are the gas-exchanging units of the lung and alveolar barrier is often a key battleground that encounters pathogens, allergens, and other insults from the environment. […] The revelation of AT2 heterogeneity has brought new insights into the role of AT2 cells in various lung disease settings and potentiates the finding of more therapeutics targets.
32903056 Median CT visual lung severity score in the first week of hospitalization was 2.0 in survivors with non-severe disease, 4.0 in survivors with severe disease, and 11.0 in non-survivors.
32903321 Although alveolar-type (AT) 2 cells of the lung and intestinal epithelial cells expressed ACE2 as well as PT cells, AT 2 cells significantly expressed TMPRSS2 but not SLC6A19, while all 3 genes were significantly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. […] ACE2 was widely expressed in specific cell subgroups of various human tissues, especially in intestinal epithelial cells, kidney PT cells, and also AT 2 cells of the lung.
32903391 Hypoxia, endothelial cell damage, and the different impacts of different ventilatory strategies may all lead to increased stress and strain, potentially exacerbating the inflammatory response and leading to a complex interaction between the lungs and the brain. […] The aim of our review is to provide an updated overview of the potential pathogenic mechanisms of neurological manifestations in COVID-19, discuss the physiological issues related to brain-lung interactions, and propose strategies for optimization of respiratory support in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.
32903640 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV2 is associated with various comorbidities; cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, liver, lung diseases, and neurological ailments.
32904428 On the other hand, the deposition hotspots were identified by both CFD and experiments in the second bifurcation in both lungs, and to a lesser extent also in both the third bifurcations in the left lung.
32904752 Lung ultrasound is a well-defined diagnostic modality in the point of care emergency medicine concept. […] In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the lung ultrasound assumed an essential role in this disease, with a valid correlation of the imaging results with computed tomography.
32905072 Radiological findings detected by chest radiograph and computed tomography chest suggested severe lung involvement in uncontrolled diabetes.
32905208 Considering that severe hypoxia is a hallmark of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, the involvement of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) system is very likely, possibly influencing the inflammatory response and outcome in both the lungs and kidneys. […] Similar observations were made in the setting of acute lung injury.
32905406 Nine of the 10 patients demonstrated typical lung base findings associated with COVID-19 on both CT and MRI.
32905446 Subsequently, the results of ChUS and CRX were compared. 94% (n=17/18) of patients with respiratory symptoms demonstrated lung abnormalities on ChUS. […] Of note, ChUS also detected lung consolidations very effectively (14/18 for ChUS vs. 7/18 cases for CXR; p<0.02).
32905581 Older age, chronic lung disease, and hypertension were associated with severe outcomes.
32905897 SARS-CoV2 cleaves with ACE2 and enters cells leaving an unopposed effect of ACE in the lungs. […] COVID-19 leads to lung damage and a reduction in oxygen saturation of the blood.
32907844 Lung ultrasound (LUS) has an established role in the evaluation of acute respiratory failure and has been used during the COVID-19 outbreak as a decision support tool.
32908083 As the results, the BMI > 35 (p = 0.0003), lung cancer (p = 0.007), chronic kidney disease (p = 0.002), Immunocompromised condition (p = 0.003), and diabetes (p = 0.018) were more frequently observed in the expired group.
32908713 This was met with a moderate increase of troponin T-hs, an escalating need for vasopressors, and a progressive decrease in her P/F ratio despite preserved lung static compliance.
32908840 We report the case of a 50-year-old patient with acute COVID-19 pneumonia, who had iatrogenic, clinically relevant bone marrow suppression due to accidental overdose with hydroxyurea, and decreased lung capacity due to a left-sided pneumonectomy 6 months earlier.
32908843 POCUS in the ED helped to identify a combination of lung and vascular involvement that indicated COVID-19 infection, which was confirmed by a laboratory test. […] COVID-19 is a contagious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 that attacks endothelial cells and most organs, resulting in different manifestations and clinical scenarios.Point-of-care ultrasound in the emergency room including lung ultrasound (LUS) and focused echocardiography (FECHO) can be useful in identifying pulmonary and vascular manifestations of COVID-19 disease during the current pandemic.Characteristic LUS signs suggesting bilateral interstitial pneumonia in addition to signs of acute right ventricular strain suggesting pulmonary embolism on FECHO raised the suspicion of COVID-19 infection in our patient.
32909049 Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) of the lung in patients with COVID-19 plays a key role in the emergency room and intensive care unit. […] Lung ultrasound is able to depict typical pulmonary findings of COVID-19 and is therefore suitable for diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. […] Lung ultrasound in COVID-19 patients in the emergency room and intensive care unit. […] Computed tomography (low-dose CT) and X‑ray of the lung. […] Lung ultrasound in COVID-19 patients. […] Lung ultrasound in patients with COVID-19 offers similar performance as CT and is superior when compared to X‑ray in evaluating pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). […] Lung ultrasound plays an important role in the emergency room and intensive care unit.
32909090 Significant increase of interstitial lung alterations at [18F]-FDG PET/CT has been demonstrated during the COVID-19 pandemic.
32909535 Two patients with respiratory failure due to confirmed COVID-19 were examined using bedside lung ultrasound (LUS) shortly after intubation and start of invasive ventilation. […] These two cases illustrate how LUS could be useful in identifying different lung morphologies early after the start of invasive ventilation and help decide on adjunctive therapies.
32909898 This review sought to determine the potential role of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5) in the management of COVID-19 by extrapolating relevant data and clinical studies from other related disease states, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute lung injury, and high altitude pulmonary edema.
32909961 Multivariate regression analysis identified elevated serum IL-6, increased lymphocyte counts and CT imaging features of lung consolidation during hospitalization as the independent risk factors of recurrence.
32910323 Diagnostic value of point-of-care lung ultrasound (POCUS) in detection of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in an emergency setting is currently unclear. […] In this study, we aimed to compare diagnostic performance, in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy, of POCUS lung, chest CT, and RT-PCR for clinically suspected COVID-19 infections in patients submitting to the emergency room (ER). […] Test subjects showed one or more symptoms of an acute respiratory infection, for which consequent COVID-19 testing was achieved using POCUS lung, chest CT, and RT-PCR. […] POCUS lung was performed by three emergency medical doctors, and reports were analyzed by the researcher, blinded to clinical information, US imaging, CT, and RT-PCR test results. […] Compared with RT-PCR, POCUS lung demonstrated outstanding sensitivity and NPV (93.3% and 94.1% respectively) while showing poor values for specificity, PPV, and accuracy (21.3%, 19.2%, and 33.3% respectively). […] Due to limited specificity, suggestive POCUS lung findings should be confirmed with RT-PCR or chest CT.
32910604 Patients typically present with fever, cough, and radiological lung changes.
32911000 In our cohort, OACs appeared to be ineffective in reducing mortality rate, while heparin resulted to be a useful treatment when lung disease was sufficiently severe, potentially suggesting a crucial role of microthrombosis in severe COVID-19.
32911861 Lung sounds acquired by stethoscopes are extensively used in diagnosing and differentiating respiratory diseases.
32911986 Although his ECMO course was complicated by bleeding, he showed a remarkable improvement in his lung function.
32912958 Analysis of data (n=9515) from the Asthma UK and British Lung Foundation partnership COVID-19 survey collected online between 1 and 8 April 2020. […] Long-term respiratory conditions reported included asthma (83%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (10%), bronchiectasis (4%), interstitial lung disease (2%) and ‘other’ (<1%) (eg, lung cancer and pulmonary endometriosis).
32912961 SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with the development of cytokine storm (including interleukin 6 (IL-6)), which can cause lung damage and lack of oxygen. […] Fewer patients required mechanical ventilation in the TCZ group, especially among patients with more extensive CT lung damage, than in the control group.
32913008 Moreover, the absence of vimentin in mice makes them resistant to lung injury. […] Since vimentin has a twofold role in the disease, not only being involved in the viral infection but also in the associated life-threatening lung inflammation, the use of vimentin-targeted drugs may offer a synergistic advantage as compared with other treatments not targeting vimentin.
32913009 Here, we studied the antiviral- and ACE2-inducing properties of different IFN types in both a human lung cell line model and primary human bronchial epithelial cells.
32913304 Here, we created young and old non-human primate single-nucleus/cell transcriptomic atlases of lung, heart and artery, the top tissues targeted by SARS-CoV-2.
32913561 In general, plain CXR show bilateral disease with a tendency toward the lung periphery and have an appearance most consistent with viral pneumonia.
32913866 We presume that aging lung changes and bronchopulmonary infection play an important part in the onset of SPM in COVID-19, but severe acute respiratory syndrome may represent a separate pathophysiologic mechanism for pneumomediastinum.
32914732 On the basis of clinical study, COVID-19 shows homology with other coronavirus pathogenesis i.e. inflammation, oxidative stress, and hyper-activation of immune system, results cytokine storm and causes acute lung infection (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and kidney dysfunction.
32914744 This finding might be indicative of lung injury after apparently mild COVID-19 in young adults.
32914853 Descriptions of the pathological features of COronaVIrus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel zoonotic pathogen Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emanate from tissue biopsies, case reports and small post-mortem studies restricted to the lung and specific organs. […] Tissues from the lung, heart, liver, kidney, spleen and bone marrow (but not the brain) were examined. […] Only lung tissues were subject to transmission electron microscopy.
32915265 Pulmonary megakaryocytes participate in the pathogenesis of lung damage, particularly in acute lung injury. […] In this autopsy study, we have observed a relevant number of pulmonary megakaryocytes in COVID-19 patients dying with acute lung injury (7.61 ± 5.59 megakaryocytes per 25 high-power fields vs. […] Since the lung is considered an active site of megakaryopoiesis, a prothrombotic status leading to platelet activation, aggregation and consumption may trigger a compensatory pulmonary response.
32915876 In this study, we applied the recently proposed method tensor decomposition (TD)-based unsupervised feature extraction (FE) to gene expression profiles of multiple lung cancer cell lines infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
32916258 Lung cancer patients are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] The analysis of ACE2 expression in lung cancer was performed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). […] Therefore, we investigated the prognosis, clinical characteristics, and mutational analysis of lung cancer. […] We also analyzed the shared proteins between the COVID-19 and lung cancer, protein-protein interactions, gene-miRNAs, gene-transcription factors (TFs), and the signaling pathway. […] The up-regulation of ACE2 in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC) was found irrespective of gender and age. […] We found the low survival rate in high expression of ACE2 in lung cancer patients and 16 mutational positions. […] The common genes performed the mRNA expression in lung cancer, which proved the ACE2 is the best potential biomarker compared to co-expressed genes. […] This study uncovers the relationship between COVID-19 disease and lung cancer. […] We identified ACE2 and also its co-expressed proteins are the potential biomarker and therapy as the current COVID-19 disease and lung cancer.
32916744 Pulmonary auscultation showed basal soft crackling noises of the left lung.
32916949 In a preclinical proof-of-concept study in experimental interstitial lung disease, we showed the potential of 18F-AzaFol, an 18F-labeled folic acid-based radiotracer, as a specific novel imaging tool for the visualization and monitoring of macrophage-driven lung diseases.
32917259 In group B, the ventilator settings will be adjusted by the attending ICU team in accordance with lung-protective ventilation strategy.
32918567 The alveolar damage and the pulmonary microvascular thrombosis are the major causes of acute lung injury in COVID-19.
32918645 In addition, significant association for high risk of mortality were also found for cerebrovascular disease, COPD, coronary heart disease, chronic renal disease, chronic liver disease, chronic lung disease and chronic kidney disease.
32918761 Eligible patients were hospitalized and required to have positive nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, be at least 18 years old, and have either dyspnea, blood oxygen saturation ≤ 93% on ambient air, respiratory frequency ≥ 30 breaths/min, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio < 300, or lung infiltrates > 50%.
32919186 Such symptoms include myocardial injury, hypoxia, plaque rupture, arrhythmias, venous thromboembolism, coronary thrombosis, encephalitis, ischemia, inflammation, and lung injury.
32919265 12 CT features, their distribution in the lung and the global extent of opacifications were evaluated.
32919977 The data highlighted include the potential therapeutic approaches undergoing investigation to modulate the immune response and abrogate lung injury in severe COVID-19.
32920079 Over the past decade, the growing interest in targeted lung cancer therapy has guided researchers toward the cutting edge of controlled drug delivery, particularly magnetic particle targeting. […] This review first overviews clinical aspects of lung morphology and pathogenesis as well as clinical features of lung cancer. […] It is followed by reviewing the advances in using magnetic particles for diagnosis and therapy of lung cancers: (i) a combination of magnetic particle targeting with MRI imaging for diagnosis and screening of lung cancers, (ii) magnetic drug targeting (MDT) through either intravenous injection and pulmonary delivery for lung cancer therapy, and (iii) computational simulations that models new and effective approaches for magnetic particle drug delivery to the lung, all supporting improved lung cancer treatment. […] The review further discusses future opportunities to improve the clinical performance of MDT for diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer and highlights clinical therapy application of the MDT as a new horizon to cure with minimal side effects a wide variety of lung diseases and possibly other acute respiratory syndromes (COVID-19, MERS, and SARS).
32920170 In around 10% of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, coronavirus disease-2019 (Covid-19) symptoms are complicated with a severe lung damage called Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), which is often lethal.
32920564 Data regarding study characteristics and CT findings, including distribution of lesions, the lobe of lung involved, lesion densities, and radiological patterns, were extracted.
32920756 The interest on the role of angiogenesis in the pathogenesis and progression of human interstitial lung diseases is growing, with conventional sprouting (SA) and non-sprouting intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) being differently represented in specific pulmonary injury patterns. […] A significantly enhanced amount of new vessel growth, through a mechanism of IA, has been reported in lungs of patients who died from Covid-19; among the angiogenesis-related genes, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) was found to be upregulated. […] FGF2 plays a role in some viral infections: the upregulation is involved in the MERS-CoV-induced strong apoptotic response crucial for its highly lytic replication cycle in lung cells, whereas FGF2 is protective against the acute lung injury induced by H1N1 influenza virus, improving the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio.
32921796 Furthermore, patients with obesity also demonstrated more severe pathological change in lung and higher blood lymphocytes, triglycerides, IL-6, CRP, cystatin C, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), which may greatly influence disease progression and poor prognosis of COVID-19.
32922166 After taking a patient’s history and physical examination, lung ultrasound can immediately reveal numerous causes and complications in patients suffering from respiratory tract infection and/or dyspnea. […] This review article highlights the typical findings of lung ultrasound in patients with COVID-19 and discusses its value compared to other imaging methods.
32922166 After taking a patient’s history and physical examination, lung ultrasound can immediately reveal numerous causes and complications in patients suffering from respiratory tract infection and/or dyspnea. […] This review article highlights the typical findings of lung ultrasound in patients with COVID-19 and discusses its value compared to other imaging methods.
32922166 After taking a patient’s history and physical examination, lung ultrasound can immediately reveal numerous causes and complications in patients suffering from respiratory tract infection and/or dyspnea. […] This review article highlights the typical findings of lung ultrasound in patients with COVID-19 and discusses its value compared to other imaging methods.
32922166 After taking a patient’s history and physical examination, lung ultrasound can immediately reveal numerous causes and complications in patients suffering from respiratory tract infection and/or dyspnea. […] This review article highlights the typical findings of lung ultrasound in patients with COVID-19 and discusses its value compared to other imaging methods.
32922173 Conclusion: Discharged patients from fangcang shelter hospital demonstrated a high extent of lung abnormalities on CT within the first week from symptom onset, peaked at 2nd week, followed by persistence of high levels and a prolonged median disease course.
32922210 In severe cases the disease progresses into an Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), which in turn depends on an overproduction of cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, IL-12, IL-8, CCL-2 and IL1) that causes alveolar and vascular lung damage.
32922301 Background: In COVID 19 related lung disease, which is a leading cause of death from this disease, cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) may be pivotal in the pathogenesis. […] Hypotheses: (1) Preservation and restoration of airway and alveolar epithelial sodium and chloride transport and the cytoskeleton dependent integrity of the cell barriers within the lung can prevent and treat COVID 19 lung disease. […] (2) TNF alpha is the key mediator of pulmonary edema in COVID 19 lung disease. […] Anti-TNF alpha treatment with antibodies is already available and needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials of COVID 19 lung disease.
32922409 Five patients (age range, 53-85 years; one woman) with severe COVID-19 pneumonia (11-39% lung involvement on computed tomography scan of the chest) were treated a median of 1 day (range 1-7 days) after admission.
32922585 Lung point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) in the emergency department observed significant lung pathology, including pleural thickening, consolidation, and B lines. […] Our case suggests that lung POCUS can provide adequate and rapid imaging to assess lung pathology of COVID-19 in a pediatric patient. […] As there is limited literature on use of lung POCUS in pediatric patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, our case emphasizes its function as a potentially efficient modality in bedside assessment.
32922804 Dornase alfa has been used for decades in patients with cystic fibrosis to reduce the viscoelasticity of respiratory tract secretions, to decrease the severity of respiratory tract infections, and to improve lung function. […] Previous studies have linked abnormal NET formations to lung diseases, especially to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). […] Also it is reported that mucus structure in COVID-19 is very similar to that in cystic fibrosis due to the accumulation of excessive NET in the lungs.
32923003 The patient was hemodynamically stable and pulmonary auscultation revealed coarse rales in the entire lung.
32923016 Secondary outcomes included individual components of the primary outcome, the mean time and proportion of inflammatory absorption in the lung, and the conversion rate to a repeated negative SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test of throat swab sampling.
32923151 Moreover, the HCQ+AZI combination did not affect the capacity of a curative regimen (cisplatin + crizotinib + PD-1 blockade) to eradicate established orthotopic lung cancers in mice.
32923256 He did not have any respiratory symptoms, but had radiological evidence of lung involvement and was diagnosed to be positive for COVID-19.
32923301 Lung lesion characteristics and distribution patterns were evaluated by two radiologists. […] The distinctive CT features included ground-glass opacity (GGO) and consolidative patchy amorphous lesions, bilateral posterior and peripheral multi-lobar lung involvement, pleural effusions, subpleural fibrotic lines, subpleural sparing, vascular engorgement, occasional crazy paving, occasional mediastinal lymphadenopathy, pleural thickening, lack of cavitation, and absence of reverse halo (atoll) signs.
32923551 The data were gathered from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, tuberculosis patients through a survey distributed by an online questionnaire, assesing patients characteristics (age, sex, level of education, working status, history of close contact to patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis and tuberculosis, smoking, alcohol consumption, cavitary pulmonary, diabetes mellitus, nutritional status and tuberculosis outside the lung) and stress resilience (3 items), from 15th July until 7th August 2020.
32923679 In this research, we used the in silico approach to investigate the transcriptomic profile of RA synovium to identify shared molecular pathways with that of severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus-2 (SARS-COV-2) infected lung tissue. […] In addition to its ability to block CCR5 rich immune cell recruitment that also was upregulated in the SARS-COV-2 infected lungs.
32924567 The most common thrombotic complication is pulmonary embolism, which though may occur in the absence of a recognizable deep venous thrombosis and may be due to pulmonary arterial thrombosis rather than embolism, resulting in thrombotic occlusion of small- to mid-sized pulmonary arteries and subsequent infarction of lung parenchyma.
32925165 This study aims to trace the dynamic lung changes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using computed tomography (CT) images by a quantitative method. […] The lesions are detected automatically and the parameters including lesion volume (LeV/mL), lesion percentage to lung volume (LeV%), mean lesion density (MLeD/HU), low attenuation area lower than - 400HU (LAA-400%), and lesion weight (LM/mL*HU) are computed for quantification. […] The dynamic changes of lungs are traced from the day of initial symptoms to the day of discharge.
32925503 The patient did not exhibit the typical COVID-symptoms cough or fever despite lung involvement. […] In an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan, patchy ground-glass opacities in both lungs were discovered and the following chest CT scan and a virus PCR test revealed the right and surprising diagnosis.
32925701 Lung point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been shown to be useful for identifying pulmonary pathology in adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] The objective of this case series was to describe lung POCUS findings in pediatric patients with COVID-19. […] Three patients with COVID-19 who had lung POCUS performed in a pediatric emergency department were included.
32925737 The primary outcomes include Sputum virus nucleic acid negative time, lung imaging improvement time, mortality rate, mechanical ventilation rate, ICU hospitalization time, hospitalization time, clinical improvement, symptoms Improvement, fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting insulin, adverse reactions, etc.
32926097 While SARS-CoV-2-triggered hyperinflammatory tissue-damaging and immunothrombotic responses are thought to be major causes of respiratory failure and death, how they relate to lung immunopathological changes remains unclear. […] Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can contribute to inflammation-associated lung damage, thrombosis, and fibrosis. […] However, whether NETs infiltrate particular compartments in severe COVID-19 lungs remains to be clarified. […] Here we analyzed postmortem lung specimens from four patients who succumbed to COVID-19 and four patients who died from a COVID-19-unrelated cause. […] We report the presence of NETs in the lungs of each COVID-19 patient.
32926098 The concentration of NETs was augmented in plasma, tracheal aspirate, and lung autopsies tissues from COVID-19 patients, and their neutrophils released higher levels of NETs. […] Finally, NETs released by SARS-CoV-2-activated neutrophils promote lung epithelial cell death in vitro.
32926211 Many patients presenting this way demonstrate evidence of COVID-19 incidentally through abdominal CT imaging at the lung bases.
32926425 The findings showed that enhanced responses of Th17 cells and decreased responses of Treg cells in 2019-n-CoV patients compared with controls had a strong relationship with hyperinflammation, lung damage, and disease pathogenesis.
32926572 Pediatric COVID-19 studies have been mostly restricted to case reports and small case series, which have prevented the identification of specific pediatric lung disease patterns in COVID-19. […] The overarching goal of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to provide the first comprehensive summary of the findings of published studies thus far describing COVID-19 lung imaging data in the pediatric population. […] A systematic literature search of PubMed was performed to identify studies assessing lung-imaging features of COVID-19 pediatric patients (0-18 years). […] The main results of this comprehensive analysis are as follows: (1) Over a third of pediatric patients with COVID-19 (35.7%, 95% CI: 27.5%-44%) had normal chest CT scans and only 27.7% (95% CI: 19.9%-35.6%) had bilateral lesions; (2) the most typical pediatric chest CT findings of COVID-19 were ground-glass opacities (GGO) (37.2%, 95% CI: 29.3%-45%) and the presence of consolidations or pneumonic infiltrates (22.3%, 95% CI: 17.8%-26.9%); (3) the lung imaging findings in children with COVID-19 were overall less frequent and less severe than in adult patients; and (4) typical lung imaging features of viral respiratory infections in the pediatric population such as increased perihilar markings and hyperinflation were not reported in children with COVID-19.
32926669 Imaging modalities such as chest radiograph (CXR), computed tomography, and lung ultrasound each demonstrate characteristic findings of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Lung ultrasound offers benefits over other imaging modalities including portability, cost, reduced exposure of healthcare workers as well as decreased contamination of equipment such as computed tomography scanners. […] Here we present a case series describing consistent lung ultrasound findings in patients with confirmed COVID-19 despite variable clinical presentations and CXR findings. […] We discuss a triage algorithm for clinical applicability and utility of lung point-of-care ultrasound in the setting of COVID-19 and advocate for judicious and targeted use of this tool. […] Lung point-of-care ultrasound can provide valuable data supporting diagnostic and triage decisions surrounding suspected cases of COVID-19.
32926678 He was found to be severely tachypneic, febrile, with rales in all lung fields.
32927416 Deep convolutional neural network algorithms for lung segmentation and opacity quantification on chest CTs were trained using semi-automatically and manually created ground-truth (Ntotal = 172). […] The algorithm for fully automated lung segmentation and opacity quantification that we developed in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic was ready for clinical use within just 10 days and achieved human-level performance even in complex cases.
32929211 Compared to patients without SUD, patients with SUD had significantly higher prevalence of chronic kidney, liver, lung diseases, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity and cancer.
32929412 SARS-CoV-2 mode of actions includes hyper-inflammation characterized by a severe and fatal hyper-cytokinaemia with multi-organ failure; immunosuppression; reduction of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to enhance pulmonary vascular permeability causing damage to the alveoli; and further activated by open reading frame (ORF)3a, ORF3b, and ORF7a via c-Jun N- terminal kinase (JNK) pathway which induces lung damage.
32929416 This study aimed at evaluating the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on patients with lung cancer in the People’s Republic of China. […] A questionnaire was used to investigate the medical demands of 803 patients with lung cancer at 65 hospitals in 20 provinces in the People’s Republic of China during the pandemic. […] The number of hospitalizations and lung cancer-related operations had steadily increased from 2015 to 2019 but reduced by an average of 26.72% (133.8) and 57.18% (45.4) in 2020. […] The pandemic caused a greater impact on medical work related to lung cancer after the Chinese New Year holiday. […] The treatment of patients with lung cancer has been affected by the pandemic to some extent. […] We provide suggestions on both clinical diagnosis and treatment strategies for lung cancer to optimize the process, given the urgency of the current circumstances. […] The demand for medical support among patients with lung cancer or other life-threatening diseases should be given sufficient attention, especially during the current COVID-19 outbreak.
32930058 This release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines is underpinning lung tissue damage, respiratory failure, and eventually multiple organ failure in COVID-19 patients.
32930095 The appearance of bacteria and/or their products in the lungs of obese and diabetic patients promotes interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens, resulting in a more severe lung injury in COVID-19.
32930394 We describe the lung pathological and immunohistochemical post-mortem findings at the autopsy of 9 patients who died of SARS-COV 2 associated disease. […] We found in the lung tissues of all patients histological changes consistent with diffuse alveolar damage in various evolution phases ranging from acute exudative to acute proliferative to fibrotic phase. […] Viral RNA of SARS-COV 2 was detected from the lung tissues of all the nine patients.
32930834 The lung CT improvement time was significantly shorter than that of RT-PCR conversion to negative (p = 0.000). […] • The lung CT improvement time was significantly shorter than that of RT-PCR conversion to negative (t = - 4.72, p = 0.000).
32931069 Lung ultrasonography (LU) is useful to assess lung lesions and variations at bedside. […] To investigate the results of LU in severe and critical patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we performed a single-institution study to evaluate the related lung lesions and variations, and prophylactic strategies, in a large referral and treatment center. […] Among the 91 severe and critical patients, 59 cases had scattered B lines, 56 cases had confluent B lines, 58 cases had alveolar-interstitial syndrome (AIS), 48 cases had lung consolidation, six cases had pleural thickening, 39 cases had pleural effusion (average depth of the pleural effusion: 1.0 ± 1.5 cm), and 20 patients developed PTX. […] In the Cox multivariate analysis, there were significant differences in age, hospitalization days, ICU days, and lung consolidation. […] Lung ultrasonography performed at the bedside can detect lung diseases, such as B lines, PTX, pulmonary edema, lung consolidation, pleural effusion, and variations of these findings.
32931734 Intramuscular dosing of ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S induces robust systemic humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and protects against lung infection, inflammation, and pathology but does not confer sterilizing immunity, as evidenced by detection of viral RNA and induction of anti-nucleoprotein antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 challenge.
32932346 Our data suggest that the “higher” positive end-expiratory pressure approach in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 acute respiratory distress syndrome and high compliance improves oxygenation and lung aeration but may result in alveolar hyperinflation and hemodynamic alterations.
32932582 Members of two Facebook groups for COVID-19 patients with persistent complaints in The Netherlands and Belgium, and from a panel of people who registered at a website of the Lung Foundation Netherlands, were assessed for demographics, pre-existing comorbidities, health status, and symptoms.
32932831 Low VITD levels at disease onset or at eight-week follow-up were not related to persistent symptom burden, lung function impairment, ongoing inflammation, or more severe CT abnormalities.
32934806 Lung injury with severe respiratory failure is the leading cause of death in COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] However, there still lacks efficient treatment for COVID-19 induced lung injury and acute respiratory failure. […] Methods: Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) caused by the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 is the most plausible mechanism of lung injury in COVID-19. […] We performed drug repositioning analysis to identify drug candidates that reverse gene expression pattern in L1000 lung cell line HCC515 treated with ACE2 inhibitor. […] We confirmed these drug candidates by similar bioinformatics analysis using lung tissues from patients deceased from COVID-19. […] We further investigated deregulated genes and pathways related to lung injury, as well as the gene-pathway-drug candidate relationships. […] Results: We propose two candidate drugs, COL-3 (a chemically modified tetracycline) and CGP-60474 (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor), for treating lung injuries in COVID-19. […] Further bioinformatics analysis shows that 12 significantly enriched pathways (P-value <0.05) overlap between HCC515 cells treated with ACE2 inhibitor and human COVID-19 patient lung tissues. […] These include signaling pathways known to be associated with lung injury such as TNF signaling, MAPK signaling and chemokine signaling pathways. […] It also uniquely targets other genes related to lung injury, such as CALR and MMP14. […] Conclusions: This study shows that ACE2 inhibition is likely part of the mechanisms leading to lung injury in COVID-19, and that compounds such as COL-3 and CGP-60474 have potential as repurposed drugs for its treatment.
32935329 We found an increased physiologic dead space, supporting the hypothesis that pulmonary vascular injury may be central to COVID-19-induced lung damage.
32935807 Group 2 included patients with COVID-19 compatible findings in lung computed tomography (CT), but with a negative PCR.
32935808 In addition to the lung capacity of patients, the mean platelet volume may be used as an auxiliary test in predicting the mortality in COVID-19 patients.
32936372 The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence in oncological patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 that are asymptomatic for COVID-19 and at home and that undergo PET/CT for oncologic indications, nonrelated to COVID-19, finding in the PET/CT lung alterations that are suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Suspicious lung imaging findings were present in 7 of 145 patients (4.8%). […] In the remaining two, it was not possible to confirm the presence of COVID-19 with RT-PCR, although in one of them, PET/CT allowed an early diagnosis of a lung infection related to a bacterial pneumonic infection that was promptly and adequately treated with antibiotics.
32936380 The RV direct involvement happens quite often due to preferential lung tropism of COVID-19 infection, which is responsible for an interstitial pneumonia characterized also by pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction (and thus an RV afterload increase), often evolving in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). […] Information gained from a clinically-guided echocardiographic assessment holds a clinical utility in the single patients when integrated with biohumoral data (indicating systemic activation), blood gas analysis (reflecting COVID-19-induced lung damage) and data on ongoing therapies (in primis ventilatory settings).
32936491 The aim of this study was to systematically describe the findings of lung ultrasound (US) in patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and to analyze its prognostic value. […] Lung US examinations were performed in 63 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to a university hospital. […] Lung involvement was evaluated on a 4-point scale with a 12-area pulmonary division, obtaining a lung score (LS). […] The total LS was 15.3 ± 8.1, without differences between left and right lungs. […] The total LS showed a strong correlation (r = -0.765) with the oxygen pressure-to-fraction of inspired oxygen ratio; by lung region, those with a higher correlation were the LS of the anterior region (r = -0.823) and the LS of the upper region (r = -0.731).
32936689 However, nearly all treatments rely on systemic delivery but COVID-19 damages the lungs preferentially. […] The use of a targeted delivery approach is reviewed where engineered products are able to reach damaged lung tissue directly, which includes catheter-based and aerosol-based approaches. […] Such approaches may prove to be very effective in the controlled and localized COVID-19 viral lesions in the lungs and potential sites.
32937615 Unlike in convalescent patients, SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in patients with severe disease showed marked alterations in phenotypical and functional properties, which also extended to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in general.CONCLUSIONGiven the strong induction of specific immunity to control viral replication in patients with severe disease, the functionally altered characteristics may result from the need for contraction of specific and general immunity to counteract excessive immunopathology in the lung.FUNDINGThe study was supported by institutional funds to MS and in part by grants of Saarland University, the State of Saarland, and the Rolf M.
32938231 Patients with lung cancer are presumed to be at high risk from COVID-19 infection due to underlying malignancy. […] A total of 31 COVID-19 patients with pre-diagnosed lung cancer and 186 age and sex matched COVID-19 patients without cancer in 6 hospitals in Wuhan, China were identified in our study. […] There was a significantly higher level of IL-6 in lung cancer group showed by multifactorial analysis. […] The restricted mean survival time in 10, 20, and 53 days in COVID-19 patients with lung cancer were ealier than non-cancer COVID-19 patients in the same observation time (all P values < 0.05). […] Our results indicated that pre-diagnosed lung cancer was associated with higher morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients.
32938299 Rationale: In addition to the overwhelming lung inflammation that prevails in COVID-19, hypercoagulation and thrombosis contribute to the lethality of subjects infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
32938445 Their baseline imaging showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities and consolidations, mostly in the posterior and peripheral lung regions. 4/6 cases were associated with mechanical ventilation.
32938545 COVID-19 is characterized by a disruptive cytokine storm, quickly and often irreversibly damaging the patient’s lungs, as its main target organ, leading to lung failure and death.
32938584 Lung cancer researcher Solange Peters, MD, PhD, discusses the intersection of COVID-19 and cancer, as well as her research on immunotherapy biomarkers.
32939238 Bacterial or viral infections often cause acute and severe systemic inflammation, which affects the lungs lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a pathogenic component of the membrane of gram-negative bacteria, stimulates active innate immune cells, monocytes, macrophages to produce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). […] In the case of COVID-19 infection we verified that numerous biochemical processes activate a cascade of inflammatory processes through the activation of iNOS with uncontrolled generation of (NO). iNOS is the cause of damage to host cells with a consequent pulmonary thromboembolic lung phenomenon in a contest of interstitial pneumonia.
32939636 The protocol required 20 cores of the liver, 30 of lung, 12 of spleen, 20 of heart, 20 of kidney, 4 of breast, 4 of testis, 2 of skeletal muscle, and 4 of fat with total of 112 cores per patient. […] Highest SARS-CoV-2 viral load was detected in the lung, liver, and spleen that had small to moderate amount, and low viral load in was detected in the heart in 2/5 (40%). […] Highest SARS-CoV-2 viral load was seen in the lung, followed by liver and spleen with small amount in the myocardium.
32940187 Furthermore we can conclude that SARS-CoV-2 is associated with worsening of lung conditions characterized by interstitial pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome as a result of cytokine storm syndrome. […] The rational use of the tocilizumab in severe and critically ill covid-19 patients can prevent the development of irreversible lung injury and death of the patient.
32940572 Major adverse outcomes were found to affect different body systems: immune system (including but not limited to Guillain-Barré syndrome and paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome), respiratory system (lung fibrosis and pulmonary thromboembolism), cardiovascular system (cardiomyopathy and coagulopathy), neurological system (sensory dysfunction and stroke), as well as cutaneous and gastrointestinal manifestations, impaired hepatic and renal function.
32940573 Previous strains of coronavirus, SARS-CoV, and Middle-East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV), have been known to cause acute lung injuries in humans. […] SARS-CoV-2 shares genetic similarity with SARS-CoV with some modification in the S protein leading to their enhanced binding affinity toward the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors of human lung cells.
32940646 Point-of-care lung ultrasound (LUS) is a promising pragmatic risk stratification tool in COVID-19.
32940922 To elucidate the underlying histological mechanisms of the aerodigestive disorders caused by SARS-CoV-2, we investigated the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 proteins using immunohistochemistry, in the aerodigestive tracts of the tongue, hard palate with partial nasal tissue, larynx with hypopharynx, trachea, esophagus, and lung of rats. […] Differential distribution of TMPRSS2 in the lung indicated the COVID-19 symptoms to possibly be exacerbated by TMPRSS2 expression.
32940925 Clinical parameters and outcomes of 5 OHT recipients and one combined heart-lung recipient with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 were obtained.
32941797 SARS-CoV-2 pneumonitis can quickly strike to incapacitate the lung, leading to severe disease and sometimes death. […] In this perspective, we suggest that vitamin D deficiency and the failure to activate the vitamin D receptor (VDR) can aggravate this respiratory syndrome by igniting a wounding response in stellate cells of the lung.
32942152 Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reducing inflammation and protecting lung and brain function, could be of therapeutic efficacy in COVID-19 patients. […] Using GSEA, we compared our previous transcriptome analysis of neurons injured by glutamate and treated with the ARB Candesartan (GSE67036) with transcriptional signatures from SARS-CoV-2 infected primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) and lung postmortem (GSE147507), PBMC and BALF samples (CRA002390) from COVID-19 patients.
32942198 The chest CT images of COVID-19 patients were evaluated for the PSS as the ratio of the volume of involved lung parenchyma to the total lung volume.
32942274 SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by nasopharyngeal RT-PCR in 31 cases (97%) and by immunohistochemical staining for SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein in the lung in the remaining 1 case (3%).
32942748 In some individuals, SARS-CoV-2 reaches and infects several organs, including the lung, leading to severe pulmonary disease.
32942796 Albeit lung is the primary organ involved resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), many patients additionally present with secondary multiorgan failure. […] Based on search criteria, 12 studies were found for lung, 52 for heart, 23 for liver, 16 for stroke, and 9 for kidney.
32942797 This review examines recent research studies in humans to determine whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be used effectively and safely to target potentially deadly lung damage that may follow infection. […] Two randomized double-blind clinical trials, 2 pilot studies, and 2 case reports described MSC use to treat ARDS with specific focus on COVID-19 and lung symptoms of cytokine storm. […] No significant differences in treatment outcome were found in randomized double-blind trials; however, results of 1 pilot study and 1 case report showed that MSCs led to lung symptom resolution and survival in severely ill treatment patients. […] There is little published research on disease and survival outcomes among patients suffering severe lung disease associated with ARDS and COVID-19, and studies available are limited by lack of consistency in design and numerous flaws and limitations. […] MSCs are potentially life-saving treatment approaches for some patients who exhibit severe lung distress and have not responded to standard treatments.
32943233 Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2), the lectin pathway’s effector enzyme, binds the nucleocapsid protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), resulting in complement activation and lung injury.
32943416 Carotid CTA is a routine acute stroke investigation and includes the lung apices. […] We identified a simple, reliable, and accurate COVID-19 diagnostic and prognostic imaging biomarker obtained from CTA lung apices: the presence or absence of ground-glass opacification.
32944012 Immunopathology studies show that excessive inflammation and infiltration of the lung parenchyma by immune cells is the cause of death. […] Radiotherapy at doses of 50-200cG may exert an intense anti-inflammatory effect and reduce the burden of inflammatory cells infiltrating the lungs.
32944185 Using a defined search strategy, we conducted a systematic review of the literature and found 39 articles (2014-2020) that reported effects of EVs, mainly derived from stem cells, in lung injury models (one large animal study, none in human). […] This review indicates that EV-based therapies hold great potential for COVID-19 related lung injuries as they target multiple pathways and enhance tissue regeneration.
32944444 Physical examination was significant for crepitation in both lower lung fields and bilateral lower extremity edema.
32944464 Patients with compromised lungs and older age are supposedly at high risk of poor outcomes with COVID-19. […] We aimed to evaluate the COVID-19 impact on lung surgery during this pandemic at our hospital. […] This is a retrospective study of all lung surgery patients at our hospital in Boca Raton over three months (February to April 2020). […] All patients who remained for at least one-day inpatient post-lung surgery were assessed to see if they had an increased incidence of coronavirus infection during the hospital stay or at the follow-up office visit. […] With adequate precautions, older patients can undergo lung surgery during this pandemic.
32944935 Innate immune pathways are upregulated in ACE2(+) cells of all organoids, except the lungs. […] Besides this, the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor is highly enriched in ACE2(+) cells in intestinal, lung, and retinal organoids, with the highest expression in lung organoids.
32944968 Furthermore, 25HC inhibits USA-WA1/2020 SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung epithelial cells and viral entry in human lung organoids.
32945110 Lung abnormality findings at 18 F-FDG PET/CT images, unrelated to cancer metastases, but suspicious for viral infection, may suggest the presence of COVID-19 disease in its early phase before symptoms onset. […] Since PET/CT is more sensitive than CT scan in detecting host’s reaction, the added value of this technique could be monitoring disease progression and could be used as a biomarker of lung disease activity and therefore as an important tool for a better understanding of the factors that contribute to the progression of lung disease.
32945158 SARS-CoV-2, can cause a pandemic infection with severe acute lung injury respiratory distress syndrome in patients with COVID-19, that can lead to patient death across all ages. […] The local inflammatory response in the lung that occurs after exposure to SARS-CoV-2 is due to a complex network of activated inflammatory innate immune cells and structural lung cells such as bronchial epithelial cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. […] Therefore, since MCs are large producers of histamine in inflammatory reactions, this vasoactive amine, by increasing the production of IL-1, can amplify the inflammatory process in the lung infected with SARS-CoV-2. […] Here, we have proposed for the first time an emerging role for histamine released by MCs which in combination with IL-1 can cause an increase in lung inflammation induced by the viral infection SARS-CoV-2.
32945352 In the present study, a transcriptomic analysis was performed to profile the immune signatures in lung and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from COVID‑19 patients and controls.
32945968 Initial CXRs obtained on ED presentation were evaluated by a deep learning artificial intelligence (AI) system and compared with the Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE) score, calculated by two experienced radiologists.
32946202 We aim to assess the anxiety and depressive symptoms related to the COVID-19 pandemic in children with chronic lung disease and their parents and also to evaluate parents’ coping strategies. […] Parents of children aged 4-18 years, with chronic lung disease (study group n = 113) and healthy control (n = 108) were enrolled in the study. […] Children with chronic lung diseases and their parents have more anxiety due to COVID-19 pandemic and these parents use more mature coping strategies to manage the stress of the pandemic. […] Longitudinal and larger studies should be done in all aspects of online education in children with chronic lung diseases.
32946517 Vitamin D can stall hyper-inflammatory responses and expedite healing process of the affected areas, primarily in the lung tissue.
32946524 Infection of African green monkeys (AGM) with a low passage human isolate of SARS-CoV-2 by aerosol or mucosal exposure resulted in mild clinical infection with a transient decrease in lung tidal volume. […] Future vaccine evaluation can be performed in AGM with correlates of efficacy being lung lesions by PET/CT, vi