DrugBank ID: db09145
DrugCentral: water
Synonymous :agua | dihydrogen oxide | purified water | sterile water | water purified

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of water gene in 545 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32096367 The “Four-Anti and Two-Balance”strategy included antivirus, anti-shock, anti-hyoxemia, anti-secondary infection, and maintaining of water, electrolyte and acid base balance and microecological balance.
32196032 Droplet microfluidic systems have the capability to overcome such limitations by conducting complex multi-step assays with high reliability, resolution, and throughput in a pico-liter volume water-in-oil emulsion droplet format.
32211765 No therapies are available, and the only way to contain the virus spread is to regularly and thoroughly clean oneself hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water, to maintain at least 1 metre (3 feet) distance from anyone who is coughing or sneezing, to avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth, and to stay home if one feels unwell.
32224550 The threat of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) to health systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) can be compared metaphorically to a lake in Africa infested with a bask of crocodiles and the saying: “the eye of the crocodile.” In the lake, only the eyes of the crocodile appear on the surface while the rest of the body is submerged in water.
32230995 To efficiently solve this problem, we propose a hybrid algorithm based on the water wave optimization (WWO) metaheuristic and neighborhood search.
32232986 The results showed that instant hand wiping using a wet towel soaked in water containing 1.00% soap powder, 0.05% active chlorine, or 0.25% active chlorine from sodium hypochlorite removed 98.36%, 96.62%, and 99.98% of the virus from hands, respectively.
32273245 Optimal CL care behaviours should be the same as those under normal circumstances, which include appropriate hand washing (thoroughly with soap and water) and drying (with paper towels) before both CL application and removal. […] Daily CL cleaning and correct case care for reusable CL should be followed according to appropriate guidelines, and CL exposure to water must be avoided.
32279686 Furthermore, they are exacerbated by an increasing number of vulnerable populations suffering from chronic deficiencies in food, water, and energy.
32293717 PPE made of more breathable material may lead to a similar number of spots on the trunk (MD 1.60, 95% CI -0.15 to 3.35) compared to more water-repellent material but may have greater user satisfaction (MD -0.46, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.08, scale of 1 to 5).
32293875 Ritonavir showed somewhat higher atomic contacts, binding efficiency and key binding residues than that of lopinavir in correspondence with slightly less water accessibility at the 3CLpro active site.
32304561 This includes appropriate use of a filtering face-piece respirator (N95, N99, FFP2/3, or PAPR), double gloves, facial protection (full visor and/or face shield), full body water-resistant disposable gown, shoe covers and a hairnet.
32311380 If combined with the provision of clean water and sanitation, targeted hygiene can reduce the circulation of resistant bacteria in homes and communities, regardless of a country’s Human Development Index (overall social and economic development).
32315907 In view of the current situation regarding the Covid-19 disease, a discussion is proposed on the need for research focusing on the presence and evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in water, soils and other environmental compartments, reached through wastewater and sewage sludge spreading.
32320083 In this study, we demonstrated, using avian coronavirus of infectious bronchitis virus to mimic SARS-CoV-2, that medical masks and N95 masks remained their blocking efficacy after being steamed on boiling water even for 2 hours.
32322159 This approach was applied to develop four new nanofiber filters tailored for capturing 100nm airborne COVID-19 to achieve over 90% efficiency with pressure drop below 30Pa (3.1mm water). […] One filter developed meeting the 90% efficiency has ultralow pressure drop of only 18Pa (1.9mm water) while another filter meeting the 30Pa limit has high efficiency reaching 94%.
32325742 The antiviral activity of 12 water and water-alcohol plant extracts of the leaves and stem bark of three different species of mulberry-Morus alba var. alba, Morus alba var. rosa, and Morus rubra-were evaluated. […] Leaves’ water-alcohol extracts exhibited maximum antiviral activity on human coronavirus, while stem bark and leaves’ water and water-alcohol extracts were the most effective on picornaviruses.
32327306 Vaccines were touted as one of the most successful health invention ever introduced; on a similar level to health improvements due to clean water.
32333243 The informal settlements of the Global South are the least prepared for the pandemic of COVID-19 since basic needs such as water, toilets, sewers, drainage, waste collection, and secure and adequate housing are already in short supply or non-existent. […] Immediate measures to protect residents of urban informal settlements, the homeless, those living in precarious settlements, and the entire population from COVID-19 include the following: (1) institute informal settlements/slum emergency planning committees in every urban informal settlement; (2) apply an immediate moratorium on evictions; (3) provide an immediate guarantee of payments to the poor; (4) immediately train and deploy community health workers; (5) immediately meet Sphere Humanitarian standards for water, sanitation, and hygiene; (6) provide immediate food assistance; (7) develop and implement a solid waste collection strategy; and (8) implement immediately a plan for mobility and health care.
32334159 On the other hand, there are also negative secondary aspects such as the reduction in recycling and the increase in waste, further endangering the contamination of physical spaces (water and land), in addition to air.
32335408 However, the lock down of the COVID-19 pandemic caused the air quality in many cities across the globe to improve and drop in water pollutions in some parts of the world.
32336079 Regardless of which mask is used, performing hand hygiene frequently with an alcohol-based hand rub or with soap and water if hands are dirty; is the most effective preventive measure for COVID-19.
32337862 The article also outlines the differences between hand decontamination using alcohol-based hand gels and soap and water, and the complex factors that can interfere with effective hand hygiene compliance.
32343408 Similarly, it was very uncertain whether the rate of women experiencing symptoms of reproductive tract infection differed between women cleaning hands with ash compared with cleaning hands using soap (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.86; very low-certainty evidence) or when compared with handwashing with water only or not washing hands (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.96; very low-certainty evidence).
32345515 We described the management procedures for tracheostomy in a patient with COVID-19, including the anesthesia preparation, surgical procedures, required medical supplies (a N95 mask or powered air purifying respirator, goggles, face shield, cap, double gloves, and a water-resistant disposable gown), and appropriate consultation with an infection prevention team.
32348025 If the procedure is vital to the survival of the patient, FFP3 and/or PAPRs devices, goggles, full-face visor, double gloves, water-resistant gowns and protective caps, are mandatory.
32353720 Then we discuss the current framework of disease transmission through water and excreta and how the transmission of a respiratory disease fits into it.
32361598 This scoping review was conducted to summarize research data on CoV in water environments. […] In detail, the review captured relevant studies investigating three main areas: 1) CoV persistence/survival in waters; 2) CoV occurrence in water environments; 3) methods for recovery of CoV from waters. […] The data available suggest that: i) CoV seems to have a low stability in the environment and is very sensitive to oxidants, like chlorine; ii) CoV appears to be inactivated significantly faster in water than non-enveloped human enteric viruses with known waterborne transmission; iii) temperature is an important factor influencing viral survival (the titer of infectious virus declines more rapidly at 23°C-25 °C than at 4 °C); iv) there is no current evidence that human coronaviruses are present in surface or ground waters or are transmitted through contaminated drinking-water; v) further research is needed to adapt to enveloped viruses the methods commonly used for sampling and concentration of enteric, non enveloped viruses from water environments. […] The evidence-based knowledge reported in this paper is useful to support risk analysis processes within the drinking and wastewater chain (i.e., water and sanitation safety planning) to protect human health from exposure to coronavirus through water.
32361744 Chromatographic separation was obtained through an Acquity HSS T3 1.8 μm, 2.1 × 50 mm column, with a gradient of water and acetonitrile with 0.05% formic acid.
32364936 Applications of electrochemical biosensors for the detection of pathogens in food and water safety, medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and bio-threat applications are highlighted.
32371231 Computer simulations for past, present and emerging epidemic hotspots (e.g., Wuhan, Milan, Madrid, New York City, Teheran, Seattle, Detroit and New Orleans) identified temperature, average in-sewer travel time and per-capita water use as key variables.
32372877 A goal in our study is to develop air filters (e.g. respirator, facemask, ventilator, medical breathing filter/system) with 90% capture on 100-nm airborne COVID-19 with pressure drop of less than 30 Pa (3.1 mm water). […] The pressure drop for the 6-layer nanofiber filter was only 26 Pa (2.65 mm water column) which was below our limit of 30 Pa (3.1 mm water). […] The 6-layer charged nanofiber filter was qualified as a ‘N98 respirator’ (98% capture efficiency for 300-nm NaCl aerosols) but with pressure drop of only 2.65-mm water which was 1/10 below conventional N95 with 25-mm (exhaling) to 35-mm (inhaling) water column!
32373409 Frequent hand washing implies a prolonged exposure to water and other chemical or physical agents and may induce several pathophysiologic changes, such as epidermal barrier disruption, impairment of keratinocytes, the subsequent release of proinflammatory cytokines, activation of the skin immune system, and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
32380474 Since plasma sodium monitoring is not always possible in times of COVID-19, we recommend to delay the desmopressin dose once a week until aquaresis occurs allowing excess retained water to be excreted. […] • In contrast, hypernatraemia may develop in COVID-19 patients in ICU most probably due to insensible water losses from pyrexia, increased respiration rate and use of diuretics.
32388136 Many environmental indices such as lowering NO2 and CO2 emissions and reduction in particulate matters in air as a result of less human activities have led to clean air and pollution free water in many countries.
32388159 Here, with the help of remote sensing images, this work quantitatively demonstrated the improvement in surface water quality in terms of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Vembanad Lake, the longest freshwater lake in India.
32389845 The consequent overcrowding - with insufficient water, sanitation and healthcare (including laboratory capacity) - could lead to conditions that are ideal for spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Syria.
32389891 The main route of transmission of the human coronaviruses (HCoVs), and presumably also of the new pandemic SARS-CoV-2, is via droplets and close contacts, however their fecal elimination also suggests the possible spread via water. […] A scientific literature search was thus carried out to highlight the current state of the art and knowledge gaps regarding coronavirus in water. […] Since 1978 only 22 studies have met the inclusion criteria, and considered heterogeneous purposes, detection methods and types of water. […] In vitro experiments have addressed the recovery efficiency of analytical methods, survival in different types of water and the removal efficiency of water treatments. […] The scarcity of information on HCoV in the environment suggests that research is needed to understand the fate of these viruses in the water cycle.
32391184 Taken together, such studies allowed us to identify a residue pair (Glu-His) and a conserved His as critical for binding; a conserved GSCGS motif as important for the start of catalysis, a partial negative charge cluster (PNCC) formed by Arg-Tyr-Asp as essential for catalysis, and a conserved water molecule mediating the remote interaction between PNCC and catalytic dyad.
32391241 Surface water improvements associated with the COVID-19 economic slowdown illustrate environmental resiliency and societal control over urban water quality.
32391658 The “Four-Anti and Two-Balance” strategy included antivirus, anti-shock, anti-hyoxemia, anti-secondary infection, and maintaining of water, electrolyte and acid base balance and microecological balance.
32399095 The highest log octanol/water partition coefficient, high number of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, lowest non-bonded interaction energy between the receptor and the ligand, and high binding affinity were considered for the best ligand for the envelope (mycophenolic acid: log P = 3.00; DG = -10.2567 kcal/mol; pKi = 7.713 µM) and nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (1-[(2,4-dichlorophenyl)methyl]pyrazole-3,5-dicarboxylic acid: log P = 2.901; DG = -12.2112 kcal/mol; pKi = 7.885 µM) of SARS-CoV-2.
32403261 The success of the hand sanitization solely depends on the use of effective hand disinfecting agents formulated in various types and forms such as antimicrobial soaps, water-based or alcohol-based hand sanitizer, with the latter being widely used in hospital settings.
32406064 Skin parameters were measured on areas covered by the respective masks and on uncovered skin 2 and 4 hours after donning, and 0.5 and 1 hour after removing the masks, including skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, pH, and sebum secretion.
32406115 And, although not all of the microbially relevant infrastructure will be within reach of schools, there is usually access to a market, local food store, wastewater treatment plant, farm, surface water body, etc., all of which can provide opportunities to explore microbiology in action.
32406402 Although COVID-19 has impacted water and wastewater utilities in new and profound ways, they must still provide their vital services despite the disruptions. […] In the United States, professional associations have long advocated in this area and have already developed considerable policy guidance and resources to help water and wastewater utilities prepare for and respond to emergencies.
32406406 Soapy water, alcohol, bleach immersion, ethylene oxide, ionizing radiation, microwave, high temperature, autoclave or steam are not fully recommended.
32407826 The top five sampling sites with a positive rate in medical areas were beepers (50.00%), water machine buttons (50.00%), elevator buttons (42.86%), computer mouses (40.00%), and telephones (40.00%).
32412096 PPE made of more breathable material may lead to a similar number of spots on the trunk (MD 1.60, 95% CI -0.15 to 3.35) compared to more water-repellent material but may have greater user satisfaction (MD -0.46, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.08, scale of 1 to 5).
32414379 Even low-cost interventions such as facemasks for patients with a cough and water supplies for handwashing may be challenging, as is ‘physical distancing’ in overcrowded primary health care clinics.
32415548 Therefore, in this study, was discussed the role of environmental factors and conditions such as temperature, humidity, wind speed as well as food, water and sewage, air, insects, inanimate surfaces, and hands in COVID-19 transmission. […] According to the latest evidence, the presence of coronavirus in the sewer has been confirmed, but there is no evidence that it is transmitted through sewage or contaminated drinking water.
32416535 This proposed model is premised on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from human feces through municipal waste water treatment plants into the natural aquatic environment where potential wildlife hosts become infected.
32416536 Regarding social factors, we identified the return of indigenous people to their communities, poor access to water, language barriers, and limited access to the Internet, as factors that will not allow them to take the minimum preventive measures against the disease.
32416598 Importantly, we provide evidence that RNA extraction can be successfully bypassed when samples are stored in UTM medium or in molecular water but not when samples are stored in saline solution and in Hanks medium.
32417554 The present study has attempted to explore the impact of forced lockdown on environmental components like Particulate matter (PM) 10, Land surface temperature (LST), river water quality, noise using image and field derived data in pre and during lockdown periods. […] Adjacent river water is qualitatively improved due to stoppage of dust release to the river. […] For instance, total dissolve solid (TDS) level in river water adjacent to crushing unit is attenuated by almost two times.
32425251 The procedure resulted in average recoveries of 10 ± 3.5% and 10 ± 2.1% in influent water (n = 2) and 3.3 ± 1.6% and 6.2 ± 1.0% in effluent water (n = 2) samples for PEDV and MgV, respectively. […] Then, the method was used to monitor the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 from March 12 to April 14, 2020 in influent, secondary and tertiary effluent water samples. […] Two secondary water samples resulted positive (2 out of 18) and all tertiary water samples tested as negative (0 out 12).
32433389 Failure to account for the lack of complete indoor plumbing and access to potable water in a pandemic may be an important determinant of the increased incidence of COVID-19 cases.
32438824 In low-income countries, reduction of transmission is of paramount importance, but social distancing is challenged by high population densities and access to handwashing facilities with soap and water is limited. […] Our objective was to estimate global access to handwashing with soap and water to inform use of handwashing in the prevention of COVID-19 transmission. […] We utilized observational surveys and spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression modeling in the context of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study to estimate access to a handwashing station with available soap and water for 1,062 locations from 1990 to 2019. […] Despite overall improvements from 1990 {33.6% [95% uncertainty interval (UI): 31.5, 35.6] without access} to 2019, globally in 2019, 2.02 (95% UI: 1.91, 2.14) billion people, 26.1% (95% UI: 24.7, 27.7) of the global population, lacked access to handwashing with available soap and water.
32443022 This includes appropriate use of a filtering face-piece respirator (N95, N99, FFP2/3, or PAPR), double gloves, facial protection (full visor and/or face shield), full body water-resistant disposable gown, shoe covers and a hairnet.
32448085 The first step in this investigation was to solvate the isolated S-protein in water for molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, being observed a transition from “up” to “down” conformation of receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S-protein with angle of 54.3 and 43.0 degrees, respectively.
32461409 While both alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHR) or washing with soap and water are claimed to have been effective, hand sanitizers have gained more popularity due to the ease of use.
32466392 MITs allow for caries removal (particularly in primary teeth) without any high-speed rotating instrument cooled with nebulized air-water spray (with high risk of virus environmental diffusion), usually adopted during traditional treatments.
32470688 When the lockdown measures were enforced in Italy to control the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 infection on March 10th 2020, the ordinary urban water traffic around Venice, one of the major pressures in the lagoon, came to a halt. […] This provided a unique opportunity to analyse the environmental effects of restrictions to mobility on water transparency. […] We conclude that the high water transparency can be considered as a transient condition determined by a combination of natural seasonal factors and the effects of COVID-19 restrictions.
32473036 Four and six centers used peracetic acid during the period of shutdown and return to work, alone or matched with OPA or acidified water.
32475597 This review summarizes the potential pharmacological activities of polysaccharides isolated by hot water extraction from Lung Cleansing and Detoxifying Decoction, which is consistent with its production method, to provide the theoretical basis for ongoing research on its application.
32481719 Ion channels, transporters, and pumps coordinate the transcellular and paracellular movement of ions and water to maintain the ASL volume and mucus hydration. microRNA (miRNA) is a class of non-coding, short single-stranded RNA regulating gene expression by post-transcriptional mechanisms. miRNAs have been increasingly recognized as essential regulators of ion channels and transporters responsible for ASL homeostasis. miRNAs also influence the airway host defense.
32493409 Although access to clean water and soap is universal in high-income settings, it remains a basic need many do not have in low- and middle-income settings.We analyzed data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 16 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, using the most recent survey since 2015. […] Differences in the percentage of households with an observed handwashing place with water and soap were estimated by place of residence and wealth quintiles. […] Equiplots showed wide within-country disparities, disproportionately affecting the poorest households and rural residents, who represent the majority of the population in most of the countries.Social inequalities in access to water and soap matter for the COVID-19 response in sub-Saharan Africa. […] Interventions such as mass distribution of soap and ensuring access to clean water, along with other preventive strategies should be scaled up to reach the most vulnerable populations.
32493460 Key components of the CoVideo are the promotion of five hygiene practices: i) social distancing and avoiding group gatherings, ii) frequently washing hands with soap and water or sanitizer, iii) cleaning surfaces at home (e.g., kitchen counters), iv) not sharing eating utensils, and v) avoidance of stockpiling essential goods (such as toilet paper and face masks).
32495123 This lockdown impacted the pollution levels of environment and improved air and water quality in the short span owing to very less human activities.
32496256 The majority, i.e. 1318 (87%), followed advisories and reported washing hands with soap and water regularly, 1108 (73%) reported regularly wearing masks, 1344 (89%) reported following lockdown guidelines, and 1306 (87%) reported maintaining social distancing.
32498549 Results from an online survey (N = 511) revealed that the vast majority (>90 percent) of respondents had very often or always practiced preventive behaviors against contracting COVID-19 such as washing their hands more regularly with soap and water, staying away from crowded places, and wearing face masks out in public.
32501392 Zoonotic disease risks are ultimately interlinked with biodiversity crises and water insecurity.
32506926 A poor, overcrowded living condition, limited access to safe drinking water and health services, and a restricted communication system have substantially increased the risk of rapid spread of COVID-19 in these refugee camps.
32511851 Ethanol (70%) was tested in parallel as a positive control, and water only as a negative control. […] Surviving virus from each sample was quantified by standard end-point dilution assay and the log reduction value (LRV) of each compound compared to the negative (water) control was calculated.
32520122 Interest in use of face masks (Pr=0.0041), social distancing (Pr=0.0043) and hand hygiene with alcohol gel (Pr=0.0037) was greater than interest in respiratory etiquette (Pr=0.0010) and hand hygiene with soap and water (Pr=0.0005). the difference in interest in issues related to combating Covid-19 was substantial and can guide new strategies for disseminating health information. descrever os perfis de interesse de busca de informações na internet sobre termos relacionados à epidemia da Covid-19 no Brasil. realizou-se uma pesquisa quantitativa exploratória usando o Google Health Trends; foram analisados dados diários de interesse, definido como probabilidade de consulta (Pr), sobre 23 termos nas buscas realizadas por usuários conectados no Brasil no período de 1º de janeiro a 9 de abril de 2020. o pico de interesse (Pr=0,0651) pelo tema coronavirus ocorreu em 21 de março; o interesse pelos temas uso de máscaras (Pr=0,0041), distanciamento social (Pr=0,0043) e higienização das mãos com álcool em gel (Pr=0,0037) foi superior ao interesse pelos temas etiqueta respiratória (Pr=0,0010) e higienização das mãos com água e sabão (Pr=0,0005). a diferença de interesse pelos temas relacionados ao combate à Covid-19 foi expressiva e pode orientar novas estratégias de divulgação de informações em saúde. describir los perfiles de las consultas de búsqueda basadas en la Internet sobre términos relacionados a la epidemia del Covid-19 en Brasil.
32522671 In the context of progressive lockdown exit and hospital activities recovery, we assessed the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in rehabilitation pools and therapeutic water environments in order to provide specific recommendations to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 while ensuring essential rehabilitation cares for patients.
32524893 In many ways, efforts to contain the spread of COVID-19 in densely populated communities with limited access to food, water and sanitation may seem counter-intuitive and even impossible under conditions of precarity.
32524953 Furthermore, environmental surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and accumulated human waste, as well as efforts to mitigate the virus’ entry into unprotected household water sources, should be a priority part of the COVID-19 response in settings without safely managed sanitation for the duration of the pandemic.
32530505 Disinfectants with multiple agents and adverse pH are more likely to be best active at higher water temperatures.
32532012 Consequently, by the end of April 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to numerous environmental impacts, both positive such as enhanced air and water quality in urban areas, and negative, such as shoreline pollution due to the disposal of sanitary consumables.
32544735 Temperature, dew point, relative humidity, absolute humidity, and water vapor showed positive significant correlation with COVID-19 pandemic.
32548599 Due to high levels of stress and work intensity, insufficient sleep and a lack of access to water after entering the isolation ward, staff may suffer from oral mucosal ulcers and other oral mucosal diseases.
32549749 Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions remain to be important in the prevention of further spread of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). […] Basic hygiene interventions such as handwashing with water and soap (HWWS) when applied consistently will deactivate and remove the virus particles from the hands.
32556161 A Dentoform model was fitted into a dental mannequin and coated with Glo Germ to detect splatter during simulated dental AGPs produced with use of a high-speed handpiece, an ultrasonic scaler, and an air-water syringe, all in conjunction with high-volume suction.
32559276 Key sectors at particular risk of collapse or reduced efficiency in the wake of COVID-19 include food systems, incomes, and social protection, health care services for women and children, and services and access to clean water and sanitation.
32560459 The analysis of published data shows that bound water acts as a plasticizer of biological tissues, a decrease in bound water content results in an increase in biological tissue stiffness, and increased tissue stiffness leads to NF-kB activation and triggered actin polymerization-NF-kB activation is associated with age-related diseases. […] It can be suggested that changes in bound water content through changing tissue stiffness can affect cellular processes and the development of pathologies related to aging.
32565272 When hand washing with soap and water is unavailable, a sufficient volume of sanitizer is necessary to ensure complete hand coverage, and compliance is critical for appropriate hand hygiene.
32568806 This purpose can be achieved by applying alcohol-based hand rubs, washing hands properly with soap and water, and applying other antiseptic agents. […] Nevertheless, regular hand hygiene could also be challenging, because water, detergents, and disinfectants may predispose HCWs to hand dermatitis.
32570023 In the first half of 2020, because of the widespread of the COVID-19, researches were focused on the monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 in water, wastewater, sludge, air, and on surfaces, in order to assess the risk of contracting the viral infection from contaminated environments. […] SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding strategies in the environment, either through animate and unanimate matrices, or exploiting the organic matter in water, wastewater, and waste in general, have been discussed in the present article.
32574854 Reports from all over the world are indicating that after the outbreak of COVID-19, environmental conditions including air quality and water quality in rivers are improving and wildlife is blooming. […] But after declaration of lockdown due to COVID-19, quality of air has started to improve and all other environmental parameters such as water quality in rivers have started giving a positive sign towards restoring.
32574914 We hereby present the imprints of lockdown on water quality (both chemical and biological) parameters during the nationwide lockdown (COVID-19 epidemic) in India between 25th March to 30th May 2020. […] The present study describes the changes in chemical and biological water quality parameters based on twenty-two groundwater samples from the coastal industrial city of Tuticorin in Southern India, taken before (10 and 11th February 2020) and during the lockdown (19 and 20th April 2020) periods. […] Contents of Cr, Cu, Zn and Cd, however, remained similar and fluoride did not show any change, probably as they were sourced from rock-water interactions. […] The multivariate analyses aptly illustrated this and the principal component analyses helped to identify the sources that controlled water qualities of the lockdown compared to the pre-lockdown period.
32578477 Objective: Social distancing and hand washing with soap and water have been advocated as the main proactive measures against the spread of coronavirus. […] We sought to find out what other alternative materials and methods would be used among populations without running water and who may not afford alcohol-based sanitizers. Results: We reviewed studies that reported use of sand, soil, ash, soda ash, seawater, alkaline materials, and sunlight as possible alternatives to handwashing with soap and water. […] The consideration of use of these alternative locally available in situations of unavailability of soap and water and alcohol-based sanitizers is timely in the face of coronavirus pandemic.
32578839 Several measures are highlighted, including social distancing, optimized water management, airflow and microclimatic parameters in the pool as well in the annexed rooms, verification of sanitation procedures.
32582578 Design-A features a mask with a water channel that allows the user to remain hydrated without removing the cover.
32599421 The increasing use of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) for magnetic resonance imaging is leading to widespread contamination of freshwater and drinking water systems. […] Contrary to previous assumptions that GBCAs are stable throughout the water cycle, they can degrade. […] There is specific concern regarding UV end-of-pipe water treatments, which may degrade GBCAs. […] Degradation products in drinking water supplies can increase the risk of adverse health effects. […] This is of particular relevance where the raw water for drinking water production has a higher proportion of recycled wastewater. […] Temporal variations in anthropogenic gadolinium concentrations in river water can be used to better understand river-aquifer interactions and groundwater flow velocities. […] Collecting urine from all patients following MRI examinations could be a way forward to halt the generally increasing concentrations of Gd in drinking water systems and recover this technologically critical element.
32599638 There is also a correlation with the use of chlorination of drinking water in these regions.
32603505 These findings suggest a possible risk of faecal-oral, foodborne and waterborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in developing countries that often use sewage-polluted waters in irrigation and have poor water treatment systems.
32604457 A medical interview by an experienced physician is the foundation of the post-travel screening process both in symptomatic and asymptomatic travelers; the interview should focus on identifying exposure to risk factors (endemic infectious diseases, failure to adopt disease prevention measures, consumption of food or water from unsafe sources, insect bites, animal bites, travelling in large groups, unsafe sex with casual partners).
32605306 Water-soluble extracts of SS were prepared, and their virus-inactivating activity was evaluated against the human virus pathogens SARS-CoV-2 and IAV; we also examined virucidal activity against feline calicivirus and murine norovirus, which are surrogates for human NV.
32608097 Ethanol and water were evaluated in parallel as standard positive and negative controls.
32614377 Studies have shown that chemical sterilization using soap and water, alcohols, and bleach render the respirator nonfunctional.
32617403 The practice of on-demand sedation with benzodiazepines and/or opiates will allow most patients to complete a water-aided examination with minimal or no sedation. […] Other methods reported to minimize patient discomfort during colonoscopy can be used, in addition to water-aided techniques. […] Trainee education in water-aided colonoscopy has been demonstrated to confer benefits.
32624650 The model output favourably compares with the experimentally obtained evaporation characteristics of levitated droplets of pure water and salt solution, respectively, ensuring fidelity of the model.
32626666 Results: The analytical specificity and sensitivity of our assay was 100% and 500 copies/ml when serial dilution was performed in both water and sputum.
32631753 Nine essential services are also identified including Health, Defence, Law & Order, Finance, Transport, Telecommunication, Energy, Food, and Water.
32639930 Multilayer cloth masks, designed to fit around the face and made of water-resistant fabric with a high number of threads and finer weave, may provide reasonable protection.
32641343 Participants will randomly receive HIVC diluted in sterile water or placebo for 7 days once enrolled.
32644841 To collect the samples, the mothers wore surgical masks, washed their hands with an 85% alcohol-based gel, and washed their breast with gauze that was saturated with soap and water.
32644871 With India’s population of more than 1.3 billion people at a significant population density compared with the rest of the world, the lack of universal access to clean water and overall poor socioeconomic status, all have posed a major challenge to India’s fight against COVID-19.
32652357 Although there is no current evidence showing that coronaviruses can be transmitted through contaminated drinking water, there is a growing concern on the impact of the current pandemic wave on underprivileged societies because of their poor wastewater treatment infrastructures, overpopulation, and outbreak management strategies.
32653736 Hand hygiene by washing with soap and water is recommended for the prevention of COVID-19 spread.
32654854 Poor living conditions in LMICs including lack of sanitation, running water and overcrowding may facilitate transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
32657566 The coating performs well in the cross-hatch durability test and remains intact and active after 13 days of being immersed in water or after exposure to multiple cycles of exposure to the virus and disinfection.
32659559 The COVID-19 pandemic has once again highlighted the importance of access to sufficient quantities of safe water and sanitation in public health.
32660683 More specifically, this includes addressing risks relating to sanitation, drinking water, food safety, vector control, and mass gatherings.
32661521 Eight dry-field isolation methods were tested in a setup that included a realistic dental manikin and a high-speed handpiece that generated air-water spray.
32669149 During this public emergency, 79.4% participants changed diet habits, including increasing vegetables, fruit and water intake, and reducing sugary drinks and snacks.
32669264 Community Water Fluoridation (CWF) is safe and effective at reducing dental caries.
32674164 From appropriate sun protection and water safety to insect exposure and recreational precautions, it is important to review key safety points to ensure a happy and healthy season.
32679506 River samples were evaluated for water quality parameters and afterwards, concentrated for viral analysis using skimmed milk flocculation method.
32687996 Ensuring a safe and reliable water supply and maintaining water sanitation has become ever more critical during the pandemic. […] For this reason, researchers and practitioners have promptly investigated the impact associated with the spread of SARS-CoV-2 on water treatment processes, focusing specifically on water disinfection. […] However, the COVID-19 pandemic impacts multiple aspects of the urban water sector besides those related to the engineering processes, including sanitary, economic, and social consequences which can have significant effects in the near future. […] Furthermore, this outbreak appears at a time when the water sector was already experiencing a fourth revolution, transitioning toward the digitalisation of the sector, which redefines the Water-Human-Data Nexus. […] In this contribution, a product of collaboration between academics and practitioners from water utilities, we delve into the multiple impacts that the pandemic is currently causing and their possible consequences in the future. […] We show how the digitalisation of the water sector can provide useful approaches and tools to help address the impact of the pandemic.
32687997 This article aims to examine the latest investigations on SARS-CoV-2 plausible environmental transmission modes, employment of wastewater surveillance for early detection of COVID-19, and elucidating the role of solid waste, water, and atmospheric quality on viral infectivity. […] Water bodies receiving raw sewage may pose risk of infection but this has not been investigated to date.
32693284 Nevertheless, virus presence and infectivity in treated wastewaters, but also in the receiving water bodies are still poorly investigated.
32696810 In addition, COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates were significantly associated with the total water service index and lethality rate was significantly associated with the sewage treatment index.
32701918 Water consumption and Wastewater Management; 5.
32704480 However, access to safe water and hygiene is inadequate in many places around the globe; hence T-zone touching restriction is considered more worthwhile compared to other prevention strategies.
32707253 To prevent virus transmission, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends frequent hand washing with soap and water.
32708367 In this study, we performed first-principles calculations suggesting that water molecules once in contact with the graphene oxide (GO) layer interact with its functional groups, therefore, developing an electric field induced by the heterostructure formation. […] Experiments on GO polymer composite film supports the theoretical findings, showing that the interaction with water aerosol generates a voltage output signal of up to -2 V.
32711332 The mortalities and morbidities associated with the current COVID-19 pandemic warrants a much more focused research on the role of environments, such as wastewater and surface water, in disease transmission.
32712670 C57Bl/6 female mice (four/treatment group) were administered either lopinavir-cART, darunavir-cART or water by oral gavage once daily starting on the day of plug detection until sacrifice.
32715046 Data highlight that households are highly exposed to novel Covid-19, and also equally sensitive to inadequate and poor availability and accessibility of clean water, sanitation and health care system. […] Data suggest a grass root awareness program (ex-ante preventive measures) in the regional languages; increase public health budget to meet the demand and improve the supply chain; establishment of more physical and human infrastructure in long run; comprehensive plan to ensure continuous water supply in the rural areas.
32718076 Hyponatremia is one of the most common water-electrolyte imbalances in the human organism.
32718282 The liposomes were tested in DSS treated mice, which had received DSS via drinking water order to develop a model IBD.
32726003 Jinhao Jiere Granules: dissolve in boiling water and take after meals, 8 g/time, 2 times/day, a course of 5 days, followed up for 14 days, respectively.
32731509 The body weight increase presented positive association with the consumption of fried foods ≥ 3 times per week (OR; 3.36, p < 0.001), low water consumption (OR; 1.58, p = 0.03), and sedentary time ≥6 h/day (OR; 1.85, p = 0.01).
32733983 Fiberglass casts are suboptimal because they require a follow up for cast removal while a conventional plaster cast is amenable to self-removal by submerging in water and cutting the cotton bandages with scissors.
32734857 The case highlights the importance of strict monitoring of water and air systems immediately before reopening business or public sector buildings, and the need to consider Legionella infections among the differential diagnosis of respiratory infections after lockdown due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
32735690 Simulated dental procedures using a fluorescent dye in the water of the dental equipment were carried out, with and without the use of the device.
32752599 Community isolation facilities with proper sanitation, reliable disposal systems, and a clean water supply should be set up to isolate and treat sick patients.
32755777 We analyze the lockdown’s impact on the water quality status of this stretch using a combination of measured parameters and satellite image derived indices. […] Class C Water Quality Index estimates of nine stations indicate an improvement of 37% during the lockdown period. […] While the partial/non-operational status of most industries during the lockdown enabled significant reduction in effluent loads and a consequent betterment in the river water quality, its spatial variations and even deterioration in some locations resulted from the largely undiminished inflow of domestic sewage through multiple drains.
32758842 Since industrial units and commercial establishments were closed, water was not being lifted by them with a negligible discharge of industrial wastewater. […] Analysis of the storage data of the last ten years revealed that the storage till May 6, 2020 was 82.83% more than the average of the previous ten years, which meant that more water was available for the river during the lockdown period. […] The gradual transformation in the quality of the water has given a sign of optimism from the point of restoration. […] Yet, it is believed that this improvement in water quality is ‘short-lived’ and quality would deteriorate once the normal industrial activities are resumed, indicating a strong influence of untreated commercial-industrial wastewater.
32758864 The intermediate dimensioned droplets are proved to be changed into aerosol, losing their water content and becoming seriously contagious, but in their initial phase they could be easily caught by a simple surgical mask.
32758897 The traditional formulation of ibuprofen is poorly soluble in water, so the administered dose must be 10 times higher than the dose required for a therapeutic effect.
32763612 Given that the novel coronavirus was detected in stool and urine from diagnosed patients, the potential risk of its transmission through the water environment might not be ignored.
32767925 Finally, as a novel idea for the direct targeting of H2 , this review introduces the possibility that H2 causes structural changes in proteins via hydrate water changes.
32768790 Sampling was carried out on 8 and 27 May 2020 at the Old Pirana Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) at Ahmedabad, Gujarat that receives effluent from Civil Hospital treating COVID-19 patients.
32772895 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) report promising results against this drug target so, we perform molecular docking followed by MD-simulation studies of HCQ and modelled some ligand (Mod-I and Mod-II) molecules with SARS-CoV-2-main protease which reveals the structural organization of the active site residues and presence of a conserve water-mediated catalytic triad that helps in the recognition of Mod-I/II ligand molecules. […] The study may be helpful to gain a detailed structural insight on the presence of water-mediated catalytic triad which could be useful for inhibitor modelling.
32779305 A total of 30 compounds of Solanum tuberosum and Brassica juncea residue smoke water were selected for the virtual screening against SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and cellular proteins involved in the mechanism of infection.
32783878 The present study aimed to assess the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater and river water in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan, using four quantitative and two nested PCR assays. […] Influent and secondary-treated (before chlorination) wastewater samples and river water samples were collected five times from a wastewater treatment plant and three times from a river, respectively, between March 17 and May 7, 2020. […] The wastewater and river water samples (200-5000 mL) were processed by using two different methods: the electronegative membrane-vortex (EMV) method and the membrane adsorption-direct RNA extraction method. […] None of the river water samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA.
32784463 A. lavenia water and chloroform fractions showed antioxidant properties in vitro.
32785274 Combining pocket estimation and docking with water, we determined that GLU 8 and ASN 15 in the N-terminal region were in close proximity to form H-bonds which was further validated by insertion of the E protein in an ERGIC-mimic membrane.
32785566 Conclusion prevent the transmission of the virus in the pregnancy-postpartum cycle, assess whether there is a need to interrupt pregnancies, decrease the circulation of people, avoid skin-to-skin contact and water births, prefer epidural over general anesthesia, keep mothers who tested positive or are symptomatic isolated from NB, and encourage breastfeeding.
32790273 The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in human wastewater together with poor quality of public drinking water supplies in developing countries is of concern. […] Additionally, the frequent use of contaminated water for bathing, nasal irrigation, swimming, and ablution can be a risk factor in contracting infectious agents such as the brain-eating amoebae and possibly SARS-CoV-2. […] The use of appropriate tap water filters should be encouraged to remove pathogenic microbes, together with restrained nasal irrigation (not forcing water inside nostrils vigorously) during ritual ablution or bathing to avoid dangerous consequences for populations residing in developing countries.
32790662 If soap and water are not readily available, CDC recommends the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer products that contain at least 60% ethyl alcohol (ethanol) or 70% isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) in community settings (1); in health care settings, CDC recommendations specify that alcohol-based hand sanitizer products should contain 60%-95% alcohol (≥60% ethanol or ≥70% isopropanol) (2).
32790730 Washing hands frequently with water and soap and use of hand sanitizer was reported by 93.33%, of participants.
32795090 When fluorescein and the commercial water tracer dye were nebulized, aerosols ≤8.61 µm and ≤2.08 µm respectively were generated, but the collected aerosols did not appear visibly fluorescent. […] Vitamin B2’s reliability as a fluorescent tracer when suspended in aerosols and small droplets ≤14.1 µm and known mucosal safety profile make it an ideal compound compared to fluorescein and commercial water-based fluorescent dyes for use as a safe fluorescent tracer in healthcare contamination models especially with human subjects.
32795148 The influence of crystallographic water on an outcome of a virtual screening against selected targets was also investigated.
32795645 Although in theory, cloth masks can be helpful to limit the spread of the COVID-19, serious consideration should be given to the choice of textile, the number of layers of cloth used, pre-treatment of the material with water repellent material and other compounds that can enhance the filtration efficiency of the masks without compromising their breathability.
32798877 Three environmental impacts were studied (Global Warming Potential, Blue Water Footprint and Land Use) and a total of seven weekly diet scenarios were designed: two pre-COVID diets for March and April in 2019 (MAR19, APR19), one COVID diet (COVID) and two alternative diets, one based on the National Dietary Guidelines (NDG) and another one on the Planetary Health Diet (PHD).
32800237 The present article, therefore, describes the SARS-CoV-2 paths of contagion such as drinking water, solid waste, sewer water, ambient air, and the rest of emerging likely paths.
32802991 Handwashing with soap and water remains the most effective public health measure to reduce the risk of infectious diseases, which kill over 2.5 million people annually, mostly children in developing countries. […] This suggests that research on water, sanitation, and hygiene issues deserve continuous scholarly attention. […] Further, households in urban areas, households that spent between 0-30 min to get to a source of water, and households in Eastern and Brong-Ahafo regions were less likely to have access to hand hygiene resources.
32809910 Dental professionals in resource poor countries, as opposed to those in developed countries, face additional challenges due to the lack of personal protective equipment, and chronic infrastructural impediments extant in such jurisdictions, such as regular and chronic interruptions to electricity and water supplies.
32816647 Lack of access to services that are considered critical and life-saving such as food, drinkable water, and shelter, together with limited access to health services are turning an already serious crisis into a major human disaster.
32827813 Nonetheless, many peer-reviewed articles have studied these aspects but mostly in isolation; a complete array of coronavirus survival and transmission from an infected individual through air- and water-borne channels and its subsequent intractions with environmental factors, surfaces, particulates and chemicals is not comprehensively explored. […] Learning from the earlier coronavirus studies, including SARS and MERS, an attempt has been made to understand the survival of SARS-CoV-2 outside of the host body and discuss the probable air and water-borne transmission routes and its interactions with the outside environment.
32828084 Here, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations starting from closed and open states of the S protein trimer in the presence of explicit water and ions.
32828268 Acidic electrolyzed water (EW) with a high concentration of free available chlorine (FAC) shows strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
32831933 Dietary and lifestyle modifications during Ramadan month and their impact on immunity, such as water intake and hydration status, sleep duration and timing, caloric intake and mealtime, and social and spirtual activities, were addressed.
32834057 Following a communications plan and using a spokesperson, water utilities should focus on simple messages that use basic terminology.
32834215 The COVID-19 pandemic has had wide-ranging effects on the water industry, but now you and your colleagues are getting your utility back to “normal,” whatever normal now means.
32834216 I nearly miss the call as I scramble to remove my face mask while noticing it’s our water treatment plant phone. […] Immediately I hope the plant is running smoothly and no one is out of water.
32834217 Unless a water or wastewater utility has had to deal with a serious disruption in the past, emergency preparedness may not have been a priority. […] However, with COVID-19, every water and wastewater utility has now faced a prolonged emergency and can-and should-learn from it.
32834241 In this review, a discussion is provided on the power of compressed fluids, such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and subcritical water extraction (SWE) to obtain antiviral and anti-inflammatory compounds from natural sources.
32834376 With the economy at a standstill, the Palestinian governing authority has limited financial resources to (re)build key sanitation, hygiene, waste treatment and water supply infrastructure.
32834378 Recognizing the importance of handwashing in preventing the spread of COVID-19, concerns have arisen about the condition of millions of Africans who lack access to hygiene facilities and clean water services.
32834381 We identify three policies that meet these criteria: a fossil fuel subsidy swap to fund clean energy investments and dissemination of renewable energy in rural areas; reallocating irrigation subsidies to improve water supply, sanitation and wastewater infrastructure; and a tropical carbon tax, which is a levy on fossil fuels that funds natural climate solutions.
32834382 In other instances, the water is unaffordable or the supply has been shut off on account of unpaid bills. […] But when there is no water in the home or yard, or no mechanism for delivering enough water, good hand-washing is extremely difficult. […] Well before COVID-19, global cost-benefit analyses of water and sanitation investments, with benefits measured in time-savings as well as health, showed significant net benefits in all sub-regions of the developing world. […] This Viewpoint paper argues that, in the current crisis and its aftermath, it is imperative for governments and donors to prioritize and generously fund affordable, reliable, and accessible water services in underserved regions of the world.
32834491 This article aims to assess the impact of coronavirus (COVID-19) spread-prevention actions on water consumption, based on a case study in Joinville, Southern Brazil. […] Residential water consumption data, obtained through telemetry in two periods (before and after a governmental action imposing quarantine and social isolation), were analyzed. […] The results of the Wilcoxon test show that there are significant differences between the analyzed periods, indicating a water consumption drop in the commercial, industrial and public categories, and an increase in the residential category. […] The results also indicate an increase in water consumption, which was steeper in apartment buildings than in houses, whether isolated or grouped in condominiums. […] A weak association was found between the variation in water consumption and the spatial distribution of buildings. […] Understanding water consumption related aspects is important to gather essential information to ensure the urban water supply system is resilient in a pandemic situation.
32834521 Here, both aspects of solar energy i.e., light and heat are utilized for both energy production and water heating. […] However, by modifying the size of heat-absorbing top electrode and by increasing the temperature gradient through the addition of water coolant under the bottom electrode, an uplift in the champion device results in as increment of VOC ∼5.5 times and Seebeck coefficient obtained was -250 μV/0C, respectively. […] The proposed modules can generate electric power from light and utilize the penetrating sunlight inside the room and for the heating of the water which also acts as a coolant.
32834770 Therefore, its tautomeric state was predicted by using density functional theory in gas phase and in solution (toluene, acetonitrile and water).
32835034 The modified mask (C-PU/Si/HDTMS) demonstrated good water repellency resulting in high water contact angle (132°) and low sliding angle (17°).
32835043 We also assessed the breathability (air permeability), texture, fiber composition, and water absorption properties of the fabrics.
32835069 Here, we measured the amount of SARS-CoV-2 RNA at the inflow point of the main waste water treatment plant (WWTP) of Montpellier, France.
32835070 The months from March to June refer as water crisis months in many places of India, because in these months of summer generally, Indian people face shortage of water. […] In the summer season, groundwater level decreases due to high temperature and increased evaporation of water in most of the places. […] It has been observed that the rainfall in India in the months of March to May (as of now, on May 18, 2020) is high as compared to previous years and it might increase the groundwater level and people of India would not face a water crisis during this summer.
32835071 However, some startling information is gathered in terms of reduced premature mortality cases associated with air and water quality improvement, enhanced e-learning on a broader platform, work from home, and successful e-health. […] Similarly, industrial pollution has been recognized as one of the primary causes of water resource pollution and would, therefore, bring change in policy vis-à-vis groundwater pollution control.
32836117 Our analysis also suggests the likelihood of infection due to contact with sewage-contaminated water (e.g. swimming, surfing, angling) or food (e.g. salads, shellfish) is extremely low or negligible based on very low predicted abundances and limited environmental survival of SARS-CoV-2.
32837280 Other sources of contamination are faeces, blood, food, water, semen etc.
32837312 In this article, I discuss the impacts of COVID-19 on the water sector. […] I point out that our efforts to control the spread of COVID-19 will increase the water demand and worsen the water quality, leading to additional challenges in water planning and management. […] In view of the impacts of COVID-19 and other global-scale phenomena influencing water resources (e.g., global climate change), I highlight the urgent need for interdisciplinary collaborations among researchers studying water and new strategies to address water issues.
32837497 Its efficiency relies on the photocatalytic generation of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon UV illumination, and on a particularly high dielectric constant of TiO2, which is of paramount importance for enhanced wettability by the water droplets carrying the germs.
32837634 Home gardening can play an important role in advancing food and nutritional security during and after the COVD-19 pandemic, while also strengthening the provisioning of numerous ecosystem services (i.e., plant biodiversity, microclimate, water runoff, water quality, human health).
32837636 Small island states have features in common which make it difficult for them to assure food security through self-production, notably limited land, fresh water and labour.
32837639 Water scarcity at home increasingly compromises agricultural production.
32837683 Dental treatment necessitates close-proximity, face-to-face practices and can generate droplets or aerosols containing water, saliva, blood, microorganisms, and other debris during the procedure.
32837716 By the use of plenty of water, minerals like magnesium and Zinc, micronutrients, herbs, food rich in vitamins C, D & E and better life style one can promote the health and can overcome this infection.
32837732 The refugees are living in highly challenging circumstances of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), natural disasters of the monsoon season as well as existing health and educational challenges of HIV, malnutrition and other diseases.
32837748 Used masks were soaked in hot water at a temperature greater than 56 °C for 30 min, based on a recommended method to kill COVID-19 virus by the National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China. […] The masks were then dried using an ordinary household hair dryer to recharge the masks with electrostatic charge to recover their filtration function (the so-called “hot water decontamination + charge regeneration” method).
32837773 In this paper, I assess the effectiveness and implications of social distancing, frequent handwashing, and lockdown in the context of slums in Indian cities, where overcrowding, lack of access to water and sanitation, and dependence on daily wages for sustenance and livelihood are common.
32837821 The proposed approach has been applied in different cases involving critical infrastructures in Europe (energy supply, water supply, transportation, etc., exposed to various threats), including the health system in Austria.
32837887 A four-by-one (4:1) ratio of common alcohol diluted in water meets the minimum requirements set by health agencies for the alcoholic concentration of disinfectants. […] For the post-COVID-19 period, the authors give three perspectives: (a) future investigation of human dermal toxicity of common ethanol, (b) establishment of a program for the ethanol decontamination, and (c) countries such as the US, Sweden, Thailand, and Colombia to rethink their energy policy for the adoption of biofuel E100 (ethanol and water) instead of E85 (blend of ethanol, gasoline, and water), as part of their biodefense strategy.
32838144 A CPAP set at a pressure of 8 cm of water (Goodknight®) was then introduced with better tolerance, allowing the patient to wear it almost continuously for more than 38 h.
32838226 The unprecedented number of building closures related to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is concerning because water stagnation will occur in many buildings that do not have water management plans in place. […] Stagnant water can have chemical and microbiological contaminants that pose potential health risks for occupants. […] To provide a primer of large building water system preventative and remedial strategies, peer-reviewed, government, industry, and nonprofit literature relevant to water stagnation and decontamination practices for plumbing was synthesized.
32838660 Molecular docking scores were further validated by molecular dynamics using Schrodinger, which supported the strong stability of ligands with the proteins at their active sites through water bridges, hydrophobic interactions, and H-bonding.
32839091 Eighty-seven percent of respondents reported following the recommended 20-second rule most times/every time and 96% used soap and water during handwashing.
32839746 Wastewater surveillance is an efficient system for the evaluation of the relative prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections in a community, and there is the need of using reliable concentration methods for an accurate and sensitive quantification of the virus in water.
32860861 Twelve fluids with different recipes composed of ethanol, isopropanol, SDBS, SLS, glycerin, and water of standardized hardness (WSH) were tested for their evaporation time and virucidal efficiency.
32861728 The decay of RNA from SARS-CoV-2 and a potential surrogate, murine hepatitis virus (MHV), were investigated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in untreated wastewater, autoclaved wastewater, and dechlorinated tap water stored at 4, 15, 25, and 37°C. […] The average T90 (time required for 1 log10 reduction) for RNA of SARS-CoV-2 ranged from 8.04 to 27.8 days in untreated wastewater, 5.71 to 43.2 days in autoclaved wastewater, and 9.40 to 58.6 days in tap water. […] The average T90 for RNA of MHV at 4 to 37˚C ranged from 7.44 to 56.6 in untreated wastewater, 5.58 to 43.1 days in autoclaved wastewater, and 10.9 to 43.9 days in tap water.
32863290 For patients with mild/moderate COVID-19, 752 (76%) clinicians would prescribe exercise and water to prevent VTE.
32863544 The 2019 United Nations World Water Development Report provided a dramatic status of world water, however without questioning the main drivers of an imminent water crisis, that were unbounded, unequal, economic, and population growth, within the context of reducing resources in a finite world. […] With business-as-usual, without acting on the drivers of water scarcity, regional water crises were inevitable in the next 3 decades, starting from Africa. […] Constrained by political, financial, and energy burdens, the technological improvements that have helped humanity to deal with the increased demand for water, food, and energy over the last 70 years, were likely not enough to avoid the water crisis. […] This will limit social expenditures in general, and the expenditures for the water issue in particular. […] The water crisis will consequently become worse in the next months, with consequences still difficult to predict. […] There is the opportunity of significant health, food, and water crisis, especially in Africa. […] While the concepts of washing hands and social distancing that are difficult to apply haven’t produce so far major issues with the Covid19 outbreak in Africa, borders closure, restrictions on movement, and more poverty will translate in a lack of food and water potentially much more worrying than the virus spreading.
32864794 To address this, alum is packed on the squalene/water interphase is packed, forming an alum-stabilized Pickering emulsion (PAPE). […] Intriguingly, with the dense array of alum on the oil/water interphase, PAPE not only adsorbs large quantities of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) antigens, but also harbors a higher affinity for DC uptake, which provokes the uptake and cross-presentation of the delivered antigens.
32866312 While researchers have acknowledged the potential role of environmental scientists, engineers, and industrial hygienists during this pandemic, the role of the water utility professional is often overlooked. […] While various technical guidances and reports have initially provided direction to the water sector, the rapidly growing body of research publications necessitates the constant review of these papers and data synthesis. […] This paper presents the latest findings and highlights their implications from a water and wastewater utility operation and management perspective.
32867123 We find that relatively short sampling times allow for loop rearrangement from predicted structures determined in absence of water or ions, to structures better aligned with experimental data.
32868993 It involves pouring water in one nostril and flushing out through the other nostril with the help of special equipment called “Neti pot”, to keep the nasal passage clean.
32870651 Herein, we propose the use of novel adsorbents, namely micelle clay complexes comprising the clay montmorillonite, coupled with activated carbon for effective eradication of neuropathogenic microbes such as SARS-CoV-2 and Naegleria fowleri from water supplies for ablution/nasal irrigation. […] These can be incorporated easily to water collection devices, i.e., taps and water bottles, in the domestic setting. […] Such strategies are particularly useful for communities who have lack of access to safe water supplies, rely heavily on water storage tanks, or lack adequate water sanitation facilities, especially in developing countries.
32870707 Inability to determine whether the water seals were dried out in the flats of the infected families.
32872902 Two experiments to measure the size of microscopic dielectric spherical particles immersed in purified water with spheres of a nominal diameter 5.2 ± 0.15 μm have been carried out in order to revisit Mie scattering techniques. […] The technique we offer here is found to be useful to familiarize technicians who work in the areas of applied optics, such as chemistry, electronics, water contamination, and optical instruments with Mie scattering techniques, and who may not have a formal introduction to the electromagnetic theory.
32880555 However, owing to the isolating and social distancing nature of quarantine, it often leads to extreme economic hardship and shortages in basic needs such as food, medicine, water and communication - and to the curtailment of certain universal social norms such as attending a parent’s funeral.
32895629 Further, due to the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in sewage and stool samples, its transmission through water routes cannot be neglected. […] The fate of SARS-CoV-2 in the wastewater treatment plants and its removal during various treatment stages remains unexplored and demands immediate attention; particularly, where treated effluent is utilised as reclaimed water. […] The review also addresses the UN SDG ‘Clean Water and Sanitation’ as it is aimed at providing pathogenically safe water for recycling purposes.
32896576 This pathway occurs via diffusion and gravity-induced drift of single virions and respiratory droplets consisting primarily of water, including small fraction of nonvolatile matter, and containing virions. […] These processes are accompanied by water evaporation resulting in reduction of the droplet size.
32901196 Despite of the evidence, based on fewer reports on SARS-CoV-2 occurrence and persistence in wastewater/sewage/water, the transmission of the infective virus to the community is yet to be established.
32904125 The transmission of virus through aerosols produced by high- and low-speed handpieces, ultrasonic scalers, air/water syringes, or an infected patient coughing, and even when taking intraoral radiographs has made it difficult for dental personnel to provide even the most basic services to the needful.
32904886 Dentistry uses rotary, ultrasonic, and laser-based instruments that produce water-based aerosols in the daily, routine treatment of patients. […] By altering the physical response of water to the rotary or ultrasonic forces that are used in dentistry, the generation of aerosol particles and the distance any aerosol may spread beyond the point of generation can be markedly suppressed or completely eliminated in comparison to water for both the ultrasonic scaler and dental handpiece.
32904898 Overall carbon emissions have dropped, and the COVID-19 lockdown has led to an improvement in air quality and a reduction in water pollution in many cities around the globe.
32905026 Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is a water-soluble polymer obtained by polymerization of monomer N-vinylpyrrolidone.
32910735 Swallow trials included five trials of 5- and 10-ml water.
32911141 These findings are helpful as an early health warning tool and in prioritizing upcoming risk management strategies, such as Emergency Response Plans (ERPs) for water and sanitation operators during the COVID-19 and future pandemics.
32911161 In developing countries, the need for clean water provision, sanitation and hygiene has only received limited attention. […] Three potential mechanisms may account for SARS-CoV-2 faecal-oral transmission: (1) untreated contaminated drinking water, (2) raw and poorly cooked marine and aquatic foods from contaminated sources, (3) raw wastewater-based vegetatble production systems (e.g., salads) and aquaculture, and (4) vector-mediated transmission from faecal sources to foods, particularly those from open markets and street vending. […] SARS-CoV-2 faecal-oral transmission could be particularly high in developing countries due to several risk factors, including; (1) poor drinking water, wastewater and sanitation infrastructure, (2) poor hygiene and food handling practices, (3) unhygienic and rudimentary funeral practices, including home burials close to drinking water sources, and (4) poor social security and health care systems with low capacity to cope with disease outbreaks. […] Hence, clean drinking water provision, proper sanitation, food safety and hygiene could be critical in the current fight against COVID-19.
32911779 Variables considered were illness perceptions toward COVID-19, problem-solving, avoidance-based coping, self-efficacy, as well as adherence to precautionary measures including physical distancing, limiting unnecessary travelling, and washing hands regularly with soap and water.
32913005 Water-resistant fabrics (polyesters/nylon), blends of fabrics and water-absorbing fabrics (cotton) should be in the outside layer, middle layer/layers and inside layer, respectively.
32913034 WHO has recommended personal hygiene (respiratory hygiene, using face masks, washing hands with warm water and soap, use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, avoid touching mouth, eyes & nose, cleanliness), social distancing and careful handling of purchased products as an effective preventive measure for COVID-19 disease.
32915888 Majority (80%) of stations in Accra have at least one Veronica Bucket with flowing water and soap, but the number of washing places at each station is not adequate.
32917717 A detailed strain analysis indicates that, on such a site, ebselen exerts a pronounced allosteric effect that regulates catalytic site access through surface-loop interactions, thereby inducing a reconfiguration of water hotspots.
32918060 The secondary aim was to investigate differences between open and closed dental operatories.Method Dental procedures were simulated on a dental manikin using citric acid (10%) added to the water lines with universal indicating paper (UIP) placed in strategic locations in the operatory, on the clinician and assistant.
32918236 The resultant data can be applied to drug design efforts: scoring solvent displacement for docking, rational lead modification, prioritization of ligand- and protein- based pharmacophore elements, and creation of water-based pharmacophores.
32919683 Further, the review highlights the method of fabrication, biohybrid nanomotors, toxicities along with their application in the field of active drug delivery, diabetes, precise surgery, ischemic stroke therapy, diagnosis and treatment of coronavirus, microwave hyperthermia, zika virus detection, anti-bacterial activity, water treatment and sensing and challenges lying at the forefront in the development of these tiny nanomachines.
32921540 Of the YouTube videos that met inclusion criteria, 27% discussed the use of at least 96% ethanol or 99.8% isopropyl alcohol, 4.1% incorporated 3% hydrogen peroxide, 82% used glycerol or an alternative humectant, and 4.1% specified the need for distilled or previously boiled water.
32921735 92.7%) rather through running water (92.3% vs· 79.8%), or blood/body fluids (88.0% vs. 
32921866 •COVID-19 has exposed service gaps in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in informal settlments in cities.
32921917 However, there is need of additional research on coronaviruses specific disinfection data generation, regular monitoring of performance considering all factors influencing virus survival, performance evaluation in actual water treatment, need of augmenting disinfection dosages, environmental considerations to select the most appropriate disinfection technology.
32922301 TNF alpha reduces fluid absorption due to impairment of sodium and chloride transport required for building an osmotic gradient across epithelial cells, which in the airways maintains airway surface liquid helping to keep airways open and enabling bacterial clearance and aids water absorption from the alveolar spaces.
32922517 Moreover, these medications cause water and sodium retention and increase the response to circulating vasoconstrictors, which results in increased blood pressure levels.
32924345 We characterized the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in three water matrices: fresh, tap, and seawater. […] The stability of SARS-CoV-2 varied according to the water matrix: infective SARS-CoV-2 was undetectable after treatment with fresh water and seawater, but remained detectable for 2 days in tap water, when starting with an initial concentration of 10⁴ PFU/mL. […] In addition, viral RNA persisted longer than infectious virus in all water matrices. […] This study was conducted in stagnant water containing a significantly high titer of virus, thus, human-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through the actual aquatic environment is expected to be rare.
32928313 These will be given simple distilled water gargles and nasal lavage for 20-30 seconds, thrice daily for six days.
32932918 Seven types of masks were selected in this study and subjected to air and water vapor permeability testing, thermal conductivity testing and a wear trial. […] Additionally, masks that contain sufficient highly thermally conductive materials and have good water vapor permeability are often more comfortable to wear as they can transfer heat and moisture from the body quickly, and thus do not easily dampen and deteriorate.
32934662 Refugees and internally displaced persons in humanitarian settings are particularly susceptible to the spread of infectious illnesses such as COVID-19 due to overcrowding and inadequate access to clean water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities.
32938338 Guests attended multiple events and participated in high-risk transmission behaviours such as shaking hands, kissing, dancing, sharing drinks and sharing shisha (water pipes).
32939273 A conserved water molecule is also identified that may participate in hydrolysis.
32940656 Ethanol, 70%, was tested in parallel as a positive control and water only as a negative control. […] Surviving virus from each sample was quantified by standard end point dilution assay, and the log reduction value of each compound was compared with the negative (water) control.
32941447 Only 36,373 respondents (29.4%) disagreed that gargling with salt water is effective in protecting against COVID-19.
32942791 The literature was searched for articles in English with key words COVID-19, immunity, steroid for pain management injections with steroid, local anesthetics, dextrose water, normal saline, pain and genetic medicine, pain, and regenerative medicine. […] Many other medications have been used for interventional pain procedures to relieve pain, such as dextrose water, normal saline solution, local anesthetics, and many adjuvants.
32945160 The use of sewage water for irrigation is common in many developing countries, and it is only partially treated in the majority of countries with less than 10% of collected wastewater receiving any form of treatment globally.
32946526 Under laboratory conditions, we examined the hydrophobicity of fabrics (cotton, polyester, silk), as measured by their resistance to the penetration of small and aerosolized water droplets, an important transmission avenue for the virus causing COVID-19.
32947555 The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water (8:92) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min.
32948576 A majority (70%) of women did not know you can survive COVID-19, compared with 61% of men. 60% of men and 54% of women had already taken action to avoid infection with the coronavirus, mostly washing hands with soap and water (87%).
32949761 Respondents reported concerns over accessing running water, soap and disinfectant products (43%, 42%, and 59% respectively), and security concerns for themselves or their staff (52%).
32949774 We sought to resolve the question whether viable SARS-CoV-2 can occur in aerosols using VIVAS air samplers that operate on a gentle water vapor condensation principle.
32959018 The deteriorating water quality (WQ) of the sacred north-flowing perennial Indian River, Ganga was a serious concern in recent decades for population adjoining to the river and policy planners. […] This information can assist the environmentalist, policymaker, and water resources planners & managers to prepare strategic planning in advance to maintain the aesthetic and cultural value of Ganga river in future.
32963540 Water from this river has traditionally been considered a therapeutic agent for several diseases.
32964165 This study indicates that, the pandemic situation significantly improves air quality in different cities across the world, reduces GHGs emission, lessens water pollution and noise, and reduces the pressure on the tourist destinations, which may assist with the restoration of the ecological system.
32965017 The weather allied conditions have an impact on air, water, soil, food, ecosystem, feelings, behaviors, and pattern of health and disease.
32966232 Unani scholars like Hippocrates (370-460 BC), Galen (130-200 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), and Avicenna (980-1037 AD) had described four etiological factors for Amraz-e-Waba viz., change in quality of air, water, Earth, and celestial bodies, accordingly mentioned various preventive measures to be adopted during epidemics such as restriction of movement, isolation or “quarantena”, and fumigation with loban (Styrax benzoin W.
32970710 The response of skin to friction is a complex interplay between the lubricating properties and durability of the film deposited on the surface and the response of skin to the lubricating substance, which include epidermal absorption, occlusion, and water retention.
32972485 A positive significantly correlation was observed between the increase consumption of yoghurt, cheese and water and FCV-19S scores.
32973098 Calculations with these equations provide a straightforward way of determining whether emitted droplets remain airborne or rapidly fall to the ground, after accounting for the decrease in droplet size from water evaporation. […] At a relative humidity of 50%, for example, droplets with initial radii larger than about 50 μm rapidly fall to the ground, while smaller, potentially virus-containing droplets shrink in size from water evaporation and remain airborne for many minutes.
32976823 In Apulia (southern Italy), all non-urgent hospital activities were suspended, and some wards were closed, with a consequent reduction in the use of the water network and the formation of stagnant water. […] The purpose of this study was to monitor the microbiological quality of the water network (coliforms, E. coli, Enterococci, P. aeruginosa, and Legionella) in three wards (A, B and C) of a large COVID-19 regional hospital, closed for three months due to the COVID-19 emergency. […] Our study revealed that all three wards’ water network showed higher contamination by Legionella pneumophila sg 1 and sg 6 at T1 (after lockdown) compared to the period before the lockdown (T0). […] In addition, a statistically significant difference was detected in ward B between the number of positive water samples at T0 vs T1 for L. pneumophila sg 1 and sg 6 (24% vs 80% p-value < 0.001) and for coliforms (0% vs 64% p-value < 0.001). […] Our results highlight the need to implement a water safety plan that includes staff training and a more rigorous environmental microbiological surveillance in all hospitals before occupying a closed ward for a longer than one week, according to national and international guidelines.
32977575 The minimum size of the particles can decrease due to the evaporation of water on the particle surfaces.
32980018 However, existing inequalities in access to certain basic necessities of life (water, sanitation facility, and food storage) create layered vulnerabilities to COVID-19 and can render the preventive measures ineffective or simply counterproductive. […] We conclude that SSA governments would need to infuse innovative gender- and age-sensitive support services (such as water supply, portable sanitation) to augment the preventive measures prescribed by the WHO.
32982072 Many U.S. states and cities have imposed water disconnection moratoriums during the COVID-19 pandemic. […] States, which have economic regulation of private water utilities, were more likely to impose moratoriums, and those with higher COVID-19 case rates imposed moratoriums earlier. […] States with unified Republican Control and cities with more 2016 Trump voters were less likely to impose moratoriums on water disconnection.
32982895 Promoting hygienic behaviors in the household (frequent hand washing) while at the same time being conscious not to keep the water flowing when not required would contribute to a range of benefits (health, financial, biospheric, altruistic) and promote wellbeing.
32987722 Our USD 300 set up achieved rapid RT-PCR using thin-walled PCR tubes and a water bath setup using sous vide immersion heaters, a Raspberry Pi computer, and a single servo motor that can process up to 96 samples at a time. […] Using COVID-19 positive clinical specimens, we demonstrated that RT-PCR assays can be performed in as little as 12 min using untreated samples, heat-inactivated samples, or extracted RNA templates with our low-cost water bath setup.
32990602 Human security is dependent on sustainable livelihoods of which food and water systems are a vital part.
32996453 The highly infectious nature of the SARS-CoV-2 virus requires rigorous infection prevention and control (IPC) to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 within healthcare facilities, but in low-resource settings, the lack of water access creates a perfect storm for low-handwashing adherence, ineffective surface decontamination, and other environmental cleaning functions that are critical for IPC compliance. […] Data from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme show that one in four healthcare facilities globally lacks a functional water source on premises (i.e., basic water service); in sub-Saharan Africa, half of all healthcare facilities have no basic water services. […] But even these data do not tell the whole story, other water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) assessments in low-resource healthcare facilities have shown the detrimental effects of seasonal or temporary water shortages, nonfunctional water infrastructure, and fluctuating water quality.
32998618 Also, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was performed on the compound which has the highest binding affinity inside 6LU7 obtained from molecular docking analysis to study it is stability inside receptor in explicit water solvent. […] Finally, MD simulation confirmed that the complex formed between caulerpin and 3CLpro is stable in water explicit and had no major effect on the flexibility of the protein throughout the simulations and provided a suitable basis for our study.
33006576 At the heart of 3CL Mpro is an unusual catalytic dyad formed by the side chains of His41 and Cys145 and a coordinated water molecule.
33010498 The suspension of recycling programs has hindered natural resources from being saved, with emphasis on 24,076 MWh of electric power and 185,929 m3 of potable water - respectively enough to supply 152,475 households and 40,010 people, over a month.
33011025 Most of the pediatricians had at their disposal surgical masks (96%), care gloves (80.2%), hydroalcoholic gel (99.0%), and soap and water (86.1%).
33011225 The presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in water and wastewater has recently been reported. […] According to the updated literature, the stools and masks of the patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were considered as the primary route of coronavirus transmission into water and wastewater. […] Most of coronavirus types which attract human (possible for SARS-CoV-2) are often inactivated rapidly in water (i.e., the survival of human coronavirus 229E in water being seven days at 23 °C). […] However, the survival period of coronavirus in water and wastewater strongly depends on temperature, kinds of wastewater, concentration of suspended solids and organic matter, solution pH, and the dose of disinfectant used. […] The World Health Organization has claimed that the current disinfection process of drinking water could effectively inactivate most of the bacterial and viral communities present in water, especially SARS-CoV-2 (more sensitive to disinfectant like free chlorine). […] Although the existence of SARS-CoV-2 in the water influent has been confirmed, an important question is whether it can survive or infect after the disinfection process of drinking water. […] To date, there is one study confirming that the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in water for people was null based on the absence of cytopathic effect (CPE) in infectivity tests. […] Therefore, further studies should focus on the survival of SARS-CoV-2 in water and wastewater under different operational conditions (i.e., temperature and water matrix) and whether the transmission from COVID-19-contaminated water to human is an emerging concern. […] Although paper-based devices have been suggested for detecting traces of SARS-CoV-2 in water, the protocols and appropriate devices should be developed soon.
33012269 Conventional wisdom suggests that the continent will bear a higher burden of COVID-19 for the same reasons it suffers from other infectious diseases: ecology, socio-economic conditions, lack of water and sanitation infrastructure, and weak health systems.
33014385 All parts of the sampling equipment were completely disinfected by hot water, ethanol (70%), chlorine solution (1000 ppm), hot water (70 °C for 1 min) and washed with distilled water.
33017909 Aquaporins (AQPs) are molecular water channels, facilitating water transport across the cell membrane in response to osmotic gradients.
33020695 SPM reduced up to 15.9%, showing improvement in surface water quality.
33020707 The binding affinity and the number of hot-spot residues, atomic contacts, and H-bond formations of SFG/nsp16 complex were distinctly higher than those of SAH/nsp16 system, consistent with the lower water accessibility at the enzyme active site.
33020721 The checklist included three sections: demographic characteristics (8 questions), disinfection of body and non-living surfaces (21 questions), and adverse effects of disinfectants on health (15 questions). 87% of participants used the incorrect proportions of water and alcohol to make this disinfectant available at home.
33024381 A thermocol box was taken from the central drug store and was fitted with two UV tubes of 254 nm wavelength procured from local service center of water purifiers.
33029275 In recent years, on-site H2 gas generators, which produce high-purity H2 by water electrolysis, have begun to be introduced in hospitals, clinics, beauty salons, and fitness clubs because of their ease of use.
33031366 Statewide mitigation measures included limitation of public events; closures of bars, gyms, movie theaters, and water parks; reduced restaurant dine-in capacity; and voluntary resident action to stay at home and wear masks (when and where not mandated).
33033132 Sequencing wastewater may be useful for detecting pathogens and assaying microbial water quality.
33035211 All positive specimens were collected within 3 days after diagnosis, and 10 (10/42, 23.8%) were found in toilet (5 on toilet bowl, 4 on sink/faucet/shower, 1 on floor drain), 4 (4/21, 19.0%) in anteroom (2 on water dispenser/cup/bottle, 1 on chair/table, 1 on TV remote), 1 (1/8, 12.5%) in kitchen (1 on dining-table), 1 (1/18, 5.6%) in bedroom (1 on bed/sheet pillow/bedside table), 1 (1/5, 20.0%) in car (1 on steering wheel/seat/handlebar) and 3 (3/20, 21.4%) on door knobs.
33035219 Majority (96.7%) of the participants agreed ‘COVID-19 is a dangerous disease’, almost all (98.7%) participants wore a face mask in crowded places, 98.8% agreed to report a suspected case to health authorities, and 93.8% implemented washing hands with soap and water.
33039225 Introducing a new, simple and inexpensive portable equipment for lifeguards, consisting of a pre-assembled full-size plastic blanket with a mask and HEPA filter, which could offer significant time-saving advantages to reduce COVID-19 risk transmission in the first few minutes of CPR after water rescue, avoiding the negative impact of delayed ventilation.
33039415 RAS was initially related to regulation of blood pressure and sodium and water homeostasis.
33039922 The situation is likely to be more aggravated in developing and least developed countries struggling with the problem of ineffective waste disposal system, open defecation, poor sanitation, and limited access to clean drinking water.
33045227 Water is an essential resource required for various human activities such as drinking, cooking, and other recreational activities. […] While developed nations have made significant improvement in providing adequate quality water and sanitation devoid of virus contaminations to a significant percentage of the residences, many of the developing countries are still lacking in these regards, leading to many death cases among the vulnerable due to ingestion of virus-contaminated water and other waterborne pathogens. […] However, the recent global pandemic of COVID-19 seems to have changed the paradigm by reawakening the importance of water quality and sanitation, and focusing more attention on the pervasive effect of the use of virus-contaminated water as it can be a potential driver for the spread of the virus and other waterborne diseases, especially in developing nations that are characterized by low socioeconomic development. […] Therefore, this review assessed the socioeconomic inequalities related to the usage of virus-contaminated water and other waterborne pathogens in developing countries. […] The socioeconomic factors attributed to the various waterborne diseases due to the use of virus-contaminated water in many developing countries are poverty, the standard of living, access to health care facilities, age, gender, and level of education. […] Some mitigation strategies to address the viral contamination of water sources are therefore proposed, while future scope and recommendations on tackling the essential issues related to socioeconomic inequality in developing nations are highlighted.
33046408 This report provides a perspective on the relevance of saline water gargling and nasal irrigation to the COVID-19 crisis. […] Saline water gargling and nasal irrigation represent simple, economical, practically feasible, and globally implementable strategies with therapeutic and prophylactic value.
33047816 Compared with distilled water, coolant containing chlorhexidine (CHX), cinnamon extract coolant or povidone iodine may reduce CFU: CHX (MD -124.00, 95% CI -135.78 to -112.22; 20 participants), povidone iodine (MD -656.45, 95% CI -672.74 to -640.16; 40 participants), cinnamon (MD -644.55, 95% CI -668.70 to -620.40; 40 participants).
33049758 This study evaluated the water quality and hygiene factors among 43 smokers of five villages in rural Luang Namtha Province. […] Water samples were collected from participant’s TWPs and assessed for the presence of Escherichia coli, coliforms and aerobic plate count (APC) bacteria using the 3M Petrifilm. […] Most TWPs were infrequently cleaned, heavily used and contained a warm, brown-coloured water. […] The warm, dark and moist internal water container may facilitate microbial survival and growth.
33050885 Anesthesiologists in most departments use standard personal protective equipment when caring for COVID-19 patients, including N95 masks, face shields, and water-proof gowns.
33051632 COVID-19 disproportionally affects India’s 81 million people living in urban informal settlements, where inadequate housing, water and sanitation increase the risk and rate of infection.
33051841 It was shown in our recent studies that water-suspended plastic and wood smoke aerosol PM and carbon-containing nanoparticles from burning organics can interact with the plasma membrane of brain nerve terminals presumably due to their lipid components. […] Therefore, interaction of SARS-CoV-2 envelope with PM is possible in water surrounding.
33060438 In total, 35/61 invited centers (57.4%) participated; most modified activities were according to recommendations and had filtering face piece 2/filtering face piece 3 and water-repellent gowns available, but few had negative-pressure rooms or provided telephonic follow-up; 15% of HCPs called in sick and 6% had confirmed COVID-19.
33062403 With the envisaged explosive community transmission of COVID-19 in the coming weeks in places with limited daily testing, especially in African countries, it is recommended among many that social distancing which includes avoiding any form of contact with people; either through greetings, hugging or shaking of hands and large gatherings, avoid contact with animal items, dead or alive animals, sick and dead people from areas experiencing COVID-19 epidemic, and basic hygienic practices like thorough washing of hands with clean water and antiseptic soap for the duration of at least twenty seconds should be practiced always.
33071477 The follow-up analysis reveals significant advances in the efficiency and emission cleaning effects of key processes, as well as water/wastewater management and energy storage.
33074996 We discuss the potential role of the faecal chain in COVID-19 and highlight recent studies using waste water-based epidemiology (WBE) to track severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] SARS-CoV-2, the aetiological agent of COVID-19, is an enveloped virus, and as such, typically not associated with the waste water environment, given high susceptibility to degradation in aqueous conditions. […] A review of the current literature supports the ability to detect of SARS-CoV-2 in waste water and suggests methods to predict community prevalence based on viral quantification. […] The summary of current practices shows that while the isolation of SARS-CoV-2 is possible from waste water, issues remain regarding the efficacy of virial concentration and subsequent quantification and alignment with epidemiological data.
33075669 In addition, the fibre structures of medical masks were studied under an electron microscope after treatment with either 75% alcohol or soap and water at 60 °C. […] The fibre structures of the external surface of medical masks were damaged after treatment with either 75% alcohol or soap and water at 60 °C.
33081118 Washing hands with water and soap was the most preferred method practiced before a meal (67.5% (235/348)), after a meal (80.2% (279/348)), after toilet action (81.6% (284/348)), when hands were visibly soiled (86.2% (300/348)), and after waste disposal (61.5% (214/348)).
33086578 Infectious diseases caused by bacteria and viruses are highly contagious and can easily be transmitted via air, water, body fluids, etc.
33089132 Billions of people living in developing countries lack access to safe drinking water, not to mention water for handwashing, one of the most effective ways to contain the fast spreading novel coronavirus (COVID -19). […] Individuals are encouraged to regularly wash their hands for 40-60 s under running water with soap. […] This call for ‘Safe Hands’ comes at a time when water insecurity and limited access to handwashing facilities in Africa is heightened. […] To do so, interviews were conducted at water points/boreholes used by residents during Zimbabwe’s COVID-19 national lockdown. […] The calculation of water requirements for proper hand hygiene determined the capacity for water-stressed regions to effectively implement ‘Safe Hands’. […] On average, it was established that one person consumes an extra 4.5 L per day of water when they practice WHO ‘Safe Hands’ in the context of COVID-19. […] This increases domestic water demand in Chitungwiza by 9%. […] Due to water scarcity, people in Chitungwiza were experiencing challenges with practicing ‘Safe Hands’. […] This paper proposes short- and long-term measures that would allow effective implementation of the ‘Safe Hands’ by means of sustainable potable water supply. […] These measures include extensive social awareness and temporary change of household water use behavior. […] Municipalities are recommended to establish public private partnerships (PPPs) to create immediate and long-term water investments. […] Structural and transformational reforms would enhance, through flexible planning, investments for both water infrastructure and governance. […] This narrative has the potential to improve the urban water systems resiliency against future pandemics.
33091509 Level I, II, and III gowns were tested for water resistance and hydrostatic pressure, along with other durability assessments (breaking, tear, and seam strength, pilling resistance, dimensional stability, and air permeability, colorfastness, and fabric hand) per standard test methods. […] Level I and II disposable gowns did not meet AAMI performance specifications for impact penetration water resistance.
33092831 Concomitant with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in faeces and saliva of infected patients, studies also indicated its occurrence in raw wastewater, primary sludge and river water. […] Hence, this review looked into detection, occurrence and fate of SARS-CoV-2 during primary, secondary, and tertiary wastewater and water treatment processes based on published literature on SARS-CoV and other enveloped viruses.
33095188 Yet, access to the levels of water supply that support good hand hygiene and institutional cleaning, our understanding of hygiene behaviours, and access to soap are deficient in low-, middle- and high-income countries. […] This paper reviews the role of water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) in disease emergence, previous outbreaks, combatting COVID-19 and in preparing for future pandemics. […] Urgent substantial action is required to remedy deficiencies in WaSH, particularly the provision of reliable, continuous piped water on-premises for all households and settings.
33095205 It presents the different chemical classes of disinfectants and identifies the chemical features of these compounds that pertain to their biocidal activity, relevant to surface/water disinfection.
33097261 Wastewater treatment efficacy for SARS-CoV-2 removal and risk assessments associated with treated water are reported.
33100379 In the present work, the first time the molecular structure of ATZ molecule has been studied using Density Functional Theory (CAMB3LYP/6-31G*) in solvent water.
33100481 However, the mean system energy demands (sum of heating, cooling, and domestic hot water) decreases in a range of 7.1% to 12.0%.
33100579 Thus, the coupling of hydrogen generation from sustainable energies sources (Solar 175 / 509 GW) or wind (211/591.5 GW in 2019) may be an attractive approach, as this requires slightly less water than coal gasification.
33100940 Three physical models of Newton’s and Stokes’s laws with(out) air resistance in the calm air are used to determine the falling time and velocity regimes of SARS-CoV-2 with(out) a respiratory water droplet of 1 to 2000 micrometers (µm) in diameter of an infected person of 0.5 to 2.6 m in height. s as a function of the droplet size and height.
33101551 This note constitutes a call to Colombia’s public health system to maintain vector and water-borne diseases services, which cannot become neglected amid the COVID-19 pandemic.
33101881 This article focuses on the impacts of outbreaks (epidemics and pandemics) on water - wastewater utilities and water infrastructure and critically evaluates the issues underlining their impact on economic development and highlights the need for preparedness. […] A perspective on water infrastructure and industry-related impact on our society and economic development in the wake of the pandemic, COVID-19, is presented. […] The purpose of this article is therefore threefold: 1) to discuss the economic and public health impact of outbreaks on water and wastewater utilities and utility workforce; 2) to present case studies demonstrating utilities’ preparedness and response to COVID-19, and 3) to review various alternatives for education and training as well as innovative processes and strategies for productivity during and after outbreaks. […] Strategies discussed in this article could be used as valuable tools for developing resiliency efforts, especially from the context of continuing water and wastewater utility operations and services in emergencies.
33101885 Our obtained results confirm that by increasing the room temperature, the suspending time of aerosol (suspended droplets carrying virus particles) increases due to the higher dynamics of air and evaporated water molecules in room space.
33104899 Dilution series of viral RNA transcripts were prepared in water and total NA extract of Covid-19-negative patients. […] It was found that assay sensitivity of the RT-ddPCR was not affected by the total NA background while assay sensitivity of the gold standard RT-PCR assay is drastically decreased when SARS-CoV-2 copies were detected in a background of total NA extract compared with water.
33109252 Adopting traditional methods, decoction of Kabasura kudineer will be prepared by boiling 5g of KSK powder in 240 ml water and reduced to one-fourth (60ml) and filtered.
33109262 In addition, inadequate access to the social determinants of health such as water and sanitation and socio-cultural attributes may constrain the implementation of critical preventive measures such as hand washing and social distancing on the continent.Given these facts, the continent needs to focus on targeted and high impact prevention and control strategies and interventions which could break the chain of transmission quickly.
33115543 Imatinib: All doses of imatinib should be administered with a meal and a large glass of water. […] Imatinib can be dissolved in water or apple juice for patients having difficulty swallowing.
33116756 We discovered other “shortages” not mentioned in the literature: shortages in the number of portable reverse osmosis (RO) machines needed to prepare dialysis water, inadequate number of rooms in units designated for COVID-19 patients with plumbing for dialysis, and lack of temperature blending valves on sinks that necessitated using cold water only, and damaging the RO membranes.
33119562 Those behaviors include 1) covering the nose and mouth with a mask to protect others from possible infection when in public settings and when around persons who live outside of one’s household or around ill household members; 2) maintaining at least 6 feet (2 meters) of distance from persons who live outside one’s household, and keeping oneself distant from persons who are ill; and 3) washing hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, or, if soap and water are not available, using hand sanitizer containing at least 60% alcohol (1).
33126033 The occurrence of human pathogenic viruses in aquatic ecosystems and, in particular, in internal water bodies (i.e., river, lakes, groundwater, drinking water reservoirs, recreational water utilities, and wastewater), raises concerns regarding the related impacts on environment and human health, especially in relation to the possibility of human exposure and waterborne infections. […] This paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presence and persistence in human excreta, wastewaters, sewage sludge as well as in natural water bodies, and the possible implications for water services in terms of fecal transmission, public health, and workers’ risk. […] Furthermore, the impacts related to the adopted containment and emergency management measures on household water consumptions are also discussed, together with the potential use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) assessment as a monitoring and early warning tool, to be applied in case of infectious disease outbreaks. […] The knowledge and tools summarized in this paper provide a basic information reference, supporting decisions makers in the definition of suitable measures able to pursue an efficient water and wastewater management and a reduction of health risks. […] Furthermore, research questions are provided, in order to direct technical and public health communities towards a sustainable water service management in the event of a SARS-CoV-2 re-emergence, as well as a future deadly outbreak or pandemic.
33127750 This preclinical safety study has paved the way for a phase I/II study to determine the safety and tolerability of a T3 formulation delivered into the lungs of patients with ARDS, including coronavirus disease 2019-associated ARDS, and to measure the effect on extravascular lung water in these patients.
33128525 It can transmit from animal to human in the form of touch, through the air, water, utensils, fomite and feco-oral route blood.
33129597 Body water measurements and derived values were recalculated to dry weight, using a standard ratio of extracellular water to total body water of 0.38.
33131867 Importantly, none of the 11 WWTPs’ effluents tested positive during the entire sampling period, indicating that the treatment technologies used in the UAE are efficient in degrading SARS-CoV-2, and confirming the safety of treated re-used water in the country.
33131871 The unprecedented scale and impact of COVID-19 pandemic, and the accompanying lockdown implemented across many countries, has exacerbated water scarcity and security globally. […] Yet, water resources, which are a potential enabler in revitalising Europe’s economy, have received few of such policy interventions since the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak as a public health emergency only in January 2020. […] Our scoping review of preliminary government responses of 27 European countries revealed that only 11 (40.7%) of these countries implemented at least one policy intervention that considered the water sector. […] These interventions were typically short-term measures involving either full cost absorption or deferment of water bills. […] Much attention on water governance and management processes, policies and financial investments required to augment the resilience of the water sector amid a growing scarcity of freshwater, triggered by extreme climate variation and also by COVID-19 pandemic should therefore be central to post COVID-19 recovery efforts in Europe. […] This paper also proposes future research directions, including a study that will harmonise water demand and consumption trends during the pandemic in Europe and an assessment on how the water sector can withstand possible external shocks in future.
33132743 As environmental professionals, understanding how SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted via water and air environment is a concern. […] We have to be ready for focusing our attention to the prompt diagnosis and potential infection control procedures of the virus in integrated water and air system. […] This paper reviews the state-of-the-art information from available sources of published papers, newsletters and large number of scientific websites aimed to provide a comprehensive profile on the transmission characteristics of the coronaviruses in water, sludge, and air environment, especially the water and wastewater treatment systems.
33133232 However, the rest of the world (except for a limited number of countries and regions) is still in deep water.
33134200 The world is faced with containing the spread of the infection, and this review revealed that thorough hand washing with antiseptic soap and running water and usage of alcohol hand sanitizer, frequent surfaces cleaning, strict adherence to social distancing, regular respiratory hygiene, wearing of protective face masks, frequent testing, self-isolation, quarantine and rigorous contact tracing will help to prevent further spread, and control the transmission of the viral pathogen.
33137526 In this study SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA N1 and N2 gene regions are quantified in solids collected from influent post grit solids (PGS) and primary clarified sludge (PCS) in two water resource recovery facilities (WRRF) serving Canada’s national capital region, i.e., the City of Ottawa, ON (pop.
33144897 It also highlights how, in contrast to studies on urban water plans in other British Asian colonies, the colonial authorities in the Straits Settlements had a far less coherent and meaningful relationship with water in their town planning schemes. […] As this paper is part of a special issue, Water History in the time of COVID-19, it has undergone modified peer review.
33148254 In increasing order, many consider the parameters leading to different risk scores for the dental team and patients for each procedure to be: direct contact with saliva (score 1), direct contact with blood (score 2), production of low levels of spray/aerosol via air-water syringes (score 3), the production of high levels of spray/aerosol from rotating, ultrasound and piezoelectric tools (score 4); and the duration of the procedure, which may increase the risk of procedures producing droplets and aerosols.
33149710 Challenges like problem of consistent availability of water supply, affordability of materials used to keep hygiene by rural poor, and keeping physical distancing in different public gathering places were reported.
33150727 We have developed a new homemade VHC, made of a paper coffee cup, and a drinking water bottle.
33156499 One of the main routes of human exposure to pollutants is through drinking water. […] Thus, this point of view discusses some major contaminants in drinking water known to be immunotoxic, exploring sources and drinking water routes and emphasizing the known mechanisms of action that could likely compromise the effective immune response of humans, particularly raising concerns regarding people exposed to the COVID-19 virus.
33157104 These publications can be broken down into six main themes: (i) a sharp reduction in air pollution and an improvement of the level of water pollution; (ii) the relationship of wind speed (positive), ultraviolet radiation (positive) and humidity (negative) with the rate of infections; (iii) the effect of the pandemic on the food supply chain and waste habits; (iv) wastewater monitoring offers a great potential as an early warning sign of COVID-19 transmission; (v) artificial intelligence and smart devices can be of great use in monitoring citizen mobilization; and (vi) the lessons gleaned from the pandemic that help define actions to mitigate climate change.
33160659 A consequence of poor wastewater management is the discharge of untreated wastewater carrying infectious SARS-CoV-2 into natural water systems that are home to marine mammals. […] For these reasons, we discuss approaches that can be taken by the public, policymakers and wastewater treatment facilities to reduce the risk of virus spillover in our natural water systems.
33162149 According to the latest reports, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was successfully isolated from the excreta (stool and urine) of COVID-19 patients, suggesting SARS-CoV-2 could be transmitted through excreta contaminated water. […] As pit latrines and the use of untreated excreta as fertilizer were common in rural China, we surveyed 27 villages of Jiangxi and Hubei provinces and found that pit latrines could be a potential source of SARS-CoV-2 water pollution.
33163125 As this paper is part of a special issue, Water History in the time of COVID-19, it has undergone modified peer review.
33171120 The rapid transmission tendency, severity, and wide geographical spread of newly emerged novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in different environmental matrices, including water, air, and soil, has posed severe health, environmental, energy, and economic challenges worldwide. […] However, water treatment companies face many pressures due to potential for aerosolization, PPE shortages, and changed usage patterns. […] This article discusses the recent developments and challenges faced in water, air, and energy resources, including renewables and non-renewables as the significant and interrelated components of the ecosystem.
33172260 Metadynamics and grand-canonical ensemble simulations were done to calculate the free-energy profiles for permeation of alcohol and alcohol/water solubility in the DPPC. […] It should be noted that the disinfectant also causes the barrier for water permeation to drop.
33173263 Turn the thinking around, forget the unfettered profit-seeking, start with the real basic needs of people and all the so badly needed approaches logically fall in the basket: the link with social protection, with water, housing and income security, the link with participation and democracy.
33173441 Some positive effects can be seen in terms of improved air quality, water quality, wildlife but the sustainability of such impact is conditional upon post-COVID and people’s habits and future policies related to the environment.
33173592 Taking into account the mechanisms of hydrophobic interaction, hydration shell, surface tension, and the shielding effect of water molecules, this study reveals a hydrophobic-interaction-based mechanism by means of which SARS-CoV-2 S and ACE2 bind together in an aqueous environment.
33173752 This opinion paper reports field grand challenges associated with plastic and water contaminated with the novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) and superbugs, given the emergency of public health and environmental protection from the presence of lethal viruses and bacteria. […] Two primary focuses of detection and treatment methods for superbugs and the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) are investigated, and the future outlook is provided based on grand challenges identified in the water field. […] With the need for and directions of further research and challenges discussed in this paper, we believe that this opinion paper offers information useful to a wide audience, including scientists, policy makers, consultants, public health workers, and field engineers in the water sector.
33179020 We retrospectively reviewed unrelated cases of the children with confirmed multiple indoor allergen sensitization due to prolonged exposure to unhealthy indoor environment with infestation and water damage, who, in addition to multiple health problems related to allergy and asthma, also developed neuroimmune complications and growth delay. molds were found in all homes and sensitization was confirmed in all cases.
33182015 Their sorptive interaction with solid particles has important implications for their behavior in aquatic environments, soils, sewage sludge, and other solid materials and their removal or concentration by water treatment processes.
33184480 Adhesive removal representing debonding was undertaken using a 1:1 contra-angle handpiece (W&H Synea Vision WK-56 LT, Bürmoos, Austria) and fast handpiece with variation in air and water flow. […] The removal of acid etch was also simulated with the use of combined 3-in-1 air-water syringe. […] An optical particle sizer (OPS 3330, TSI Inc., Minnesota, USA) and a portable scanning mobility particle sizer (NanoScan SMPS Nanoparticle Sizer 3910, TSI Inc., Minnesota, USA) were both used to assess particulate matter ranging in dimension from 0.08 to 10 μm.Results Standard debonding procedure (involving air but no water) was associated with clear increase in the ‘very small’ and ‘small’ (0.26-0.9 μm) particles but only for a short period. […] Debonding in association with water tended to produce large increases in aerosol levels, producing particles of all sizes throughout the experiment. […] The use of water and a fast handpiece led to the most significant increase in particles. […] Combined use of the 3-in-1 air-water syringe did not result in any detectable increase in the aerosol levels.Conclusions Particulate matter was released during orthodontic debonding, although the concentration and volume was markedly less than that associated with the use of a fast handpiece. […] No increase in particulates was associated with prolonged use of a 3-in-1 air-water syringe.
33189742 The purpose of the current study is to investigate the associations between COVID-19 incidences and hydrological factors such as lake area, river length, precipitation and volume of water resources in 30 regions of China. […] Based on the results of descriptive analysis and nonlinear regression analysis, positive associations with COVID-19 confirmed numbers were observed for migration scale index (MSI), river length, precipitation and volume of water resources, but negative associations for population density. […] The statistically significant associations between RR and river length, the volume of water resources, precipitation were obtained by meta-analysis as 1.24 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.27), 2.56 (95% CI: 2.50, 2.61) and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.56, 1.62), respectively. […] The possible water transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 and the potential capacity of long-distance transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in water environment was also discussed.
33206736 All atom molecular dynamic modeling was applied in order to determine water molecule and electrolyte ion concentration profiles around and inside the myoglobin molecule at various pH values.
33206817 Hunger, thirst, absence of places for bathing and for fulfilling physiological needs became part of their daily lives. given the impossibility of having a place to shelter, acquiring food and water and the limitations in carrying out preventive measures, care actions offered by managers to limit the virus to spread, even in this population, are ineffective.
33207460 SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in wastewater raising an alarm for Africa due to the poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities. […] Also, most countries in Africa do not have resilient policies governing sanitation and water management systems, which expose them to higher risk levels for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. […] Therefore, this study unearthed the likely sources and routes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in water systems (mainly wastewater) in Africa through a holistic review of published works. […] The principal sources and routes of potential transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in water systems are hospital sewage, waste from isolation and quarantine centres, faecal-oral transmission, contaminated surface and groundwater sources, and contaminated sewage. […] The envisioned overwhelming impact of these sources on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through water systems in Africa suggests that governments need to put stringent and sustainable measures to curtail the scourge. […] Hence, it is proposed that governments in Africa must put measures like improved WASH facilities and public awareness campaigns, suburbanization of wastewater treatment facilities, utilizing low-cost point-of-use water treatment systems, legally backed policy interventions, and Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). […] SARS-CoV-2 in water systems can be inactivated and destroyed by integrating ozonation, chlorination, UV irradiation, and sodium hypochlorite in low-cost point-of-use treatment systems. […] These proposed sustainable remedial measures can help policymakers in Africa to effectively monitor and manage the untoward impact of SARS-CoV-2 on water systems and consequently, on the health of the general public.
33214132 To overcome the insolubility of lopinavir/ritonavir in water, ethanol and glycerol have been used as additional excipients. […] To define the best excipient proportion and best preparation method, three different formulations (ethanol 7.1-7.5%, glycerol 6-15%, and water) and two different preparation procedures (two step vs one step) have been studied. […] In the two-step preparation method, when crushed tablets were first dispersed in the ethanol/glycerol mixture and then in water, the content of solubilised active ingredients was equal or only slightly lower than the standard Kaletra (range 89-100%). […] The one-step method provided a comparable API content (65%) to that obtained by using water as the sole dispersing medium.
33215462 The follow-up strategy included response measures related to the epidemic situation, prevention of peritonitis related to PD, water and salt control, exercise guidance, and psychological care.
33215466 In this coronavirus pandemic period, health authorities worldwide recommend hand washing with soap and water.
33217053 Skin temperature, skin redness, sebum secretion, skin hydration, trans-epidermal water loss, and skin elasticity were measured.
33221013 The increasing worldwide contamination from these drugs may be witnessed through their increasing presence in the urban water cycle. […] Furthermore, their occurrence has been detected in non-urban water, such as rivers and oceans.
33221830 A “dual-mode” gradient high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed, where the separation was achieved via “dual-mode” gradient by changing both the ternary mobile phase composition (acetonitrile: methanol: water) and the flow rate.
33224319 As this paper is part of a special issue, Water History in the time of COVID-19, it has undergone modified peer review.
33224320 According to a popular Dutch theory, water has shaped the Dutch national identity. […] The Dutch fight against the water would have stimulated perseverance, ingenuity, cooperation and an egalitarian and democratic society. […] Despite the long water management history of the Netherlands, water became an important part of the self-images of the nation only in the eighteenth Century. […] By the end of the nineteenth Century, water had become a national symbol for orthodox Calvinists, Roman Catholics and Socialists too, despite their different views on the nation. […] Whenever there was fast social change, political turmoil or external threats, as in the late eighteenth Century, the 1930s and 1940s and since the 1990s, the link between water and the Netherlands was used to promote national pride and unity and stimulate action. […] As this paper is part of a special issue, Water History in the time of COVID-19, it has undergone modified peer review.
33224321 A karez system is an underground water collection system, prevalent in the Turpan basin of China. […] As this paper is part of a special issue, Water History in the time of COVID-19, it has undergone modified peer review.
33224994 Some measures such as excessive use of disinfectants, increased production of nonbiodegradable waste, and water pollution will be the consequences of fighting against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which harms the environment. […] Water pollution, increasing chemical pollution in the air, and increasing the production of nonbiodegradable waste are of these issues.
33225970 Capsules are to be administered orally with plain water.
33227380 While handwashing facilities at points of entry were available (98%), a third had concerns over accessing disinfectant products (37%), soap (35%), or running water (33%).
33229794 (Mix-500) and quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) diluted 500-fold in water (QAC-500).
33230399 During the UK lockdown, a questionnaire was distributed to water professionals to understand their experiences and perceptions of organisational response. […] At the sector level, coping involved the ability to meet an increased water demand with a remote workforce.
33230863 Treatment with 1 and 2 mg/L ozone water for 10 s reduced SARS-CoV-2 infectivity by about 2 and 3 logs, respectively. […] Our results suggest that low-dose ozone, in the form of gas and water, is effective against SARS-CoV-2.
33232602 These results suggest that flushing can quickly improve water quality in unoccupied buildings, but the improvement may only last a few days.
33235538 Plasma-activated water after room-temperature storage of 30 days remained capable of significantly reducing the RBD binding with hACE2.
33238280 Moreover, viruses in the environment are able to travel short to very long distances, especially in the air or in water. […] The majority of these discoveries, such as the pioneer work on bacteria transmission, the progressive discoveries of viruses, as well as the persistence of the influenza virus in the air varying along with droplet sizes, or the role of water in the transmission of poliovirus, have contributed to the improvement of public health.
33240466 Although issues such as shared water and sanitation, inappropriate waste disposal, poor hygiene practices, high densities and poor quality structures have been referenced extensively - alluding to risks and health concerns - few studies have focussed directly on health, risk and vulnerability.
33241256 According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, we should wash our hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. […] If soap and water are not readily available, alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs) with at least 60% alcohol are the alternative.
33241871 The unique structural feature of coronin 1 was explored to identify a simple lipo-peptide sequence (myr-WD), which effectively inhibits membrane fusion by modulating the interfacial order, water penetration, and surface potential.
33242027 Since ozone has a proven anti-viral action, we present a project on the use of ozonized water in the water circuit of the dental armchair, in order to lower the viral load during dental practice in dental clinics and hospitals.
33243284 The protocol describes the design of an ongoing randomized controlled trial to establish the evidence for the usage of water extract of M. communis fruit in clinically suspected COVID-19 disease and identify any safety concerns.
33244287 Multivariable regression results showed a significant association with being male, unable to read and write, and mass media with attitude and rural residence, being widowed, a merchant, family size 4-6, spring water source and information heard from social media with practice.
33244326 The more commonly practiced NPIs among the respondents were use of alcohol hand sanitizer (86.6%), physical distancing (85.6%), washing of hands with soap and water (81.6%) and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces (80.9%).
33246914 Modifiable factors that need particular attention in Spain include: handwashing for at least 20s before lens handling, drying hands with single use paper towels, including a rub-and-rinse step for reusable lenses, lens case cleaning and renewal, avoidance of water exposure and when to cease lens wear during the pandemic.
33249414 Filters are likely to become saturated with water over time.
33250352 Similarly, vaccines are also seen as the best tools available to control the spread of neglected (sometimes referred to as emerging or re-emerging) diseases, until the water, hygiene and sanitation infrastructure is improved in areas of their prevalence.
33250561 The control and prevention of COVID-19 in informal urban settlements starts with organizing community infrastructure for diagnosis and treatment and assuring that basic needs (food, water, sanitation, health care and public transport) are met during quarantine.
33250602 The reuse stability of meltblown and nanofiber membrane mask was separately evaluated by infiltrating water, 75% alcohol solution, and exposing under ultraviolet (UV) light. […] After the water immersion test, the filtration efficiency of meltblown mask was decreased to about 79%, while the nanofiber membrane was maintained at 99%.
33250970 The GNEC mask exhibits an excellent hydrophobic ability (water contact angle: 157.9°) and an outstanding filtration efficiency with 100% bacterial filtration efficiency (BFE).
33251108 Apart from that, the presence of various recalcitrant organics, pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), etc. imparts a complex pollution load to water resources and ecosystem.
33253762 HSF groups also received water + sucrose (25%).
33254514 These medications are readily available and testing this theory involves determination of the correct dosage of angiotensin receptor blockers or ACE inhibitors (via dilution in water) that can be used as nasal lavage and performing efficacy trials.
33254516 Generally the number of deaths per million population are higher in the developed countries despite better health care efficiency, drinking water quality and expected healthy life span (HALE) at the time of birth. […] There was statistically significant positive correlation between COVID 19 deaths /million population and water current score, health efficiency, and HALE.
33254543 The hypothesized hydration effects suggest hypotheses regarding strategies for COVID-19 risk reduction, such as public health recommendations to increase intake of drinking water, hydration screening alongside COVID-19 testing, and treatment tailored to the pre-infection hydration condition.
33254560 As humans involuntarily touch their faces over 20 times per hour a hand washing with soap and water is recommended to avoid hands to face transmission.
33255087 Additionally, swelling behaviors of the synthesized gels were investigated in different media (ID water, tap water, ethanol, acetone, ethanol/ID water (1:1), acetone/ID water (1:1) and gasoline) and at different pHs.
33259880 Three of the four formulations completely inactivated the virus within 15 s of contact, even in the presence of a soil load or when diluted in hard water.
33261677 Mastoid surgery is an aerosol-generating procedure that involves the use of a high-speed drill, which produces a mixture of water, bone, blood and tissue that may contain the viable coronavirus disease 2019 pathogen.
33268258 The need for monitoring tools to better control the ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is extremely urgent and the contamination of water resources by excreted viral particles poses alarming questions to be answered. […] As a first step to overcome technical limitations in monitoring SARS-CoV-2 along the water cycle, we assessed the analytical performance of a dead end hollow fiber ultrafiltration coupled to different options for secondary concentrations to concentrate viral particles from large volume of spiked tap water, seawater and surface water together with two quantitative RT-qPCR detection kits. […] Spiking the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enveloped virus surrogate for SARS-CoV-2, together with the mengovirus, we demonstrated that PEG-precipitation and SENS-kit better recovered PEDV (13.10 ± 0.66%) from tap water, while centrifugal filtration resulted the best option to recover mengovirus regardless of the detection kit used. […] These methodologies represent suitable options to investigate SARS-CoV-2 occurrence in different water resources and allow to conduct on site sampling of large volume of water.
33276806 Respondents replied yes or no to the following precautions: washing hands often with soap and water and disinfecting surfaces at home and work often.
33277105 These observations and other studies suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may be inactivated by dryness on water absorbent porous materials but sheltered by long-persisting micro-droplets of water on waterproof surfaces.
33281530 Other risk factors include squat pans with lidless designs and open flushing mechanisms, in-cubicle open waste bins, and the lack of water-sealing U-traps in squat toilets.
33282061 Urban slums are often characterized by overcrowding, inaccessibility of basic services such as running water and abject poverty.
33282675 However, the risk of SARS-CoV-2 dissemination by the treated effluent intended to be disposed of or reused in the urban water cycle needs to be assessed with respect to the extent of viral infectivity.
33282819 Although eye goggles provide excellent protection and are mandatory for medical practitioners with high risk of exposure, they are not ideal for common clinical practice, because they can disturb vision due to extensive formation of water droplets and frequently cause moderate to severe discomfort after longtime wearing, which have been reported to interfere with working status.
33284779 AI was used for infodemiology to raise awareness to use water, sanitation, and hygiene.
33288313 Moreover, the use of ultrasonic scalers, air-water syringes, and slow and high-speed handpieces, which are common in the dental office, generate spatter and aerosol.
33292336 However, the rest of the world (except for a limited number of countries and regions) is still in deep water.
33294104 The measures being taken in Asia, Europe, and North America such as social distancing and regular hand washing are a particular challenge for African countries with dense populations, unequal access to water, and limited social safety nets.
33296420 Most of the participants had various misconceptions such as “females are more vulnerable to develop this infection, rinsing the nose with saline and sipping water every 15 minutes protects against Coronavirus, flu and pneumonia vaccines protect against this virus.”
33300820 The beauty of this dosage form is that it does not need water to consume by the subjects and can be readily administered to the tongue.
33302976 It is isolated by lung lavage and, by weight, is a mixture of: phospholipid (75% phosphatidylcholine, 13% phosphatidylglycerol, 3% phosphatidylethanolamine, 1% phosphatidylinositol and 1% sphingomyelin), 5% cholesterol, 1% lipid-soluble surfactant-associated proteins (SP-B and SP-C), very low levels of free fatty acid, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, water and 0.3% calcium.
33312837 Various spud mud samples were prepared by dispersing a mixture of imported bentonite clay (IBC) and RBC (0-100%) in 350 ml of water.
33315181 The present randomized control trial evaluated the efficacy of three commercial mouth-rinse viz. povidone-iodine (PI), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), in reducing the salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load in COVID-19 patients compared with water. […] A total of 36 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were recruited, of which 16 patients were randomly assigned to four groups-PI group (n = 4), CHX group (n = 6), CPC group (n = 4) and water as control group (n = 2). […] Saliva samples were collected from all patients at baseline and at 5 min, 3 h and 6 h post-application of mouth-rinses/water. […] Comparison of salivary Ct values of patients within each group of PI, CHX, CPC and water at 5 min, 3 h and 6 h time points did not show any significant differences. […] However, when the Ct value fold change of each of the mouth-rinse group patients were compared with the fold change of water group patients at the respective time points, a significant increase was observed in the CPC group patients at 5 min and 6 h and in the PI group patients at 6 h.
33315526 Additionally, water sensitive papers were taped on the tested protective equipment and the manikin face.
33318343 Presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in sewage samples was reported in February 2020, raising the possibility of using environmental water surveillance to monitor SARS-CoV-2 activity in infected areas.
33320331 The most common culprit material was soap and water (56.4%). […] In our study, the use of soap and water was the most common culprit PM, and contact dermatitis was the most common adverse effect noted.
33321443 Therefore, we recommend policymakers formulate protocols for critical assessment and monitoring of the environment-especially on non-target organisms in water bodies located in and around disinfectant-exposed areas to safeguard the environment in the future.
33321543 However, when asked about the common route of COVID-19 transmission in dentistry, 341 (45.5%) participants disagreed that it is not through aerosol (water droplets) generated during dental procedures.
33321987 This review summarizes the current global experience on SARS-CoV-2 WBE in distinct continents and viral detection in polluted surface water.
33325372 Dental treatments require the use of handpieces, ultrasonic devices, or air-water syringes, which generate considerable amounts of aerosols.
33327823 Complex structured sprays were produced by water-cooled rotary instruments, which, in the worst case of an air turbine, included droplet projection speeds in excess of 12 m/s and the formation of millions of small droplets that may remain suspended. […] Elimination of premisting (mixing of coolant water and air prior to burr contact) resulted in a significant reduction in small droplets, but radial atomization may still occur and is modified by burr-to-tooth contact.
33330335 Finally, with the United States’ medical waste stream worsening, reusable isolation gowns show promising reductions in energy and water use, solid waste, and carbon footprint.
33331262 The negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have been exacerbated in Africa by hunger, poor health care, poor educational systems, poverty, and lack of potable water and sanitation.
33331381 Their shortage at hospitals demands their recycling, but the standard sterilization methods, including alcohol spraying, washing, autoclaving, and heating in hot water, cannot be easily implemented because they compromise the electrostatic charges and thus their filtering effect.
33333471 Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a disabling autoimmune astrocytopathic channelopathy, characterized by the presence of pathogenic antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) water channels.
33334397 Since SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in stool samples, monitoring SARS-CoV-2 RNA in waste water (WW) has been proposed as a complementary tool to investigate virus circulation in human populations.AimTo test if the quantification of SARS-CoV-2 genomes in WW correlates with the number of symptomatic or non-symptomatic carriers.MethodWe performed a time-course quantitative analysis of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-qPCR in raw WW samples collected from several major WW treatment plants in Greater Paris.
33339539 To answer this need, we studied SARS-CoV-2 detection in oro-nasopharyngeal (ONP) swabs stored in Universal Transport Media (UTM) or in RNase-free water by rRT-PCR with Seegene Allplex™ 2019-nCoV assay without RNA extraction. values up to 35, whereas false negative samples become frequent above this range.
33340739 Results suggest that the concentration and detection methods used must be validated for the specific water matrix using a recovery control to assess performance over time.
33341515 The role of meteorology and CCN in modulating the cloud vertical profiles is discussed in terms of anomalies of various controlling factors like lifting condensation level (LCL), precipitable water content (PWC) and mixing layer height (MLH).
33341771 As the numbers of COVID-19 cases grew globally, the severe shortages of health care respiratory protective equipment impacted the ability of water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) to acquire N95 masks for worker protection.
33343797 Fewer facilities in rural area (68.4%) had running water in OPD than urban (86.3%).
33344494 The paper highlights several food and nutrition-related challenges encountered during the COVID-19 pandemic, including food and water safety, supply chain disruptions, food and water insecurity, consumer and food behavior, malnutrition and nutrient intakes, food surveillance technology, as well as potential post-COVID-19 strategies.
33359041 Dilution effects from instrument water spray were observed, and dental suction is of benefit.
33359043 A total eighty-three studies met the inclusion criteria and covered: ultrasonic scaling (USS, n = 44), highspeed air-rotor (HSAR, n = 31); oral surgery (n = 11), slow-speed handpiece (n = 4); air-water (triple) syringe (n = 4), air-polishing (n = 4), prophylaxis (n = 2) and hand-scaling (n = 2). […] Heterogeneity precluded inter-study comparisons but intra-study comparisons allowed construction of a proposed hierarchy of procedure contamination risk: higher (USS, HSAR, air-water syringe, air polishing, extractions using motorised handpieces); moderate (slow-speed handpieces, prophylaxis, extractions) and lower (air-water syringe [water only] and hand scaling).
33360553 Appropriate frameworks with regards to evaluation and analysis of SARS-CoV-2 will help implement appropriate intervention strategies and necessary sanitation practices to ensure virus free clean water supply to have a check on the further spread of this pandemic virus.
33362290 Epidemics and pandemics are natural disasters that water utilities must prepare for and respond to. […] The guidance and resources in this article should help drinking water utilities deal with present and future COVID-19 concerns, as well as other public health emergencies that will undoubtedly occur in the future.
33362291 Such heterogeneity in binding was identified to be governed by the differential life-time of the hydrogen bonded water network anchoring HCQ and the key-residues.
33362320 The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the water sector in many ways, shifting industry expectations, priorities, workflows, and more. […] But through it all, the mission of keeping drinking water safe and readily available remained a priority.
33369781 We measured eight skin biophysical parameters: temperature, redness, pore volume, texture, elasticity, trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum content, and pH, and evaluated acne lesions before and after using quarantine masks.
33370879 Our recommendations for hospital wastewater treatment, municipal wastewater plants, sewage sludge, water reuse and aquatic environments are designed to reduce the risk of such transmission, and contribute to limiting the resurgence of COVID-19 as current restrictions are relaxed.
33370924 While this indicates a diverse research agenda, the first theme that covers issues related to air quality, meteorological parameters, and water quality is dominant, and the others are still relatively underexplored. […] Improvements in air and water quality in cities during lockdown periods highlight the significant environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities and provide a wake-up call to adopt environmentally friendly development pathways.
33373609 Yet local COVID-19 research is needed to address knowledge gaps, including; (1) potential novel transmission of SARS-CoV-2, (2) adaption of generic COVID-19 control measures to suit African settings, (3) occurrence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in solid waste, wastewaters, on-site sanitation systems, and drinking water, and (4) the ‘human factor’ including the role of gender, perceptions, myths, attitudes, and religious beliefs in the transmission and control of COVID-19.
33376251 We measured virus viability in human saliva microdroplets, SM buffer, and water following deposition on glass surfaces at various relative humidities (RH). […] Saliva and water microdroplets dried out rapidly, within minutes, at all tested RH levels (23%, 43%, 57%, and 78%), while SM microdroplets remained hydrated at RH ≥ 57%. […] Generally, the survival of all three viruses in dry saliva microdroplets was significantly greater than those in SM buffer and water under all RH (except PhiX174 in water under 57% RH survived the best among 3 media).
33376375 To clarify the relationship between daily hot water bathing (HWB) at home and glycemic control in middle-aged and elderly ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). -test was used to compare between groups with continuous variables.
33376385 Two-thirds of the respondents had a history of maintaining their distance at 2 meters (64.4%) and washing their hands with soap and water or using alcohol-based hand sanitizers (64.8%).
33380588 Moreover, a nebulizer is provided to selectively atomize the water into vapor which is then mixed with the filtered hydrogen-oxygen mix gas, such that the static electricity of a substance hardly occurs to reduce the risk of the explosion.
33382021 Comparative analyses of structural properties and molecular interaction profiles from the MD trajectories revealed that, both CDC and UDC could stably bind to SARS-Cov2-E through H-bonds, water-bridges and hydrophobic contacts with the transmembrane-channelresidues.T30 was observed to be a key residue for CDC/UDC binding. […] Additionally, the polar functional groups of CDC/UDC facilitated entry of a large number of water molecules into the channel.
33385384 Following the PRISMA approach, among all reviewed studies, more than 36% of them were directly or indirectly related to the indoor and outdoor environment, 16% to meteorological factors, 11% to wastewater, 14% to fomites, 8% to water, 9% to solid waste, and 6% to the secondary environment.
33387315 In order to improve our current understanding over this topic, the present article summarizes topical and substantial observations made regarding the influences of abiotic environmental factors such as climate, temperature, humidity, wind speed, air, and water quality, solid surfaces/interfaces, frozen food, and biotic factors like age, sex, gender, blood type, population density, behavioural characteristics, etc. on the transmission, persistence, and infectivity of this newly recognized SARS-CoV-2 virus.
33388470 We review literature on the transmission and control of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the challenges of focusing on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) as critical control measures in low-income countries.
33389440 The aptamer is also predicted to be non-antigenic, non-allergenic, non-hemolytic, non-inflammatory, water-soluble with high affinity toward ACE2 than serum albumin.
33396519 Humidity sensors are also considered in the detection of saliva because a large portion of saliva is water.
33397209 Water-mediated hydrogen bonds between protein-ligand and flexibility of the ligand are found to be responsible for providing extra stability to the complexes.
33397432 Arm-6 (placebo comparator group): will receive distilled water through NI Arm-7 (Placebo comparator group): will receive distilled water through NS The intervention arms will be compared to the placebo comparator arms.
33397494 This so-called “hybrid approach” will demonstrate best practices for mitigating the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by incorporating physical distancing, use of masks, and frequent hand-washing in the delivery of medicines to endemic communities and support action against the transmission of the virus through water, sanitation and hygiene interventions promoted by NTD programmes.
33406585 Nasopharyngeal samples were diluted to 1:3 using diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC)-treated water.
33407911 Legionella proliferate in warm water environments and stagnant sections of indoor plumbing and cooling systems. […] During the ongoing pandemic crisis, exposures to aerosolized water from recently reopened office or retail buildings should be considered as an epidemiologic risk factor for Legionella exposure and an indication to test.
33409629 Pathogens are, however, difficult to detect in water and are not practicably detectable at acceptable concentrations that need to be achieved in treated drinking water (which are of the order one per million litre).
33409698 The availability of safe drinking water and the proper management of wastewater in healthcare facilities are important pillars for maintaining safety of workers, patients, and visitors and protecting human health and environment. […] Water and sanitation services at 495 healthcare facilities in the West Bank of Palestine are assessed using the results of PCBS and MoH (2014) survey study. […] The results show that 92.1% of healthcare facilities were connected to public water networks, 12.9% of them purchased water tanks, and 10.8% of them depended on harvested rainwater which may cause contamination and waterborne diseases. […] Regardless the source of freshwater, the water quality has to be regularly examined and compared to local guidelines and international standards for health promotion. […] Once these cesspits are filled off, wastewater is randomly disposed into nearby valleys causing adverse environmental impacts on air, water, and land resources. […] There have not been any new directives or procedures regarding the management of water supplies and wastewater services in the healthcare facilities.
33410033 The positive effects of COVID-19 lockdown and movement restriction on the regional environment identified in this study included a reduction in air pollution, improvement of air and water quality, lower noise levels, and reduced land surface temperature.
33413032 We augmented glide three-tier molecular docking protocol with water thermodynamics to screen molecules obtained from three different compound libraries.
33413546 Gendered tasks such as collecting water and firewood also increased SGBV exposure among girls and young women, and this was exacerbated by deforestation.
33414542 A positive control condition included a water-cooled, high-speed air-turbine crown preparation.
33420963 HDIVC group received 12 g of vitamin C/50 ml every 12 h for 7 days at a rate of 12 ml/hour, and the placebo group received bacteriostatic water for injection in the same way within 48 h of arrival to ICU.
33424423 WASH status of the respondents is found quite good, where 94.60% stated to have available potable water, 99% have improved toilet facilities, 95% wash their hands via soap, and 79.80% clean their house and toilets by antiseptic solutions properly.
33424426 Null hypothesis was rejected and indicated the improvement of river water quality statistically. […] This research study should be helpful for further management and spatial diagnosis of water resource of river Damodar.
33425228 In group 1, the contaminated surface area covered with fluorescein dye reached 77.3% (1349 cm2) of the total; in group 2 (laser with 80% water) we observed 7.3% (128 cm2) and in group 3 (laser with 40% water) it was 3.8% (68 cm2). […] The reduction in water parameter from 80% to 40% coincided with 48% reduction of the contaminated area on the filter discs.
33425312 Oxygen transfer in a low-flux hollow fiber dialyser with a polysulfone membrane was studied by passing first water and then blood through the dialyser in countercurrent to high-purity oxygen.
33425387 Characteristically, increased extravascular lung water, vascular permeability, and intrapulmonary shunt diminished over time, concomitant with an improvement in gas exchange.
33425649 To overcome this problem, we are only focusing on the behavior of systems that produce, distribute, and deliver food, energy, and water (FEW) during and after the occurrence of a sudden shortage of labor. […] The results show that a labor shortage can significantly impact the FEW system performance, possibly due to the high energy dependency of food and water systems and the high cost of storing energy. […] Also, the current food system has shown more resilience to a sudden labor shortage compared to the energy and water systems because of the availability of various food alternatives to meet the demand for each food category.
33426911 Moreover, we demonstrated that the plastic sheet was effective in preventing the spread of mist and water spray in simulation models with a mannequin.
33430467 Steel containers with dangerous substances residing in the sea for over 70 years have begun leaking, thus polluting water.
33430924 Participant is not able to take medications by mouth (as capsules or as a powder, mixed in water).
33435548 Electrolyzed water (EW), as a novel broad-spectrum disinfectant and cleaner, has been widely used for several years. […] EW can be produced in an electrolysis chamber which contains dilute salt and tap water.
33436573 Mice are vaccinated with soluble RBD or CLP-displayed RBD, formulated in Squalene-Water-Emulsion.
33439878 A three-step methodology was developed and used to characterize the performance of 21 different household materials with various material compositions (e.g. cotton, polyester, polypropylene, cellulose and blends) using submicron sodium chloride aerosols, water droplets, and mucous mimicking macro droplets over an aerosol-droplet size range of ~ 20 nm to 0.6 cm.
33439958 Installation of piped water in homes and basic education for the population are fundamental measures for disease control, including in relation to COVID-19.
33445704 SARS-CoV-2 was detected, at low levels, in air samples collected close to the mink, on mink fur, on flies, on the foot of a seagull, and in gutter water, but not in feed.
33448868 Besides, negative indirect impacts also exist, such as the rise in waste level and curtailment in recycling, further threatening the physical spaces (land and water), besides air.
33449481 Transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, erythema, and temperature were measured. […] Transepidermal water loss (31.11 vs 14.24 g·m-2·h-1), temperature (33.29°C vs 32.57°C), and erythema were significantly greater at the area covered by gloves compared with the noncovered area. […] Transepidermal water loss (22.82 vs 13.69 g·m-2·h-1), temperature, and erythema (411.43 vs 335.52 arbitrary units) were significantly increased at the area covered by mask, whereas stratum corneum hydration was lower. […] Transepidermal water loss was greater at the area covered by a surgical mask than at a filtering respirator mask coded filtering facepiece 2 (27.09 vs 18.02 g·m-2·h-1, P = 0.034).
33454941 In this report we discuss a case of completed suicide of a 34-year old male who had confined himself to his home, after stocking up large amounts of food, drinking water and cleaning materials in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in our country using site investigation reports, medico-legal autopsy and psychological authopsy of the deceased. […] Washed banknotes and blister tablets were found in the house as well as stocked water and cooked food.
33456205 Although food and water are not currently considered priority transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2, infection through contaminated food and environmental surfaces where the virus can persist for several days cannot be ignored, particularly when the surrounding environment is unhygienic.
33457430 (epidemic disease), a situation where the environment-air, water, land, and seasons-is vitiated, causing a simultaneous manifestation of a disease among large populations.
33458715 Participants described already difficult camp conditions that would be detrimental to an effective COVID-19 response, including household crowding, inadequate sewerage and waste management, insufficient and poor-quality water, and lack of cleaning supplies.
33459984 The sudden lockdown recovers the health of the total environment particularly air and water while the country’s economic growth and socio-cultural tempo of people have been completely hampered due to the COVID-19 pandemic. […] The main objective of the study is to analyze the impact of lockdown on the water quality of river Damodar. […] The relevant methods like WQI, TSI, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and “t” test have been applied to evaluate the physical, chemical, and biological status of river water. […] Water quality index (WQI) is used for analysis of drinking water quality suitability followed by BIS. […] The values of WQI showed “very poor” (S1, S2, S3, S6, S7, and S11) to “unfit for drinking” (S4, S5, S8, S9, and S10) of river water during pre-monsoon season.
33460980 Three different particulate-generating tasks were carried out: sneezing, coughing, and spraying water from an atomizer bottle.
33461602 Patients in the intervention arm will be given both standard treatment for COVID-19 (according to the national guideline) and magnesium sulphate (5 cc of a 20% injectable vial or 2 cc of a 50% injectable vial will be diluted by 50 cc distilled water and nebulized via a mask) every eight hours for five days.
33461660 Yet, in situ metagenomic water surveys face substantial challenges in cost and logistics. […] Using defined compositions and spatiotemporal microbiota from surface water of an example river in Cambridge (UK), we provide optimised experimental and bioinformatics guidelines, including a benchmark with twelve taxonomic classification tools for nanopore sequences.
33464672 This amphiphile is water soluble and exhibits massive translocation to lymph nodes upon local administration, likely through binding to albumin, affording localized innate immune activation and a dramatic reduction in systemic inflammation.
33465345 In particular, N1 gene abundance was associated with water quality parameters such as total organic carbon and pH.
33466858 Washing hands with soap and water was the predominant method practiced after a meal (365, 91.7%), after toilet visit (354, 88.5%), after touching a surface (262, 65.7%), after waste disposal (332, 83.2%), and when hands were visibly dirty (357, 89.5%).
33468160 We cover the applications of sensing, cancer therapy, water treatment and anti-bacterial efficacy.
33474555 This may occur via saliva, skin or indirectly through air, water, and contaminated surfaces or instruments.
33481156 Although > 80% were aware of at least two COVID-19 prevention measures, only 22.2% (n = 555) reported that they always wore a face mask while in a public place; 40.9% (n = 1023) always washed their hands with soap and running water while 17.6% (n = 440) always avoided gatherings of more than five people.
33483313 Water-based epidemiology (WBE) is a valuable early warning tool for tracking the circulation of the virus among the population, including not only symptomatic patients, but also asymptomatic, presymptomatic and misdiagnosed carriers, which represent a high proportion of the infected population.
33484064 Aquagenic acrokeratoderma (AK) is a rare, transient type of acquired palmoplantar keratoderma resulting from short-term contact with water and characterized by white, transparent papules and plaques usually localized in the palmar regions of the hand. […] The pathogenesis of aquagenic acrokeratoderma is not fully understood and is assumed to be related to an increased salt concentration in the epidermal cells with an increase in the ability of stratum corneum to bind water.
33484606 Although launching products with agronomic traits in important crops using this concept has been elusive, commercial products developed include enzymes used in everyday life from processing fruit juice, to enhancing water absorption of cotton fiber or removal of stains as laundry detergents and in dye removal in the textile industry.
33487210 In this observational air sampling study, air samples from airborne-infection isolation rooms (AIIRs) and a community isolation facility (CIF) housing COVID-19 patients were collected using a water vapor condensation method into liquid collection media.
33489292 We tested an anatomically realistic manikin head which ejected fluorescent droplets of water and human volunteers, in speaking and coughing conditions without a face covering, or with a surgical mask or a single-layer cotton face covering.
33490943 These simple steps can benefit the investigation of infectious virus transmission in routine (water) monitoring settings and during viral outbreaks such as the current COVID-19 pandemic or endemic diseases like dengue fever.
33493900 Combined with isothermal amplification, the PP bag can be incubated in a water bath or milk warmer and acted as a reaction tube.
33497928 These conditions led to a worldwide economic fall drastically, and on the other hand, indirect environmental benefits like global air quality improvement and decreased water pollution are also pictured.
33498115 The following considerations were used to develop the QMRA and assess the illness risks to workers: a) the proportion of the population who are infected and thus responsible for shedding SARS-CoV-2 into raw wastewater; b) the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 in raw and treated wastewater; c) the volume of aerosolized water inhaled by a WWTP operator during work; d) humidity and temperature-dependent viability of coronaviruses in aerosolized waste water; e) estimation of the amount, frequency, and duration of exposure; and f) exposure doses.
33507166 Research that investigates pharmaceuticals predominantly focuses on their occurrence and effect within surface water environments. […] Furthermore, these pharmaceuticals are included in numerous published prioritisation studies and/or are on the Water Framework Directive (WFD) “Watch List” or are candidates for the updated Watch List (WL). […] This review investigates the concentrations seen in European Union (EU) surface waters and examines factors that influence final concentrations prior to release, thus giving a holistic overview on the source of pharmaceutical surface water pollution. […] A period of 10 years is covered by this review, which includes research from 2009-2020 examining over 100 published studies, and highlighting that pharmaceuticals can pose a severe risk to surface water environments, with each stage of the lifecycle of the pharmaceutical determining its concentration.
33508669 In this study, the SARS-CoV-2 viral signal was measured in primary clarified sludge harvested every two days at the City of Ottawa’s water resource recovery facility during the summer of 2020, when clinical testing recorded daily percent positivity below 1%.
33509030 The findings identified 1) a lack of consistency in reporting which procedures were deemed an AGDP; 2) that high-speed handpieces, air-water syringes, and mechanical scalers were consistently considered high-risk AGDPs; 3) a lack of consensus on the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission with the use of slow-speed handpieces; 4) a general agreement, when described, that rubber dam and high-volume evacuation can significantly reduce aerosol production; and 5) a lack of consistency in reporting whether procedures constitute a low, moderate, or high risk of COVID-19 transmission.
33511052 The incidence of hypernatremia was elevated and appears to be linked to significant insensible water losses.
33513496 In the stored samples, the SARS betacoronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 copy numbers, but not the norovirus GII copy numbers, seemed slightly higher when analyzed from the pre-centrifuged pellet-that is, the particulate matter of the influent-as compared with the supernatant (i.e., water fraction) used for ultrafiltration, although the difference was not statistically significant. […] Analysis of the particulate matter of the sample, in addition to the water fraction, can improve the detection frequency.
33513500 However, during the pandemic of COVID-19 other reservoirs, i.e., water (surface and ground), sewage, garbage, or soil, should be considered. […] It is particularly relevant in water reservoirs contaminated with raw discharges. […] Wastewater may contain coronaviruses and therefore there is a need for expanding Water-Based Epidemiology (WBE) studies to use obtained values as tool in determination of the actual percentage of the SARS-CoV-2 infected population in an area.
33518792 Following the evaporation of the water content, a saliva droplet reaches a final size, which remains stable in the timescale of hours.
33519047 The prevalence of correct knowledge was more than 80% (range 81.47-88.13) except 29.97% regarding transmission by food and water.
33521605 These actions have considerably enhanced the quality of ambient air and water.
33523638 Moreover, HAAs and THMs were the two most dominant categories of DBPs in wastewater effluents, tap water, and surface water, accounting for >90%, respectively. […] Out of the regulated DBPs, none of the wastewater effluents and tap water samples exceeded the corresponding maximum guideline values of chloroform (300 μg/L), THM4 (80 μg/L), NDMA (100 ng/L), and only 2 of 35 tap water samples (67.6 and 63.3 μg/L) exceeded the HAA5 (60 μg/L) safe limit. […] This study illustrates that the elevated use of disinfectants within the guidance ranges during water disinfection did not result in a significant increase in the concentration of DBPs.
33525393 We propose a multi-objective water wave optimization (WWO) algorithm in order to efficiently solve this problem.
33531876 This downfall may be partially explained by the “water cooler effect”, which holds that higher levels of social interaction lead to higher productivity due to a boost in people’s mood.
33532517 The strong and stable binding affinity of this water-soluble vitamin and its derivatives against the SARS-COV-2, indicating that they could be valuable drugs against the management of this COVID-19 pandemic.
33533010 However, most people cannot afford to stay home completely (e.g., leaving daily to fetch water).
33533250 Monitoring ϕ6 dsRNA by a novel reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method quantified significantly lower viral removal/inactivation in water compared with the plaque assay demonstrating that relying solely on RT-qPCR assays may overstate human health risks arising from viruses. […] Both conventional and electro- coagulation appear to be highly effective in controlling enveloped viruses during surface water treatment.
33534756 In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), hand sanitizer may be a convenient alternative to soap and water to increase hand hygiene practices. […] Promoters distributed free alcohol-based hand sanitizer, installed handwashing stations (bucket with tap, stand, basin, and bottle for soapy water), and conducted household visits and community meetings. […] During Phase 1, promoters recommended handwashing with soap or soapy water, or hand sanitizer after defecation, after cleaning a child’s anus/feces, and before food preparation. […] Participants thought soap and water removed dirt from their hands, whereas hand sanitizer killed germs.
33536739 Water-contact indicator tape was mounted on the base of the operating microscope, around the objective lens, to detect any fluid contact. […] For all cases where fluid spill was detected on video, there was no fluid contact detected on the water-contact indicator tape.
33537921 Collagenous colitis (CC) is associated with non-bloody, watery diarrhea, which is pathophysiologically reasonable because normal colonic absorption (or excretion) of water and electrolytes can be blocked by the abnormally thick collagen layer in CC.
33538665 Also, it is tried to use safe and cheap solvents like water, and ethanol, instead of toxic ones like methanol, and pyridine which could cause rejection of the API in the organic volatile impurities (OVI) test of pharmacopeia analysis, as well as increasing the concern of inflammability, explosive, and carcinogenic properties of those common solvents.
33539439 Dental turbines and scalers, used every day in dental operatories, feature built-in water spray that generates considerable amounts of water aerosol.
33547563 All these factors are known to disrupt water balance and potentially induce hyponatraemia or hypernatraemia. […] Water balance disorders are known mortality and morbidity risk factors in several clinical scenarios and their proper management, though often complex and hazardous, can reduce mortality and length of hospitalization. […] Clinical uncertainty over COVID-19 outcome, the variety of organs involved in both the infection and water balance and difficulties in clinical examination due to risk of contagion might obstruct proper management of dysnatremic disorders.
33547895 High incidence rates were significantly associated with precarious water service index (0-25% coverage) and offstandard faecal coliforms index for tap water (5-50% and 75-100% of samples tested).
33547981 A sterile plastic sheet draped over sterile supports with water-tight seal around each cannula was used to create a sterile working space within which the robotic arms could freely move during operation. […] The use of sterile plastic drapes with water-tight seal around each robotic cannula can help reduce viral transmission to healthcare providers during TORS.
33548294 Mental health promotion strategies, such as physical activity, relaxation activity, recreational activity, healthy diet, adequate water intake, breaks between work shifts, maintenance of remote social contacts, and verbalization of feelings/emotions, are crucial to reduce nurses’ stress, anxiety and depression symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak.
33549623 Several aspect of environment such as air, water, noise pollution and waste management during, pre and post lockdown scenario were studied and evaluated comprehensively.
33550167 With fluorescence fingerprint (FF) technique, this study not only excavated the characteristics and pollution causes of water body in SJ-BHGC, but also provided novel insights into impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on production activities of TPDI and aquatic environment of SJ-BHGC. […] The results of this study indicated that FF technique was an effective tool for precise supervision of water environment.
33551502 Four themes emerged: (i) individuals were overloaded with information but lacked trusted sources, which resulted in widespread fear and unanswered questions; (ii) communities had limited ability to comply with prevention measures, such as social distancing, because access to long-term food supplies and water at home was limited and because income had to be earned daily; (iii) health-care workers perceived themselves to be vulnerable and undervalued because of a shortage of personal protective equipment and inadequate pay; and (iv) other health conditions were sidelined because resources were redirected, with potentially wide-reaching implications.
33555954 Outcomes included the Timed Water Swallow Test (TWST), Test of Masticating and Swallowing Solids (TOMASS), and common observations of oral intake.
33556355 Up to now, many studies report SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in indoor/outdoor air samples or water/wastewater samples that can differ by order of magnitude.
33556806 This paper studies the fate of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material in wastewater treatment plants using RT-qPCR with a two-fold goal: i) to check its presence in the water effluent and in the produced sludge and ii) based on the understanding of the virus particles fate, to identify the most suitable spots for detecting the incidence of COVID-19 and monitor its evolution. […] Sampling several spots in primary, secondary and sludge treatment at the Ourense (Spain) WWTP in 5 different days showed that, in effect, most of SARS-CoV-2 particles cannot be detected in the water effluent as they are retained by the sludge line.
33557598 However, service workers-including water, sanitation, and hygiene staff; food service workers; and countless others-are not being appropriately supported for their heroic efforts.
33558776 LPUEs did not show significant changes during the lockdown, with the exception of shrimp species, especially the deep-water rose shrimp, which significantly increased in LPUE during March-May.
33558801 The water quality, in several polluted areas, has also been remarkably enhanced, for example, the dissolved oxygen content in the Ganga River, India, has increased by about 80%.
33558809 Secondly, the effect of MCO lockdown on the water quality index (WQI) of a lake (Putrajaya Lake) in Malaysia is considered in this study.
33560299 The separation was realized via varying both the composition of the ternary mobile phase (acetonitrile-methanol-water) and its flow rate.
33564203 The extracellular viability of SARS-CoV-2 and how the virus is spread are reviewed, supporting the understanding that contaminated cold-chain food sources may introduce SAR-CoV-2 via food imports although the virus is unlikely to infect humans through consumption of aquatic food animals or their products or drinking water; i.e., SARS-CoV-2 is not a foodborne virus and should not be managed as such but instead through strong, multifaceted public health interventions including physical distancing, rapid contact tracing, and testing, enhanced hand and respiratory hygiene, frequent disinfection of high-touch surfaces, isolation of infected workers and their contacts, as well as enhanced screening protocols for international seafood trade.
33564751 Zimbabwe has a total of 46 main prisons that are overcrowded and without adequate running water, hand sanitizers, and face masks for both prisoners and warden officers. […] There is a need to further decongest the prisons, ensure facilities have adequate tap water, and consider the use of video and audio technology to minimize visitors to inmates.
33567665 We used a crossflow nebulizer to produce a jet spray of 1-100 µm water droplets with a fluorescent marker.
33573699 Vitamin C is an essential water-soluble nutrient that functions as a key antioxidant and has been proven to be effective for boosting immunity.
33578069 ) and aerosol liquid water content indicated that photochemical oxidation had a greater effect on the formation of nitrate and two OOAs than sulfate; however, aqueous-phase reaction presented a more complex effect on secondary aerosols formation at different relative humidity condition.
33578831 The three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) studies show that marine drugs displace water molecules at the active site, and interactions observed are favorable.
33585670 However, water overuse during hand scrubbing with soap keeping the tap on may put enormous pressure on the already overstretched groundwater resources and households’ economic well-being. […] Therefore, this study aimed to determine the overuse of water while scrubbing hands with soap for handwashing when the tap is on amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. […] Sociodemographic data were collected using a web-based survey tool among 1980 participants and an experiment was conducted among 126 participants to estimate the overuse of water during hand scrubbing while the tap is on. […] A single participant, who kept his tap on throughout the handwashing process, overused approximately 1.7L of water per handwash and 14.9L of water per day. […] Hand scrubbing with soap keeping the tap on, raised the overuse of water 13-fold during this pandemic compared to the non-pandemic situation which cost an extra 224.95 BDT (2.65$) per day for 1980 participants. […] Minimize the speed of tap, using automatic taps, and using taps operated by legs might be an effective solution to reduce the water overuse.
33587948 It is observed that the present pandemic offers an opportunity for SWEEP to get included in routine urban water management to put the humankind at front to stop such pandemic in future or at least be prepared to fight against it.
33589869 Such risk communication asymmetry in waterborne transmission will be further enlarged in places with fragile water system.
33591233 Presently, we review food safety in times of COVID-19, exploring whether the virus can be transmitted by food or water; recommendations from regulatory agencies; perceptions of food hygiene practices during the pandemic; and post-pandemic perspectives.