Cell Sentence Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of neuronal tissue in 104 abstracts.

PMID Senteces
32283006 Multiple non-neuronal cell types present in the olfactory epithelium express two host receptors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 proteases, that facilitate SARS-CoV-2 binding, replication, and accumulation.
32292906 We hypothesize that the morbidity, severity of the disease, and underlying physiological events leading to mortality are closely linked to the TRPV1 expressing neuronal system (afferent/efferent neurons) in the lungs.
32442082 It was indicated that SARS CoV causes neuronal death by invading the brain via olfactory epithelium [4].
32458193 SARS-CoV-2 may affect CNS through two direct mechanisms (hematogenous dissemination or neuronal retrograde dissemination) or via indirect routes.
32489724 Like other respiratory viruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may enter the central nervous system (CNS) via the hematogenous or neuronal path.
32497778 Onset of pneumonia and ARDS can be rapid in COVID-19, suggesting a potential neuronal involvement in pathology and mortality. […] We hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 infection drives changes in immune cell-derived factors that then interact with receptors expressed by the sensory neuronal innervation of the lung to further promote important aspects of disease severity, including ARDS.
32512530 The authors also discuss the postulated neuronal mechanisms of the corona virus infection sequelae.
32542125 Histology revealed diffuse foci of encephalitis, with large areas of neuronal necrosis (coagulative-like necrosis) around the blood vessels and a sharp border with the surrounding healthy parenchyma - ANE.
32546655 We recruited 47 patients with mild (n=20), moderate (n=9) or severe (n=18) COVID-19 and measured two plasma biomarkers of CNS injury by Single molecule array (Simoa): neurofilament light chain protein (NfL) (a marker of intra-axonal neuronal injury) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp) (a marker of astrocytic activation/injury) in samples collected at presentation and again in a subset after a mean of 11.4 days. […] We show neurochemical evidence of neuronal injury and glial activation in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19.
32581854 Axonal, trans-synaptic, perineural, blood, lymphatic, or Trojan routes can gain the virus multiples accesses from peripheral neuronal networks, thus ultimately invading the brain and brainstem. […] The death upon respiratory failure may be also associated with the local inflammation- and thrombi-derived damages to the respiratory reflexes in both the lung neuronal network and brainstem center.
32584441 We also summarize known and potential SARS-CoV-2 receptors on epithelial barriers, immune cells, endothelium and clinically involved organs such as lung, gut, kidney, cardiovascular and neuronal system.
32586897 Extremely high concentrations of the neuronal injury markers neurofilament light (NfL) and tau, as well as an astrocytic activation marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp), were measured in CSF. […] Neuronal rescue proteins and other pathways were elevated in the in-depth proteomics analysis.
32591839 Virus particles were found in the neuronal cell body extending into apparent neurite structures.
32628969 Therefore, it is urgent to make clear whether SARS-CoV-2 has access to the central nervous system and can cause direct neuronal effects. […] Therefore, is important to make clear whether SARS-CoV-2 lung damage can cause direct or indirect neuronal effects.
32640417 The extracted literatures are scrutinized by the authors. 58 literatures including original articles, case reports and case series were selected by the authors to analyze the differential distribution of neurological impairments in COVID-19 positive patients along with angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) expression dynamics in neuronal and non-neuronal tissue in CNS and PNS with neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV2.
32646061 Based on studies in a range of in vitro and in vivo models, ergothioneine has exhibited the ability to modulate inflammation, scavenge free radicals, protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome, prevent endothelial dysfunction, protect against ischemia and reperfusion injury, protect against neuronal damage, counteract iron dysregulation, hinder lung and liver fibrosis, and mitigate damage to the lungs, kidneys, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and testis, amongst many others.
32655489 SARS-CoV-2 may reach ACE2 receptors on neuronal tissue through mode of the general circulation.
32661794 Namely, animal studies examining the SARS-CoV have implicated the angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2 receptor as a mediator of coronavirus-related neuronal damage and have shown that SARS-CoV can infect cerebrovascular endothelium and brain parenchyma, the latter predominantly in the medial temporal lobe, resulting in apoptosis and necrosis.
32662982 An elevated level of intracellular calcium causes neuronal dysfunction, cell death, and apoptosis.
32664217 Certain nanoparticles induce the amyloid aggregation of otherwise soluble proteins in in vitro laboratory settings, cultured neuronal cells and vertebrate or invertebrate animal models.
32667973 The roles of inflammatory obstruction of the olfactory clefts leading to conductive impairment, inflammatory cytokines affecting olfactory neuronal function, destruction of olfactory neurons or their supporting cells, and direct invasion of olfactory bulbs, in causing olfactory dysfunction are uncertain.
32668062 In this review, potential routes of viral entry and the possible mechanisms utilized by SARS-CoV-2 to penetrate the CNS, either by disrupting the BBB or infecting the peripheral nerves and using the neuronal network to initiate neuroinflammation, are briefly discussed.
32717399 ATP is metabolized to its derivatives by ectonucleotidases such as CD39 and CD73; ATP and its metabolites modulate neuronal and immune mechanisms through P1 and P2 purinergic receptors that are involved in pathophysiological mechanisms of neuroinfections.
32731282 Evidence of neurological complications and direct affection of neuronal structures in the course of infections with SARS-CoV-2 is actually emerging.
32732883 The systemic inflammation as well as neuroinflammatory changes are associated with massive increase of the brain pro-inflammatory molecules, neuroglial reactivity, altered neurochemical landscape and pathological remodelling of neuronal networks.
32737861 There is evidence of neuronal infection in the absence of inflammatory infiltrates with SARS-CoV, and CSF studies of rare patients with seizures have demonstrated virus but no pleocytosis. […] In contrast to human disease, animal models of neuropathogenesis are well developed, and pathologies including demyelination, neuronal necrosis, and meningoencephalitis are seen with both native CoVs as well as human CoVs inoculated into nasal cavities or brain.
32751841 Whether these features can be an indirect and unspecific consequence of the pulmonary disease or a generalized inflammatory state on the CNS remains to be determined; also, they may rather reflect direct SARS-CoV-2-related neuronal damage.
32754041 Viremia is observed in severe cases, suggesting that in addition to type II alveolar epithelial cells, many cell types, such as vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, renal tubular cells, neuronal cells, and lymphocytes, may be damaged.
32786309 The rapid recovery of smell and taste functions in COVID-19 patients could be attributed to a decrease in interleukin-6 levels rather than central nervous system ischemic injury or viral damage to neuronal cells.
32826754 It is now apparent that many of these neurological effects (for instance joint pain and headache) can persist for at least months after infection, suggesting a sensory neuronal involvement in persistent disease.
32832701 Technically, this model leverages state-of-the-art variational (Bayesian) model inversion and comparison procedures, originally developed to characterise the responses of neuronal ensembles to perturbations.
32834640 A hybrid of wavelet decomposed data into approximations and details then trained & tested through neuronal-fuzzification approach.
32835326 SARS-CoV-2, but not SARS-CoV, replicated modestly in U251 (neuronal) cells (p=0·036).
32838339 Glial cell dysfunctions have been associated with several neuroinflammatory diseases, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 likely has a primary effect on these cells in addition to a secondary effect from neuronal damage.
32845609 Neuronal and glial cells and endothelial cells in the central nervous system also express ACE2.
32862101 In vitro neuroprotection and toxicity of lead compounds have been performed in mouse neuronal cells and disease onset delay of ebselen has been demonstrated in transgenic ALS mice model.
32869585 Compared with humoral anti-inflammatory pathway, the neuronal anti-inflammatory pathway has earlier initiation, rapider action, and more localization, which play a more important role in the initial stage of inflammatory response.
32870373 Through hijacking the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, NSPs help the virus establish the RTC, inducing ER stress after membrane rearrangement and causing severe neuronal disturbance.
32876341 Imaging neurons of organoids reveal that SARS-CoV-2 exposure is associated with altered distribution of Tau from axons to soma, hyperphosphorylation, and apparent neuronal death.
32885037 Currently, there is no clear evidence for human neuronal or astrocyte expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the major receptor for viral entry, but ACE2 expression may be activated by inflammation, and a comparison of healthy and infected brains is important.
32899958 Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder brought about due to dopaminergic neuronal cell loss in the midbrain substantia nigra pars compacta region.
32908331 Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) epidemic processes are mechanistically modeled as analogous to the activity propagation in neuronal populations.
32935064 The potential toxicity is also noted due to its action on Ca2+ and hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in cardiac myocytes and neuronal cells.
32937591 These findings suggest that CoV-2 infection of non-neuronal cell types leads to anosmia and related disturbances in odor perception in COVID-19 patients.
32942152 There are similar injury mechanisms in SARS-CoV-2 infection and neuronal injury, equally reduced by ARB treatment.
32947193 We hypothesize that SARS-CoV-2 may cause neuronal damage in the corticolimbic network and subsequently alter the perception of dyspnea and the control of respiration. […] SARS-CoV-2 neuronal infection may change the secretion of numerous endogenous neuropeptides or neurotransmitters that distribute through large areas of the nervous system to produce cellular and perceptual effects. […] SARS-CoV-2 mainly enter to CNS via direct (neuronal and hematologic route) and indirect route. […] We theorize that SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced neuronal cell damage and may change the balance of endogenous neuropeptides or neurotransmitters that distribute through large areas of the nervous system to produce cellular and perceptual effects. […] Thus, SARS-CoV-2-associated neuronal damage may influence the control of respiration by interacting in neuromodulation.
32973655 Infection typically begins in the airway epithelia with subsequent alveolar involvement, and the virus then spreads to the CNS via neuronal contacts with the recruitment of axonal transport. […] Neuronal infection and regulated cell death are the main factors causing a generalized encephalitis.
32992744 The likely underlying mechanisms include amelioration of inflammation and oxidative damages, promotion of metabolic regulation, enhancement of satellite stem cell responsiveness, improvement of muscular blood supply, inhibition of catabolic genes, and promotion of peripheral neuronal regeneration.
32994698 Two main pathways of CNS penetration seem to be the strongest candidates, the hematogenous and the neuronal.
33002209 But more evidence supports the trans-neuronal hypothesis.
33009246 VEGF-A-triggered sensory neuronal firing was blocked by Spike protein and NRP-1 inhibitor EG00229.
33015550 Some cytokines can cross the blood-brain barrier and activate the brain’s immune cells to produce neural cytokines, leading to neuronal dysfunctions.
33016678 The acute neuroinflammatory response includes the activation of resident tissue macrophages in the CNS and the subsequent release of various cytokines and chemokines, which probably activates oxidative stress, causing long-term neuronal damage.
33035589 Our review illustrates findings that claim SARS-CoV-2’s arrival onto the ACE2 receptors of neuronal and glial cells mainly via CSF, olfactory nerve, trigeminal nerve, neuronal dissemination, and hematogenous pathways.
33039950 Related researches have demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 serves roles in respiratory, intestinal and neuronal diseases.
33051388 In this paper, encephalitis and encephalopathy have been reviewed as neuronal complications of COVID-19, discussing these pathological conditions and whether SARS-CoV-2 targets the central nervous system.
33051841 COVID-19 patients have neurological symptoms, viral particles were found in the brain, SARS-CoV-2 enters the cells via fusion of lipid viral envelope with the plasma membranes of infected cells, and so viral envelop can contain lipid components of the host neuronal membranes. […] Thus, PM can aggravate neurological symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 and vice versa, due to their identical nose-to-brain delivery mechanism and possible interference of neuronal effects.
33052306 The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nN-AChR) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor showed 19.85% sequence identity among themselves.
33052822 Hematogenous spread to the nervous system has been described, with viral transmission along neuronal synapses in a retrograde fashion.
33060875 Similar to other respiratory viruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) may enter the brain via the hematogenous or neuronal route; however, only a few reports are available on the neurological complications of COVID-19.
33070902 Autopsies of the COVID-19 patients, detailed neurological investigation, and attempts to isolate SARS-CoV-2 from the endothelium of cerebral microcirculation, cerebrospinal fluid, glial cells, and neuronal tissue can clarify the role played by COVID-19 in CNS-involvement and in the ongoing mortalities as has been in the recent outbreak.
33090438 Given the presence of ACE2 receptors in the brain and the critical role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in brain functions, special attention to brain microcirculation and neuronal inflammation is warranted during COVID-19 treatment.
33127503 Our findings indicate a possible contribution of viral replication on triggering CNS infiltration by immune cells and the subsequent inflammation promoting neuronal injury.
33132007 Further longitudinal imaging studies could shed light on the mechanism of olfactory neuronal pathway injury in COVID-19 anosmia.
33163611 Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP), based on biology-informed and mechanistic modeling of the interaction between a drug and neuronal circuits, is an emerging technology to simulate the pharmacodynamic effects of a drug in combination with patient-specific comedications, genotypes, and disease states on functional clinical scales.
33177481 This review aims to provide an update on the mechanisms involved in the development of the long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the 3 main areas of lung injury, neuronal injury, and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and multiple sclerosis, and highlights the need for patient monitoring following the acute stage of infection with SARS-CoV-2 to provide a rationale for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of these potential long-term sequelae.
33179020 Significant similarities in the symptoms recorded in all three families led us to a hypothesis that, likely, a significant level of the immune response to external immunogenic pathological stimulus such as mold spore protein, mycotoxin protein, dust mite protein, decay-related volatile particles (VOC) skewed a balance of the neuroimmune interactions, and further affected neuronal network establishment.
33193051 Neurological status reversibility and the absence of abnormalities on brain MRI are consistent with a functional rather than a structural neuronal network impairment.
33214960 Neuron specific enolase (NSE) is a biomarker for neuronal injury.
33223274 The current pandemic spreading the SARS CoV-2 corona virus world-wide is now showing anecdotal evidence of psychoses newly developing post viral exposure, implicating neuronal inflammation in crucial areas of the brain that could initiate psychotic symptoms.
33250631 Cerebral edema, neuronal degeneration, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Bickerstaff’s brainstem encephalitis, Miller Fisher syndrome, polyneuritis, toxic encephalopathy, and stroke can occur.
33251489 Sustentacular cells thus represent a potential entry door for SARS-CoV-2 in a neuronal sensory system that is in direct connection with the brain.
33268588 Studies have shown that SRAS-CoV-2 can invade the nervous system through hematogenous and transneuronal pathways, and may cause nervous system damage in patients with COVID-19 by inhibiting cellular immunity, hypoxemia, inflammation, inducing neuronal degeneration and apoptosis, and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mechanism.
33305486 First, we discuss the psychological and neuronal features of self and self-other relation and how they are rooted in a deeper layer of the brain’s neural activity complementing its cognitive surface layer.
33328588 Both pro-inflammatory factors and viruses may cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the central nervous system, activating neuroinflammatory responses accompanied by hemorrhagic lesions and neuronal impairment, which are largely described processes in psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.
33359380 Blood and CSF samples from eleven critically ill COVID-19 patients presenting with unexplained neurological symptoms including myoclonus, oculomotor disturbance, delirium, dystonia and epileptic seizures, were analyzed for anti-neuronal and anti-glial autoantibodies. […] Using cell-based assays and indirect immunofluorescence on unfixed murine brain sections, all patients showed anti-neuronal autoantibodies in serum or CSF. […] Antigens included intracellular and neuronal surface proteins, such as Yo or NMDA receptor, but also various specific undetermined epitopes, reminiscent of the brain tissue binding observed with certain human monoclonal SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.
33360731 Cultured endothelial and neuronal cells were incubated with and wild type mice were injected IV with different spike subunits. […] The surrounding neurons demonstrated increased NMDAR2 and neuronal NOS plus decreased MFSD2a and SHIP1 proteins. […] The surrounding neurons showed increased neuronal NOS and decreased MFSD2a.
33369818 Neuronal autoantibody testing using commercial tests was negative in all patients.
33377539 Serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) is a specific biomarker of neuronal injury. […] Higher sNfL levels were associated with unfavorable short-term outcome, indicating that neuronal injury is common and pronounced in critically ill patients.
33383826 ZIKV is a vector borne Flavivirus that is spread by mosquitoes and it mainly infects neuronal progenitor cells.
33386439 STD may be related to increased inflammatory response as well as damage of olfactory neuronal pathway or non-neuronal olfactory mucosa.
33391623 Pharmacokinetic and safety evaluations uncover that nanoMn treatment hardly induces neuroinflammation through limiting neuronal accumulation of manganese.
33393420 The latter is possible through neuronal access via the olfactory bulb, hematogenous access through immune cells or directly across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and through the brain’s circumventricular organs characterized by their extensive and highly permeable capillaries.
33394906 It is postulated that the cause may be direct CNS injury through blood and neuronal pathways or indirectly because of an immune-mediated response, hypoxia caused by decreased oxygen saturation, or by the binding of subacute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 to the host angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptors.
33395482 Patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and encephalitis (COV-Enc), encephalitis without SARS-CoV-2 infection (ENC) and healthy controls (HC) underwent an extended panel of CSF neuronal (NfL, T-tau), glial (GFAP, TREM2, YKL-40) and inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1β, IL-6, Il-8, TNF- α, CXCL-13 and β2-microglobulin). […] Neuronal markers NfL and T-Tau were abnormal only in severe cases. […] SARS-CoV-2-related encephalitis were associated with prominent glial activation and neuroinflammatory markers, whereas neuronal markers were increased in severe cases only.
33401749 Viral infections may cause neurological disorders by directly inducing oxidative stress and interrupting immune system function, both of which contribute to neuronal death.
33433624 We demonstrate that neuronal infection can be prevented by blocking ACE2 with antibodies or by administering cerebrospinal fluid from a COVID-19 patient.
33441073 Therefore, viruses can bind to the ACE2 endothelium of brain blood vessels and thus can invade BBB leading to neuronal damage.
33452633 Little is known about the neuronal substrates of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with COVID-19 and their evolution during the course of the disease.
33458853 However, Zinc is known to modulate several physiological functions including intracellular signaling, enzyme function, gustation, and olfaction, as well as reproductive, skeletal, neuronal, and cardiovascular systems.
33467732 Microscopy analysis revealed viral protein and RNA in upper respiratory tract tissues, notably in cells of the respiratory and olfactory mucosae of the nasal turbinates, including olfactory neuronal cells.
33477869 SARS-CoV-2-infected mice exhibited encephalitis hallmarks characterized by production of cytokines and chemokines, leukocyte infiltration, hemorrhage and neuronal cell death.
33487628 It is possible that in areas of cerebral hypoxia, neuronal cell energy metabolism may become compromised after integration of the viral genome, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. […] Therefore, we propose that selective neuronal mitochondrial targeting in SARS-CoV-2 infection affects cognitive processes to induce ‘brain fog’ and results in behavioral changes that favor viral propagation.
33492565 SARS-CoV-2 enhances ACE2 leading to inflammation and neuronal death with possible development of mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety. […] In addition, physical exercise enhances the activity of PGC-1α/ FNDC5/Irisin pathway leading to neuronal survival and the maintenance of a good mental health.
33502593 The chronic dysfunction of neuronal cells, both central and peripheral, a characteristic of neurological disorders, may be caused by irreversible damage and cell death.
33508216 The majority of these inflammatory mediators are driven by type II interferon and are known to induce neuronal injury in other disease states.
33549331 Rise of central cytokines resulting from infections produces neuronal changes.
33550782 Evidence suggest that the virus could enter the CNS through angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor, neuronal transport, haematogenous route, and nasal route via olfactory bulb, cribriform plate, and propagates through trans-synaptic signalling, and shows retrograde movement into the CNS along nerve fiber.
33556379 This study demonstrates the susceptibility of neuronal- and glial-like cell lines towards SARS-CoV-2 infection at high MOIs.
33571481 Results obtained in this work shed light on the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids - particularly DHA - on lipid membranes, with potential preventive applications in many diseases, e.g. neuronal as, Alzheimer’s disease, and viral, as Covid-19.
33574316 Currently, there is no clear evidence for human neuronal or astrocyte expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the major receptor for viral entry, but ACE2 expression may be activated by inflammation, and a comparison of healthy and infected brains is important.
33582450 Substrates accumulation ultimately induces inflammation, angiogenesis, thrombosis, neuronal and tissue damage while diminished products lead to the loss of the anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-angiogenic responses.
33587262 Eleven different convolutional neuronal network-based (CNN) models were developed in this study to detect infected patients with coronavirus pneumonia using X-ray images (AlexNet, VGG16, VGG19, GoogleNet, ResNet18, ResNet500, ResNet101, InceptionV3, InceptionResNetV2, DenseNet201 and XceptionNet).
33593267 This systematic review revealed that most commonly reported neuronal presentations involved headache, nausea, vomiting and muscular symptoms like fibromyalgia. […] SARS-CoV-2 patients experience neuronal presentations varying with the progression of the infection.